WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-native american children

  1. Epistemologies in the Text of Children's Books: Native- and non-Native-authored books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Morteza; Bang, Megan; Medin, Douglas; Marin, Ananda; Leddon, Erin; Waxman, Sandra

    2013-09-01

    An examination of artifacts provides insights into the goals, practices, and orientations of the persons and cultures who created them. Here, we analyze storybook texts, artifacts that are a part of many children's lives. We examine the stories in books targeted for 4-8-year-old children, contrasting the texts generated by Native American authors versus popular non-Native authors. We focus specifically on the implicit and explicit 'epistemological orientations' associated with relations between human beings and the rest of nature. Native authors were significantly more likely than non-Native authors to describe humans and the rest of nature as psychologically close and embedded in relationships. This pattern converges well with evidence from a behavioral task in which we probed Native (from urban inter-tribal and rural communities) and non-Native children's and adults' attention to ecological relations. We discuss the implications of these differences for environmental cognition and science learning.

  2. Long-term trends of native and non-native fish faunas in the American Southwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olden, J. D.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and the proliferation of non-native fish species threaten the endemic, and highly unique fish faunas of the American Southwest. The present study examines long-term trends (> 160 years of fish species distributions in the Lower Colorado River Basin and identifies those native species (n = 28 exhibiting the greatest rates of decline and those non-native species (n = 48 exhibiting the highest rates of spread. Among the fastest expanding invaders in the basin are red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, western mosquitofish (Gambussia affinis and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus; species considered to be the most invasive in terms of their negative impacts on native fish communities. Interestingly, non-native species that have been recently introduced (1950+ have generally spread at substantially lower rates as compared to species introduced prior to this time (especially from 1920 to 1950, likely reflecting reductions in human-aided spread of species. We found general agreement between patterns of species decline and extant distribution sizes and official listing status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. ‘Endangered’ species have generally experienced greater declines and have smaller present-day distributions compared to ‘threatened’ species, which in turn have shown greater declines and smaller distributions than those species not currently listed. A number of notable exceptions did exist, however, and these may provide critical information to help guide the future listing of species (i.e., identification of candidates and the upgrading or downgrading of current listed species that are endemic to the Lower Colorado River Basin. The strong correlation between probability estimates of local extirpation and patterns of native species decline and present-day distributions suggest a possible proactive

  3. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  4. Teaching a Growing a Population of Non-Native English-Speaking Students in American Universities: Cultural and Linguistic Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Fava

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of non-native English speaking students in American universities, mostly from Asian countries, presents unprecedented challenges and calls for an in-depth study on how we teach western art music history. This essay challenges some aspects of liberal multiculturalism and proposes the creation of channels of communication that allow non-native English speaking students to understand the premises of a Eurocentric system of knowledge without undermining their own cultural ba...

  5. Teaching a Growing a Population of Non-Native English-Speaking Students in American Universities: Cultural and Linguistic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Fava

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of non-native English speaking students in American universities, mostly from Asian countries, presents unprecedented challenges and calls for an in-depth study on how we teach western art music history. This essay challenges some aspects of liberal multiculturalism and proposes the creation of channels of communication that allow non-native English speaking students to understand the premises of a Eurocentric system of knowledge without undermining their own cultural backgrounds.

  6. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  7. Skittish, shielded, and scared: relations among behavioral inhibition, overprotective parenting, and anxiety in native and non-native Dutch preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeke, Leonie J; Muris, Peter; Mayer, Birgit; Huijding, Jorg; Rapee, Ronald M

    2013-10-01

    This study examined behavioral inhibition and overprotective parenting as correlates and predictors of anxiety disorder symptoms in preschoolers with a multi-cultural background (N=168). Parents of 3- to 6-year-old children completed a set of questionnaires twice, 12 months apart. Parents were also interviewed with the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV at the 12-month point to assess the clinical severity of children's anxiety symptoms. Behavioral inhibition consistently emerged as a significant concurrent correlate of anxiety symptoms and this was particularly true for social anxiety symptoms. Overprotective parenting also emerged as a significant correlate of anxiety, but only in the case of non-social anxiety symptoms and mainly in non-native Dutch children. Prospective analyses revealed that behavioral inhibition was a significant predictor of social anxiety symptoms, while overprotective parenting did not explain significant variance in the development of children's anxiety over time. The support for an interactive effect of behavioral inhibition and overprotective parenting was unconvincing. Finally, it was found that children who exhibited stable high levels of behavioral inhibition throughout the study ran the greatest risk for developing an anxiety disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-Native Language Exposure Promotes Children's Willingness to Accept Labels in Two Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Dolly P.; Echols, Catharine H.

    2018-01-01

    Bilingualism has been associated with a range of cognitive and language-related advantages, including the recognition that words can have different labels across languages. However, most previous research has failed to consider heterogeneity in the linguistic environments of children categorized as monolingual. Our study assessed the influence of…

  9. THE REFLECTION OF BILINGUALISM IN THE SPEECH OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN SPEAKING NATIVE (ERZYA AND NON-NATIVE (RUSSIAN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosina, N.M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the specific features of Mordovian speech of 16 bilingual children, aged 3 to 7 years, speaking both the Erzya and Russian languages, living in Mordovia. Their language is studied on the example of short stories in pictures, and it attempts to identify the influence of the Russian language on the Erzya one and to detect the occurrences of interference at the lexical and grammatical levels.

  10. Native and Non-native Teachers’ Pragmatic Criteria for Rating Request Speech Act: The Case of American and Iranian EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Alemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Over the last few decades, several aspects of pragmatic knowledge and its effects on teaching  and  learning  a  second  language  (L2  have  been  explored  in  many  studies.  However, among  various  studies,  the  area  of  interlanguage  pragmatic  (ILP  assessment  is  quite  novel issue and many features of it have remained unnoticed. As ILP assessment has received more attention recently, the necessity of investigation on the EFL teachers‟ rating criteria for rating various  speech  acts  has  become  important.  In  this  respect,  the  present  study  aimed  to investigate  the  native  and  non-native EFL teachers‟ rating scores and criteria  regarding  the speech  act  of  request.  To  this  end,  50  American  ESL  teachers  and  50  Iranian  EFL  teachers participated to rate the EFL learners‟ responses to video-prompted Discourse Completion Tests (DCTs  regarding  the  speech  act  of  request.  Raters  were  supposed to rate the EFL learners‟ responses and mention their criteria for assessment. The results of the content analysis of raters‟ comments revealed nine criteria that they considered in their assessment. Moreover, the result of  the  t-test  and  chi-square analyses of raters‟ rating scores and criteria proved that there are significant differences between native and non-native EFL teachers‟ rating pattern. The results of this study also shed light on importance of sociopragmatic and pragmalinguistic features in native  and  non-native teachers‟ pragmatic rating, which can have several implications for L2 teachers, learners, and material developers. معیارهای معلمان زبان بومی و غیربومی در نمره دهی کنش کلامی درخواست : مورد معلمان انگلیسی زبان آمریکایی و ایرانی چکیده: طی چند دهه اخیر،  جنبه های 

  11. Ecological impacts of non-native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species are considered one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity worldwide (Drake et al. 1989; Allen and Flecker 1993; Dudgeon et al. 2005). Some of the first hypotheses proposed to explain global patterns of amphibian declines included the effects of non-native species (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein and Wake 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991). Evidence for the impact of non-native species on amphibians stems (1) from correlative research that relates the distribution or abundance of a species to that of a putative non-native species, and (2) from experimental tests of the effects of a non-native species on survival, growth, development or behaviour of a target species (Kats and Ferrer 2003). Over the past two decades, research on the effects of non-native species on amphibians has mostly focused on introduced aquatic predators, particularly fish. Recent research has shifted to more complex ecological relationships such as influences of sub-lethal stressors (e.g. contaminants) on the effects of non-native species (Linder et al. 2003; Sih et al. 2004), non-native species as vectors of disease (Daszak et al. 2004; Garner et al. 2006), hybridization between non-natives and native congeners (Riley et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2004), and the alteration of food-webs by non-native species (Nystrom et al. 2001). Other research has examined the interaction of non-native species in terms of facilitation (i.e. one non-native enabling another to become established or spread) or the synergistic effects of multiple non-native species on native amphibians, the so-called invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simerloff and Von Holle 1999). Although there is evidence that some non-native species may interact (Ricciardi 2001), there has yet to be convincing evidence that such interactions have led to an accelerated increase in the number of non-native species and cumulative impacts are still uncertain (Simberloff 2006). Applied research on the control, eradication, and

  12. NATIVE VS NON-NATIVE ENGLISH TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrizal Masrizal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the majority of English language teachers worldwide are non-native English speakers (NNS, no research was conducted on these teachers until recently. A pioneer research by Peter Medgyes in 1994 took quite a long time until the other researchers found their interests in this issue. There is a widespread stereotype that a native speaker (NS is by nature the best person to teach his/her foreign language. In regard to this assumption, we then see a very limited room and opportunities for a non native teacher to teach language that is not his/hers. The aim of this article is to analyze the differences among these teachers in order to prove that non-native teachers have equal advantages that should be taken into account. The writer expects that the result of this short article could be a valuable input to the area of teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia.

  13. Non-Native & Native English Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Tosuncuoglu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries the primary (mother tongue language is not English but there is a great demand for English language teachers all over the world. The demand in this field is try to be filled largely by non-native English speaking teachers who have learned English in the country or abroad, or from another non native English peaking teachers. In some countries, particularly those where English speaking is a a sign of status, the students prefer to learn English from a native English speaker. The perception is that a non-native English speaking teacher is a less authentic teacher than a native English speaker and their instruction is not satifactory in some ways. This paper will try to examine the literature to explore whether there is a difference in instructional effectiveness between NNESTs and native English teachers.

  14. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simberloff, D.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. dsimberloff@utk.edu Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative

  15. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    OpenAIRE

    Simberloff, Daniel; Vilà, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative Biology, Zurich, Switzerland. Fred Allendorf University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, USA. James Aronson CEFE/CNRS, Montpellier, France. Pedro M. Antunes Algoma University, Sault Ste. Marie, Onta...

  16. Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS)-based characterization of U.S. non-native venomous snake exposures, 1995-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Steven A; Oakes, Jennifer A; Boyer, Leslie V

    2007-01-01

    Non-native (exotic) snake exposures in the United States have not been systematically characterized. The Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS) database of the American Association of Poison Control Centers was analyzed to quantify the number and types, demographic associations, clinical presentations, managements and outcomes, and the health resource utilization of non-native snake exposures. From 1995 through 2004, there were 399 non-native exposures in the TESS database. Of these, 350 snakes (87%) were identified by genus and species, comprising at least 77 different varieties. Roughly equal percentages of snakes originated in Asia, Africa and Latin America, with a smaller number from the Middle-East, Australia, and Europe. Nearly half were viperids and a little more than a third were elapids. The vast majority of exposed individuals were adults. However, almost 15% were aged 17 years or less, and almost 7% were children aged 5 years or younger. Eighty-four percent were males. The vast majority of exposures occurred at the victim's own residence. Over 50% were evaluated at a healthcare facility, with 28.7% admitted to an ICU. Overall, 26% of patients were coded as receiving antivenom treatment. Coded outcomes were similar between viperid and elapid envenomations. There were three deaths, two involving viperid snakes and one elapid. Enhancements to the TESS database are required for better precision in and more complete characterization of non-native snake envenomations.

  17. Ecological impacts of non-native species: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Griffiths, R.A.; Kuzmin, S.L.; Heatwole, Harold; Wilkinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species are considered one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity worldwide (Drake et al. 1989; Allen and Flecker 1993; Dudgeon et al. 2005). Some of the first hypotheses proposed to explain global patterns of amphibian declines included the effects of non-native species (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein and Wake 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991). Evidence for the impact of non-native species on amphibians stems (1) from correlative research that relates the distribution or abundance of a species to that of a putative non-native species, and (2) from experimental tests of the effects of a non-native species on survival, growth, development or behaviour of a target species (Kats and Ferrer 2003). Over the past two decades, research on the effects of non-native species on amphibians has mostly focused on introduced aquatic predators, particularly fish. Recent research has shifted to more complex ecological relationships such as influences of sub-lethal stressors (e.g. contaminants) on the effects of non-native species (Linder et al. 2003; Sih et al. 2004), non-native species as vectors of disease (Daszak et al. 2004; Garner et al. 2006), hybridization between non-natives and native congeners (Riley et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2004), and the alteration of food-webs by non-native species (Nystrom et al. 2001). Other research has examined the interaction of non-native species in terms of facilitation (i.e. one non-native enabling another to become established or spread) or the synergistic effects of multiple non-native species on native amphibians, the so-called invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simerloff and Von Holle 1999). Although there is evidence that some non-native species may interact (Ricciardi 2001), there has yet to be convincing evidence that such interactions have led to an accelerated increase in the number of non-native species and cumulative impacts are still uncertain (Simberloff 2006). Applied research on the control, eradication, and

  18. The Non-Native English Speaker Teachers in TESOL Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhi-Stein, Lía D.

    2016-01-01

    It has been almost 20 years since what is known as the non-native English-speaking (NNES) professionals' movement--designed to increase the status of NNES professionals--started within the US-based TESOL International Association. However, still missing from the literature is an understanding of what a movement is, and why non-native English…

  19. Early Education for Asian American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.

    1980-01-01

    A review of early education for Asian American children (Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Vietnamese, Koreans, Hawaiians, and Samoans) focuses on the 1975 Asian American Education Project, a study of the learning characteristics of preschool age children and its educational implications. (CM)

  20. Impact of non-native terrestrial mammals on the structure of the terrestrial mammal food web of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin S Strong

    Full Text Available The island of Newfoundland is unique because it has as many non-native terrestrial mammals as native ones. The impacts of non-native species on native flora and fauna can be profound and invasive species have been identified as one of the primary drivers of species extinction. Few studies, however, have investigated the effects of a non-native species assemblage on community and ecosystem properties. We reviewed the literature to build the first terrestrial mammal food web for the island of Newfoundland and then used network analyses to investigate how the timing of introductions and trophic position of non-native species has affected the structure of the terrestrial mammal food web in Newfoundland. The first non-native mammals (house mouse and brown rat became established in Newfoundland with human settlement in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Coyotes and southern red-backed voles are the most recent mammals to establish themselves on the island in 1985 and 1998, respectively. The fraction of intermediate species increased with the addition of non-native mammals over time whereas the fraction of basal and top species declined over time. This increase in intermediate species mediated by non-native species arrivals led to an overall increase in the terrestrial mammal food web connectance and generality (i.e. mean number of prey per predator. This diverse prey base and sources of carrion may have facilitated the natural establishment of coyotes on the island. Also, there is some evidence that the introduction of non-native prey species such as the southern red-backed vole has contributed to the recovery of the threatened American marten. Long-term monitoring of the food web is required to understand and predict the impacts of the diverse novel interactions that are developing in the terrestrial mammal food web of Newfoundland.

  1. Non-native plant invasions of United States National parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.A.; Brown, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    The United States National Park Service was created to protect and make accessible to the public the nation's most precious natural resources and cultural features for present and future generations. However, this heritage is threatened by the invasion of non-native plants, animals, and pathogens. To evaluate the scope of invasions, the USNPS has inventoried non-native plant species in the 216 parks that have significant natural resources, documenting the identity of non-native species. We investigated relationships among non-native plant species richness, the number of threatened and endangered plant species, native species richness, latitude, elevation, park area and park corridors and vectors. Parks with many threatened and endangered plants and high native plant species richness also had high non-native plant species richness. Non-native plant species richness was correlated with number of visitors and kilometers of backcountry trails and rivers. In addition, this work reveals patterns that can be further explored empirically to understand the underlying mechanisms. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  2. Non-native educators in English language teaching

    CERN Document Server

    Braine, George

    2013-01-01

    The place of native and non-native speakers in the role of English teachers has probably been an issue ever since English was taught internationally. Although ESL and EFL literature is awash, in fact dependent upon, the scrutiny of non-native learners, interest in non-native academics and teachers is fairly new. Until recently, the voices of non-native speakers articulating their own concerns have been even rarer. This book is a response to this notable vacuum in the ELT literature, providing a forum for language educators from diverse geographical origins and language backgrounds. In addition to presenting autobiographical narratives, these authors argue sociopolitical issues and discuss implications for teacher education, all relating to the theme of non-native educators in ETL. All of the authors are non-native speakers of English. Some are long established professionals, whereas others are more recent initiates to the field. All but one received part of the higher education in North America, and all excep...

  3. Vulnerability of freshwater native biodiversity to non-native ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Non-native species pose one of the greatest threats to native biodiversity. The literature provides plentiful empirical and anecdotal evidence of this phenomenon; however, such evidence is limited to local or regional scales. Employing geospatial analyses, we investigate the potential threat of non-native species to threatened and endangered aquatic animal taxa inhabiting unprotected areas across the continental US. We compiled distribution information from existing publicly available databases at the watershed scale (12-digit hydrologic unit code). We mapped non-native aquatic plant and animal species richness, and an index of cumulative invasion pressure, which weights non-native richness by the time since invasion of each species. These distributions were compared to the distributions of native aquatic taxa (fish, amphibians, mollusks, and decapods) from the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) database. We mapped the proportion of species listed by IUCN as threatened and endangered, and a species rarity index per watershed. An overlay analysis identified watersheds experiencing high pressure from non-native species and also containing high proportions of threatened and endangered species or exhibiting high species rarity. Conservation priorities were identified by generating priority indices from these overlays and mapping them relative to the distribution of protected areas across the US. Results/Conclusion

  4. Conservation and restoration of forest trees impacted by non-native pathogens: the role of genetics and tree improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Sniezko; L.A. Winn

    2017-01-01

    North American native tree species in forest ecosystems, as well as managed forests and urban plantings, are being severely impacted by pathogens and insects. The impacts of these pathogens and insects often increase over time, and they are particularly acute for those species affected by non-native pathogens and insects. For restoration of affected tree species or for...

  5. Credibility of native and non-native speakers of English revisited: Do non-native listeners feel the same?

    OpenAIRE

    Hanzlíková, Dagmar; Skarnitzl, Radek

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on research stimulated by Lev-Ari and Keysar (2010) who showed that native listeners find statements delivered by foreign-accented speakers to be less true than those read by native speakers. Our objective was to replicate the study with non-native listeners to see whether this effect is also relevant in international communication contexts. The same set of statements from the original study was recorded by 6 native and 6 nonnative speakers of English. 121 non-native listen...

  6. Native Speakers' Perception of Non-Native English Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…

  7. Non-Native University Students' Perception of Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ummul Khair; Mansourizadeh, Kobra; Ai, Grace Koh Ming

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex issue especially among non-native students and it has received a lot of attention from researchers and scholars of academic writing. Some scholars attribute this problem to cultural perceptions and different attitudes toward texts. This study evaluates student perception of different aspects of plagiarism. A small group of…

  8. Current Conditions in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Margaret Connell

    The school experience of American Indian and Alaska Native children hinges on the context in which their schooling takes place. This context includes the health and well-being of their families, communities, and governments, as well as the relationship between Native and non-Native people. Many Native children are in desperate straits because of…

  9. Non-native Speech Learning in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvalson, Erin M; Nowicki, Casandra; Zong, Audrey; Wong, Patrick C M

    2017-01-01

    Though there is an extensive literature investigating the ability of younger adults to learn non-native phonology, including investigations into individual differences in younger adults' lexical tone learning, very little is known about older adults' ability to learn non-native phonology, including lexical tone. There are several reasons to suspect that older adults would use different learning mechanisms when learning lexical tone than younger adults, including poorer perception of dynamic pitch, greater reliance on working memory capacity in second language learning, and poorer category learning in older adulthood. The present study examined the relationships among older adults' baseline sensitivity for pitch patterns, working memory capacity, and declarative memory capacity with their ability to learn to associate tone with lexical meaning. In older adults, baseline pitch pattern sensitivity was not associated with generalization performance. Rather, older adults' learning performance was best predicted by declarative memory capacity. These data suggest that training paradigms will need to be modified to optimize older adults' non-native speech sound learning success.

  10. Kalispel Non-Native Fish Suppression Project 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingert, Michele; Andersen, Todd [Kalispel Natural Resource Department

    2008-11-18

    Non-native salmonids are impacting native salmonid populations throughout the Pend Oreille Subbasin. Competition, hybridization, and predation by non-native fish have been identified as primary factors in the decline of some native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) populations. In 2007, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) initiated the Kalispel Nonnative Fish Suppression Project. The goal of this project is to implement actions to suppress or eradicate non-native fish in areas where native populations are declining or have been extirpated. These projects have previously been identified as critical to recovering native bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout (WCT). Lower Graham Creek was invaded by non-native rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) after a small dam failed in 1991. By 2003, no genetically pure WCT remained in the lower 700 m of Graham Creek. Further invasion upstream is currently precluded by a relatively short section of steep, cascade-pool stepped channel section that will likely be breached in the near future. In 2008, a fish management structure (barrier) was constructed at the mouth of Graham Creek to preclude further invasion of non-native fish into Graham Creek. The construction of the barrier was preceded by intensive electrofishing in the lower 700 m to remove and relocate all captured fish. Westslope cutthroat trout have recently been extirpated in Cee Cee Ah Creek due to displacement by brook trout. We propose treating Cee Cee Ah Creek with a piscicide to eradicate brook trout. Once eradication is complete, cutthroat trout will be translocated from nearby watersheds. In 2004, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) proposed an antimycin treatment within the subbasin; the project encountered significant public opposition and was eventually abandoned. However, over the course of planning this 2004 project, little public

  11. NIS occurrence - Non-native species impacts on threatened and endangered salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of this project: a) Identify the distribution of non-natives in the Columbia River Basin b) Highlight the impacts of non-natives on salmonids c)...

  12. Fears of American Children Following Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Joy J.; Hooper, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Two months after 9/11, the fears of children and adolescents in Grades 2-12 were examined utilizing the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children and Adolescents (FSSC-AM). Fear intensity scores and age and gender differences are reported. Terrorist-related content on the FSSC-AM (e.g., terrorist attacks, our country being invading by enemies)…

  13. Aquatic macroinvertebrate responses to native and non-native predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddaway N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native species can profoundly affect native ecosystems through trophic interactions with native species. Native prey may respond differently to non-native versus native predators since they lack prior experience. Here we investigate antipredator responses of two common freshwater macroinvertebrates, Gammarus pulex and Potamopyrgus jenkinsi, to olfactory cues from three predators; sympatric native fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus, sympatric native crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes, and novel invasive crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus. G. pulex responded differently to fish and crayfish; showing enhanced locomotion in response to fish, but a preference for the dark over the light in response to the crayfish. P.jenkinsi showed increased vertical migration in response to all three predator cues relative to controls. These different responses to fish and crayfish are hypothesised to reflect the predators’ differing predation types; benthic for crayfish and pelagic for fish. However, we found no difference in response to native versus invasive crayfish, indicating that prey naiveté is unlikely to drive the impacts of invasive crayfish. The Predator Recognition Continuum Hypothesis proposes that benefits of generalisable predator recognition outweigh costs when predators are diverse. Generalised responses of prey as observed here will be adaptive in the presence of an invader, and may reduce novel predators’ potential impacts.

  14. EMPOWERING NON-NATIVE ENGLISH SPEAKING TEACHERS THROUGH CRITICAL PEDAGOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hayati

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Critical pedagogy is a teaching approach that aims to develop students’ critical thinking, political and social awareness, and self esteem through dialogue learning and reflection. Related to the teaching of EFL, this pedagogy holds the potential to empower non native English speaking teachers (NNESTs when incorporated into English teacher education programs. It can help aspiring NNESTs to grow awareness of the political and sociocultural implications of EFL teaching, to foster their critical thinking on any concepts or ideas regarding their profession, and more importantly, to recognize their strengths as NNESTs. Despite the potential, the role of critical pedagogy in improving EFL teacher education program in Indonesia has not been sufficiently discussed. This article attempts to contribute to the discussion by looking at a number of ways critical pedagogy can be incorporated in the programs, the rationale for doing so, and the challenges that might come on the way.

  15. Non-native fishes of the central Indian River Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Loftus, William F.; Reaver, Kristen M.

    2018-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive review of the status of non-native fishes in the central Indian River Lagoon (from Cape Canaveral to Grant-Valkaria, east of I-95) through literature review and field surveys. Historical records exist for 17 taxa (15 species, one hybrid, one species complex). We found historical records for one additional species, and collected one species in our field survey that had never been recorded in the region before (and which we eradicated). Thus, we evaluate 19 total taxa herein. Of these, we documented range expansion of four salt-tolerant cichlid species, extirpation of six species that were previously recorded from the area and eradication of three species. There was no noticeable change in geographic range for one widespread species and the records for one species are doubtful and may be erroneous. Currently, there is not enough information to evaluate geographic ranges for four species although at least one of those is established.

  16. Non-native earthworms promote plant invasion by ingesting seeds and modifying soil properties

    OpenAIRE

    Clause, J.; Forey, E.; Lortie, C. J.; Lambert, A. M.; Barot, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Earthworms can have strong direct effects on plant communities through consumption and digestion of seeds, however it is unclear how earthworms may influence the relative abundance and composition of plant communities invaded by non-native species. In this study, earthworms, seed banks, and the standing vegetation were sampled in a grassland of central California. Our objectives were i) to examine whether the abundances of non-native, invasive earthworm species and non-native grassland plant ...

  17. Neighbour tolerance, not suppression, provides competitive advantage to non-native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golivets, Marina; Wallin, Kimberly F

    2018-05-01

    High competitive ability has often been invoked as a key determinant of invasion success and ecological impacts of non-native plants. Yet our understanding of the strategies that non-natives use to gain competitive dominance remains limited. Particularly, it remains unknown whether the two non-mutually exclusive competitive strategies, neighbour suppression and neighbour tolerance, are equally important for the competitive advantage of non-native plants. Here, we analyse data from 192 peer-reviewed studies on pairwise plant competition within a Bayesian multilevel meta-analytic framework and show that non-native plants outperform their native counterparts due to high tolerance of competition, as opposed to strong suppressive ability. Competitive tolerance ability of non-native plants was driven by neighbour's origin and was expressed in response to a heterospecific native but not heterospecific non-native neighbour. In contrast to natives, non-native species were not more suppressed by hetero- vs. conspecific neighbours, which was partially due to higher intensity of intraspecific competition among non-natives. Heterogeneity in the data was primarily associated with methodological differences among studies and not with phylogenetic relatedness among species. Altogether, our synthesis demonstrates that non-native plants are competitively distinct from native plants and challenges the common notion that neighbour suppression is the primary strategy for plant invasion success. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. STUDENTS WRITING EMAILS TO FACULTY: AN EXAMINATION OF E-POLITENESS AMONG NATIVE AND NON-NATIVE SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrun Biesenbach-Lucas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study combines interlanguage pragmatics and speech act research with computer-mediated communication and examines how native and non-native speakers of English formulate low- and high-imposition requests to faculty. While some research claims that email, due to absence of non-verbal cues, encourages informal language, other research has claimed the opposite. However, email technology also allows writers to plan and revise messages before sending them, thus affording the opportunity to edit not only for grammar and mechanics, but also for pragmatic clarity and politeness.The study examines email requests sent by native and non-native English speaking graduate students to faculty at a major American university over a period of several semesters and applies Blum-Kulka, House, and Kasper’s (1989 speech act analysis framework – quantitatively to distinguish levels of directness, i.e. pragmatic clarity; and qualitatively to compare syntactic and lexical politeness devices, the request perspectives, and the specific linguistic request realization patterns preferred by native and non-native speakers. Results show that far more requests are realized through direct strategies as well as hints than conventionally indirect strategies typically found in comparative speech act studies. Politeness conventions in email, a text-only medium with little guidance in the academic institutional hierarchy, appear to be a work in progress, and native speakers demonstrate greater resources in creating e-polite messages to their professors than non-native speakers. A possible avenue for pedagogical intervention with regard to instruction in and acquisition of politeness routines in hierarchically upward email communication is presented.

  19. Designing acoustics for linguistically diverse classrooms: Effects of background noise, reverberation and talker foreign accent on speech comprehension by native and non-native English-speaking listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhao Ellen

    The current classroom acoustics standard (ANSI S12.60-2010) recommends core learning spaces not to exceed background noise level (BNL) of 35 dBA and reverberation time (RT) of 0.6 second, based on speech intelligibility performance mainly by the native English-speaking population. Existing literature has not correlated these recommended values well with student learning outcomes. With a growing population of non-native English speakers in American classrooms, the special needs for perceiving degraded speech among non-native listeners, either due to realistic room acoustics or talker foreign accent, have not been addressed in the current standard. This research seeks to investigate the effects of BNL and RT on the comprehension of English speech from native English and native Mandarin Chinese talkers as perceived by native and non-native English listeners, and to provide acoustic design guidelines to supplement the existing standard. This dissertation presents two studies on the effects of RT and BNL on more realistic classroom learning experiences. How do native and non-native English-speaking listeners perform on speech comprehension tasks under adverse acoustic conditions, if the English speech is produced by talkers of native English (Study 1) versus native Mandarin Chinese (Study 2)? Speech comprehension materials were played back in a listening chamber to individual listeners: native and non-native English-speaking in Study 1; native English, native Mandarin Chinese, and other non-native English-speaking in Study 2. Each listener was screened for baseline English proficiency level, and completed dual tasks simultaneously involving speech comprehension and adaptive dot-tracing under 15 acoustic conditions, comprised of three BNL conditions (RC-30, 40, and 50) and five RT scenarios (0.4 to 1.2 seconds). The results show that BNL and RT negatively affect both objective performance and subjective perception of speech comprehension, more severely for non-native

  20. Listening to a non-native speaker: Adaptation and generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Constance M.

    2004-05-01

    Non-native speech can cause perceptual difficulty for the native listener, but experience can moderate this difficulty. This study explored the perceptual benefit of a brief (approximately 1 min) exposure to foreign-accented speech using a cross-modal word matching paradigm. Processing speed was tracked by recording reaction times (RTs) to visual probe words following English sentences produced by a Spanish-accented speaker. In experiment 1, RTs decreased significantly over 16 accented utterances and by the end were equal to RTs to a native voice. In experiment 2, adaptation to one Spanish-accented voice improved perceptual efficiency for a new Spanish-accented voice, indicating that abstract properties of accented speech are learned during adaptation. The control group in Experiment 2 also adapted to the accented voice during the test block, suggesting adaptation can occur within two to four sentences. The results emphasize the flexibility of the human speech processing system and the need for a mechanism to explain this adaptation in models of spoken word recognition. [Research supported by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship and the University of Arizona Cognitive Science Program.] a)Currently at SUNY at Buffalo, Dept. of Psych., Park Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260, cclarke2@buffalo.edu

  1. Gopherus agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Non-native seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, J.R.; Loughran, Caleb L.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    Sahara Mustard (Brassica tournefortii) is a non-native, highly invasive weed species of southwestern U.S. deserts. Sahara Mustard is a hardy species, which flourishes under many conditions including drought and in both disturbed and undisturbed habitats (West and Nabhan 2002. In B. Tellman [ed.], Invasive Plants: Their Occurrence and Possible Impact on the Central Gulf Coast of Sonora and the Midriff Islands in the Sea of Cortes, pp. 91–111. University of Arizona Press, Tucson). Because of this species’ ability to thrive in these habitats, B. tournefortii has been able to propagate throughout the southwestern United States establishing itself in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah. Unfortunately, naturally disturbed areas created by native species, such as the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), within these deserts could have facilitated the propagation of B. tournefortii. (Lovich 1998. In R. G. Westbrooks [ed.], Invasive Plants, Changing the Landscape of America: Fact Book, p. 77. Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds [FICMNEW], Washington, DC). However, Desert Tortoises have never been directly observed dispersing Sahara Mustard seeds. Here we present observations of two Desert Tortoises dispersing Sahara Mustard seeds at the interface between the Mojave and Sonoran deserts in California.

  2. Periphyton density is similar on native and non-native plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, B.M.C.; Gross, Elisabeth M.; van Donk, E.; Bakker, E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Non-native plants increasingly dominate the vegetation in aquatic ecosystems and thrive in eutrophic conditions. In eutrophic conditions, submerged plants risk being overgrown by epiphytic algae; however, if non-native plants are less susceptible to periphyton than natives, this would contribute to

  3. Determinants of Success in Native and Non-Native Listening Comprehension: An Individual Differences Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andringa, Sible; Olsthoorn, Nomi; van Beuningen, Catherine; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation modeling was used to identify the predictors of…

  4. Determinants of success in native and non-native listening comprehension: an individual differences approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, S.; Olsthoorn, N.; van Beuningen, C.; Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explain individual differences in both native and non-native listening comprehension; 121 native and 113 non-native speakers of Dutch were tested on various linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive skills thought to underlie listening comprehension. Structural equation

  5. The Impact of Non-Native English Teachers' Linguistic Insecurity on Learners' Productive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daftari, Giti Ehtesham; Tavil, Zekiye Müge

    2017-01-01

    The discrimination between native and non-native English speaking teachers is reported in favor of native speakers in literature. The present study examines the linguistic insecurity of non-native English speaking teachers (NNESTs) and investigates its influence on learners' productive skills by using SPSS software. The eighteen teachers…

  6. Economic Impacts of Non-Native Forest Insects in the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliann E. Aukema; Brian. Leung; Kent Kovacs; Corey Chivers; Jeffrey Englin; Susan J. Frankel; Robert G. Haight; Thomas P. Holmes; Andrew M. Liebhold; Deborah G. McCullough; Betsy. Von Holle

    2011-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the impacts and costs of biological invasions are critical to developing credible management, trade and regulatory policies. Worldwide, forests and urban trees provide important ecosystem services as well as economic and social benefits, but are threatened by non-native insects. More than 450 non-native forest insects are established in the United...

  7. Growth strategy, phylogeny and stoichiometry determine the allelopathic potential of native and non-native plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, Bart M.C.; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Gross, Elisabeth M.; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; van Donk, Ellen; Bakker, Elisabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary compounds can contribute to the success of non-native plant species if they reduce damage by native herbivores or inhibit the growth of native plant competitors. However, there is opposing evidence on whether the secondary com- pounds of non-native plant species are stronger than those of

  8. Promoting Communities of Practice among Non-Native Speakers of English in Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoe Kyeung

    2011-01-01

    An online discussion involving text-based computer-mediated communication has great potential for promoting equal participation among non-native speakers of English. Several studies claimed that online discussions could enhance the academic participation of non-native speakers of English. However, there is little research around participation…

  9. Chinese College Students' Views on Native English and Non-Native English in EFL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yang; Jingxia, Liu

    2016-01-01

    With the development of globalization, English is clearly spoken by many more non-native than native speakers, which raises the discussion of English varieties and the debate regarding the conformity to Standard English. Although a large number of studies have shown scholars' attitudes towards native English and non-native English, little research…

  10. DNA metabarcoding of fish larvae for detection of non-native fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection because...

  11. Factors influencing non-native tree species distribution in urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne C. Zipperer

    2010-01-01

    Non-native species are presumed to be pervasive across the urban landscape. Yet, we actually know very little about their actual distribution. For this study, vegetation plot data from Syracuse, NY and Baltimore, MD were used to examine non-native tree species distribution in urban landscapes. Data were collected from remnant and emergent forest patches on upland sites...

  12. Show me the numbers: What data currently exist for non-native species in the USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, Alycia W.; Meyerson, Laura A.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Newman, Gregory J.; Graham, James

    2006-01-01

    Non-native species continue to be introduced to the United States from other countries via trade and transportation, creating a growing need for early detection and rapid response to new invaders. It is therefore increasingly important to synthesize existing data on non-native species abundance and distributions. However, no comprehensive analysis of existing data has been undertaken for non-native species, and there have been few efforts to improve collaboration. We therefore conducted a survey to determine what datasets currently exist for non-native species in the US from county, state, multi-state region, national, and global scales. We identified 319 datasets and collected metadata for 79% of these. Through this study, we provide a better understanding of extant non-native species datasets and identify data gaps (ie taxonomic, spatial, and temporal) to help guide future survey, research, and predictive modeling efforts.

  13. Contrasting xylem vessel constraints on hydraulic conductivity between native and non-native woody understory species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Smith

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined the hydraulic properties of 82 native and non-native woody species common to forests of Eastern North America, including several congeneric groups, representing a range of anatomical wood types. We observed smaller conduit diameters with greater frequency in non-native species, corresponding to lower calculated potential vulnerability to cavitation index. Non-native species exhibited higher vessel-grouping in metaxylem compared with native species, however, solitary vessels were more prevalent in secondary xylem. Higher frequency of solitary vessels in secondary xylem was related to a lower potential vulnerability index. We found no relationship between anatomical characteristics of xylem, origin of species and hydraulic conductivity, indicating that non-native species did not exhibit advantageous hydraulic efficiency over native species. Our results confer anatomical advantages for non-native species under the potential for cavitation due to freezing, perhaps permitting extended growing seasons.

  14. Imaging of American football injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Unsell, Bryan J. [Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, Department of Radiology, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-12-15

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)

  15. Imaging of American football injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podberesky, Daniel J; Unsell, Bryan J; Anton, Christopher G

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population.

  16. Imaging of American football injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G.; Unsell, Bryan J.

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)

  17. Prevalence of corneal astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American children 6 months to 8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M; Schwiegerling, Jim; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Messer, Dawn H

    2011-06-21

    To describe the prevalence of corneal astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of refractive astigmatism. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism was assessed by obtaining infant keratometer (IK4) measurements from 1235 Tohono O'odham children, aged 6 months to 8 years. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism >2.00 D was lower in the 1- to <2-year-old age group when compared with all other age groups, except the 6- to <7-year-old group. The magnitude of mean corneal astigmatism was significantly lower in the 1- to <2-year age group than in the 5- to <6-, 6- to <7-, and 7- to <8-year age groups. Corneal astigmatism was with-the-rule (WTR) in 91.4% of astigmatic children (≥1.00 D). The prevalence and mean amount of corneal astigmatism were higher than reported in non-Native American populations. Mean astigmatism increased from 1.43 D in 1-year-olds to nearly 2.00 D by school age.

  18. How much does language proficiency by non-native listeners influence speech audiometric tests in noise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzybok, Anna; Brand, Thomas; Wagener, Kirsten C; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the extent to which the linguistic complexity of three commonly employed speech recognition tests and second language proficiency influence speech recognition thresholds (SRTs) in noise in non-native listeners. SRTs were measured for non-natives and natives using three German speech recognition tests: the digit triplet test (DTT), the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA), and the Göttingen sentence test (GÖSA). Sixty-four non-native and eight native listeners participated. Non-natives can show native-like SRTs in noise only for the linguistically easy speech material (DTT). Furthermore, the limitation of phonemic-acoustical cues in digit triplets affects speech recognition to the same extent in non-natives and natives. For more complex and less familiar speech materials, non-natives, ranging from basic to advanced proficiency in German, require on average 3-dB better signal-to-noise ratio for the OLSA and 6-dB for the GÖSA to obtain 50% speech recognition compared to native listeners. In clinical audiology, SRT measurements with a closed-set speech test (i.e. DTT for screening or OLSA test for clinical purposes) should be used with non-native listeners rather than open-set speech tests (such as the GÖSA or HINT), especially if a closed-set version in the patient's own native language is available.

  19. Non-native earthworms promote plant invasion by ingesting seeds and modifying soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clause, Julia; Forey, Estelle; Lortie, Christopher J.; Lambert, Adam M.; Barot, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms can have strong direct effects on plant communities through consumption and digestion of seeds, however it is unclear how earthworms may influence the relative abundance and composition of plant communities invaded by non-native species. In this study, earthworms, seed banks, and the standing vegetation were sampled in a grassland of central California. Our objectives were i) to examine whether the abundances of non-native, invasive earthworm species and non-native grassland plant species are correlated, and ii) to test whether seed ingestion by these worms alters the soil seed bank by evaluating the composition of seeds in casts relative to uningested soil. Sampling locations were selected based on historical land-use practices, including presence or absence of tilling, and revegetation by seed using Phalaris aquatica. Only non-native earthworm species were found, dominated by the invasive European species Aporrectodea trapezoides. Earthworm abundance was significantly higher in the grassland blocks dominated by non-native plant species, and these sites had higher carbon and moisture contents. Earthworm abundance was also positively related to increased emergence of non-native seedlings, but had no effect on that of native seedlings. Plant species richness and total seedling emergence were higher in casts than in uningested soils. This study suggests that there is a potential effect of non-native earthworms in promoting non-native and likely invasive plant species within grasslands, due to seed-plant-earthworm interactions via soil modification or to seed ingestion by earthworms and subsequent cast effects on grassland dynamics. This study supports a growing body of literature for earthworms as ecosystem engineers but highlights the relative importance of considering non-native-native interactions with the associated plant community.

  20. Body composition assessment in American Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, T G; Caballero, B; Himes, J H; Hunsberger, S; Reid, R; Stewart, D; Skipper, B

    1999-04-01

    Although the high prevalence of obesity in American Indian children was documented in several surveys that used body mass index (BMI, in kg/m2) as the measure, there is limited information on more direct measurements of body adiposity in this population. The present study evaluated body composition in 81 boys (aged 11.2+/-0.6 y) and 75 girls (aged 11.0+/-0.4 y) attending public schools in 6 American Indian communities: White Mountain Apache, Pima, and Tohono O'Odham in Arizona; Oglala Lakota and Sicangu Lakota in South Dakota; and Navajo in New Mexico and Arizona. These communities were participating in the feasibility phase of Pathways, a multicenter intervention for the primary prevention of obesity. Body composition was estimated by using a combination of skinfold thickness and bioelectrical impedance measurements, with a prediction equation validated previously in this same population. The mean BMI was 20.4+/-4.2 for boys and 21.1+/-5.0 for girls. The sum of the triceps plus subscapular skinfold thicknesses averaged 28.6+/-7.0 mm in boys and 34.0+/-8.0 mm in girls. Mean percentage body fat was 35.6+/-6.9 in boys and 38.8+/-8.5 in girls. The results from this study confirmed the high prevalence of excess body fatness in school-age American Indian children and permitted the development of procedures, training, and quality control for measurement of the main outcome variable in the full-scale Pathways study.

  1. Feedback in online course for non-native English-speaking students

    CERN Document Server

    Olesova, Larisa

    2013-01-01

    Feedback in Online Course for Non-Native English-Speaking Students is an investigation of the effectiveness of audio and text feedback provided in English in an online course for non-native English-speaking students. The study presents results showing how audio and text feedback can impact on non-native English-speaking students' higher-order learning as they participate in an asynchronous online course. It also discusses the results of how students perceive both types of the feedback provided. In addition, the study examines how the impact and perceptions differ when the instructor giving the

  2. Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Aslan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The importance of fruit attraction is underscored by several studies demonstrating that invasive, fleshy-fruited plant species are particularly attractive to regional frugivores. A small set of studies directly compare frugivore preference for native vs. invasive species, and we find that different designs and goals within such studies frequently yield contrasting results. When similar native and non-native plant species have been compared, frugivores have tended to show preference for the non-natives. This preference appears to stem from enhanced feeding efficiency or accessibility associated with the non-native fruits. On the other hand, studies examining preference within existing suites of co-occurring species, with no attempt to maximize fruit similarity, show mixed results, with frugivores in most cases acting opportunistically or preferring native species. A simple, exploratory meta-analysis finds significant preference for native species when these studies are examined as a group. We illustrate the contrasting findings typical of these two approaches with results from two small-scale aviary experiments we conducted to determine preference by frugivorous bird species in northern California. In these case studies, native birds preferred the native fruit species as long as it was dissimilar from non-native fruits, while non-native European starlings preferred non-native fruit. However, native birds showed slight, non-significant preference for non-native fruit

  3. Recreational freshwater fishing drives non-native aquatic species richness patterns at a continental scale

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aim. Mapping the geographic distribution of non-native aquatic species is a critically important precursor to understanding the anthropogenic and environmental...

  4. Do non-native plant species affect the shape of productivity-diversity relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, J.M.; Cleland, E.E.; Horner-Devine, M. C.; Fleishman, E.; Bowles, C.; Smith, M.D.; Carney, K.; Emery, S.; Gramling, J.; Vandermast, D.B.; Grace, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between ecosystem processes and species richness is an active area of research and speculation. Both theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted in numerous ecosystems. One finding of these studies is that the shape of the relationship between productivity and species richness varies considerably among ecosystems and at different spatial scales, though little is known about the relative importance of physical and biological mechanisms causing this variation. Moreover, despite widespread concern about changes in species' global distributions, it remains unclear if and how such large-scale changes may affect this relationship. We present a new conceptual model of how invasive species might modulate relationships between primary production and species richness. We tested this model using long-term data on relationships between aboveground net primary production and species richness in six North American terrestrial ecosystems. We show that primary production and abundance of non-native species are both significant predictors of species richness, though we fail to detect effects of invasion extent on the shapes of the relationship between species richness and primary production.

  5. Non-Native (Exotic) Snake Envenomations in the U.S., 2005–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Warrick, Brandon J.; Boyer, Leslie V.; Seifert, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-native (exotic) snakes are a problematic source of envenomation worldwide. This manuscript describes the current demographics, outcomes and challenges of non-native snakebites in the United States (U.S.). We performed a retrospective case series of the National Poison Data System (NPDS) database between 2005 and 2011. There were 258 human exposures involving at least 61 unique exotic venomous species (average = 37 per year; range = 33–40). Males comprised 79% and females 21%. The averag...

  6. Managing conflicts arising from fisheries enhancements based on non-native fishes in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellender, B R; Woodford, D J; Weyl, O L F; Cowx, I G

    2014-12-01

    Southern Africa has a long history of non-native fish introductions for the enhancement of recreational and commercial fisheries, due to a perceived lack of suitable native species. This has resulted in some important inland fisheries being based on non-native fishes. Regionally, these introductions are predominantly not benign, and non-native fishes are considered one of the main threats to aquatic biodiversity because they affect native biota through predation, competition, habitat alteration, disease transfer and hybridization. To achieve national policy objectives of economic development, food security and poverty eradication, countries are increasingly looking towards inland fisheries as vehicles for development. As a result, conflicts have developed between economic and conservation objectives. In South Africa, as is the case for other invasive biota, the control and management of non-native fishes is included in the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act. Implementation measures include import and movement controls and, more recently, non-native fish eradication in conservation priority areas. Management actions are, however, complicated because many non-native fishes are important components in recreational and subsistence fisheries that contribute towards regional economies and food security. In other southern African countries, little attention has focussed on issues and management of non-native fishes, and this is cause for concern. This paper provides an overview of introductions, impacts and fisheries in southern Africa with emphasis on existing and evolving legislation, conflicts, implementation strategies and the sometimes innovative approaches that have been used to prioritize conservation areas and manage non-native fishes. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Non-native fishes in Florida freshwaters: a literature review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Loftus, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Non-native fishes have been known from freshwater ecosystems of Florida since the 1950s, and dozens of species have established self-sustaining populations. Nonetheless, no synthesis of data collected on those species in Florida has been published until now. We searched the literature for peer-reviewed publications reporting original data for 42 species of non-native fishes in Florida that are currently established, were established in the past, or are sustained by human intervention. Since the 1950s, the number of non-native fish species increased steadily at a rate of roughly six new species per decade. Studies documented (in decreasing abundance): geographic location/range expansion, life- and natural-history characteristics (e.g., diet, habitat use), ecophysiology, community composition, population structure, behaviour, aquatic-plant management, and fisheries/aquaculture. Although there is a great deal of taxonomic uncertainty and confusion associated with many taxa, very few studies focused on clarifying taxonomic ambiguities of non-native fishes in the State. Most studies were descriptive; only 15 % were manipulative. Risk assessments, population-control studies and evaluations of effects of non-native fishes were rare topics for research, although they are highly valued by natural-resource managers. Though some authors equated lack of data with lack of effects, research is needed to confirm or deny conclusions. Much more is known regarding the effects of lionfish (Pterois spp.) on native fauna, despite its much shorter establishment time. Natural-resource managers need biological and ecological information to make policy decisions regarding non-native fishes. Given the near-absence of empirical data on effects of Florida non-native fishes, and the lengthy time-frames usually needed to collect such information, we provide suggestions for data collection in a manner that may be useful in the evaluation and prediction of non-native fish effects.

  8. Non-native vascular plants from Canary Islands (Spain): nomenclatural and taxonomical adjustments

    OpenAIRE

    Verloove, F.

    2013-01-01

    Se propone correcciones taxonómicas y nomenclaturales respecto a 88 taxones no nativos de la lista de plantas vasculares de las Islas Canarias (España). Non-native vascular plants from Canary Islands (Spain): nomenclatural and taxonomical adjustments. Corrections and other adjustments are proposed for 88 non-native taxa from the checklist of vascular plants from the Canary Islands (Spain).

  9. Exploring public perception of non-native species from a visions of nature perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugge, Laura N H; Van den Born, Riyan J G; Lenders, H J Rob

    2013-12-01

    Not much is known about lay public perceptions of non-native species and their underlying values. Public awareness and engagement, however, are important aspects in invasive species management. In this study, we examined the relations between the lay public's visions of nature, their knowledge about non-native species, and their perceptions of non-native species and invasive species management with a survey administered in the Netherlands. Within this framework, we identified three measures for perception of non-native species: perceived risk, control and engagement. In general, respondents scored moderate values for perceived risk and personal engagement. However, in case of potential ecological or human health risks, control measures were supported. Respondents' images of the human-nature relationship proved to be relevant in engagement in problems caused by invasive species and in recognizing the need for control, while images of nature appeared to be most important in perceiving risks to the environment. We also found that eradication of non-native species was predominantly opposed for species with a high cuddliness factor such as mammals and bird species. We conclude that lay public perceptions of non-native species have to be put in a wider context of visions of nature, and we discuss the implications for public support for invasive species management.

  10. Setting Priorities for Monitoring and Managing Non-native Plants: Toward a Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christiane; Jeschke, Jonathan M; Overbeck, Gerhard E; Kollmann, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Land managers face the challenge to set priorities in monitoring and managing non-native plant species, as resources are limited and not all non-natives become invasive. Existing frameworks that have been proposed to rank non-native species require extensive information on their distribution, abundance, and impact. This information is difficult to obtain and often not available for many species and regions. National watch or priority lists are helpful, but it is questionable whether they provide sufficient information for environmental management on a regional scale. We therefore propose a decision tree that ranks species based on more simple albeit robust information, but still provides reliable management recommendations. To test the decision tree, we collected and evaluated distribution data from non-native plants in highland grasslands of Southern Brazil. We compared the results with a national list from the Brazilian Invasive Species Database for the state to discuss advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches on a regional scale. Out of 38 non-native species found, only four were also present on the national list. If management would solely rely on this list, many species that were identified as spreading based on the decision tree would go unnoticed. With the suggested scheme, it is possible to assign species to active management, to monitoring, or further evaluation. While national lists are certainly important, management on a regional scale should employ additional tools that adequately consider the actual risk of non-natives to become invasive.

  11. Comprehending non-native speakers: theory and evidence for adjustment in manner of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri

    2014-01-01

    Non-native speakers have lower linguistic competence than native speakers, which renders their language less reliable in conveying their intentions. We suggest that expectations of lower competence lead listeners to adapt their manner of processing when they listen to non-native speakers. We propose that listeners use cognitive resources to adjust by increasing their reliance on top-down processes and extracting less information from the language of the non-native speaker. An eye-tracking study supports our proposal by showing that when following instructions by a non-native speaker, listeners make more contextually-induced interpretations. Those with relatively high working memory also increase their reliance on context to anticipate the speaker's upcoming reference, and are less likely to notice lexical errors in the non-native speech, indicating that they take less information from the speaker's language. These results contribute to our understanding of the flexibility in language processing and have implications for interactions between native and non-native speakers.

  12. Mathematics achievement of Chinese, Japanese, and American children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, H.W.; Lee, S.Y.; Stigler, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    American kindergarten children lag behind Japanese children in their understanding of mathematics; by fifth grade they are surpassed by both Japanese and Chinese children. Efforts to isolate bases for these differences involved testing children on other achievement and cognitive tasks, interviewing mothers and teachers, and observing children in their classrooms. Cognitive abilities of children in the three countries are similar, but large differences exist in the children's life in school, the attitudes and beliefs of their mothers, and the involvement of both parents and children in schoolwork

  13. An Ecosystem-Service Approach to Evaluate the Role of Non-Native Species in Urbanized Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita S. W. Yam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural wetlands have been increasingly transformed into urbanized ecosystems commonly colonized by stress-tolerant non-native species. Although non-native species present numerous threats to natural ecosystems, some could provide important benefits to urbanized ecosystems. This study investigated the extent of colonization by non-native fish and bird species of three urbanized wetlands in subtropical Taiwan. Using literature data the role of each non-native species in the urbanized wetland was evaluated by their effect (benefits/damages on ecosystem services (ES based on their ecological traits. Our sites were seriously colonized by non-native fishes (39%–100%, but <3% by non-native birds. Although most non-native species could damage ES regulation (disease control and wastewater purification, some could be beneficial to the urbanized wetland ES. Our results indicated the importance of non-native fishes in supporting ES by serving as food source to fish-eating waterbirds (native, and migratory species due to their high abundance, particularly for Oreochromis spp. However, all non-native birds are regarded as “harmful” species causing important ecosystem disservices, and thus eradication of these bird-invaders from urban wetlands would be needed. This simple framework for role evaluation of non-native species represents a holistic and transferable approach to facilitate decision making on management priority of non-native species in urbanized wetlands.

  14. Ecological disequilibrium drives insect pest and pathogen accumulation in non-native trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, Casparus J; Burgess, Treena I; Le Roux, Johannes J; Richardson, David M; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2016-12-23

    Non-native trees have become dominant components of many landscapes, including urban ecosystems, commercial forestry plantations, fruit orchards, and as invasives in natural ecosystems. Often, these trees have been separated from their natural enemies (i.e. insects and pathogens) leading to ecological disequilibrium, that is, the immediate breakdown of historically co-evolved interactions once introduced into novel environments. Long-established, non-native tree plantations provide useful experiments to explore the dimensions of such ecological disequilibria. We quantify the status quo of non-native insect pests and pathogens catching up with their tree hosts (planted Acacia, Eucalyptus and Pinus species) in South Africa, and examine which native South African enemy species utilise these trees as hosts. Interestingly, pines, with no confamilial relatives in South Africa and the longest residence time (almost two centuries), have acquired only one highly polyphagous native pathogen. This is in contrast to acacias and eucalypts, both with many native and confamilial relatives in South Africa that have acquired more native pathogens. These patterns support the known role of phylogenetic relatedness of non-native and native floras in influencing the likelihood of pathogen shifts between them. This relationship, however, does not seem to hold for native insects. Native insects appear far more likely to expand their feeding habits onto non-native tree hosts than are native pathogens, although they are generally less damaging. The ecological disequilibrium conditions of non-native trees are deeply rooted in the eco-evolutionary experience of the host plant, co-evolved natural enemies, and native organisms from the introduced range. We should expect considerable spatial and temporal variation in ecological disequilibrium conditions among non-native taxa, which can be significantly influenced by biosecurity and management practices. Published by Oxford University Press on

  15. Non-native species in the vascular flora of highlands and mountains of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Wasowicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The highlands and mountains of Iceland are one of the largest remaining wilderness areas in Europe. This study aimed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date data on non-native plant species in these areas and to answer the following questions: (1 How many non-native vascular plant species inhabit highland and mountainous environments in Iceland? (2 Do temporal trends in the immigration of alien species to Iceland differ between highland and lowland areas? (3 Does the incidence of alien species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas within Icelandic highlands differ? (4 Does the spread of non-native species in Iceland proceed from lowlands to highlands? and (5 Can we detect hot-spots in the distribution of non-native taxa within the highlands? Overall, 16 non-native vascular plant species were detected, including 11 casuals and 5 naturalized taxa (1 invasive. Results showed that temporal trends in alien species immigration to highland and lowland areas are similar, but it is clear that the process of colonization of highland areas is still in its initial phase. Non-native plants tended to occur close to man-made infrastructure and buildings including huts, shelters, roads etc. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns showed that the spread within highland areas is a second step in non-native plant colonization in Iceland. Several statically significant hot spots of alien plant occurrences were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and these were linked to human disturbance. This research suggests that human-mediated dispersal is the main driving force increasing the risk of invasion in Iceland’s highlands and mountain areas.

  16. Cultural Differences in Chinese American and European American Children's Drawing Skills over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.; Krieg, Dana Balsink; Luo, Zupei

    2011-01-01

    Parents and early childhood teachers in Chinese societies and the United States have had dissimilar views about appropriate art instruction for young children. The Chinese view is that creativity will emerge after children have been taught essential drawing skills. The American view has been that children's drawing skills emerge naturally and that…

  17. Hemispheric asymmetry of emotion words in a non-native mind: a divided visual field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jończyk, Rafał

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates hemispheric specialization for emotional words among proficient non-native speakers of English by means of the divided visual field paradigm. The motivation behind the study is to extend the monolingual hemifield research to the non-native context and see how emotion words are processed in a non-native mind. Sixty eight females participated in the study, all highly proficient in English. The stimuli comprised 12 positive nouns, 12 negative nouns, 12 non-emotional nouns and 36 pseudo-words. To examine the lateralization of emotion, stimuli were presented unilaterally in a random fashion for 180 ms in a go/no-go lexical decision task. The perceptual data showed a right hemispheric advantage for processing speed of negative words and a complementary role of the two hemispheres in the recognition accuracy of experimental stimuli. The data indicate that processing of emotion words in non-native language may require greater interhemispheric communication, but at the same time demonstrates a specific role of the right hemisphere in the processing of negative relative to positive valence. The results of the study are discussed in light of the methodological inconsistencies in the hemifield research as well as the non-native context in which the study was conducted.

  18. Positive and Negative Impacts of Non-Native Bee Species around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Laura

    2016-11-28

    Though they are relatively understudied, non-native bees are ubiquitous and have enormous potential economic and environmental impacts. These impacts may be positive or negative, and are often unquantified. In this manuscript, I review literature on the known distribution and environmental and economic impacts of 80 species of introduced bees. The potential negative impacts of non-native bees include competition with native bees for nesting sites or floral resources, pollination of invasive weeds, co-invasion with pathogens and parasites, genetic introgression, damage to buildings, affecting the pollination of native plant species, and changing the structure of native pollination networks. The potential positive impacts of non-native bees include agricultural pollination, availability for scientific research, rescue of native species, and resilience to human-mediated disturbance and climate change. Most non-native bee species are accidentally introduced and nest in stems, twigs, and cavities in wood. In terms of number of species, the best represented families are Megachilidae and Apidae, and the best represented genus is Megachile . The best studied genera are Apis and Bombus , and most of the species in these genera were deliberately introduced for agricultural pollination. Thus, we know little about the majority of non-native bees, accidentally introduced or spreading beyond their native ranges.

  19. Positive and Negative Impacts of Non-Native Bee Species around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Russo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Though they are relatively understudied, non-native bees are ubiquitous and have enormous potential economic and environmental impacts. These impacts may be positive or negative, and are often unquantified. In this manuscript, I review literature on the known distribution and environmental and economic impacts of 80 species of introduced bees. The potential negative impacts of non-native bees include competition with native bees for nesting sites or floral resources, pollination of invasive weeds, co-invasion with pathogens and parasites, genetic introgression, damage to buildings, affecting the pollination of native plant species, and changing the structure of native pollination networks. The potential positive impacts of non-native bees include agricultural pollination, availability for scientific research, rescue of native species, and resilience to human-mediated disturbance and climate change. Most non-native bee species are accidentally introduced and nest in stems, twigs, and cavities in wood. In terms of number of species, the best represented families are Megachilidae and Apidae, and the best represented genus is Megachile. The best studied genera are Apis and Bombus, and most of the species in these genera were deliberately introduced for agricultural pollination. Thus, we know little about the majority of non-native bees, accidentally introduced or spreading beyond their native ranges.

  20. Unique structural modulation of a non-native substrate by cochaperone DnaJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Satyam; Kumar, Vignesh; Jayaraj, Gopal Gunanathan; Maiti, Souvik; Mapa, Koyeli

    2013-02-12

    The role of bacterial DnaJ protein as a cochaperone of DnaK is strongly appreciated. Although DnaJ unaccompanied by DnaK can bind unfolded as well as native substrate proteins, its role as an individual chaperone remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that DnaJ binds a model non-native substrate with a low nanomolar dissociation constant and, more importantly, modulates the structure of its non-native state. The structural modulation achieved by DnaJ is different compared to that achieved by the DnaK-DnaJ complex. The nature of structural modulation exerted by DnaJ is suggestive of a unique unfolding activity on the non-native substrate by the chaperone. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the zinc binding motif along with the C-terminal substrate binding domain of DnaJ is necessary and sufficient for binding and the subsequent binding-induced structural alterations of the non-native substrate. We hypothesize that this hitherto unknown structural alteration of non-native states by DnaJ might be important for its chaperoning activity by removing kinetic traps of the folding intermediates.

  1. Do native brown trout and non-native brook trout interact reproductively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucherousset, J.; Aymes, J. C.; Poulet, N.; Santoul, F.; Céréghino, R.

    2008-07-01

    Reproductive interactions between native and non-native species of fish have received little attention compared to other types of interactions such as predation or competition for food and habitat. We studied the reproductive interactions between non-native brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) and native brown trout ( Salmo trutta) in a Pyrenees Mountain stream (SW France). We found evidence of significant interspecific interactions owing to consistent spatial and temporal overlap in redd localizations and spawning periods. We observed mixed spawning groups composed of the two species, interspecific subordinate males, and presence of natural hybrids (tiger trout). These reproductive interactions could be detrimental to the reproduction success of both species. Our study shows that non-native species might have detrimental effects on native species via subtle hybridization behavior.

  2. Non-native Chinese Foreign Language (CFL) Teachers: Identity and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Native Chinese foreign language (CFL) teacher identity is an emerging subject of research interest in the teacher education. Yet, limited study has been done on the construction of Non-native CFL teachers in their home culture. Guided by a concept of teacher identity-in-discourse, the pa......Abstract Native Chinese foreign language (CFL) teacher identity is an emerging subject of research interest in the teacher education. Yet, limited study has been done on the construction of Non-native CFL teachers in their home culture. Guided by a concept of teacher identity...... teachers face tensions and challenges in constructing their identities as CFL teachers, and the tensions and challenges that arose from Danish teaching culture could influence the Non-native CFL teachers' contributions to CFL teaching in their home cultures. The findings further show that in order to cope...

  3. Non-native Listeners’ Recognition of High-Variability Speech Using PRESTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamati, Terrin N.; Pisoni, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Natural variability in speech is a significant challenge to robust successful spoken word recognition. In everyday listening environments, listeners must quickly adapt and adjust to multiple sources of variability in both the signal and listening environments. High-variability speech may be particularly difficult to understand for non-native listeners, who have less experience with the second language (L2) phonological system and less detailed knowledge of sociolinguistic variation of the L2. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high-variability sentences on non-native speech recognition and to explore the underlying sources of individual differences in speech recognition abilities of non-native listeners. Research Design Participants completed two sentence recognition tasks involving high-variability and low-variability sentences. They also completed a battery of behavioral tasks and self-report questionnaires designed to assess their indexical processing skills, vocabulary knowledge, and several core neurocognitive abilities. Study Sample Native speakers of Mandarin (n = 25) living in the United States recruited from the Indiana University community participated in the current study. A native comparison group consisted of scores obtained from native speakers of English (n = 21) in the Indiana University community taken from an earlier study. Data Collection and Analysis Speech recognition in high-variability listening conditions was assessed with a sentence recognition task using sentences from PRESTO (Perceptually Robust English Sentence Test Open-Set) mixed in 6-talker multitalker babble. Speech recognition in low-variability listening conditions was assessed using sentences from HINT (Hearing In Noise Test) mixed in 6-talker multitalker babble. Indexical processing skills were measured using a talker discrimination task, a gender discrimination task, and a forced-choice regional dialect categorization task. Vocabulary

  4. Prevalence of obesity among young Asian-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anjali; Mitchell, Stephanie; Chirumamilla, Radha; Zhang, Jin; Horn, Ivor B; Lewin, Amy; Huang, Z Jennifer

    2012-12-01

    Asian-American children are considered to be at low risk of obesity, but previous estimates have not distinguished between children from different Asian countries. We estimate the prevalence of obesity among Asian-American children by mother's country of origin, generational status, and family socioeconomic factors using a secondary analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) wave III (children ∼4 years old) dataset. The ECLS-B is a nationally representative study of children born in 2001 that oversampled births to Asian mothers. Asian ethnic categories included Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Asian Indian, Korean, Vietnamese, and Other Asian/Pacific Islander. The primary outcome variable was weight status; overweight = BMI ≥85(th) and obese = BMI ≥95(th) percentile for age and gender. Twenty-six percent [95% confidence interval (CI) 23.6-29.1] of Asian-American 4 year olds were overweight or obese, and 13% (95% CI 10.2-15.2) were obese. Chinese-American children were at lower risk of overweight or obesity (23.5%, 95% CI 18.4-29.5 ) compared to whites (36%, 95% CI 34.3-37.7); Asian-Indian 4 year olds had the lowest rates of overweight or obesity (15.6%, 95% CI 8.0-28.2) and were most likely to be underweight (10%, 95% CI 4.9-19.4). Among Asians,Vietnamese-American children had the highest rate of overweight or obesity (34.7%, 95% CI 0.6-52.3). Vietnamese-American children are at elevated risk of obesity and overweight, whereas Chinese and Asian-Indian children are at low risk. After controlling for Asian ethnicity, maternal education, and household poverty status, Asian-American children whose mothers were born outside the United States were less likely to be obese [odds ratio = 0.55 (0.32-0.95), p = 0.03].

  5. Invasive non-native species' provision of refugia for endangered native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-08-01

    The influence of non-native species on native ecosystems is not predicted easily when interspecific interactions are complex. Species removal can result in unexpected and undesired changes to other ecosystem components. I examined whether invasive non-native species may both harm and provide refugia for endangered native species. The invasive non-native plant Casuarina stricta has damaged the native flora and caused decline of the snail fauna on the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. On Anijima in 2006 and 2009, I examined endemic land snails in the genus Ogasawarana. I compared the density of live specimens and frequency of predation scars (from black rats [Rattus rattus]) on empty shells in native vegetation and Casuarina forests. The density of land snails was greater in native vegetation than in Casuarina forests in 2006. Nevertheless, radical declines in the density of land snails occurred in native vegetation since 2006 in association with increasing predation by black rats. In contrast, abundance of Ogasawarana did not decline in the Casuarina forest, where shells with predation scars from rats were rare. As a result, the density of snails was greater in the Casuarina forest than in native vegetation. Removal of Casuarina was associated with an increased proportion of shells with predation scars from rats and a decrease in the density of Ogasawarana. The thick and dense litter of Casuarina appears to provide refugia for native land snails by protecting them from predation by rats; thus, eradication of rats should precede eradication of Casuarina. Adaptive strategies, particularly those that consider the removal order of non-native species, are crucial to minimizing the unintended effects of eradication on native species. In addition, my results suggested that in some cases a given non-native species can be used to mitigate the impacts of other non-native species on native species.

  6. Asian and Pacific American Exceptional Children. A Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decano, Pio

    1979-01-01

    Presented in the format of an imaginary dialogue between seven educators of Asian and Pacific American (APA) backgrounds, the article addresses some issues and concerns in the training of special education personnel to work with APA handicapped children. (DLS)

  7. Factors associated with obesity in Chinese-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Kennedy, Christine

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study design was utilized to examine factors associated with obesity in Chinese-American children. Chinese-American children (8 to 10 years old) and their mothers (N = 68) in California participated in the study. Mothers completed demographic information, the Family Assessment Device, Attitudes Toward Child Rearing Scale, and Suinn-Lew Asian Self-identity Acculturation Scale. Children's body mass index was measured, and children completed a self-administered physical activity checklist, Food Frequency Questionnaire, and the Schoolagers' Coping Strategies Inventory. Results indicated three variables that predicted children's body mass index: older age, a more democratic parenting style, and poor communication (R2=.263, F=8.727, p = .0001). Children whose mothers had a low level of acculturation were also more likely to be overweight than were children whose mothers were highly acculturated. This study revealed that children's ages, a democratic parenting style, and poor family communication contribute to increased body mass index in Chinese-American children. Other factors related to children's BMI and dietary intake include acculturation level of the mother and family affective responses. Future studies should examine the change in BMI over time and in different age groups and why parenting and family communication impact children's body weight.

  8. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.

    2015-01-01

    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  9. African American and Puerto Rican American Parenting Styles, Paternal Involvement, and Head Start Children's Social Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay

    2000-01-01

    Examined similarities and differences in parenting styles and paternal involvement within and between African American and Puerto Rican American parent groups and the relationship between parenting styles, child care involvement, and Head Start children's social competence. Found a significant relationship between high levels of parental…

  10. An Ecosystem-Service Approach to Evaluate the Role of Non-Native Species in Urbanized Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Rita S. W.; Huang, Ko-Pu; Hsieh, Hwey-Lian; Lin, Hsing-Juh; Huang, Shou-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Natural wetlands have been increasingly transformed into urbanized ecosystems commonly colonized by stress-tolerant non-native species. Although non-native species present numerous threats to natural ecosystems, some could provide important benefits to urbanized ecosystems. This study investigated the extent of colonization by non-native fish and bird species of three urbanized wetlands in subtropical Taiwan. Using literature data the role of each non-native species in the urbanized wetland was evaluated by their effect (benefits/damages) on ecosystem services (ES) based on their ecological traits. Our sites were seriously colonized by non-native fishes (39%–100%), but wetland ES. Our results indicated the importance of non-native fishes in supporting ES by serving as food source to fish-eating waterbirds (native, and migratory species) due to their high abundance, particularly for Oreochromis spp. However, all non-native birds are regarded as “harmful” species causing important ecosystem disservices, and thus eradication of these bird-invaders from urban wetlands would be needed. This simple framework for role evaluation of non-native species represents a holistic and transferable approach to facilitate decision making on management priority of non-native species in urbanized wetlands. PMID:25860870

  11. Diet of non-native northern snakehead (Channa argus) compared to three co-occurring predators in the lower Potomac River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan K. Saylor,; Nicolas W.R. Laointe,; Angermeier, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Introductions of large, non-native, carnivorous fishes continue to occur worldwide and represent a substantial management concern to global biodiversity. One of the most recent non-native fishes to successfully establish in North America is the northern snakehead (Channa argus), found in the lower Potomac River catchment. Dispersal of the northern snakehead throughout this system has been well documented since its original discovery in May 2004; however, little is known about the foraging habits of this species and its interactions with co-occurring predators. Here, we quantify northern snakehead diet in comparison with the diets of naturalised largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and native American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) collected from tidal freshwaters bordering Virginia and Maryland near Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Over 97% of northern snakehead gut contents were fishes, with fundulid and centrarchid species consumed most frequently. Dietary overlap was biologically significant only between northern snakehead and largemouth bass. Aquatic invertebrates were >10 times more common in native predator diets, reducing dietary overlap with northern snakehead. Ontogenic shifts in adult northern snakehead diet were also detected, which may be explained by optimal foraging rather than true prey specificity. Northern snakehead may be occupying a novel niche based on a piscivorous diet, therefore limiting competition with resident predators in the lower Potomac River. Further research into interactions between largemouth bass and northern snakehead is needed to inform management decisions and understand the ecological impacts of this non-native species.

  12. Japanese and American Children's Moral Evaluations of Reporting on Transgressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu Loke, Ivy; Heyman, Gail D.; Itakura, Shoji; Toriyama, Rie; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    American and Japanese children's evaluations of the reporting of peers' transgressions to authority figures were investigated. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old children (N = 160) and adults (N = 62) were presented with vignettes and were asked to evaluate the decisions of child observers who reported their friend's either major or relatively minor…

  13. Predation by crustaceans on native and non-native Baltic clams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ejdung, G.; Flach, E.; Byrén, L.; Hummel, H.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of crustacean predators on native/non-native Macoma balthica bivalves in aquarium experiments. North Sea M. balthica (NS Macoma) were recently observed in the southern Baltic Sea. They differ genetically and in terms of morphology, behaviour and evolutionary history from Baltic

  14. Are native songbird populations affected by non-native plant invasion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda M. Conover; Christopher K. Williams; Vincent. D' Amico

    2011-01-01

    Development into forested areas is occurring rapidly across the United States, and many of the remnant forests within suburban landscapes are being fragmented into smaller patches, impacting the quality of this habitat for avian species. An ecological effect linked to forest fragmentation is the invasion of non-native plants into the ecosystem.

  15. Why Not Non-Native Varieties of English as Listening Comprehension Test Input?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywickrama, Priyanvada

    2013-01-01

    The existence of different varieties of English in target language use (TLU) domains calls into question the usefulness of listening comprehension tests whose input is limited only to a native speaker variety. This study investigated the impact of non-native varieties or accented English speech on test takers from three different English use…

  16. Non-Native English Speakers and Nonstandard English: An In-Depth Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Brittany

    2012-01-01

    Given the rising prominence of nonstandard varieties of English around the world (Jenkins 2007), learners of English as a second language are increasingly called on to communicate with speakers of both native and non-native nonstandard English varieties. In many classrooms around the world, however, learners continue to be exposed only to…

  17. Which English? Whose English? An Investigation of "Non-Native" Teachers' Beliefs about Target Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tony Johnstone; Walsh, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the beliefs of "non-native English speaking" teachers about the usefulness and appropriacy of varieties such as English as an International Language (EIL) and English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), compared with native speaker varieties. The study therefore addresses the current theoretical debate concerning "appropriate" target…

  18. User requirement analysis of social conventions learning applications for Non-natives and low-literates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, D.; Smets, N.; Driessen, M.; Hanekamp, M.; Cremers, A.H.M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Learning and acting on social conventions is problematic for low-literates and non-natives, causing problems with societal participation and citizenship. Using the Situated Cognitive Engineering method, requirements for the design of social conventions learning software are derived from demographic

  19. Within-category variance and lexical tone discrimination in native and non-native speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, C.W.G.; Sadakata, M.; Chen, A.; Desain, P.W.M.; McQueen, J.M.; Gussenhove, C.; Chen, Y.; Dediu, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show how acoustic variance within lexical tones in disyllabic Mandarin Chinese pseudowords affects discrimination abilities in both native and non-native speakers of Mandarin Chinese. Within-category acoustic variance did not hinder native speakers in discriminating between lexical

  20. Invasions by two non-native insects alter regional forest species composition and successional trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2015-01-01

    While invasions of individual non-native phytophagous insect species are known to affect growth and mortality of host trees, little is known about how multiple invasions combine to alter forest dynamics over large regions. In this study we integrate geographical data describing historical invasion spread of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae...

  1. The Knowledge Base of Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers: Perspectives of Teachers and Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengjuan; Zhan, Ju

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the knowledge base of non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) working in the Canadian English as a second language (ESL) context. By examining NNESTs' experiences in seeking employment and teaching ESL in Canada, and investigating ESL program administrators' perceptions and hiring practices in relation to NNESTs, it…

  2. When the Native Is Also a Non-Native: "Retrodicting" the Complexity of Language Teacher Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    The impact of native (NS) and non-native speaker (NNS) identities on second or foreign language teachers' cognition and practices in the classroom has mainly been investigated in ESL/EFL contexts. Using complexity theory as a framework, this case study attempts to fill the gap in the literature by presenting a foreign language teacher in the…

  3. Reanalysis and semantic persistence in native and non-native garden-path recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Gunnar; Felser, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    We report the results from an eye-movement monitoring study investigating how native and non-native speakers of English process temporarily ambiguous sentences such as While the gentleman was eating the burgers were still being reheated in the microwave, in which an initially plausible direct-object analysis is first ruled out by a syntactic disambiguation (were) and also later on by semantic information (being reheated). Both participant groups showed garden-path effects at the syntactic disambiguation, with native speakers showing significantly stronger effects of ambiguity than non-native speakers in later eye-movement measures but equally strong effects in first-pass reading times. Ambiguity effects at the semantic disambiguation and in participants' end-of-trial responses revealed that for both participant groups, the incorrect direct-object analysis was frequently maintained beyond the syntactic disambiguation. The non-native group showed weaker reanalysis effects at the syntactic disambiguation and was more likely to misinterpret the experimental sentences than the native group. Our results suggest that native language (L1) and non-native language (L2) parsing are similar with regard to sensitivity to syntactic and semantic error signals, but different with regard to processes of reanalysis.

  4. Professional Development in Japanese Non-Native English Speaking Teachers' Identity and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    This mixed methods study investigates how Japanese non-native English speaking teachers' (NNESTs) efficacy and identity are developed and differentiated from those of native English speaking teachers (NESTs). To explore NNESTs' efficacy, this study focuses on the contributing factors, such as student engagement, classroom management, instructional…

  5. Germination responses of an invasive species in native and non-native ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose L. Hierro; Ozkan Eren; Liana Khetsuriani; Alecu Diaconu; Katalin Torok; Daniel Montesinos; Krikor Andonian; David Kikodze; Levan Janoian; Diego Villarreal; Maria Estanga-Mollica; Ragan M. Callaway

    2009-01-01

    Studying germination in the native and non-native range of a species can provide unique insights into processes of range expansion and adaptation; however, traits related to germination have rarely been compared between native and nonnative populations. In a series of common garden experiments, we explored whether differences in the seasonality of precipitation,...

  6. Computer Vision Syndrome for Non-Native Speaking Students: What Are the Problems with Online Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Min-chen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the online reading performances and the level of visual fatigue from the perspectives of non-native speaking students (NNSs). Reading on a computer screen is more visually more demanding than reading printed text. Online reading requires frequent saccadic eye movements and imposes continuous focusing and alignment demand.…

  7. The online application of binding condition B in native and non-native pronoun resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare ePatterson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that anaphor resolution in a non-native language may be more vulnerable to interference from structurally inappropriate antecedents compared to native anaphor resolution. To test whether previous findings on reflexive anaphors generalise to non-reflexive pronouns, we carried out an eye-movement monitoring study investigating the application of binding condition B during native and non-native sentence processing. In two online reading experiments we examined when during processing local and/or non-local antecedents for pronouns were considered in different types of syntactic environment. Our results demonstrate that both native English speakers and native German-speaking learners of English showed online sensitivity to binding condition B in that they did not consider syntactically inappropriate antecedents. For pronouns thought to be exempt from condition B (so-called 'short-distance pronouns', the native readers showed a weak preference for the local antecedent during processing. The non-native readers, on the other hand, showed a preference for the matrix subject even where local coreference was permitted, and despite demonstrating awareness of short-distance pronouns' referential ambiguity in a complementary offline task. This indicates that non-native comprehenders are less sensitive during processing to structural cues that render pronouns exempt from condition B, and prefer to link a pronoun to a salient subject antecedent instead.

  8. An invasion risk map for non-native aquatic macrophytes of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argantonio Rodríguez-Merino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater systems are particularly susceptible to non-native organisms, owing to their high sensitivity to the impacts that are caused by these organisms. Species distribution models, which are based on both environmental and socio-economic variables, facilitate the identification of the most vulnerable areas for the spread of non-native species. We used MaxEnt to predict the potential distribution of 20 non-native aquatic macrophytes in the Iberian Peninsula. Some selected variables, such as the temperature seasonality and the precipitation in the driest quarter, highlight the importance of the climate on their distribution. Notably, the human influence in the territory appears as a key variable in the distribution of studied species. The model discriminated between favorable and unfavorable areas with high accuracy. We used the model to build an invasion risk map of aquatic macrophytes for the Iberian Peninsula that included results from 20 individual models. It showed that the most vulnerable areas are located near to the sea, the major rivers basins, and the high population density areas. These facts suggest the importance of the human impact on the colonization and distribution of non-native aquatic macrophytes in the Iberian Peninsula, and more precisely agricultural development during the Green Revolution at the end of the 70’s. Our work also emphasizes the utility of species distribution models for the prevention and management of biological invasions.

  9. An assessment of a proposal to eradicate non-native fish from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Aquatic Science ... A pilot project to evaluate the use of the piscicide rotenone to eradicate non-native fish from selected reaches in four rivers has been proposed by CapeNature, the conservation ... It is expected that the project will be successful while having minimal impact on other aquatic fauna.

  10. Non-Native English Teachers' Beliefs on Grammar Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önalan, Okan

    2018-01-01

    Research on teacher cognition, which mainly focuses on identifying what teachers think, know and believe, is essential to understanding teachers' cognitive framework as it relates to the instructional choices they make. The aim of this study is to find out the beliefs of non-native speaker teachers of English on grammar instruction and to explain…

  11. Using the Speech Transmission Index for predicting non-native speech intelligibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Houtgast, T.; Steeneken, H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    While the Speech Transmission Index ~STI! is widely applied for prediction of speech intelligibility in room acoustics and telecommunication engineering, it is unclear how to interpret STI values when non-native talkers or listeners are involved. Based on subjectively measured psychometric functions

  12. Minimal effectiveness of native and non-native seeding following three high-severity wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken A. Stella; Carolyn H. Sieg; Pete Z. Fule

    2010-01-01

    The rationale for seeding following high-severity wildfires is to enhance plant cover and reduce bare ground, thus decreasing the potential for soil erosion and non-native plant invasion. However, experimental tests of the effectiveness of seeding in meeting these objectives in forests are lacking. We conducted three experimental studies of the effectiveness of seeding...

  13. The influence of ungulates on non-native plant invasions in forests and rangelands: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine G. Parks; Michael J. Wisdom; John G. Kie

    2005-01-01

    Herbivory by wild and domestic ungulates can strongly influence vegetation composition and productivity in forest and range ecosystems. However, the role of ungulates as contributors to the establishment and spread of non-native invasive plants is not well known. Ungulates spread seeds through endozoochory (passing through an animal's digestive tract) or...

  14. Non-native gobies facilitate the transmission of Bucephalus polymorphus (Trematoda)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondračková, Markéta; Hudcová, Iveta; Dávidová, Martina; Adámek, Zdeněk; Kašný, M.; Jurajda, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2015), s. 382 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/12/2569 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bucephalus polymorphus * Complex life cycle * Goby * Infectivity * Intermediate host * Non-native species * Trematode Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015

  15. Ethical Considerations in Conducting Research with Non-Native Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouriotis, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The ethical considerations of three education researchers working with non-native English-speaking participants were examined from a critical theory stand-point in the light of the literature on research ethics in various disciplines. Qualitative inquiry and data analysis were used to identify key themes, which centered around honor and respect…

  16. Differences in the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies among Native and Non-Native Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheorey, R.; Mokhtari, K.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the differences in the reported use of reading strategies of native and non-native English speakers when reading academic materials. Participants were native English speaking and English-as-a-Second-Language college students who completed a survey of reading strategies aimed at discerning the strategies readers report using when coping…

  17. Long-distance dispersal of non-native pine bark beetles from host resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Chase; Dave Kelly; Andrew M. Liebhold; Martin K.-F. Bader; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff

    2017-01-01

    Dispersal and host detection are behaviours promoting the spread of invading populations in a landscape matrix. In fragmented landscapes, the spatial arrangement of habitat structure affects the dispersal success of organisms. The aim of the present study was to determine the long distance dispersal capabilities of two non-native pine bark beetles (Hylurgus...

  18. Recreational freshwater fishing drives non-native aquatic species richness patterns at a continental scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapping the geographic distribution of non-native aquatic species is a critically important precursor to understanding the anthropogenic and environmental factors that drive freshwater biological invasions. Such efforts are often limited to local scales and/or to single species, ...

  19. Vulnerability of freshwater native biodiversity to non-native species invasions across the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Non-native species pose one of the greatest threats to native biodiversity. The literature provides plentiful empirical and anecdotal evidence of this phenomenon; however, such evidence is limited to local or regional scales. Employing geospatial analy...

  20. Non-native Species in Floodplain Secondary Forests in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Rasidah Hashim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing concern of alien species invading our tropical ecosystems because anthropogenic land use can create conditions in which non-native species thrive. This study is an assessment of bioinvasion using a quantitative survey of non-native plant species in floodplain secondary forests in Peninsular Malaysia. The study area is known to have a long cultivation and settlement history that provides ample time for non-native species introduction. The survey results showed that introduced species constituted 23% of all the identified species, with seven species unique to riparian forest strips and eleven species unique to abandoned paddy fields and the remaining five species being shared between the two secondary forest types. There existed some habitat preferences amongst the species implying both secondary forests were potentially susceptible to bioinvasion. Fourteen species are also invasive elsewhere (PIER invasives whereas fifteen species have acquired local uses such for traditional medicine and food products. The presence of these non-native species could alter native plant succession trajectory, and eventually leads to native species impoverishment if the exotics managed to outcompete the native species. As such, the findings of this study have a far-reaching application for the national biodiversity conservation efforts because it provides the required information on bioinvasion.

  1. Predicting establishment of non-native fishes in Greece: identifying key features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Gkenas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-native fishes are known to cause economic damage to human society and are considered a major threat to biodiversity loss in freshwater ecosystems. The growing concern about these impacts has driven to an investigation of the biological traits that facilitate the establishment of non-native fish. However, invalid assessment in choosing the appropriate statistical model can lead researchers to ambiguous conclusions. Here, we present a comprehensive comparison of traditional and alternative statistical methods for predicting fish invasions using logistic regression, classification trees, multicorrespondence analysis and random forest analysis to determine characteristics of successful and failed non-native fishes in Hellenic Peninsula through establishment. We defined fifteen categorical predictor variables with biological relevance and measures of human interest. Our study showed that accuracy differed according to the model and the number of factors considered. Among all the models tested, random forest and logistic regression performed best, although all approaches predicted non-native fish establishment with moderate to excellent results. Detailed evaluation among the models corresponded with differences in variables importance, with three biological variables (parental care, distance from nearest native source and maximum size and two variables of human interest (prior invasion success and propagule pressure being important in predicting establishment. The analyzed statistical methods presented have a high predictive power and can be used as a risk assessment tool to prevent future freshwater fish invasions in this region with an imperiled fish fauna.

  2. Non-Native Speakers of the Language of Instruction: Self-Perceptions of Teaching Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Given the linguistically diverse instructor and student populations at Canadian universities, mutually comprehensible oral language may not be a given. Indeed, both instructors who are non-native speakers of the language of instruction (NNSLIs) and students have acknowledged oral communication challenges. Little is known, though, about how the…

  3. Non-native fish introductions and the reversibility of amphibian declines in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland A. Knapp

    2004-01-01

    Amphibians are declining worldwide for a variety of reasons, including habitat alteration, introduction of non-native species, disease, climate change, and environmental contaminants. Amphibians often play important roles in structuring ecosystems, and, as a result, amphibian population declines or extinctions are likely to affect other trophic levels (Matthews and...

  4. Topic Continuity in Informal Conversations between Native and Non-Native Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris-Adams, Muna

    2013-01-01

    Topic management by non-native speakers (NNSs) during informal conversations has received comparatively little attention from researchers, and receives surprisingly little attention in second language learning and teaching. This article reports on one of the topic management strategies employed by international students during informal, social…

  5. Non-native species impacts on pond occupancy by an anuran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Galvan, Stephanie; McCreary, Brome

    2011-01-01

    Non-native fish and bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus; Rana catesbeiana) are frequently cited as factors contributing to the decline of ranid frogs in the western United States (Bradford 2005). This hypothesis is supported by studies showing competition with or predation by these introduced species (Kupferberg 1997, Kiesecker and Blaustein 1998, Lawler et al. 1999, Knapp et al. 2001) and studies suggesting a deficit of native frogs at sites occupied by bullfrogs or game fish (Hammerson 1982, Schwalbe and Rosen 1988, Fisher and Shaffer 1996, Adams 1999). Conversely, other studies failed to find a negative association between native ranids and bullfrogs and point out that presence of non-native species correlates with habitat alterations that could also contribute to declines of native species (Hayes and Jennings 1986; Adams 1999, 2000; Pearl et al. 2005). A criticism of these studies is that they may not detect an effect of non-native species if the process of displacement is at an early stage. We are not aware of any studies that have monitored a set of native frog populations to determine if non-native species predict population losses. Our objective was to study site occupancy trends in relation to non-native species for northern red-legged frogs (Rana aurora) on federal lands in the southern Willamette Valley, Oregon. We conducted a 5-yr monitoring study to answer the following questions about the status and trends of the northern red-legged frog: 1) What is the rate of local extinction (how often is a site that is occupied in year t unoccupied in year t+1) and what factors predict variation in local extinction? and 2) What is the rate of colonization (how often is a site that is unoccupied in year t occupied in year t+1) and what factors predict variation in colonization? The factors we hypothesized for local extinction were: 1) bullfrog presence, 2) bullfrogs mediated by wetland vegetation, 3) non-native fish (Centrarchidae), 4) non-native fish mediated by

  6. A non-native prey mediates the effects of a shared predator on an ecosystem service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Byers

    Full Text Available Non-native species can alter ecosystem functions performed by native species often by displacing influential native species. However, little is known about how ecosystem functions may be modified by trait-mediated indirect effects of non-native species. Oysters and other reef-associated filter feeders enhance water quality by controlling nutrients and contaminants in many estuarine environments. However, this ecosystem service may be mitigated by predation, competition, or other species interactions, especially when such interactions involve non-native species that share little evolutionary history. We assessed trophic and other interference effects on the critical ecosystem service of water filtration in mesocosm experiments. In single-species trials, typical field densities of oysters (Crassostrea virginica reduced water-column chlorophyll a more strongly than clams (Mercenaria mercenaria. The non-native filter-feeding reef crab Petrolisthes armatus did not draw down chlorophyll a. In multi-species treatments, oysters and clams combined additively to influence chlorophyll a drawdown. Petrolisthes did not affect net filtration when added to the bivalve-only treatments. Addition of the predatory mud crab Panopeus herbstii did not influence oyster feeding rates, but it did stop chlorophyll a drawdown by clams. However, when Petrolisthes was also added in with the clams, the clams filtered at their previously unadulterated rates, possibly because Petrolisthes drew the focus of predators or habituated the clams to crab stimuli. In sum, oysters were the most influential filter feeder, and neither predators nor competitors interfered with their net effect on water-column chlorophyll. In contrast, clams filtered less, but were more sensitive to predators as well as a facilitative buffering effect of Petrolisthes, illustrating that non-native species can indirectly affect an ecosystem service by aiding the performance of a native species.

  7. Exploring the role of wood waste landfills in early detection of non-native alien wood-boring beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davide Rassati; Massimo Faccoli; Lorenzo Marini; Robert A. Haack; Andrea Battisti; Edoardo. Petrucco Toffolo

    2015-01-01

    Non-native wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) represent one of the most commonly intercepted groups of insects at ports worldwide. The development of early detection methods is a crucial step when implementing rapid response programs so that non-native wood-boring beetles can be quickly detected and a timely action plan can be produced. However, due to the limited...

  8. Higher dropout rate in non-native patients than in native patients in rehabilitation in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloots, Maurits; Scheppers, Emmanuel F.; van de Weg, Frans B.; Bartels, Edien A.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Dekker, Joost; Dekker, Jaap

    Dropout from a rehabilitation programme often occurs in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain of non-native origin. However, the exact dropout rate is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in dropout rate between native and non-native patients with chronic

  9. Non-native grass removal and shade increase soil moisture and seedling performance during Hawaiian dry forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared M. Thaxton; Susan Cordell; Robert J. Cabin; Darren R. Sandquist

    2012-01-01

    Invasive non-native species can create especially problematic restoration barriers in subtropical and tropical dry forests. Native dry forests in Hawaii presently cover less than 10% of their original area. Many sites that historically supported dry forest are now completely dominated by non-native species, particularly grasses. Within a grass-dominated site in leeward...

  10. Competitive Abilities of Native European and Non-native North American Populations of Lythrum salicaria L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Edwards, K.R.; Květ, Jan; Adams, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-13 ISSN 1335-342X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Allometric analysis * Competition * Dry weight allocation * EICA hypothesis * Lythrum salicaria Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.085, year: 2005

  11. Hemisphericity and information processing in North American Native (Ojibwa) and non-native adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, L L; Allen, J D; Williams, N H

    1994-04-01

    Thirty-two male and female adolescents of native ancestry (Ojibwa) and 32 controls were tested using (1) four WISC-R subtests and (2) two dichotic listening tasks which employed a focused-attention paradigm for processing consonant-vowel combinations (CVs) and musical melodies. On the WISC-R, natives scored higher than controls on Block Design and Picture Completion subtests but lower on Vocabulary and Similarities subtests. On laterality measures more native males showed a left ear advantage on the CV task and the melody task. For CVs the left ear advantage was due to native males' lower right ear (i.e., left hemisphere) involvement. For melodies, the laterality index pointed to less left hemisphere involvement for native males, however, the raw scores showed that natives were performing lower overall. The findings are consistent with culturally-based strategy differences, possibly linked to "hemisphericity," but additional clarifying research regarding the cause and extent of such differences is warranted. Thus, implications for education are premature but a focus on teaching "left hemisphere type" strategies to all individuals not utilizing such skills, including many native males, may prove beneficial.

  12. Non-native tree species in urban areas of the city of Nitra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galis, M

    2014-01-01

    Non-native plant species are part of our environment. The introduction of these species is huge conditioned by anthropogenic activities, such as the urban environment is characterized by. During the field surveys of selected town Nitra (Chrenova, Mikova Ves, Zobor), we studied the frequency of non-native tree species in the contact zone. Overall, we found out the presence of 10 alien species, observed in this area. Our results show dominant presence of the species Rhus typhina, followed by the Robinia pseudoacacia and Ailanthus altissima. Individual plants were tied largely to the surrounding of built-up areas, often growns directly in front of houses, or as a part of urban green. (author)

  13. Catalytic mechanism of phenylacetone monooxygenases for non-native linear substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alexandra T P; Dourado, Daniel F A R; Skvortsov, Timofey; de Abreu, Miguel; Ferguson, Lyndsey J; Quinn, Derek J; Moody, Thomas S; Huang, Meilan

    2017-10-11

    Phenylacetone monooxygenase (PAMO) is the most stable and thermo-tolerant member of the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase family, and therefore it is an ideal candidate for the synthesis of industrially relevant compounds. However, its limited substrate scope has largely limited its industrial applications. In the present work, we provide, for the first time, the catalytic mechanism of PAMO for the native substrate phenylacetone as well as for a linear non-native substrate 2-octanone, using molecular dynamics simulations, quantum mechanics and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations. We provide a theoretical basis for the preference of the enzyme for the native aromatic substrate over non-native linear substrates. Our study provides fundamental atomic-level insights that can be employed in the rational engineering of PAMO for wide applications in industrial biocatalysis, in particular, in the biotransformation of long-chain aliphatic oils into potential biodiesels.

  14. Reflecting on the dichotomy native-non native speakers in an EFL context

    OpenAIRE

    Mariño, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a discussion based on constructs about the dichotomy betweennative and non-native speakers. Several models and examples are displayed about thespreading of the English language with the intention of understanding its developmentin the whole world and in Colombia, specifically. Then, some possible definitions aregiven to the term “native speaker” and its conceptualization is described as both realityand myth. One of the main reasons for writing this article is grounded on...

  15. A Hybrid Acoustic and Pronunciation Model Adaptation Approach for Non-native Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoo Rhee; Kim, Hong Kook

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid model adaptation approach in which pronunciation and acoustic models are adapted by incorporating the pronunciation and acoustic variabilities of non-native speech in order to improve the performance of non-native automatic speech recognition (ASR). Specifically, the proposed hybrid model adaptation can be performed at either the state-tying or triphone-modeling level, depending at which acoustic model adaptation is performed. In both methods, we first analyze the pronunciation variant rules of non-native speakers and then classify each rule as either a pronunciation variant or an acoustic variant. The state-tying level hybrid method then adapts pronunciation models and acoustic models by accommodating the pronunciation variants in the pronunciation dictionary and by clustering the states of triphone acoustic models using the acoustic variants, respectively. On the other hand, the triphone-modeling level hybrid method initially adapts pronunciation models in the same way as in the state-tying level hybrid method; however, for the acoustic model adaptation, the triphone acoustic models are then re-estimated based on the adapted pronunciation models and the states of the re-estimated triphone acoustic models are clustered using the acoustic variants. From the Korean-spoken English speech recognition experiments, it is shown that ASR systems employing the state-tying and triphone-modeling level adaptation methods can relatively reduce the average word error rates (WERs) by 17.1% and 22.1% for non-native speech, respectively, when compared to a baseline ASR system.

  16. Non-native salmonids affect amphibian occupancy at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Hossack, Blake R.; Bahls, Peter F.; Bull, Evelyn L.; Corn, Paul Stephen; Hokit, Grant; Maxell, Bryce A.; Munger, James C.; Wyrick, Aimee

    2010-01-01

    Aim The introduction of non-native species into aquatic environments has been linked with local extinctions and altered distributions of native species. We investigated the effect of non-native salmonids on the occupancy of two native amphibians, the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), across three spatial scales: water bodies, small catchments and large catchments. Location Mountain lakes at ≥ 1500 m elevation were surveyed across the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Methods We surveyed 2267 water bodies for amphibian occupancy (based on evidence of reproduction) and fish presence between 1986 and 2002 and modelled the probability of amphibian occupancy at each spatial scale in relation to habitat availability and quality and fish presence. Results After accounting for habitat features, we estimated that A. macrodactylum was 2.3 times more likely to breed in fishless water bodies than in water bodies with fish. Ambystoma macrodactylum also was more likely to occupy small catchments where none of the water bodies contained fish than in catchments where at least one water body contained fish. However, the probability of salamander occupancy in small catchments was also influenced by habitat availability (i.e. the number of water bodies within a catchment) and suitability of remaining fishless water bodies. We found no relationship between fish presence and salamander occupancy at the large-catchment scale, probably because of increased habitat availability. In contrast to A. macrodactylum, we found no relationship between fish presence and R. luteiventris occupancy at any scale. Main conclusions Our results suggest that the negative effects of non-native salmonids can extend beyond the boundaries of individual water bodies and increase A. macrodactylum extinction risk at landscape scales. We suspect that niche overlap between non-native fish and A. macrodactylum at higher elevations in the northern Rocky

  17. Emergence of category-level sensitivities in non-native speech sound learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eMyers

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of development, speech sounds that are contrastive in one’s native language tend to become perceived categorically: that is, listeners are unaware of variation within phonetic categories while showing excellent sensitivity to speech sounds that span linguistically meaningful phonetic category boundaries. The end stage of this developmental process is that the perceptual systems that handle acoustic-phonetic information show special tuning to native language contrasts, and as such, category-level information appears to be present at even fairly low levels of the neural processing stream. Research on adults acquiring non-native speech categories offers an avenue for investigating the interplay of category-level information and perceptual sensitivities to these sounds as speech categories emerge. In particular, one can observe the neural changes that unfold as listeners learn not only to perceive acoustic distinctions that mark non-native speech sound contrasts, but also to map these distinctions onto category-level representations. An emergent literature on the neural basis of novel and non-native speech sound learning offers new insight into this question. In this review, I will examine this literature in order to answer two key questions. First, where in the neural pathway does sensitivity to category-level phonetic information first emerge over the trajectory of speech sound learning? Second, how do frontal and temporal brain areas work in concert over the course of non-native speech sound learning? Finally, in the context of this literature I will describe a model of speech sound learning in which rapidly-adapting access to categorical information in the frontal lobes modulates the sensitivity of stable, slowly-adapting responses in the temporal lobes.

  18. Fitness benefits of the fruit fly Rhagoletis alternata on a non-native rose host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Kim; Smit, Christian; Schilthuizen, Menno; Beukeboom, Leo W

    2016-05-01

    Many species have been introduced worldwide into areas outside their natural range. Often these non-native species are introduced without their natural enemies, which sometimes leads to uncontrolled population growth. It is rarely reported that an introduced species provides a new resource for a native species. The rose hips of the Japanese rose, Rosa rugosa, which has been introduced in large parts of Europe, are infested by the native monophagous tephritid fruit fly Rhagoletis alternata. We studied differences in fitness benefits between R. alternata larvae using R. rugosa as well as native Rosa species in the Netherlands. R. alternata pupae were larger and heavier when the larvae fed on rose hips of R. rugosa. Larvae feeding on R. rugosa were parasitized less frequently by parasitic wasps than were larvae feeding on native roses. The differences in parasitization are probably due to morphological differences between the native and non-native rose hips: the hypanthium of a R. rugosa hip is thicker and provides the larvae with the possibility to feed deeper into the hip, meaning that the parasitoids cannot reach them with their ovipositor and the larvae escape parasitization. Our study shows that native species switching to a novel non-native host can experience fitness benefits compared to the original native host.

  19. Growth rate differences between resident native brook trout and non-native brown trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, S.M.; Hendry, A.P.; Letcher, B.H.

    2007-01-01

    Between species and across season variation in growth was examined by tagging and recapturing individual brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta across seasons in a small stream (West Brook, Massachusetts, U.S.A.). Detailed information on body size and growth are presented to (1) test whether the two species differed in growth within seasons and (2) characterize the seasonal growth patterns for two age classes of each species. Growth differed between species in nearly half of the season- and age-specific comparisons. When growth differed, non-native brown trout grew faster than native brook trout in all but one comparison. Moreover, species differences were most pronounced when overall growth was high during the spring and early summer. These growth differences resulted in size asymmetries that were sustained over the duration of the study. A literature survey also indicated that non-native salmonids typically grow faster than native salmonids when the two occur in sympatry. Taken together, these results suggest that differences in growth are not uncommon for coexisting native and non-native salmonids. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  20. Evolution under changing climates: climatic niche stasis despite rapid evolution in a non-native plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jake M

    2013-09-22

    A topic of great current interest is the capacity of populations to adapt genetically to rapidly changing climates, for example by evolving the timing of life-history events, but this is challenging to address experimentally. I use a plant invasion as a model system to tackle this question by combining molecular markers, a common garden experiment and climatic niche modelling. This approach reveals that non-native Lactuca serriola originates primarily from Europe, a climatic subset of its native range, with low rates of admixture from Asia. It has rapidly refilled its climatic niche in the new range, associated with the evolution of flowering phenology to produce clines along climate gradients that mirror those across the native range. Consequently, some non-native plants have evolved development times and grow under climates more extreme than those found in Europe, but not among populations from the native range as a whole. This suggests that many plant populations can adapt rapidly to changed climatic conditions that are already within the climatic niche space occupied by the species elsewhere in its range, but that evolution to conditions outside of this range is more difficult. These findings can also help to explain the prevalence of niche conservatism among non-native species.

  1. Understanding the threats posed by non-native species: public vs. conservation managers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe E Gozlan

    Full Text Available Public perception is a key factor influencing current conservation policy. Therefore, it is important to determine the influence of the public, end-users and scientists on the prioritisation of conservation issues and the direct implications for policy makers. Here, we assessed public attitudes and the perception of conservation managers to five non-native species in the UK, with these supplemented by those of an ecosystem user, freshwater anglers. We found that threat perception was not influenced by the volume of scientific research or by the actual threats posed by the specific non-native species. Media interest also reflected public perception and vice versa. Anglers were most concerned with perceived threats to their recreational activities but their concerns did not correspond to the greatest demonstrated ecological threat. The perception of conservation managers was an amalgamation of public and angler opinions but was mismatched to quantified ecological risks of the species. As this suggests that invasive species management in the UK is vulnerable to a knowledge gap, researchers must consider the intrinsic characteristics of their study species to determine whether raising public perception will be effective. The case study of the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva reveals that media pressure and political debate has greater capacity to ignite policy changes and impact studies on non-native species than scientific evidence alone.

  2. Economic impacts of non-native forest insects in the continental United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann E Aukema

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of the impacts and costs of biological invasions are critical to developing credible management, trade and regulatory policies. Worldwide, forests and urban trees provide important ecosystem services as well as economic and social benefits, but are threatened by non-native insects. More than 450 non-native forest insects are established in the United States but estimates of broad-scale economic impacts associated with these species are largely unavailable. We developed a novel modeling approach that maximizes the use of available data, accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty, and provides cost estimates for three major feeding guilds of non-native forest insects. For each guild, we calculated the economic damages for five cost categories and we estimated the probability of future introductions of damaging pests. We found that costs are largely borne by homeowners and municipal governments. Wood- and phloem-boring insects are anticipated to cause the largest economic impacts by annually inducing nearly $1.7 billion in local government expenditures and approximately $830 million in lost residential property values. Given observations of new species, there is a 32% chance that another highly destructive borer species will invade the U.S. in the next 10 years. Our damage estimates provide a crucial but previously missing component of cost-benefit analyses to evaluate policies and management options intended to reduce species introductions. The modeling approach we developed is highly flexible and could be similarly employed to estimate damages in other countries or natural resource sectors.

  3. Invasion of non-native grasses causes a drop in soil carbon storage in California grasslands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koteen, Laura E; Harte, John [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Baldocchi, Dennis D, E-mail: lkoteen@berkeley.edu [Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, 137 Mulford Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Vegetation change can affect the magnitude and direction of global climate change via its effect on carbon cycling among plants, the soil and the atmosphere. The invasion of non-native plants is a major cause of land cover change, of biodiversity loss, and of other changes in ecosystem structure and function. In California, annual grasses from Mediterranean Europe have nearly displaced native perennial grasses across the coastal hillsides and terraces of the state. Our study examines the impact of this invasion on carbon cycling and storage at two sites in northern coastal California. The results suggest that annual grass invasion has caused an average drop in soil carbon storage of 40 Mg/ha in the top half meter of soil, although additional mechanisms may also contribute to soil carbon losses. We attribute the reduction in soil carbon storage to low rates of net primary production in non-native annuals relative to perennial grasses, a shift in rooting depth and water use to primarily shallow sources, and soil respiratory losses in non-native grass soils that exceed production rates. These results indicate that even seemingly subtle land cover changes can significantly impact ecosystem functions in general, and carbon storage in particular.

  4. Mental health status in pregnancy among native and non-native Swedish-speaking women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Anne-Marie; Schei, Berit; Ryding, Elsa Lena

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe mental health status in native and non-native Swedish-speaking pregnant women and explore risk factors of depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted at midwife-based antenatal clinics in South......OBJECTIVES: To describe mental health status in native and non-native Swedish-speaking pregnant women and explore risk factors of depression and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted at midwife-based antenatal clinics...... in Southern Sweden. SAMPLE: A non-selected group of women in mid-pregnancy. METHODS: Participants completed a questionnaire covering background characteristics, social support, life events, mental health variables and the short Edinburgh Depression Scale. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Depressive symptoms during...... the past week and PTS symptoms during the past year. RESULTS: Out of 1003 women, 21.4% reported another language than Swedish as their mother tongue and were defined as non-native. These women were more likely to be younger, have fewer years of education, potential financial problems, and lack of social...

  5. Invasion of non-native grasses causes a drop in soil carbon storage in California grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteen, Laura E.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Harte, John

    2011-10-01

    Vegetation change can affect the magnitude and direction of global climate change via its effect on carbon cycling among plants, the soil and the atmosphere. The invasion of non-native plants is a major cause of land cover change, of biodiversity loss, and of other changes in ecosystem structure and function. In California, annual grasses from Mediterranean Europe have nearly displaced native perennial grasses across the coastal hillsides and terraces of the state. Our study examines the impact of this invasion on carbon cycling and storage at two sites in northern coastal California. The results suggest that annual grass invasion has caused an average drop in soil carbon storage of 40 Mg/ha in the top half meter of soil, although additional mechanisms may also contribute to soil carbon losses. We attribute the reduction in soil carbon storage to low rates of net primary production in non-native annuals relative to perennial grasses, a shift in rooting depth and water use to primarily shallow sources, and soil respiratory losses in non-native grass soils that exceed production rates. These results indicate that even seemingly subtle land cover changes can significantly impact ecosystem functions in general, and carbon storage in particular.

  6. Invasion of non-native grasses causes a drop in soil carbon storage in California grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koteen, Laura E; Harte, John; Baldocchi, Dennis D

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation change can affect the magnitude and direction of global climate change via its effect on carbon cycling among plants, the soil and the atmosphere. The invasion of non-native plants is a major cause of land cover change, of biodiversity loss, and of other changes in ecosystem structure and function. In California, annual grasses from Mediterranean Europe have nearly displaced native perennial grasses across the coastal hillsides and terraces of the state. Our study examines the impact of this invasion on carbon cycling and storage at two sites in northern coastal California. The results suggest that annual grass invasion has caused an average drop in soil carbon storage of 40 Mg/ha in the top half meter of soil, although additional mechanisms may also contribute to soil carbon losses. We attribute the reduction in soil carbon storage to low rates of net primary production in non-native annuals relative to perennial grasses, a shift in rooting depth and water use to primarily shallow sources, and soil respiratory losses in non-native grass soils that exceed production rates. These results indicate that even seemingly subtle land cover changes can significantly impact ecosystem functions in general, and carbon storage in particular.

  7. Evaluating ecosystem services provided by non-native species: an experimental test in California grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Claudia; Hallett, Lauren M; Harpole, W Stanley; Suding, Katharine N

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ecosystem services--the benefits that nature provides to human's society--has gained increasing attention over the past decade. Increasing global abiotic and biotic change, including species invasions, is threatening the secure delivery of these ecosystem services. Efficient evaluation methods of ecosystem services are urgently needed to improve our ability to determine management strategies and restoration goals in face of these new emerging ecosystems. Considering a range of multiple ecosystem functions may be a useful way to determine such strategies. We tested this framework experimentally in California grasslands, where large shifts in species composition have occurred since the late 1700's. We compared a suite of ecosystem functions within one historic native and two non-native species assemblages under different grazing intensities to address how different species assemblages vary in provisioning, regulatory and supporting ecosystem services. Forage production was reduced in one non-native assemblage (medusahead). Cultural ecosystem services, such as native species diversity, were inherently lower in both non-native assemblages, whereas most other services were maintained across grazing intensities. All systems provided similar ecosystem services under the highest grazing intensity treatment, which simulated unsustainable grazing intensity. We suggest that applying a more comprehensive ecosystem framework that considers multiple ecosystem services to evaluate new emerging ecosystems is a valuable tool to determine management goals and how to intervene in a changing ecosystem.

  8. Obesity, appearance, and psychosocial adaptation in young African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Hyman, Deborah; Schlundt, David G; Herman-Wenderoth, Leanna; Bozylinski, Khristine

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the contributions of weight status, skin tone, peer teasing, and parental appraisals of child's size to self-esteem and psychosocial adjustment in overweight African American children. Overweight to very obese 5- to 10-year-old African American children (N = 117) completed measures of self-esteem, skin tone satisfaction, peer teasing, and body size perception. Caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist and rated their child's body size. Overweight was associated with low appearance self-esteem, and body size dissatisfaction with low global self-worth and low appearance self-esteem in children 8 and older. Appearance self-esteem but not global self-worth was lower in girls than boys. Parental perception of child's size as heavier than average was associated with low child appearance self-esteem. Heavier children also had more parental report of behavior and psychosocial problems, but their scores were in the nonclinical range. Child skin tone dissatisfaction was associated with low global self-worth. Weight-related peer teasing was associated with low self-esteem. The relationship between obesity and self-esteem in African American children depends upon age, gender, and children's experiences with teasing and parental evaluation of their size. Other factors, like skin tone satisfaction, contribute to a child's sense of self-worth.

  9. Semantic and phonetic enhancements for speech-in-noise recognition by native and non-native listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradlow, Ann R; Alexander, Jennifer A

    2007-04-01

    Previous research has shown that speech recognition differences between native and proficient non-native listeners emerge under suboptimal conditions. Current evidence has suggested that the key deficit that underlies this disproportionate effect of unfavorable listening conditions for non-native listeners is their less effective use of compensatory information at higher levels of processing to recover from information loss at the phoneme identification level. The present study investigated whether this non-native disadvantage could be overcome if enhancements at various levels of processing were presented in combination. Native and non-native listeners were presented with English sentences in which the final word varied in predictability and which were produced in either plain or clear speech. Results showed that, relative to the low-predictability-plain-speech baseline condition, non-native listener final word recognition improved only when both semantic and acoustic enhancements were available (high-predictability-clear-speech). In contrast, the native listeners benefited from each source of enhancement separately and in combination. These results suggests that native and non-native listeners apply similar strategies for speech-in-noise perception: The crucial difference is in the signal clarity required for contextual information to be effective, rather than in an inability of non-native listeners to take advantage of this contextual information per se.

  10. Children's Early Literacy Environment in Chinese and American Indian Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-lei; Bernas, Ronan; Eberhard, Philippe

    This study examined how Chinese and American Indian mothers support their young children's early literacy development in everyday interactions. Twenty mother-child dyads in each cultural community participated in the study. Analysis of videotaped interactions indicated that the mothers in the two communities differed greatly in the ways they…

  11. Community-level plant-soil feedbacks explain landscape distribution of native and non-native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmatiski, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) have gained attention for their potential role in explaining plant growth and invasion. While promising, most PSF research has measured plant monoculture growth on different soils in short-term, greenhouse experiments. Here, five soil types were conditioned by growing one native species, three non-native species, or a mixed plant community in different plots in a common-garden experiment. After 4 years, plants were removed and one native and one non-native plant community were planted into replicate plots of each soil type. After three additional years, the percentage cover of each of the three target species in each community was measured. These data were used to parameterize a plant community growth model. Model predictions were compared to native and non-native abundance on the landscape. Native community cover was lowest on soil conditioned by the dominant non-native, Centaurea diffusa , and non-native community cover was lowest on soil cultivated by the dominant native, Pseudoroegneria spicata . Consistent with plant growth on the landscape, the plant growth model predicted that the positive PSFs observed in the common-garden experiment would result in two distinct communities on the landscape: a native plant community on native soils and a non-native plant community on non-native soils. In contrast, when PSF effects were removed, the model predicted that non-native plants would dominate all soils, which was not consistent with plant growth on the landscape. Results provide an example where PSF effects were large enough to change the rank-order abundance of native and non-native plant communities and to explain plant distributions on the landscape. The positive PSFs that contributed to this effect reflected the ability of the two dominant plant species to suppress each other's growth. Results suggest that plant dominance, at least in this system, reflects the ability of a species to suppress the growth of dominant competitors

  12. Presence and abundance of non-native plant species associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    The Williston Basin, located in the Northern Great Plains, is experiencing rapid energy development with North Dakota and Montana being the epicenter of current and projected development in the USA. The average single-bore well pad is 5 acres with an estimated 58,485 wells in North Dakota alone. This landscape-level disturbance may provide a pathway for the establishment of non-native plants. To evaluate potential influences of energy development on the presence and abundance of non-native species, vegetation surveys were conducted at 30 oil well sites (14 ten-year-old and 16 five-year-old wells) and 14 control sites in native prairie environments across the Williston Basin. Non-native species richness and cover were recorded in four quadrats, located at equal distances, along four transects for a total of 16 quadrats per site. Non-natives were recorded at all 44 sites and ranged from 5 to 13 species, 7 to 15 species, and 2 to 8 species at the 10-year, 5-year, and control sites, respectively. Respective non-native cover ranged from 1 to 69, 16 to 76, and 2 to 82 %. Total, forb, and graminoid non-native species richness and non-native forb cover were significantly greater at oil well sites compared to control sites. At oil well sites, non-native species richness and forb cover were significantly greater adjacent to the well pads and decreased with distance to values similar to control sites. Finally, non-native species whose presence and/or abundance were significantly greater at oil well sites relative to control sites were identified to aid management efforts.

  13. Non-Native Plant Invasion along Elevation and Canopy Closure Gradients in a Middle Rocky Mountain Ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P Averett

    Full Text Available Mountain environments are currently among the ecosystems least invaded by non-native species; however, mountains are increasingly under threat of non-native plant invasion. The slow pace of exotic plant invasions in mountain ecosystems is likely due to a combination of low anthropogenic disturbances, low propagule supply, and extreme/steep environmental gradients. The importance of any one of these factors is debated and likely ecosystem dependent. We evaluated the importance of various correlates of plant invasions in the Wallowa Mountain Range of northeastern Oregon and explored whether non-native species distributions differed from native species along an elevation gradient. Vascular plant communities were sampled in summer 2012 along three mountain roads. Transects (n = 20 were evenly stratified by elevation (~70 m intervals along each road. Vascular plant species abundances and environmental parameters were measured. We used indicator species analysis to identify habitat affinities for non-native species. Plots were ordinated in species space, joint plots and non-parametric multiplicative regression were used to relate species and community variation to environmental variables. Non-native species richness decreased continuously with increasing elevation. In contrast, native species richness displayed a unimodal distribution with maximum richness occurring at mid-elevations. Species composition was strongly related to elevation and canopy openness. Overlays of trait and environmental factors onto non-metric multidimensional ordinations identified the montane-subalpine community transition and over-story canopy closure exceeding 60% as potential barriers to non-native species establishment. Unlike native species, non-native species showed little evidence for high-elevation or closed-canopy specialization. These data suggest that non-native plants currently found in the Wallowa Mountains are dependent on open canopies and disturbance for

  14. Non-Native Plant Invasion along Elevation and Canopy Closure Gradients in a Middle Rocky Mountain Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Joshua P; McCune, Bruce; Parks, Catherine G; Naylor, Bridgett J; DelCurto, Tim; Mata-González, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Mountain environments are currently among the ecosystems least invaded by non-native species; however, mountains are increasingly under threat of non-native plant invasion. The slow pace of exotic plant invasions in mountain ecosystems is likely due to a combination of low anthropogenic disturbances, low propagule supply, and extreme/steep environmental gradients. The importance of any one of these factors is debated and likely ecosystem dependent. We evaluated the importance of various correlates of plant invasions in the Wallowa Mountain Range of northeastern Oregon and explored whether non-native species distributions differed from native species along an elevation gradient. Vascular plant communities were sampled in summer 2012 along three mountain roads. Transects (n = 20) were evenly stratified by elevation (~70 m intervals) along each road. Vascular plant species abundances and environmental parameters were measured. We used indicator species analysis to identify habitat affinities for non-native species. Plots were ordinated in species space, joint plots and non-parametric multiplicative regression were used to relate species and community variation to environmental variables. Non-native species richness decreased continuously with increasing elevation. In contrast, native species richness displayed a unimodal distribution with maximum richness occurring at mid-elevations. Species composition was strongly related to elevation and canopy openness. Overlays of trait and environmental factors onto non-metric multidimensional ordinations identified the montane-subalpine community transition and over-story canopy closure exceeding 60% as potential barriers to non-native species establishment. Unlike native species, non-native species showed little evidence for high-elevation or closed-canopy specialization. These data suggest that non-native plants currently found in the Wallowa Mountains are dependent on open canopies and disturbance for establishment in low

  15. Prevalence of astigmatism in Native American infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Messer, Dawn H; Miller, Joseph M

    2010-06-01

    To describe the prevalence of high astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. SureSight autorefraction measurements were obtained for 1461 Tohono O'odham children aged 6 months to 8 years. The prevalence of astigmatism >2.00 diopters was 30% in Tohono O'odham children during infancy (6 months to O'odham infants show a high prevalence of astigmatism, which decreases in the second year of life. However, the prevalence of high astigmatism in Tohono O'odham children increases by age 2 to <3 years to a level near that seen in infancy and remains at that level until at least age 8 years. Longitudinal data are needed to determine whether the increase in high astigmatism after infancy occurs in infants who had astigmatism as infants or is due to the development of high astigmatism in children who did not show astigmatism during infancy.

  16. Lead poisoning among Arab American and African American children in the Detroit metropolitan area, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nriagu, Jerome; Senthamarai-Kannan, Raghavendra; Jamil, Hikmet; Fakhori, Monty; Korponic, Summer

    2011-09-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that acculturation is a risk factor for childhood lead poisoning in the Detroit area of Michigan. Blood lead levels (BLLs) were determined in 429 Arab American and African American children, aged 6 months to 15 years, who were receiving well-child examination in three Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) clinics in the city. Mean BLL was 3.8 ± 2.3 μg/dL (range: 1-18 μg/dL) and 3.3% of the children tested had blood lead values above the 10 μg/dL level of concern. Neither the age of the dwelling units nor ethnicity of the child was significantly associated with the BLL. Multivariable analyses instead identified a number of acculturation-related factors that are associated with elevation in blood lead including paternal education, language spoken at home (English only, English and Arabic, or Arabic only), home ownership, smoking in the home, and exposure of child to home health remedies. The difference in blood lead between Arab American children from families where Arabic only versus Arabic and English is spoken at home was found to be statistically significant. This study provides information showing that immigrant children are at heightened risk of being poisoned by lead which can be useful in identifying groups at risk of atypical exposures.

  17. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview Information; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...

  18. Effects of non-native earthworms on on below- and aboveground processes in the Mid-Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlavecz, K. A.; McCormick, M. K.; Xia, L.; Pitz, S.; O'Neill, J.; Bernard, M.; Chang, C.; Whigham, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    Many biotic and abiotic disturbances have shaped the structure of the deciduous forests in the Mid-Atlantic region. One major anthropogenic factor is land use history. Agricultural practices in the past undoubtedly facilitated non-native earthworm colonization and establishment. Today most secondary forests are dominated by European lumbricid earthworms, although native species also occur in some habitats. To investigate how earthworm community composition and abundance affect belowground processes and tree seedling growth we set up a field manipulation experiment at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, MD. A total of 66 experimental plots were set up in successional (70 yrs) and mature (150 yrs) Tulip-poplar-Oak associations. We manipulated earthworm abundance and leaf litter input, and planted seedlings of Tulip poplar, Red maple, Red oak, and American beech. The experiment lasted for two years during which we regularly monitored density, biomass and species composition of earthworm assemblages and measured soil respiration. Soil moisture, temperature and air temperature were also continuously monitored using a wireless sensor network. At harvest, soil bulk density, pH, N pools, C:N ratio, potential N-mineralization rates, and enzyme activity were determined. We used quantitative PCR to assess the community composition of soil fungi. We also determined the extent of mycorrhizal colonization and biomass of roots, shoots and leaves. We conducted likelihood ratio tests for random and fixed effects based on mixed model analyses of variance. Differences between soil depths and among sites and plots accounted for a large portion of the variation in many soil properties. Litter quality affected soil pH and N mineralization. Earthworm densities affected bulk density, inorganic N content, and N mineralization. Both mycorrhizal groups were more abundant in mature than in successional forests. Both ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and arbuscular (AM) fungi were

  19. Decoding speech perception by native and non-native speakers using single-trial electrophysiological data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Brandmeyer

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs are systems that use real-time analysis of neuroimaging data to determine the mental state of their user for purposes such as providing neurofeedback. Here, we investigate the feasibility of a BCI based on speech perception. Multivariate pattern classification methods were applied to single-trial EEG data collected during speech perception by native and non-native speakers. Two principal questions were asked: 1 Can differences in the perceived categories of pairs of phonemes be decoded at the single-trial level? 2 Can these same categorical differences be decoded across participants, within or between native-language groups? Results indicated that classification performance progressively increased with respect to the categorical status (within, boundary or across of the stimulus contrast, and was also influenced by the native language of individual participants. Classifier performance showed strong relationships with traditional event-related potential measures and behavioral responses. The results of the cross-participant analysis indicated an overall increase in average classifier performance when trained on data from all participants (native and non-native. A second cross-participant classifier trained only on data from native speakers led to an overall improvement in performance for native speakers, but a reduction in performance for non-native speakers. We also found that the native language of a given participant could be decoded on the basis of EEG data with accuracy above 80%. These results indicate that electrophysiological responses underlying speech perception can be decoded at the single-trial level, and that decoding performance systematically reflects graded changes in the responses related to the phonological status of the stimuli. This approach could be used in extensions of the BCI paradigm to support perceptual learning during second language acquisition.

  20. Environmental niche separation between native and non-native benthic invertebrate species: Case study of the northern Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänes, Holger; Herkül, Kristjan; Kotta, Jonne

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge and understanding of geographic distributions of species is crucial for many aspects in ecology, conservation, policy making and management. In order to reach such an understanding, it is important to know abiotic variables that impact and drive distributions of native and non-native species. We used an existing long-term macrobenthos database for species presence-absence information and biomass estimates at different environmental gradients in the northern Baltic Sea. Region specific abiotic variables (e.g. salinity, depth) were derived from previously constructed bathymetric and hydrodynamic models. Multidimensional ordination techniques were then applied to investigate potential niche space separation between all native and non-native invertebrates in the northern Baltic Sea. Such an approach allowed to obtain data rich and robust estimates of the current native and non-native species distributions and outline important abiotic parameters influencing the observed pattern. The results showed clear niche space separation between native and non-native species. Non-native species were situated in an environmental space characterized by reduced salinity, high temperatures, high proportion of soft seabed and decreased depth and wave exposure whereas native species displayed an opposite pattern. Different placement of native and non-native species along the studied environmental niche space is likely to be explained by the differences in their evolutionary history, human mediated activities and geological youth of the Baltic Sea. The results of this study can provide early warnings and effectively outline coastal areas in the northern Baltic Sea that are prone to further range expansion of non-native species as climate change is expected to significantly reduce salinity and increase temperature in wide coastal areas, both supporting the disappearance of native and appearance of non-native species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Status and management of non-native plant invasion in three of the largest national parks in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Abella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, invasion by non-native plants threatens resources that nature reserves are designated to protect. We assessed the status of non-native plant invasion on 1,662, 0.1-ha plots in Death Valley National Park, Mojave National Preserve, and Lake Mead National Recreation Area. These parks comprise 2.5 million ha, 23% of the national park land in the contiguous USA. At least one non-native species inhabited 82% of plots. Thirty-one percent of plots contained one non-native species, 30% two, 17% three, and 4% four to ten non-native species. Red brome (Bromus rubens, an ‘ecosystem engineer’ that alters fire regimes, was most widespread, infesting 60% of plots. By identifying frequency of species through this assessment, early detection and treatment can target infrequent species or minimally invaded sites, while containment strategies could focus on established invaders. We further compared two existing systems for prioritizing species for management and found that a third of species on plots had no rankings available. Moreover, rankings did not always agree between ranking systems for species that were ranked. Presence of multiple non-native species complicates treatment, and while we found that 40% of plots contained both forb and grass invaders, exploiting accelerated phenology of non-natives (compared to native annuals might help manage multi-species invasions. Large sizes of these parks and scale of invasion are formidable challenges for management. Yet, precisely because of their size, these reserves represent opportunities to conserve large landscapes of native species by managing non-native plant invasions.

  2. Small mammal use of native warm-season and non-native cool-season grass forage fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan L Klimstra,; Christopher E Moorman,; Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Craig A Harper,

    2015-01-01

    Recent emphasis has been put on establishing native warm-season grasses for forage production because it is thought native warm-season grasses provide higher quality wildlife habitat than do non-native cool-season grasses. However, it is not clear whether native warm-season grass fields provide better resources for small mammals than currently are available in non-native cool-season grass forage production fields. We developed a hierarchical spatially explicit capture-recapture model to compare abundance of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and house mice (Mus musculus) among 4 hayed non-native cool-season grass fields, 4 hayed native warm-season grass fields, and 4 native warm-season grass-forb ("wildlife") fields managed for wildlife during 2 summer trapping periods in 2009 and 2010 of the western piedmont of North Carolina, USA. Cotton rat abundance estimates were greater in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields and greater in native warm-season grass fields than in non-native cool-season grass fields. Abundances of white-footed mouse and house mouse populations were lower in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields, but the abundances were not different between the native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields. Lack of cover following haying in non-native cool-season grass and native warm-season grass fields likely was the key factor limiting small mammal abundance, especially cotton rats, in forage fields. Retention of vegetation structure in managed forage production systems, either by alternately resting cool-season and warm-season grass forage fields or by leaving unharvested field borders, should provide refugia for small mammals during haying events.

  3. A global organism detection and monitoring system for non-native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J.; Newman, G.; Jarnevich, C.; Shory, R.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Harmful invasive non-native species are a significant threat to native species and ecosystems, and the costs associated with non-native species in the United States is estimated at over $120 Billion/year. While some local or regional databases exist for some taxonomic groups, there are no effective geographic databases designed to detect and monitor all species of non-native plants, animals, and pathogens. We developed a web-based solution called the Global Organism Detection and Monitoring (GODM) system to provide real-time data from a broad spectrum of users on the distribution and abundance of non-native species, including attributes of their habitats for predictive spatial modeling of current and potential distributions. The four major subsystems of GODM provide dynamic links between the organism data, web pages, spatial data, and modeling capabilities. The core survey database tables for recording invasive species survey data are organized into three categories: "Where, Who & When, and What." Organisms are identified with Taxonomic Serial Numbers from the Integrated Taxonomic Information System. To allow users to immediately see a map of their data combined with other user's data, a custom geographic information system (GIS) Internet solution was required. The GIS solution provides an unprecedented level of flexibility in database access, allowing users to display maps of invasive species distributions or abundances based on various criteria including taxonomic classification (i.e., phylum or division, order, class, family, genus, species, subspecies, and variety), a specific project, a range of dates, and a range of attributes (percent cover, age, height, sex, weight). This is a significant paradigm shift from "map servers" to true Internet-based GIS solutions. The remainder of the system was created with a mix of commercial products, open source software, and custom software. Custom GIS libraries were created where required for processing large datasets

  4. Seed rain under native and non-native tree species in the Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Garcia, Andrea; Chinea, J Danilo

    2014-09-01

    Seed dispersal is a fundamental process in plant ecology and is of critical importance for the restoration of tropical communities. The lands of the Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR), formerly under agriculture, were abandoned in the 1970s and colonized mainly by non-native tree species of degraded pastures. Here we described the seed rain under the most common native and non-native trees in the refuge in an attempt to determine if focal tree geographic origin (native versus non-native) influences seed dispersal. For this, seed rain was sampled for one year under the canopies of four native and four non-native tree species common in this refuge using 40 seed traps. No significant differences were found for the abundance of seeds, or their diversity, dispersing under native versus non-native focal tree species, nor under the different tree species. A significantly different seed species composition was observed reaching native versus non-native focal species. However, this last result could be more easily explained as a function of distance of the closest adults of the two most abundantly dispersed plant species to the seed traps than as a function of the geographic origin of the focal species. We suggest to continue the practice of planting native tree species, not only as a way to restore the community to a condition similar to the original one, but also to reduce the distances needed for effective dispersal.

  5. Understanding Informal and Formal Mathematical Abilities in Mainland Chinese and Chinese-American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Cheng, Christine; Mottram, Lisa; Rosenblum, Stacey

    Informal and formal mathematical abilities were studied in the preschool, kindergarten, and first grade children in Beijing, China and Chinese-American children in New York City. Test of Early Mathematical Abilities-2nd Edition (TEMA-2) was administered to the three groups of children (children from Beijing, Chinese-American from lower-class, and…

  6. Similarity of Deleterious Effects of Divorce on Chinese and American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Xin, Tao

    2001-01-01

    Reviews and contrasts the effects of divorce on Chinese children's adjustment to American children of divorce. Results indicate that the deleterious effects of divorce on children's academic and social functioning appear to be similar to that experienced by American children. (Contains 23 references.) (GCP)

  7. Locking horns with Hawai‘i’s non-native ungulate issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Conservation and management interests for sustained-yield hunting of non-native ungulates in Hawai‘i have conflicted with the conservation of native biota for several decades. Hawaiian ecosystems evolved in the absence of large mammals and all currently hunted animals in Hawai‘i are non-native species. The best-studied aspects of Hawai‘i’s ungulates have dealt primarily with direct negative effects on native biota in natural areas, but there has been little research in population dynamics for sustained-yield management. Ungulates have been removed from approximately 750 km2 throughout the Hawaiian Islands to protect these natural areas, thereby reducing the amount of land area available for hunting activities and the maintenance of game populations. At the same time, unauthorized introductions of additional wild ungulate species between Hawaiian Islands have recently increased in frequency. The majority of hunting activities are of feral domestic livestock species for subsistence purposes, which typically do not generate sufficient revenue to offset costs of game management. Moreover, bag limits and seasons are generally not determined from biological criteria because harvest reporting is voluntary and game populations are rarely monitored. Consequently, ungulate populations cannot be managed for any particular level of abundance or other objectives. Research and monitoring which emphasize population dynamics and productivity would enable more precisely regulated sustained-yield game management programs and may reduce potential conflicts with the conservation of native biota.

  8. Non-native (exotic) snake envenomations in the U.S., 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Brandon J; Boyer, Leslie V; Seifert, Steven A

    2014-09-29

    Non-native (exotic) snakes are a problematic source of envenomation worldwide. This manuscript describes the current demographics, outcomes and challenges of non-native snakebites in the United States (U.S.). We performed a retrospective case series of the National Poison Data System (NPDS) database between 2005 and 2011. There were 258 human exposures involving at least 61 unique exotic venomous species (average = 37 per year; range = 33-40). Males comprised 79% and females 21%. The average age was 33 years with 16% less than 20 years old. 70% of bites occurred in a private residence and 86% were treated at a healthcare facility. 35% of cases received antivenom and 10% were given antibiotics. This study is compared to our previous study (1994-2004) in which there was a substantial coding error rate. Software modifications significantly reduced coding errors. Identification and acquisition of appropriate antivenoms pose a number of logistical difficulties in the management of these envenomations. In the U.S., poison centers have valuable systems and clinical roles in the provision of expert consultation and in the management of these cases.

  9. Non-Native (Exotic) Snake Envenomations in the U.S., 2005–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Brandon J.; Boyer, Leslie V.; Seifert, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-native (exotic) snakes are a problematic source of envenomation worldwide. This manuscript describes the current demographics, outcomes and challenges of non-native snakebites in the United States (U.S.). We performed a retrospective case series of the National Poison Data System (NPDS) database between 2005 and 2011. There were 258 human exposures involving at least 61 unique exotic venomous species (average = 37 per year; range = 33–40). Males comprised 79% and females 21%. The average age was 33 years with 16% less than 20 years old. 70% of bites occurred in a private residence and 86% were treated at a healthcare facility. 35% of cases received antivenom and 10% were given antibiotics. This study is compared to our previous study (1994–2004) in which there was a substantial coding error rate. Software modifications significantly reduced coding errors. Identification and acquisition of appropriate antivenoms pose a number of logistical difficulties in the management of these envenomations. In the U.S., poison centers have valuable systems and clinical roles in the provision of expert consultation and in the management of these cases. PMID:25268980

  10. Non-Native (Exotic Snake Envenomations in the U.S., 2005–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J. Warrick

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-native (exotic snakes are a problematic source of envenomation worldwide. This manuscript describes the current demographics, outcomes and challenges of non-native snakebites in the United States (U.S.. We performed a retrospective case series of the National Poison Data System (NPDS database between 2005 and 2011. There were 258 human exposures involving at least 61 unique exotic venomous species (average = 37 per year; range = 33–40. Males comprised 79% and females 21%. The average age was 33 years with 16% less than 20 years old. 70% of bites occurred in a private residence and 86% were treated at a healthcare facility. 35% of cases received antivenom and 10% were given antibiotics. This study is compared to our previous study (1994–2004 in which there was a substantial coding error rate. Software modifications significantly reduced coding errors. Identification and acquisition of appropriate antivenoms pose a number of logistical difficulties in the management of these envenomations. In the U.S., poison centers have valuable systems and clinical roles in the provision of expert consultation and in the management of these cases.

  11. Disadvantages of publishing biomedical research articles in English for non-native speakers of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    English has become the most frequently used language for scientific communication in the biomedical field. Therefore, scholars from all over the world try to publish their findings in English. This trend has a number of advantages, along with several disadvantages. In the current article, the most important disadvantages of publishing biomedical research articles in English for non-native speakers of English are reviewed. The most important disadvantages of publishing biomedical research articles in English for non-native speakers may include: Overlooking, either unintentionally or even deliberately, the most important local health problems; failure to carry out groundbreaking research due to limited medical research budgets; violating generally accepted codes of publication ethics and committing research misconduct and publications in open-access scam/predatory journals rather than prestigious journals. The above mentioned disadvantages could eventually result in academic establishments becoming irresponsible or, even worse, corrupt. In order to avoid this, scientists, scientific organizations, academic institutions, and scientific associations all over the world should design and implement a wider range of collaborative and comprehensive plans.

  12. Disadvantages of publishing biomedical research articles in English for non-native speakers of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Rezaeian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: English has become the most frequently used language for scientific communication in the biomedical field. Therefore, scholars from all over the world try to publish their findings in English. This trend has a number of advantages, along with several disadvantages. METHODS: In the current article, the most important disadvantages of publishing biomedical research articles in English for non-native speakers of English are reviewed. RESULTS: The most important disadvantages of publishing biomedical research articles in English for non-native speakers may include: Overlooking, either unintentionally or even deliberately, the most important local health problems; failure to carry out groundbreaking research due to limited medical research budgets; violating generally accepted codes of publication ethics and committing research misconduct and publications in open-access scam/predatory journals rather than prestigious journals. CONCLUSIONS: The above mentioned disadvantages could eventually result in academic establishments becoming irresponsible or, even worse, corrupt. In order to avoid this, scientists, scientific organizations, academic institutions, and scientific associations all over the world should design and implement a wider range of collaborative and comprehensive plans.

  13. Optimizing Automatic Speech Recognition for Low-Proficient Non-Native Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Cucchiarini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL applications for improving the oral skills of low-proficient learners have to cope with non-native speech that is particularly challenging. Since unconstrained non-native ASR is still problematic, a possible solution is to elicit constrained responses from the learners. In this paper, we describe experiments aimed at selecting utterances from lists of responses. The first experiment on utterance selection indicates that the decoding process can be improved by optimizing the language model and the acoustic models, thus reducing the utterance error rate from 29–26% to 10–8%. Since giving feedback on incorrectly recognized utterances is confusing, we verify the correctness of the utterance before providing feedback. The results of the second experiment on utterance verification indicate that combining duration-related features with a likelihood ratio (LR yield an equal error rate (EER of 10.3%, which is significantly better than the EER for the other measures in isolation.

  14. Adaptive Communication: Languages with More Non-Native Speakers Tend to Have Fewer Word Forms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bentz

    Full Text Available Explaining the diversity of languages across the world is one of the central aims of typological, historical, and evolutionary linguistics. We consider the effect of language contact-the number of non-native speakers a language has-on the way languages change and evolve. By analysing hundreds of languages within and across language families, regions, and text types, we show that languages with greater levels of contact typically employ fewer word forms to encode the same information content (a property we refer to as lexical diversity. Based on three types of statistical analyses, we demonstrate that this variance can in part be explained by the impact of non-native speakers on information encoding strategies. Finally, we argue that languages are information encoding systems shaped by the varying needs of their speakers. Language evolution and change should be modeled as the co-evolution of multiple intertwined adaptive systems: On one hand, the structure of human societies and human learning capabilities, and on the other, the structure of language.

  15. Impact of Non-Native Birds on Native Ecosystems: A Global Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Albarracin, Valeria L; Amico, Guillermo C; Simberloff, Daniel; Nuñez, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and naturalization of non-native species is one of the most important threats to global biodiversity. Birds have been widely introduced worldwide, but their impacts on populations, communities, and ecosystems have not received as much attention as those of other groups. This work is a global synthesis of the impact of nonnative birds on native ecosystems to determine (1) what groups, impacts, and locations have been best studied; (2) which taxonomic groups and which impacts have greatest effects on ecosystems, (3) how important are bird impacts at the community and ecosystem levels, and (4) what are the known benefits of nonnative birds to natural ecosystems. We conducted an extensive literature search that yielded 148 articles covering 39 species belonging to 18 families -18% of all known naturalized species. Studies were classified according to where they were conducted: Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, North America, South America, Islands of the Indian, of the Pacific, and of the Atlantic Ocean. Seven types of impact on native ecosystems were evaluated: competition, disease transmission, chemical, physical, or structural impact on ecosystem, grazing/ herbivory/ browsing, hybridization, predation, and interaction with other non-native species. Hybridization and disease transmission were the most important impacts, affecting the population and community levels. Ecosystem-level impacts, such as structural and chemical impacts were detected. Seven species were found to have positive impacts aside from negative ones. We provide suggestions for future studies focused on mechanisms of impact, regions, and understudied taxonomic groups.

  16. The relationship between brain reaction and English reading tests for non-native English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei-Wen; Tian, Yu-Jie; Kuo, Ting-Hua; Sun, Koun-Tem

    2016-07-01

    This research analyzed the brain activity of non-native English speakers while engaged in English reading tests. The brain wave event-related potentials (ERPs) of participants were used to analyze the difference between making correct and incorrect choices on English reading test items. Three English reading tests of differing levels were designed and 20 participants, 10 males and 10 females whose ages ranged from 20 to 24, voluntarily participated in the experiment. Experimental results were analyzed by performing independent t-tests on the ERPs of participants for gender, difficulty level, and correct versus wrong options. Participants who chose incorrect options elicited a larger N600, verifying results found in the literature. Another interesting result was found: For incorrectly answered items, different areas of brain showing a significant difference in ERPs between the chosen and non-chosen options corresponded to gender differences; for males, this area was located in the right hemisphere whereas for females, it was located in the left. Experimental results imply that non-native English speaking males and females employ different areas of the brain to comprehend the meaning of difficult items. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-native english speaking elementary ell teachers’ culturally responsive leadership profile in an ESL context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ekiaka Nzai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Culturally responsive instruction has been suggested as quality education (Edwards, 2003 for minority students in subtractive and additivebilingualism settings. However, analytical curriculum development of several official English programs revealed that the gender-centric (malecentricand Ethno-centric (Euro/Western-centric approaches were deeply embedded in most English textbooks of curriculum development.The intent of partial mixed methods paper consisted of exploring some non-native English speaking teachers English teachers’ culturallyresponsive leadership profile in order to further the discussion on not only how to promote English curriculum transformation in English assecond language (ESL and English as foreign language (EFL settings, but also to effectively train culturally responsive non-native Englishspeaking (NNES English pre-service teachers. Comparative data analysis suggested that there were no causal relationship between NNESEnglish teachers’ culturally responsive leadership styles and their abilities to perform multicultural transformation of English curriculums. To behighly effective in transforming English curriculum, NNES English teachers needed to be systematically trained on how to do so. Implicationsfor NNES English pre-service teacher education are framed from the culturally responsive and anti-oppressive education approaches.

  18. DISCOURSE AWARENESS IN IMPROVING NON-NATIVE STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN GENERIC WRITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain AL SHAROUFI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the importance of teaching discourse patterns to non-native university students. I used particular discourse patterns in teaching generic writing to undergraduate students at the Gulf University for Science and Technology, GUST, in Kuwait. The assumption of this study was that undergraduate non-native students should be aware of the importance of discourse patterns in generic writing. This hidden tactic is not obvious unless consciously taught to them. To study the importance of generic patterns, I opted to teach discourse patterns that are used in newspaper editorials, the rationale of which was that students would grasp discourse patterns and apply them to their own writing. I chose two groups of students randomly, one of which was an experimental group and the second of which was a control group. I conducted a detailed analysis afterwards to examine the validity of my assumption. I taught the experimental group the chosen model of analysis, and instructed the control group to read sample editorials, and write their own editorials afterwards. The results of this experiment were substantial. Based on the level of compliance with the suggested format, triads, movements, and artifacts in newspaper editorials, students in the experimental group were evaluated on a scale of 0 to 10. The performance of the experimental group was above average, 75.3%, in comparison to the control group that complied quite poorly with the chosen model, < 30 %.

  19. Adaptive Communication: Languages with More Non-Native Speakers Tend to Have Fewer Word Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Christian; Verkerk, Annemarie; Kiela, Douwe; Hill, Felix; Buttery, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the diversity of languages across the world is one of the central aims of typological, historical, and evolutionary linguistics. We consider the effect of language contact-the number of non-native speakers a language has-on the way languages change and evolve. By analysing hundreds of languages within and across language families, regions, and text types, we show that languages with greater levels of contact typically employ fewer word forms to encode the same information content (a property we refer to as lexical diversity). Based on three types of statistical analyses, we demonstrate that this variance can in part be explained by the impact of non-native speakers on information encoding strategies. Finally, we argue that languages are information encoding systems shaped by the varying needs of their speakers. Language evolution and change should be modeled as the co-evolution of multiple intertwined adaptive systems: On one hand, the structure of human societies and human learning capabilities, and on the other, the structure of language. PMID:26083380

  20. Colorful invasion in permissive Neotropical ecosystems: establishment of ornamental non-native poeciliids of the genera Poecilia/Xiphophorus (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae and management alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lincoln Barroso Magalhães

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Headwater creeks are environments susceptible to invasion by non-native fishes. We evaluated the reproduction of 22 populations of the non-native livebearers guppy Poecilia reticulata, black molly Poecilia sphenops, Yucatan molly Poecilia velifera, green swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii, southern platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus, and variable platyfish Xiphophorus variatus during an annual cycle in five headwater creeks located in the largest South American ornamental aquaculture center, Paraíba do Sul River basin, southeastern Brazil. With few exceptions, females of most species were found reproducing (stages 2, 3, 4 all year round in the creeks and gravid females of all species showed small sizes indicating stunting. Juveniles were frequent in all sites. The fecundity of the six poeciliids was always low in all periods. The sex ratio was biased for females in most species, both bimonthly as for the whole period. Water temperature, water level and rainfall were not significantly correlated with reproduction in any species. Therefore, most populations appeared well established. The pertinence of different management actions, such as devices to prevent fish escape, eradication with rotenone and research about negative effects on native species, is discussed in the light of current aquaculture practices in the region.

  1. Modulation of legume defense signaling pathways by native and non-native pea aphid clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sanchez-Arcos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum is a complex of at least 15 genetically different host races that are native to specific legume plants, but can all develop on the universal host plant Vicia faba. Despite much research it is still unclear why pea aphid host races (biotypes are able to colonize their native hosts while other host races are not. All aphids penetrate the plant and salivate into plant cells when they test plant suitability. Thus plants might react differently to the various pea aphid host races. To find out whether legume species vary in their defense responses to different pea aphid host races, we measured the amounts of salicylic acid (SA, the jasmonic acid-isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile, other jasmonate precursors and derivatives, and abscisic acid (ABA in four different species (Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratense, Pisum sativum, V. faba after infestation by native and non-native pea aphid clones of various host races. Additionally, we assessed the performance of the clones on the four plant species. On M. sativa and T. pratense, non-native clones that were barely able to survive or reproduce, triggered a strong SA and JA-Ile response, whereas infestation with native clones led to lower levels of both phytohormones. On P. sativum, non-native clones, which survived or reproduced to a certain extent, induced fluctuating SA and JA-Ile levels, whereas the native clone triggered only a weak SA and JA-Ile response. On the universal host V. faba all aphid clones triggered only low SA levels initially, but induced clone-specific patterns of SA and JA-Ile later on. The levels of the active JA-Ile conjugate and of the other JA-pathway metabolites measured showed in many cases similar patterns, suggesting that the reduction in JA signaling was due to an effect upstream of OPDA. ABA levels were downregulated in all aphid clone-plant combinations and were therefore probably not decisive factors for aphid-plant compatibility. Our results

  2. The Spread of Non-native Plant Species Collection of Cibodas Botanical Garden into Mt. Gede Pangrango National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musyarofah Zuhri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of botanic garden in spread of non-native plant species has concerned of international worldwide. This study aimed to study the extent of non-native plant species from Cibodas Botanical Garden (CBG which invades into natural rainforest. A line transect was made edge-to-interior with 1,600 m in distance from CBG boundary. Result showed that distance from CBG was not significant in correlation with non-native tree and treelet density. Furthermore, presence of existing CBG’s plant collection was not a single aspect which influenced presence and abundance. Three invasive species possibly was escape from CBG and it showed edge-to-interior in stems density, i.e. Cinchona pubescens, Calliandra calothyrsus and Cestrum aurantiacum. The patterns of non-native species were influenced by presence of ditch across transect, existence of human trail, and the other non-native species did not have general pattern of spread distribution. Overall, botanical gardens should minimize the risk of unintentional introduced plant by perform site-specific risk assessment.

  3. Introduction of non-native marine fish species to the Canary Islands waters through oil platforms as vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, José G.; González, José A.; Triay-Portella, Raül; Martín, José A.; Ruiz-Díaz, Raquel; Lorenzo, José M.; Luque, Ángel

    2016-11-01

    This work documents the introduction of non-native fish species to the Canary Islands (central-eastern Atlantic) through oil rigs. Methodological approaches have included surveys by underwater visual censuses around and under oil platforms and along the docking area of rigs at the Port of Las Palmas. Eleven non-native fish species were registered. Paranthias furcifer, Abudefduf hoefleri, Acanthurus bahianus, Acanthurus chirurgus, and Acanthurus coeruleus are first recorded from the Canaries herein. Other three species could not be identified, although they have never been observed in the Canaries. Cephalopholis taeniops, Abudefduf saxatilis, and Acanthurus monroviae had been previously recorded. Native areas of these species coincide with the areas of origin and the scale of oil rigs with destination the Port of Las Palmas. The absence of native species in the censuses at rigs and their presence at rigs docking area, together with the observation of non-native species after the departure of platforms, reject the possibility that these non-native species were already present in the area introduced by another vector. C. taeniops, A. hoefleri, A. saxatilis, A. chirurgus, A. coeruleus and A. monroviae are clearly seafarer species. A. bahianus seems to be a potential seafarer species. P. furcifer is a castaway species. For the moment, the number of individuals of the non-native species in marine ecosystems of the Canaries seems to be low, and more investigation is needed for controlling these translocations.

  4. Phytophagous insects on native and non-native host plants: combining the community approach and the biogeographical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Meijer

    Full Text Available During the past centuries, humans have introduced many plant species in areas where they do not naturally occur. Some of these species establish populations and in some cases become invasive, causing economic and ecological damage. Which factors determine the success of non-native plants is still incompletely understood, but the absence of natural enemies in the invaded area (Enemy Release Hypothesis; ERH is one of the most popular explanations. One of the predictions of the ERH, a reduced herbivore load on non-native plants compared with native ones, has been repeatedly tested. However, many studies have either used a community approach (sampling from native and non-native species in the same community or a biogeographical approach (sampling from the same plant species in areas where it is native and where it is non-native. Either method can sometimes lead to inconclusive results. To resolve this, we here add to the small number of studies that combine both approaches. We do so in a single study of insect herbivory on 47 woody plant species (trees, shrubs, and vines in the Netherlands and Japan. We find higher herbivore diversity, higher herbivore load and more herbivory on native plants than on non-native plants, generating support for the enemy release hypothesis.

  5. Reproduction of the non-native fish Lepomis gibbosus (Perciformes: Centrarchidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel E. Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Minas Gerais is the fourth largest Brazilian state, and has an estimate of 354 native fish species. However, these fish species may be threatened, as this state has the highest rank of fish introductions reported for Brazil and South America. As one from the total of 85 non-native species detected, Lepomis gibbosus was introduced in the 60s to serve both as foragefish and to improve sport fishing. In this study, we evaluated the establishment of L. gibbosus in a shallow lake in the city of Ouro Preto, Doce River basin, state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. We collected fish with fishing rods every two months from March 2002-February 2003. Fragments of gonads from a total of 226 females and 226 males were obtained and processed following standard histological techniques; then 5-7μm thickness sections were taken and stained in hematoxylin-eosin. Besides, for each specimen, the biometric measurements included the standard length (SL and body weight (BW; and the sex ratio was obtained. The reproductive cycle stages were confirmed by the distribution of oocytes and spermatogenic cells. The type of spawning was determined by the frequency distribution of the reproductive cycle stages and ovarian histology. Based on the microscopic characteristics of the gonads, the following stages of the reproductive cycle were determined: one=Rest, two=Mature, three=Spawned for females or Spent for males; males and females in reproduction were found throughout the study period. Post-spawned ovaries containing oocytes in stages one (initial perinucleolar, two (advanced perinucleolar, three (pre-vitellogenic, four (vitellogenic and post-ovulatory follicles indicated fractionated-type spawning in this species. The smallest breeding male and female measured were 4.6 and 4.9cm standard length, respectively, suggesting stunting. The sex ratio did not vary between males and females along the year and bimonthly, being 1:1. Moreover, L. gibbosus appears to be at stage

  6. Delexical Structures Contrastively: A Common Trap for Non-Native Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Vrbinc

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with delexical structures and in particular with the problems non-native speakers are faced with when encoding. First, it gives reasons why it is necessary to study the structures and then it discusses the delexical structures in English (monolingual context. The second part of the article focuses on the bilingual aspect, i.e. the translation of English delexical structures into Slovene. Some problems concerning the bilingual context are presented, especially as regards aspect and the difference between the translation of English delexical structures in isolation (e.g. in a dictionary and within the context. The last part of the article concentrates on the dictionary treatment of delexical structures and provides some examples taken from the latest editions of the leading EFL monolingual dictionaries.

  7. THE ROLE OF NON-NATIVE ENGLISH SPEAKER TEACHERS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfi Ashar Mauludin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Native-English Speaker Teachers (NESTs and Non-Native English Speaker Teachers (NNESTs have their own advantages and disadvantages. However, for English Language Learners (ELLs, NNESTs have more advantages in helping students to acquire English skills. At least there are three factors that can only be performed by NNESTs in English Language Learning. The factors are knowledge of the subject, effective communication, and understanding students‘ difficulties/needs. The NNESTs can effectively provide the clear explanation of knowledge of the language because they are supported by the same background and culture. NNESTs also can communicate with the students with all levels effectively. The use of L1 is effective to help students building their knowledge. Finally, NNESTs can provide the objectives and materials that are suitable with the needs of the students.

  8. Assessing the impact of non-native freshwater fishes on native species using relative weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannetto D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to test relative weight (Wr, a condition index which allows evaluation of fish well-being, as a tool to investigate the impact of the presence of non native species (NNS on the condition of the key native species (NS of the Tiber River basin (Italy: Barbustyberinus Bonaparte, Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus, Leuciscus lucumonis Bianco, Rutilus rubilio (Bonaparte and Telestes muticellus (Bonaparte. By means of Canonical Correlation Analysis, data from 130 sampling sites, distributed throughout Tiber River basin, were examined. Wr of NS was related to densities of NNS and to environmental variables. Moreover, the correlation between Wr of NS and density of NNS was investigated through linear regression analysis and covariance analysis. Preliminary results encourage the use of Wr as a tool to assess the relationship between NS and ecological factors (such as the presence of NNS and to explain the changes that occur along the longitudinal gradient of a river.

  9. Recognizing Chinese characters in digital ink from non-native language writers using hierarchical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hao; Zhang, Xi-wen

    2017-06-01

    While Chinese is learned as a second language, its characters are taught step by step from their strokes to components, radicals to components, and their complex relations. Chinese Characters in digital ink from non-native language writers are deformed seriously, thus the global recognition approaches are poorer. So a progressive approach from bottom to top is presented based on hierarchical models. Hierarchical information includes strokes and hierarchical components. Each Chinese character is modeled as a hierarchical tree. Strokes in one Chinese characters in digital ink are classified with Hidden Markov Models and concatenated to the stroke symbol sequence. And then the structure of components in one ink character is extracted. According to the extraction result and the stroke symbol sequence, candidate characters are traversed and scored. Finally, the recognition candidate results are listed by descending. The method of this paper is validated by testing 19815 copies of the handwriting Chinese characters written by foreign students.

  10. Invasion strategy and abiotic activity triggers for non-native gobiids of the River Rhine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Baer

    Full Text Available The 24 hour activity patterns of three non-native gobiids (round goby Neogobius melanostomus, Western tubenose goby Proterorhinus semilunaris and bighead goby Ponticola kessleri were assessed over 46 consecutive months between 2011 and 2014 from their occurrence in the cooling water intake of a nuclear power plant on the River Rhine, Germany. In total, 117717 gobiids were identified and classified. The occurrence of all three species varied strongly between sampling years, and species-specific activity triggers were identified. The activity of juveniles of all three gobiids species was positively temperature dependent while adult tubenose goby activity appeared to be negatively temperature dependent. Increasing fluvial discharge in the adjoining main river stimulated the activity of juvenile round goby but inhibited activity of adult tubenose goby. Except for adult bighead goby, activity was also structured by time of day, but with no uniform mean. Meteorological factors such as precipitation, air pressure and duration of sunshine hours had little or no influence on gobiid activity. On selected rare occasions, mainly at night, all three species exhibited pulsed swarming behaviour, with thousands of individuals recorded in the intake water. Round goby swarms exhibited both the highest intensity and the largest swarming individuals, suggesting a potential competitive advantage over tubenose and bighead goby. Electric fishing surveys in natural river stretches corroborated this observation. Negative effects on the native fish fauna were apparent only for the bullhead, Cottus gobio. The activity triggers identified offer a unique insight into the invasion mechanisms of these ecosystem-changing non-native gobiids.

  11. Non-Native Ambrosia Beetles as Opportunistic Exploiters of Living but Weakened Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Christopher M; Schultz, Peter B; Frank, Steven D; Chong, Juang H; Reding, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Exotic Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles established in non-native habitats have been associated with sudden and extensive attacks on a diverse range of living trees, but factors driving their shift from dying/dead hosts to living and healthy ones are not well understood. We sought to characterize the role of host physiological condition on preference and colonization by two invaders, Xylosandrus germanus and Xylosandrus crassiusculus. When given free-choice under field conditions among flooded and non-flooded deciduous tree species of varying intolerance to flooding, beetles attacked flood-intolerant tree species over more tolerant species within 3 days of initiating flood stress. In particular, flood-intolerant flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) sustained more attacks than flood-tolerant species, including silver maple (Acer saccharinum) and swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor). Ethanol, a key host-derived attractant, was detected at higher concentrations 3 days after initiating flooding within stems of flood intolerant species compared to tolerant and non-flooded species. A positive correlation was also detected between ethanol concentrations in stem tissue and cumulative ambrosia beetle attacks. When adult X. germanus and X. crassiusculus were confined with no-choice to stems of flood-stressed and non-flooded C. florida, more ejected sawdust resulting from tunneling activity was associated with the flood-stressed trees. Furthermore, living foundresses, eggs, larvae, and pupae were only detected within galleries created in stems of flood-stressed trees. Despite a capability to attack diverse tree genera, X. germanus and X. crassiusculus efficiently distinguished among varying host qualities and preferentially targeted trees based on their intolerance of flood stress. Non-flooded trees were not preferred or successfully colonized. This study demonstrates the host-selection strategy exhibited by X. germanus and X. crassiusculus in non-native habitats involves

  12. Snowpack, fire, and forest disturbance: interactions affect montane invasions by non-native shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jens T; Latimer, Andrew M

    2015-06-01

    Montane regions worldwide have experienced relatively low plant invasion rates, a trend attributed to increased climatic severity, low rates of disturbance, and reduced propagule pressure relative to lowlands. Manipulative experiments at elevations above the invasive range of non-native species can clarify the relative contributions of these mechanisms to montane invasion resistance, yet such experiments are rare. Furthermore, global climate change and land use changes are expected to cause decreases in snowpack and increases in disturbance by fire and forest thinning in montane forests. We examined the importance of these factors in limiting montane invasions using a field transplant experiment above the invasive range of two non-native lowland shrubs, Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) and Spanish broom (Spartium junceum), in the rain-snow transition zone of the Sierra Nevada of California. We tested the effects of canopy closure, prescribed fire, and winter snow depth on demographic transitions of each species. Establishment of both species was most likely at intermediate levels of canopy disturbance, but at this intermediate canopy level, snow depth had negative effects on winter survival of seedlings. We used matrix population models to show that an 86% reduction in winter snowfall would cause a 2.8-fold increase in population growth rates in Scotch broom and a 3.5-fold increase in Spanish broom. Fall prescribed fire increased germination rates, but decreased overall population growth rates by reducing plant survival. However, at longer fire return intervals, population recovery between fires is likely to keep growth rates high, especially under low snowpack conditions. Many treatment combinations had positive growth rates despite being above the current invasive range, indicating that propagule pressure, disturbance, and climate can all strongly affect plant invasions in montane regions. We conclude that projected reductions in winter snowpack and increases in

  13. Potential for water salvage by removal of non-native woody vegetation from dryland river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, T.M.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.; Moore, G.W.; Morino, K.; Hultine, K.R.; Benyon, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Globally, expansion of non-native woody vegetation across floodplains has raised concern of increased evapotranspiration (ET) water loss with consequent reduced river flows and groundwater supplies. Water salvage programs, established to meet water supply demands by removing introduced species, show little documented evidence of program effectiveness. We use two case studies in the USA and Australia to illustrate factors that contribute to water salvage feasibility for a given ecological setting. In the USA, saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) has become widespread on western rivers, with water salvage programs attempted over a 50-year period. Some studies document riparian transpiration or ET reduction after saltcedar removal, but detectable increases in river base flow are not conclusively shown. Furthermore, measurements of riparian vegetation ET in natural settings show saltcedar ET overlaps the range measured for native riparian species, thereby constraining the possibility of water salvage by replacing saltcedar with native vegetation. In Australia, introduced willows (Salix spp.) have become widespread in riparian systems in the Murray-Darling Basin. Although large-scale removal projects have been undertaken, no attempts have been made to quantify increases in base flows. Recent studies of ET indicate that willows growing in permanently inundated stream beds have high transpiration rates, indicating water savings could be achieved from removal. In contrast, native Eucalyptus trees and willows growing on stream banks show similar ET rates with no net water salvage from replacing willows with native trees. We conclude that water salvage feasibility is highly dependent on the ecohydrological setting in which the non-native trees occur. We provide an overview of conditions favorable to water salvage. Copyright ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Non-Native Ambrosia Beetles as Opportunistic Exploiters of Living but Weakened Trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Ranger

    Full Text Available Exotic Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles established in non-native habitats have been associated with sudden and extensive attacks on a diverse range of living trees, but factors driving their shift from dying/dead hosts to living and healthy ones are not well understood. We sought to characterize the role of host physiological condition on preference and colonization by two invaders, Xylosandrus germanus and Xylosandrus crassiusculus. When given free-choice under field conditions among flooded and non-flooded deciduous tree species of varying intolerance to flooding, beetles attacked flood-intolerant tree species over more tolerant species within 3 days of initiating flood stress. In particular, flood-intolerant flowering dogwood (Cornus florida sustained more attacks than flood-tolerant species, including silver maple (Acer saccharinum and swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor. Ethanol, a key host-derived attractant, was detected at higher concentrations 3 days after initiating flooding within stems of flood intolerant species compared to tolerant and non-flooded species. A positive correlation was also detected between ethanol concentrations in stem tissue and cumulative ambrosia beetle attacks. When adult X. germanus and X. crassiusculus were confined with no-choice to stems of flood-stressed and non-flooded C. florida, more ejected sawdust resulting from tunneling activity was associated with the flood-stressed trees. Furthermore, living foundresses, eggs, larvae, and pupae were only detected within galleries created in stems of flood-stressed trees. Despite a capability to attack diverse tree genera, X. germanus and X. crassiusculus efficiently distinguished among varying host qualities and preferentially targeted trees based on their intolerance of flood stress. Non-flooded trees were not preferred or successfully colonized. This study demonstrates the host-selection strategy exhibited by X. germanus and X. crassiusculus in non-native habitats

  15. Polysemous Verbs and Modality in Native and Non-Native Argumentative Writing: A Corpus-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica Salazar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a corpus-based analysis of a selection of polysemous lexical verbs used to express modality in student argumentative writing. Twenty-three lexical verbs were searched for in three 100,000-word corpora of argumentative essays written in English by American, Filipino and Spanish university students. Concordance lines were examined to determine their use in the three corpora. After presenting the overall results for all verbs studied, more in-depth linguistic analysis was performed on the polysemous verb feel. These analyses revealed that the non-native writers, unlike their native counterparts, had a limited grasp of the full range of meanings of lexical verbs such as feel. It also showed that all student writers under study employed only a restricted range of lexical verbs to convey modal meanings in their writing.En este artículo presentamos un análisis de una selección de verbos polisémicos, utilizados para expresar modalidad, en tres corpus de textos argumentativos escritos en inglés por estudiantes universitarios americanos, filipinos y españoles. Después de exponer los resultados generales, se presenta un análisis más exhaustivo del verbo polisémico feel, que revela que los estudiantes no nativos, a diferencia de los nativos, tienen un conocimiento limitado de su diversidad de sentidos. También muestra que todos los estudiantes analizados usaron un repertorio restringido de verbos léxicos que expresan modalidad.

  16. Comparison of root-associated communities of native and non-native ectomycorrhizal hosts in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothamer, K; Brown, S P; Mattox, J D; Jumpponen, A

    2014-05-01

    Non-native tree species are often used as ornamentals in urban landscapes. However, their root-associated fungal communities remain yet to be examined in detail. Here, we compared richness, diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizosphere fungi in general and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi in particular between a non-native Pinus nigra and a native Quercus macrocarpa across a growing season in urban parks using 454-pyrosequencing. Our data show that, while the ectomycorrhizosphere community richness and diversity did not differ between the two host, the EcM communities associated with the native host were often more species rich and included more exclusive members than those of the non-native hosts. In contrast, the ectomycorrhizosphere communities of the two hosts were compositionally clearly distinct in nonmetric multidimensional ordination analyses, whereas the EcM communities were only marginally so. Taken together, our data suggest EcM communities with broad host compatibilities and with a limited numbers of taxa with preference to the non-native host. Furthermore, many common fungi in the non-native Pinus were not EcM taxa, suggesting that the fungal communities of the non-native host may be enriched in non-mycorrhizal fungi at the cost of the EcM taxa. Finally, while our colonization estimates did not suggest a shortage in EcM inoculum for either host in urban parks, the differences in the fungi associated with the two hosts emphasize the importance of using native hosts in urban environments as a tool to conserve endemic fungal diversity and richness in man-made systems.

  17. Ecohydrological consequences of non-native riparian vegetation in the southwestern United States: A review from an ecophysiological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultine, K. R.; Bush, S. E.

    2011-07-01

    Protecting water resources for expanding human enterprise while conserving valued natural habitat is among the greatest challenges of the 21st century. Global change processes such as climate change and intensive land use pose significant threats to water resources, particularly in arid regions where potential evapotranspiration far exceeds annual rainfall. Potentially compounding these shortages is the progressive expansion of non-native plant species in riparian areas along streams, canals and rivers in geographically arid regions. This paper sets out to identify when and where non-native riparian plant species are likely to have the highest potential impact on hydrologic fluxes of arid and semiarid river systems. We develop an ecophysiological framework that focuses on two main criteria: (1) examination of the physiological traits that promote non-native species establishment and persistence across environmental gradients, and (2) assessment of where and to what extent hydrologic fluxes are potentially altered by the establishment of introduced species at varying scales from individual plants, to small river reaches, to entire river basins. We highlight three non-native plant species that currently dominate southwestern United States riparian forests. These include tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), Russian olive (Eleagnus angustifolia), and Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens). As with other recent reviews, we suspect that in many cases the removal of these, and other non-native species will have little or no impact on either streamflow volume or groundwater levels. However, we identify potential exceptions where the expansion of non-native plant species could have significant impact on ecohydrologic processes associated with southwestern United States river systems. Future research needs are outlined that will ultimately assist land managers and policy makers with restoration and conservation priorities to preserve water resources and valued riparian habitat given

  18. Direct and Indirect Influence of Non-Native Neighbours on Pollination and Fruit Production of a Native Plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Montero-Castaño

    Full Text Available Entomophilous non-native plants can directly affect the pollination and reproductive success of native plant species and also indirectly, by altering the composition and abundance of floral resources in the invaded community. Separating direct from indirect effects is critical for understanding the mechanisms underlying the impacts of non-native species on recipient communities.Our aims are: (a to explore both the direct effect of the non-native Hedysarum coronarium and its indirect effect, mediated by the alteration of floral diversity, on the pollinator visitation rate and fructification of the native Leopoldia comosa and (b to distinguish whether the effects of the non-native species were due to its floral display or to its vegetative interactions.We conducted field observations within a flower removal experimental setup (i.e. non-native species present, absent and with its inflorescences removed at the neighbourhood scale.Our study illustrates the complexity of mechanisms involved in the impacts of non-native species on native species. Overall, Hedysarum increased pollinator visitation rates to Leopoldia target plants as a result of direct and indirect effects acting in the same direction. Due to its floral display, Hedysarum exerted a direct magnet effect attracting visits to native target plants, especially those made by the honeybee. Indirectly, Hedysarum also increased the visitation rate of native target plants. Due to the competition for resources mediated by its vegetative parts, it decreased floral diversity in the neighbourhoods, which was negatively related to the visitation rate to native target plants. Hedysarum overall also increased the fructification of Leopoldia target plants, even though such an increase was the result of other indirect effects compensating for the observed negative indirect effect mediated by the decrease of floral diversity.

  19. Potential population and assemblage influences of non-native trout on native nongame fish in Nebraska headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Kelly C.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Schainost, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Non-native trout are currently stocked to support recreational fisheries in headwater streams throughout Nebraska. The influence of non-native trout introductions on native fish populations and their role in structuring fish assemblages in these systems is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) if the size structure or relative abundance of native fish differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout, (ii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout and (iii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs across a gradient in abundances of non-native trout. Longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae were larger in the presence of brown trout Salmo trutta and smaller in the presence of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss compared to sites without trout. There was also a greater proportion of larger white suckers Catostomus commersonii in the presence of brown trout. Creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus and fathead minnow Pimephales promelas size structures were similar in the presence and absence of trout. Relative abundances of longnose dace, white sucker, creek chub and fathead minnow were similar in the presence and absence of trout, but there was greater distinction in native fish-assemblage structure between sites with trout compared to sites without trout as trout abundances increased. These results suggest increased risk to native fish assemblages in sites with high abundances of trout. However, more research is needed to determine the role of non-native trout in structuring native fish assemblages in streams, and the mechanisms through which introduced trout may influence native fish populations.

  20. Functional diversity measures revealed impacts of non-native species and habitat degradation on species-poor freshwater fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Nicole; Villéger, Sébastien; Wilkes, Martin; de Sostoa, Adolfo; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto

    2018-06-01

    Trait-based ecology has been developed for decades to infer ecosystem responses to stressors based on the functional structure of communities, yet its value in species-poor systems is largely unknown. Here, we used an extensive dataset in a Spanish region highly prone to non-native fish invasions (15 catchments, N=389 sites) to assess for the first time how species-poor communities respond to large-scale environmental gradients using a taxonomic and functional trait-based approach in riverine fish. We examined total species richness and three functional trait-based indices available when many sites have ≤3 species (specialization, FSpe; originality, FOri and entropy, FEnt). We assessed the responses of these taxonomic and functional indices along gradients of altitude, water pollution, physical habitat degradation and non-native fish biomass. Whilst species richness was relatively sensitive to spatial effects, functional diversity indices were responsive across natural and anthropogenic gradients. All four diversity measures declined with altitude but this decline was modulated by physical habitat degradation (richness, FSpe and FEnt) and the non-native:total fish biomass ratio (FSpe and FOri) in ways that varied between indices. Furthermore, FSpe and FOri were significantly correlated with Total Nitrogen. Non-native fish were a major component of the taxonomic and functional structure of fish communities, raising concerns about potential misdiagnosis between invaded and environmentally-degraded river reaches. Such misdiagnosis was evident in a regional fish index widely used in official monitoring programs. We recommend the application of FSpe and FOri to extensive datasets from monitoring programs in order to generate valuable cross-system information about the impacts of non-native species and habitat degradation, even in species-poor systems. Scoring non-native species apart from habitat degradation in the indices used to determine ecosystem health is

  1. Culture, ethnicity, and children's facial expressions: a study of European American, Mainland Chinese, Chinese American, and adopted Chinese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda A; Bakeman, Roger; Chen, Yinghe; Norris, Katherine; Cain, Thomas R

    2006-02-01

    This investigation extends previous research documenting differences in Chinese and European American infants' facial expressivity. Chinese girls adopted by European American families, nonadopted Mainland Chinese girls, nonadopted Chinese American girls, and nonadopted European American girls responded to emotionally evocative slides and an odor stimulus. European American girls smiled more than Mainland Chinese and Chinese American girls and scored higher than Mainland Chinese girls for disgust-related expressions and overall expressivity. Adopted Chinese girls produced more disgust-related expressions than Mainland Chinese girls. Self-reported maternal strictness, aggravation, positive expressiveness, and cultural identification correlated with children's facial responses, as did number of siblings and adults in the home. Results suggest that culture and family environment influences facial expressivity, creating differences among children of the same ethnicity.

  2. Regional variation in asthma symptom prevalence in Latin American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu; Baeza-Bacab, Manuel; Aguirre-Camposano, Viviana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos

    2010-08-01

    This study investigates the distribution pattern of asthma symptom prevalence in Latin American children aged 13-14 years. A randomized, cross-sectional and multicentric study on the prevalence and severity of asthma symptoms (lifetime asthma, current wheezing, and frequent sleep disturbance by wheezing) was conducted in 165,917 schoolchildren from 56 centers in 17 Latin American countries, as part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), Phase Three. The prevalence of lifetime asthma prevalence ranged from 1.2% to 33.1%, whereas current wheezing went from 3.9% to 30.8% and frequent sleep disturbance from 0.6% to 6.1%. An important proportion of centers (55%) reported a prevalence of asthma symptoms over 15%. There was no significant correlation between asthma symptom prevalence and latitude, altitude, or tropical setting. At country level, the prevalence of asthma was not associated with gross national income (GNI), proportion of population under the poverty line, or ancestry. This study suggests that ecological interactions, probably typical for each locality, may be the main determinants for the large variability of asthma prevalence in Latin America. The high prevalence of asthma symptoms found in children living in areas with low socioeconomic development would challenge the protective role against asthma of factors related to low hygiene and poverty; contrarily, in this region they would act as risk factors.

  3. African American and European American Children in Diverse Elementary Classrooms: Social Integration, Social Status, and Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    With a sample of African American and European American 3rd- and 4th-grade children (N = 486, ages 8-11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group,…

  4. Fun & Fit, Phase I: A Program for Overweight African American and Hispanic American Children from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Karen S.; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent

    2009-01-01

    Fun & Fit is a program designed to create positive physical activity experiences and to promote healthy lifestyle choices among overweight children from low-income African American and Hispanic American families. The program is a collaborative project between Texas Tech University and the Lubbock Independent School District funded through a…

  5. Development of phonological constancy: 19-month-olds, but not 15-month-olds, identify words in a non-native regional accent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Karen E; Best, Catherine T; Tyler, Michael D; Kitamura, Christine; Irwin, Julia R

    2013-01-01

    By 12 months, children grasp that a phonetic change to a word can change its identity (phonological distinctiveness). However, they must also grasp that some phonetic changes do not (phonological constancy). To test development of phonological constancy, sixteen 15-month-olds and sixteen 19-month-olds completed an eye-tracking task that tracked their gaze to named versus unnamed images for familiar words spoken in their native (Australian) and an unfamiliar non-native (Jamaican) regional accent of English. Both groups looked longer at named than unnamed images for Australian pronunciations, but only 19-month-olds did so for Jamaican pronunciations, indicating that phonological constancy emerges by 19 months. Vocabulary size predicted 15-month-olds' identifications for the Jamaican pronunciations, suggesting vocabulary growth is a viable predictor for phonological constancy development. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. FlexAID: Revisiting Docking on Non-Native-Complex Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Francis; Najmanovich, Rafael J

    2015-07-27

    Small-molecule protein docking is an essential tool in drug design and to understand molecular recognition. In the present work we introduce FlexAID, a small-molecule docking algorithm that accounts for target side-chain flexibility and utilizes a soft scoring function, i.e. one that is not highly dependent on specific geometric criteria, based on surface complementarity. The pairwise energy parameters were derived from a large dataset of true positive poses and negative decoys from the PDBbind database through an iterative process using Monte Carlo simulations. The prediction of binding poses is tested using the widely used Astex dataset as well as the HAP2 dataset, while performance in virtual screening is evaluated using a subset of the DUD dataset. We compare FlexAID to AutoDock Vina, FlexX, and rDock in an extensive number of scenarios to understand the strengths and limitations of the different programs as well as to reported results for Glide, GOLD, and DOCK6 where applicable. The most relevant among these scenarios is that of docking on flexible non-native-complex structures where as is the case in reality, the target conformation in the bound form is not known a priori. We demonstrate that FlexAID, unlike other programs, is robust against increasing structural variability. FlexAID obtains equivalent sampling success as GOLD and performs better than AutoDock Vina or FlexX in all scenarios against non-native-complex structures. FlexAID is better than rDock when there is at least one critical side-chain movement required upon ligand binding. In virtual screening, FlexAID results are lower on average than those of AutoDock Vina and rDock. The higher accuracy in flexible targets where critical movements are required, intuitive PyMOL-integrated graphical user interface and free source code as well as precompiled executables for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS make FlexAID a welcome addition to the arsenal of existing small-molecule protein docking methods.

  7. Memory for non-native language: the role of lexical processing in the retention of surface form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Cristina; Konopka, Agnieszka E

    2013-01-01

    Research on memory for native language (L1) has consistently shown that retention of surface form is inferior to that of gist (e.g., Sachs, 1967). This paper investigates whether the same pattern is found in memory for non-native language (L2). We apply a model of bilingual word processing to more complex linguistic structures and predict that memory for L2 sentences ought to contain more surface information than L1 sentences. Native and non-native speakers of English were tested on a set of sentence pairs with different surface forms but the same meaning (e.g., "The bullet hit/struck the bull's eye"). Memory for these sentences was assessed with a cued recall procedure. Responses showed that native and non-native speakers did not differ in the accuracy of gist-based recall but that non-native speakers outperformed native speakers in the retention of surface form. The results suggest that L2 processing involves more intensive encoding of lexical level information than L1 processing.

  8. Evaluation of Arabic Language Learning Program for Non-Native Speakers in Saudi Electronic University According to Total Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alowaydhi, Wafa Hafez

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at standardizing the program of learning Arabic for non-native speakers in Saudi Electronic University according to certain standards of total quality. To achieve its purpose, the study adopted the descriptive analytical method. The author prepared a measurement tool for evaluating the electronic learning programs in light…

  9. The Development and Validation of the "Academic Spoken English Strategies Survey (ASESS)" for Non-Native English Speaking Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Rui M.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the three-year development and validation of a new assessment tool--the Academic Spoken English Strategies Survey (ASESS). The questionnaire is the first of its kind to assess the listening and speaking strategy use of non-native English speaking (NNES) graduate students. A combination of sources was used to develop the…

  10. Non-Native Japanese Listeners' Perception of Vowel Length Contrasts in Japanese and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Kimiko

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the perception of short vs. long vowel contrasts in Japanese and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) by four groups of listeners differing in their linguistic backgrounds: native Arabic (NA), native Japanese (NJ), non-native Japanese (NNJ) and Australian English (OZ) speakers. The NNJ and OZ groups shared the first language…

  11. Unpacking Race, Culture, and Class in Rural Alaska: Native and Non-Native Multidisciplinary Professionals' Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubar, Roe; Bundy-Fazioli, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to unpack notions of class, culture, and race as they relate to multidisciplinary team (MDT) professionals and their perceptions of prevalence in child sexual abuse cases in Native and non-Native rural Alaska communities. Power and privilege within professional settings is significant for all social work professionals…

  12. Musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing are linked through sensitivity to pitch and spectral information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Vera; Bublitz, Dennis; Brooks, Patricia J

    2015-05-01

    Is the observed link between musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing due to enhanced sensitivity to acoustic features underlying both musical and linguistic processing? To address this question, native English speakers (N = 118) discriminated Norwegian tonal contrasts and Norwegian vowels. Short tones differing in temporal, pitch, and spectral characteristics were used to measure sensitivity to the various acoustic features implicated in musical and speech processing. Musical ability was measured using Gordon's Advanced Measures of Musical Audiation. Results showed that sensitivity to specific acoustic features played a role in non-native speech-sound processing: Controlling for non-verbal intelligence, prior foreign language-learning experience, and sex, sensitivity to pitch and spectral information partially mediated the link between musical ability and discrimination of non-native vowels and lexical tones. The findings suggest that while sensitivity to certain acoustic features partially mediates the relationship between musical ability and non-native speech-sound processing, complex tests of musical ability also tap into other shared mechanisms. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  13. The Big Four Skills: Teachers’ Assumptions on Measurement of Cognition and Academic Skills for Non-Native Students.

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Sandra; Silva, Carlos Fernandes da; Nunes, Odete; Martins, Maria Margarida Alves d'Orey

    2016-01-01

    The four-skills on tests for young native speakers commonly do not generate correlation incongruency concerning the cognitive strategies frequently reported. Considering the non-native speakers there are parse evidence to determine which tasks are important to assess properly the cognitive and academic language proficiency (Cummins, 1980; 2012). Research questions: It is of high probability that young students with origin in immigration ...

  14. Native and non-native plants provide similar refuge to invertebrate prey, but less than artificial plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, Bart; Pollux, B.J.A.; Verberk, W.C.E.P.; Bakker, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Non-native species introductions are widespread and can affect ecosystem functioning by altering the structure of food webs. Invading plants often modify habitat structure, which may affect the suitability of vegetation as refuge and could thus impact predator-prey dynamics. Yet little is known

  15. Susceptibility of burned black spruce (Picea mariana) forests to non-native plant invasions in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie V. Spellman; Christa P.H. Mulder; Teresa N. Hollingsworth

    2014-01-01

    As climate rapidly warms at high-latitudes, the boreal forest faces the simultaneous threats of increasing invasive plant abundances and increasing area burned by wildfire. Highly flammable and widespread black spruce (Picea mariana) forest represents a boreal habitat that may be increasingly susceptible to non-native plant invasion. This study assess the role of burn...

  16. Home range use and movement patterns of non-native feral goats in a tropical island montane dry landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark W. Chynoweth; Christopher A. Lepczyk; Creighton M. Litton; Steven C. Hess; James R. Kellner; Susan Cordell; Lalit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Advances in wildlife telemetry and remote sensing technology facilitate studies of broad-scale movements of ungulates in relation to phenological shifts in vegetation. In tropical island dry landscapes, home range use and movements of non-native feral goats (Capra hircus) are largely unknown, yet this information is important to help guide the...

  17. Non-native fish introductions and the decline of the mountain yellow-legged frog from within protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Knapp; K.R. Matthews

    2000-01-01

    Abstract: One of the most puzzling aspects of the worldwide decline of amphibians is their disappearance from within protected areas. Because these areas are ostensibly undisturbed, habitat alterations are generally perceived as unlikely causes. The introduction of non-native fishes into protected areas, however, is a common practice throughout the world and may exert...

  18. Students Writing Emails to Faculty: An Examination of E-Politeness among Native and Non-Native Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesenbach-Lucas, Sigrun

    2007-01-01

    This study combines interlanguage pragmatics and speech act research with computer-mediated communication and examines how native and non-native speakers of English formulate low- and high-imposition requests to faculty. While some research claims that email, due to absence of non-verbal cues, encourages informal language, other research has…

  19. Response of six non-native invasive plant species to wildfires in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis E. Ferguson; Christine L. Craig

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents early results on the response of six non-native invasive plant species to eight wildfires on six National Forests (NFs) in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Stratified random sampling was used to choose 224 stands based on burn severity, habitat type series, slope steepness, stand height, and stand density. Data for this report are from 219 stands...

  20. Teaching Effectiveness of Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers in Business Disciplines: Intercultural Communication Apprehension and Ethnocentrism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayadeera, Nadana; Mihret, Dessalegn Getie; Hewa Dulige, Jayasinghe

    2018-01-01

    Teaching effectiveness of non-native English-speaking teachers (NNEST) in accounting, economics and finance has become a significant issue due to the increasing trend of hiring NNEST in business schools. However, the literature has focused on the English language competence of NNEST, which is only one element of the factors that influence teaching…

  1. An Investigation into Native and Non-Native Teachers' Judgments of Oral English Performance: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youn-Hee

    2009-01-01

    This study used a mixed methods research approach to examine how native English-speaking (NS) and non-native English-speaking (NNS) teachers assess students' oral English performance. The evaluation behaviors of two groups of teachers (12 Canadian NS teachers and 12 Korean NNS teachers) were compared with regard to internal consistency, severity,…

  2. Competitive effects of non-native plants are lowest in native plant communities that are most vulnerable to invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Stephen Brewer; W. Chase Bailey

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread acknowledgment that disturbance favors invasion, a hypothesis that has received little attention is whether non-native invaders have greater competitive effects on native plants in undisturbed habitats than in disturbed habitats. This hypothesis derives from the assumption that competitive interactions are more persistent in habitats that have not...

  3. Developing proactive management options to sustain bristlecone and limber pine ecosystems in the presence of a non-native pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle

    2004-01-01

    Limber pine and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine are currently threatened by the non-native pathogen white pine blister rust (WPBR). Limber pine is experiencing mortality in the Northern Rocky Mountains and the infection front continues to move southward. The first report of WPBR on Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine was made in 2003 (Blodgett and Sullivan 2004), at a site...

  4. Non-native acylated homoserine lactones reveal that LuxIR quorum sensing promotes symbiont stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jessica S.; Geske, Grant D.; Blackwell, Helen E.; Ruby, Edward G.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Quorum sensing, a group behavior coordinated by a diffusible pheromone signal and a cognate receptor, is typical of bacteria that form symbioses with plants and animals. LuxIR-type acyl homoserine-lactone (AHL) quorum sensing is common in Gram-negative proteobacteria, and many members of this group have additional quorum-sensing networks. The bioluminescent symbiont Vibrio fischeri encodes two AHL signal synthases: AinS and LuxI. AinS-dependent quorum sensing converges with LuxI-dependent quorum sensing at the LuxR regulatory element. Both AinS- and LuxI-mediated signaling are required for efficient and persistent colonization of the squid host, Euprymna scolopes. The basis of the mutualism is symbiont bioluminescence, which is regulated by both LuxI- and AinS-dependent quorum sensing, and is essential for maintaining a colonization of the host. Here, we used chemical and genetic approaches to probe the dynamics of LuxI- and AinS-mediated regulation of bioluminescence during symbiosis. We demonstrate that both native AHLs and non-native AHL analogs can be used to non-invasively and specifically modulate induction of symbiotic bioluminescence via LuxI-dependent quorum sensing. Our data suggest that the first day of colonization, during which symbiont bioluminescence is induced by LuxIR, is a critical period that determines the stability of the V. fischeri population once symbiosis is established. PMID:24191970

  5. Surveillance potential of non-native Hawaiian birds for detection of West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Dusek, Robert J.; Brand, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in North America in 1999. Alaska and Hawaii (HI) remain the only U.S. states in which transmission of WNV has not been detected. Dead bird surveillance has played an important role in the detection of the virus geographically, as well as temporally. In North America, corvids have played a major role in WNV surveillance; however, the only corvid in HI is the endangered Hawaiian crow that exists only in captivity, thus precluding the use of this species for WNV surveillance in HI. To evaluate the suitability of alternate avian species for WNV surveillance, we experimentally challenged seven abundant non-native bird species present in HI with WNV and compared mortality, viremia, oral shedding of virus, and seroconversion. For detection of WNV in oral swabs, we compared viral culture, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and the RAMP® test. For detection of antibodies to WNV, we compared an indirect and a competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. We found four species (house sparrow, house finch, Japanese white-eye, and Java sparrow) that may be useful in dead bird surveillance for WNV; while common myna, zebra dove, and spotted dove survived infection and may be useful in serosurveillance.

  6. Ensemble Modeling for Robustness Analysis in engineering non-native metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun; Lafontaine Rivera, Jimmy G; Liao, James C

    2014-09-01

    Metabolic pathways in cells must be sufficiently robust to tolerate fluctuations in expression levels and changes in environmental conditions. Perturbations in expression levels may lead to system failure due to the disappearance of a stable steady state. Increasing evidence has suggested that biological networks have evolved such that they are intrinsically robust in their network structure. In this article, we presented Ensemble Modeling for Robustness Analysis (EMRA), which combines a continuation method with the Ensemble Modeling approach, for investigating the robustness issue of non-native pathways. EMRA investigates a large ensemble of reference models with different parameters, and determines the effects of parameter drifting until a bifurcation point, beyond which a stable steady state disappears and system failure occurs. A pathway is considered to have high bifurcational robustness if the probability of system failure is low in the ensemble. To demonstrate the utility of EMRA, we investigate the bifurcational robustness of two synthetic central metabolic pathways that achieve carbon conservation: non-oxidative glycolysis and reverse glyoxylate cycle. With EMRA, we determined the probability of system failure of each design and demonstrated that alternative designs of these pathways indeed display varying degrees of bifurcational robustness. Furthermore, we demonstrated that target selection for flux improvement should consider the trade-offs between robustness and performance. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Learning foreign sounds in an alien world: videogame training improves non-native speech categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung-joo; Holt, Lori L

    2011-01-01

    Although speech categories are defined by multiple acoustic dimensions, some are perceptually weighted more than others and there are residual effects of native-language weightings in non-native speech perception. Recent research on nonlinguistic sound category learning suggests that the distribution characteristics of experienced sounds influence perceptual cue weights: Increasing variability across a dimension leads listeners to rely upon it less in subsequent category learning (Holt & Lotto, 2006). The present experiment investigated the implications of this among native Japanese learning English /r/-/l/ categories. Training was accomplished using a videogame paradigm that emphasizes associations among sound categories, visual information, and players' responses to videogame characters rather than overt categorization or explicit feedback. Subjects who played the game for 2.5h across 5 days exhibited improvements in /r/-/l/ perception on par with 2-4 weeks of explicit categorization training in previous research and exhibited a shift toward more native-like perceptual cue weights. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. Information encoded in non-native states drives substrate-chaperone pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapa, Koyeli; Tiwari, Satyam; Kumar, Vignesh; Jayaraj, Gopal Gunanathan; Maiti, Souvik

    2012-09-05

    Many proteins refold in vitro through kinetic folding intermediates that are believed to be by-products of native-state centric evolution. These intermediates are postulated to play only minor roles, if any, in vivo because they lack any information related to translation-associated vectorial folding. We demonstrate that refolding intermediate of a test protein, generated in vitro, is able to find its cognate chaperone, from the whole complement of Escherichia coli soluble chaperones. Cognate chaperone-binding uniquely alters the conformation of non-native substrate. Importantly, precise chaperone targeting of substrates are maintained as long as physiological molar ratios of chaperones remain unaltered. Using a library of different chaperone substrates, we demonstrate that kinetically trapped refolding intermediates contain sufficient structural features for precise targeting to cognate chaperones. We posit that evolution favors sequences that, in addition to coding for a functional native state, encode folding intermediates with higher affinity for cognate chaperones than noncognate ones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Northward invading non-native vascular plant species in and adjacent to Wood Buffalo National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wein, R.W.; Wein, G.; Bahret, S.; Cody, W.J. (Alberta University, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Canadian Circumpolar Institute)

    A survey of the non-native vascular plant species in Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada's largest forested National Park, documented their presence and abundance in key locations. Most of the fifty-four species (nine new records) were found in disturbed sites including roadsides, settlements, farms, areas of altered hydrological regimes, recent bums, and intensive bison grazing. Species that have increased most in geographic area and abundance in recent years include [ital Agropyron repens], [ital Bromus inermis], [ital Chenopodium album], [ital Melilotus spp.], [ital Trifolium spp.], [ital Plantago major], [ital Achillea millefolium], [ital Crepis tectorum] and [ital Sonchus arvensis]. An additional 20 species, now common in the Peace River and Fort Vermilion areas, have the potential to invade the Park if plant communities are subjected to additional stress as northern climates are modified by the greenhouse effect and as other human-caused activities disturb the vegetation. It is recommended that permanent plots be located in key locations and monitored for species invasion and changing abundances as input to management plans.

  10. Salinity tolerance of non-native suckermouth armoured catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys sp.) from Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A. Biju; Schofield, Pam; Raj, Smrithy; Satheesh, Sima

    2018-01-01

    Loricariid catfishes of the genus Pterygoplichthys are native to South America and have been introduced in many localities around the world. They are freshwater fishes, but may also use low-salinity habitats such as estuaries for feeding or dispersal. Here we report results of a field survey and salinity-tolerance experiments for a population of Pterygoplichthys sp. collected in Kerala, India. In both chronic and acute salinity-tolerance trials, fish were able to withstand salinities up to 12 ppt with no mortality; however, fish transferred to salinities > 12 ppt did not survive. The experimental results provide evidence that nonnative Pterygoplichthys sp. are able to tolerate mesohaline conditions for extended periods, and can easily invade the brackish water ecosystems of the state. Further, Pterygoplichthys sp. from Kerala have greater salinity tolerance than other congeners. These data are vital to predicting the invasion of non-native fishes such as Pterygoplichthys spp. into coastal systems in Kerala and worldwide. This is particularly important as estuarine ecosystems are under threat of global climate change and sea-level rise. In light of the results of the present study and considering the reports of negative impacts of the species in invaded water bodies, management authorities may consider controlling populations and/or instituting awareness programmes to prevent the spread of this nuisance aquatic invasive species in Kerala.

  11. Leaf gas exchange and water status responses of a native and non-native grass to precipitation across contrasting soil surfaces in the Sonoran Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignace, Danielle D; Huxman, Travis E; Weltzin, Jake F; Williams, David G

    2007-06-01

    Arid and semi-arid ecosystems of the southwestern US are undergoing changes in vegetation composition and are predicted to experience shifts in climate. To understand implications of these current and predicted changes, we conducted a precipitation manipulation experiment on the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southeastern Arizona. The objectives of our study were to determine how soil surface and seasonal timing of rainfall events mediate the dynamics of leaf-level photosynthesis and plant water status of a native and non-native grass species in response to precipitation pulse events. We followed a simulated precipitation event (pulse) that occurred prior to the onset of the North American monsoon (in June) and at the peak of the monsoon (in August) for 2002 and 2003. We measured responses of pre-dawn water potential, photosynthetic rate, and stomatal conductance of native (Heteropogon contortus) and non-native (Eragrostis lehmanniana) C(4) bunchgrasses on sandy and clay-rich soil surfaces. Soil surface did not always amplify differences in plant response to a pulse event. A June pulse event lead to an increase in plant water status and photosynthesis. Whereas the August pulse did not lead to an increase in plant water status and photosynthesis, due to favorable soil moisture conditions facilitating high plant performance during this period. E. lehmanniana did not demonstrate heightened photosynthetic performance over the native species in response to pulses across both soil surfaces. Overall accumulated leaf-level CO(2) response to a pulse event was dependent on antecedent soil moisture during the August pulse event, but not during the June pulse event. This work highlights the need to understand how desert species respond to pulse events across contrasting soil surfaces in water-limited systems that are predicted to experience changes in climate.

  12. American and Greek Children's Visual Images of Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidou, Vasilia; Bonoti, Fotini; Kontopoulou, Argiro

    2016-08-01

    This study explores American and Greek primary pupils' visual images of scientists by means of two nonverbal data collection tasks to identify possible convergences and divergences. Specifically, it aims to investigate whether their images of scientists vary according to the data collection instrument used and to gender. To this end, 91 third-grade American ( N = 46) and Greek ( N = 45) pupils were examined. Data collection was conducted through a drawing task based on Chambers (1983) `Draw-A-Scientist-Test' (DAST) and a picture selection task during which the children selected between 14 pairs of illustrations those that were most probable to represent scientists. Analysis focused on stereotype indicators related with scientists' appearance and work setting. Results showed that the two groups' performance varied significantly across the tasks used to explore their stereotypic perceptions, although the overall stereotypy was not differentiated according to participants' ethnic group. Moreover, boys were found to use more stereotypic indicators than girls, while the picture selection task elicited more stereotypic responses than the drawing task. In general, data collected by the two instruments revealed convergences and divergences concerning the stereotypic indicators preferred. Similarities and differences between national groups point to the influence of a globalized popular culture on the one hand and of the different sociocultural contexts underlying science curricula and their implementation on the other. Implications for science education are discussed.

  13. Culture and diet among Chinese American children aged 9–13 years: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined Chinese American children's behaviors, food preferences, and cultural influences on their diet. Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with twenty-five Chinese American children aged 9-13 years in community centers and Chinese schools in Houston, TX using constructs fro...

  14. WISC-R Information and Digit Span Scores of American and Canadian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, David P.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Differences were investigated in performance between third-grade American and Canadian children on two subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised. Results were discussed in terms of Canadian and American curriculum contents and test-taking experiences. (Author/JKS)

  15. 38 CFR 3.950 - Helpless children; Spanish-American and prior wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Helpless children; Spanish-American and prior wars. 3.950 Section 3.950 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... § 3.950 Helpless children; Spanish-American and prior wars. Marriage is not a bar to the payment of...

  16. Stereotype Threat Effects on African American Children in an Urban Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…

  17. Chinese and European American Mothers' Beliefs about the Role of Parenting in Children's School Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth K.

    1996-01-01

    Compared 48 immigrant Chinese and 50 European American mothers of preschool-age children on their perspectives on the role of parenting in their children's school success. Findings reveal Chinese immigrants have a high regard for education and a belief in a strong parental role, while European Americans regard social skills and self-esteem of…

  18. The Fallacy of Promoting Non Native Varieties of English in Postcolonial Multilingual Settings: The Case of Cameroon English (CamE) in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essossomo, Serges Moïse

    2015-01-01

    This research endeavour is a major contribution to the current debate on the integration of non-native varieties into the school curriculum in non-native settings. Taking the specific case of Cameroon, this work rests on the solid assumption that the promotion of CamE to the detriment of Standard British English accent is definitely a fallacy. The…

  19. COMPARISON OF ANNUAL PRODUCTION ECOLOGY OF NATIVE EELGRASS ZOSTERA MARINA AND THE NON-NATIVE DWARF EELGRASS Z. JAPONICA IN YAQUINA BAY, OREGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    When non-native plant species invade a system they often change patterns of primary production. I evaluate the contribution of the seagrass Zostera marina and it's non-native congener Z. japonica to primary production in Yaquina Bay. Few measurements of Z. japonica production e...

  20.  Invasibility of three major non-native invasive shrubs and associated factors in Upper Midwest U.S. forest lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Zhaofei Fan; Mark H. Hansen; Michael K. Crosby; Shirley X. Fan

    2016-01-01

    We used non-native invasive plant data from the US Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program, spatial statistical methods, and the space (cover class)-for-time approach to quantify the invasion potential and success ("invasibility") of three major invasive shrubs (multiflora rose, non-native bush honeysuckles, and common buckthorn...

  1. Fleshy fruit removal and nutritional composition of winter-fruiting plants: a comparison of non-native invasive and native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Scott T. Walter

    2010-01-01

    Invasive, non-native plants threaten forest ecosystems by reducing native plant species richness and potentially altering ecosystem processes. Seed dispersal is critical for successful invasion and range expansion by non-native plants; dispersal is likely to be enhanced if they can successfully compete with native plants for disperser services. Fruit production by non-...

  2. Carbon Costs of Constitutive and Expressed Resistance to a Non-Native Pathogen in Limber Pine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Vogan

    Full Text Available Increasing the frequency of resistance to the non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola (causative agent of white pine blister rust, WPBR in limber pine populations is a primary management objective to sustain high-elevation forest communities. However, it is not known to what extent genetic disease resistance is costly to plant growth or carbon economy. In this study, we measured growth and leaf-level physiology in (1 seedling families from seed trees that have previously been inferred to carry or not carry Cr4, the dominant R gene allele conferring complete, gene-for-gene resistance to WPBR in limber pine, and (2 populations that were and were not infected with C. ribicola. We found that, in the absence of C. ribicola exposure, there was no significant difference in carbon relations between families born from seed trees that harbor the resistance allele compared to those that lack it, either to plant growth and phenology or leaf-level photosynthetic traits. However, post-infection with C. ribicola, growth was significantly reduced in inoculation survivors expressing complete resistance compared to uninoculated seedlings. Furthermore, inoculation survivors exhibited significant increases in a suite of traits including photosynthetic rate, respiration rate, leaf N, and stomatal conductance and a decrease in photosynthetic water-use efficiency. The lack of constitutive carbon costs associated with Cr4 resistance in non-stressed limber pine is consistent with a previous report that the R gene allele is not under selection in the absence of C. ribicola and suggests that host resistance may not bear a constitutive cost in pathosystems that have not coevolved. However, under challenge by C. ribicola, complete resistance to WPBR in limber pine has a significant cost to plant growth, though enhanced carbon acquisition post-infection may offset this somewhat. These costs and effects on performance further complicate predictions of this species' response in

  3. Diversity of fungal endophytes in non-native Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Keith; Shearin, Zachery; Bourke, Kimberly; Bickford, Wesley A.; Kowalski, Kurt P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant–microbial interactions may play a key role in plant invasions. One common microbial interaction takes place between plants and fungal endophytes when fungi asymptomatically colonize host plant tissues. The objectives of this study were to isolate and sequence fungal endophytes colonizing non-native Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes region to evaluate variation in endophyte community composition among three host tissue types and three geographical regions. We collected entire ramets from multiple clones and populations, surface sterilized plant tissues, and plated replicate tissue samples from leaves, stems, and rhizomes on corn meal agar plates to culture and isolate fungal endophytes. Isolates were then subjected to Sanger sequencing of the ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Sequences were compared to fungal databases to define operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were analyzed statistically for community composition. In total, we obtained 173 endophyte isolates corresponding to 55 OTUs, 39 of which were isolated only a single time. The most common OTU corresponded most closely to Sarocladium strictum and comprised 25 % of all fungal isolates. More OTUs were found in stem tissues, but endophyte diversity was greatest in rhizome tissues. PERMANOVA analyses indicated significant differences in endophyte communities among tissue types, geographical regions, and the interaction between those factors, but no differences among individual ramets were detected. The functional role of the isolated endophytes is not yet known, but one genus isolated here (Stagonospora) has been reported to enhance Phragmites growth. Understanding the diversity and functions of Phragmites endophytes may provide targets for control measures based on disrupting host plant/endophyte interactions.

  4. Contrasting Pollinators and Pollination in Native and Non-Native Regions of Highbush Blueberry Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Gibbs

    Full Text Available Highbush blueberry yields are dependent on pollination by bees, and introduction of managed honey bees is the primary strategy used for pollination of this crop. Complementary pollination services are also provided by wild bees, yet highbush blueberry is increasingly grown in regions outside its native range where wild bee communities may be less adapted to the crop and growers may still be testing appropriate honey bee stocking densities. To contrast crop pollination in native and non-native production regions, we sampled commercial 'Bluecrop' blueberry fields in British Columbia and Michigan with grower-selected honey bee stocking rates (0-39.5 hives per ha to compare bee visitors to blueberry flowers, pollination and yield deficits, and how those vary with local- and landscape-scale factors. Observed and Chao-1 estimated species richness, as well as Shannon diversity of wild bees visiting blueberries were significantly higher in Michigan where the crop is within its native range. The regional bee communities were also significantly different, with Michigan farms having greater dissimilarity than British Columbia. Blueberry fields in British Columbia had fewer visits by honey bees than those in Michigan, irrespective of stocking rate, and they also had lower berry weights and a significant pollination deficit. In British Columbia, pollination service increased with abundance of wild bumble bees, whereas in Michigan the abundance of honey bees was the primary predictor of pollination. The proportion of semi-natural habitat at local and landscape scales was positively correlated with wild bee abundance in both regions. Wild bee abundance declined significantly with distance from natural borders in Michigan, but not in British Columbia where large-bodied bumble bees dominated the wild bee community. Our results highlight the varying dependence of crop production on different types of bees and reveal that strategies for pollination improvement in

  5. Contrasting Pollinators and Pollination in Native and Non-Native Regions of Highbush Blueberry Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jason; Elle, Elizabeth; Bobiwash, Kyle; Haapalainen, Tiia; Isaacs, Rufus

    2016-01-01

    Highbush blueberry yields are dependent on pollination by bees, and introduction of managed honey bees is the primary strategy used for pollination of this crop. Complementary pollination services are also provided by wild bees, yet highbush blueberry is increasingly grown in regions outside its native range where wild bee communities may be less adapted to the crop and growers may still be testing appropriate honey bee stocking densities. To contrast crop pollination in native and non-native production regions, we sampled commercial 'Bluecrop' blueberry fields in British Columbia and Michigan with grower-selected honey bee stocking rates (0-39.5 hives per ha) to compare bee visitors to blueberry flowers, pollination and yield deficits, and how those vary with local- and landscape-scale factors. Observed and Chao-1 estimated species richness, as well as Shannon diversity of wild bees visiting blueberries were significantly higher in Michigan where the crop is within its native range. The regional bee communities were also significantly different, with Michigan farms having greater dissimilarity than British Columbia. Blueberry fields in British Columbia had fewer visits by honey bees than those in Michigan, irrespective of stocking rate, and they also had lower berry weights and a significant pollination deficit. In British Columbia, pollination service increased with abundance of wild bumble bees, whereas in Michigan the abundance of honey bees was the primary predictor of pollination. The proportion of semi-natural habitat at local and landscape scales was positively correlated with wild bee abundance in both regions. Wild bee abundance declined significantly with distance from natural borders in Michigan, but not in British Columbia where large-bodied bumble bees dominated the wild bee community. Our results highlight the varying dependence of crop production on different types of bees and reveal that strategies for pollination improvement in the same crop can

  6. Non-Native Metal Ion Reveals the Role of Electrostatics in Synaptotagmin 1-Membrane Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Sachin; Nyenhuis, Sarah B; Her, Bin; Srivastava, Atul K; Taylor, Alexander B; Hart, P John; Cafiso, David S; Igumenova, Tatyana I

    2017-06-27

    C2 domains are independently folded modules that often target their host proteins to anionic membranes in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. In these cases, membrane association is triggered by Ca 2+ binding to the negatively charged loop region of the C2 domain. Here, we used a non-native metal ion, Cd 2+ , in lieu of Ca 2+ to gain insight into the contributions made by long-range Coulombic interactions and direct metal ion-lipid bridging to membrane binding. Using X-ray crystallography, NMR, Förster resonance energy transfer, and vesicle cosedimentation assays, we demonstrate that, although Cd 2+ binds to the loop region of C2A/B domains of synaptotagmin 1 with high affinity, long-range Coulombic interactions are too weak to support membrane binding of individual domains. We attribute this behavior to two factors: the stoichiometry of Cd 2+ binding to the loop regions of the C2A and C2B domains and the impaired ability of Cd 2+ to directly coordinate the lipids. In contrast, electron paramagnetic resonance experiments revealed that Cd 2+ does support membrane binding of the C2 domains in full-length synaptotagmin 1, where the high local lipid concentrations that result from membrane tethering can partially compensate for lack of a full complement of divalent metal ions and specific lipid coordination in Cd 2+ -complexed C2A/B domains. Our data suggest that long-range Coulombic interactions alone can drive the initial association of C2A/B with anionic membranes and that Ca 2+ further augments membrane binding by the formation of metal ion-lipid coordination bonds and additional Ca 2+ ion binding to the C2 domain loop regions.

  7. Symbiosis in the Context of an Invasive, Non-Native Grass: Fungal Biodiversity and Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Gavin

    Grasslands in the western United States face severe environmental threats including those brought about by climate change, such as changes in precipitation regimes and altered fire cycles; land-use conversion and development; and the introduction, establishment, and spread of non-native species. Lehmann's lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana) was introduced to the southwestern United States in the early 1900s. Since its introduction, it has become the dominant grass in the mid-elevation grasslands of southern Arizona, including the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER), where it has displaced native grasses including Arizona cottontop, three awns, and gramas. Like all plants in terrestrial ecosystems, this grass harbors fungal symbionts that can be important for its establishment and persistence. This thesis focuses on fungal symbionts of Lehmann's lovegrass and has two components. First, the diversity and distributions of endophytes in Lehmann's lovegrass are evaluated in the context of biotic and abiotic factors in the SRER. Culturing from roots and shoots of Lehmann's lovegrass at points beneath and outside the canopy of native mesquites, which are encroaching on grasslands over time, provides insight into how a single plant species can exhibit local variation in the composition of its symbionts. Second, the thesis is used as the basis for engagement of students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) through the development and implementation of classroom- and field activities centered on endophytes, which help high school students address core learning aims while also gaining real research experience. Engaging students in important questions relevant to their local environment can catalyze interest in science and help students cross the threshold into research. The contributions of such approaches with respect to learning not only fulfills key next-generation science standards and common core objectives, but provides students with a meaningful

  8. Non-Native Language Use and Risk of Incident Dementia in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Amy E.; Hall, Charles B.; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive reserve is invoked to explain the protective effects of education and cognitively-stimulating activities against all-cause dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). For non-native English speakers (n-NES), speaking English may be a cognitive activity associated with lower dementia risk. We hypothesized that n-NES have lower risk of incident dementia/AD and that educational level might modify this relationship. Participants took part in the Einstein Aging Study (Bronx, NY), a longitudinal study of aging and dementia. All (n = 1779) spoke fluent English and self-reported birthplace and whether English was their first language. n-NES additionally reported mother tongue, age of English acquisition, and current percentile-use of a non-English language. Nested Cox proportional hazards models progressively adjusted for gender, race, education, and immigrant and marital status estimated hazard ratios (HR) for incident dementia/AD as a function of n-NES status. 390 (22%) participants were n-NES. 126 incident dementia cases occurred during 4174 person-years of follow-up (median 1.44; range 0–16); 101 individuals met criteria for probable/possible AD. There was no statistically-significant association between n-NES status and incident dementia in the fully-adjusted model (HR 1.26; 95% CI 0.76–2.09; p = 0.36). Results were similar for AD. Stratification of education into three groups revealed increased risk of dementia for n-NES with ≥16 years of education (HR 3.97; 95% CI 1.62–9.75; p = 0.003). We conclude that n-NES status does not appear to have an independent protective effect against incident dementia/AD, and that n-NES status may contribute to risk of dementia in an education-dependent manner. PMID:22232011

  9. ALS-causing profilin-1-mutant forms a non-native helical structure in membrane environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Liangzhong; Kang, Jian; Song, Jianxing

    2017-11-01

    Despite having physiological functions completely different from superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), profilin 1 (PFN1) also carries mutations causing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with a striking similarity to that triggered by SOD1 mutants. Very recently, the C71G-PFN1 has been demonstrated to cause ALS by a gain of toxicity and the acceleration of motor neuron degeneration preceded the accumulation of its aggregates. Here by atomic-resolution NMR determination of conformations and dynamics of WT-PFN1 and C71G-PFN1 in aqueous buffers and in membrane mimetics DMPC/DHPC bicelle and DPC micelle, we deciphered that: 1) the thermodynamic destabilization by C71G transforms PFN1 into coexistence with the unfolded state, which is lacking of any stable tertiary/secondary structures as well as restricted ps-ns backbone motions, thus fundamentally indistinguishable from ALS-causing SOD1 mutants. 2) Most strikingly, while WT-PFN1 only weakly interacts with DMPC/DHPC bicelle without altering the native structure, C71G-PFN1 acquires abnormal capacity in strongly interacting with DMPC/DHPC bicelle and DPC micelle, energetically driven by transforming the highly disordered unfolded state into a non-native helical structure, similar to what has been previously observed on ALS-causing SOD1 mutants. Our results imply that one potential mechanism for C71G-PFN1 to initiate ALS might be the abnormal interaction with membranes as recently established for SOD1 mutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective Factors for Depression among African American Children of Predominantly Low-Income Mothers with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Waanders, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maternal depression has a deleterious impact on child psychological outcomes, including depression symptoms. However, there is limited research on the protective factors for these children and even less for African Americans. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of positive parenting skills on child depression and the potential protective effects of social skills and kinship support among African American children whose mothers are depressed and low-income. African American moth...

  11. Relative Weighting of Semantic and Syntactic Cues in Native and Non-Native Listeners' Recognition of English Sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu-Feng; Koenig, Laura L

    2016-01-01

    Non-native listeners do not recognize English sentences as effectively as native listeners, especially in noise. It is not entirely clear to what extent such group differences arise from differences in relative weight of semantic versus syntactic cues. This study quantified the use and weighting of these contextual cues via Boothroyd and Nittrouer's j and k factors. The j represents the probability of recognizing sentences with or without context, whereas the k represents the degree to which context improves recognition performance. Four groups of 13 normal-hearing young adult listeners participated. One group consisted of native English monolingual (EMN) listeners, whereas the other three consisted of non-native listeners contrasting in their language dominance and first language: English-dominant Russian-English, Russian-dominant Russian-English, and Spanish-dominant Spanish-English bilinguals. All listeners were presented three sets of four-word sentences: high-predictability sentences included both semantic and syntactic cues, low-predictability sentences included syntactic cues only, and zero-predictability sentences included neither semantic nor syntactic cues. Sentences were presented at 65 dB SPL binaurally in the presence of speech-spectrum noise at +3 dB SNR. Listeners orally repeated each sentence and recognition was calculated for individual words as well as the sentence as a whole. Comparable j values across groups for high-predictability, low-predictability, and zero-predictability sentences suggested that all listeners, native and non-native, utilized contextual cues to recognize English sentences. Analysis of the k factor indicated that non-native listeners took advantage of syntax as effectively as EMN listeners. However, only English-dominant bilinguals utilized semantics to the same extent as EMN listeners; semantics did not provide a significant benefit for the two non-English-dominant groups. When combined, semantics and syntax benefitted EMN

  12. African American and European American Children in Diverse Elementary Classrooms: Social Integration, Social Status, and Social Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    With a sample of African American and European American 3rd and 4th grade children (N = 486, ages 8–11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group, and cross-ethnicity dislike). African American—but not European American—children had more segregated relationships and were more disliked by cross-eth...

  13. Socio-economic drivers of specialist anglers targeting the non-native European catfish (Silurus glanis in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E M Ann Rees

    Full Text Available Information about the socioeconomic drivers of Silurus glanis anglers in the UK were collected using questionnaires from a cross section of mixed cyprinid fisheries to elucidate human dimensions in angling and non-native fisheries management. Respondents were predominantly male (95%, 30-40 years of age with £500 per annum. The proportion of time spent angling for S. glanis was significantly related to angler motivations; fish size, challenge in catch, tranquil natural surroundings, escape from daily stress and to be alone were considered important drivers of increased time spent angling. Overall, poor awareness of: the risks and adverse ecological impacts associated with introduced S. glanis, non-native fisheries legislation, problems in use of unlimited ground bait and high fish stocking rates in angling lakes were evident, possibly related to inadequate training and information provided by angling organisations to anglers, as many stated that they were insufficiently informed.

  14. Peer Victimization and Social-Psychological Adjustment in Hispanic and African-American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Barlas, Mitchell E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the relation of overt and relational victimization to depressive symptoms, fear of negative evaluation (FNE), social avoidance, and loneliness in a sample of Hispanic and African-American children. The Social Experience Questionnaire, Children's Depression Inventory, Social Anxiety Scale for Children--Revised, and Asher Loneliness…

  15. Mexican American Children's Ethnic Identity, Understanding of Ethnic Prejudice, and Parental Ethnic Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 47 Mexican-American children in grades 2 and 6 and their parents revealed that parental ethnic socialization about ethnic discrimination was associated with children's development of ethnic knowledge. Children's understanding of ethnic prejudice was related to their ethnic knowledge but not their ethnic behaviors. Contains 24…

  16. Sports Biographies of African American Football Players: The Racism of Colorblindness in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of racism in a genre of children's literature that has been largely overlooked by research and teaching in multicultural children's literature: sports biographies and, in particular, the biographies of African American professional football players. By examining the race bias of this genre of children's literature, the…

  17. Fears and Related Anxieties across Three Age Groups of Mexican American and White Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared levels and types of fears and anxieties in a sample of Mexican American children and adolescents with disabilities to a group of White children and adolescents with similar disabilities. Students (N = 238), parents, and teachers completed the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (T. H. Ollendick, 1983) and the Revised…

  18. Genetically based differentiation in growth of multiple non-native plant species along a steep environmental gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Sylvia; Kueffer, Christoph; Edwards, Peter J; Alexander, Jake M

    2012-09-01

    A non-native plant species spreading along an environmental gradient may need to adjust its growth to the prevailing conditions that it encounters by a combination of phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation. There have been several studies of how non-native species respond to changing environmental conditions along latitudinal gradients, but much less is known about elevational gradients. We conducted a climate chamber experiment to investigate plastic and genetically based growth responses of 13 herbaceous non-native plants along an elevational gradient from 100 to 2,000 m a.s.l. in Tenerife. Conditions in the field ranged from high anthropogenic disturbance but generally favourable temperatures for plant growth in the lower half of the gradient, to low disturbance but much cooler conditions in the upper half. We collected seed from low, mid and high elevations and grew them in climate chambers under the characteristic temperatures at these three elevations. Growth of all species was reduced under lower temperatures along both halves of the gradient. We found consistent genetically based differences in growth over the upper elevational gradient, with plants from high-elevation sites growing more slowly than those from mid-elevation ones, while the pattern in the lower part of the gradient was more mixed. Our data suggest that many non-native plants might respond to climate along elevational gradients by genetically based changes in key traits, especially at higher elevations where low temperatures probably impose a stronger selection pressure. At lower elevations, where anthropogenic influences are greater, higher gene flow and frequent disturbance might favour genotypes with broad ecological amplitudes. Thus the importance of evolutionary processes for invasion success is likely to be context-dependent.

  19. Dissociating Cortical Activity during Processing of Native and Non-Native Audiovisual Speech from Early to Late Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswen Fava

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Initially, infants are capable of discriminating phonetic contrasts across the world’s languages. Starting between seven and ten months of age, they gradually lose this ability through a process of perceptual narrowing. Although traditionally investigated with isolated speech sounds, such narrowing occurs in a variety of perceptual domains (e.g., faces, visual speech. Thus far, tracking the developmental trajectory of this tuning process has been focused primarily on auditory speech alone, and generally using isolated sounds. But infants learn from speech produced by people talking to them, meaning they learn from a complex audiovisual signal. Here, we use near-infrared spectroscopy to measure blood concentration changes in the bilateral temporal cortices of infants in three different age groups: 3-to-6 months, 7-to-10 months, and 11-to-14-months. Critically, all three groups of infants were tested with continuous audiovisual speech in both their native and another, unfamiliar language. We found that at each age range, infants showed different patterns of cortical activity in response to the native and non-native stimuli. Infants in the youngest group showed bilateral cortical activity that was greater overall in response to non-native relative to native speech; the oldest group showed left lateralized activity in response to native relative to non-native speech. These results highlight perceptual tuning as a dynamic process that happens across modalities and at different levels of stimulus complexity.

  20. Positive feedback loop between introductions of non-native marine species and cultivation of oysters in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineur, Frederic; Le Roux, Auguste; Maggs, Christine A; Verlaque, Marc

    2014-12-01

    With globalization, agriculture and aquaculture activities are increasingly affected by diseases that are spread through movement of crops and stock. Such movements are also associated with the introduction of non-native species via hitchhiking individual organisms. The oyster industry, one of the most important forms of marine aquaculture, embodies these issues. In Europe disease outbreaks affecting cultivated populations of the naturalized oyster Crassostrea gigas caused a major disruption of production in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Mitigation procedures involved massive imports of stock from the species' native range in the northwestern Pacific from 1971 to 1977. We assessed the role stock imports played in the introduction of non-native marine species (including pathogens) from the northwestern Pacific to Europe through a methodological and critical appraisal of record data. The discovery rate of non-native species (a proxy for the introduction rate) from 1966 to 2012 suggests a continuous vector activity over the entire period. Disease outbreaks that have been affecting oyster production since 2008 may be a result of imports from the northwestern Pacific, and such imports are again being considered as an answer to the crisis. Although successful as a remedy in the short and medium terms, such translocations may bring new diseases that may trigger yet more imports (self-reinforcing or positive feedback loop) and lead to the introduction of more hitchhikers. Although there is a legal framework to prevent or reduce these introductions, existing procedures should be improved. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Student perceptions of native and non-native speaker language instructors: A comparison of ESL and Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Callahan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The question of the native vs. non-native speaker status of second and foreign language instructors has been investigated chiefly from the perspective of the teacher. Anecdotal evidence suggests that students have strong opinions on the relative qualities of instruction by native and non-native speakers. Most research focuses on students of English as a foreign or second language. This paper reports on data gathered through a questionnaire administered to 55 university students: 31 students of Spanish as FL and 24 students of English as SL. Qualitative results show what strengths students believe each type of instructor has, and quantitative results confirm that any gap students may perceive between the abilities of native and non-native instructors is not so wide as one might expect based on popular notions of the issue. ESL students showed a stronger preference for native-speaker instructors overall, and were at variance with the SFL students' ratings of native-speaker instructors' performance on a number of aspects. There was a significant correlation in both groups between having a family member who is a native speaker of the target language and student preference for and self-identification with a native speaker as instructor. (English text

  2. Emotional communication in medical consultations with native and non-native patients applying two different methodological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Emine; Skjeldestad, Kristin; Finset, Arnstein

    2013-09-01

    To explore the potential agreement between two different methods to investigate emotional communication of native and non-native patients in medical consultations. The data consisted of 12 videotaped hospital consultations with six native and six non-native patients. The consultations were coded according to coding rules of the Verona Coding definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES) and afterwards analyzed by discourse analysis (DA) by two co-workers who were blind to the results from VR-CoDES. The agreement between VR-CoDES and DA was high in consultations with many cues and concerns, both with native and non-native patients. In consultations with no (or one cue) according to VR-CoDES criteria the DA still indicated the presence of emotionally salient expressions and themes. In some consultations cues to underlying emotions are communicated so vaguely or veiled by language barriers that standard VR-CoDES coding may miss subtle cues. Many of these sub-threshold cues could potentially be coded as cues according to VR-CoDES main coding categories, if criteria for coding vague or ambiguous cues had been better specified. Combining different analytical frameworks on the same dataset provide us new insights on emotional communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Acquisition of English Focus Marking by Non-Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rachel Elizabeth

    This dissertation examines Mandarin and Korean speakers' acquisition of English focus marking, which is realized by accenting particular words within a focused constituent. It is important for non-native speakers to learn how accent placement relates to focus in English because appropriate accent placement and realization makes a learner's English more native-like and easier to understand. Such knowledge may also improve their English comprehension skills. In this study, 20 native English speakers, 20 native Mandarin speakers, and 20 native Korean speakers participated in four experiments: (1) a production experiment, in which they were recorded reading the answers to questions, (2) a perception experiment, in which they were asked to determine which word in a recording was the last prominent word, (3) an understanding experiment, in which they were asked whether the answers in recorded question-answer pairs had context-appropriate prosody, and (4) an accent placement experiment, in which they were asked which word they would make prominent in a particular context. Finally, a new group of native English speakers listened to utterances produced in the production experiment, and determined whether the prosody of each utterance was appropriate for its context. The results of the five experiments support a novel predictive model for second language prosodic focus marking acquisition. This model holds that both transfer of linguistic features from a learner's native language (L1) and features of their second language (L2) affect learners' acquisition of prosodic focus marking. As a result, the model includes two complementary components: the Transfer Component and the L2 Challenge Component. The Transfer Component predicts that prosodic structures in the L2 will be more easily acquired by language learners that have similar structures in their L1 than those who do not, even if there are differences between the L1 and L2 in how the structures are realized. The L2

  4. Obesity-risk behaviours and their associations with body mass index (BMI) in Korean American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Myoungock; Grey, Margaret; Sadler, Lois; Jeon, Sangchoon; Nam, Soohyun; Song, Hee-Jung; Whittemore, Robin

    2017-08-03

    To describe obesity-risk behaviours (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour) and examine the relationships of the obesity-risk behaviours with body mass index (BMI) in school-aged Korean American children. Korean American children have a risk of becoming overweight or obese and developing obesity-related complications; however, there is limited research about obesity-risk behaviours in Korean American children. A cross-sectional study. Obesity-risk behaviours of children were assessed with well-validated self-report questionnaires (i.e., Elementary-level School-based Nutrition Monitoring Questionnaire) from children and their mothers. Height and weight of children were measured. Data were analysed with bivariate and multivariate analyses using mixed effects models to incorporate the correlation within siblings. A total of 170 Korean American children (mean age 10.9 [2.0] years; 52.4% girls; mean BMI 19.3 [3.2]; 28.7% ≥85 percentiles) participated in the study. Only 38.3% of Korean American children met established recommendations of five fruits/vegetables per day; 56.5% met recommendations for more than 3 days per week of vigorous physical activity; and 40.8% met recommendations for obesity in Korean American children and initiate clinical interventions to improve obesity-risk behaviours, especially sedentary behaviour, in Korean American children. Clinical assessment and management of the risk of developing overweight and obesity as well as obesity-related behaviours are important to improve obesity-related complications in overall Korean Americans. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. PTSD in Children and Adolescents: The Aftermath of Parental Incarceration among Children and Adolescents within the African-American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Angie J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) resulting from parental incarceration upon children and adolescents in an African-American community. Methodology: Much of the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder focuses on children and adolescents that have been exposed to a one-time event (e.g. school…

  6. Kinship Ties: Attachment Relationships that Promote Resilience in African American Adult Children of Alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Camille Hall

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available For many African Americans, the extended family has been the source of strength, resilience, and survival. Although changes in African American families, like changes in all families in the United States that have diluted the importance of kinship ties, many African Americans continue to place a high value on extended family members. Children of Africans and communities of African descent traditionally interact with multiple caregivers, consisting of kin, and fictive kin.Utilizing both attachment theory and risk and resilience literature, this paper discusses ways to better understand the resilient nature of African American families and how multiple attachment relationships assist at-risk African American children, specifically adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs.

  7. Production of lexical stress in non-native speakers of American English: kinematic correlates of stress and transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rahul; Goffman, Lisa

    2011-06-01

    To assess the influence of second language (L2) proficiency on production characteristics of rhythmic sequences in the L1 (Bengali) and L2 (English), with emphasis on linguistic transfer. One goal was to examine, using kinematic evidence, how L2 proficiency influences the production of iambic and trochaic words, focusing on temporal and spatial aspects of prosody. A second goal was to assess whether prosodic structure influences judgment of foreign accent. Twenty Bengali-English bilingual individuals, 10 with low proficiency in English and 10 with high proficiency in English, and 10 monolingual English speakers, participated. Lip and jaw movements were recorded while the bilingual participants produced Bengali and English words embedded in sentences. Lower lip movement amplitude and duration were measured in trochaic and iambic words. Six native English listeners judged the nativeness of the bilingual speakers. Evidence of L1-L2 transfer was observed through duration but not amplitude cues. More proficient L2 speakers varied duration to mark iambic stress. Perceptually, the high-proficiency group received relatively higher native-like accent ratings. Trochees were judged as more native than iambs. Even in the face of L1-L2 lexical stress transfer, nonnative speakers demonstrated knowledge of prosodic contrasts. Movement duration appears to be more amenable than amplitude to modifications.

  8. Neighborhood characteristics, parenting styles, and children's behavioral problems in Chinese American immigrant families

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, EH; Zhou, Q; Ly, J; Main, A; Tao, A; Chen, SH

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and te...

  9. Symptoms of Anxiety and Associated Risk and Protective Factors in Young Asian American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sabrina; Calzada, Esther; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the most prevalent mental health problems in young children but there has been a dearth of studies focusing on Asian American children. This study examines the patterns and the predictors of childhood anxiety and related symptoms in young children in a diverse Asian American (ASA) sample (n = 101). Findings indicate that ASA children are at higher risk for anxiety, somatization, and depressive problems than their peers. Parents’ level of acculturation (i.e., American identity, English competence), parental negative emotion socialization, conflicted parent–child relationship, child emotional knowledge and adaptive skills, as well as teachers’ ethnic background and school class types were all associated with ASA children’s anxiety. A combination of cultural, family, and school factors explained from 17 to 39 % of the variance in anxiety symptoms. Findings inform prevention services for young ASA children. PMID:22410755

  10. A Review of Child Psychiatric Epidemiology With Special Reference to American Indian and Alaska Native Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ben Ezra; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Places the limited knowledge of the psychological problems of American Indian and Alaska Native children in context of general child psychiatric epidemiology, using the taxonomy of the American Psychiatric Association's third "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual." Available from: White Cloud Center, Gaines Hall UOHSC, 840 Southwest Gaines…

  11. Recommendations for Working with African American Parents of Primary School Children in Low-Resourced Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sejal; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Sanders, Tiffany; Goodman, Rachael

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a strength-based discussion of the relationship between parenting values of low-income African Americans and the academic performance of their school-aged children. Using resilience theory as a framework (Seccombe, 2002), the authors suggest that African American parents in low-resourced communities have…

  12. African American Fathers' Involvement in Their Children's School-Based Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated African American fathers' involvement in the school-based lives of their elementary-aged children using the Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler model of parent involvement and Epstein's framework of involvement. Questionnaires were administered to 101 African American males in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States.…

  13. Rationales for Support That African American Grandmothers Provide to Their Children Who Are Parenting Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumo, Jen'nea; Dancy, Barbara; Julion, Wrenetha; Wilbur, JoEllen

    2015-01-01

    African American grandmothers are known to be a major source of support for their children who are parenting adolescents, but little is known about why they provide support. The purpose of this study was to describe the kinds of support provided by African American maternal and paternal grandmothers to their parenting adolescents and the reasons…

  14. The American Hero in Children's Literature: A Standards-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzow, Carol; Butzow, John

    2005-01-01

    By means of 30 children's picture books--with stories set in times ranging from the early settlement of American until today--this book explores the characteristics of American heroes and the ways in which they have influenced our history, our way of life, and the principles upon which our culture has developed.

  15. Projecting invasion risk of non-native watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata and Nerodia sipedon in the western United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Rose

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs are increasingly used to project the potential distribution of introduced species outside their native range. Such studies rarely explicitly evaluate potential conflicts with native species should the range of introduced species expand. Two snake species native to eastern North America, Nerodia fasciata and Nerodia sipedon, have been introduced to California where they represent a new stressor to declining native amphibians, fish, and reptiles. To project the potential distributions of these non-native watersnakes in western North America, we built ensemble SDMs using MaxEnt, Boosted Regression Trees, and Random Forests and habitat and climatic variables. We then compared the overlap between the projected distribution of invasive watersnakes and the distributions of imperiled native amphibians, fish, and reptiles that can serve as prey or competitors for the invaders, to estimate the risk to native species posed by non-native watersnakes. Large areas of western North America were projected to be climatically suitable for both species of Nerodia according to our ensemble SDMs, including much of central California. The potential distributions of both N. fasciata and N. sipedon overlap extensively with the federally threatened Giant Gartersnake, Thamnophis gigas, which inhabits a similar ecological niche. N. fasciata also poses risk to the federally threatened California Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma californiense, whereas N. sipedon poses risk to some amphibians of conservation concern, including the Foothill Yellow-legged Frog, Rana boylii. We conclude that non-native watersnakes in California can likely inhabit ranges of several native species of conservation concern that are expected to suffer as prey or competing species for these invaders. Action should be taken now to eradicate or control these invasions before detrimental impacts on native species are widespread. Our methods can be applied broadly to quantify

  16. Antipredator responses by native mosquitofish to non-native cichlids: An examination of the role of prey naiveté

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehage, Jennifer S.; Dunlop, Katherine L.; Loftus, William F.

    2009-01-01

    The strong impact of non-native predators in aquatic systems is thought to relate to the evolutionary naiveté of prey. Due to isolation and limited dispersal, this naiveté may be relatively high in freshwater systems. In this study, we tested this notion by examining the antipredator response of native mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, to two non-native predators found in the Everglades, the African jewelfish,Hemichromis letourneuxi, and the Mayan cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus. We manipulated prey naiveté by using two mosquitofish populations that varied in their experience with the recent invader, the African jewelfish, but had similar levels of experience with the longer-established Mayan cichlid. Specifically, we tested these predictions: (1) predator hunting modes differed between the two predators, (2) predation rates would be higher by the novel jewelfish predator, (3) particularly on the naive population living where jewelfish have not invaded yet, (4) antipredator responses would be stronger to Mayan cichlids due to greater experience and weaker and/or ineffective to jewelfish, and (5) especially weakest by the naive population. We assayed prey and predator behavior, and prey mortality in lab aquaria where both predators and prey were free-ranging. Predator hunting modes and habitat domains differed, with jewelfish being more active search predators that used slightly higher parts of the water column and less of the habitat structure relative to Mayan cichlids. In disagreement with our predictions, predation rates were similar between the two predators, antipredator responses were stronger to African jewelfish (except for predator inspections), and there was no difference in response between jewelfish-savvy and jewelfish-naive populations. These results suggest that despite the novelty of introduced predators, prey may be able to respond appropriately if non-native predator archetypes are similar enough to those of native predators, if prey rely

  17. Versatility of non-native forms of human cytochrome c: pH and micellar concentration dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthieu; Metzinger-Le Meuth, Valérie; Chevance, Soizic; Delalande, Olivier; Bondon, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its electron transfer activity, cytochrome c is now known to trigger apoptosis via peroxidase activity. This new function is related to a structural modification of the cytochrome upon association with anionic lipids, particularly cardiolipin present in the mitochondrial membrane. However, the exact nature of the non-native state induced by this interaction remains an active subject of debate. In this work, using human cytochromes c (native and two single-histidine mutants and the corresponding double mutant) and micelles as a hydrophobic medium, we succeeded, through UV-visible spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy, in fully characterizing the nature of the sixth ligand replacing the native methionine. Furthermore, careful pH titrations permitted the identification of the amino acids involved in the iron binding over a range of pH values. Replacement of the methionine by lysine was only observed at pH above 8.5, whereas histidine binding is dependent on both pH and micelle concentration. The pH variation range for histidine protonation is relatively narrow and is consistent with the mitochondrial intermembrane pH changes occurring during apoptosis. These results allow us to rule out lysine as the sixth ligand at pH values close to neutrality and reinforce the role of histidines (preferentially His33 vs. His26) as the main candidate to replace methionine in the non-native cytochrome c. Finally, on the basis of these results and molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a 3D model for non-native cytochrome c in a micellar environment.

  18. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of native and non-native Pinus and Quercus species in a common garden of 35-year-old trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocha, Lidia K; Kałucka, Izabela; Stasińska, Małgorzata; Nowak, Witold; Dabert, Mirosława; Leski, Tomasz; Rudawska, Maria; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2012-02-01

    Non-native tree species have been widely planted or have become naturalized in most forested landscapes. It is not clear if native trees species collectively differ in ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity and communities from that of non-native tree species. Alternatively, EMF species community similarity may be more determined by host plant phylogeny than by whether the plant is native or non-native. We examined these unknowns by comparing two genera, native and non-native Quercus robur and Quercus rubra and native and non-native Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra in a 35-year-old common garden in Poland. Using molecular and morphological approaches, we identified EMF species from ectomycorrhizal root tips and sporocarps collected in the monoculture tree plots. A total of 69 EMF species were found, with 38 species collected only as sporocarps, 18 only as ectomycorrhizas, and 13 both as ectomycorrhizas and sporocarps. The EMF species observed were all native and commonly associated with a Holarctic range in distribution. We found that native Q. robur had ca. 120% higher total EMF species richness than the non-native Q. rubra, while native P. sylvestris had ca. 25% lower total EMF species richness than non-native P. nigra. Thus, across genera, there was no evidence that native species have higher EMF species diversity than exotic species. In addition, we found a higher similarity in EMF communities between the two Pinus species than between the two Quercus species. These results support the naturalization of non-native trees by means of mutualistic associations with cosmopolitan and novel fungi.

  19. Sexual Health Discussions between African-American Mothers and Mothers of Latino Descent and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ashley; Ellis, Monica U.; Castellanos, Ted; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Sneed, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined approaches used by African-American mothers and mothers of Latino descent for informal sex-related discussions with their children to inform sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV intervention development efforts. We recruited mothers (of children aged 12-15) from youth service agencies and a university in southern California.…

  20. The impact of acculturation level on weight status and weight outcomes in Mexican American children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently 39% of Hispanic children and adolescents are overweight and obese. Higher levels of acculturation have been shown to be related to obesity in Mexican American adults. Conflicting findings exists regarding this relationship in children and little is known about the impact of acculturation o...

  1. How European American and Taiwanese Mothers Talk to Their Children about Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Fung, Heidi; Bakeman, Roger; Rae, Katharine; Wei, Wanchun

    2014-01-01

    Little cross-cultural research exists on parental socialization of children's learning beliefs. The current study compared 218 conversations between European American and Taiwanese mothers and children (6-10 years) about good and poor learning. The findings support well-documented cultural differences in learning beliefs. European Americans…

  2. Emotion Regulation Strategies in European American and Hong Kong Chinese Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kayan Phoebe; Savina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study explored emotion regulation strategies in middle school European American (N = 54) and Hong Kong Chinese (N = 89) children. Children were presented with scenarios describing a fictitious girl/boy who encountered situations eliciting sadness, anger, and fear. Based on Gross' theory (1998), the survey of emotion regulation strategies was…

  3. Neighborhood characteristics, parenting styles, and children's behavioral problems in Chinese American immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra; Tao, Annie; Chen, Stephen H

    2014-04-01

    Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated children's behavioral problems. Path analysis was conducted to test two hypotheses: (a) parenting styles mediate the relations between neighborhood characteristics and children's behavioral problems, and (b) children's behavioral problems mediate the relations between neighborhood and parenting styles. We found that neighborhood Asian concentration was positively associated with authoritarian parenting, which in turn was associated with Chinese American children's higher externalizing and internalizing problems (by parents' reports). In addition, neighborhood economic disadvantage was positively related to children's externalizing problems (by parents' reports), which in turn predicted lower authoritative parenting. The current results suggest the need to consider multiple pathways in the relations among neighborhood, family, and child adjustment, and they have implications for the prevention and intervention of behavioral problems in Chinese American children.

  4. Parental Influence on Children's Talent Development: A Case Study with Three Chinese American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Echo H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development through a specific perspective of several Chinese American families with gifted children. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the parents, and research questions focused on the daily practice of parenting and parents' beliefs…

  5. Dissemination of an effective weight management program for Mexican American children in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rates of child obesity are epidemic in the United States, and Mexican American children are at particular risk. We have found an intensive, multi-component, school-based, weight management intervention to be efficacious at reducing standardized body mass index (zBMI) in overweight children. Our ...

  6. Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-06-01

    Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style.

  7. Exploring Metacognitive Online Reading Strategies of Non-Native English-Speaking Translation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, Shayesteh

    2016-01-01

    International students, a growing population in US universities, need to possess excellent reading skills in order to succeed. American universities also benefit from admitting students who do not require remedial English classes. Reading online has become an integrated part of college education, which requires students to have additional skills.…

  8. Tales from the "hood:" placing reproductive health communication between African American fathers and children in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohalete, Nnenna; Georges, Jane; Doswell, Willa

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate reproductive health communication between African American fathers and their children. In this qualitative ethnographic study, data were collected through tape-recorded individual interviews about the content and timing of reproductive health communication, the reproductive health values fathers intended to impart to their children, and their comfort level in doing so. A total sample of 19 African-American fathers participated. Data were coded according to the qualitative analytic principles established by Miles and Huberman (1994), and analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis approaches. Although 10 fathers reported feeling uncomfortable having these conversations, 18 reported having reproductive health communication with their children, and most encouraged their sons and daughters to delay sex until adulthood. These conversations were primarily driven by the fear of HIV/AIDS and the negative consequences of sex; however, some conversations were inappropriate for developmental age. African-American fathers may benefit from education to help them have age appropriate reproductive health communication with their children. Registered Nurses and Nurse Practitioners are well positioned to educate African American adolescents and their fathers on reproductive health. Future dyadic African American father-child studies are needed to explore more fully African-American children's perceptions of reproductive health communication and the effect on delaying sex.

  9. The relationship between environment, efficacy beliefs, and academic achievement of low-income African American children in special education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Kristen F; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    African American students are overrepresented in special education. Ecological systems theory, social cognitive theory, and a literature review demonstrate that children's environments, particularly school, and self-efficacy impact the educational outcomes of African American children. Interventions have aimed to improve children's environmental resources and efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of environment, efficacy beliefs, and the Nurse-Family Partnership intervention on the educational achievements of African American children in special education. A secondary data analysis of 126 African American children in special education found that self-efficacy and the number of hours spent in special education were associated with their academic achievement.

  10. An Integrated Conceptual Framework for the Development of Asian American Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Jayanthi; Li, Jin; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Tseng, Vivian; Tirrell, Jonathan; Kiang, Lisa; Mistry, Rashmita; Wang, Yijie

    2016-07-01

    The diversity of circumstances and developmental outcomes among Asian American children and youth poses a challenge for scholars interested in Asian American child development. This article addresses the challenge by offering an integrated conceptual framework based on three broad questions: (a) What are theory-predicated specifications of contexts that are pertinent for the development of Asian American children? (b) What are the domains of development and socialization that are particularly relevant? (c) How can culture as meaning-making processes be integrated in conceptualizations of development? The heuristic value of the conceptual model is illustrated by research on Asian American children and youth that examines the interconnected nature of specific features of context, pertinent aspects of development, and interpretive processes. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. Home range use and movement patterns of non-native feral goats in a tropical island montane dry landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Litton, Creighton M; Hess, Steven C; Kellner, James R; Cordell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Advances in wildlife telemetry and remote sensing technology facilitate studies of broad-scale movements of ungulates in relation to phenological shifts in vegetation. In tropical island dry landscapes, home range use and movements of non-native feral goats (Capra hircus) are largely unknown, yet this information is important to help guide the conservation and restoration of some of the world's most critically endangered ecosystems. We hypothesized that feral goats would respond to resource pulses in vegetation by traveling to areas of recent green-up. To address this hypothesis, we fitted six male and seven female feral goats with Global Positioning System (GPS) collars equipped with an Argos satellite upload link to examine goat movements in relation to the plant phenology using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Movement patterns of 50% of males and 40% of females suggested conditional movement between non-overlapping home ranges throughout the year. A shift in NDVI values corresponded with movement between primary and secondary ranges of goats that exhibited long-distance movement, suggesting that vegetation phenology as captured by NDVI is a good indicator of the habitat and movement patterns of feral goats in tropical island dry landscapes. In the context of conservation and restoration of tropical island landscapes, the results of our study identify how non-native feral goats use resources across a broad landscape to sustain their populations and facilitate invasion of native plant communities.

  12. Application of Native Speaker Models for Identifying Deviations in Rhetorical Moves in Non-Native Speaker Manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assef Khalili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Explicit teaching of generic conventions of a text genre, usually extracted from native-speaker (NS manuscripts, has long been emphasized in the teaching of Academic Writing inEnglish for Specific Purposes (henceforthESP classes, both in theory and practice. While consciousness-raising about rhetorical structure can be instrumental to non-native speakers(NNS, it has to be admitted that most works done in the field of ESP have tended to focus almost exclusively on native-speaker (NS productions, giving scant attention to non-native speaker (NNS manuscripts. That is, having outlined established norms for good writing on the basis of NS productions, few have been inclined to provide a descriptive account of NNS attempts at trying to produce a research article (RA in English. That is what we have tried to do in the present research. Methods: We randomly selected 20 RAs in dentistry and used two well-established models for results and discussion sections to try to describe the move structure of these articles and show the points of divergence from the established norms. Results: The results pointed to significant divergences that could seriously compromise the quality of an RA. Conclusion: It is believed that the insights gained on the deviations in NNS manuscripts could prove very useful in designing syllabi for ESP classes.

  13. Development of aquatic life criteria for triclosan and comparison of the sensitivity between native and non-native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Liu, Zheng-Tao; Yan, Zhen-Guang; Zhang, Cong; Wang, Wei-Li; Zhou, Jun-Li; Pei, Shu-Wei

    2013-09-15

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent which is used as a broad-spectrum bacteriostatic and found in personal care products, and due to this it is widely spread in the aquatic environment. However, there is no paper dealing with the aquatic life criteria of TCS, mainly result from the shortage of toxicity data of different taxonomic levels. In the present study, toxicity data were obtained from 9 acute toxicity tests and 3 chronic toxicity tests using 9 Chinese native aquatic species from different taxonomic levels, and the aquatic life criteria was derived using 3 methods. Furthermore, differences of species sensitivity distributions (SSD) between native and non-native species were compared. Among the tested species, demersal fish Misgurnus anguillicaudatus was the most sensitive species, and the fishes were more sensitive than the aquatic invertebrates of Annelid and insect, and the insect was the least sensitive species. The comparison showed that there was no significant difference between SSDs constructed from native and non-native taxa. Finally, a criterion maximum concentration of 0.009 mg/L and a criterion continuous concentration of 0.002 mg/L were developed based on different taxa, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Home range use and movement patterns of non-native feral goats in a tropical island montane dry landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Litton, Creighton M.; Hess, Steve; Kellner, James; Cordell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Advances in wildlife telemetry and remote sensing technology facilitate studies of broad-scale movements of ungulates in relation to phenological shifts in vegetation. In tropical island dry landscapes, home range use and movements of non-native feral goats (Capra hircus) are largely unknown, yet this information is important to help guide the conservation and restoration of some of the world’s most critically endangered ecosystems. We hypothesized that feral goats would respond to resource pulses in vegetation by traveling to areas of recent green-up. To address this hypothesis, we fitted six male and seven female feral goats with Global Positioning System (GPS) collars equipped with an Argos satellite upload link to examine goat movements in relation to the plant phenology using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Movement patterns of 50% of males and 40% of females suggested conditional movement between non-overlapping home ranges throughout the year. A shift in NDVI values corresponded with movement between primary and secondary ranges of goats that exhibited long-distance movement, suggesting that vegetation phenology as captured by NDVI is a good indicator of the habitat and movement patterns of feral goats in tropical island dry landscapes. In the context of conservation and restoration of tropical island landscapes, the results of our study identify how non-native feral goats use resources across a broad landscape to sustain their populations and facilitate invasion of native plant communities.

  15. Extensive analysis of native and non-native Centaurea solstitialis L. populations across the world shows no traces of polyploidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Elena Irimia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea solstitialis L. (yellow starthistle, Asteraceae is a Eurasian native plant introduced as an exotic into North and South America, and Australia, where it is regarded as a noxious invasive. Changes in ploidy level have been found to be responsible for numerous plant biological invasions, as they are involved in trait shifts critical to invasive success, like increased growth rate and biomass, longer life-span, or polycarpy. C. solstitialis had been reported to be diploid (2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, however, actual data are scarce and sometimes contradictory. We determined for the first time the absolute nuclear DNA content by flow cytometry and estimated ploidy level in 52 natural populations of C. solstitialis across its native and non-native ranges, around the world. All the C. solstitialis populations screened were found to be homogeneously diploid (average 2C value of 1.72 pg, SD = ±0.06 pg, with no significant variation in DNA content between invasive and non-invasive genotypes. We did not find any meaningful difference among the extensive number of native and non-native C. solstitialis populations sampled around the globe, indicating that the species invasive success is not due to changes in genome size or ploidy level.

  16. One Way or Another: Evidence for Perceptual Asymmetry in Pre-attentive Learning of Non-native Contrasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liquan Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Research investigating listeners’ neural sensitivity to speech sounds has largely focused on segmental features. We examined Australian English listeners’ perception and learning of a supra-segmental feature, pitch direction in a non-native tonal contrast, using a passive oddball paradigm and electroencephalography. The stimuli were two contours generated from naturally produced high-level and high-falling tones in Mandarin Chinese, differing only in pitch direction (Liu and Kager, 2014. While both contours had similar pitch onsets, the pitch offset of the falling contour was lower than that of the level one. The contrast was presented in two orientations (standard and deviant reversed and tested in two blocks with the order of block presentation counterbalanced. Mismatch negativity (MMN responses showed that listeners discriminated the non-native tonal contrast only in the second block, reflecting indications of learning through exposure during the first block. In addition, listeners showed a later MMN peak for their second block of test relative to listeners who did the same block first, suggesting linguistic (as opposed to acoustic processing or a misapplication of perceptual strategies from the first to the second block. The results also showed a perceptual asymmetry for change in pitch direction: listeners who encountered a falling tone deviant in the first block had larger frontal MMN amplitudes than listeners who encountered a level tone deviant in the first block. The implications of our findings for second language speech and the developmental trajectory for tone perception are discussed.

  17. Extensive analysis of native and non-native Centaurea solstitialis L. populations across the world shows no traces of polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, Ramona-Elena; Montesinos, Daniel; Eren, Özkan; Lortie, Christopher J; French, Kristine; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Sotes, Gastón J; Hierro, José L; Jorge, Andreia; Loureiro, João

    2017-01-01

    Centaurea solstitialis L. (yellow starthistle, Asteraceae) is a Eurasian native plant introduced as an exotic into North and South America, and Australia, where it is regarded as a noxious invasive. Changes in ploidy level have been found to be responsible for numerous plant biological invasions, as they are involved in trait shifts critical to invasive success, like increased growth rate and biomass, longer life-span, or polycarpy. C . solstitialis had been reported to be diploid (2 n  = 2 x  = 16 chromosomes), however, actual data are scarce and sometimes contradictory. We determined for the first time the absolute nuclear DNA content by flow cytometry and estimated ploidy level in 52 natural populations of C . solstitialis across its native and non-native ranges, around the world. All the C. solstitialis populations screened were found to be homogeneously diploid (average 2C value of 1.72 pg, SD = ±0.06 pg), with no significant variation in DNA content between invasive and non-invasive genotypes. We did not find any meaningful difference among the extensive number of native and non-native C . solstitialis populations sampled around the globe, indicating that the species invasive success is not due to changes in genome size or ploidy level.

  18. Impacts of non-native Norway spruce plantation on abundance and species richness of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Elek

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of non-native Norway spruce plantation on the abundance and species richness of carabids were studied in the Bükk National Park in Hungary, central Europe. Pitfall catches from recently established (5 yr old, young (15 yr after planting, middle-aged (30 yr after planting, old Norway spruce Picea abies plantation (50 yr after planting, and a native submontane beech forest (Fagetum sylvaticae as a control stand were compared.

    Our results showed that deciduous forest species decreased significantly in abundance in the plantations, and appeared in high abundance only in the native beech forest. Furthermore, open habitat species increased remarkably in abundance in the recently established plantation. Carabids were significantly more abundant and species rich in the native forest than in the plantations, while differences were not significant among the plantations. Multiple regression between the abundance and species richness of carabids and twelve environmental measurements showed that pH of the soil, herb cover and density of the carabids’ prey had a significant effect in determining abundance and species richness.

    Our results showed that plantation of non-native Norway spruce species had a detrimental effect on the composition of carabid communities and no regeneration could be observed during the growth of plantations even 50 yr after the establishment. This emphasises the importance of an active nature management practice to facilitate the recolonization of the native species.

  19. Atypical lateralization of ERP response to native and non-native speech in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, Anne M; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A

    2013-07-01

    Language impairment is common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and is often accompanied by atypical neural lateralization. However, it is unclear when in development language impairment or atypical lateralization first emerges. To address these questions, we recorded event-related-potentials (ERPs) to native and non-native speech contrasts longitudinally in infants at risk for ASD (HRA) over the first year of life to determine whether atypical lateralization is present as an endophenotype early in development and whether these infants show delay in a very basic precursor of language acquisition: phonemic perceptual narrowing. ERP response for the HRA group to a non-native speech contrast revealed a trajectory of perceptual narrowing similar to a group of low-risk controls (LRC), suggesting that phonemic perceptual narrowing does not appear to be delayed in these high-risk infants. In contrast there were significant group differences in the development of lateralized ERP response to speech: between 6 and 12 months the LRC group displayed a lateralized response to the speech sounds, while the HRA group failed to display this pattern. We suggest the possibility that atypical lateralization to speech may be an ASD endophenotype over the first year of life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Work Ethic, Motivation, and Parental Influences in Chinese and North American Children Learning to Play the Piano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Gilles; Huta, Veronika; Liu, YiFei

    2015-01-01

    This study compared 50 Chinese and 100 North American Caucasian children aged 6 to 17 who were learning piano, in terms of their work ethic, motivation, and parental influences. Compared to North American Caucasians, Chinese children and parents believed more strongly that musical ability requires hard work, and Chinese children were more…

  1. "Bien Educado": Measuring the Social Behaviors of Mexican American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Margaret; Cohen, Shana R.; McGuire, Leah Walker; Yamada, Hiro; Fuller, Bruce; Mireles, Laurie; Scott, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Young children's expected social behaviors develop within particular cultural contexts and contribute to their academic experience in large part through their relationships with their teachers. Commonly used measures focus on children's problem behaviors, developed from psychopathology traditions, and rarely situate normative and positive…

  2. Evaluating the contribution of differences in lean mass compartments for resting energy expenditure in African American and Caucasian American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadney, M M; Shareef, F; Marwitz, S E; Brady, S M; Yanovski, S Z; DeLany, J P; Yanovski, J A

    2018-04-26

    Resting energy expenditure (REE), adjusted for total lean mass (LM), is lower in African American (AA) than Caucasian American (CA) children. Some adult studies suggest that AA-CA differences in lean mass compartments explain this REE difference. Similar data are limited in children. To evaluate differences in compartment-specific lean mass between AA and CA children and examine the individual contributions of high-metabolic rate-at-rest trunk lean mass (TrLM) and low-metabolic-rate-at-rest appendicular lean mass (AppLM) for AA-CA differences in REE. We studied a convenience sample of 594 AA (n = 281) and CA (n = 313) children. REE was measured by using indirect calorimetry; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition. ANCOVAs were performed to examine AA-CA differences in TrLM, AppLM and REE. After accounting for age, sex, height, pubertal development, bone mass and adiposity, REE was evaluated adjusting for total LM (model A) and separately adjusting for TrLM and AppLM (model B). African American children had greater adjusted AppLM (17.8 ± 0.2 [SE] vs. 16.0 ± 0.2 kg, p < 0.001) and lower TrLM (17.2 ± 0.2 vs. 17.7 ± 0.2 kg, p = 0.022) than CA children. REE adjusted for total LM was 77 ± 16 kcal/d lower in AA than CA (p < 0.001). However, after accounting separately for AppLM and TrLM, the discrepancy in REE between the groups declined to 28 ± 19 kcal/d (p = 0.14). In the adjusted model, both TrLM (p < 0.001) and AppLM (p < 0.027) were independently associated with REE. In children, AA-CA differences in REE appear mostly attributable to differences in body composition. Lower REE in AA children is likely due to lower TrLM and greater AppLM. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Using Electronic Health Records to Examine Disease Risk in Small Populations: Obesity Among American Indian Children, Wisconsin, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Weinert, Bethany A; Godfrey, Liz; Adams, Alexandra K; Hanrahan, Lawrence P

    2016-02-25

    Tribe-based or reservation-based data consistently show disproportionately high obesity rates among American Indian children, but little is known about the approximately 75% of American Indian children living off-reservation. We examined obesity among American Indian children seeking care off-reservation by using a database of de-identified electronic health records linked to community-level census variables. Data from electronic health records from American Indian children and a reference sample of non-Hispanic white children collected from 2007 through 2012 were abstracted to determine obesity prevalence. Related community-level and individual-level risk factors (eg, economic hardship, demographics) were examined using logistic regression. The obesity rate for American Indian children (n = 1,482) was double the rate among non-Hispanic white children (n = 81,042) (20.0% vs 10.6%, P American Indian children were less likely to have had a well-child visit (55.9% vs 67.1%, P American Indian records (18.3% vs 14.6%, P obesity risk among American Indian children (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-2.1) independent of age, sex, economic hardship, insurance status, and geographic designation. An electronic health record data set demonstrated high obesity rates for nonreservation-based American Indian children, rates that had not been previously assessed. This low-cost method may be used for assessing health risk for other understudied populations and to plan and evaluate targeted interventions.

  4. Low-Income, African American and American Indian Children's Viewpoints on Body Image Assessment Tools and Body Satisfaction: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Lindsay; Smith, Chery

    2018-03-03

    Objectives Pediatric obesity is complicated by many factors including psychological issues, such as body dissatisfaction. Body image assessment tools are used with children to measure their acceptance of their body shape or image. Limited research has been conducted with African American and American Indian children to understand their opinions on assessment tools created. This study investigated: (a) children's perception about body image and (b) differences between two body image instruments among low-income, multi-ethnic children. Methods This study uses mixed methodology including focus groups (qualitative) and body image assessment instruments (quantitative). Fifty-one children participated (25 girls, 26 boys); 53% of children identified as African American and 47% as American Indian. The average age was 10.4 years. Open coding methods were used by identify themes from focus group data. SPSS was used for quantitative analysis. Results Children preferred the Figure Rating Scale (FRS/silhouette) instrument over the Children's Body Image Scale (CBIS/photo) because their body parts and facial features were more detailed. Children formed their body image perception with influence from their parents and the media. Children verbalized that they have experienced negative consequences related to poor body image including disordered eating habits, depression, and bullying. Healthy weight children are also aware of weight-related bullying that obese and overweight children face. Conclusions for Practice Children prefer that the images on a body image assessment tool have detailed facial features and are clothed. Further research into body image assessment tools for use with African American and American Indian children is needed.

  5. Narrative performance of gifted African American school-aged children from low-income backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms.

  6. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  7. The moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior.

  8. Trends of overweight and obesity among white and American Indian school children in South Dakota, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Mary O; Biskeborn, Kristin; Christensen, Mathew; Cushing, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among white and American Indian children in a predominantly rural state. Using a repeated, cross-sectional design of school children's height and weight, the study sample included 361,352 measures of children who were 5.0-19.9 years, attending school across 13 academic calendar years. Trained staff measured height, weight, and recorded gender, age, and race. Data were voluntarily reported to the State Department of Health. American Indian children consistently had higher rates of overweight and obesity compared to white children. Across the years, 16.3% of white students were overweight, whereas 19.3% of American Indian students were overweight. In addition, 14.5% of white children were obese and 25.9% of American Indian children were obese. Examining by rural versus urban schools, prevalence of overweight had been increasing among white male and female students and American Indian female students living in rural areas. Obesity is also increasing among rural white females and male and female American Indian children. The findings here suggest that although American Indian children are at higher risk, in general, compared to white children, rural populations in general are experiencing increases in childhood overweight and obesity. Targeted rural interventions beginning at an early age are necessary to improve the health of rural children, especially in American Indian communities. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  9. Discrimination of Arabic Contrasts by American Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mahmoud, Mahmoud S.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on second language perception of non-native contrasts. The study specifically tests the perceptual assimilation model (PAM) by examining American learners' ability to discriminate Arabic contrasts. Twenty two native American speakers enrolled in a university level Arabic language program took part in a forced choice AXB…

  10. The interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and a non-native predators on stream-rearing salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J.; Stewart-Koster, Ben; Olden, Julian D.; Ruesch, Aaron S.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Butcher, Don P.; Crown, Julia K.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting how climate change is likely to interact with myriad other stressors that threaten species of conservation concern is an essential challenge in aquatic ecosystems. This study provides a framework to accomplish this task in salmon-bearing streams of the northwestern United States, where land-use related reductions in riparian shading have caused changes in stream thermal regimes, and additional warming from projected climate change may result in significant losses of coldwater fish habitat over the next century. Predatory non-native smallmouth bass have also been introduced into many northwestern streams and their range is likely to expand as streams warm, presenting an additional challenge to the persistence of threatened Pacific salmon. The goal of this work was to forecast the interactive effects of climate change, riparian management, and non-native species on stream-rearing salmon, and to evaluate the capacity of restoration to mitigate these effects. We intersected downscaled global climate forecasts with a local-scale water temperature model to predict mid- and end-of-century temperatures in streams in the Columbia River basin; we compared one stream that is thermally impaired due to the loss of riparian vegetation and another that is cooler and has a largely intact riparian corridor. Using the forecasted stream temperatures in conjunction with fish-habitat models, we predicted how stream-rearing Chinook salmon and bass distributions would change as each stream warmed. In the highly modified stream, end-of-century warming may cause near total loss of Chinook salmon rearing habitat and a complete invasion of the upper watershed by bass. In the less modified stream, bass were thermally restricted from the upstream-most areas. In both systems, temperature increases resulted in higher predicted spatial overlap between stream-rearing Chinook salmon and potentially predatory bass in the early summer (2-4-fold increase) and greater abundance of bass. We

  11. Dietary Supplements in American Children: Scientific vs Marketing Justifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivetti, Louis E.

    2002-01-01

    The American public receives conflicting messages from dietitians, nutritionists, physicians, and manufacturers regarding food supplements. Consumers commonly distrust scientists and justify supplement use based upon word of mouth and friendship patterns. Scientific-based education regarding supplement use is vital in the present atmosphere where consumer misinformation is rampant.

  12. Background television in the homes of American children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapierre, M.A.; Piotrowski, J.; Linebarger, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown the negative consequences associated with children’s exposure to background television. Despite this evidence, researchers do not have reliable estimates of the prevalence of background television in American homes. This study sought to address this gap by providing the first

  13. Lexical exposure to native language dialects can improve non-native phonetic discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Annie J; Viswanathan, Navin

    2018-04-01

    Nonnative phonetic learning is an area of great interest for language researchers, learners, and educators alike. In two studies, we examined whether nonnative phonetic discrimination of Hindi dental and retroflex stops can be improved by exposure to lexical items bearing the critical nonnative stops. We extend the lexical retuning paradigm of Norris, McQueen, and Cutler (Cognitive Psychology, 47, 204-238, 2003) by having naive American English (AE)-speaking participants perform a pretest-training-posttest procedure. They performed an AXB discrimination task with the Hindi retroflex and dental stops before and after transcribing naturally produced words from an Indian English speaker that either contained these tokens or not. Only those participants who heard words with the critical nonnative phones improved in their posttest discrimination. This finding suggests that exposure to nonnative phones in native lexical contexts supports learning of difficult nonnative phonetic discrimination.

  14. Brief report: parenting styles and obesity in Mexican American children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma; Power, Thomas G

    2010-04-01

    To assess longitudinally the relations between four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, uninvolved, and indulgent) and child weight status in Mexican American families. Sixty-nine low-income Mexican American mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children participated in a 4-year longitudinal study. Mothers completed demographic and parenting measures. Children's body weight and height were assessed annually. Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. At baseline, 65% of children were found to be normal weight, 14% were overweight, and 21% were obese. Analyses examined how parenting styles at baseline predicted child's weight status 3 years later, controlling for initial weight status. Children of indulgent mothers were more likely to become overweight 3 years later than children of authoritative or authoritarian mothers. This study provides longitudinal evidence for the role of indulgent parenting in predicting overweight in Mexican American children. Possible mediating factors that may account for this relationship (e.g., dietary patterns, physical activity patterns, and children's self-regulation) are considered.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of dental erosion in American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Mariam; Hottel, Timothy L; Hong, Liang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of dental erosion in children aged 2-4 years old and 12 years old. 243 subjects were recruited from daycare centers, preschools, and grade schools; they received dental examinations assessing their condition of dental erosion, including both depth and area of tooth surface loss on four maxillary incisors. Questionnaires were given to the subjects to obtain socio-demographic, oral health behaviors at home, and access to dental care. Dental erosion was analyzed and risk factors were assessed using Chi-Square and logistic regression analysis. The subjects were 60% Caucasians, 31% Black, 7% Hispanic and others were 2%. 34% of children could not get the dental care they needed within the past 12 months and 61% of all children brushed their teeth twice or more daily. Overall, 12% of study children had dental erosion with 13% for 2-4 years old and 10% for 12 years old, with the majority of erosive lesions within enamel. Family income (OR 3.98, p = 0.021) and acidic fruit juice consumption (OR 2.38, p = 0.038) were significant risk factors for dental erosion, even after controlling for other factors, such as source of drinking water and oral hygiene using logistic regression analysis. Dental erosion is a relatively common problem among the children in this study and it is seen as a multi-factorial process.

  16. Bilingual children's social preferences hinge on accent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJesus, Jasmine M; Hwang, Hyesung G; Dautel, Jocelyn B; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2017-12-01

    Past research finds that monolingual and bilingual children prefer native speakers to individuals who speak in unfamiliar foreign languages or accents. Do children in bilingual contexts socially distinguish among familiar languages and accents and, if so, how do their social preferences based on language and accent compare? The current experiments tested whether 5- to 7-year-olds in two bilingual contexts in the United States demonstrate social preferences among the languages and accents that are present in their social environments. We compared children's preferences based on language (i.e., English vs. their other native language) and their preferences based on accent (i.e., English with a native accent vs. English with a non-native [yet familiar] accent). In Experiment 1, children attending a French immersion school demonstrated no preference between English and French speakers but preferred American-accented English to French-accented English. In Experiment 2, bilingual Korean American children demonstrated no preference between English and Korean speakers but preferred American-accented English to Korean-accented English. Across studies, bilingual children's preferences based on accent (i.e., American-accented English over French- or Korean-accented English) were not related to their own language dominance. These results suggest that children from diverse linguistic backgrounds demonstrate social preferences for native-accented speakers. Implications for understanding the potential relation between social reasoning and language acquisition are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Soil nematode community under the non-native trees in the Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushchuk Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The particularities of soil nematode communities of the rhizosphere of non-native trees were studied in the Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University (Republic of Karelia. Taxonomic diversity, abundance, community structure and ecological indices derived from nematode fauna analysis were used as the evaluation parameters. Nematode fauna included 51 genera, 6 of them were plant parasitic. The dominant eco-trophic group in the nematode community structure of coniferous trees was bacterial feeders; fungal feeders in most cases were observed in the second numbers. The contribution of bacterial feeders was decreased and plant parasites were increased in eco-trophic structure of nematode communities of deciduous trees in compared with coniferous trees. Analysis of ecological indices showed that the state of soil nematode communities reflects complex, structured (stable soil food web in the biocenoses with deciduous trees, and degraded (basal food web – under coniferous trees.

  18. Invaders in hot water: a simple decontamination method to prevent the accidental spread of aquatic invasive non-native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lucy G; Dunn, Alison M; Rosewarne, Paula J; Stebbing, Paul D

    Watersports equipment can act as a vector for the introduction and spread of invasive non native species (INNS) in freshwater environments. To support advice given to recreational water users under the UK Government's Check Clean Dry biosecurity campaign and ensure its effectiveness at killing a range of aquatic INNS, we conducted a survival experiment on seven INNS which pose a high risk to UK freshwaters. The efficacy of exposure to hot water (45 °C, 15 min) was tested as a method by which waters users could 'clean' their equipment and was compared to drying and a control group (no treatment). Hot water had caused 99 % mortality across all species 1 h after treatment and was more effective than drying at all time points (1 h: χ 2  = 117.24, p  clean equipment. We recommend that it is advocated in future biosecurity awareness campaigns.

  19. Interactions between non-native armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) and native Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in artesian springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Loftus, William F.; Reid, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) of the genus Pterygoplichthys are now common throughout much of peninsular Florida. In this paper, we present preliminary observations on interactions between a Pterygoplichthys species, tentatively identified as P. disjunctivus (Weber, 1991), and endangered native Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris (Harlan, 1824), in artesian spring systems in Florida's St. Johns River drainage. The introduced catfish have become abundant in spring habitats, sites used by manatees as winter thermal refuges. In the spring runs, Pterygoplichthys regularly attaches to manatees and grazes the epibiota on their skin. On occasion, dozens of Pterygoplichthys congregate on individual manatees. Manatee responses varied widely; some did not react visibly to attached catfish whereas others appeared agitated and attempted to dislodge the fish. The costs and/or benefits of this interaction to manatees remain unclear.

  20. Invasibility of Mediterranean-climate rivers by non-native fish: the importance of environmental drivers and human pressures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ilhéu

    Full Text Available Invasive species are regarded as a biological pressure to natural aquatic communities. Understanding the factors promoting successful invasions is of great conceptual and practical importance. From a practical point of view, it should help to prevent future invasions and to mitigate the effects of recent invaders through early detection and prioritization of management measures. This study aims to identify the environmental determinants of fish invasions in Mediterranean-climate rivers and evaluate the relative importance of natural and human drivers. Fish communities were sampled in 182 undisturbed and 198 disturbed sites by human activities, belonging to 12 river types defined for continental Portugal within the implementation of the European Union's Water Framework Directive. Pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus (L., and mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki (Girard, were the most abundant non-native species (NNS in the southern river types whereas the Iberian gudgeon, Gobio lozanoi Doadrio and Madeira, was the dominant NNS in the north/centre. Small northern mountain streams showed null or low frequency of occurrence and abundance of NNS, while southern lowland river types with medium and large drainage areas presented the highest values. The occurrence of NNS was significantly lower in undisturbed sites and the highest density of NNS was associated with high human pressure. Results from variance partitioning showed that natural environmental factors determine the distribution of the most abundant NNS while the increase in their abundance and success is explained mainly by human-induced disturbance factors. This study stresses the high vulnerability of the warm water lowland river types to non-native fish invasions, which is amplified by human-induced degradation.

  1. Prey utilisation and trophic overlap between the non native mosquitofish and a native fish in two Mediterranean rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. KALOGIANNI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Non native freshwater fish species have been long implicated in the decline of native Mediterranean ichthyofauna, through hybridization, disease transmission, competition for food and habitat, predation and/or ecosystem alteration; our knowledge, however, on the underlying mechanisms of these ecological impacts remains very limited. To explore the potential for trophic competition between the widespread Eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki and its co-occurring native toothcarp Valencia letourneuxi we compared resource use, feeding strategies, trophic selectivities and diet niche overlap. For this purpose, we studied two populations of the two species from a freshwater and a brackish habitat respectively, characterized by different food resource availabilities. In both habitats, the mosquitofish consumed a greater diversity of invertebrates and preyed on terrestrial invertebrates more frequently than the native toothcarp. Furthermore, in the less diverse and less rich brackish habitat, the non native relied heavily on plant material to balance a decrease in animal prey consumption and modified its individual feeding strategy, whereas these adaptive changes were not apparent in the native species. Their diet overlapped, indicating trophic competition, but this overlap was affected by resource availability variation; in the freshwater habitat, there was limited overlap in their diet, whereas in the brackish habitat, their diets and prey selectivities converged and there was high overlap in resource use, indicative of intense interspecific trophic competition. Overall, it appears that the underlying mechanism of the putative negative impacts of the mosquitofish on the declining Corfu toothcarp is mainly trophic competition, regulated by resource variability, though there is also evidence of larvae predation by the mosquitofish.

  2. Evolution of nesting height in an endangered Hawaiian forest bird in response to a non-native predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwerf, Eric A

    2012-10-01

    The majority of bird extinctions since 1800 have occurred on islands, and non-native predators have been the greatest threat to the persistence of island birds. Island endemic species often lack life-history traits and behaviors that reduce the probability of predation and they can become evolutionarily trapped if they are unable to adapt, but few studies have examined the ability of island species to respond to novel predators. The greatest threat to the persistence of the Oahu Elepaio (Chasiempis ibidis), an endangered Hawaiian forest bird, is nest predation by non-native black rats (Rattus rattus). I examined whether Oahu Elepaio nest placement has changed at the individual and population levels in response to rat predation by measuring nest height and determining whether each nest produced offspring from 1996 to 2011. Average height of Oahu Elepaio nests increased 50% over this 16-year period, from 7.9 m (SE 1.7) to 12.0 m (SE 1.1). There was no net change in height of sequential nests made by individual birds, which means individual elepaios have not learned to place nests higher. Nests ≤3 m off the ground produced offspring less often, and the proportion of such nests declined over time, which suggests that nest-building behavior has evolved through natural selection by predation. Nest success increased over time, which may increase the probability of long-term persistence of the species. Rat control may facilitate the evolution of nesting height by slowing the rate of population decline and providing time for this adaptive response to spread through the population. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Are eavesdroppers multimodal? Sensory exploitation of flo-ral signals by a non-native cockroach Blatta orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. VERGARA, Alejandra TORRES-ARANEDA, Diego A. VILLAGRA, Robert A. RAGUSO, Mary T. K. ARROYO, Cristian A. VILLAGRA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of multi-modal communication has only recently been extended to innate and learned interactions between flowers and their animal visitors, and usually only to pollinators. Here we studied the relevance of floral scent and visual display of a night blooming, putatively hawkmoth-pollinated plant Oenothera acaulis (Onagraceae in the attraction of non-native cockroaches Blatta orientalis (Blattodea: Blattidae, which function as facultative floral larcenists in coastal habitats of central Chile. We experimentally decoupled visual (corolla and olfactory (fragrance stimuli by presenting paper corollas and green mesh bags, with or without a freshly-picked natural flower inside. We then contrasted the behavioral responses of roaches in these treatments with those to the natural combination of traits in actual flowers and their respective control treatments, measuring the roaches’ frequency of first visits, mean and total residence time spent in each treatment. The roaches primarily used olfactory cues when approaching O. acaulis flowers at two biologically relevant spatial scales. In addition, the presence of conspecific roaches had a strong influence on recruitment to the experimental arena, increasing the statistical differences among treatments. Our results suggest a primacy of floral fragrance over visual stimuli in the foraging responses of B. orientalis. Olfactory cues were necessary and sufficient to attract the roaches, and the visual cues presented in our manipulations only marginally increased their attraction within a 20 cm diameter of the stimulus. The full spectrum of floral visitation behavior was not elicited by the artificial flowers, suggesting the need for additional tactile or contact chemosensory stimuli not provided by paper. Although the nitrogenous scent compounds that we found in O. acaulis flowers are almost exclusively found in hawkmoth-pollinated flowers, the attractiveness of these compounds to a non-native

  4. A new species of Oochoristica (Cyclophyllidea: Linstowiidae) from non-native Mediterranean geckos, Hemidactylus turcicus (Sauria: Gekkonidae), from Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R

    2017-06-01

    A new species of cyclophyllidean tapeworm, Oochoristica harschi sp. nov. is described from 2 of 18 (11%) non-native Mediterranean geckos (Hemidactylus turcicus) collected in June 2016 from Tom Green County, Texas, USA The new species has few characteristics in common with 17 species of Oochoristica previously described from Nearctic reptiles. Of this group, O. harschi is most similar to O. macallisteri Bursey and Goldberg, 1996 from the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana from Arizona and California, USA, in number of testes, 14-20 vs. 12-20. However, O. harschi has oval suckers and a long neck compared to the circular suckers and absent neck in O. macallisteri. On comparison with other species of Oochoristica, it was found O. chinensis Jensen, Schmidt and Kuntz, 1983 from the Sino-Japanese realm, O. iguanae Bursey and Goldberg, 1996 from the Neotropical realm, and O. maccoyi Bursey and Goldberg, 1966 from the Panamanian realm were most similar to the new species. However, O. harschi can be differentiated by possessing a much longer neck and a shorter cirrus pouch. It can be further differentiated from O. chinensis by possessing an ovoid vs. an irregular vitellarium, from O. iguanae by having a smaller strobilus (65 vs. 110 mm) as well as an ovoid vs. a triangular vitellarium, and from O. maccoyi by having significantly more proglottids (145 vs. 89) and a longer strobilus (65 vs. 20 mm). The new species is the fifth species of Oochoristica reported from non-native H. turcicus and the 18th species described from the Nearctic region.

  5. European-American Children's and Adolescents' Evaluations of Interracial Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, M; Kelly, M; Richardson, C; Crystal, D; Ruck, M

    2010-05-01

    No research, to date, has investigated the role of ethnic school composition (and intergroup contact) on European-American youth's use of stereotypes to explain interracial discomfort in the context of peer exclusion. In this study European-American 4 th , 7 th and 10 th grade students ( N = 414), attending low and high ethnically diverse public schools (with low and high self-reports of cross-race/ethnic friendships, respectively) evaluated three contexts of interracial exclusion (at lunch time, at a school dance, and at a sleepover). In addition to age and context effects, participants enrolled in high diversity schools were less likely to use stereotypes to explain racial discomfort, more likely to view racial exclusion as wrong, and more likely to estimate that racial exclusion occurs, than were participants enrolled in low diversity schools. These findings have implications for the role of social experience on racial attitudes and judgments about exclusion.

  6. Home Literacy Environment of African American Head Start Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janese Daniels

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded.  These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development.  This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices.  51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated.  The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes.  Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices.  Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.

  7. Neighborhood Environment and Internalizing Problems in African American Children

    OpenAIRE

    Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Whitaker, Damiya; Smart, Mieka; Leaf, Philip; Cooley-Strickland, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in the association between environment and internalizing problems in a sample of predominately African American schoolchildren. Internalizing problems was assessed using the Youth Self Report. Violence and alcohol and other drug (AOD) exposure subscales were created using observational assessments of neighborhood blocks. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between neighborhood environment and internalizing problems. For each A...

  8. Maternal correlates of 2-year-old American Indian children's social-emotional development in a Northern Plains tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarche, Michelle C; Croy, Calvin D; Crow, Cecelia Big; Mitchell, Christina M; Spicer, Paul

    2009-07-01

    The developmental experiences of very young American Indian children today are not well documented in the current literature. The present study sought to explore the social-emotional development of American Indian toddlers living on a Northern Plains reservation, as a function of maternal variables. Mothers completed self-report questionnaires about their experiences and their children's development. Observer ratings of children's development also were conducted. Maternal stress, substance use/abuse, perceptions of stress in the mother-child relationship, social support, and American Indian cultural identity were significantly related to children's social-emotional development. This study is the first to explore these relationships in a Northern Plains American Indian sample of young children and their mothers. Results suggest possible points of intervention for improving the developmental outcomes of very young American Indian children. Copyright © 2009 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  9. Two sides of a coin: Effects of climate change on the native and non-native distribution of Colossoma macropomum in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Taise M; Bailly, Dayani; Almeida, Bia A; Santos, Natália C L; Gimenez, Barbara C G; Landgraf, Guilherme O; Sales, Paulo C L; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Cassemiro, Fernanda A S; Rangel, Thiago F; Diniz-Filho, José A F; Agostinho, Angelo A; Gomes, Luiz C

    2017-01-01

    Climate change and species invasions interact in nature, disrupting biological communities. Based on this knowledge, we simultaneously assessed the effects of climate change on the native distribution of the Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum as well as on its invasiveness across river basins of South America, using ecological niche modeling. We used six niche models within the ensemble forecast context to predict the geographical distribution of C. macropomum for the present time, 2050 and 2080. Given that this species has been continuously introduced into non-native South American basins by fish farming activities, we added the locations of C. macropomum farms into the modeling process to obtain a more realistic scenario of its invasive potential. Based on modelling outputs we mapped climate refuge areas at different times. Our results showed that a plenty of climatically suitable areas for the occurrence of C. macropomum occurrence are located outside the original basins at the present time and that its invasive potential is greatly amplified by fish farms. Simulations of future geographic ranges revealed drastic range contraction in the native region, implying concerns not only with respect to the species conservation but also from a socio-economic perspective since the species is a cornerstone of artisanal and commercial fisheries in the Amazon. Although the invasive potential is projected to decrease in the face of climate change, climate refugia will concentrate in Paraná River, Southeast Atlantic and East Atlantic basins, putting intense, negative pressures on the native fish fauna these regions. Our findings show that short and long-term management actions are required for: i) the conservation of natural stocks of C. macropomum in the Amazon, and ii) protecting native fish fauna in the climate refuges of the invaded regions.

  10. Two sides of a coin: Effects of climate change on the native and non-native distribution of Colossoma macropomum in South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise M Lopes

    Full Text Available Climate change and species invasions interact in nature, disrupting biological communities. Based on this knowledge, we simultaneously assessed the effects of climate change on the native distribution of the Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum as well as on its invasiveness across river basins of South America, using ecological niche modeling. We used six niche models within the ensemble forecast context to predict the geographical distribution of C. macropomum for the present time, 2050 and 2080. Given that this species has been continuously introduced into non-native South American basins by fish farming activities, we added the locations of C. macropomum farms into the modeling process to obtain a more realistic scenario of its invasive potential. Based on modelling outputs we mapped climate refuge areas at different times. Our results showed that a plenty of climatically suitable areas for the occurrence of C. macropomum occurrence are located outside the original basins at the present time and that its invasive potential is greatly amplified by fish farms. Simulations of future geographic ranges revealed drastic range contraction in the native region, implying concerns not only with respect to the species conservation but also from a socio-economic perspective since the species is a cornerstone of artisanal and commercial fisheries in the Amazon. Although the invasive potential is projected to decrease in the face of climate change, climate refugia will concentrate in Paraná River, Southeast Atlantic and East Atlantic basins, putting intense, negative pressures on the native fish fauna these regions. Our findings show that short and long-term management actions are required for: i the conservation of natural stocks of C. macropomum in the Amazon, and ii protecting native fish fauna in the climate refuges of the invaded regions.

  11. Extending the lessons of educational television with young American children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, J.; Jennings, N.A.; Linebarger, D.L.

    2013-01-01

    As the availability of children's educational television has increased, initiatives to expand the educational impact of programs have emerged. One such initiative is experiential mediation, a form of mediation in which the viewer physically engages with materials designed to extend the program's

  12. Effects of Image Gently and the North American guidelines: administered activities in children at 13 North American pediatric hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Frederic H; Ziniel, Sonja I; Manion, Dacie; Treves, S Ted

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this investigation was to assess the impact of the publication of the 2010 North American guidelines on the practice of nuclear medicine in children at 13 dedicated pediatric institutions within the United States and Canada by comparing results of similar surveys from 2007 and 2013. In 2013, a follow-up survey was performed of the original 13 dedicated pediatric institutions initially surveyed in 2007. Both surveys inquired about the administered activities for 16 nuclear medicine procedures commonly performed on children. The administered activity per body mass, the maximum activity, and the minimum activity for patients for each procedure were requested from each site. For each parameter the minimum and maximum reported values, as well as the median and the mean, were tabulated. The mean difference in the mean between 2007 and 2013 was calculated, as well as the 95% confidence intervals for the mean administered activity per body mass for both years. The factor of variation used with the previous survey for each parameter was calculated by taking the ratio of the maximum and minimum reported values. For the 8 procedures addressed in the 2010 North American guidelines, the percentage of institutions that were compliant (defined as within 20%) for each parameter were noted for both surveys. Institutions were asked whether they were familiar with "Image Gently," the North American guidelines, and the "Go with the Guidelines" campaign and whether they adjusted their administered activities on the basis of these guidelines. In general, the 13 pediatric institutions have reduced their administered activities in children, particularly for those procedures addressed by the 2010 North American guidelines. The average variability in the activity per body mass and the minimum activity as measured by the factor of variation were substantially reduced by 9.7% (from 3.1 to 2.8) and 24% (from 10.0 to 7.6). The average variability of the maximum activity was

  13. Acculturation and weight change in Asian-American children: Evidence from the ECLS-K:2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Cassandra S; Baranowski, Tom; Kimbro, Rachel T

    2017-06-01

    Despite relatively low rates of overweight and obesity among Asian-American children, disparities exist based on acculturation, socioeconomic status, and Asian ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation and weight change in Asian-American children. Secondary aims were to compare changes by Asian ethnic group and acculturation x socioeconomic status. Participants included 1200 Asian-American children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11, a longitudinal study of U.S. children attending kindergarten in 2010-2011. Multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to predict weight change based on body mass indices in kindergarten (spring 2011) and second grade (spring 2013): consistently healthy weight, consistently overweight/obese, healthy weight change, and unhealthy weight change. Models included demographic, household, socioeconomic status, and acculturation measures, specifically mother's English proficiency and percentage of life spent in the U.S. Overall, 72.3% of children were at healthy weights in kindergarten and second grade. Of all Asian ethnic groups, Filipino children had the highest rate of being consistently overweight/obese (24.8%) and the lowest rate of being consistently healthy weight (62.9%). In addition, mother's English proficiency predicted unhealthy weight change (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75-0.92) and healthy weight change (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.65-0.86), relative to "consistently healthy weight." English proficiency also predicted being consistently overweight/obese for children with less educated mothers. Findings enhance our understanding of obesity disparities within Asian Americans and highlight the need to disaggregate the population. Obesity interventions are needed for Filipino children and families with low socioeconomic status but high English proficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution and status of five non-native fish species in the Tampa Bay drainage (USA), a hot spot for fish introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katelyn M.; Tuckett, Quenton M.; Ritch, Jared L.; Nico, Leo; Fuller, Pam; Matheson, Richard E.; Hill, Jeffrey E.

    2017-01-01

    The Tampa Bay region of Florida (USA) is a hot spot for non-native freshwater fishes. However, published information on most non-native fishes in the basin is not current. Systematic sampling efforts targeting non-native fishes in the region were conducted from 2013–2015 by the University of Florida Tropical Aquaculture Laboratory. Data from these recent surveys were analyzed, along with historic and new data from published and unpublished sources, to assess current fish distributions and determine status. We focus on five of the non-native species sampled: pike killifish Belonesox belizanus Kner, 1860, green swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel, 1848, southern platyfish Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther, 1866), Mayan cichlid Mayaheros urophthalmus (Günther, 1862), and Jack Dempsey Rocio octofasciata (Regan, 1903). All five were found to have reproducing populations in the basin, each showing broader distributions than previously indicated. Non-native populations of four of the species have persisted in the Tampa Bay region since at least the 1990s. In contrast, the presence of Mayan cichlid in the basin was not confirmed until 2004. Based on numbers, distributions, and years of persistence, these five species all maintain established populations. Pike killifish and Mayan cichlid are established and spreading throughout multiple habitat types, while green swordtail, southern platyfish, and Jack Dempsey are localized and found primarily in more marginal habitats (e.g., small ditches and first order tributary streams). Factors affecting continued existence and distributions likely include aquaculture, biotic resistance, and thermal and salinity tolerances. We also clarify non-native species status determination using a multi-agency collaborative approach, and reconcile differences in terminology usage and interpretation.

  15. Physical activity behaviors and influences among Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low physical activity is a major health issue among Chinese Americans. This study explored Chinese–American children's physical activity behaviors and influencing factors. Twenty-five children of Chinese or Taiwanese descent were interviewed to understand their favorite sports or physical activities...

  16. Barriers and Motivators to Reducing Secondhand Smoke Exposure in African American Families of Head Start Children: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Jessica L.; Riekert, Kristin A.; Borrelli, Belinda; Rand, Cynthia S.; Eakin, Michelle N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify barriers and motivators for reducing secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) for families of African-American, low-income, urban children. Method: Audiotaped intervention sessions of 52 African-American caregivers of Head Start children who reported being a smoker and/or had at least one smoker in the home were randomly sampled…

  17. Leadership in the Era of the Trump Presidency: Implications for the Education of American Indian Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faircloth, Susan C.

    2018-01-01

    In this manuscript, I outline what I perceive to be the potential implications of the Trump presidency for the education of American Indian children and youth. In doing so, I argue that failure to provide adequate educational programs and services for American Indian children and youth represents an abrogation of the federal government's trust…

  18. Stereotype or reality: another look at alcohol and drug use among African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, L E; Kane-Williams, E

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's Division of Communications Programs launched its Urban Youth Public Education Campaign in late 1990 to target African American youth in 14 cities with prevention messages about alcohol and other drugs. During the market research phase of the campaign, the Center sought to determine the extent inner city African American children are impacted by alcohol and other drugs and how widespread the use of these substances is among younger children. Is it rampant and universal, as some press accounts have it, or are the images portrayed by the news media, by popular movies, and by other communication outlets fueling harmful stereotypes? The campaign's market research consisted of in-depth reviews of the literature, of personal communications, conference proceedings, grant and contract reports, monographs, newspaper and magazine articles, and of national survey results, and the analysis of findings from focus groups conducted with 143 African American children living in several urban environments. Although information and conclusions gleaned from the market research revealed a longstanding trend of comparatively lower rates of alcohol and drug use by African American youth, also disclosed was a need for an expanded framework to address the problems of substance abuse within the African American community. An expanded framework acknowledges the dimension of substance use and abuse but also addresses three other dimensions--involvement, exposure, and victimization--that unfold as having major significance for this population of youth who live in urban, high-risk environments.

  19. Considerations for School Psychologists Working with Arab American Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Anisa N.

    2011-01-01

    There are an estimated three million Arab Americans in the United States, with 25% of the population under the age of 18. Given this significant population, it is likely that some school psychologists come across children from Arab backgrounds during their career. Many school psychologists, however, may not be aware of the unique cultural…

  20. Investigating acculturation, diet, and physical activity among Chinese-American children aged 9-13 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acculturation among those of Chinese descent may be related to changes in diet and physical activity. Research to understand the acculturative process early in life is important; however, there is no qualitative research directly with Chinese-American children. This study, currently in progress, a...

  1. Mexican-American mothers’ initiation and understanding of home oral hygiene for young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOEFT, Kristin S.; BARKER, Judith C.; MASTERSON, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate caregiver beliefs and behaviors as key issues in the initiation of home oral hygiene routines. Oral hygiene helps reduce the prevalence of early childhood caries, which is disproportionately high among Mexican-American children. Methods Interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 48 Mexican-American mothers of young children in a low income, urban neighborhood. Interviews were digitally recorded, translated, transcribed, coded and analyzed using standard qualitative procedures. Results The average age of tooth brushing initiation was 1.8±0.8 years; only a small proportion of parents (13%) initiated oral hygiene in accord with American Dental Association (ADA) recommendations. Mothers initiated 2 forms of oral hygiene: infant oral hygiene and regular tooth brushing. For the 48% of children who participated in infant oral hygiene, mothers were prompted by pediatrician and social service (WIC) professionals. For regular tooth brushing initiation, a set of maternal beliefs exist about when this oral hygiene practice becomes necessary for children. Beliefs are mainly based on a child’s dental maturity, interest, capacity and age/size. Conclusions Most (87%) of the urban Mexican-American mothers in the study do not initiate oral hygiene practices in compliance with ADA recommendations. These findings have implications for educational messages. PMID:19947134

  2. Adjusting Limit Setting in Play Therapy with First-Generation Mexican-American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Roxanna; Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Kranz, Peter L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on limit setting in play therapy with first-generation Mexican-American children in two important therapeutic environments that include the traditional indoor playroom and a proposed outdoor play area. The paper is based on a review of the literature and the authors' clinical experiences with this population. They concluded…

  3. Using Axline's Eight Principles of Play Therapy with Mexican-American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Flores-Torres, Leila L.; Kranz, Peter L.; Lund, Nick L.

    2005-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature on the application of client-centered play therapy to diverse cultures. In this regard, the purpose of the article is to discuss considerations related to using Axline's eight principles of play therapy with Mexican-American children. The principles involve multicultural acceptance and understanding, relationship…

  4. Teaching Spiritual Themes to African American Children: A Picture Book Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Demetrius B.

    2017-01-01

    "Teaching Spiritual Themes to African American Children: A Picture Book Approach" is a research project that used picture books to teach the four spiritual themes, 1.) love, 2.) forgiveness, 3.) kindness, and 4.) perseverance. This project was conducted in an after school program at Fifth Baptist Church, on Cary St. in Richmond, VA. The…

  5. Treatment for overweight Mexican American children: impact on quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood overweight is a serious health problem occurring in especially high rates among Mexican Americans. Although there is empirical support for behaviorally based treatments for pediatric overweight, there is limited evidence that treatment increases children's quality of life (QOL). Our obje...

  6. Performance of African American Preschool Children from Low-Income Families on Expressive Language Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cathy H.; Kaiser, Ann P.; Marley, Scott C.; Milan, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to determine (a) the ability of two spontaneous language measures, mean length of utterance in morphemes (MLU-m) and number of different words (NDW), to identify African American preschool children at low and high levels of language ability; (b) whether child chronological age was related to the performance of either…

  7. Involvement in Traditional Cultural Practices and American Indian Children's Incidental Recall of a Folktale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsethlikai, Monica; Rogoff, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study examined incidental recall of a folktale told to 91 Tohono O'odham American Indian children (average age 9 years) who either were directly addressed or had the opportunity to overhear the telling of the folktale. Learning from surrounding incidental events contrasts with learning through direct instruction common in Western schooling,…

  8. Chinese and American Children's Perceptions of Popularity Determinants: Cultural Differences and Behavioral Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Xie, Hongling; Shi, Junqi

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate cultural construction of children's perceptions of popularity determinants using a cross-cultural approach. This study examined 327 Chinese and 312 American fifth-graders' perceptions of what individual characteristics and peer relationships would make a peer popular. Consistent with cultural emphases,…

  9. Auxiliary BE Production by African American English-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, April W.; Oetting, Janna B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine 3 forms ("am," "is," "are") of auxiliary BE production by African American English (AAE)-speaking children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Thirty AAE speakers participated: 10 six-year-olds with SLI, 10 age-matched controls, and 10 language-matched controls. BE production was examined through…

  10. Figure Structure, Figure Action, and Framing in Drawings by American and Egyptian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brent; Wilson, Marjorie

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the interaction of biological unfolding and culturally related factors on sequences of narrative figure drawings by American and Egyptian elementary students. Findings support hypotheses relating to the interaction of natural and nurtural influences on children's drawings. (Author/SJL)

  11. African American Mothers of Children with Disabilities: Parental Advocacy within Rural Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Summer Lynn Gainey

    2013-01-01

    Studies on parent involvement in education have most often been gender-neutral, although it is primarily mothers who undertake such work (Reay, 1998; West & Noden, 1998). While African American mothers advocating for their children's educational needs is not a new occurrence, it is one that has yet to receive the attention it necessitates.…

  12. Constructing "Deservingness": DREAMers and Central American Unaccompanied Children in the National Immigration Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Huber, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing a Latina/o Critical Theory framework (LatCrit), I examine the narratives that emerged within national newsprint media coverage of DREAMers and Central American unaccompanied children. Data included 268 newspaper articles published during periods of heightened national media attention about DREAMers (96 articles) and Central American…

  13. Family-Level Factors and African American Children's Behavioral Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Colombo, Gia; Hong, Jun Sung; Coard, Stephanie Irby

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considerable prior research targeting African American children has focused on the pervasiveness of problematic behavior and negative risk factors associated with their development, however the influence of family on better behavioral health outcomes has largely been ignored. Objective: The purpose of this review is to examine…

  14. Obese Mexican American children have elevated MCP-1, TNF-alpha, monocyte concentration, and dyslipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic disease. The prevalence of obesity is especially high among Mexican American children. Peripheral blood monocytes are altered with obesity contributing to elevated systemic inflammation and increased risk of chronic disease. In addition, obesity alte...

  15. Mexican-American children's perspectives: neighborhood characteristics and physical activity in Texas-Mexico border colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Nelda; Lee, Chanam; Smith, Matthew Lee; Wang, Xiaohui; Irizarry, David; Avila-Rodriguez, Elias H; Trevino, Laura; Ory, Marcia G

    2013-10-01

    The qualitative study described in this article investigated perceptions about environmental factors influencing physical activity (PA) among children from underserved neighborhoods known as colonias in the U.S.-Mexico border. Ten focus groups were conducted with 67 Mexican-American colonia children ages 8 to 13 living in one of the poorest border counties in the U.S. Analyses indicated that PA among children was influenced by neighborhood characteristics, including litter, speeding cars, unleashed dogs, and dark streets. The children also underlined intrapersonal and social environmental factors. Findings may inform policy makers and public health professionals about ways to promote PA among underserved children through urban planning and programs focusing on PA-supportive infrastructure, neighborhood safety, and family- and home-based physical activities.

  16. Shhh… I Need Quiet! Children's Understanding of American, British, and Japanese-accented English Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Tessa; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2018-02-01

    Children's ability to understand speakers with a wide range of dialects and accents is essential for efficient language development and communication in a global society. Here, the impact of regional dialect and foreign-accent variability on children's speech understanding was evaluated in both quiet and noisy conditions. Five- to seven-year-old children ( n = 90) and adults ( n = 96) repeated sentences produced by three speakers with different accents-American English, British English, and Japanese-accented English-in quiet or noisy conditions. Adults had no difficulty understanding any speaker in quiet conditions. Their performance declined for the nonnative speaker with a moderate amount of noise; their performance only substantially declined for the British English speaker (i.e., below 93% correct) when their understanding of the American English speaker was also impeded. In contrast, although children showed accurate word recognition for the American and British English speakers in quiet conditions, they had difficulty understanding the nonnative speaker even under ideal listening conditions. With a moderate amount of noise, their perception of British English speech declined substantially and their ability to understand the nonnative speaker was particularly poor. These results suggest that although school-aged children can understand unfamiliar native dialects under ideal listening conditions, their ability to recognize words in these dialects may be highly susceptible to the influence of environmental degradation. Fully adult-like word identification for speakers with unfamiliar accents and dialects may exhibit a protracted developmental trajectory.

  17. Non-native fish control below Glen Canyon Dam - Report from a structured decision-making project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Bean, Ellen; Smith, David; Kokos, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results of a structured decision-making project by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide substantive input to the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) for use in the preparation of an Environmental Assessment concerning control of non-native fish below Glen Canyon Dam. A forum was created to allow the diverse cooperating agencies and Tribes to discuss, expand, and articulate their respective values; to develop and evaluate a broad set of potential control alternatives using the best available science; and to define individual preferences of each group on how to manage the inherent trade-offs in this non-native fish control problem. This project consisted of two face-to-face workshops, held in Mesa, Arizona, October 18-20 and November 8-10, 2010. At the first workshop, a diverse set of objectives was discussed, which represented the range of concerns of those agencies and Tribes present. A set of non-native fish control alternatives ('hybrid portfolios') was also developed. Over the 2-week period between the two workshops, four assessment teams worked to evaluate the control alternatives against the array of objectives. At the second workshop, the results of the assessment teams were presented. Multi-criteria decision analysis methods were used to examine the trade-offs inherent in the problem, and allowed the participating agencies and Tribes to express their individual judgments about how those trade-offs should best be managed in Reclamation`s selection of a preferred alternative. A broad array of objectives was identified and defined, and an effort was made to understand how these objectives are likely to be achieved by a variety of strategies. In general, the objectives reflected desired future conditions over 30 years. A rich set of alternative approaches was developed, and the complex structure of those alternatives was documented. Multi-criteria decision analysis methods allowed the evaluation of those alternatives against the array

  18. Parenting and feeding behaviors associated with school-aged African American and White children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polfuss, Michele Lynn; Frenn, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric obesity is multifactorial and difficult to treat. Parenting and feeding behaviors have been shown to influence a child's weight status. Most prior studies have focused on preschool-aged White children. Additional complicating factors include parents' inability to accurately identify their child's abnormal weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors used by 176 African American and White parents of school-age children were examined. Assessment included (a) identifying what behaviors were reported when parent expressed concern with child's weight and (b) the relationship of these behaviors on child's body mass index percentile (BMI%), considering ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and parent's body mass index (BMI). Findings included African American parents and parents concerned about their child's weight exhibited increased controlling/authoritarian parenting and feeding behaviors. Parents were able to accurately identify their child's weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors played a significant role in the children's BMI% even when controlling for ethnicity, SES, and parent's BMI.

  19. Desloratadine therapy improves allergic rhinitis symptoms in latin american children aged 6 to 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassinari, Paolo; Suárez, Nelson R; Centeno, Jorge; Velásquez, Janina Vergara; Aguirre-Mariscal, Héctor; Gonzálezdíaz, Sandra N; Jerves, Alfredo Fernández de Córdova

    2009-04-01

    : To determine the effectiveness of desloratadine syrup in relieving symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) among children in Latin America. : In an open-label trial conducted in 5 Latin American countries, 455 children aged 6 to 12 years with seasonal or perennial AR were treated with desloratadine syrup 2.5 mg/d for 6 weeks. Thirty percent of subjects were concomitantly taking corticosteroids, and 21.3% had a history of asthma. Efficacy was measured by improvement in the Total Symptom Severity 4 questionnaire and decrease in severity of individual nasal symptoms of congestion, rhinorrhea, pruritus, and sneezing. Physicians and subjects' caregivers rated symptom improvement in a separate assessment at final visit. : Treatment with desloratadine led to a significant decrease in mean Total Symptom Severity 4 score, from 7.54 at baseline to 1.96 at study end (P Latin American children.

  20. Patch testing in children from 2005 to 2012: results from the North American contact dermatitis group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, Kathryn A; Pham, Anh Khoa; Belsito, Donald V; DeKoven, Joel G; DeLeo, Vincent A; Fowler, Joseph F; Fransway, Anthony F; Maibach, Howard I; Marks, James G; Mathias, C G Toby; Pratt, Melanie D; Sasseville, Denis; Storrs, Frances J; Taylor, James S; Warshaw, Erin M; Zirwas, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is common in children. Epicutaneous patch testing is an important tool for identifying responsible allergens. The objective of this study was to provide the patch test results from children (aged ≤18 years) examined by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group from 2005 to 2012. This is a retrospective analysis of children patch-tested with the North American Contact Dermatitis Group 65- or 70-allergen series. Frequencies and counts were compared with previously published data (2001-2004) using χ statistics. A total of 883 children were tested during the study period. A percentage of 62.3% had ≥1 positive patch test and 56.7% had ≥1 relevant positive patch test. Frequencies of positive patch test and relevant positive patch test reaction were highest with nickel sulfate (28.1/25.6), cobalt chloride (12.3/9.1), neomycin sulfate (7.1/6.6), balsam of Peru (5.7/5.5), and lanolin alcohol 50% petrolatum vehicle (5.5/5.1). The ≥1 positive patch test and ≥1 relevant positive patch test in the children did not differ significantly from adults (≥19 years) or from previously tested children (2001-2004). The percentage of clinically relevant positive patch tests for 27 allergens differed significantly between the children and adults. A total of 23.6% of children had a relevant positive reaction to at least 1 supplemental allergen. Differences in positive patch test and relevant positive patch test frequencies between children and adults as well as test periods confirm the importance of reporting periodic updates of patch testing in children to enhance clinicians' vigilance to clinically important allergens.

  1. Disparities in emergency department visits in American children with asthma: 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Lamichhane, Rajan; Diggs, Leigh Ann

    2017-09-01

    This article was to examine the trends in emergency department (ED) visits for asthma among American children in 2006-2010 across sociodemographic factors, parental smoking status, and children's body weight status. We analyzed 5,535 children aged 2-17 years with current asthma in the Asthma Call-Back Survey in 2006-2010. Multivariate log binomial regression was used to examine the disparities of ED visits by demographics, socioeconomic status, parental smoking status, children's body weight status, and the level of asthma control. We controlled for average state-level air pollutants. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Minority children with current asthma had higher risks of ED visits compared with white children in 2009 and 2010, e.g., the PR (95% CI) for black children in 2009 was 3.64 (1.79, 7.41). Children who had current asthma and more highly educated parents experienced a higher risk of ED visits in 2007 (PRs [95% CI] = 2.15 [1.02, 4.53] and 2.97 [1.29, 6.83] for children with some college or college-graduated parents), but not significant in other years. Children with uncontrolled asthma were significantly more likely to visit the ED in 2008 (PRs [95% CI] = 2.79 [1.44, 5.41] and 6.96 [3.55, 13.64] for not-well-controlled and very poorly controlled children with asthma). Minority children with current asthma or children with uncontrolled asthma were more likely to visit EDs for asthma treatment. However, the disparities in ED visits across sociodemographics, health status, or asthma control vary in scale and significance across time. More research is needed to explain these differences.

  2. Obesity and Overweight in American Indian and Alaska Native Children, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Ann; Sheff, Karen; Moore, Kelly; Manson, Spero

    2017-09-01

    To estimate obesity and overweight prevalence in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children across genders, ages, and geographic regions in the Indian Health Service active clinical population. We obtained data from the Indian Health Service National Data Warehouse. At least 184 000 AI/AN children aged 2 to 19 years had body mass index data for each year studied, 2006 to 2015. We calculated body mass index percentiles with the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. In 2015, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in AI/AN children aged 2 to 19 years was 18.5% and 29.7%, respectively. Boys had higher obesity prevalence than girls (31.5% vs 27.9%). Children aged 12 to 19 years had a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than younger children. The AI/AN children in our study had a higher prevalence of obesity than US children overall in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results for 2006 through 2014 were similar. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among AI/AN children in this population may have stabilized, while remaining higher than prevalence for US children overall.

  3. Attention-getting skills of deaf children using American Sign Language in a preschool classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Amy M

    2015-07-01

    Visual attention is a necessary prerequisite to successful communication in sign language. The current study investigated the development of attention-getting skills in deaf native-signing children during interactions with peers and teachers. Seven deaf children (aged 21-39 months) and five adults were videotaped during classroom activities for approximately 30 hr. Interactions were analyzed in depth to determine how children obtained and maintained attention. Contrary to previous reports, children were found to possess a high level of communicative competence from an early age. Analysis of peer interactions revealed that children used a range of behaviors to obtain attention with peers, including taps, waves, objects, and signs. Initiations were successful approximately 65% of the time. Children followed up failed initiation attempts by repeating the initiation, using a new initiation, or terminating the interaction. Older children engaged in longer and more complex interactions than younger children. Children's early exposure to and proficiency in American Sign Language is proposed as a likely mechanism that facilitated their communicative competence.

  4. The burden of asthma in children: a Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gilberto Bueno; Camargos, Paulo Augusto Moreira; Mocelin, Helena Teresinha

    2005-03-01

    Worldwide, studies on asthma prevalence have shown major rises over the last 30 years. The impact on the burden of asthma is being increasingly recognised. In some countries in Latin America, the prevalence of asthma is among the highest in the world. Asthma admissions are very common in children, leading to high costs for the health systems of those countries. Unfortunately, Latin America has limited resources to pay for appropriate treatment. The main goals of the international guidelines for asthma treatment are not being met. However, asthma programmes operating in some countries are showing promising results in reducing asthma admissions and consequently decreasing the burden of asthma. Local adaptation of international guidelines must be implemented in order to decrease costs and optimise outcomes.

  5. Perceptions of communication choice and usage among African American hearing parents: Afrocentric cultural implications for African American deaf and hard of hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borum, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    In a qualitative study employing an exploratory design, the researcher explored the perceptions of communication choice and usage among 14 African American hearing parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. Semistructured, in-depth thematic interviews were used with a modified grounded-theory approach in which themes were analyzed and coded. Four thematic challenges and opportunities related to communication choice and usage were found: (a) oral tradition-nommo, (b) sign and oral-diunital, (c) literacy, and (d) racial/ethnic cultural socialization. Afrocentric implications for deaf and hard of hearing children are explored based on research observations pertaining to the significance of the oral tradition in African American culture and the socialization of African American deaf and hard of hearing children in the context of African American hearing families.

  6. Risk factors for obesity and high blood pressure in Chinese American children: maternal acculturation and children's food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Weiss, Sandra; Heyman, Melvin B; Lustig, Robert

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to explore risk factors associated with overweight and high blood pressure in Chinese American children. Students and their parents were recruited from Chinese language schools in the San Francisco Bay Area. Data were collected on 67 children and their mothers, and included children's weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure, level of physical activity, dietary intake, usual food choice, knowledge about nutrition and physical activity, and self-efficacy regarding diet and physical activity. Mothers completed questionnaires on demographic data and acculturation. About 46% of children had a body mass index exceeding the 85th percentile. Lower level of maternal acculturation is a risk factor for overweight and higher waist to hip ratio. Children's unhealthy food choices were predictive of high body mass index and high systolic blood pressure, whereas older age and less physical activity in children were predictors of high diastolic blood pressure. Developing culturally sensitive and developmentally appropriate interventions to reduce overweight and high blood pressure is critical to reduce health disparities among minority children.

  7. A Mouse with a Roof? Effects of Phonological Neighbors on Processing of Words in Sentences in a Non-Native Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Nojack, Agnes; Limbach, Maxi

    2008-01-01

    The architecture of the language processing system for speakers of more than one language remains an intriguing topic of research. A common finding is that speakers of multiple languages are slower at responding to language stimuli in their non-native language (L2) than monolingual speakers. This may simply reflect participants' unfamiliarity with…

  8. Suitability of California bay laurel and other species as hosts for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Martin MacKenzie; Philip G. Cannon; Steve Oak; Scott Horn; Jaesoon Hwang; Paul E. Kendra

    2013-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff is a non-native vector of the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a deadly disease of trees in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern U.S.A.Concern exists that X. glabratus and its fungal symbiont could be transported to the western U....

  9. Adding More Fuel to the Fire: An Eye-Tracking Study of Idiom Processing by Native and Non-Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Conklin, Kathy; Schmitt, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Using eye-tracking, we investigate on-line processing of idioms in a biasing story context by native and non-native speakers of English. The stimuli are idioms used figuratively ("at the end of the day"--"eventually"), literally ("at the end of the day"--"in the evening"), and novel phrases ("at the end of the war"). Native speaker results…

  10. Expansion of Non-Native Brown Trout in South Europe May Be Inadvertently Driven by Stocking: Molecular and Social Survey in the North Iberian Narcea River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horreo, Jose L; Abad, David; Dopico, Eduardo; Oberlin, Maud; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2015-07-09

    The biological and anthropogenic (management) factors that may contribute to the expansion of non-native lineages in managed fish have been studied in this work taking brown trout (Salmo trutta) as a model species. The changes of users' opinion about stocking was studied employing social science methodology (surveys). The evolution of hatchery stocks together with the outcome of stocking were analysed with two genetic tools: the LDH-C1* locus (marker of non-native stocks) and six microsatellite loci (for assignment of wild trout to the natural population or putative hatchery stocks). Consulted stakeholders were convinced of the correctness of releasing only native stocks, although in practice the hatcheries managed by them contained important proportions of non-native gene carriers. Our results suggest that allochthonous individuals perform better and grow faster in hatchery conditions than the native ones. We also find a dilution of the impact of this kind of suplementation in wild conditions. The use of only native individuals as hatchery breeders tested for the presence of non-native alleles previously to the artificial crosses must be a priority. Surveys can help steer policy making toward decisions that will be followed by the public, but they should not be used to justify science.

  11. Growth form and distribution of introduced plants in their native and non-native ranges in Eastern Asia and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Ricklefs; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Qian

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing interest in understanding the influence of plant traits on their ability to spread in non-native regions. Many studies addressing this issue have been based on relatively small areas or restricted taxonomic groups. Here, we analyse a large data base involving 1567 plant species introduced between Eastern Asia and North America or from elsewhere to...

  12. Using Audiovisual TV Interviews to Create Visible Authors that Reduce the Learning Gap between Native and Non-Native Language Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglese, Terry; Mayer, Richard E.; Rigotti, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    Can archives of audiovisual TV interviews be used to make authors more visible to students, and thereby reduce the learning gap between native and non-native language speakers in college classes? We examined students in a college course who learned about one scholar's ideas through watching an audiovisual TV interview (i.e., visible author format)…

  13. Effects of the Differences between Native and Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers on Students' Attitudes and Motivation toward Learning English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, Tae-Il

    2017-01-01

    This study presents findings on three research agendas: (1) the difference between native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) and non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) in students' attitudes toward and motivation for learning English, (2) the moderating effect of the type of class (i.e., English Conversation vs. Practical English) on the…

  14. Thermal physiology of native cool-climate, and non-native warm-climate Pumpkinseed sunfish raised in a common environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, Anna C; Burness, Gary; Fox, Michael G

    2017-02-01

    Contemporary evolution of thermal physiology has the potential to help limit the physiological stress associated with rapidly changing thermal environments; however it is unclear if wild populations can respond quickly enough for such changes to be effective. We used native Canadian Pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) sunfish, and non-native Pumpkinseed introduced into the milder climate of Spain ~100 years ago, to assess genetic differences in thermal physiology in response to the warmer non-native climate. We compared temperature performance reaction norms of two Canadian and two Spanish Pumpkinseed populations born and raised within a common environment. We found that Canadian Pumpkinseed had higher routine metabolic rates when measured at seasonally high temperatures (15°C in winter, 30°C in summer), and that Spanish Pumpkinseed had higher critical thermal maxima when acclimated to 30°C in the summer. Growth rates were not significantly different among populations, however Canadian Pumpkinseed tended to have faster growth at the warmest temperatures measured (32°C). The observed differences in physiology among Canadian and Spanish populations at the warmest acclimation temperatures are consistent with the introduced populations being better suited to the warmer non-native climate than native populations. The observed differences could be the result of either founder effects, genetic drift, and/or contemporary adaptive evolution in the warmer non-native climate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Making the Transition from Non-Native Speaker to Near-Native Speaker Teachers of English: Facing Globalization Challenges in Teaching English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Mohamed Ali, Haja Mohideen

    2009-01-01

    Many job advertisements seeking teachers of English to work in Japan, China, South Korea and Thailand, for instance, specify that they are looking for native speaking teachers from USA, UK, Australia and New Zealand. They do not seem to be interested even in trained non-native speaking teachers from their own countries. This situation also exists…

  16. Expansion of Non-Native Brown Trout in South Europe May Be Inadvertently Driven by Stocking: Molecular and Social Survey in the North Iberian Narcea River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Horreo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The biological and anthropogenic (management factors that may contribute to the expansion of non-native lineages in managed fish have been studied in this work taking brown trout (Salmo trutta as a model species. The changes of users’ opinion about stocking was studied employing social science methodology (surveys. The evolution of hatchery stocks together with the outcome of stocking were analysed with two genetic tools: the LDH-C1* locus (marker of non-native stocks and six microsatellite loci (for assignment of wild trout to the natural population or putative hatchery stocks. Consulted stakeholders were convinced of the correctness of releasing only native stocks, although in practice the hatcheries managed by them contained important proportions of non-native gene carriers. Our results suggest that allochthonous individuals perform better and grow faster in hatchery conditions than the native ones. We also find a dilution of the impact of this kind of suplementation in wild conditions. The use of only native individuals as hatchery breeders tested for the presence of non-native alleles previously to the artificial crosses must be a priority. Surveys can help steer policy making toward decisions that will be followed by the public, but they should not be used to justify science.

  17. Short-Term Response of Native Flora to the Removal of Non-Native Shrubs in Mixed-Hardwood Forests of Indiana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Shields

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While negative impacts of invasive species on native communities are well documented, less is known about how these communities respond to the removal of established populations of invasive species. With regard to invasive shrubs, studies examining native community response to removal at scales greater than experimental plots are lacking. We examined short-term effects of removing Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle and other non-native shrubs on native plant taxa in six mixed-hardwood forests. Each study site contained two 0.64 ha sample areas—an area where all non-native shrubs were removed and a reference area where no treatment was implemented. We sampled vegetation in the spring and summer before and after non-native shrubs were removed. Cover and diversity of native species, and densities of native woody seedlings, increased after shrub removal. However, we also observed significant increases in L. maackii seedling densities and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard cover in removal areas. Changes in reference areas were less pronounced and mostly non-significant. Our results suggest that removing non-native shrubs allows short-term recovery of native communities across a range of invasion intensities. However, successful restoration will likely depend on renewed competition with invasive species that re-colonize treatment areas, the influence of herbivores, and subsequent control efforts.

  18. Added Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Miriam B; Kaar, Jill L; Welsh, Jean A; Van Horn, Linda V; Feig, Daniel I; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Patel, Mahesh J; Cruz Munos, Jessica; Krebs, Nancy F; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Johnson, Rachel K

    2017-05-09

    Poor lifestyle behaviors are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Added sugars contribute to a diet that is energy dense but nutrient poor and increase risk of developing obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity-related cancers, and dental caries. For this American Heart Association scientific statement, the writing group reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for studies examining the cardiovascular health effects of added sugars on children. The available literature was subdivided into 5 broad subareas: effects on blood pressure, lipids, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity. Associations between added sugars and increased cardiovascular disease risk factors among US children are present at levels far below current consumption levels. Strong evidence supports the association of added sugars with increased cardiovascular disease risk in children through increased energy intake, increased adiposity, and dyslipidemia. The committee found that it is reasonable to recommend that children consume ≤25 g (100 cal or ≈6 teaspoons) of added sugars per day and to avoid added sugars for children added sugars most likely can be safely consumed in low amounts as part of a healthy diet, few children achieve such levels, making this an important public health target. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Cultural and School-Grade Differences in Korean and White American Children's Narrative Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Meesook

    2003-03-01

    A great deal of ethnographic research describes different communicative styles in Asian and Western countries. Asian cultures emphasise the listener's role in assuring successful communication, whereas Western cultures place the responsibility primarily on the speaker. This pattern suggests that Asian children may develop higher-level receptive skills and Western children may develop higher-level expressive skills. However, the language of children in formal education may develop in certain ways regardless of cultural influences. The present study quantifies the cultural and school-grade differences in language abilities reflected in middle-class Korean and white American children's story-telling and story-listening activities. Thirty-two Korean first- and fourth-grade children and their American counterparts were individually asked to perform two tasks: one producing a story from a series of pictures, and one involving listening to and then retelling a story. The individual interview was transcribed in their native languages and analysed in terms of ambiguity of reference, the number of causal connectors, the amount of information, and the number of central and peripheral idea units that were included in the story retelling. The data provided some empirical evidence for the effects of culture and school education in children's language acquisition.

  20. UV Screening in Native and Non-native Plant Species in the Tropical Alpine: Implications for Climate Change-Driven Migration of Species to Higher Elevations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. Barnes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing changes in Earth’s climate are shifting the elevation ranges of many plant species with non-native species often experiencing greater expansion into higher elevations than native species. These climate change-induced shifts in distributions inevitably expose plants to novel biotic and abiotic environments, including altered solar ultraviolet (UV-B (280–315 nm radiation regimes. Do the greater migration potentials of non-native species into higher elevations imply that they have more effective UV-protective mechanisms than native species? In this study, we surveyed leaf epidermal UV-A transmittance (TUV A in a diversity of plant species representing different growth forms to test whether native and non-native species growing above 2800 m elevation on Mauna Kea, Hawaii differed in their UV screening capabilities. We further compared the degree to which TUV A varied along an elevation gradient in the native shrub Vaccinium reticulatum and the introduced forb Verbascum thapsus to evaluate whether these species differed in their abilities to adjust their levels of UV screening in response to elevation changes in UV-B. For plants growing in the Mauna Kea alpine/upper subalpine, we found that adaxial TUV A, measured with a UVA-PAM fluorometer, varied significantly among species but did not differ between native (mean = 6.0%; n = 8 and non-native (mean = 5.8%; n = 11 species. When data were pooled across native and non-native taxa, we also found no significant effect of growth form on TUV A, though woody plants (shrubs and trees were represented solely by native species whereas herbaceous growth forms (grasses and forbs were dominated by non-native species. Along an elevation gradient spanning 2600–3800 m, TUV A was variable (mean range = 6.0–11.2% and strongly correlated with elevation and relative biologically effective UV-B in the exotic V. thapsus; however, TUV A was consistently low (3% and did not vary with elevation in the native

  1. Characterization of American Football Injuries in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick J; Hollins, Anthony M; Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Spence, David D; Outlaw, Shane; Kelly, Derek M

    2018-02-01

    As a collision sport, football carries a significant risk of injury, as indicated by the large number of pediatric football-related injuries seen in emergency departments. There is little information in the medical literature focusing on the age-related injury patterns of this sport. Our purpose was to evaluate the types of football-related injuries that occur in children and adolescents and assess which patient characteristics, if any, affect injury pattern. Retrospective chart review was performed of football-related injuries treated at a level 1 pediatric referral hospital emergency department and surrounding urgent care clinics between January 2010 and January 2014. Patients with e-codes for tackle football selected from the electronic medical record were divided into 4 age groups: younger than 8 years old, 8 to 11, 12 to 14, and 15 to 18 years. Data collected included diagnosis codes, procedure codes, and hospital admission status. Review identified 1494 patients with 1664 football-related injuries, including 596 appendicular skeleton fractures, 310 sprains, 335 contusions, 170 closed head injuries, 62 dislocations, 9 spinal cord injuries, and 14 solid organ injuries. There were 646 (43.2%) athletes with upper extremity injuries and 487 (32.6%) with injuries to the lower extremity. Hospital admissions were required in 109 (7.3%) patients. Fracture was the most common injury in all four patient age groups, but occurred at a lower rate in the 15 to 18 years old age group. The rate of soft tissue injury was higher in the 15 to 18 years old age group. The rate of closed head injury, which included concussions, was highest in the younger than 8 years old age group. Age does influence the rates of certain football-related injuries in children and adolescents. Fractures decrease with increasing age, while the rate of soft tissue trauma increases with increasing age. Younger patients (younger than 8 y old) trended toward higher rates of closed head injury compared

  2. Atomistic structural ensemble refinement reveals non-native structure stabilizes a sub-millisecond folding intermediate of CheY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jade; Schwantes, Christian; Bilsel, Osman

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of globular proteins can be described in terms of transitions between a folded native state and less-populated intermediates, or excited states, which can play critical roles in both protein folding and function. Excited states are by definition transient species, and therefore are difficult to characterize using current experimental techniques. We report an atomistic model of the excited state ensemble of a stabilized mutant of an extensively studied flavodoxin fold protein CheY. We employed a hybrid simulation and experimental approach in which an aggregate 42 milliseconds of all-atom molecular dynamics were used as an informative prior for the structure of the excited state ensemble. The resulting prior was then refined against small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data employing an established method (EROS). The most striking feature of the resulting excited state ensemble was an unstructured N-terminus stabilized by non-native contacts in a conformation that is topologically simpler than the native state. We then predict incisive single molecule FRET experiments, using these results, as a means of model validation. Our study demonstrates the paradigm of uniting simulation and experiment in a statistical model to study the structure of protein excited states and rationally design validating experiments.

  3. Small size today, aquarium dumping tomorrow: sales of juvenile non-native large fish as an important threat in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. B. Magalhães

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Informal sales of large-bodied non-native aquarium fishes (known as “tankbusters” is increasing among Brazilian hobbyists. In this study, we surveyed this non-regulated trade on Facebook® from May 2012 to September 2016, systematically collecting information about the fishes available for trading: species, family, common/scientific names, native range, juvenile length, behavior, number of specimens available in five geographical regions from Brazil. We also assessed the invasion risk of the most frequently sold species using the Fish Invasiveness Screening Test (FIST. We found 93 taxa belonging to 35 families. Cichlidae was the dominant family, and most species were native to South America. All species are sold at very small sizes (< 10.0 cm, and most display aggressive behavior. The hybrid Amphilophus trimaculatus × Amphilophus citrinellus, Astronotus ocellatus, Uaru amphiacanthoides, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Cichla piquiti, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Datnioides microlepis and Cichla kelberi were the main species available. The southeast region showed the greatest trading activity. Based on biological traits, the FIST indicated that Arapaima gigas, C. kelberi and C. temensis are high-risk species in terms of biological invasions via aquarium dumping. We suggest management strategies such as trade regulations, monitoring, euthanasia and educational programs to prevent further introductions via aquarium dumping.

  4. How Will Climate Warming Affect Non-Native Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus Populations in the U.K.?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Zięba

    Full Text Available Of the non-native fishes introduced to the U.K., the pumpkinseed is one of six species predicted to benefit from the forecasted climate warming conditions. To demonstrate the potential response of adults and their progeny to a water temperature increase, investigations of parental pumpkinseed acclimatization, reproduction and YOY over-wintering were carried out in outdoor experimental ponds under ambient and elevated water temperature regimes. No temperature effects were observed on either adult survivorship and growth, and none of the assessed reproductive activity variables (total spawning time, spawning season length, number of spawning bouts appeared to be responsible for the large differences observed in progeny number and biomass. However, it was demonstrated in a previous study [Zięba G. et al., 2010] that adults in the heated ponds began spawning earlier than those of the ambient ponds. Ambient ponds produced 2.8× more progeny than the heated ponds, but these progeny were significantly smaller, probably due to their late hatching date, and subsequently suffered very high mortality over the first winter. Pumpkinseed in the U.K. will clearly benefit from climate warming through earlier seasonal reproduction, resulting in larger progeny going into winter, and as a result, higher over-winter survivorship would be expected relative to that which occurs under the present climatic regime.

  5. Demography of some non-native isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea in a Mid-Atlantic forest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hornung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduced species dominate the terrestrial isopod fauna in most inland habitats of North America, including urban landscapes. These non-native species are often very abundant and thus potentially play a significant role in detritus processing. We monitored isopod assemblages in an urban forest for a year to examine the relationship between surface activity and abiotic environmental factors, and to analyze reproductive characteristics that might contribute to their successful establishment. Using pitfall trap samples we recorded five species, two of which, Trachelipus rathkii and Cylisticus convexus, were highly abundant. We determined size, sex and reproductive state of each individual. Surface activity of both species reflected variability in abiotic stress factors for isopods, such as soil moisture and soil temperature. Early spring the main trigger was soil temperature while later in the season increasing temperature and decreasing soil moisture jointly affected population dynamics. Activity significantly correlated with soil moisture. The temporal pattern of sex ratios supported the secondary sex ratio hypothesis. Males dominated the samples on the onset of the mating season in search of females. The pattern was reversed as females searched for suitable microsites for their offspring. Size independent fecundity decreased as conditions became more stressful late in the season.

  6. A Functional Approach to Zooplankton Communities in Mountain Lakes Stocked With Non-Native Sportfish Under a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Laura E.; Loewen, Charlie J. G.; Vinebrooke, Rolf D.

    2018-03-01

    Cumulative impacts of multiple stressors on freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem function likely increase with elevation, thereby possibly placing alpine communities at greatest risk. Here, consideration of species traits enables stressor effects on taxonomic composition to be translated into potential functional impacts. We analyzed data for 47 taxa across 137 mountain lakes and ponds spanning large latitudinal (491 km) and elevational (1,399 m) gradients in western Canada, to assess regional and local factors of the taxonomic composition and functional structure of zooplankton communities. Multivariate community analyses revealed that small body size, clonal reproduction via parthenogenesis, and lack of pigmentation were species traits associated with both introduced non-native sportfish and also environmental conditions reflecting a warmer and drier climate—namely higher water temperatures, shallower water depths, and more chemically concentrated water. Thus, historical introductions of sportfish appear to have potentially induced greater tolerance in zooplankton communities of future climatic warming, especially in previously fishless alpine lakes. Although alpine lake communities occupied a relatively small functional space (i.e., low functional diversity), they were contained within the broader regional functional structure. Therefore, our findings point to the importance of dispersal by lower montane species to the future functional stability of alpine communities.

  7. Linguistic contributions to speech-on-speech masking for native and non-native listeners: Language familiarity and semantic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Susanne; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Calandruccio, Lauren; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether speech-on-speech masking is sensitive to variation in the degree of similarity between the target and the masker speech. Three experiments investigated whether speech-in-speech recognition varies across different background speech languages (English vs Dutch) for both English and Dutch targets, as well as across variation in the semantic content of the background speech (meaningful vs semantically anomalous sentences), and across variation in listener status vis-à-vis the target and masker languages (native, non-native, or unfamiliar). The results showed that the more similar the target speech is to the masker speech (e.g., same vs different language, same vs different levels of semantic content), the greater the interference on speech recognition accuracy. Moreover, the listener’s knowledge of the target and the background language modulate the size of the release from masking. These factors had an especially strong effect on masking effectiveness in highly unfavorable listening conditions. Overall this research provided evidence that that the degree of target-masker similarity plays a significant role in speech-in-speech recognition. The results also give insight into how listeners assign their resources differently depending on whether they are listening to their first or second language. PMID:22352516

  8. Fungal endophytes from seeds of invasive, non-native Phragmites australis and their potential role in germination and seedling growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearin, Zackery R. C.; Filipek, Matthew; Desai, Rushvi; Bickford, Wesley A.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Clay, Keith

    2018-01-01

    Background and aimsWe characterized fungal endophytes of seeds of invasive, non-native Phragmites from three sites in the Great Lakes region to determine if fungal symbiosis could contribute to invasiveness through their effects on seed germination and seedling growth.MethodsField-collected seeds were surface sterilized and plated on agar to culture endophytes for ITS sequencing. Prevalence of specific endophytes from germinated and non-germinated seeds, and from seedlings, was compared.ResultsOne-third of 740 seeds yielded endophyte isolates. Fifteen taxa were identified with Alternaria sp. representing 54% of all isolates followed by Phoma sp. (21%) and Penicillium corylophilum (12%). Overall germination of seeds producing an isolate (36%) was significantly higher than seeds not producing an isolate (20%). Penicillium in particular was strongly associated with increased germination of seeds from one site. Sixty-three isolates and 11 taxa were also obtained from 30 seedlings where Phoma, Penicillium and Alternaria respectively were most prevalent. There was a significant effect of isolating an endophyte from the seed on seedling growth.ConclusionsThese results suggest that many endophyte taxa are transmitted in seeds and can increase seed germination and seedling growth of invasive Phragmites. The role of fungal endophytes in host establishment, growth and invasiveness in nature requires further research.

  9. Seasonal variation in reproductive traits of the oriental shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus (Crustacea: Caridea: Palaemonidae) in a non-native population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M. Guadalupe; Bas, Claudia C.; Spivak, Eduardo D.

    2013-12-01

    The magnitude of variations in reproductive traits of Palaemon macrodactylus females throughout a breeding season was studied in a non-native population at Mar del Plata harbor, Argentina. Fecundity, egg size, reproductive output, weight and elemental composition of eggs, and larvae were analyzed in females collected at the beginning, in the mid point, and near the end of a reproductive season and designated as early, middle season, and late females. The highest reproductive output was observed in early females, while the highest fecundity and egg volume occurred in middle season females. Eggs and larvae showed larger body mass in early than in late females. Embryos from early females contained and consumed more carbon during development than embryos from late females, and they also used part of the available nitrogen. Differences in reproduction were observed among the three groups of females. On the one hand, late females matured early but had a poor first reproduction, with few embryos and high egg loss; however, they had longer reproductive life and an enhanced reproductive output in the following season when they became early females. On the other hand, females collected at the midpoint in the reproductive season matured later and had the highest fecundity and egg volume. In addition, larvae with different characteristics resulted from each type of female and were presumably well adapted to the conditions prevailing at the moment they hatched. The extended reproductive period and the diversity of embryos and larvae produced may favor the invading ability of the species.

  10. Environmental Degradation in a Eutrophic Shallow Lake is not Simply Due to Abundance of Non-native Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Herrejón, Juan P.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Balart, Eduardo F.; Moncayo-Estrada, Rodrigo; Mar-Silva, Valentín; Caraveo-Patiño, Javier

    2015-09-01

    Non-native species are often major drivers of the deterioration of natural ecosystems. The common carp Cyprinus carpio are known to cause major changes in lentic systems, but may not be solely responsible for large scale changes in these ecosystems. We used data from extensive collection efforts to gain insight into the importance of carp as drivers of ecosystem change in Lake Patzcuaro, Mexico. We compared the structure (fish density, biomass, diversity, and evenness) of fish assemblages from six Lake Patzcuaro sites with different habitat characteristics. Intersite comparisons were carried out for both wet and dry seasons. We explored the relationships between non-carp species and carp; and studied multivariate interactions between fish abundance and habitat characteristics. From a biomass perspective, carp was dominant in only four of six sites. In terms of density, carp was not a dominant species in all sites. Further, carp density and biomass were not negatively related to native species density and biomass, even when carp density and biomass were positively correlated to water turbidity levels. Carp dominated fish assemblages in the shallowest sites with the highest water turbidity, plant detritus at the bottom, and floating macrophytes covering the lake surface. These results suggest that the effect of carp on fish assemblages may be highly dependent on habitat characteristics in Lake Patzcuaro. Watershed degradation, pollution, water level loss, and other sources of anthropogenic influence may be more important drivers of Lake Patzcuaro degradation than the abundance of carp.

  11. Environmental Degradation in a Eutrophic Shallow Lake is not Simply Due to Abundance of Non-native Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Herrejón, Juan P; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Balart, Eduardo F; Moncayo-Estrada, Rodrigo; Mar-Silva, Valentín; Caraveo-Patiño, Javier

    2015-09-01

    Non-native species are often major drivers of the deterioration of natural ecosystems. The common carp Cyprinus carpio are known to cause major changes in lentic systems, but may not be solely responsible for large scale changes in these ecosystems. We used data from extensive collection efforts to gain insight into the importance of carp as drivers of ecosystem change in Lake Patzcuaro, Mexico. We compared the structure (fish density, biomass, diversity, and evenness) of fish assemblages from six Lake Patzcuaro sites with different habitat characteristics. Intersite comparisons were carried out for both wet and dry seasons. We explored the relationships between non-carp species and carp; and studied multivariate interactions between fish abundance and habitat characteristics. From a biomass perspective, carp was dominant in only four of six sites. In terms of density, carp was not a dominant species in all sites. Further, carp density and biomass were not negatively related to native species density and biomass, even when carp density and biomass were positively correlated to water turbidity levels. Carp dominated fish assemblages in the shallowest sites with the highest water turbidity, plant detritus at the bottom, and floating macrophytes covering the lake surface. These results suggest that the effect of carp on fish assemblages may be highly dependent on habitat characteristics in Lake Patzcuaro. Watershed degradation, pollution, water level loss, and other sources of anthropogenic influence may be more important drivers of Lake Patzcuaro degradation than the abundance of carp.

  12. Can a native rodent species limit the invasive potential of a non-native rodent species in tropical agroforest habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Alexander M; Prescott, Colin V; Singleton, Grant R

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about native and non-native rodent species interactions in complex tropical agroecosystems. We hypothesised that the native non-pest rodent Rattus everetti may be competitively dominant over the invasive pest rodent Rattus tanezumi within agroforests. We tested this experimentally by using pulse removal for three consecutive months to reduce populations of R. everetti in agroforest habitat, and assessed over 6 months the response of R. tanezumi and other rodent species. Following removal, R. everetti individuals rapidly immigrated into removal sites. At the end of the study period, R. tanezumi were larger and there was a significant shift in their microhabitat use with respect to the use of ground vegetation cover following the perturbation of R. everetti. Irrespective of treatment, R. tanezumi selected microhabitat with less tree canopy cover, indicative of severely disturbed habitat, whereas R. everetti selected microhabitat with a dense canopy. Our results suggest that sustained habitat disturbance in agroforests favours R. tanezumi, while the regeneration of agroforests towards a more natural state would favour native species and may reduce pest pressure in adjacent crops. In addition, the rapid recolonisation of R. everetti suggests this species would be able to recover from non-target impacts of short-term rodent pest control. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Doing Poorly: The Real Income of American Children in a Comparative Perspective. Luxembourg Income Study. Working Paper No. 127.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Lee; Smeeding, Timothy M.

    This paper investigates the real living standards and poverty status of U.S. children in the 1990s compared to the children in 17 other nations, including Europe, Scandinavia, Canada, and Australia. The analysis is based on the Luxembourg Income Study database. It was found that American children have lower real spendable income than do comparable…

  14. Higher food prices may threaten food security status among American low-income households with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Jones, Sonya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Andrews, Margaret

    2013-10-01

    Children in food-insecure households are more likely to experience poorer health function and worse academic achievement. To investigate the relation between economic environmental factors and food insecurity among children, we examined the relation between general and specific food prices (fast food, fruits and vegetables, beverages) and risk of low (LFS) and very low food security (VLFS) status among low-income American households with children. Using information for 27,900 child-year observations from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 linked with food prices obtained from the Cost of Living Data of the Council for Community and Economic Research, formerly known as the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers' Association, fixed effects models were estimated within stratified income groups. Higher overall food prices were associated with increased risk of LFS and VLFS (coefficient = 0.617; P security status, even when controlling for general food prices. Thus, although food price changes were strongly related to food security status among low-income American households with children, the effects were not uniform across types of food. These relations should be accounted for when implementing policies that change specific food prices.

  15. AlphaScreen-based homogeneous assay using a pair of 25-residue artificial proteins for high-throughput analysis of non-native IgG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senga, Yukako; Imamura, Hiroshi; Miyafusa, Takamitsu; Watanabe, Hideki; Honda, Shinya

    2017-09-29

    Therapeutic IgG becomes unstable under various stresses in the manufacturing process. The resulting non-native IgG molecules tend to associate with each other and form aggregates. Because such aggregates not only decrease the pharmacological effect but also become a potential risk factor for immunogenicity, rapid analysis of aggregation is required for quality control of therapeutic IgG. In this study, we developed a homogeneous assay using AlphaScreen and AF.2A1. AF.2A1 is a 25-residue artificial protein that binds specifically to non-native IgG generated under chemical and physical stresses. This assay is performed in a short period of time. Our results show that AF.2A1-AlphaScreen may be used to evaluate the various types of IgG, as AF.2A1 recognizes the non-native structure in the constant region (Fc region) of IgG. The assay was effective for detection of non-native IgG, with particle size up to ca. 500 nm, generated under acid, heat, and stirring conditions. In addition, this technique is suitable for analyzing non-native IgG in CHO cell culture supernatant and mixed with large amounts of native IgG. These results indicate the potential of AF.2A1-AlphaScreen to be used as a high-throughput evaluation method for process monitoring as well as quality testing in the manufacturing of therapeutic IgG.

  16. Sources of implicit and explicit intergroup race bias among African-American children and young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentley L Gibson

    Full Text Available Implicit intergroup bias emerges early in development, are typically pro-ingroup, and remain stable across the lifespan. Such findings have been interpreted in terms of an automatic ingroup bias similar to what is observed with minimal groups paradigms. These studies are typically conducted with groups of high cultural standing (e.g., Caucasians in North America and Europe. Research conducted among culturally lower status groups (e.g., African-Americans, Latino-Americans reveals a notable absence of an implicit ingroup bias. Understanding the environmental factors that contribute to the absence of an implicit ingroup bias among people from culturally lower status groups is critical for advancing theories of implicit intergroup cognition. The present study aimed to elucidate the factors that shape racial group bias among African-American children and young adults by examining their relationship with age, school composition (predominantly Black schools or racially mixed schools, parental racial attitudes and socialization messages among African-American children (N = 86 and young adults (N = 130. Age, school-type and parents' racial socialization messages were all found to be related to the strength of pro-Black (ingroup bias. We also found that relationships between implicit and explicit bias and frequency of parents' racial socialization messages depended on the type of school participants attended. Our results highlight the importance of considering environmental factors in shaping the magnitude and direction of implicit and explicit race bias among African-Americans rather than treating them as a monolithic group.

  17. Young African American children constructing identities in an urban integrated science-literacy classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Justine M.

    This is a qualitative study of identities constructed and enacted by four 3rd-grade African American children (two girls and two boys) in an urban classroom that engaged in a year-long, integrated science-literacy project. Juxtaposing narrative and discursive identity lenses, coupled with race and gender perspectives, I examined the ways in which the four children saw and performed themselves as students and as science students in their classroom. Interview data were used for the narrative analysis and classroom Discourse and artifacts were used for the discursive analysis. A constructivist grounded theory framework was adopted for both analyses. The findings highlight the diversity and richness of perspectives and forms of engagement these young children shared and enacted, and help us see African American children as knowers, doers, and talkers of science individually and collectively. In their stories about themselves, all the children identified themselves as smart but they associated with smartness different characteristics and practices depending on their strengths and preferences. Drawing on the children's social, cultural, and ethnolinguistic resources, the dialogic and multimodal learning spaces facilitated by their teacher allowed the children to explore, negotiate, question, and learn science ideas. The children in this study brought their understandings and ways of being into the "lived-in" spaces co-created with classmates and teacher and influenced how these spaces were created. At the same time, each child's ways of being and understandings were shaped by the words, actions, behaviors, and feelings of peers and teacher. Moreover, as these four children engaged with science-literacy activities, they came to see themselves as competent, creative, active participants in science learning. Although their stories of "studenting" seemed dominated by following rules and being well-behaved, their stories of "sciencing" were filled with exploration, ingenuity

  18. Estimation of body fat from anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance in Native American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, T G; Caballero, B; Himes, J H; Davis, C E; Stewart, D; Houtkooper, L; Going, S B; Hunsberger, S; Weber, J L; Reid, R; Stephenson, L

    2000-08-01

    Obesity, as measured by body mass index, is highly prevalent in Native American children, yet there are no valid equations to estimate total body fatness for this population. This study was designed to develop equations to estimate percentage body fat from anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance as a critical part of Pathways, a multi-site study of primary prevention of obesity in Native American children. Percentage fat was estimated from deuterium oxide dilution in 98 Native American children (Pima/Maricopa, Tohono O'odham and White Mountain Apache tribes) between 8 and 11 y of age. The mean fat content (38.4%+/-8. 1%) was calculated assuming the water content of the fat-free body was 76%. Initial independent variables were height, weight, waist circumference, six skinfolds and whole-body resistance and reactance from bioelectrical impedance (BIA). Using all-possible-subsets regressions with the Mallows C (p) criterion, and with age and sex included in each regression model, waist circumference, calf and biceps skinfolds contributed least to the multiple regression analysis. The combination of weight, two skinfolds (any two out of the four best: triceps, suprailiac, subscapular and abdomen) and bioelectrical impedance variables provided excellent predictability. Equations without BIA variables yielded r2 almost as high as those with BIA variables. The recommended equation predicts percentage fat with a root mean square error=3.2% fat and an adjusted r2=0.840. The combination of anthropometry and BIA variables can be used to estimate total body fat in field studies of Native American children. The derived equation yields considerably higher percentage fat values than other skinfold equations in children.

  19. Knowledge of memory functions in European and Asian American adults and children: the relation to autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim; Song, Qingfang; Hou, Yubo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated explicit knowledge of autobiographical memory functions using a newly developed questionnaire. European and Asian American adults (N = 57) and school-aged children (N = 68) indicated their agreement with 13 statements about why people think about and share memories pertaining to four broad functions-self, social, directive and emotion regulation. Children were interviewed for personal memories concurrently with the memory function knowledge assessment and again 3 months later. It was found that adults agreed to the self, social and directive purposes of memory to a greater extent than did children, whereas European American children agreed to the emotion regulation purposes of memory to a greater extent than did European American adults. Furthermore, European American children endorsed more self and emotion regulation functions than did Asian American children, whereas Asian American adults endorsed more directive functions than did European American adults. Children's endorsement of memory functions, particularly social functions, was associated with more detailed and personally meaningful memories. These findings are informative for the understanding of developmental and cultural influences on memory function knowledge and of the relation of such knowledge to autobiographical memory development.

  20. Household food insecurity and dietary patterns in rural and urban American Indian families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Mosso, Kathryn L; Cronin, Kate A; Carmichael, Lakeesha; Kim, KyungMann; Parker, Tassy; Yaroch, Amy L; Adams, Alexandra K

    2017-06-30

    High food insecurity has been demonstrated in rural American Indian households, but little is known about American Indian families in urban settings or the association of food insecurity with diet for these families. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households by urban-rural status, correlates of food insecurity in these households, and the relationship between food insecurity and diet in these households. Dyads consisting of an adult caregiver and a child (2-5 years old) from the same household in five urban and rural American Indian communities were included. Demographic information was collected, and food insecurity was assessed using two validated items from the USDA Household Food Security Survey. Factors associated with food insecurity were examined using logistic regression. Child and adult diets were assessed using food screeners. Coping strategies were assessed through focus group discussions. These cross-sectional baseline data were collected from 2/2013 through 4/2015 for the Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention for American Indian families. A high prevalence of food insecurity was determined (61%) and was associated with American Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, single adult households, WIC participation, and urban settings (p = 0.05). Food insecure adults had significantly lower intake of vegetables (p insecure children had significantly higher intakes of fried potatoes (p insecurity. The prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households in our sample is extremely high, and geographic designation may be an important contributing factor. Moreover, food insecurity had a significant negative influence on dietary intake for families. Understanding strategies employed by households may help inform future interventions to address food insecurity. ( NCT01776255 ). Registered: January 16, 2013. Date of enrollment

  1. Identifying metabolic syndrome in African American children using fasting HOMA-IR in place of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sushma; Lustig, Robert H; Fleming, Sharon E

    2011-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing among young people. We compared the use of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with the use of fasting blood glucose to identify MetS in African American children. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from a sample of 105 children (45 boys, 60 girls) aged 9 to 13 years with body mass indexes at or above the 85th percentile for age and sex. Waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting levels of blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured. We found that HOMA-IR is a stronger indicator of MetS in children than blood glucose. Using HOMA-IR as 1 of the 5 components, we found a 38% prevalence of MetS in this sample of African American children and the proportion of false negatives decreased from 94% with blood glucose alone to 13% with HOMA-IR. The prevalence of MetS was higher in obese than overweight children and higher among girls than boys. Using HOMA-IR was preferred to fasting blood glucose because insulin resistance was more significantly interrelated with the other 4 MetS components.

  2. North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the spring of 2015, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction brought together tribal Elders from across North Dakota to share stories, memories, songs, and wisdom in order to develop the North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings (NDNAEU) to guide the learning of both Native and non-Native students across the state. They…

  3. African-American Fathers' Perspectives on Their Children's Health Education: A Qualitative, Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, Mary; Smith, Matthew Lee; McKyer, E Lisako J

    2014-01-01

    To investigate African-American fathers' (AAF) perceptions regarding the applicability and need for their involvement as a health connection for their children and describe how participating fathers' behavior was affected by their attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions of their influence on their children's health. This exploratory study gathered data via semi-structured focus groups (n = 3) and thematically analyzed it utilizing a grounded theory approach. Participants included AAF (n = 20) with a mean age of 37 years (SD 11.79), with at least one child between 6 and 18 years old. Four major themes were revealed: (1) appropriate health education for participants' children (should first and foremost be delivered by parents); (2) participants' paternal health-related guidance approach (reactive, rather than proactive); (3) participants' perceived influences on health-related communication with their children (gender roles, efficacy constraints); and (4) paternal definitions of health (most often associated with diet). Understanding AAFs' perceived and desired role in their children's health edification can inform initiatives that actively engage these men, and nurture their level of involvement, to promote positive health behaviors among their children; this is necessary to realize their potential to actively improve the health of their children, families, and communities.

  4. Genotypic characterization of initial acquisition of Streptococcus mutans in American Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Lynch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe-early childhood caries (S-ECC is one of the most common infectious diseases in children and is prevalent in lower socio-economic populations. American Indian children suffer from the highest levels of S-ECC in the United States. Members of the mutans streptococci, Streptococcus mutans, in particular, are key etiologic agents in the development of caries. Children typically acquire S. mutans from their mothers and early acquisition is often associated with higher levels of tooth decay. Methods: We have conducted a 5-year birth cohort study with a Northern Plains Tribe to determine the temporality and fidelity of S. mutans transmission from mother to child in addition to the genotypic diversity of S. mutans in this community. Plaque samples were collected from 239 mother/child dyads at regular intervals from birth to 36 months and S. mutans were isolated and genotyped by arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR. Results: Here we present preliminary findings from a subset of the cohort. The focus for this paper is on initial acquisition events in the children. We identified 17 unique genotypes in 711 S. mutans isolates in our subset of 40 children, 40 mothers and 14 primary caregivers. Twelve of these genotypes were identified in more than one individual. S. mutans colonization occurred by 16 months in 57.5% of the children and early colonization was associated with higher decayed, missing and filled surface (DMFS scores (p=0.0007. Children colonized by S. mutans shared a common genotype with their mothers 47.8% of the time. While multiple genotypes were common in adults, only 10% of children harbored multiple genotypes. Conclusion: These children acquire S. mutans at an earlier age than the originally described ‘window of infectivity’ and often, but not exclusively, from their mothers. Early acquisition is associated with both the caries status of the children and the mothers.

  5. Endotypes of difficult-to-control asthma in inner-city African American children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K R Brown

    Full Text Available African Americans have higher rates of asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality in comparison with other racial groups. We sought to characterize endotypes of childhood asthma severity in African American patients in an inner-city pediatric asthma population. Baseline blood neutrophils, blood eosinophils, and 38 serum cytokine levels were measured in a sample of 235 asthmatic children (6-17 years enrolled in the NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored Asthma Phenotypes in the Inner City (APIC study (ICAC (Inner City Asthma Consortium-19. Cytokines were quantified using a MILLIPLEX panel and analyzed on a Luminex analyzer. Patients were classified as Easy-to-Control or Difficult-to-Control based on the required dose of controller medications over one year of prospective management. A multivariate variable selection procedure was used to select cytokines associated with Difficult-to-Control versus Easy-to-Control asthma, adjusting for age, sex, blood eosinophils, and blood neutrophils. In inner-city African American children, 12 cytokines were significant predictors of Difficult-to-Control asthma (n = 235. CXCL-1, IL-5, IL-8, and IL-17A were positively associated with Difficult-to-Control asthma, while IL-4 and IL-13 were positively associated with Easy-to-Control asthma. Using likelihood ratio testing, it was observed that in addition to blood eosinophils and neutrophils, serum cytokines improved the fit of the model. In an inner-city pediatric population, serum cytokines significantly contributed to the definition of Difficult-to-Control asthma endotypes in African American children. Mixed responses characterized by TH2 (IL-5 and TH17-associated cytokines were associated with Difficult-to-Control asthma. Collectively, these data may contribute to risk stratification of Difficult-to-Control asthma in the African American population.

  6. Stigmatized Biologies: Examining the Cumulative Effects of Oral Health Disparities for Mexican American Farmworker Children

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Sarah; Barker, Judith C.

    2010-01-01

    Severe early childhood caries (ECC) can leave lasting effects on children’s physical development, including malformed oral arches and crooked permanent dentition. This article examines the way that ECC sets up Mexican American farm worker children in the United States for lasting dental problems and social stigma as young adults. We examine the role of dietary and environmental factors in contributing to what we call “stigmatized biologies,” and that of market-based dental public health insur...

  7. Estimating Neonatal Mortality Rates from the Heights of Children: The Case of American Slaves

    OpenAIRE

    Richard H. Steckel

    1985-01-01

    Underenumeration of vital events is a problem familiar topeople who work with historical demographic records. This paper proposes a method for recovering information about neonatal mortality.The approach utilizes average heights of young children to predict the birth weight of American slaves. The results suggest that slave newborns weighed on average about 5.1 pounds, which places them among the poorest populations of developing countries in the mid-twentieth century. The birth weight distri...

  8. [Professional opinion about hospitalising Latin-American immigrant children in Andalucía, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Castillo, Antonio; Vílchez-Lara, María J

    2009-01-01

    There has been an increase in paediatric hospital attention being provided for Latin-American immigrant patients in Spain during the recent years. This work was aimed at ascertaining professionals' opinion regarding this population's specific and differential needs concerning Latin-American immigrant children being hospitalised. The study consisted of a qualitative, phenomenological type of investigation, based on semi-structured interviews of key informers in Andalusia (Spain). The subjects of the study were professionals from paediatric services in hospital centres in Andalusia. One of the most prominent (positive) results revealed that the Latin-American immigrant population presented less difficulties regarding hospital functioning when compared to other immigrant groups. The psychological aspects which had most impact on paediatric hospitalisation would be emotional alterations, such as the presence of anxiety and stress, or other aspects, like a lack of trust when being hospitalised.

  9. Modelling the introduction and spread of non-native species: international trade and climate change drive ragweed invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Daniel S; Makra, László; Albertini, Roberto; Bonini, Maira; Páldy, Anna; Rodinkova, Victoria; Šikoparija, Branko; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elżbieta; Bullock, James M

    2016-09-01

    Biological invasions are a major driver of global change, for which models can attribute causes, assess impacts and guide management. However, invasion models typically focus on spread from known introduction points or non-native distributions and ignore the transport processes by which species arrive. Here, we developed a simulation model to understand and describe plant invasion at a continental scale, integrating repeated transport through trade pathways, unintentional release events and the population dynamics and local anthropogenic dispersal that drive subsequent spread. We used the model to simulate the invasion of Europe by common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a globally invasive plant that causes serious harm as an aeroallergen and crop weed. Simulations starting in 1950 accurately reproduced ragweed's current distribution, including the presence of records in climatically unsuitable areas as a result of repeated introduction. Furthermore, the model outputs were strongly correlated with spatial and temporal patterns of ragweed pollen concentrations, which are fully independent of the calibration data. The model suggests that recent trends for warmer summers and increased volumes of international trade have accelerated the ragweed invasion. For the latter, long distance dispersal because of trade within the invaded continent is highlighted as a key invasion process, in addition to import from the native range. Biosecurity simulations, whereby transport through trade pathways is halted, showed that effective control is only achieved by early action targeting all relevant pathways. We conclude that invasion models would benefit from integrating introduction processes (transport and release) with spread dynamics, to better represent propagule pressure from native sources as well as mechanisms for long-distance dispersal within invaded continents. Ultimately, such integration may facilitate better prediction of spatial and temporal variation in invasion

  10. The effect of visuals on non-native English students' learning of the basic principles and laws of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Quan

    2001-10-01

    This study, involving 154 undergraduate college students in China, was conducted to determine whether the surface structure of visual graphics affect content learning when the learner was a non-native English speaker and learning took place in a non-English speaking environment. Instruction with concrete animated graphics resulted in significantly higher achievement, when compared to instruction with concrete static, abstract static, abstract animated graphics or text only without any graphical illustrations. It was also found, unexpectedly, the text-only instruction resulted in the second best achievement, significantly higher than instruction with concrete static, abstract static, and abstract animated graphics. In addition, there was a significant interaction with treatment and test item, which indicated that treatment effects on graphic-specific items differed from those on definitional items. Additional findings indicated that relation to graphics directly or indirectly from the text that students studied had little impact on their performance in the posttests. Further, 51% of the participants indicated that they relied on some graphical images to answer the test questions and 19% relied heavily on graphics when completing the tests. In conclusion, concrete graphics when combined with animation played a significant role in enhancing ESL student performance and enabled the students to achieve the best learning outcomes as compared to abstract animated, concrete static, and abstract static graphics. This result suggested a significant innovation in the design and development of ESL curriculum in computer-based instruction, which would enable ESL students to perform better and achieve the expected outcomes in content area learning.

  11. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Gross Rainfall, Throughfall and Stemflow in a Non-native Hawaiian Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, A.; Safeeq, M.; Fares, S.

    2011-12-01

    Information on partitioning of gross rainfall in non-native trees in Hawaiian forests is limited. In this study, measurements of gross rainfall (PG), throughfall (TF), and stemflow (SF) were made at three locations in the upper Mākaha valley watershed to perform canopy water balance and parameterize Gash analytical model. The three selected locations are dominated by Strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum), Christmas berry (Schinus terebinthifolius), Java plum (Syzygium cumini), and Coffee (Coffea Arabica) trees. Mean TF expressed as percentage of PG was the lowest (43.32%) under Strawberry guava and the highest (56.47%) under a mixture of Christmas berry, Strawberry guava, and Java plum. However, measured SF was the highest (33.9%) for Strawberry guava and lowest (3.6%) under the mixture of Christmas berry, Strawberry guava, and Java plum. The highest SF under Strawberry guava can be attributed to its smooth bark and steep branching and could have been the reason behind lowest TF. The mean observed interception losses varied between 23% under Strawberry guava and 45% for the site dominated by Coffee. Estimated mean free TF coefficients varied from 0.34 to 0.44, while the mean canopy storage capacity varied from 0.89 to 1.94 mm. The mean SF partitioning coefficient ranged from 0.05 to 0.37. The estimated canopy storage and trunk storage (P't) varied from 4.6 to 5.7 mm and 1.47 to 3.72 mm, respectively. Trees with nearly vertical branches and smooth bark (i.e. Strawberry Guava) resulted in smaller value of trunk storage. The analytical Gash's model for rainfall interception was successfully applied and its simulated results agreed reasonably well with observed data.

  12. Early growth of Mexican-American children: lagging in preliteracy skills but not social development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Alma D; Fuller, Bruce; Chu, Lynna; Kim, Anthony; Franke, Todd; Bridges, Margaret; Kuo, Alice

    2013-11-01

    Latino toddlers fall behind White peers at 24 months of age in oral language and interactive skills with their mothers in English or Spanish. But Latino children enter kindergarten with social skills that rival White peers, despite social-class disparities. We ask whether cognitive trajectories widen during the 24-48 month period, how these patterns differ for Latinos, especially Mexican-Americans, and whether similar gaps in social-emotional growth appear. We analyzed growth patterns for a nationally representative birth sample (n = 4,690) drawn in 2001, estimating levels of change in development from 24 to 48 months of age, focusing on Latino subgroups. The mean gap in cognitive processing for Mexican-American children, already wide at 24-months of age relative to Whites (three-fourths of a standard deviation), remained constant at 48 months. But differences in social-emotional status were statistically insignificant at both 24 and 48 months. Mexican-American mothers were observed to be equally warm and supportive relative to White peers during interaction tasks. Yet the former group engaged less frequently in cognitive facilitation, oral language, and preliteracy activities in the home. Growth in both cognitive and social domains was considerably lower in larger families, placing children raised in poor or Spanish-speaking homes within a large household at greater risk of delays. Pediatricians and practitioners must carefully gauge the social-emotional well-being of Latino children, in developmental surveillance activities. Growth in cognitive and social domains unfolds independently for children of Mexican heritage, even when raised in economically poor families.

  13. Spirometric reference values for Hopi Native American children ages 4-13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnall, David A; Nelson, Arnold G; Hearon, Christopher M; Interpreter, Christina; Kanuho, Verdell

    2016-04-01

    Spirometry is the most important tool in diagnosing pulmonary disease and is the most frequently performed pulmonary function test. Respiratory disease is also one of the greatest causes for morbidity and mortality on the Hopi Nation, but no specific reference equations exist for this unique population. The purpose of this study was to determine if population reference equations were necessary for these children and, if needed, to create new age and race-specific pulmonary nomograms for Hopi children. Two hundred and ninety-two healthy children, ages 4-13 years, attending Hopi Nation elementary schools in Arizona, were asked to perform spirometry for a full battery of pulmonary volumes and capacities of which the following were analyzed: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ), FEV1 % (FEV1 /FVC), FEF25-75% and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Spirometric data from Navajo children living in the same geographical region as the Hopi children were compared as well as spirometric data from common reference values used for other ethnic groups in the USA. Spirometry tests from 165 girls and 127 boys met American Thoracic Society quality control standards. We found that the natural log of height, body mass and age were significant predictors of FEV1 , FVC, and FEF25-75% in the gender-specific models and that lung function values all increased with height and age as expected. The predictions using the equations derived for Navajo, Caucasian, Mexican-American, African-American youth were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from the predictions derived from the Hopi equations for all of the variables across both genders, with the exceptions of Hopi versus Navajo FEV1 /FVC in the males and Hopi versus Caucasians FEF25-75% in the females. Thus it would appear for this population important to have specific formulae to provide more accurate reference values. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. PATTERNS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG AMERICAN INDIAN CHILDREN: AN ASSESSMENT OF BARRIERS AND SUPPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Janice L.; Davis, Sally M.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Going, Scott; Becenti, Alberta; Metcalfe, Lauve; Stone, Elaine; Harnack, Lisa; Ring, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Estimates indicate that 10% to 50% of American Indian and non-Indian children in the U.S. are obese, defined as a body mass index ≥ 95th percentile of the NHANES II reference data. Pathways is a two-phase, multi-site study to develop and test a school-based obesity prevention program in American Indian schoolchildren in grades three through five. During Phase I feasibility prior to initiation of the Pathways trial, data were collected related to physical activity patterns, and the supports of, and barriers to, physical activity. Nine schools from communities representing six different tribal groups participated in this study. Multiple measures were used for data collection including direct observation, paired child interviews, and in-depth interviews and focus groups with adults. Students completed the self-administered Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors (KAB) survey, and a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Barriers to physical activity at schools included a lack of facilities, equipment, and trained staff persons for PE. Adults were not consistently active with their children, but they were highly supportive of their children’s activity level. Children reported a strong enjoyment of physical activity and strong peer support to be physically active. Weather conditions, safety concerns, and homework/chores were common barriers to physical activity reported by children and adult caregivers. The information was used to design culturally and age-appropriate, practical interventions including the five physical activity programs for schoolchildren in the Pathways study. PMID:11759094

  15. Message Framing, Perceived Susceptibility, and Intentions to Vaccinate Children against HPV among African American Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Madden, Kelly; Richards, Adam; Holt, Cheryl; Wang, Min Qi; Tracy, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This research examines the interaction effect of message framing (gain vs. loss) and perceived susceptibility (i.e., perceived likelihood that one’s child is at risk of contracting HPV) on African American parents’ intentions to vaccinate their children against HPV. Results of an experiment (N = 193), in which parents were exposed to either a gain-framed or loss-framed message about HPV vaccination, revealed a significant interaction between message framing and perceived susceptibility when parents were required to pay for the vaccine. The specific pattern of interaction suggested that parents who perceived their children to be at high risk of contracting HPV were more persuaded by the gain-framed message, whereas those who believed their children to be at low risk of contracting HPV were more persuaded by the loss-framed message. Implications of the findings for HPV vaccination messaging are discussed. PMID:26646190

  16. Maternal discussions of mental states and behaviors: relations to emotion situation knowledge in European American and immigrant Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N; Wang, Qi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined in a cross-cultural context mothers' discussions of mental states and external behaviors in a story-telling task with their 3-year-old children and the relations of such discussions to children's emotion situation knowledge (ESK). The participants were 71 European American and 60 Chinese immigrant mother-child pairs in the United States. Mothers and children read a storybook together at home, and children's ESK was assessed. Results showed that European American mothers made more references to thoughts and emotions during storytelling than did Chinese mothers, who commented more frequently on behaviors. Regardless of culture, mothers' use of mental states language predicted children's ESK, whereas their references to behaviors were negatively related to children's ESK. Finally, mothers' emphasis on mental states over behaviors partially mediated cultural effects on children's ESK. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Neuropsychological study of FASD in a sample of American Indian children: processing simple versus complex information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Alfredo S; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Barela-Scott, Lindsey M; Tabachnick, Barbara G; May, Philip A

    2008-12-01

    Although a large body of literature exists on cognitive functioning in alcohol-exposed children, it is unclear if there is a signature neuropsychological profile in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). This study assesses cognitive functioning in children with FASD from several American Indian reservations in the Northern Plains States, and it applies a hierarchical model of simple versus complex information processing to further examine cognitive function. We hypothesized that complex tests would discriminate between children with FASD and culturally similar controls, while children with FASD would perform similar to controls on relatively simple tests. Our sample includes 32 control children and 24 children with a form of FASD [fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) = 10, partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS) = 14]. The test battery measures general cognitive ability, verbal fluency, executive functioning, memory, and fine-motor skills. Many of the neuropsychological tests produced results consistent with a hierarchical model of simple versus complex processing. The complexity of the tests was determined "a priori" based on the number of cognitive processes involved in them. Multidimensional scaling was used to statistically analyze the accuracy of classifying the neurocognitive tests into a simple versus complex dichotomy. Hierarchical logistic regression models were then used to define the contribution made by complex versus simple tests in predicting the significant differences between children with FASD and controls. Complex test items discriminated better than simple test items. The tests that conformed well to the model were the Verbal Fluency, Progressive Planning Test (PPT), the Lhermitte memory tasks, and the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT). The FASD-grouped children, when compared with controls, demonstrated impaired performance on letter fluency, while their performance was similar on category fluency. On the more complex PPT trials (problems 5 to

  18. Reading books with young deaf children: strategies for mediating between American Sign Language and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Research on shared reading has shown positive results on children's literacy development in general and for deaf children specifically; however, reading techniques might differ between these two populations. Families with deaf children, especially those with deaf parents, often capitalize on their children's visual attributes rather than primarily auditory cues. These techniques are believed to provide a foundation for their deaf children's literacy skills. This study examined 10 deaf mother/deaf child dyads with children between 3 and 5 years of age. Dyads were videotaped in their homes on at least two occasions reading books that were provided by the researcher. Descriptive analysis showed specifically how deaf mothers mediate between the two languages, American Sign Language (ASL) and English, while reading. These techniques can be replicated and taught to all parents of deaf children so that they can engage in more effective shared reading activities. Research has shown that shared reading, or the interaction of a parent and child with a book, is an effective way to promote language and literacy, vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, and metalinguistic awareness (Snow, 1983), making it critical for educators to promote shared reading activities at home between parent and child. Not all parents read to their children in the same way. For example, parents of deaf children may present the information in the book differently due to the fact that signed languages are visual rather than spoken. In this vein, we can learn more about what specific connections deaf parents make to the English print. Exploring strategies deaf mothers may use to link the English print through the use of ASL will provide educators with additional tools when working with all parents of deaf children. This article will include a review of the literature on the benefits of shared reading activities for all children, the relationship between ASL and English skill development, and the techniques

  19. Facilitation of a native pest of rice, Stenotus rubrovittatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), by the non-native Lolium multiflorum (Cyperales: Poaceae) in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Akira; Takada, Mayura; Washitani, Izumi

    2011-10-01

    Source populations of polyphagous pests often occur on host plants other than the economically damaged crop. We evaluated the contribution of patches of a non-native meadow grass, Lolium multiflorum Lam. (Poaceae), and other weeds growing in fallow fields or meadows as source hosts of an important native pest of rice, Stenotus rubrovittatus (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Miridae), in an agricultural landscape of northern Japan. Periodical censuses of this mirid bug by using the sweeping method, vegetation surveys, and statistical analysis revealed that L. multiflorum was the only plant species that was positively correlated with the density of adult S. rubrovittatus through two generations and thus may be the most stable and important host of the mirid bug early in the season before the colonization of rice paddies. The risk and cost of such an indirect negative effect on a crop plant through facilitation of a native pest by a non-native plant in the agricultural landscape should not be overlooked.

  20. High water-use efficiency and growth contribute to success of non-native Erodium cicutarium in a Sonoran Desert winter annual community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Sarah; Gremer, Jennifer R; Barron-Gafford, Greg A; Angert, Amy L; Huxman, Travis E; Venable, D Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    The success of non-native, invasive species may be due to release from natural enemies, superior competitive abilities, or both. In the Sonoran Desert, Erodium cicutarium has increased in abundance over the last 30 years. While native species in this flora exhibit a strong among-species trade-off between relative growth rate and water-use efficiency, E. cicutarium seems to have a higher relative growth rate for its water-use efficiency value relative to the pattern across native species. This novel trait combination could provide the non-native species with a competitive advantage in this water-limited environment. To test the hypothesis that E. cicutarium is able to achieve high growth rates due to release from native herbivores, we compared the effects of herbivory on E. cicutarium and its native congener, Erodium texanum. We also compared these two species across a range of environmental conditions, both in a common garden and in two distinct seasons in the field, using growth analysis, isotopic compositions and leaf-level gas exchange. Additionally, we compared the competitive abilities of the two Erodium species in a greenhouse experiment. We found no evidence of herbivory to either species. Physiological measurements in a common environment revealed that E. cicutarium was able to achieve high growth rates while simultaneously controlling leaf-level water loss. Non-native E. cicutarium responded to favourable conditions in the field with greater specific leaf area and leaf area ratio than native E. texanum. The non-native Erodium was a stronger competitor than its native congener in a greenhouse competition experiment. The ability to maintain relatively higher values of water-use efficiency:relative growth rate in comparison to the native flora may be what enables E. cictarium to outcompete native species in both wet and dry years, resulting in an increase in abundance in the highly variable Sonoran Desert.

  1. Understanding and Combating the Fire-Enhancing Impact of Non-Native Annuals in Desert Scrub through the Tools of Population and Landscape Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    ranges. It has been suggested that evolution 11 is a continuing process and the strength of interaction diminish over time as non-native...1106. Callaway R. M. & W.M. Ridenour. 2004. Novel weapons: invasive success and the evolution of increased competitive ability. Frontiers in Ecology...science of nature reserve design: perspectives from history. Environmental Modeling & Assessment 7:61-69. Kunin W.E. 1998. Biodiversity at the edge: A

  2. The roles of climate, phylogenetic relatedness, introduction effort, and reproductive traits in the establishment of non-native reptiles and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilgen, Nicola J; Richardson, David M

    2012-04-01

    We developed a method to predict the potential of non-native reptiles and amphibians (herpetofauna) to establish populations. This method may inform efforts to prevent the introduction of invasive non-native species. We used boosted regression trees to determine whether nine variables influence establishment success of introduced herpetofauna in California and Florida. We used an independent data set to assess model performance. Propagule pressure was the variable most strongly associated with establishment success. Species with short juvenile periods and species with phylogenetically more distant relatives in regional biotas were more likely to establish than species that start breeding later and those that have close relatives. Average climate match (the similarity of climate between native and non-native range) and life form were also important. Frogs and lizards were the taxonomic groups most likely to establish, whereas a much lower proportion of snakes and turtles established. We used results from our best model to compile a spreadsheet-based model for easy use and interpretation. Probability scores obtained from the spreadsheet model were strongly correlated with establishment success as were probabilities predicted for independent data by the boosted regression tree model. However, the error rate for predictions made with independent data was much higher than with cross validation using training data. This difference in predictive power does not preclude use of the model to assess the probability of establishment of herpetofauna because (1) the independent data had no information for two variables (meaning the full predictive capacity of the model could not be realized) and (2) the model structure is consistent with the recent literature on the primary determinants of establishment success for herpetofauna. It may still be difficult to predict the establishment probability of poorly studied taxa, but it is clear that non-native species (especially lizards

  3. The Nature of Teacher-Community Contact in Schools Serving Southwest Indian Children. American Indian Education Papers, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Margaret E.

    Previous school-community research in American Indian communities has demonstrated that "isolation" or lack of communication between school staff and community parents has contributed to the failure of educating American Indian children. To validate this research in the Southwest, a diary indicating the out-of-school activities was…

  4. American Indian and Alaska Native Children and Mental Health: Development, Context, Prevention, and Treatment. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarche, Michelle C., Ed.; Spicer, Paul, Ed.; Farrell, Patricia, Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This unique book examines the physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors that support or undermine healthy development in American Indian children, including economics, biology, and public policies. American Indian and Alaska Native youth suffer disproportionately higher rates of trauma, substance abuse, and youth suicide. At the…

  5. Diet and Respiratory Health in Children from 11 Latin American Countries: Evidence from ISAAC Phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Alfonso Mario; Thawer, Sumaiyya; Boyle, Robert J; Villalba, Sara; Jaller, Rodolfo; Tapias, Elmy; Segura, Ana María; Villegas, Rodrigo; Garcia-Larsen, Vanessa

    2017-12-01

    The burden of childhood asthma and its risk factors is an important but neglected public health challenge in Latin America. We investigated the association between allergic symptoms and dietary intake in children from this region. As part of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase III, questionnaire collected dietary intake was investigated in relation to risk of parental/child reported current wheeze (primary outcome) and rhino-conjunctivitis and eczema. Per-country adjusted logistic regressions were performed, and combined effect sizes were calculated with meta-analyses. 143,967 children from 11 countries had complete data. In children aged 6-7 years, current wheeze was negatively associated with higher fruit intake (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.65; 95% CI 0.74, 0.97). Current rhino-conjunctivitis and eczema were statistically negatively associated with fruit intake (aOR 0.72; 95% CI 0.64, 0.82; and OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.56, 0.74, respectively). Vegetable intake was negatively associated with risk of symptoms in younger children, but these associations were attenuated in the 13-14 years old group. Fastfood/burger intake was positively associated with all three outcomes in the older children. A higher intake of fruits and vegetables was associated with a lower prevalence of allergic symptoms in Latin American children. Conversely, intake of fastfood was positively associated with a higher prevalence of wheeze in adolescents. Improved dietary habits in children might help reduce the epidemic of allergic symptoms in Latin America. Food interventions in asthmatic children are needed to evaluate the possible public health impact of a better diet on respiratory health.

  6. Loss of biodiversity in a conservation unit of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: the effect of introducing non-native fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Fragoso-Moura

    Full Text Available Abstract The introduction of species has become an important problem for biodiversity and natural ecosystem conservation. The lake system of the middle Rio Doce (MG, Brazil comprises c. 200 lakes at various conservation states, of which 50 are located within the Rio Doce State Park (PERD. Previous studies had verified several of these lakes suffered non-native fishes introductions and the presence of these species needs for the implementation of actions aiming at not only their control but also the preservation of the native species. This study discusses the effects of non-native fish species in the largest conservation unit of Atlantic Forest in Minas Gerais, southeast of Brazil, using data from 1983 to 2010 distributed as follow: data prior to 2006 were obtained from previous studies, and data from September 2006 to July 2010 were obtained in Lake Carioca at four sampling stations using gillnets, seine nets and sieve. A total of 17 fish species was collected (2006-2010 of which five were introduced species. Among the small to medium size native species (30 to 2000 mm standard length seven had disappeared, two are new records and one was recaptured. The non-native species Cichla kelberi (peacock bass and Pygocentrus nattereri (red piranha are within the most abundant captured species. Integrated with other actions, such as those preventing new introductions, a selective fishing schedule is proposed as an alternative approach to improve the conservation management actions and the local and regional biodiversity maintenance.

  7. Loss of biodiversity in a conservation unit of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: the effect of introducing non-native fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso-Moura, E N; Oporto, L T; Maia-Barbosa, P M; Barbosa, F A R

    2016-02-01

    The introduction of species has become an important problem for biodiversity and natural ecosystem conservation. The lake system of the middle Rio Doce (MG, Brazil) comprises c. 200 lakes at various conservation states, of which 50 are located within the Rio Doce State Park (PERD). Previous studies had verified several of these lakes suffered non-native fishes introductions and the presence of these species needs for the implementation of actions aiming at not only their control but also the preservation of the native species. This study discusses the effects of non-native fish species in the largest conservation unit of Atlantic Forest in Minas Gerais, southeast of Brazil, using data from 1983 to 2010 distributed as follow: data prior to 2006 were obtained from previous studies, and data from September 2006 to July 2010 were obtained in Lake Carioca at four sampling stations using gillnets, seine nets and sieve. A total of 17 fish species was collected (2006-2010) of which five were introduced species. Among the small to medium size native species (30 to 2000 mm standard length) seven had disappeared, two are new records and one was recaptured. The non-native species Cichla kelberi (peacock bass) and Pygocentrus nattereri (red piranha) are within the most abundant captured species. Integrated with other actions, such as those preventing new introductions, a selective fishing schedule is proposed as an alternative approach to improve the conservation management actions and the local and regional biodiversity maintenance.

  8. The comparative analysis of English and Lithuanian transport terms and some methods of developing effective science writing strategies by non-native speakers of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marina

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of developing more effective strategies and skills of writing scientific and technical texts by non-native speakers of English. The causes of poor writing are identified and general guidelines for developing effective science writing strategies are outlined. The analysis of difficulties faced by non-native speakers of English in writing research papers is made by examining transport terms and international words which are based on different nomination principles in English and Lithuanian. Case study of various names given to a small vehicle used for passenger transportation in many countries is provided, illustrating the alternative ways of naming the same object of reality in different languages. The analysis is based on the theory of linguistic relativity. Differences in the use of similar international terms in English and Lithuanian, which often cause errors and misunderstanding, are also demonstrated. The recommendations helping non-native speakers of English to avoid errors and improve skills of writing scientific and technical texts are given.

  9. Relationship between Homesickness and Test Anxiety in Non-Native Students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences International Branch in the Clinical and Physiopathology Course In 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Saman

    2015-12-17

    Anxiety is an emotional and physiological response to the internal felling of overall danger that is easily resolved. The aim of this study has been to determine the relationship between exam anxiety and the feeling of homesickness among non-native students. The present study is cross-sectional and the subjects in this study are 80 non-native male and female PhD candidates in clinical and physiopathology majors in 2013 academic year that have been evaluated with the help of Persian homesickness questionnaire and Sarason's test anxiety questionnaire and the data was analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. With regard to the Pearson's correlation coefficient there is a significant and reverse relationship between the desire to return to home and exam anxiety (r=0.0344, p=0.004) and there is a significant and reverse relationship between the Compatibility and exam anxiety (r=0.428, panxiety (r=0.888, panxiety and the mental health of non-native students will be deteriorated by the feeling of homesickness and anxiety.

  10. Cross-modal Association between Auditory and Visuospatial Information in Mandarin Tone Perception in Noise by Native and Non-native Perceivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly Hannah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception involves multiple input modalities. Research has indicated that perceivers establish cross-modal associations between auditory and visuospatial events to aid perception. Such intermodal relations can be particularly beneficial for speech development and learning, where infants and non-native perceivers need additional resources to acquire and process new sounds. This study examines how facial articulatory cues and co-speech hand gestures mimicking pitch contours in space affect non-native Mandarin tone perception. Native English as well as Mandarin perceivers identified tones embedded in noise with either congruent or incongruent Auditory-Facial (AF and Auditory-FacialGestural (AFG inputs. Native Mandarin results showed the expected ceiling-level performance in the congruent AF and AFG conditions. In the incongruent conditions, while AF identification was primarily auditory-based, AFG identification was partially based on gestures, demonstrating the use of gestures as valid cues in tone identification. The English perceivers’ performance was poor in the congruent AF condition, but improved significantly in AFG. While the incongruent AF identification showed some reliance on facial information, incongruent AFG identification relied more on gestural than auditory-facial information. These results indicate positive effects of facial and especially gestural input on non-native tone perception, suggesting that cross-modal (visuospatial resources can be recruited to aid auditory perception when phonetic demands are high. The current findings may inform patterns of tone acquisition and development, suggesting how multi-modal speech enhancement principles may be applied to facilitate speech learning.

  11. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in African American children and adolescents: Risks, resiliency, and barriers to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monnica T; Jahn, Matthew E

    2017-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a serious condition that remains understudied in ethnoracial minority populations. The presence of OCD and the individual, familial, and cultural factors that influence this condition can interfere with healthy development and cause lifelong disability. To date, there has not been a single published research article focused on OCD in African American youth. Ethnic and racial minorities with OCD are underrepresented or altogether absent from treatment centers and research studies, although evidence suggests that OCD may be particularly persistent in these populations. This article reviews risk factors, protective factors, and barriers to treatment in African American children and adolescents with OCD. This review conceptualizes cultural differences in symptomology, low income, reduced access to care, racism, and mental health stigma, as risk factors. Also discussed are the roles of family factors in the development and maintenance of the disorder, including family accommodations, conflictual family communication, and parenting styles. Potential protective factors are also examined, including a positive ethnic identity, social support, present-centered time orientation, and religious communities. Implications of findings are discussed. There is an urgent need for research to understand the needs of African American children and adolescents with OCD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Maternal Discussions of Mental States and Behaviors: Relations to Emotion Situation Knowledge in European American and Immigrant Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N.; Wang, Qi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined in a cross-cultural context mothers' discussions of mental states and external behaviors in a story-telling task with their 3-year-old children and the relations of such discussions to children's emotion situation knowledge (ESK). The participants were 71 European American and 60 Chinese immigrant mother-child pairs in the…

  13. Dietary Intakes of Urban, High Body Mass Index, African American Children: Family and Child Dietary Attributes Predict Child Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…

  14. Physical Settings, Materials, and Related Spanish Terminology Recommended for Play Therapy with First-Generation Mexican-American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Peter L.; Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Flores-Torres, Leila; Steele, Richard; Lund, Nick L.

    2005-01-01

    There is a dearth of literature on multicultural aspects of play therapy, particularly for Mexican-American children. According to Landreth (2002), it is of utmost importance that children be able to communicate in a way that is most natural to them. The literature currently reflects a playroom based mostly on middle class European-American…

  15. Maternal Control and Sensitivity, Child Gender, and Maternal Education in Relation to Children's Behavioral Outcomes in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Briggs, Rahil D.; McClowry, Sandra G.; Snow, David L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationships between mother-child interactions and children's behaviors in 119 urban African American mothers and their 6-7 year old children. Interactions during a cooking task and a follow-up child clean-up task were videotaped. Principal components analyses of behaviors during the cooking task yielded two factors in mothers…

  16. Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge Assessment: Development of Questionnaires and Evaluation of Reliability in African American and Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsay S.; Sharma, Sushma; Hudes, Mark L.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: African-American and Latino children living in neighborhoods with a low-socioeconomic index are more at risk of obesity-associated metabolic disease than their higher socioeconomic index and/or white peers. Currently, consistent and reliable questionnaires to evaluate nutrition and physical activity knowledge in these children are…

  17. Household food insecurity and dietary patterns in rural and urban American Indian families with young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Tomayko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High food insecurity has been demonstrated in rural American Indian households, but little is known about American Indian families in urban settings or the association of food insecurity with diet for these families. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households by urban-rural status, correlates of food insecurity in these households, and the relationship between food insecurity and diet in these households. Methods Dyads consisting of an adult caregiver and a child (2–5 years old from the same household in five urban and rural American Indian communities were included. Demographic information was collected, and food insecurity was assessed using two validated items from the USDA Household Food Security Survey. Factors associated with food insecurity were examined using logistic regression. Child and adult diets were assessed using food screeners. Coping strategies were assessed through focus group discussions. These cross-sectional baseline data were collected from 2/2013 through 4/2015 for the Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention for American Indian families. Results A high prevalence of food insecurity was determined (61% and was associated with American Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, single adult households, WIC participation, and urban settings (p = 0.05. Food insecure adults had significantly lower intake of vegetables (p < 0.05 and higher intakes of fruit juice (<0.001, other sugar-sweetened beverages (p < 0.05, and fried potatoes (p < 0.001 than food secure adults. Food insecure children had significantly higher intakes of fried potatoes (p < 0.05, soda (p = 0.01, and sports drinks (p < 0.05. Focus group participants indicated different strategies were used by urban and rural households to address food insecurity. Conclusions The prevalence of food insecurity in

  18. Effect of African- and European-American maternal attitudes and limit-setting strategies on children's self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCuyer, Elizabeth A; Swanson, Dena P; Cole, Robert; Kitzman, Harriet

    2011-12-01

    The effect of maternal attitudes and limit-setting strategies on children's self-regulation (measured as committed compliance) was compared in 151 African-American (AA) and 108 European-American (EA) mothers and their 3-year-old children. There were no ethnic differences in children's compliance, however ethnicity moderated the relationship between maternal authoritarian attitudes and children's compliance. Higher authoritarian attitudes predicted less children's compliance in the EA sample, but greater compliance in the AA sample. Observational limit-setting data revealed that in both ethnic groups, maternal authoritarian attitudes influenced children's self-regulation through maternal use of lower-power (gentle) verbal strategies, fewer physical strategies, and judicious use of higher-power verbal strategies. The findings indicate that the meaning and purpose of authoritarian attitudes varies across these mothers' socio-cultural contexts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Status of the Island Night Lizard and Two Non-Native Lizards on Outlying Landing Field San Nicolas Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Drost, Charles A.; Murphey, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    More than 900 individually marked island night lizards (Xantusia riversiana) were captured on San Nicolas Island, California, between 1984 and 2007 as part of an ongoing study to monitor the status of this threatened species. Our data suggest that at least a few lizards are probably more than 20 years old, and one lizard would be 31.5 years old if it grew at an average rate for the population. Ages of 20 and 30 years seem reasonable given the remarkably slow growth during capture intervals of more than a decade for five of the lizards which we estimated to be 20 or more years old. Like other lizards, island night lizard growth rates vary by size, with larger lizards growing more slowly. In general, growth rates were somewhat greater on San Nicolas Island (compared with Santa Barbara Island), and this increase was sustained through all of the intermediate size classes. The higher growth rate may account for the somewhat larger lizards present on San Nicolas Island, although we cannot discount the possibility that night lizards on San Nicolas are merely living longer. The high percentage of small lizards in the Eucalyptus habitat might seem to reflect a healthy population in that habitat, but the high proportion of small lizards appears to be caused by good reproduction in the 1900s and substantially poorer reproduction in subsequent years. The Eucalyptus habitat has dried quite a bit in recent years. Night lizards in the Haplopappus/Grassland habitat have shown an increase in the proportion of larger lizards since 2000. There has also been an increase in the proportion of large lizards in the Rock Cobble habitat at Redeye Beach. However, there are has been some change in habitat with more elephant seals occupying the same area just above the high tide as do the night lizards. Southern alligator lizards and side-blotched lizards are both non-native on San Nicolas Island. Neither lizard causes obvious harm to island night lizards, and management time and effort should

  20. Fathers' feeding practices and children's weight status in Mexican American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penilla, Carlos; Tschann, Jeanne M; Deardorff, Julianna; Flores, Elena; Pasch, Lauri A; Butte, Nancy F; Gregorich, Steven E; Greenspan, Louise C; Martinez, Suzanna M; Ozer, Emily

    2017-10-01

    Mothers' feeding practices are associated with their children's weight status, but little is known about the associations between fathers' feeding practices and children's weight status. Moreover, there is a dearth of research on Latino fathers' feeding practices and children's weight status, even though Latino children suffer some of the highest obesity rates in the U.S. We examined the associations between fathers' feeding practices and child weight status, conditional on mothers' feeding practices, within 174 Mexican American families with children aged 8-10 years. Parents completed the Parental Feeding Practices Questionnaire, which consists of four subscales: positive involvement in child eating, pressure to eat, use of food to control behavior, and restriction of amount of food. To assess child weight status, body mass index (BMI) was calculated and converted to age- and gender-specific percentile scores (BMI z-score). We fit four sets of regression models, one set for each of the four parental feeding practices subscales, with child BMI z-score as the outcome variable. Fathers' pressure to eat (b = -0.20, p = 0.04; 95% CI: -0.39, -0.01) and use of food to control behavior (b = -0.36, p = 0.02; 95% CI: -0.65, -0.07) were associated with lower child BMI z-score, and restriction of amount of food (b = 0.56, p Fathers' positive involvement in child eating was not associated with child BMI z-score. These findings provide empirical evidence that fathers' feeding practices are independently associated with children's weight status, even when mothers' feeding practices are taken into account, and suggest that fathers' feeding practices also matter in regard to children's weight status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The experience of Chinese American parents of children with life-limiting illness: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjiao; Kearney, Joan A

    2013-07-01

    Life-limiting childhood illness is a traumatic experience presenting parents with psychological, physical, and social challenges. While cultural influences affect all parents coping with the life-limiting illness and end-of-life period of their child, little is known about the experiences of Chinese American parents. The purpose of this comprehensive literature review was to describe Chinese American parents' experiences during their children's end-of-life period from a culturally informed perspective. Important themes in the literature are revealed including culture-based phenomena regarding philosophy of life and illness that can affect treatment choices, cultural mores that influence parental behaviour in Western health-care systems, specific communication patterns within families and between families and providers, certain coping risks, and gender-based roles and caregiving activities that have implications for provider communication patterns. The findings are consonant with the larger literature regarding the impact of traditional culture and values on Chinese family and health behaviours. Health professionals must be sensitive to Chinese American parents' communication styles, unspoken concerns, and unresolved cultural conflicts in American health-care settings. Educational interventions may be very helpful in this regard.

  2. Children's Fears: A Pre-9/11 and Post-9/11 Comparison Using the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Joy J.

    2007-01-01

    Children are influenced by the salient events surrounding them (e.g., 9/11 terrorist attacks, Hurricane Katrina, massacre at Virginia Tech). In this study, the author examined fears of children and adolescents in Grades 2-12 in a pre-and post-September 11, 2001, comparison using the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; J. J.…

  3. African American mothers' self-described discipline strategies with young children in 1992 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCuyer, Elizabeth A; Christensen, Julie J; Kreher, Donna; Kearney, Margaret H; Kitzman, Harriet J

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative descriptive study, 30 young, unmarried, low-income African American mothers in Memphis, TN, were interviewed in 2011-2012 about their discipline strategies with their 12- to 19-month-old children. Using content analyses, their strategies were described and compared with those from a similar sample in 1992. Findings suggest both continuity and change during that 20-year period. More mothers in 2011-2012 described the use of distraction and time out, suggesting a wider variety of strategies than were used in 1992. These findings may help clinicians to better understand disciplinary methods in young low-income African American mothers such as these in Memphis. Approaching mothers in a respectful and culturally sensitive manner will help them focus on effective, developmentally appropriate strategies consistent with their own parenting goals. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gendered power in cultural contexts: Part II. Middle class African American heterosexual couples with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdery, Randi S; Scarborough, Norma; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Seshadri, Gita; Lewis, Monique E; Mahoney, Anne Rankin

    2009-03-01

    When race and gender intersect, understanding gendered power may be complicated. The authors first describe the historical context that serves as important background for understanding gender and power in heterosexual African American relationships. Then they show how family solidarity in the face of social injustices often overrides gender equality as a goal for middle class African American couples with young children. The findings illustrate pragmatic equality within couple relationships and the willful suspension of gender roles for the well-being of the family as a whole. However, gendered power impacts couples in a variety of ways. Sometimes a woman's fear that the man might leave, for example, diminished her power in the relationship. Often a woman accommodated a man's greater power in the family because of her perception that he was often denied power in the larger society. Societal discrimination of women was less visible to couples. Implications for practice are provided.

  5. Removing obstacles for African American English-speaking children through greater understanding of language difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Conner, Tracy; Jackson, Janice E

    2013-01-01

    Language difference among speakers of African American English (AAE) has often been considered language deficit, based on a lack of understanding about the AAE variety. Following Labov (1972), Wolfram (1969), Green (2002, 2011), and others, we define AAE as a complex rule-governed linguistic system and briefly discuss language structures that it shares with general American English (GAE) and others that are unique to AAE. We suggest ways in which mistaken ideas about the language variety add to children's difficulties in learning the mainstream dialect and, in effect, deny them the benefits of their educational programs. We propose that a linguistically informed approach that highlights correspondences between AAE and the mainstream dialect and trains students and teachers to understand language varieties at a metalinguistic level creates environments that support the academic achievement of AAE-speaking students. Finally, we present 3 program types that are recommended for helping students achieve the skills they need to be successful in multiple linguistic environments.

  6. Renal and cardiovascular morbidities associated with APOL1 among African American and Non-African American children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Woroniecki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: African American (AA children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS have later onset disease that progresses more rapidly than in non-AA children. It is unclear how APOL1 genotypes contribute to kidney disease risk, progression and cardiovascular morbidity in children. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We examined the prevalence of APOL1 genotypes and associated cardiovascular phenotypes among children with FSGS in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD study; an ongoing multicenter prospective cohort study of children aged 1-16 years with mild to moderate kidney disease.Results: A total of 140 AA children in the CKiD study were genotyped. HR APOL1 genotypes were present in 24% of AA children (33/140 and were associated with FSGS, p 3 mg/L (33% vs. 15%, p=0.12 and obesity (48% vs. 19%, p=0.01. There were no differences in glomerular filtration rate, hemoglobin, iPTH, or calcium-phosphate product. Conclusions: AA children with HR APOL1 genotype and FSGS have increase prevalence of obesity and LVH despite a later age of FSGS onset, while adjusting for socioeconomic status. Treatment of obesity may be an important component of CKD and LVH management in this population.

  7. Performance of modified blood pressure-to-height ratio for identifying hypertension in Chinese and American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Chuanwei; Yang, Lili; Bovet, Pascal; Xi, Bo

    2018-04-06

    Blood pressure-to-height ratio (BPHR) has been reported to perform well for identifying hypertension (HTN) in adolescents but not in young children. Our study was aimed to evaluate the performance of BPHR and modified BPHR (MBPHR) for screening HTN in children. A total of 5268 Chinese children (boys: 53.1%) aged 6-12 years and 5024 American children (boys: 48.1%) aged 8-12 years were included in the present study. BPHR was calculated as BP/height (mmHg/cm). MBPHR7 was calculated as BP/(height + 7*(13-age)). MBPHR3 was calculated as BP/(height + 3*(13-age)). We used receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis to assess the performance of the three ratios for identifying HTN in children as compared to the 2017 U.S. clinical guideline as the "gold standard". The prevalence of HTN in Chinese and American children was 9.4% and 5.4%, respectively, based on the 2017 U.S. guideline. The AUC was larger for MBPHR3 than BPHR and MBPHR7. All three ratios had optimal negative predictive value (~100%). The positive predictive value (PPV) was higher for MBPHR3 than BPHR in both Chinese (43.9% vs. 37.9%) and American (39.1% vs. 26.3%) children. In contrast, the PPV was higher for MBPHR7 than BPHR in Chinese children (47.4% vs. 37.9%) but not in American children (24.8% vs. 26.3%). In summary, MBPHR3 overall performed better than MBPHR7 and BPHR for identifying HTN in children. However, the three ratios had low PPV (<50%) as compared to the 2017 U.S. guidelines, which makes these ratios of limited use for HTN screening in children.

  8. Healthy Living Behaviors Among Chinese-American Preschool-Aged Children: Results of a Parent Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomitz, Virginia Rall; Brown, Alison; Lee, Victoria; Must, Aviva; Chui, Kenneth Kwan Ho

    2017-07-17

    Associations between diet, physical activity, parenting, and acculturation among Chinese-American children are understudied. Parents/caregivers of children attending child-care programs in Boston Chinatown completed a self-administered survey on demographics, child's diet, physical activities, anthropometrics, and parenting practices. Associations were evaluated in multivariable regression analysis, stratified by survey language preference, a proxy for acculturation. Responding Asian families = 132; 86.4% were immigrants; 75.8% completed the Chinese-version survey. Children (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 1.1 years) did not eat vegetables (31.8%), or play actively outside (45.4%) daily, 64.8% watched television/screens daily; 32.6% were overweight/obese (based on parent report). Parenting practices associated with obesity were apparent. Although healthy-living behavioral outcomes were less prevalent among less acculturated parents; multivariable adjustment attenuated the observed significant differences. Findings suggest opportunities for improvement in study children's diet and healthy-living behaviors, and underscore the need for further research on acculturation, and parenting styles in this population.

  9. Real-time lexical comprehension in young children learning American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Kyle; LaMarr, Todd; Corina, David; Marchman, Virginia A; Fernald, Anne

    2018-04-16

    When children interpret spoken language in real time, linguistic information drives rapid shifts in visual attention to objects in the visual world. This language-vision interaction can provide insights into children's developing efficiency in language comprehension. But how does language influence visual attention when the linguistic signal and the visual world are both processed via the visual channel? Here, we measured eye movements during real-time comprehension of a visual-manual language, American Sign Language (ASL), by 29 native ASL-learning children (16-53 mos, 16 deaf, 13 hearing) and 16 fluent deaf adult signers. All signers showed evidence of rapid, incremental language comprehension, tending to initiate an eye movement before sign offset. Deaf and hearing ASL-learners showed similar gaze patterns, suggesting that the in-the-moment dynamics of eye movements during ASL processing are shaped by the constraints of processing a visual language in real time and not by differential access to auditory information in day-to-day life. Finally, variation in children's ASL processing was positively correlated with age and vocabulary size. Thus, despite competition for attention within a single modality, the timing and accuracy of visual fixations during ASL comprehension reflect information processing skills that are important for language acquisition regardless of language modality. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Child Modifiability as a Predictor of Language Abilities in Deaf Children Who Use American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Wolfgang; Peña, Elizabeth D; Morgan, Gary

    2015-08-01

    This research explored the use of dynamic assessment (DA) for language-learning abilities in signing deaf children from deaf and hearing families. Thirty-seven deaf children, aged 6 to 11 years, were identified as either stronger (n = 26) or weaker (n = 11) language learners according to teacher or speech-language pathologist report. All children received 2 scripted, mediated learning experience sessions targeting vocabulary knowledge—specifically, the use of semantic categories that were carried out in American Sign Language. Participant responses to learning were measured in terms of an index of child modifiability. This index was determined separately at the end of the 2 individual sessions. It combined ratings reflecting each child's learning abilities and responses to mediation, including social-emotional behavior, cognitive arousal, and cognitive elaboration. Group results showed that modifiability ratings were significantly better for stronger language learners than for weaker language learners. The strongest predictors of language ability were cognitive arousal and cognitive elaboration. Mediator ratings of child modifiability (i.e., combined score of social-emotional factors and cognitive factors) are highly sensitive to language-learning abilities in deaf children who use sign language as their primary mode of communication. This method can be used to design targeted interventions.

  11. Latin American immigrant parents and their children's teachers in U.S. early childhood education programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Ansari, Arya

    2015-12-01

    For many immigrants, their children's schools offer their first sustained interaction with the major societal institutions of their new countries, and so exploring the ways in which immigrant parents manage their children's educational experiences offers insight into how they adapt to new cultural norms, customs and expectations and how they are treated in return. This study delved into the involvement of Latin American immigrant parents in U.S. education, shifting the traditional focus down from elementary and secondary school to early childhood education. Statistical analysis of nationally representative data revealed that Latina immigrants had lower frequencies of most home- and community-based involvement behaviours than U.S.-born and foreign-born parents of varying racial/ethnic backgrounds but higher frequencies of involvement behaviours requiring participation in early childhood education programmes. As a window into these national patterns, qualitative data from an early childhood programme in an immigration-heavy state revealed that Latina immigrant mothers and their children's teachers often talked about each other as partners in supporting children's educational experiences but that their actual interactions tended to socialise mothers into being more passive recipients of teachers' directives. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. Prevalence of high astigmatism, eyeglass wear, and poor visual acuity among Native American grade school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of astigmatism and poor visual acuity and rate of eyeglass wear in grade school children who are members of a Native American tribe reported to have a high prevalence of large amounts of astigmatism. Vision screening was conducted on 1,327 first through eighth grade children attending school on the Tohono O'odham Reservation. Noncycloplegic autorefraction was conducted on the right and left eye of each child using the Nikon Retinomax K+ autorefractor, and monocular recognition acuity was tested using ETDRS logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) letter charts. Tohono O'odham children had a high prevalence of high astigmatism (42% had > or = 1.00 D in the right or left eye) and the axis of astigmatism was uniformly with-the-rule. However, only a small percentage of children arrived at the vision screening wearing glasses, and the prevalence of poor visual acuity (20/40 or worse in either eye) was high (35%). There was a significant relation between amount of astigmatism and uncorrected visual acuity with each additional diopter of astigmatism resulting in an additional 1 logMAR line reduction in visual acuity. Uncorrected astigmatism and poor visual acuity are prevalent among Tohono O'odham children. The results highlight the importance of improving glasses-wearing compliance, determining barriers to receiving eye care, and initiating public education programs regarding the importance of early identification and correction of astigmatism in Tohono O'odham children.

  13. The Impact of Input Quality on Early Sign Development in Native and Non-Native Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jenny; Jones, Anna; Morgan, Gary

    2016-01-01

    There is debate about how input variation influences child language. Most deaf children are exposed to a sign language from their non-fluent hearing parents and experience a delay in exposure to accessible language. A small number of children receive language input from their deaf parents who are fluent signers. Thus it is possible to document the…

  14. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Infants and Children With Cardiac Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Bradley S; Tabbutt, Sarah; MacLaren, Graeme; Hazinski, Mary Fran; Adatia, Ian; Atkins, Dianne L; Checchia, Paul A; DeCaen, Allan; Fink, Ericka L; Hoffman, George M; Jefferies, John L; Kleinman, Monica; Krawczeski, Catherine D; Licht, Daniel J; Macrae, Duncan; Ravishankar, Chitra; Samson, Ricardo A; Thiagarajan, Ravi R; Toms, Rune; Tweddell, James; Laussen, Peter C

    2018-04-23

    Cardiac arrest occurs at a higher rate in children with heart disease than in healthy children. Pediatric basic life support and advanced life support guidelines focus on delivering high-quality resuscitation in children with normal hearts. The complexity and variability in pediatric heart disease pose unique challenges during resuscitation. A writing group appointed by the American Heart Association reviewed the literature addressing resuscitation in children with heart disease. MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases were searched from 1966 to 2015, cross-referencing pediatric heart disease with pertinent resuscitation search terms. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association classification of recommendations and levels of evidence for practice guidelines were used. The recommendations in this statement concur with the critical components of the 2015 American Heart Association pediatric basic life support and pediatric advanced life support guidelines and are meant to serve as a resuscitation supplement. This statement is meant for caregivers of children with heart disease in the prehospital and in-hospital settings. Understanding the anatomy and physiology of the high-risk pediatric cardiac population will promote early recognition and treatment of decompensation to prevent cardiac arrest, increase survival from cardiac arrest by providing high-quality resuscitations, and improve outcomes with postresuscitation care. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Lung function in North American Indian children: reference standards for spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, M A; Olson, D; Bonn, B A; Creelman, T; Buist, A S

    1982-02-01

    Reference standards of lung function was determined in 176 healthy North American Indian children (94 girls, 82 boys) 7 to 18 yr of age. Spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow rate were measured using techniques and equipment recommended by the American Thoracic Society. Standing height was found to be an accurate predictor of lung function, and prediction equations for each lung function variable are presented using standing height as the independent variable. Lung volumes and expiratory flow rates in North American Indian children were similar to those previously reported for white and Mexican-American children but were greater than those in black children. In both boys and girls, lung function increased in a curvilinear fashion. Volume-adjusted maximal expiratory flow rates after expiring 50 or 75% of FVC tended to decrease in both sexes as age and height increased. Our maximal expiratory flow volume curve data suggest that as North American Indian children grow, lung volume increases at a slightly faster rate than airway size does.

  16. Belief Reasoning and Emotion Understanding in Balanced Bilingual and Language-Dominant Mexican American Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Amy A; Gasquoine, Philip G

    2016-01-01

    Belief reasoning and emotion understanding were measured among 102 Mexican American bilingual children ranging from 4 to 7 years old. All children were tested in English and Spanish after ensuring minimum comprehension in each language. Belief reasoning was assessed using 2 false and 1 true belief tasks. Emotion understanding was measured using subtests from the Test for Emotion Comprehension. The influence of family background variables of yearly income, parental education level, and number of siblings on combined Spanish and English vocabulary, belief reasoning, and emotion understanding was assessed by regression analyses. Age and emotion understanding predicted belief reasoning. Vocabulary and belief reasoning predicted emotion understanding. When the sample was divided into language-dominant and balanced bilingual groups on the basis of language proficiency difference scores, there were no significant differences on belief reasoning or emotion understanding. Language groups were demographically similar with regard to child age, parental educational level, and family income. Results suggest Mexican American language-dominant and balanced bilinguals develop belief reasoning and emotion understanding similarly.

  17. Racial difference in lung function in African-American and White children: effect of anthropometric, socioeconomic, nutritional, and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harik-Khan, Raida I; Muller, Denis C; Wise, Robert A

    2004-11-01

    African-American children have lower lung volumes than White children. However, the contributions of anthropometric, socioeconomic, nutritional, and environmental factors to this difference are unknown. From participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), the authors selected 1,462 healthy nonsmoking children (623 White and 839 African-American) aged 8-17 years. The African-American children were taller and heavier but had lower lung function. African Americans were poorer and had lower levels of the antioxidant vitamins A and C and alpha-carotene. The authors performed regression analyses using data on anthropometric, socioeconomic, and nutritional factors and smoke exposure. Adjustment for sitting height explained 42-53% of the racial difference. Socioeconomic factors and antioxidant vitamin levels accounted for an additional 7-10%. Overall, the authors could account for only 50-63% of the racial difference. Exposure to tobacco in the home was weakly associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second in girls, accounting for 1% of the difference. In children aged 8-12 years (n = 752), birth weight explained 3-5% of the racial difference, whereas in-utero exposure to maternal smoking had no significant effect. The authors conclude that in healthy children, the major explanatory variable for the racial difference in lung function is body habitus; socioeconomic, nutritional, and environmental confounders play a smaller role.

  18. Astigmatism and Amblyopia among Native American Children (AANAC): design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J M; Dobson, V M; Harvey, E M; Sherrill, D L

    2000-09-01

    The overall goal of the AANAC study is to improve detection of astigmatism and prevention of amblyopia in populations with a high prevalence of astigmatism. To meet this goal, the study will evaluate four methods of screening for astigmatism in preschool children and will assess both the short-term and long-term benefits of early correction of astigmatism in improving acuity and preventing amblyopia. This paper presents an overview of the design and methodology of the AANAC study. Subjects are members of the Tohono O'Odham Nation, a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Preschool-age children who attend Head Start are screened with four tools: the Marco Nidek KM-500 autokeratometer, the MTI photoscreener, the Nikon Retinomax K-Plus autorefractor, and the Lea Symbols acuity chart. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of significant astigmatism, as measured by a technique that uses both cycloplegic retinoscopy and cycloplegic autorefraction, is determined for each of the four screening tools. Presence of amblyopia is evaluated by measurement of best-corrected recognition acuity and acuity for orthogonal gratings. Spectacles are provided to all 3-year-old children with > or =2.00 diopters (D) of astigmatism and all 4- and 5-year-old children with > or =1.50 D of astigmatism. Persistence of amblyopia after glasses wearing is evaluated by follow-up measurement of best-corrected recognition acuity and acuity for orthogonal gratings, conducted 2-5 months after glasses are prescribed. Long-term effectiveness of early screening and glasses prescription is evaluated through measurement of recognition acuity in two groups of first-grade children: one group who participated in the Head Start program before the intensive vision screening program was initiated, and a second group who participated in the study's Head Start vision screening program.

  19. The Public and Professionals Reason Similarly about the Management of Non-Native Invasive Species: A Quantitative Investigation of the Relationship between Beliefs and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Anke; Selge, Sebastian; van der Wal, René; Larson, Brendon M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Despite continued critique of the idea of clear boundaries between scientific and lay knowledge, the ‘deficit-model’ of public understanding of ecological issues still seems prevalent in discourses of biodiversity management. Prominent invasion biologists, for example, still argue that citizens need to be educated so that they accept scientists’ views on the management of non-native invasive species. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey with members of the public and professionals in invasive species management (n = 732) in Canada and the UK to investigate commonalities and differences in their perceptions of species and, more importantly, how these perceptions were connected to attitudes towards species management. Both native and non-native mammal and tree species were included. Professionals tended to have more extreme views than the public, especially in relation to nativeness and abundance of a species. In both groups, species that were perceived to be more abundant, non-native, unattractive or harmful to nature and the economy were more likely to be regarded as in need of management. While perceptions of species and attitudes towards management thus often differed between public and professionals, these perceptions were linked to attitudes in very similar ways across the two groups. This suggests that ways of reasoning about invasive species employed by professionals and the public might be more compatible with each other than commonly thought. We recommend that managers and local people engage in open discussion about each other’s beliefs and attitudes prior to an invasive species control programme. This could ultimately reduce conflict over invasive species control. PMID:25170957

  20. Invaded Invaders: Infection of Invasive Brown Treesnakes on Guam by an Exotic Larval Cestode with a Life Cycle Comprised of Non-Native Hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elden T Holldorf

    Full Text Available Multiple host introductions to the same non-native environment have the potential to complete life cycles of parasites incidentally transported with them. Our goal was to identify a recently detected parasitic flatworm in the invasive Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis on the remote Pacific island of Guam. We considered possible factors influencing parasite transmission, and tested for correlations between infection status and potential indicators of host fitness. We used genetic data from the parasite and information about the native ranges of other possible non-native hosts to hypothesize how it arrived on Guam and how its life cycle may be currently supported.We identified the parasite by comparing larval morphology and mtDNA sequences with other Pseudophyllid tapeworms. We assessed probability of infection in individual snakes using logistic regression and examined different factors influencing presence of parasites in hosts.We identified the parasite as the pseudophyllid cestode Spirometra erinaceieuropaei, with all sampled worms from multiple snakes sharing a single mtDNA haplotype. Infection appears to be limited to the only freshwater watershed on the island, where infection prevalence was high (77.5%. Larger snakes had a higher probability of being infected, consistent with the chronic nature of such infections. While infection status was positively correlated with body condition, infected snakes tended to have lower intra-peritoneal fat body mass, potentially indicating a negative effect on energy stores.We discovered that B. irregularis inhabiting a small area of forested habitat in a freshwater watershed on Guam are often infected by a novel parasite of Asian origin. While further work is needed, this species of Spirometra, itself a non-native species, likely depends on a suite of recently introduced hosts from different parts of the world to complete the life cycle. This baseline study provides little evidence of any effects on host

  1. SEASONALITY OF ANNUAL PLANT ESTABLISHMENT INFLUENCES THE INTERACTIONBETWEEN THE NON-NATIVE ANNUAL GRASS BROMUS MADRITENSIS SSP. RUBENS AND MOJAVE DESERT PERENNIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Competition between native and non-native species can change the composition and structure of plant communities, but in deserts the timing of non-native plant establishment can modulate their impacts to native species. In a field experiment, we varied densities of the non-native annual grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens around individuals of three native perennials--Larrea iridentata, Achnatherum hymenoides, and Pleuraphis rigida--in either winter or spring. Additional plots were prepared for the Same perennial species and seasons, but with a mixture of native annual species. Relative growth rates of perennial shoots (RGRs) declined with increasing Bromus biomass when Bromus that was established in winter had 2-3 mo of growth and high water use before perennial growth began. However, this high water use did not significantly reduce water potentials for the perennials, suggesting Bromus that established earlier depleted other soil resources, such as N, otherwise used by perennial plants. Spring-established Bromus had low biomass even at higher densities and did not effectively reduce RGRs, resulting in an overall lower impact to perennials than when Bromus was established in winter. Similarly, growth and reproduction of perennials with mixed annuals as neighbors did not differ from those with Bromus neighbors of equivalent biomass, but densities of these annuals did not support the high biomass necessary to reduce perennial growth. Thus, impacts of native Mojave Desert annuals to perennials are expected to be lower than those of Bromus because seed dormancy and narrow requirements for seedling survivorship produce densities and biomass lower than those achieved by Bromus. In comparing the effects of Bromus among perennial species, the impact of increased Bromus biomass on RGR was lower for Larrea than for the two perennial grasses, probably because Lurrea maintains low growth rates throughout the year, even after Bromus has completed its life cycle. This contrasts

  2. Is 30 years enough time to niche segregation between a non-native and a native congeneric fish species? Evidences from stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Zaia Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The invasion of non-native species that are phylogenetically similar to native species was observed in the Upper Paraná River following the construction of the Itaipu hydroelectric plant and subsequent removal of a natural geographic barrier (Sete Quedas Falls. Endemic fish species from the Lower Paraná River, such as the piranha Serrasalmus marginatus, successfully colonized the new environment. A few years later, S. marginatus had become the dominant species, while the prevalence of the congeneric species, Serrasalmus maculatus, had declined. Considering that the two piranha species naturally coexist in the Pantanal and that S. marginatus is a non-native species in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, we hypothesized that trophic niche overlap between Serrasalmus species only occurred in the Upper Paraná River floodplain due to short-term co-existence. The study area in which the isotopic niche overlap between S. maculatus and S. marginatus was evaluated consisted of two ponds located in different floodplains, the Pantanal and the Upper Paraná River. We used carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis to elucidate the differences in the energy intake by the native and non-native species. We used mixing models and calculated the isotopic niche area and niche overlap to infer the nature of the trophic interactions between the species in both habitats. According to the mixing model, the predominant source of carbon for both species was terrestrial. Nevertheless, in Upper Paraná River, the δ13C signature of the two species differed significantly and the non-native species had a greater niche width than the native species. In the Pantanal, there were no differences in δ13C, but the species differed with respect to δ 15N, and the niche widths were narrow for both species.Based on these results, it can be inferred that the species depend on different food sources. Piranhas obtain energy from distinct prey species, which probably consume

  3. Salinity tolerance of non-native suckermouth armoured catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) in south-eastern Mexico: implications for invasion and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Krista A.; Nico, Leo G.; Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Arevalo-Frias, Wendi; Ropicki, Andrew J.; Heilpern, Sebastian A.; Rodiles-Hernandez, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    1. Salinity tolerance is one of several important physiological attributes that determine invasion success and the pattern of dispersal of introduced aquatic organisms. Introduced freshwater fishes able to tolerate elevated salinities have the potential to invade and exploit brackish-water (mixohaline) environments and use estuaries and coastal waters as 'bridges' for dispersing from one coastal river system to another. 2. Several members of the neotropical suckermouth armoured catfish genus Pterygoplichthys (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) have established non-native populations in inland waters of North and Central America, Asia and islands in the Caribbean, and Pacific and Indian oceans. Loricariids are generally considered to be strictly freshwater; but a few naturally occur in mesohaline habitats. 3.Catch and habitat data from 2004–2005 and 2009–2011 fish surveys in the Grijalva–Usumacinta River delta region (south-eastern Mexico) confirmed that introduced Pterygoplichthys populations established in upstream freshwater sites (where these catfish are abundant) have recently dispersed into downstream oligohaline and mesohaline estuarine habitats. During 2009–2011 surveys, these non-native catfish — tentatively identified as P. pardalis or its hybrids — were found in sites with salinities ranging from 1 to 8 ppt (mean 5.2 ppt). 4.Acute-salinity experiments were conducted with Pterygoplichthys (110–302 mm standard length, N=140) captured in the Grijalva–Usumacinta Basin to determine upper salinity tolerance levels. Tests demonstrated that individuals maintained in salinities of 0.2 ppt were able to survive abrupt (acute) exposure to salinities up to 10 ppt with little mortality over 10 days (240 h experimental endpoint). A few individuals survived abrupt exposure to 11 and 12 ppt for 20 or more hours, although none survived more than a few hours at 16 ppt or greater. 5.These field and experimental results provide quantitative evidence that non-native

  4. Siblings, Birth Order, and Cooperative-Competitive Social Behavior: A Comparison of Anglo-American and Mexican-American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P.; Kagan, Spencer

    1982-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that differences in cooperative-competitive social behavior between Anglo-Americans and Mexican Americans is a result of larger family size among the latter group. Found that, even after controlling for number of siblings and birth order, statistically significant differences in such behavior remained between the two groups.…

  5. Stigmatized biologies: Examining the cumulative effects of oral health disparities for Mexican American farmworker children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah; Barker, Judith C

    2010-06-01

    Severe early childhood caries (ECC) can leave lasting effects on children's physical development, including malformed oral arches and crooked permanent dentition. This article examines the way that the ECC of Mexican American farmworker children in the United States sets them up for lasting dental problems and social stigma as young adults. We examine the role of dietary and environmental factors in contributing to what we call "stigmatized biologies," and that of market-based dental public health insurance systems in cementing their enduring effects. We adapt Margaret Lock's term, local biology, to illustrate the way that biology differs not only because of culture, diet, and environment but also because of disparities in insurance coverage. By showing the long-term effects of ECC and disparate dental treatment on farmworker adults, we show how the interaction of immigrant caregiving practices and underinsurance can having lasting social effects. An examination of the long-term effects of farmworker children's ECC illustrates the ways that market-based health care systems can create embodied differences that in turn reproduce a system of social inequality.

  6. Contamination by ten harmful elements in toys and children's jewelry bought on the North American market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J

    2013-06-04

    Toys and children's jewelry may contain metals to which children can be orally exposed. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine total concentrations (TC's) of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Se in toys and jewelry (n = 72) bought on the North American market and compare TC's to regulatory limits, and (2) to estimate oral metal bioavailability in selected items (n = 4) via bioaccessibility testing. For metallic toys and children's jewelry (n = 24) 20 items had TC's exceeding migratable concentration limits (European Union). Seven of seventeen jewelry items did not comply with TC limits in U.S. and Canadian regulations. Samples included articles with very high Cd (37% [w/w]), Pb (65%), and Cu (71%) concentrations. For plastic toys (n = 18), toys with paint or coating (n = 12), and brittle or pliable toys (n = 18), TC's were below the EU migration limits (except in one toy for each category). Bioaccessibility tests showed that a tested jewelry item strongly leached Pb (gastric: 698 μg, intestinal: 705 μg) and some Cd (1.38 and 1.42 μg). Especially in metallic toys and jewelry, contamination by Pb and Cd, and to a lesser extent by Cu, Ni, As, and Sb, still poses an acute problem in North America.

  7. Developmental changes in brain activation involved in the production of novel speech sounds in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sugiura, Motoaki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-08-01

    Older children are more successful at producing unfamiliar, non-native speech sounds than younger children during the initial stages of learning. To reveal the neuronal underpinning of the age-related increase in the accuracy of non-native speech production, we examined the developmental changes in activation involved in the production of novel speech sounds using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Healthy right-handed children (aged 6-18 years) were scanned while performing an overt repetition task and a perceptual task involving aurally presented non-native and native syllables. Productions of non-native speech sounds were recorded and evaluated by native speakers. The mouth regions in the bilateral primary sensorimotor areas were activated more significantly during the repetition task relative to the perceptual task. The hemodynamic response in the left inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis (IFG pOp) specific to non-native speech sound production (defined by prior hypothesis) increased with age. Additionally, the accuracy of non-native speech sound production increased with age. These results provide the first evidence of developmental changes in the neural processes underlying the production of novel speech sounds. Our data further suggest that the recruitment of the left IFG pOp during the production of novel speech sounds was possibly enhanced due to the maturation of the neuronal circuits needed for speech motor planning. This, in turn, would lead to improvement in the ability to immediately imitate non-native speech. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Summer effects on body mass index (BMI) gain and growth patterns of American Indian children from kindergarten to first grade: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianduan; Himes, John H; Hannan, Peter J; Arcan, Chrisa; Smyth, Mary; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent among American Indian children, especially those living on reservations. There is little scientific evidence about the effects of summer vacation on obesity development in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of summer vacation between kindergarten and first grade on growth in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) for a sample of American Indian children. Methods Children had their height and wei...

  9. Polysemous Verbs and Modality in Native and Non-Native Argumentative Writing: A Corpus-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Danica; Verdaguer, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    The present study is a corpus-based analysis of a selection of polysemous lexical verbs used to express modality in student argumentative writing. Twenty-three lexical verbs were searched for in three 100,000-word corpora of argumentative essays written in English by American, Filipino and Spanish university students. Concordance lines were…

  10. The Power of Protection: A Population-Based Comparison of Native and Non-Native Youth Suicide Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, Juliette; Perkins, Tamara; Furrer, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    This study provides actionable information about intervening with American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth to prevent suicide. Statewide school survey data were used to model the impact of risk and protective factors on self-reported suicide attempts (both AI/AN and non-AI/AN). The cumulative risk and protective model worked similarly for both…

  11. Developmental changes in anterior corneal astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M; Schwiegerling, Jim; Sherrill, Duane; Messer, Dawn H; Dobson, Velma

    2013-04-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe change in corneal astigmatism in infants and children of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Longitudinal measurements of corneal astigmatism were obtained in 960 Tohono O'odham children aged 6 months to <8 years. Change in corneal astigmatism (magnitude (clinical notation), J0, J45) across age in children with high astigmatism (≥2 diopter (D) corneal astigmatism) or low/no astigmatism (<2 D corneal astigmatism) at their baseline measurement was assessed. Regression analyses indicated that early in development (6 months to <3 years), astigmatism magnitude decreased in the high astigmatism group (0.37 D/year) and remained stable in the low/no astigmatism group. In later development (3 to <8 years), astigmatism decreased in the high (0.11 D/year) and low/no astigmatism groups (0.03 D/year). In 52 children who had data at all three of the youngest ages (6 months to <1 year, 1 to <2 years, 2 to <3 years) astigmatism decreased after infancy in those with high astigmatism (p = 0.021), and then remained stable from age 1-2 years, whereas astigmatism was stable from infancy through age 1 year and increased from age 1-2 years in the low/no astigmatism group (p = 0.026). J0 results were similar, but results on J45 yielded no significant effects. The greatest change occurred in highly astigmatic infants and toddlers (0.37 D/year). By age 3 years, change was minimal and not clinically significant. Changes observed were due primarily to change in the J0 component of astigmatism.

  12. The Effects of Anthropogenic Structures on Habitat Connectivity and the Potential Spread of Non-Native Invertebrate Species in the Offshore Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rachel D; Page, Henry M; Zaleski, Susan; Miller, Robert; Dugan, Jenifer E; Schroeder, Donna M; Doheny, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Offshore structures provide habitat that could facilitate species range expansions and the introduction of non-native species into new geographic areas. Surveys of assemblages of seven offshore oil and gas platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel revealed a change in distribution of the non-native sessile invertebrate Watersipora subtorquata, a bryozoan with a planktonic larval duration (PLD) of 24 hours or less, from one platform in 2001 to four platforms in 2013. We use a three-dimensional biophysical model to assess whether larval dispersal via currents from harbors to platforms and among platforms is a plausible mechanism to explain the change in distribution of Watersipora and to predict potential spread to other platforms in the future. Hull fouling is another possible mechanism to explain the change in distribution of Watersipora. We find that larval dispersal via currents could account for the increase in distribution of Watersipora from one to four platforms and that Watersipora is unlikely to spread from these four platforms to additional platforms through larval dispersal. Our results also suggest that larvae with PLDs of 24 hours or less released from offshore platforms can attain much greater dispersal distances than larvae with PLDs of 24 hours or less released from nearshore habitat. We hypothesize that the enhanced dispersal distance of larvae released from offshore platforms is driven by a combination of the offshore hydrodynamic environment, larval behavior, and larval release above the seafloor.

  13. Spatio-temporal segregation and size distribution of fish assemblages as related to non-native species occurrence in the middle rio Doce Valley, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Corrêa Giacomini

    Full Text Available The lakes in the middle rio Doce Valley (MG are suffering impacts due to the introduction of invasive fish species, mainly piscivorous species like red piranha Pygocentrus nattereri and peacock bass Cichla kelberi. Fishes were collected in bimonthly samples conducted at ten lakes along a year. The present study showed that the composition of native fish assemblages is significantly related to the presence and type of non-native species. Fish species distribution among lakes can be explained by differences in species body size: smaller native species are less concentrated in lakes with invasive piscivores, which is in accordance with the hypothesis that they have greater susceptibility to predation by invaders. Another probable cause for this correlation is the proximity of lakes to the drainage system, which could explain both the non-native incidence and the turnover of native species composition. Furthermore, temporal variability in species composition was significantly higher in invaded lakes. This last factor may be linked to seasonal flood pulses, which carry immigrant fishes from streams in the vicinity. The metacommunity framework can bring insights for future studies in such spatially structured systems, and the approach should improve our understanding of processes underlying species composition as well as help direct conservation-focused management plans.

  14. Cross-linguistic influence in multilingual language acquisition: The role of L1 and non-native languages in English and Catalan oral production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Ortega

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Most research in third language acquisition has focused on the effects that factors such as language distance, second language (L2 status, proficiency or recency have on the choice of the source language (L1 in cross-linguistic influence (CLI. This paper presents a study of these factors, and of the influence that the L1 (Spanish has on L2 (English and L3 (Catalan oral production. Lexical and syntactic transfer are analysed in the production of Catalan and English of two multilingual speakers with similar knowledge of non-native languages. They were interviewed twice in an informal environment. The results show that the L1 is the main source of transfer, both in L2 and L3 production, but its influence decreases as proficiency in the target language increases. Language distance also plays an important role in CLI, especially if proficiency in the source language is high and if there has been recent exposure to it. The findings also suggest that while syntactic transfer is exclusively L1-based, lexical transfer can occur from a non-native language.

  15. Multistage unfolding of an SH3 domain: an initial urea-filled dry molten globule precedes a wet molten globule with non-native structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Amrita; Udgaonkar, Jayant B; Das, Payel

    2014-06-19

    The unfolding of the SH3 domain of the PI3 kinase in aqueous urea has been studied using a synergistic experiment-simulation approach. The experimental observation of a transient wet molten globule intermediate, IU, with an unusual non-native burial of the sole Trp residue, W53, provides the benchmark for the unfolding simulations performed (eight in total, each at least 0.5 μs long). The simulations reveal that the partially unfolded IU ensemble is preceded by an early native-like molten globule intermediate ensemble I*. In the very initial stage of unfolding, dry globule conformations with the protein core filled with urea instead of water are transiently observed within the I* ensemble. Water penetration into the urea-filled core of dry globule conformations is frequently accompanied by very transient burial of W53. Later during gradual unfolding, W53 is seen to again become transiently buried in the IU ensemble for a much longer time. In the structurally heterogeneous IU ensemble, conformational flexibility of the C-terminal β-strands enables W53 burial by the formation of non-native, tertiary contacts with hydrophobic residues, which could serve to protect the protein from aggregation during unfolding.

  16. Intermediate conformation between native β-sheet and non-native α-helix is a precursor of trifluoroethanol-induced aggregation of Human Carbonic Anhydrase-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Preeti; Deep, Shashank

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • HCAII forms amyloid-like aggregates at moderate concentration of trifluoroethanol. • Protein adopts a state between β-sheet and α-helix at moderate % of TFE. • Hydrophobic surface(s) of partially structured conformation forms amyloid. • High % of TFE induces stable α-helical state preventing aggregation. - Abstract: In the present work, we examined the correlation between 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE)-induced conformational transitions of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCAII) and its aggregation propensity. Circular dichroism data indicates that protein undergoes a transition from β-sheet to α-helix on addition of TFE. The protein was found to aggregate maximally at moderate concentration of TFE at which it exists somewhere between β-sheet and α-helix, probably in extended non-native β-sheet conformation. Thioflavin-T (ThT) and Congo-Red (CR) assays along with fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data suggest that the protein aggregates induced by TFE possess amyloid-like features. Anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) binding studies reveal that the exposure of hydrophobic surface(s) was maximum in intermediate conformation. Our study suggests that the exposed hydrophobic surface and/or the disruption of the structural features protecting a β-sheet protein might be the major reason(s) for the high aggregation propensity of non-native intermediate conformation of HCAII

  17. Monolingual and Bilingual Infants’ Ability to Use Non-native Tone for Word Learning Deteriorates by the Second Year After Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liquan Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported a non-native word learning advantage for bilingual infants at around 18 months. We investigated developmental changes in infant interpretation of sounds that aid in object mapping. Dutch monolingual and bilingual (exposed to Dutch and a second non-tone-language infants’ word learning ability was examined on two novel label–object pairings using syllables differing in Mandarin tones as labels (flat vs. falling. Infants aged 14–15 months, regardless of language backgrounds, were sensitive to violations in the label–objects pairings when lexical tones were switched compared to when they were the same as habituated. Conversely at 17–18 months, neither monolingual nor bilingual infants demonstrated learning. Linking with existing literature, infants’ ability to associate non-native tones with meanings may be related to tonal acoustic properties and/or perceptual assimilation to native prosodic categories. These findings provide new insights into the relation between infant tone perception, learning, and interpretative narrowing from a developmental perspective.

  18. Acceptability and Applicability of an American Health Videogame with Story for Childhood Obesity Prevention Among Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W C; Pitkethly, Amanda Jane; Buday, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Positive changes in diet have been observed in research carried out in the United States from the use of "Escape from Diab" (Diab), a health videogame designed to lower the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Whether the American story and characters in Diab might be perceived by Hong Kong Chinese children as interesting has not been explored. This study assessed the acceptability and applicability of Diab among Hong Kong Chinese children, whether the Diab story was understood by them, and whether it had potential to influence them both during the game and afterward. Thirty-four students (21 males, 13 females) 9-12 years of age were included. Upon completion of all the Diab episodes, children completed an immersion scale with 18 items, as well as an individual interview with 10 open-ended questions. Children achieved average immersion after playing Diab with the mean score at 39.1 (standard deviation = 9.0), higher than the median (36) of possible scores (range, 18-54). Four themes using framework analysis emerged from the interviews, including intuitive feelings about the interface, playing experience, perception of the effect of Diab on behavior change, and the applicability of Diab to Hong Kong children. The story and game developed for American children were found acceptable and applicable to Hong Kong Chinese children. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods confirmed the acceptability and applicability of Diab to Hong Kong Chinese children.

  19. Acceptability and Applicability of an American Health Videogame with Story for Childhood Obesity Prevention Among Hong Kong Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Baranowski, Tom; Pitkethly, Amanda Jane; Buday, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Positive changes in diet have been observed in research carried out in the United States from the use of “Escape from Diab” (Diab), a health videogame designed to lower the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Whether the American story and characters in Diab might be perceived by Hong Kong Chinese children as interesting has not been explored. This study assessed the acceptability and applicability of Diab among Hong Kong Chinese children, whether the Diab story was understood by them, and whether it had potential to influence them both during the game and afterward. Subjects and Methods: Thirty-four students (21 males, 13 females) 9–12 years of age were included. Upon completion of all the Diab episodes, children completed an immersion scale with 18 items, as well as an individual interview with 10 open-ended questions. Results: Children achieved average immersion after playing Diab with the mean score at 39.1 (standard deviation = 9.0), higher than the median (36) of possible scores (range, 18–54). Four themes using framework analysis emerged from the interviews, including intuitive feelings about the interface, playing experience, perception of the effect of Diab on behavior change, and the applicability of Diab to Hong Kong children. The story and game developed for American children were found acceptable and applicable to Hong Kong Chinese children. Conclusions: The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods confirmed the acceptability and applicability of Diab to Hong Kong Chinese children. PMID:26382015

  20. The Use in Experiential Education of Ceremonies and Rituals from Native American Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, McClellan; Couch, G. Owen

    1992-01-01

    McClellan Hall, a Native American, expresses distress and embarrassment at the improper use of Native cultural ceremonies at Association for Experiential Education conferences. G. Owen Couch, a non-Native, describes his personal experiences in using Native American philosophies inappropriately and his realization of the dangers in doing so. Both…

  1. Crying for a Vision: The Native American Sweat Lodge Ceremony as Therapeutic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Torres-Rivera, Edil; Brubaker, Michael; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Brotherton, Dale; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Conwill, William; Grayshield, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The Native American sweat lodge ceremony or sweat therapy is being used increasingly in various medical, mental health, correctional, and substance abuse treatment centers serving both Native and non-Native clients. This article explores the sweat lodge ceremony's background, elements of Native American spirituality, origin story, cultural…

  2. Boxing participation by children and adolescents: A joint statement with the American Academy of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Laura K; Leblanc, Claire Ma

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of boys and girls younger than 19 years of age participate in boxing in North America. Although boxing provides benefits for participants, including exercise, self-discipline and self-confidence, the sport of boxing encourages and rewards deliberate blows to the head and face. Participants in boxing are at risk of head, face and neck injuries, including chronic and even fatal neurological injuries. Concussions are one of the most common injuries occurring in boxing. Because of the risk of head and facial injuries, the Canadian Paediatric Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics vigorously oppose boxing as a sport for children and adolescents. These organizations recommend that physicians oppose boxing in youth and encourage patients to participate in alternative sports in which intentional head blows are not central to the sport.

  3. Perceptions of Food Intake, Physical Activity, and Obesity Among African-American Children in the Lower Mississippi Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Bernestine B; Richardson, Valerie; Johnson, Glenda; Johnson, Crystal

    2017-07-01

    To explore the nutrition and physical activity perceptions of children for planning a healthy weight curriculum to address childhood obesity in African-American children living in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD). Six children's focus group sessions. Two Louisiana parishes in the LMD. Seventy 8- to 13-year-old African-American children, 46 (66%) females and 24 (44%) males, participated in the focus group sessions. Interview questions were based on personal and environmental determinants and content and strategies for a healthy lifestyle program for children. Focus group discussions were audio recorded and transcribed, observer recorded, and analyzed to identify recurring trends and patterns among focus groups. Content analysis consisted of coding focus group transcripts for recurrent themes and review of data by an independent reviewer to confirm the themes. Emerging themes were categorized as healthy lifestyle opinions within the social cognitive theory constructs of personal and environmental determinants and curriculum content. LMD youth recognized a healthy eating pattern and that overweight and obesity result from poor eating habits and physical inactivity. Children's food intake pattern did not reflect this understanding, suggesting a need for culturally tailoring an intervention to impact the poor food intake and physical inactivity in two low-income African-American Delta communities.

  4. Industry progress to market a healthful diet to American children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Vivica I; Story, Mary; Wartella, Ellen A; Ginter, Jaya

    2011-09-01

    The IOM released an expert committee report in 2005 that assessed the nature, extent, and influence of food and beverage marketing practices on the diets and health of American children and adolescents. The report concluded that prevailing marketing practices did not support a healthful diet and offered recommendations for diverse stakeholders to promote a healthful diet. The investigators evaluated progress made by food, beverage, and restaurant companies; trade associations; entertainment companies; and the media to achieve the IOM report recommendations over 5 years. A literature review was conducted of electronic databases and relevant government, industry, and media websites between December 1, 2005, and January 31, 2011. Evidence selection was guided by the IOM LEAD principles (i.e., locate, evaluate, and assemble evidence to inform decisions) and five qualitative-research criteria, and it was validated by data and investigator triangulation. The investigators selected and categorized 117 data sources into two evidence tables used to evaluate industry progress (i.e., no, limited, moderate, and extensive). Food and beverage companies made moderate progress; however, limited progress was made by other industry subsectors. Industry stakeholders used integrated marketing communications (IMC) to promote primarily unhealthy products, which threaten children's and adolescents' health and miss opportunities to promote a healthy eating environment. Diverse industry stakeholders have several untapped opportunities to advance progress by promoting IMC to support a healthful diet; substantially strengthening self-regulatory programs; supporting truthful and non-misleading product labeling and health claims; engaging in partnerships; and funding independent evaluations of collective efforts. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Social Marketing Risk-Framing Approaches for Dental Sealants in Rural American Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Laura S; Champine, Dorothy; Hoyt, Dee; Lin, Lillian; Salois, Emily; Silvas, Sharon; Tail, Terri Weasel; Williams, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    To compare three variants of a culturally relevant and theoretically based message to determine the most influential risk-framing approach for improving intention to place dental sealants for preschool children. A convenience sample of adult, American Indian participants (n = 89) attending a community health fair were assigned to view a gain-framed, loss-framed, or mix-framed dental sealant message. We compared participants' scores on a 46-item survey to determine the relative effect of the frame assignment on seven indices of behavior change. The mean difference in participants' stage-of-change scores (x = 1.17, n = 89, SD = 1.90) demonstrated a significant improvement for all groups after watching the dental sealant message t88  = 5.81, p mix-framed message resulted in the highest scores. The gain-framed message was the least influential on four constructs. This finding is in contrast to findings that gain-framed oral health messages are most influential (Gallagher & Updegraff, 2012; O'Keefe & Jensen, 2007). Community advisory board members determined to use the mix-framed approach in an oral health social marketing campaign with a rural, American Indian audience. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Native American nurse leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lee A

    2004-07-01

    To identify which characteristics, wisdom, and skills are essential in becoming an effective Native American nurse leader. This will lead to the development of a curriculum suitable for Native American nurses. A qualitative, descriptive design was used for this study. Focus groups were conducted in Polson, Montana. A total of 67 Native and non-Native nurses participated. Sixty-seven percent of them were members of Indian tribes. Data were content analyzed using Spradley's ethnographic methodology. Three domains of analysis emerged: point of reference for the leader (individual, family, community), what a leader is (self-actualized, wise, experienced, political, bicultural, recognized, quiet presence, humble, spiritual, and visionary), and what a leader does (mentors, role models, communicates, listens, demonstrates values, mobilizes, and inspires). Native nurse leaders lead differently. Thus, a leadership curriculum suitable for Native nurses may lead to increased work productivity and therefore improved patient care for Native Americans.

  7. "You Don't Need to Be Mean. We're Friends, Right?": Young Korean-American Children's Conflicts and References to Friendship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee

    2014-01-01

    In the eyes of adults, conflicts between children are often treated as problematic social interactions that should be prevented. This study describes how young Korean-American children's conflict negotiation was a central part of their peer culture at a Korean heritage language school in the United States. Eleven young Korean-American children…

  8. Validity Study of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" with English-Speaking Hispanic and European American Children in Head Start Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cathy H.; Marley, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" (PLS-4) with a sample of English-speaking Hispanic and European American children who attended Head Start programs. Participants were 440 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years (52% male; 86% Hispanic and 14% European American).…

  9. The Asian black truffle Tuber indicum can form ectomycorrhizas with North American host plants and complete its life cycle in non-native soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Bonito; James M. Trappe; Sylvia Donovan; Rytas Vilgalys

    2011-01-01

    The Asian black truffle Tuber indicum is morphologically and phylogenetically similar to the European black truffle Tuber melanosporum. T. indicum is considered a threat to T. melanosporum trufficulture due to its presumed competitiveness and broad host compatibility. Recently, in independent events,

  10. TV Viewing, Perceived Similarity, Coviewing, and Mental Well-Being among African American, Latino, and White Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Wallander, Jan; Elliott, Marc; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Tortolero, Susan; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Research among adults has demonstrated concurrent and prospective negative associations between TV viewing and mental health, yet little research has examined these associations among African American and Latino youth or examined the role of children's involvement with TV and parental mediation of TV viewing via coviewing. The purpose of the…

  11. Once in Contact, Always in Contact: Contagious Essence and Conceptions of Purification in American and Hindu Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejmadi, Ahalya; Rozin, Paul; Siegal, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Cultural and age differences in responses to contamination and conceptions of purification were examined in Hindu Indian (N = 125) and American (N = 106) 4- to 5-year-olds and 8-year-olds, who were provided with stories of juice contaminated by contact with a cockroach, a human hair, and a stranger (via sipping). Children who rejected the juice as…

  12. A Parent Education Program for Parents of Chinese American Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a parent education program on decreasing parenting stress and increasing parental confidence and quality of life in parents of Chinese American children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A pre-, posttest group design was used in this study. A total of nine families of Chinese American…

  13. Active Intervention Program Using Dietary Education and Exercise Training for Reducing Obesity in Mexican American Male Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukho; Misra, Ranjita; Kaster, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 10-week active intervention program (AIP), which incorporates dietary education with exercise training, among 30 healthy Mexican American male children, aged 8-12 years, in Laredo, Texas. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups: education (EDU), dietary education to participants and parents and…

  14. "The Finest 'Bunch' of Children to Be Found Anywhere": Educating European and American Youths in Korea, 1880s-1940s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses how European and American communities in Korea organised the education of their own children from the "opening" of the country to foreign residents in the 1880s until the Second World War. Education serves as a lens to investigate these dominantly bourgeois communities of missionaries, merchants, experts and…

  15. Rethinking "the" History of Education for Asian-American Children in California in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Kyung Eun

    2013-01-01

    This article brings to light discourses that constituted the education of Asian-American children in California in the second half of the nineteenth century. Guided by Foucaultian ideas and critical race theory, I analyze California public school laws, speeches of a governor-elect and a superintendent, and a report of the board of supervisors,…

  16. PROTECTING CHILDREN FROM ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS - A CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR NURSES OF THE AMERICAN NURSES FOUNDATION/ASSOCIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Nurses Association/Foundation will develop online, in print and pre conference continuing education (CE) children's environmental health protection programs to meet the objective of the program. The first CE program is on school environments, the second on home and ...

  17. Factor Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition among Referred Native American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Selena; Watkins, Marley W.

    2013-01-01

    The Native American population is severely underrepresented in empirical test validity research despite being overrepresented in special education programs and at increased risk for psychoeducational evaluation. The structural validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was investigated with a sample of 176,…

  18. Relations between Perceived Competence, Importance Ratings, and Self-Worth among African American School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Leslie K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how domain-specific importance ratings affect relations between perceived competence and self-worth among African American school-age children. Importance ratings have been found to affect the strength of the relationship between perceived competence and self-worth and have implications for…

  19. A Preliminary Study of Low-Income African American Fathers' Play Interactions with Their Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay

    1996-01-01

    Examined play interactions of 33 low-income African American fathers with their preschool-age children in relation to the fathers' psychological characteristics, love for the child's mother, employment status, education, and coresidence with the child. The fathers' self-esteem was the best predictor of play interactions. Coresidence with the child…

  20. Associations of American Indian children's screen-time behavior with parental television behavior, parental perceptions of children's screen time, and media-related resources in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Smyth, Mary; Himes, John H; Hannan, Peter J; Holy Rock, Bonnie; Story, Mary

    2011-09-01

    American Indian children have high rates of overweight and obesity, which may be partially attributable to screen-time behavior. Young children's screen-time behavior is strongly influenced by their environment and their parents' behavior. We explored whether parental television watching time, parental perceptions of children's screen time, and media-related resources in the home are related to screen time (ie, television, DVD/video, video game, and computer use) among Oglala Lakota youth residing on or near the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. We collected baseline data from 431 child and parent/caregiver pairs who participated in Bright Start, a group-randomized, controlled, school-based obesity prevention trial to reduce excess weight gain. Controlling for demographic characteristics, we used linear regression analysis to assess associations between children's screen time and parental television watching time, parental perceptions of children's screen time, and availability of media-related household resources. The most parsimonious model for explaining child screen time included the children's sex, parental body mass index, parental television watching time, how often the child watched television after school or in the evening, parental perception that the child spent too much time playing video games, how often the parent limited the child's television time, and the presence of a VCR/DVD player or video game player in the home (F(7,367) = 14.67; P strategy for reducing overweight and obesity in American Indian children.