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Sample records for non-mycorrhizal lactuca sativa

  1. Origin and domestication of Lactuca sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de I.M.

    1997-01-01

    The domestication of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. is described on the basis of literature study. The centre of origin is discussed. A historical survey is made of the distribution of the groups of Lactuca cultivars over the world.

  2. Origin and domestication of Lactuca sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de I.M.

    1997-01-01

    The domestication of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. is described on the basis of literature study. The centre of origin is discussed. A historical survey is made of the distribution of the groups of Lactuca cultivars over the world.

  3. Antioxidant potential of Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Munish; Garg, Chanchal; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Suresh, B.

    2004-01-01

    The present study is based on the evaluation of antioxidant potential of a well known plant Lactuca sativa. Methanolic leaf extract was investigated for in vitro inhibition of oxidative damage induced by UV-radiations to the salmonella typhi bacteria and in vivo effect on the production of body enzymes i.e. catalase and superoxide dismutase. The lipid peroxidation masurement was also done in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in blood and brain of male albino wistar rats. The plant extract has shown significant antioxidant potential both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22557144

  4. Leaf Disk Transformation of Lactuca sativa Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    OpenAIRE

    VALIMAREANU, SERGIU

    2010-01-01

    Reliable methods of transferring cloned genes into plants are essential for engineering crops with desired traits. In order to induce sap-sucking insect resistance Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA 4404 (1065) strain containing the binary vector pMOG 23 and hypervirulent pTOK 47 plasmid was used. pta (Pinellia ternata agglutinin), salmon ct (calcitonin) and cgrp (calcitonin gene related protein) genes were successfully integrated into Lactuca sativa plants. This genetic modification conferred let...

  5. Potentiating Effects of Lactuca sativa on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani, Ahmad; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been recommended for its hypnotic property. The present study was planned to investigate sleep-prolonging effect of this plant. The hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of lettuce and its water fraction (WF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), and n-butanol fraction (NBF) were administrated (IP) to mice 30 min before the pentobarbital injection. Moreover, both in-vivo and in-vitro toxicity of the extracts were determined. The quality of HAE and NBF was also eva...

  6. Localisation and metabolism of reactive oxygen species during Bremia lactucae pathogenesis in Lactuca sativa and wild Lactuca spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlárová, Michaela; Luhová, Lenka; Petrivalský, Marek; Lebeda, Ales

    2007-08-01

    A plant's physiology is modified simultaneously with Oomycete pathogen penetration, starting with release and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Localisation of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxidase and variation in their activity, and the isoenzyme profile of antioxidant enzymes peroxidase (1.11.1.7), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) were studied in six genotypes of four Lactuca spp. (L. sativa, L. serriola, L. saligna and L. virosa) challenged with Bremia lactucae (race NL16). These factors were related to the differential expression of resistance during the course of 96h after inoculation (hai). Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in infected cells together with enhanced activity of H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzymes in leaf extracts characterised resistant Lactuca spp. genotypes 6-12hai, and peaked at 48-96hai with expression of a hypersensitive reaction. Substantial changes of guaiacol peroxidase activity were detected only in the cytosolic enzyme; activities of the membrane-bound and the ion-bound enzymes were insignificant in the interactions of host genotypes and pathogen isolate examined. The most significant modifications of ROS metabolism were found in resistant L. virosa (NVRS 10.001 602), a genotype responding to pathogen ingress by a rapid and extensive hypersensitive reaction. Formation of the superoxide anion was not detected in either susceptible or resistant plants, and there was also no increase of superoxide dismutase activity or changes in its isozyme profile. The significance of precise balancing the intracellular level of hydrogen peroxide for variability of phenotypic expression of responses to B. lactucae infection in Lactuca spp. is discussed.

  7. Genetic mapping of turnip mosaic virus resistance in Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, M A; Witsenboer, H; Michelmore, R W; Laliberte, J F; Fortin, M G

    1994-11-01

    Presence of the dominant Tu gene in Lactuca sativa is sufficient to confer resistance to infection by turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). In order to obtain an immunological assay for the presence of TuMV in inoculated plants, the TuMV coat protein (CP) gene was cloned by amplification of a cDNA corresponding to the viral genome using degenerate primers designed from conserved potyvirus CP sequences. The TuMV CP was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and polyclonal antibodies were produced. To locate Tu on the L. sativa genetic map, F3 families from a cross between cvs "Cobbham Green" (resistant to TuMV) and "Calmar" (susceptible) were genotyped for Tu. Families known to be recombinant in the region containing Tu were infected with TuMV and tested by the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the anti-CP serum. This assay placed Tu between two random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and 3.2 cM from Dm5/8 (which confers resistance to Bremia lactucae). Also, bulked segregant analysis was used to screen for additional RAPD markers tightly linked to the Tu locus. Five new markers linked to Tu were identified in this region, and their location on the genetic map was determined using informative recombinants in the region. Six markers were identified as being linked within 2.5 cM of Tu.

  8. [Analysis of essential oil extracted from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Wang, Qiang; Haji, Akber Aisa

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang. The components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 62 components were identified from 71 separated peaks,amounting to total mass fraction 95.07%. The dominant compounds were n-Hexanol (36.31%), n-Hexanal (13.71%), trans-2-Octen-l-ol (8.09%) and 2-n-Pentylfuran (4.41%). The research provides a theoretical basis for the exploitation and use of Lactuca sativa seeds resource.

  9. Nutritional quality of outer and inner leaves of green and red pigmented lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) consumed as salads

    OpenAIRE

    Baslam, Marouane; Morales, Fermín; Garmendia López, Idoia; Goicoechea Preboste, Nieves

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a major food crop within the European Union. The objective of this study was to test the potential nutritional quality of three types of lettuce consumed as salads: Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia (commonly named Cogollos de Tudela) and two cultivars of Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata (Batavia Rubia Munguía and Maravilla de Verano). Distribution of sugars, proteins, minerals and antioxidant compounds (carotenoids, chlorophylls, phenolics, anthocyanins and asco...

  10. Efect of Nostoc muscorum Ag. on germination in vitro of Bremia lactucae sporangia in Lactuca sativa L. Regel

    OpenAIRE

    Tassara, Carlos Alberto; Stella, Ana María; Sokn, M. Clara; López, Silvia E.; Carmarán, Cecilia C.

    2012-01-01

    p.1-8 Se analizó el efecto de extractos etéreo, metanólico y acuoso de 5 cepas de Nostoc muscorum en la germinación in vitro de esporangios de Bremia lactucae Regel durante una epifitia sobre Lactuca sativa var capitata cv gallega, en un predio hortícola intensivo de la localidad La Capilla-partido de Florencio Varela provincia Buenos Aires -Argentina (34º50'Lat sur 58º06' Long oeste). La cepa 60a promovió la germinación de esporangios, mientras que la 40g la inhibió. El estudio aleatorio ...

  11. Biologia, epidemiologia e controle do míldio (Bremia lactucae) da alface (Lactuca sativa) em viveiro

    OpenAIRE

    Mesquita, Paulo Goes

    2010-01-01

    Sintomas e sinais do míldio foram observados e coletados em plantas de alface (Lactuca sativa) no Distrito Federal. Foi observado o estágio assexual do patógeno (Bremia lactucae). Descrições detalhadas, com observações morfológicas e medidas morfométricas de microscopia óptica do estágio assexual foram realizadas. A patogenicidade do míldio proveniente do Núcleo Rural da Vargem Bonita e seu período de latência, em quatro diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento de cultivares comerciais de alfac...

  12. Isolation and culture of protoplast from leaves of Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witool Chaipakdee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Protoplasts were isolated from leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seedlings after in vitro germination for 25, 30, 40 and 50 days. The leaves were stripped and incubated in various combinations of cellulase and pectinase. Protoplasts were cultured on MS medium containing various kinds and concentrations of plant growth regulators in different culture systems including liquid media, hanging, drop culture and solid media. Results revealed that the highest number of viable protoplasts, 14.1x105 cells per gram of fresh weight, was obtained from 30 day-old leaves of lettuce seedlings and isolated by using 2% cellulase in combination with 1% pectinase. Liquid MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l BA promoted the highest cell division up to 17.67%. First division of protoplasts was observed at 4 days after culture and microcolony formation occurred at the 4th week after culturing. Unfortunately, neither callus formation nor plantlet regeneration were obtained.

  13. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

  14. Potentiating Effects of Lactuca sativa on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Ahmad; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been recommended for its hypnotic property. The present study was planned to investigate sleep-prolonging effect of this plant. The hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of lettuce and its water fraction (WF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), and n-butanol fraction (NBF) were administrated (IP) to mice 30 min before the pentobarbital injection. Moreover, both in-vivo and in-vitro toxicity of the extracts were determined. The quality of HAE and NBF was also evaluated using HPLC fingerprint. The HAE prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleep duration at dose of 400 mg/Kg. The NBF was the only fraction which could increase the sleep duration and decrease sleep latency. The effects of NBF were comparable to those of induced by diazepam. The LD50-value for HAE was found to be 4.8 g/Kg. No neurotoxic effect was observed either by HAE or by its fractions in cultured PC12 neuron-like cells. The results suggest that lettuce potentiates pentobarbital hypnosis without major toxic effect. The main component(s) responsible for this effect is most likely to be non-polar agent(s) which found in NBF of this plant.

  15. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.

  16. Pb low doses induced genotoxicity in Lactuca sativa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S; Silva, P; Oliveira, H; Gaivão, I; Matos, M; Pinto-Carnide, O; Santos, C

    2017-03-01

    Soil and water contamination by lead (Pb) remains a topic of great concern, particularly regarding crop production. The admissible Pb values in irrigation water in several countries range from ≈0.1 to ≈5 mg L(-1). In order to evaluate putative effects of Pb within legal doses on crops growth, we exposed Lactuca sativa seeds and seedlings to increasing doses of Pb(NO3)2 up to 20 mg L(-1). The OECD parameter seed germination and seedling/plant growth were not affected by any of the Pb-concentrations used. However, for doses higher than 5 mg L(-1) significant DNA damage was detected: Comet assay detected DNA fragmentation at ≥ 5 mg L(-1) and presence of micronuclei (MN) were detected for 20 mg L(-1). Also, cell cycle impairment was observed for doses as low as 0.05 mg L(-1) and 0.5 mg L(-1) (mostly G2 arrest). Our data show that for the low doses of Pb used, the OECD endpoints were not able to detect toxicity, while more sensitive endpoints (related with DNA damage and mitotic/interphase disorders) identified genotoxic and cytostatic effects. Furthermore, the nature of the genotoxic effect was dependent on the concentration. Finally, we recommend that MN test and the comet assay should be included as sensitive endpoints in (eco)toxicological assays.

  17. Mutants of downy mildew resistance in Lactuca sativa (lettuce).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubara, P A; Anderson, P A; Ochoa, O E; Michelmore, R W

    1994-07-01

    As part of our investigation of disease resistance in lettuce, we generated mutants that have lost resistance to Bremia lactucae, the casual fungus of downy mildew. Using a rapid and reliable screen, we identified 16 distinct mutants of Latuca sativa that have lost activity of one of four different downy mildew resistance genes (Dm). In all mutants, only a single Dm specificity was affected. Genetic analysis indicated that the lesions segregated as single, recessive mutations at the Dm loci. Dm3 was inactivated in nine of the mutants. One of five Dm 1 mutants was selected from a population of untreated seeds and therefore carried a spontaneous mutation. All other Dm1, Dm3, Dm5/8 and Dm7 mutants were derived from gamma- or fast neutron-irradiated seed. In two separate Dm 1 mutants and in each of the eight Dm3 mutants analyzed, at least one closely linked molecular marker was absent. Also, high molecular weight genomic DNA fragments that hybridized to a tightly linked molecular marker in wild type were either missing entirely or were truncated in two of the Dm3 mutants, providing additional evidence that deletions had occurred in these mutants. Absence of mutations at loci epistatic to the Dm genes suggested that such loci were either members of multigene families, were critical for plant survival, or encoded components of duplicated pathways for resistance; alternatively, the genes determining downy mildew resistance might be limited to the Dm loci.

  18. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.

  19. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

  20. Anxiolytic property of hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa and its effect on behavioral activities of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, Singapura Nagesh; Anilakumar, Kandangath Raghavan

    2013-01-01

    Lactuca sativa, belonging to the Asteraceae family, is a leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties. This study aimed to understand the mechanism of Lactuca sativa extract with respect to pharmacological action.We investigated the anxiolytic effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of Lactuca sativa on mice. The behavioral tests performed on mice models to assess anti-anxiety properties were: open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze test (EPM), elevated T maze test, and marble burying test. Increased locomotor activity and time spent in the "open-arm" were observed in extract fed group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite levels were decreased, catalase and glutathione levels were increased in Lactuca sativa treated mice. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the extract of Lactuca sativa can afford significant protection against anxiolytic activity.

  1. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  2. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  3. Evidence for a race-specific resistance factor in some lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars previously considered to be universally susceptible to Bremia lactucae regel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crute, I R; Lebeda, A

    1981-05-01

    Previously undetected race-specific resistance to Bremia lactucae (downy mildew) was located in many lettuce cultivars hitherto considered to be universally susceptible to this disease. This resistance factor(s) may also be widely distributed in other cultivars known to carry combinations of already recognised factors R1 to R11. Specific virulence to match this resistance is almost invariably present in pathogen collections. This situation may be either a relic of the evolutionary history of the B. lactucae - L. sativa asssociation or may reflect a rare mutation in B. lactucae for avirulence on all but a few specialised L. sativa genotypes.

  4. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Lactuca sativa plants exhibit contrasting responses to exogenous ABA during drought stress and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca, Ricardo; Vernieri, Paolo; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2008-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis enhances plant tolerance to water deficit through the alteration of plant physiology and the expression of plant genes. These changes have been postulated to be caused (among others) by different contents of abscisic acid (ABA) between AM and non-AM plants. However, there are no studies dealing with the effects of exogenous ABA on the expression of stress-related genes and on the physiology of AM plants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of AM symbiosis and exogenous ABA application on plant development, physiology, and expression of several stress-related genes after both drought and a recovery period. Results show that the application of exogenous ABA had contrasting effects on AM and non-AM plants. Only AM plants fed with exogenous ABA maintained shoot biomass production unaltered by drought stress. The addition of exogenous ABA enhanced considerably the ABA content in shoots of non-AM plants, concomitantly with the expression of the stress marker genes Lsp5cs and Lslea and the gene Lsnced. By contrast, the addition of exogenous ABA decreased the content of ABA in shoots of AM plants and did not produce any further enhancement of the expression of these three genes. AM plants always exhibited higher values of root hydraulic conductivity and reduced transpiration rate under drought stress. From plants subjected to drought, only the AM plants recovered their root hydraulic conductivity completely after the 3 d recovery period. As a whole, the results indicate that AM plants regulate their ABA levels better and faster than non-AM plants, allowing a more adequate balance between leaf transpiration and root water movement during drought and recovery. PMID:18469324

  5. Plant Age Affects Wound-Induced Senescense in Lactuca Sativa L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the performance of dark-stored wounded leaf discs and pieces (to some extent mimicking fresh-cut product) of Lactuca sativa L. in relation to the physiological maturity at harvest. We used two related genotypes, i.e. a green (cv. Troubadour) and a red butterhead

  6. Differential distribution of cadmium in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florijn, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Large genotypic variation in shoot Cd concentrations has been reported in literature for several plant species including lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.). The objective of this thesis was to elucidate the physiological andlor morphological basis of this differential behaviour us

  7. Allelopathic effect of medicinal plant Cannabis sativa L. on Lactuca sativa L. seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa MAHMOODZADEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine allelopathic effect of Cannabis sativa L. on germination capability and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa L., a study was performed in laboratory conditions. Treatments were set up in randomised block design in four replications for each of four concentration ranges of 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of aqueous extract made of shoot parts and 4 identical extract concentrations made of root of cannabis. Control variant was lettuce seed treated by distilled water. During the studies shoot and seminal root length of lettuce seedlings were measured after treatments with different concentrations of extracts made of root and shoot parts of cannabis, and the obtained values were compared with the control. The obtained results suggest that the extract from the shoot parts of cannabis in high concentrations of 75 and 100 % had inhibiting effect to the germination indices while the extract from the root had no statistically significant effect on germination of lettuce seeds. Extract made of root part of cannabis showed also stimulatory effect to shoot and seminal root length of lettuce seedlings in extract concentrations of 50, 75 and 100 %.

  8. The forming of lettucc variety examples collection ( Lactuca sativa L. )

    OpenAIRE

    Андрющенко, А. В.; Лещук, Н. В.; Скрипка, А. І.

    2006-01-01

    Shown the completion of work collection of variety geophone of lettuce (Lactuca saliva L.), morphology description and the methods of taking up the candidates into variety reverence for conducting the examination on distinctness, uniformity and stability.

  9. SSH reveals a linkage between a senescence-associated protease and Verticillium wilt symptom development in lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was employed to identify lettuce (Lactuca sativa) genes that are differentially expressed in symptomatic leaves infected with Verticillium dahliae. Genes expressed only in symptomatic leaves included those with homology to pathogenesis-related (PR) protei...

  10. [Analysis of the mineral elements of Lactuca sativa under the condition of different spectral components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Li; Guo, Wen-Zhong; Xue, Xu-Zhang; Wang, Li-Chun; Li, Liang; Chen, Fei

    2013-08-01

    Mineral elements absorption and content of Lactuca sativa under different spectral component conditions were studied by ICP-AES technology. The results showed that: (1) For Lactuca sativa, the average proportion for Ca : Mg : K : Na : P was 5.5 : 2.5 : 2.3 : 1.5 : 1.0, the average proportion for Fe : Mn : Zn : Cu : B was 25.9 : 5.9 : 2.8 : 1.1 : 1.0; (2) The absorptions for K, P, Ca, Mg and B are the largest under the LED treatment R/B = 1 : 2.75, red light from fluorescent lamps and LED can both promote the absorptions of Fe and Cu; (3)The LED treatments exhibiting relatively higher content of mineral elements are R/B = 1 : 2.75 and R/W = 1 : 1 while higher dry matter accumulations are R/B = 1 : 2.75 and B/W = 1 : 1.

  11. Evaluación de Tres Tipos de Fertilizantes en lactuca Sativa ("Lechuga")

    OpenAIRE

    Sernaqué, Fernando; López, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó el uso de tres fertilizantes en Lactuca sativa para determinar su eficacia y cuál de ellos ofrece el mayor promedio de crecimiento. Los fertilizantes utilizados fueron sintético (urea), hidropónico (solución hidropónica) y orgánico (estiércol vacuno), los mismos que se aplicaron tres veces por semana en el período de un mes. Se obtuvieron obteniendo resultados en cuanto al área foliar, peso fresco, peso seco, proteínas y clorofila.Palabras clave: Lactuca sativa, abono orgánico, abon...

  12. Inhibitory effect of marine green algal extracts on germination of Lactuca sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon

    2016-03-01

    The allelopathic potential of nine green seaweed species was examined based on germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Out of nine methanol extracts, Capsosiphon fulvescens and Monostroma nitidum extracts completely inhibited germination of L. sativa at 4 mg/filter paper after 24 hr of treatment. Water extracts of these seaweeds generally showed low anti-germination activities than methanol extracts. Of the nine water extracts, Enteromorpha linza extract completely inhibited L. sativa germination at 16 mg/filter paper after 24 hrs. To identify the primary active compounds, C. fulvescens. powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against L. sativa were determined to be lipids (0.0% germination at 0.5 mg of lipids/paper disc). According to these results, extracts of C. fulvescens can be used to develop natural herbicidal agents and manage terrestrial weeds.

  13. Effects of kaurane diterpene derivatives on germination and growth of Lactuca sativa seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Henriete S; Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Pimenta, Lúcia P S; Boaventura, Maria Amélia D

    2005-01-01

    Kaurenoic and grandiflorenic acid, isolated from Wedelia paludosa (Asteraceae), some derivatives from these acids (alcohols, esters, amides, lactones, oximes) and other naturally occurring kaurane diterpenes were tested for their action on the growth of radical and shoot of Lactuca sativa. Gibberellic acid, GA3, a commercially available phytohormone, belonging to the same class of diterpenes, was also tested. Some of the tested substances showed a remarkable activity either in the inhibition or in stimulation of L. sativa growth. The activity, in some cases, was even higher than that of GA3.

  14. Plastid transformation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by biolistic DNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, Tracey A

    2014-01-01

    The interest in producing pharmaceutical proteins in a nontoxic plant host has led to the development of an approach to express such proteins in transplastomic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). A number of therapeutic proteins and vaccine antigen candidates have been stably integrated into the lettuce plastid genome using biolistic DNA delivery. High levels of accumulation and retention of biological activity suggest that lettuce may provide an ideal platform for the production of biopharmaceuticals.

  15. [Effect of outer space factors on lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) flown on "Kosmos" biosatellites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevzgodina, L V; Maksimova, E N; Akatov, Iu A; Kaminskaia, E V; Marennyĭ, A M

    1990-01-01

    The effect of cosmic radiation on air-dry lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds was investigated. It was attempted to discriminate the effects of cosmic ionizing radiation per se and its combination with solar light radiation. It was found that the number of aberrant cells in the seeds exposed to solar light was smaller than that of cells chielded with 0.0008 to 0.0035 g/cm2 foil which could be attributed to photoreactivity.

  16. Effects of Lactuca sativa extract on exploratory behavior pattern, locomotor activity and anxiety in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Harsha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antianxiety property of Lactuca sativa, an important and commonly used leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties belongs to Asteraceae family. Methods: Elevated plus maze (EPM, open field test (OFT, rat exposure test, hyponeophagia and marble burying test were performed in mice models to assess the exploratory behaviour and to assess anxiolytic property of hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa. Diazepam (1 mg/kg body wt. served as the standard anxiolytic agent for all the tests. The dried extract of the plant leaf in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to mice for duration of 15 or 30 days and evaluated exploratory behaviour, locomotor and anxiolytic activities. Results: Time spent and number of entries into the open arm was measured in EPM followed by total locomotor activity in OFT and latency to enter the food zone in hyponeophagia. Conclusions: The study suggested that hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa leaves possess potent anxiolytic property.

  17. Genetic transformation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa): A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... on using lettuce bioreactor to produce pharmaceutical protein and vaccines, ... Lettuce used as a foreign protein expression system has the .... Cholera toxin ..... sativa L.) with vectors bearing genes of bacterial antigenes from.

  18. Phyotoxicity of diesel soil contamination on the germination of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, Kayode; Lewu, Francis Bayo; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-11-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil on germination rate of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas, at two concentrations ranges (0-6ml and 0-30ml), were investigated and compared. Diesel soil contamination was simulated and soil samples were taken from contaminated soil at 1, 5,10, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days should be after planting. The result showed that in both plant species, diesel inhibited germination in a concentration dependent manner, Also, the influence of diesel contamination diminished with increased time duration; suggesting possible reduction in diesel toxicity over time. However, germination of lettuce was significant and negatively correlated (r2 = -0.941) with diesel contamination as compared to sweet potato (r2 = -0.638).Critical concentration of diesel in relation to seed germination of L. sativa was lower than vegetative germination of I. batatas, indicating that germination of I. batatas was less sensitive to diesel contamination as compared to L. sativa.

  19. Blue and Green Light-Induced Phototropism in Arabidopsis thaliana and Lactuca sativa L. Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinitz, Benjamin; Ren, Zhangling; Poff, Kenneth L.

    1985-01-01

    Exposure time-response curves for blue and green light-induced phototropic bending in hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and Lactuca sativa L. seedlings are presented. These seedlings show significant phototropic sensitivity up to 540 to 550 nanometers. Since wave-lengths longer than 560 nanometers do not induce phototropic bending, it is suggested that the response to 510 to 550 nanometers light is mediated by the specific blue light photoreceptor of phototropism. We advise care in the use of green `safelights' for studies of phototropism. PMID:16664021

  20. GROWTH OF LETTUCE PLANTS (LACTUCA SATIVA L.) UNDER CONTROL OF DISSOLVED O_2 CONCENTRATION IN HYDROPONICS

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Satoshi; Kitano, Masaharu; Eguchi, Hiromi

    1997-01-01

    The effect of dissolved O_2 concentration on growth of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) was analyzed in hydroponics. The plants were grown for 7 days under different dissolved O_2 concentrations controlled at 0.01, 0.10 and 0.20mM. Number of leaves was scarcely affected by the dissolved O_2 concentration, but leaf expansion was depressed at 0.01mM where leaf water content became lower. Furthermore, the fresh and dry weights of leaves and roots were clearly reduced at 0.01 mM. On the other h...

  1. Acinetobacter lactucae sp. nov., isolated from iceberg lettuce (Asteraceae: Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Alejandro P; Dunlap, Christopher A; Flor-Weiler, Lina B

    2016-09-01

    Strain NRRL B-41902T and three closely related strains were isolated from iceberg lettuce. The strain was found to consist of strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative rods that formed cocci in late stationary phase. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NRRL B-41902T was most closely related to species within the genera Acinetobacter, and that a grouping of it and the three other closely related strains was most closely related to the type strain of Acinetobacter pittii, which was also confirmed through a phylogenomic analysis. Moreover, in silico DNA-DNA hybridization analysis revealed a substantial amount of genomic divergence (39.1 %) between strain NRRL B-41902T and the type strain of A. pittii, which is expected if the strains represent distinct species. Further phenotypic analysis revealed that strain NRRL B-41902T was able to utilize a combination of l-serine, citraconic acid and citramalic acid, which differentiated it from other, closely related Acinetobacter species. Therefore, strain NRRL B-41902T (=CCUG 68785T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species, Acinetobacter lactucae sp. nov.

  2. Allelopathic effect of Raphanus sativus on Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa = Efeito alelopático de Raphanus sativus em Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Navas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of an extract from the leaves and roots of Raphanus sativus, on the species Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa L. To obtain the extract, the leaves and roots of R. sativus were used separately, crushed at a proportion of 200 g of leaves to 1 L of water to give a crude aqueous extract (100%. Dilutions of 60%, 40% and 20%, and the control were produced from this extract. Seeds of U. decumbens and L. sativa were evenly distributed over two sheets of germitest paper, with four replications of 40 seeds each. Germination was evaluated at 7 and 14 days after sowing, together with the germination speed index (GSI, length of the shoots and roots, and dry weight. The design was completely randomised, and the values submitted to analysis of variance by F-test and regression analysis. The leaf extract gave a reduction in the germination of L. sativa at all tested doses. With application of the root extract, an increase was seen in germination, in the GSI and length of the radicle in U. decumbens at doses of from 40%. Moreover, with application of the leaf extract, the length of the shoot and radicle were also greater, irrespective of the dose applied. There was no effect from the treatments on the dry mass of the species. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o potencial alelopático de extrato de folhas e raízes de Raphanus sativus, nas espécies Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa L. Para obtenção do extrato, foram utilizadas separadamente folhas e raízes de R. sativus, trituradas na proporção de 200 g de folhas para 1 L de água, resultando no extrato aquoso bruto (100%. A partir desse extrato, foram realizadas as diluições de 60%, 40% e 20% e testemunha. Sementes de U. decumbens e L. sativa foram distribuídas uniformemente sobre duas folhas de papel germitest, com quatro repetições, com 40 sementes cada. As avaliações de germinação foram realizadas aos 7 e aos 14 dias

  3. Experimental determinations of soil copper toxicity to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) growth in highly different copper spiked and aged soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karen Søgaard; Borggaard, Ole K.; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge about factors and conditions determining copper (Cu) toxicity in soil is needed for predicting plant growth in various Cu-contaminated soils. Therefore, effects of Cu on growth (biomass production) of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were tested on seven selected, very different soils...

  4. Enteroparasitas em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas na cidade de Guarapuava (PR / Enteroparasites on commercial lettuce (Lactuca sativa in Guarapuava City, Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Osaki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de hortaliças cruas constitui importante meio de transmissão de enteroparasitoses. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a contaminação parasitária em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas na cidade de Guarapuava (PR. No período de julho/2005 a junho/2006, 52 supermercados foram visitados, com colheita de um pé de alface. A análise parasitológica foi realizada após duas lavagens, filtragem em gaze e sedimentação. O sedimento, corado pelo lugol, foi analisado microscopicamente por exame direto e após centrífugo-flutuação em sulfato de zinco. Das 52 amostras de alface avaliadas, 18 (34,6% apresentaram uma ou mais estruturas parasitárias como cistos de Giardia spp. (7,7%, de Entamoeba spp. (11,5% e de Balantidium coli (3,8%, oocistos de coccídios (7,7% e ovos de Capillaria spp. (3,8%. Esse alto número de amostras contaminadas aponta deficiências na cadeia produtiva dessas hortaliças, indicando a necessidade de adequada higienização antes de seu consumo. AbstractThe ingestion of raw vegetables is an important mode of enteroparasites transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitological contamination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in Guarapuava City, Parana State. Fifty-two samples of lettuce were collected from supermarkets during the period of July 2005 and June 2006. Parasitological analysis was realized by the sedimentation technique. Lugol-stained sediments were microscopically analyzed by direct exam and after centrifugation-fluctuation in zinc sulfate. A total of 18 out of 52 lettuce samples analyzed (34.6% were positive for one or more parasitic structures. The parasites found in the analysis were Giardia spp. (7.7%, Entamoeba spp. (11.5%, Balantidium coli (3.8%, coccidian oocysts (7.7% and Capillaria spp. eggs (3.8%. Such high occurrence of contaminated samples revealed deficiencies in the chain of lettuce cultivation, which suggests a need for improvement in the current

  5. Development of genomic SSR markers for fingerprinting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars and mapping genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Gilda; Simko, Ivan

    2013-01-22

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is the major crop from the group of leafy vegetables. Several types of molecular markers were developed that are effectively used in lettuce breeding and genetic studies. However only a very limited number of microsattelite-based markers are publicly available. We have employed the method of enriched microsatellite libraries to develop 97 genomic SSR markers. Testing of newly developed markers on a set of 36 Lactuca accession (33 L. sativa, and one of each L. serriola L., L. saligna L., and L. virosa L.) revealed that both the genetic heterozygosity (UHe = 0.56) and the number of loci per SSR (Na = 5.50) are significantly higher for genomic SSR markers than for previously developed EST-based SSR markers (UHe = 0.32, Na = 3.56). Fifty-four genomic SSR markers were placed on the molecular linkage map of lettuce. Distribution of markers in the genome appeared to be random, with the exception of possible cluster on linkage group 6. Any combination of 32 genomic SSRs was able to distinguish genotypes of all 36 accessions. Fourteen of newly developed SSR markers originate from fragments with high sequence similarity to resistance gene candidates (RGCs) and RGC pseudogenes. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of L. sativa accessions showed that approximately 3% of genetic diversity was within accessions, 79% among accessions, and 18% among horticultural types. The newly developed genomic SSR markers were added to the pool of previously developed EST-SSRs markers. These two types of SSR-based markers provide useful tools for lettuce cultivar fingerprinting, development of integrated molecular linkage maps, and mapping of genes.

  6. Allelopathic and bioherbicidal potential of Cladonia verticillaris on the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigre, R C; Silva, N H; Santos, M G; Honda, N K; Falcão, E P S; Pereira, E C

    2012-10-01

    Responses to germination and initial growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) submitted to organic extracts and purified compounds of Cladonia verticillaris ("salambaia") were analyzed in this work. The experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions using extracts and pure compounds at different concentrations. None of the assays showed any influence on the germination of L. sativa seeds using C. verticillaris extracts; however, modifications in leaf area and seedling hypocotyl and root development occurred. In the growth experiments, seedlings exposed to ether or acetone extract showed diminished hypocotyl growth in detriment to the root stimulus, compared to controls. Increases in extract concentrations led to the formation of abnormal seedlings. To determine the allelochemicals of C. verticillaris, its principal components, fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric acids, were isolated and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). When the seedlings were exposed to the two acids separately, presented increased leaf area at all concentrations. In contrast, hypocotyl and root stimulus was observed only in the presence of protocetraric acid at different concentrations. Fumarprotocetraric as well as protocetraric acids, isolated and purified from C. verticillaris and Parmotrema dilatatum respectively, influenced the development of L. sativa seedlings at high concentrations, indicating a possible bioherbicide potential of these acids.

  7. Phytohormone profile in Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea plants grown under Zn deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Albacete, Alfonso; Torre-González, Alejandro de la; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-10-01

    Phytohormones, structurally diverse compounds, are involved in multiple processes within plants, such as controlling plant growth and stress response. Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants and its deficiency causes large economic losses in crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the role of phytohormones in the Zn-deficiency response of two economically important species, i.e. Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea. For this, these two species were grown hydroponically with different Zn-application rates: 10 μM Zn as control and 0.1 μM Zn as deficiency treatment and phytohormone concentration was determined by U-HPLC-MS. Zn deficiency resulted in a substantial loss of biomass in L. sativa plants that was correlated with a decline in growth-promoting hormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), and gibberellins (GAs). However these hormones increased or stabilized their concentrations in B. oleracea and could help to maintain the biomass in this species. A lower concentration of stress-signaling hormones such as ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and also CKs might be involved in Zn uptake in L. sativa while a rise in GA4, isopentenyl adenine (iP), and ACC and a fall in JA and SA might contribute to a better Zn-utilization efficiency (ZnUtE), as observed in B. oleracea plants.

  8. EVALUACIÓN DE Lactuca sativa Y Selenastrum capricornutum COMO INDICADORES DE TOXICIDAD EN AGUAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bohórquez-Echeverry

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Selenastrum capricornutum in acute toxicity assessment is a potentially useful toolin water monitoring. The main objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of S.capricornutum with the extensively used Lactuca sativa bioassay in water and to select the bestindicator. For this purpose, inhibition or stimulation effects of algae cell growth and seed growthwere determined as end points. Sensitivity of both organisms was determined with Zn (II asreference toxicant to homologate the results between S. capricornutum and L. sativa. However,when Selenastrum was exposed to Zn (II there was a strong variation in results. Therefore, Cr(VI was used as a reference toxicant. The CE50-120h value for Zn (II for L. sativa was 24.48 mg/Land the CE50-96h value for Cr (VI for S. capricornutum was 0.29 mg/L. Two environmentalsamples were collected from the Bogotá River and other from the Salitre wastewater treatmentplant, to evaluate sensitivity of indicators. Results showed similar responses on both organisms,possibly due to the organic matter concentration in evaluated samples.

  9. Development of EST-SSR markers for the study of population structure in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    A set of 61 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was developed from the 19,523 Lactuca sativa and Lactuca serriola unigenes. Approximately 4.5% of the unigenes contained a perfect SSR at least 20 bp long, corresponding to roughly 1 perfect SSR per 14.7 kb. Marker polymorphism was tested on a set comprising 96 accessions representing all major horticultural types and 3 wild species (L. serriola, Lactuca saligna, and Lactuca virosa). Both the average marker heterozygosity (UHe = 0.32) and the number of different alleles per locus (Na = 3.56) were significantly reduced in expressed sequence tag (EST)-SSRs as compared with anonymous SSRs (UHe = 0.59, Na = 5.53). Marker transfer rate to the wild species corresponded to the decreasing sexual compatibility with L. sativa and was higher for EST-SSRs (100% L. serriola, 87% L. saligna, and 75% L. virosa) than for anonymous SSRs (93%, 66%, and 42%, respectively). Assessment of population structure among 90 L. sativa cultivars with SSRs was in good agreement with classification into the horticultural types. The average marker heterozygosity was smallest in iceberg (0.097), Latin (0.140), and romaine-type (0.151) cultivars while highest in leaf (green leaf 0.208 and red leaf 0.240) lettuces. The level of marker heterozygosity is in accord with morphological variability observed in different horticultural types.

  10. Toxic effects of copper-based nanoparticles or compounds to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie; Rico, Cyren M; Zhao, Lijuan; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Keller, Arturo A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    The increased production and use of nanoparticles (NPs) has generated concerns about their impact on living organisms. In this study, nCu, bulk Cu, nCuO, bulk CuO, Cu(OH)2 (CuPRO 2005, Kocide 3000), and CuCl2 were exposed for 15 days to 10 days-old hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Each compound was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg L(-1). At harvest, we measured the size of the plants and determined the concentration of Cu, macro and microelements by using ICP-OES. Catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity was also determined. Results showed that all Cu NPs/compounds reduced the root length by 49% in both plant species. All Cu NPs/compounds increased Cu, P, and S (>100%, >50%, and >20%, respectively) in alfalfa shoots and decreased P and Fe in lettuce shoot (>50% and >50%, respectively, excluding Fe in CuCl2 treatment). Biochemical assays showed reduced catalase activity in alfalfa (root and shoot) and increased ascorbate peroxidase activity in roots of both plant species. Results suggest that Cu NPs/compounds not only reduced the size of the plants but altered nutrient content and enzyme activity in both plant species.

  11. Performance and feeding behaviour of two biotypes of the black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, on resistant and susceptible Lactuca sativa near-isogenic lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, ten C.J.M.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, is an important pest of cultivated lettuce, Lactuca sativa. Since 1982, the control of this aphid on lettuce is largely based on host plant resistance, conferred by the Nr gene, introgressed from Lactuca virosa. The resistance mechanism remains

  12. Plastid transformation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by polyethylene glycol treatment of protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelivelt, Cilia L C; van Dun, Kees M P; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; McCabe, Matthew S; Hogg, Bridget V; Nugent, Jacqueline M

    2014-01-01

    A detailed protocol for PEG-mediated plastid transformation of Lactuca sativa cv. Flora, using leaf protoplasts, is described. Successful plastid transformation using protoplasts requires a large number of viable cells, high plating densities, and an efficient regeneration system. Transformation was achieved using a vector that targets genes to the trnI/trnA intergenic region of the lettuce plastid genome. The aadA gene, encoding an adenylyltransferase enzyme that confers spectinomycin resistance, was used as a selectable marker. With the current method, the expected transformation frequency is 1-2 spectinomycin-resistant cell lines per 10(6) viable protoplasts. Fertile, diploid, homoplasmic, plastid-transformed lines were obtained. Transmission of the plastid-encoded transgene to the T1 generation was demonstrated.

  13. Transfer and expression of the rabbit defensin NP-1 gene in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, D; Xiong, X; Tu, W F; Yao, W; Liang, H W; Chen, F J; He, Z Q

    2017-01-23

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an annual plant of the daisy family, Asteraceae, with high food and medicinal value. However, the crop is susceptible to several viruses that are transmitted by aphids and is highly vulnerable to post-harvest diseases, as well as insect and mammal pests and fungal and bacterial diseases. Here, the rabbit defensin gene NP-1 was transferred into lettuce by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to obtain a broad-spectrum disease-resistant lettuce. Transgenic lettuce plants were selected and regenerated on selective media. The presence of the NP-1 gene in these plants was confirmed by western blot analyses. Resistance tests revealed native defensin NP-1 expression conferred partial resistance to Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which suggests new possibilities for lettuce disease resistance.

  14. RNAseq-based transcriptome analysis of Lactuca sativa infected by the fungal necrotroph Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cremer, Kaat; Mathys, Janick; Vos, Christine; Froenicke, Lutz; Michelmore, Richard W; Cammue, Bruno P A; De Coninck, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea establishes a necrotrophic interaction with its host plants, including lettuce (Lactuca sativa), causing it to wilt, collapse and eventually dry up and die, which results in serious economic losses. Global expression profiling using RNAseq and the newly sequenced lettuce genome identified a complex network of genes involved in the lettuce-B. cinerea interaction. The observed high number of differentially expressed genes allowed us to classify them according to the biological pathways in which they are implicated, generating a holistic picture. Most pronounced were the induction of the phenylpropanoid pathway and terpenoid biosynthesis, whereas photosynthesis was globally down-regulated at 48 h post-inoculation. Large-scale comparison with data available on the interaction of B. cinerea with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana revealed both general and species-specific responses to infection with this pathogen. Surprisingly, expression analysis of selected genes could not detect significant systemic transcriptional alterations in lettuce leaves distant from the inoculation site. Additionally, we assessed the response of these lettuce genes to a biotrophic pathogen, Bremia lactucae, revealing that similar pathways are induced during compatible interactions of lettuce with necrotrophic and biotrophic pathogens.

  15. Cloning and expression of sesquiterpene synthase genes from lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Mark H; Mansfield, John W; Lewis, Mervyn J; Beale, Michael H

    2002-06-01

    Sesquiterpenoid lactones (SLs) from lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) include constitutive components of latex such as lactucin and the induced phytoalexin, lettucenin A. A redundant primer strategy was used to recover two full length cDNA clones (LTC1 and LTC2) encoding sesquiterpene synthases from a cDNA library derived from seedlings with the red spot disorder, which accumulate phytoalexins. Recombinant enzymes produced from LTC1 and LTC2 in Escherichia coli catalysed the cyclisation of farnesyl diphosphate to germacrene A, potentially an early step in the biosynthesis of SLs. RT-PCR analysis showed LTC1 and LTC2 were expressed constitutively in roots, hypocotyls and true leaves but not in cotyledons. Expression in cotyledons was induced by challenge with the downy mildew pathogen Bremia lactucae in the disease resistant cultivar Diana. Southern hybridisation experiments showed that LTC1 and LTC2 were not part of a multigene family. The germacrene A synthases provide targets for modified expression to generate beneficial modifications to the SL profile in lettuce.

  16. Growth promotion of Lactuca sativa in response to volatile organic compounds emitted from diverse bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincheira, Paola; Venthur, Herbert; Mutis, Ana; Parada, Maribel; Quiroz, Andrés

    2016-12-01

    Agrochemicals are currently used in horticulture to increase crop production. Nevertheless, their indiscriminate use is a relevant issue for environmental and legal aspects. Alternative tools for reducing fertilizers and synthetic phytohormones are being investigated, such as the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as growth inducers. Some soil bacteria, such as Pseudomonas and Bacillus, stimulate Arabidopsis and tobacco growth by releasing VOCs, but their effects on vegetables have not been investigated. Lactuca sativa was used as model vegetable to investigate bacterial VOCs as growth inducers. We selected 10 bacteria strains, belonging to Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Serratia genera that are able to produce 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin), a compound with proven growth promoting activity. Two-day old-seedlings of L. sativa were exposed to VOCs emitted by the selected bacteria grown in different media cultures for 7 days. The results showed that the VOCs released from the bacteria elicited an increase in the number of lateral roots, dry weight, root growth and shoot length, depending on the media used. Three Bacillus strains, BCT53, BCT9 and BCT4, were selected according to its their growth inducing capacity. The BCT9 strain elicited the greatest increases in dry weight and primary root length when L. sativa seedlings were subjected to a 10-day experiment. Finally, because acetoin only stimulated root growth, we suggest that other volatiles could be responsible for the growth promotion of L. sativa. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that bacteria volatiles can be used as growth-inducers as alternative or complementary strategies for application in horticulture species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Freqüência de enteroparasitas em amostras de alface (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em Lavras, Minas Gerais Frequency of intestinal parasites in samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in Lavras, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma avaliação parasitológica em amostras de alface (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em Lavras, MG. As amostras de alfaces apresentaram baixos padrões higiênicos, indicados pela presença de formas parasitológicas de origem animal ou humana e alta concentração de coliformes fecais.The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitological contamination in samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in Lavras city, Minas Gerais. The samples of lettuce showed low hygienic conditions, indicated by the presence of parasites of animal or human origin and high concentration of fecal coliforms.

  18. Active packaging for fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. / Embalagem ativa para alface americana (Lactuca sativa L. minimamente processada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Yamashita

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The minimal processing of horticultural products endears the raw material and is convenient to the consumer due to the facility for preparing and consuming. The objective of this work was to develop an active packaging for fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. to increase its shelf life. Minimally processing methodology was defined and the product quality was determined by sensorial, physico-chemical and microbiological analysis. The lettuce tree was selected, trimmed, pre-washed, soaked in sanitized water (100ppm of active chlorine for 15 minutes and centrifuged. The lettuce leafs were packed in polypropylene pots with a sachet containing 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and sealed with biodegradable starch film. Soon after the processing, the product was stored at 4oC for 12 days. Periodically samples were evaluated in terms of appearance and purchase intention, soluble solids and vitamin C contents, pH, texture, color, weight loss and total count of mesophilic and psicotrofic microorganisms, lactic bacteria, mould and yeast. Using 1-MCP in sachet format did not increase the lettuce shelf life but the minimal processing combined with packaging sealed with biodegradable film is practicable as the product showed good sensorial acceptance, low microbiological counts and shelf life of 5 days at 4oC.O processamento mínimo de produtos hortícolas agrega valor à matéria-prima e são convenientes ao consumidor, devido à facilidade de preparo e consumo. O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver uma embalagem ativa para alface americana (Lactuca sativa L. minimamente processada visando o aumento da vida útil. Foi definida uma metodologia de processamento mínimo e a qualidade do produto foi acompanhada através de avaliação sensorial, físico-química e microbiológica. As cabeças de alface foram desfolhadas, selecionadas, pré-lavadas, sanificadas (100 ppm de cloro ativo por 15 minutos e centrifugadas. As folhas foram acondicionadas em potes de

  19. Parasitos em alfaces (Lactuca sativa de mercados e feiras livres de Lages - Santa Catarina = Lettuces (Lactuca sativa parasites in markets and free fairs from Lages - Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quadros, Rosiléia Marinho de

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a contaminação por parasitos de interesse em Saúde Pública em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas no município de Lages, Santa Catarina. Materiais e Métodos: Foi utilizado um processo de amostragem intencional, selecionando-se oito supermercados e duas feiras, de acordo com a abrangência e volume de vendas desses estabelecimentos para a cidade. Foram processadas 122 amostras de alfaces, pelas técnicas de sedimentação espontânea (Lutz, centrífugo-flutuação em sulfato de zinco (Faust, centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sacarose (Sheather e coloração de Ziehl Neelsen modificada. Resultados: O índice de parasitismo foi de 88,5% (108/122 com 77% (94/122 e 11,5% (14/122 para as amostras de supermercados e de feiras livres, respectivamente. A técnica de Lutz detectou 46,7% (57/122 de alfaces parasitadas; Sheather e Faust evidenciaram 31,1% (38/122 e 10,6% (13/122 de alfaces com ovos e/ou oocistos de parasitos, respectivamente. Predominaram os gêneros Eimeria, Giardia e Entamoeba. Conclusões: As amostras analisadas apresentaram baixos padrões higiênicos, necessitando de vigilância sanitária mais atuante na fiscalização de todas as etapas do processo produtivo de hortaliças

  20. Volatiles emitted by Bacillus sp. BCT9 act as growth modulating agents on Lactuca sativa seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincheira, Paola; Parra, Leonardo; Mutis, Ana; Parada, Maribel; Quiroz, Andrés

    2017-10-01

    Chemical products are applied during horticulture to increase food production, but the environmental problems resulting from these applications have led to a search for more sustainable products. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) demonstrating plant growth promoter (PGP) activity released by bacterial species have emerged as alternatives, but their effects on Lactuca sativa growth are unknown. In this study, VOCs released by Bacillus sp. BCT9 cultures grown in different media (Methyl Red & Voges Proskauer, Murashige & Skoog and nutrient media) at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 0.7 (measured as the absorbance, λ=600nm) were tested to evaluate their activity as growth inducers of L. sativa after 10days of exposure. Lower concentrations of BCT9 increased root length, and higher concentrations induced shoot length and lateral root length. The dry weight and number of lateral roots increased similarly, independent of concentration, for VOCs produced in all culture media. BCT9 cultures grown in Methyl Red & Voges Proskauer medium as bioactive compounds with or without lanolin. These VOCs increased shoot length, root length and dry weight at low concentrations, independent of the presence of lanolin. Lateral root length increased with the application of 2-nonanone (50ppm) and 2-undecanone (0.05ppm). Based on these results, the use of bioactive volatiles as growth inducers of horticultural species represents an alternative or complementary strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Internalization of Murine Norovirus 1 by Lactuca sativa during Irrigation ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Jin, Yan; Sims, Tom; Kniel, Kalmia E.

    2011-01-01

    Romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was grown hydroponically or in soil and challenged with murine norovirus 1 (MNV) under two conditions: one mimicking a severe one-time contamination event and another mimicking a lower level of contamination occurring over time. In each condition, lettuce was challenged with MNV delivered at the roots. In the first case, contamination occurred on day one with 5 × 108 reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) U/ml MNV in nutrient buffer, and irrigation water was replaced with virus-free buffer every day for another 4 days. In the second case, contamination with 5 × 105 RT-qPCR U/ml MNV (freshly prepared) occurred every day for 5 days. Virus had a tendency to adsorb to soil particles, with a small portion suspended in nutrient buffer; e.g., ∼8 log RT-qPCR U/g MNV was detected in soil during 5 days of challenge with virus inoculums of 5 × 108 RT-qPCR U/ml at day one, but sativa. PMID:21296944

  2. Elucidating the genetic basis of antioxidant status in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damerum, Annabelle; Selmes, Stacey L; Biggi, Gaia F; Clarkson, Graham Jj; Rothwell, Steve D; Truco, Maria José; Michelmore, Richard W; Hancock, Robert D; Shellcock, Connie; Chapman, Mark A; Taylor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    A diet rich in phytonutrients from fruit and vegetables has been acknowledged to afford protection against a range of human diseases, but many of the most popular vegetables are low in phytonutrients. Wild relatives of crops may contain allelic variation for genes determining the concentrations of these beneficial phytonutrients, and therefore understanding the genetic basis of this variation is important for breeding efforts to enhance nutritional quality. In this study, lettuce recombinant inbred lines, generated from a cross between wild and cultivated lettuce (Lactuca serriola and Lactuca sativa, respectively), were analysed for antioxidant (AO) potential and important phytonutrients including carotenoids, chlorophyll and phenolic compounds. When grown in two environments, 96 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for these nutritional traits: 4 for AO potential, 2 for carotenoid content, 3 for total chlorophyll content and 87 for individual phenolic compounds (two per compound on average). Most often, the L. serriola alleles conferred an increase in total AOs and metabolites. Candidate genes underlying these QTL were identified by BLASTn searches; in several cases, these had functions suggesting involvement in phytonutrient biosynthetic pathways. Analysis of a QTL on linkage group 3, which accounted for >30% of the variation in AO potential, revealed several candidate genes encoding multiple MYB transcription factors which regulate flavonoid biosynthesis and flavanone 3-hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol, which are known to have powerful AO activity. Follow-up quantitative RT-PCR of these candidates revealed that 5 out of 10 genes investigated were significantly differentially expressed between the wild and cultivated parents, providing further evidence of their potential involvement in determining the contrasting phenotypes. These results offer exciting opportunities to improve the nutritional

  3. Lettuces (Lactuca sativa parasites in markets and free fairs from Lages - Santa Catarina Parasitos em alfaces (Lactuca sativa de mercados e feiras livres de Lages - Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Aparecida Ribeiro Arruda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the contamination of lettuces (Lactuca saliva with parasites of Public Health peculiar interest sold in Lages, Santa Catarina. Materials and Methods: A nonprobabilitic intentional sampling method was used, in which eight supermarkets and two public markets were selected according to their scope of activity and sales volume for the town. The 122 samples obtained from eight supermarkets and from two open-air markets were analyzed by the techniques of spontaneous sedimentation (Lutz, centrifugation and fluctuation in zinc sulphate (Faust, centrifugation and fluctuation in sucrose solution (Sheather and modified Ziehl Neelsen coloration. Results: The total parasitism rate was 88.5% (108/122, 77% (94/122 in the supermarkets samples and 11.5% (14/122 in the open-air markets samples. The Lutz technique has detected 46.7% (57/122 infected lettuces; Sheather and Faust technique identified 31.1% (38/122 and 10.6% (13/122 of lettuces infected with eggs and/or oocysts of parasites, respectively. The Eimeria, Giardia e Entamoeba were the most prevalent genders. Conclusions: The analyzed samples presented low hygienic standards, showing that more intense sanitary inspection is needed during all stages of vegetable productive process.Objetivo: avaliar a contaminação por parasitos de interesse em Saúde Pública em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas no município de Lages, Santa Catarina. Materiais e Métodos: Foi utilizado um processo de amostragem intencional, selecionando-se oito supermercados e duas feiras, de acordo com a abrangência e volume de vendas desses estabelecimentos para a cidade. Foram processadas 122 amostras de alfaces, pelas técnicas de sedimentação espontânea (Lutz, centrífugo-flutuação em sulfato de zinco (Faust, centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sacarose (Sheather e coloração de Ziehl Neelsen modificada. Resultados: O índice de parasitismo foi de 88,5% (108/122 com 77% (94/122 e 11,5% (14

  4. Effects of Jatropha curcas oil in Lactuca sativa root tip bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Vieira, Larissa F; Botelho, Carolina M; Laviola, Bruno G; Palmieri, Marcel J; Praça-Fontes, Milene M

    2014-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) is important for biofuel production and as a feed ingredient for animal. However, the presence of phorbol esters in the oil and cake renders the seeds toxic. The toxicity of J. curcas oil is currently assessed by testing in animals, leading to their death. The identification of toxic and nontoxic improved varieties is important for the safe use of J. curcas seeds and byproducts to avoid their environmental toxicity. Hence, the aim of this study was to propose a short-term bioassay using a plant as a model to screen the toxicity of J. curcas oil without the need to sacrifice any animals. The toxicity of J. curcas oil was evident in germination, root elongation and chromosomal aberration tests in Lactuca sativa. It was demonstrated that J. curcas seeds contain natural compounds that exert phyto-, cyto- and genotoxic effects on lettuce, and that phorbol esters act as aneugenic agents, leading to the formation of sticky chromosomes and c-metaphase cells. In conclusion, the tests applied have shown reproducibility, which is important to verify the extent of detoxification and to determine toxic doses, thus reducing the numbers of animals that would be used for toxicity tests.

  5. Trichoderma spp. alleviate phytotoxicity in lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, Antonio G; Sommella, Alessia; Lorito, Matteo; Lombardi, Nadia; Azam, Shah M G G; Pigna, Massimo; Ruocco, Michelina

    2014-09-15

    The influence of two strains of Trichoderma (T. harzianum strain T22 and T. atroviride strain P1) on the growth of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) irrigated with As-contaminated water, and their effect on the uptake and accumulation of the contaminant in the plant roots and leaves, were studied. Accumulation of this non-essential element occurred mainly into the root system and reduced both biomass development and net photosynthesis rate (while altering the plant P status). Plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF) of both Trichoderma species alleviated, at least in part, the phytotoxicity of As, essentially by decreasing its accumulation in the tissues and enhancing plant growth, P status and net photosynthesis rate. Our results indicate that inoculation of lettuce with selected Trichoderma strains may be helpful, beside the classical biocontrol application, in alleviating abiotic stresses such as that caused by irrigation with As-contaminated water, and in reducing the concentration of this metalloid in the edible part of the plant.

  6. Semi-High Throughput Screening for Potential Drought-tolerance in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Germplasm Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knepper, Caleb; Mou, Beiquan

    2015-04-17

    This protocol describes a method by which a large collection of the leafy green vegetable lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) germplasm was screened for likely drought-tolerance traits. Fresh water availability for agricultural use is a growing concern across the United States as well as many regions of the world. Short-term drought events along with regulatory intervention in the regulation of water availability coupled with the looming threat of long-term climate shifts that may lead to reduced precipitation in many important agricultural regions has increased the need to hasten the development of crops adapted for improved water use efficiency in order to maintain or expand production in the coming years. This protocol is not meant as a step-by-step guide to identifying at either the physiological or molecular level drought-tolerance traits in lettuce, but rather is a method developed and refined through the screening of thousands of different lettuce varieties. The nature of this screen is based in part on the streamlined measurements focusing on only three water-stress indicators: leaf relative water content, wilt, and differential plant growth following drought-stress. The purpose of rapidly screening a large germplasm collection is to narrow the candidate pool to a point in which more intensive physiological, molecular, and genetic methods can be applied to identify specific drought-tolerant traits in either the lab or field. Candidates can also be directly incorporated into breeding programs as a source of drought-tolerance traits.

  7. Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goularte, L.; Martins, C. G.; Morales-Aizpurúa, I. C.; Destro, M. T.; Franco, B. D. G. M.; Vizeu, D. M.; Hutzler, B. W.; Landgraf, M.

    2004-09-01

    The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D10-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage.

  8. Phytotoxicity of 15 common pharmaceuticals on the germination of Lactuca sativa and photosynthesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Ma Rosa; Muñiz, Selene; Val, Jonatan; Navarro, Enrique

    2016-11-01

    Pharmaceuticals reach terrestrial environments through the application of treated wastewaters and biosolids to agricultural soils. We have investigated the toxicity of 15 common pharmaceuticals, classified as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), blood lipid-lowering agents, β-blockers and antibiotics, in two photosynthetic organisms. Twelve pharmaceuticals caused inhibitory effects on the radicle and hypocotyl elongation of Lactuca sativa seeds. The EC50 values obtained were in the range of 170-5656 mg L(-1) in the case of the radicle and 188-4558 mg L(-1) for the hypocotyl. Propranolol was the most toxic drug for both root and hypocotyl elongation, followed by the NSAIDs, then gemfibrozil and tetracycline. Other effects, such as root necrosis, inhibition of root growth and curly hairs, were detected. However, even at the highest concentrations tested (3000 mg L(-1)), seed germination was not affected. NSAIDs decreased the photosynthetic yield of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, but only salicylic acid showed EC50 values below 1000 mg L(-1). The first effects detected at low concentrations, together with the concentrations found in environmental samples, indicate that the use of biosolids and wastewaters containing pharmaceuticals should be regulated and their compositions assessed in order to prevent medium- and long-term impacts on agricultural soils and crops.

  9. An analysis of electrical impedance measurements applied for plant N status estimation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Huerta, Rafael F; Ortiz-Melendez, Antonio de J; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Contreras-Medina, Luis M; Prado-Olivarez, Juan; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalia V

    2014-06-27

    Nitrogen plays a key role in crop yields. Hence, farmers may apply excessive N fertilizers to crop fields, inducing environmental pollution. Crop N monitoring methods have been developed to improve N fertilizer management, most of them based on leaf or canopy optical-property measurements. However, sensitivity to environmental interference remains an important drawback. Electrical impedance has been applied to determine the physiological and nutritional status of plant tissue, but no studies related to plant-N contents are reported. The objective of this article is to analyze how the electrical impedance response of plants is affected by their N status. Four sets of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with a different N-source concentrations per set were used. Total nitrogen and electrical impedance spectra (in a 1 to 100 kHz frequency range) were measured five times per set, three times every other day. Minimum phase angles of impedance spectra were detected and analyzed, together with the frequency value in which they occurred, and their magnitude at that frequency. High and positive correlation was observed between plant N content and frequency values at minimum phase angle with no significant variations detected between days of measurement. These results suggest that electrical impedance can be sensitive to plant N status.

  10. Effects of Jatropha curcas oil in Lactuca sativa root tip bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LARISSA F. ANDRADE-VIEIRA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae is important for biofuel production and as a feed ingredient for animal. However, the presence of phorbol esters in the oil and cake renders the seeds toxic. The toxicity of J. curcas oil is currently assessed by testing in animals, leading to their death. The identification of toxic and nontoxic improved varieties is important for the safe use of J. curcas seeds and byproducts to avoid their environmental toxicity. Hence, the aim of this study was to propose a short-term bioassay using a plant as a model to screen the toxicity of J. curcas oil without the need to sacrifice any animals. The toxicity of J. curcas oil was evident in germination, root elongation and chromosomal aberration tests in Lactuca sativa. It was demonstrated that J. curcas seeds contain natural compounds that exert phyto-, cyto- and genotoxic effects on lettuce, and that phorbol esters act as aneugenic agents, leading to the formation of sticky chromosomes and c-metaphase cells. In conclusion, the tests applied have shown reproducibility, which is important to verify the extent of detoxification and to determine toxic doses, thus reducing the numbers of animals that would be used for toxicity tests.

  11. Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goularte, L.; Martins, C.G.; Morales-Aizpurua, I.C.; Destro, M.T.; Franco, B.D.G.M.; Vizeu, D.M.; Hutzler, B.W.; Landgraf, M. E-mail: landgraf@usp.br

    2004-10-01

    The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D{sub 10}-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage.

  12. Zn-biofortification enhanced nitrogen metabolism and photorespiration process in green leafy vegetable Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrameda-Medina, Yurena; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2017-04-01

    Excessive rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizers may result in elevated concentrations of nitrate (NO3(-) ) in plants. Considering that many programs of biofortification with trace elements are being performed, it has become important to study how the application of these elements affects plant physiology and, particularly, N utilization in leaf crops. The main objective of the present study was to determine whether the NO3(-) accumulation and the nitrogen use efficiency was affected by the application of different doses of Zn in Lactuca sativa plants. Zn doses in the range 80-100 µmol L(-1) produced an increase in Zn concentration provoking a decrease of NO3(-) concentration and increase of the nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, as well as the photorespiration processes. As result, we observed an increase in reduced N, total N concentration and N utilization efficiency. Consequently, at a dose of 80 µmol L(-1) of Zn, the amino acid concentration increased significantly. Adequate Zn fertilization is an important critical player in lettuce, especially at a dose of 80 µmol L(-1) of Zn, because it could result in an increase in the Zn concentration, a reduction of NO3(-) levels and an increase the concentration of essential amino acids, with all of them having beneficial properties for the human diet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Determination of Profenofos Pesticidal Residue in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. by Gas Chromatographic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Alen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The determination of profenofos pesticidal residue in the lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. by using gas chromatography using flame photometric detector (FPD had been investigated. The lettuce was collected from Padang Luar area, Agam distric, West Sumatera. Sample for determination of profenofos residue divided into three groups: unwashed (A, washed with water (B, and washed with detergent (C. Maceration with sonication was used for the extraction using ethylacetateas a solvent. The results showed that profenofos pesticide residue in sample A, B and C were 0.204, 0.080 and 0.061 ppm, respectively. These profenofos pesticidal residue are over than the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL that established by The Japan Food Chemical Research Foundation (0.05 ppm even though World Health Organization (WHO has not established Maximum Residue Limits (MRL profenofos on lettuce. Based on the statistical analysis one-way method (Anova using SPSS 20.0 showed that there was a significant concentrations difference between lettuce A from lettuce B and lettuce C with p < 0.05.

  14. Human Norovirus and Its Surrogates Induce Plant Immune Response in Arabidopsis thaliana and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markland, Sarah M; Bais, Harsh; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2017-08-01

    Human norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide with the majority of outbreaks linked to fresh produce and leafy greens. It is essential that we thoroughly understand the type of relationship and interactions that take place between plants and human norovirus to better utilize control strategies to reduce transmission of norovirus in the field onto plants harvested for human consumption. In this study the expression of gene markers for the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) plant defense pathways was measured and compared in romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 plants that were inoculated with Murine Norovirus-1, Tulane Virus, human norovirus GII.4, or Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (control). Genes involving both the SA and JA pathways were expressed in both romaine lettuce and A. thaliana for all three viruses, as well as controls. Studies, including gene expression of SA- and JA-deficient A. thaliana mutant lines, suggest that the JA pathway is more likely involved in the plant immune response to human norovirus. This research provides the first pieces of information regarding how foodborne viruses interact with plants in the preharvest environment.

  15. A rapid and efficient in vitro regeneration system for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Isabel; Pogrebnyak, Natalia; Raskin, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Successful biotechnological improvement of crop plants requires a reliable and efficient in vitro regeneration system. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), one the most important vegetable crops worldwide, is strongly genotype-dependent in terms of regeneration capacity, limiting the potential for biotechnological improvement of cultivars which show recalcitrance under currently available protocols. The effect of different nutrient sources, plant hormone combinations and activated charcoal supplementation on shoot induction efficiency was evaluated on the cultivar 'RSL NFR', which had previously shown poor regeneration efficiency. Multiple shoot organogenesis from cotyledon explants was recorded at the highest frequency and speed on Murashige and Skoog regeneration medium supplemented with 200 mg/l of activated charcoal, 3% sucrose, 10 mg/l benzylaminopurine and 0.5 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid, which induced shoots through direct regeneration in 90.8 ± 7.9% of explants. High shoot induction efficiency was also observed, albeit not quantified, when using this medium on some other cultivars. This activated charcoal-containing regeneration medium might offer a rapid and efficient option for direct shoot induction in some lettuce genotypes that do not respond well to common lettuce regeneration protocols. This is also the first report of the effect of activated charcoal in lettuce tissue culture.

  16. An Analysis of Electrical Impedance Measurements Applied for Plant N Status Estimation in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael F. Muñoz-Huerta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen plays a key role in crop yields. Hence, farmers may apply excessive N fertilizers to crop fields, inducing environmental pollution. Crop N monitoring methods have been developed to improve N fertilizer management, most of them based on leaf or canopy optical-property measurements. However, sensitivity to environmental interference remains an important drawback. Electrical impedance has been applied to determine the physiological and nutritional status of plant tissue, but no studies related to plant-N contents are reported. The objective of this article is to analyze how the electrical impedance response of plants is affected by their N status. Four sets of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. with a different N-source concentrations per set were used. Total nitrogen and electrical impedance spectra (in a 1 to 100 kHz frequency range were measured five times per set, three times every other day. Minimum phase angles of impedance spectra were detected and analyzed, together with the frequency value in which they occurred, and their magnitude at that frequency. High and positive correlation was observed between plant N content and frequency values at minimum phase angle with no significant variations detected between days of measurement. These results suggest that electrical impedance can be sensitive to plant N status.

  17. Production and characterization of cyanocobalamin-enriched lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown using hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Ohishi, Noriharu; Hatanaka, Yuka; Takenaka, Shigeo; Nishihara, Eiji; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2013-04-24

    When lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) grown for 30 days in hydroponic culture were treated with various concentrations of cyanocobalamin for 24 h, its content in their leaves increased significantly from nondetectable to 164.6 ± 74.7 ng/g fresh weight. This finding indicated that consumption of only two or three of these fresh leaves is sufficient to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance for adults of 2.4 μg/day. Analyses using a cobalamin-dependent Escherichia coli 215 bioautogram and LC/ESI-MS/MS demonstrated that the cyanocobalamin absorbed from the nutrient solutions by the leaves did not alter any other compounds such as coenzymes and inactive corrinoids. Gel filtration indicated that most (86%) of the cyanocobalamin in the leaves was recovered in the free cyanocobalamin fractions. These results indicated that cyanocobalamin-enriched lettuce leaves would be an excellent source of free cyanocobalamin, particularly for strict vegetarians or elderly people with food-bound cobalamin malabsorption.

  18. Evaluation of response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. to temperature and light stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Tabit Shaban

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of irrigation water temperature and shading on the rate of photosynthesis and transpiration in four varieties of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. – green foliage (‘Salakis’ and ‘Estony’ and red foliage (‘Lollo Rossa’ and ‘Nika’. During the production of seedlings in the greenhouse, two irrigation water temperature regimes (12 and 20°C were applied. After transplanting in the field plants were grown under three lighting systems (100, 70, and 50% of lighting in the open. The rates of photosynthesis and transpiration were measured at the end of the greenhouse period and 14 days after shading in the field using a Li 6400 infrared gas analyzer. In most varieties, cooling of the irrigation water was not found to have an effect on the rate of photosynthesis. Plants of all the varieties responded to the decrease in irrigation water temperature and to strong shading by reducing transpiration and increasing the water use efficiency. The ‘Salakis’ and ‘Estony’ plants have shown the best adaptability to the changing conditions and therefore they could be used successfully in the practice of extending vegetative growth.

  19. Carotenoids of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. Grown on Soil Enriched with Spent Coffee Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Casal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of spent coffee grounds on carotenoid and chlorophyll content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata was evaluated. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted with spent coffee amounts ranging from 0% to 20% (v/v. All evaluated pigments increased proportionally to spent coffee amounts. Lutein and β-carotene levels increased up to 90% and 72%, respectively, while chlorophylls increased up to 61%. Biomass was also improved in the presence of 2.5% to 10% spent coffee, decreasing for higher amounts. Nevertheless, all plants were characterized by lower organic nitrogen content than the control ones, inversely to the spent coffee amounts, pointing to possible induced stress. Collected data suggests that plants nutritional features, with regards to these bioactive compounds, can be improved by the presence of low amounts of spent coffee grounds (up to 10%. This observation is particularly important because soil amendment with spent coffee grounds is becoming increasingly common within domestic agriculture. Still, further studies on the detailed influence of spent coffee bioactive compounds are mandatory, particularly regarding caffeine.

  20. The nitrogen and nitrate economy of butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var capitata L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Martin R; Seginer, Ido; Burns, Amanda; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J; Burns, Ian G; White, Philip J

    2003-09-01

    Quantifying and simulating the relationships between crop growth, total-nitrogen (total-N) and nitrate-N (NO3--N) concentration can improve crop nutritional husbandry. In this study, the relationship between shoot relative growth rate (RGR) and shoot total-N, organic-N and NO3--N concentration of hydroponically-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata L. cv. Kennedy) was described and simulated. Plants were grown hydroponically for up to 74 d. Nitrogen was supplied throughout (control; T1), or removed at 35 d (T2) and 54 d (T3), respectively, after sowing. The organic-N and NO3--N concentration declined in the shoots of control plants with growth, until commercial maturity approached when organic-N and NO3--N concentration increased. There were sub-linear relationships between both total-N and organic-N concentration, and shoot RGR, in the N-limited treatments, i.e. shoot RGR approached an asymptote at high shoot N concentration. The proportional effects of total-N and organic-N concentration on shoot RGR were independent of plant age. A dynamic simulation model ('Nicolet'), derived previously under different conditions, was used to simulate the growth, dry matter content, organic-N, and NO3--N concentration of lettuce grown under the extreme N-stress conditions experienced by the plants. In view of the largely successful fitting of the model to experimental data, the model was used to interpret the results. Suggestions for model improvement are made.

  1. Uptake of perfluorinated alkyl acids by hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felizeter, Sebastian; McLachlan, Michael S; de Voogt, Pim

    2012-11-06

    An uptake study was carried out to assess the potential human exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) through the ingestion of vegetables. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was grown in PFAA-spiked nutrient solutions at four different concentrations, ranging from 10 ng/L to 10 μg/L. Eleven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and three perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. At the end of the experiment, the major part of the total mass of each of the PFAAs (except the short-chain, C4-C7, PFCAs) taken up by plants appeared to be retained in the nonedible part, viz. the roots. Root concentration factors (RCF), foliage/root concentration factors (FRCF), and transpiration stream concentration factors (TSCF) were calculated. For the long chained PFAAs, RCF values were highest, whereas FRCF were lowest. This indicates that uptake by roots is likely governed by sorption of PFAAs to lipid-rich root solids. Translocation from roots to shoots is restricted and highly depending on the hydrophobicity of the compounds. Although the TSCF show that longer-chain PFCAs (e.g., perfluorododecanoic acid) get better transferred from the nutrient solution to the foliage than shorter-chain PFCAs (e.g., perfluoroheptanoic acid), the major fraction of longer-chain PFCAs is found in roots due to additional adsorption from the spiked solution. Due to the strong electron-withdrawing effect of the fluorine atoms the role of the negative charge of the dissociated PFAAs is likely insignificant.

  2. Use of polishing pond effluents to cultivate lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in a hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, R; Perin, K; Souza, W G; Cruz, L S; Zandonade, E; Cassini, S T A; Goncalves, R F

    2008-01-01

    The sanitary quality and productivity of hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants cultivated under greenhouse conditions and treated with effluent from anaerobic reactor + polishing pond followed by physical-chemical treatment was evaluated. Two hydroponic cultivations were performed at summer and winter time at Vitoria-ES, Brazil. The treatments for both cultivations were: T1) conventional nutrient solution, T2) effluent from physical-chemical treatment, T3) effluent from polishing pond, and T4) effluent from polishing pond with 50% dilution. The plants were evaluated for microbial contamination, productivity and nutrient content. In all cases, no significant microbial contamination of lettuce was detected and the levels of macronutrients in the shoot system were similar to those in published reports. In the experiments from summer season, the treatments T1 and T2 resulted in higher production than the T3 and T4 treatments. Plants from T3 and T4 had a less developed root system as a result of reduced oxygenation from competition with the higher algae biomass content from the polishing pond effluent. In the winter season, the effect of the algal biomass was pronounced only in the T3 treatment (undiluted effluent from polishing pond). In conclusion, hydroponic cultivation of lettuce with pond effluent is suitable as a complement to water and nutrients for plants.

  3. Efecto de rizobacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal solubilizadoras de fosfato en Lactuca sativa cultivar White Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Beatriz Sanchez López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, Colombian agriculture has been affected by the reduction in productivity in horticultural areas, increase in production costs and the dependence of chemical products usage, causing and irreversible damage to environment and producers and consumers life quality. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria of the genus Pseudomonas sp. under Lactuca sativa cultivar White Boston as phosphate rock solubilizing bacteria. The study took place in the Research Centre Tibaitatá-Corpoica, located in Mosquera (Cundinamarca-Colombia. Results demonstrated that the strains have an intrinsic capacity to solubilize low solubility phosphorus sources as phosphate rock. Inoculants application based on: Pseudomonas fluorescens FR1, Pseudomonas sp., UVLO27 and Pseudomonas sp. LEAV18 strains displayed the best results. The strains Pseudomonas sp. FR2, UVLO27 and K35, are capable of producing indoles and siderophores. The green house experiment showd that strain Pseudomonas fluorescens FR1, Pseudomonas sp. FR2 of phosphate rocks represents a viable economic and ecological alternative in sustainable agriculture systems.

  4. [The dynamic of calcium distribution during megasporegenesis of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi-Lan; Liu, Ru-Shi; Xie, Chao-Tian; Yang, Yan-Hong; Ge, Li-Li; Tian, Hui-Qiao

    2005-08-01

    Potassium antimonite was used to deposit calcium in the young ovule of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) at megasporogenesis stage to study the relationship between calcium and megaspore degeneration. At the megaspore mother cell stage, few calcium granules were formed in the cell (Plate I-1, 2). After meiosis of megaspore mother cell and forming an arrayed tetrad in a line (Plate I-3), three megaspores degenerated one by one from the micropyle end. In the process of degeneration, the numbers of calcium granules decreased in the three megaspores. After the first megaspore degenerated, the number of calcium granules decreased in the second megaspore, which began to degenerate (Plate II-7, 8). The third megaspore also had its number of calcium granules diminishing before it degenerated (Plate III-13, 14). The fourth megaspore always accumulated many calcium granules in the cytoplasm during its development (Plate IV-17, 18) and finally becomes functional one that will develop into an embryo sac (Plate IV-20). Megaspore degeneration is a process of programmed cell death which may be closely related with change in calcium content: when a megaspore of tetrad decreases calcium content the cell begins to degenerate, and when calcium increases in the cell, it will continue to develop into a functional megaspore. This is the first report about calcium distribution in megaspores of a tetrad during megasporogenesis in higher plants and will open a door to study the physiological function of calcium in megasporogenesis.

  5. Ecotoxicological impact of two soil remediation treatments in Lactuca sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rede, Diana; Santos, Lúcia H M L M; Ramos, Sandra; Oliva-Teles, Filipe; Antão, Cristina; Sousa, Susana R; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been identified as environmental emerging pollutants and are present in different compartments, including soils. Chemical remediation showed to be a good and suitable approach for soil remediation, though the knowledge in their impact for terrestrial organisms is still limited. Therefore, in this work, two different chemical remediation treatments (Fenton oxidation and nanoremediation) were applied to a soil contaminated with an environmental representative concentration of ibuprofen (3 ng g(-1)). The phytotoxic impact of a traditional soil remediation treatment (Fenton oxidation) and of a new and more sustainable approach for soil remediation (nanoremediation using green nano-scale zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs)) was evaluated in Lactuca sativa seeds. Percentage of seed germination, root elongation, shoot length and leaf length were considered as endpoints to assess the possible acute phytotoxicity of the soil remediation treatments as well as of the ibuprofen contaminated soil. Both chemical remediation treatments showed to have a negative impact in the germination and development of lettuce seeds, exhibiting a reduction up to 45% in the percentage of seed germination and a decrease around 80% in root elongation comparatively to the contaminated soil. These results indicate that chemical soil remediation treatments could be more prejudicial for terrestrial organisms than contaminated soils.

  6. Differential Responses of Two Lactuca sativa Varieties to Bicarbonate-Induced Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Chebbi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron chlorosis induced by bicarbonate is very common in calcareous soils, where bicarbonate (HCO3- ions are present at high concentrations. In this study, morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of two Lactuca sativa varieties (Romaine and Vista to bicarbonate induced iron deficiency were investigated. The culture was conducted on nutrient solution containing 5 µM Fe and 10 mM NaHCO3, in a growth chamber with controlled conditions. After 14 days of bicarbonate treatment, the two varieties seedling showed a slight yellowing of young leaves associated with a significant decline of plant biomass, leaf number and area. Furthermore, the concentrations of the nutrient elements (potassium, magnesium, iron and calcium in leaves and roots of two lettuce varieties were modified. In roots of bicarbonate treated plants, the Fe-chelate reductase activity was increased as compared to control in both varieties. PEPC activity was enhanced only in Vista variety. Moreover, Fe deficiency induced a small change in the photosynthetic parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence, especially in Romaine variety. These changes are accompanied by decreases in ribulose 1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco activity. These findings indicated that Vista variety could survive at low iron supply.

  7. Efficient and stable transformation of Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco (lettuce) plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamoto, Hirosuke; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asao, Hiroshi; Okumura, Satoru; Takase, Hisabumi; Hattori, Masahira; Yokota, Akiho; Tomizawa, Ken-Ichi

    2006-04-01

    Transgenic plastids offer unique advantages in plant biotechnology, including high-level foreign protein expression. However, broad application of plastid genome engineering in biotechnology has been largely hampered by the lack of plastid transformation systems for major crops. Here we describe the development of a plastid transformation system for lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco. The transforming DNA carries a spectinomycin-resistance gene (aadA) under the control of lettuce chloroplast regulatory expression elements, flanked by two adjacent lettuce plastid genome sequences allowing its targeted insertion between the rbcL and accD genes. On average, we obtained 1 transplastomic lettuce plant per bombardment. We show that lettuce leaf chloroplasts can express transgene-encoded GFP to approximately 36% of the total soluble protein. All transplastomic T0 plants were fertile and the T1 progeny uniformly showed stability of the transgene in the chloroplast genome. This system will open up new possibilities for the efficient production of edible vaccines, pharmaceuticals, and antibodies in plants.

  8. 4',4‴,7,7″-tetra-O-methylcupressuflavone inhibits seed germination of Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, Jacob C; Du, Lin; Joyner, P Matthew

    2014-04-25

    Biflavonoids have been isolated from a wide variety of plant species, but little is known about their native biological functions. Here we report a possible ecological role for biflavonoids by describing the isolation of the biflavonoid 4',4‴,7,7″-tetra-O-methylcupressuflavone (1) from Araucaria columnaris and its inhibitory effect on seed germination. Compound 1 was isolated from needles of a single A. columnaris specimen and inhibited germination of Lactuca sativa seeds in a culture-dish assay; it was also detected in soil samples under the canopy where reduced germination was observed, but not in a location away from the canopy where germination was uninhibited.

  9. Ubicación y peso de Micelio de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum para producir infeccion en lechuga (Lactuca sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Tassara, Carlos Alberto; López, María Virginia; Wright, Eduardo Roberto

    1998-01-01

    p.85-88 El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la distancia crítica para la inoculación del micelio de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum al cuello de la planta de lechuga (Lactuca sativa) y el peso del mismo para producir infección y caída de las plántulas en cámara de cultivo. La mayor cantidad de plantas caídas se obtuvo con 0,7 y 2,8 grs de inoculo (masa miceliar) ubicado junto al cuello de la planta. Estos resultados pueden ser de utilidad para estudios acerca del control cultural, químico...

  10. Germination and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) at low atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanarkel, Robert; Drew, Malcolm C.

    2002-01-01

    The response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green) to low atmospheric pressure was examined during the initial 5 days of germination and emergence, and also during subsequent growth to vegetative maturity at 30 days. Growth took place inside a 66-l-volume low pressure chamber maintained at 70 kPa, and plant response was compared to that of plants in a second, matching chamber that was at ambient pressure (approximately 101 kPa) as a control. In other experiments, to determine short-term effects of low pressure transients, plants were grown at ambient pressure until maturity and then subjected to alternating periods of 24 h of low and ambient atmospheric pressures. In all treatments the partial pressure of O2 was maintained at 21 kPa (approximately the partial pressure in air at normal pressure), and the partial pressure of CO2 was in the range 66.5-73.5 Pa (about twice that in normal air) in both chambers, with the addition of CO2 during the light phase. With continuous exposure to low pressure, shoot and root growth was at least as rapid as at ambient pressure, with an overall trend towards slightly greater performance at the lower pressure. Dark respiration rates were greater at low pressure. Transient periods at low pressure decreased transpiration and increased dark respiration but only during the period of exposure to low pressure. We conclude that long-term or short-term exposure to subambient pressure (70 kPa) was without detectable detriment to vegetative growth and development.

  11. In vivo Tracking of Copper-64 Radiolabeled Nanoparticles in Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ryan Andrew; Rippner, Devin; Hausner, Sven H; Parikh, Sanjai J; McElrone, Andrew J; Sutcliffe, Julie L

    2017-09-27

    Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used in commercial products including automotive lubricants, clothing, deodorants, sunscreens, and cosmetics and can potentially accumulate in our food supply. Given their size it is difficult to detect and visualize the presence of NPs in environmental samples, including crop plants. New analytical tools are needed to fill the void for detection and visualization of NPs in complex biological and environmental matrices. We aimed to determine whether radiolabeled NPs could be used as a noninvasive, highly sensitive analytical tool to quantitatively track and visualize NP transport and accumulation in vivo in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and to investigate the effect of NP size on transport and distribution over time using a combination of autoradiography, positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transition electron microscopy (TEM). Azide functionalized NPs were radiolabeled via a "click" reaction with copper-64 (64Cu)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane triacetic acid (NOTA) azadibenzocyclooctyne (ADIBO) conjugate ([64Cu]-ADIBO-NOTA) via copper-free Huisgen-1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. This yielded radiolabeled [64Cu]-NPs of uniform shape and size with a high radiochemical purity (>99%), specific activity of 83 MBq/mg of NP, and high stability (i.e., no detectable dissolution) over 24 h across a pH range of 5-9. Both PET/CT and autoradiography showed that [64Cu]-NPs entered the lettuce seedling roots and were rapidly transported to the cotyledons with the majority of the accumulation inside the roots. Uptake and transport of intact NPs was size dependent, and in combination with the accumulation within the roots suggests a filtering effect of the plant cell walls at various points along the water transport pathway.

  12. Effect of acaricidal components isolated from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) on carmine spider mite (Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Zhang, Y; Ding, W; Luo, J; Li, S; Zhang, Q

    2017-08-14

    This study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal activity of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) extracts against carmine spider mites (Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisd.) and isolate the acaricidal components. Acaricidal activities of lettuce extracts isolated from different parts (the leaf, root and seed) using various solvents (petroleum ether, acetone and methanol) were evaluated with slide-dip bioassay and relatively high median lethal concentration (LC50) values were detected. Acetone extracts of lettuce leaves harvested in July and September were fractionated and isolated with silica gel and thin-layer chromatography. Consequently, acetone extracts of lettuce leaves harvested in July exhibited higher acaricidal activity than those harvested in September, with an LC50 value of 0.268 mg ml-1 at 72 h post-treatment. A total of 27 fractions were obtained from the acetone extract of lettuce leaves harvested in July, and mite mortalities with the 11th and 12th fractions were higher than those with the other 25 fractions (LC50: 0.751 and 1.258 mg ml-1 at 48 h post-treatment, respectively). Subsequently, active acaricidal components of the 11th fraction were identified by infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Five components were isolated from the 11th fraction, with components 11-a and 11-b showing relatively high acaricidal activities (LC50: 0.288 and 0.114 mg ml-1 at 48 h post-treatment, respectively). Component 11-a was identified as β-sitosterol. In conclusion, acetone extracts of lettuce leaves harvested in July might be used as a novel phytogenic acaricide to control mites.

  13. [Enteroparasite determination in Lactuca sativa from farms dedicated to its production in Pasto, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Giovanni Andrés; Benavides, Carmenza Janneth; Astaiza, Juan Manuel; Vallejo, Dario Antonio; Betancourt, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    Currently, vegetables like lettuce are widely recommended as part of the daily diet given their high nutritional value; however, while consumers feel attracted to the benefits provided by the vegetable, they may also be exposed to parasitic intestinal infections. To determine the presence or absence of enteroparasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) grown in the rural area in the municipality of Pasto, and to analyze associated factors based on the characterization of the lands. We conducted a descriptive double blind cross-sectional study. We took a total of 105 samples from 21 properties from June to December, 2013, and we processed them by sedimentation and flotation tests. Additionally, the owners were surveyed in order to obtain information about the possible variables influencing the occurrence of enteroparasites. We detected contamination in 100% of the lettuce samples and we found parasite eggs and larvae as follows: 95.25% with Entamoeba spp. cysts; 71.43% with Isospora spp. oocysts; 61.90% with Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (L3); 28.57% with Toxocara spp. eggs, and 4.76% with Eimeria spp. oocysts. Using the chi-square test we found association between Entamoeba spp. and ditches (p=0.008), dogs (p=0.008) and septic tanks (p=0.029); between Isospora spp. and compost (p=0.0001), dogs (p=0.0001) and slugs (p=0.002); between S. stercoralis and handling (p=0.003), and between Toxocara spp. and no use of biodigesters (p= 0.002). We found contamination with enteroparasites in lettuce samples from growing areas in the municipality of Pasto with animal and human sources as their main reservoirs, although others were present in the environment.

  14. Effects of Priming in Combination with Fungicides on Germination and Infestation of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jin; Tylkowska K

    2005-01-01

    Two seed lots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cv. Krolowa Majowych were primed in polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000 at -1.25MPa for 7 days in dark at 20℃. Two fungicide treatments combined with PEG were used to control fungi: 1) Funaben T (0.1%) and Apron 35 SD (0.02%) were added to -1.25 MPa PEG solution (PEG+F); 2) After seed priming and drying,Funaben T was mixed at 5 g kg-1 and Apron 35 SD at 1 g kg-1 of seeds (PEG then F dust). PEG, PEG+F and PEG then F dust treatments reduced significantly thermodormancy and increased the seed germination at 35℃ in both lots. PEG then F dust treatment had the best effect on reducing seed thermodormancy at 35℃, and increased seed germination to 64.5% in lot 1 and 72.0% in lot 2 compared to 0 in untreated. PEG and PEG then F dust treatments have accelerated germination speed at 20 and 15℃ in both lots. There was a significant reduction in seed infestation in which the seeds were treated with PEG+F and PEG then F dust compared to untreated seeds and PEG primed seeds. PEG priming enhanced seed infestation considerably by Alternaria alternata, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp. and Ulocladium spp. Mycological analysis showed higher frequency of Alternaria alternata and Ulocladium spp. in untreated seeds at 20℃. Priming in combination with fungicides significantly alleviated the infestation of fungi, especially Alternaria alternata infestation.

  15. Tipburn in salt-affected lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants results from local oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carassay, Luciano R; Bustos, Dolores A; Golberg, Alberto D; Taleisnik, Edith

    2012-02-15

    Tipburn in lettuce is a physiological disorder expressed as a necrosis in the margins of young developing leaves and is commonly observed under saline conditions. Tipburn is usually attributed to Ca(2+) deficiencies, and there has very limited research on other mechanisms that may contribute to tipburn development. This work examines whether symptoms are mediated by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Two butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) varieties, Sunstar (Su) and Pontina (Po), with contrasting tipburn susceptibility were grown in hydroponics with low Ca(2+) (0.5 mM), and with or without 50 mM NaCl. Tipburn symptoms were observed only in Su, and only in the saline treatment. Tipburn incidence in response to topical treatments with Ca(2+) scavengers, Ca(2+) transport inhibitors, and antioxidants was assessed. All treatments were applied before symptom expression, and evaluated later, when symptoms were expected to occur. Superoxide presence in tissues was determined with nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) and oxidative damage as malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were assayed. Under control and saline conditions, tipburn could be induced in both varieties by topical treatments with a Ca(2+) scavenger (EGTA) and Ca(2+) transport inhibitors (verapamil, LaCl(3)) and reduced by supplying Ca(2+) along with a ionophore (A 23187). Tipburn symptoms were associated with locally produced ROS. O(2)(·-) and oxidative damage significantly increased in leaf margins before symptom expression, while topical antioxidant applications (Tiron, DPI) reduced symptoms in treated leaves, but not in the rest of the plant. Antioxidant enzyme activity was higher in Po, and increased more in response to EGTA treatments, and may contribute to mitigating oxidative damage and tipburn expression in this variety.

  16. RESPON DUA VARIETAS TANAMAN SELADA (Lactuca sativa L. TERHADAP MACAM NUTRISI PADA SISTEM HIDROPONIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Wasonowati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L is a common vegetables crops grown in the highland and lowlands.  A sample hydroponic lettuce cultivation provides an sources an alternative for farmers who have a narrow area, so that can server as an adequate source of income.  Providing nutrients to the two varienties of lettuce are expected to yield maximum production.  This tudy aims to determine the effect of nutrients on two varieties of lettuce plants.            The study was conducted in the greenhouse Agroekoteknologi Departement Faculty of Agriculture, University Trunojoyo Madurese from January to March 2011.  The method used was a factorial experiment based on Completely Randomized Design (CRD with three replicates consisting of two treatment factors, the first factor are two different varieties of lecctuce and the second factor are two differwnt kinds of nutrients.            The results showed that the chief varieties of butter (V1 produces the number of leaves and dry biomass is higher than the varieties of cos (V2.  Nutrition in V1 generate the number of leaves, wet biomass, dry biomass, and root length was higher than without the provision of (N0. V1 responses to nutrient hidrogroup (N1 resulted in higher leaf number than nutrition greentonik (N2, but the provision of dry biomass yield N2 higher than N1. Nutrition on V2 generate the number of leaves, wet biomass and dry biomass was higher than N0. V2 response to the provision of N1 and N2 produce the number of leaves, wet biomass, dry biomass, and root length are not significantly different.Key word : lettuce, varieties, nutrition, simple hydroponics

  17. [Calcium distribution in the central cell of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) before and after pollination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi Lan; Liu, Ru Shi; Ye, Lv; Tian, Hui

    2008-02-01

    Potassium antimonite precipitation was used to locate calcium in the central cell of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) before and after pollination. At 3d before anthesis, two polar nuclei of central cell separately located at two polarity of the cell, and few calcium precipitates (ppts) appeared in the polar nuclei and cytoplasm, but some ppts in its small vacuoles. At 2d before anthesis, two polar nuclei moved toward the middle of the cell and fused to form a secondary nucleus, and the ppts evidently increased in the nucleus and cytoplasm. At 1d before anthesis, secondary nucleus again moved toward micropylar end and located near the egg to prepare for fertilization. Calcium precipitates were mainly accumulated in the secondary nucleus. After pollination and before fertilization, the distribution of calcium ppts was similar to that before pollination. At 4h after pollination, the central cell was fertilized, and calcium ppts evidently increased in the cell and numerous were accumulated in its nucleus and cytoplasm. At 6h after pollination, the primary endosperm nucleus completed its first division and formed two dissociate endosperm nuclei, and still many calcium precipitates appeared in the nucleus and cytoplasm. With endosperm development, calcium ppts decreased in the endosperm cell. At 1d after emasculated and without pollination, the secondary nucleus of the cell still bordered on the egg and some calcium ppts appeared in the secondary nucleus. The results indicated that the temporal and spatial changes of calcium in the central cell may play an important physiological role during the development of the central cell and endosperm.

  18. [The character of calcium distribution in developing anther of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi Lan; Liu, Ru Shi; Xie, Chao Tian; Yang, Yan Hong; Xu, Qing; Tian, Hui Qiao

    2005-10-01

    Potassium antimonite was used to locate calcium in the anther of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) during its development. At the early stage of anther development there were few calcium granules in microspore mother cells and the cells of anther wall. After meiosis of microspore mother cells, calcium granules first appeared in the tapetal cells in which some small secretive vacuoles containing many calcium granules were formed and secreted into locule. Then, the tapetal cells began to degenerate. At the late stage of microspore, tapetal cells completely degenerated and its protoplast masses moved into anther locule with many calcium granules. Few calcium granules were precipitated in the microspores just being released from tetrad, but some on the surface of exine. Then calcium granules appeared in the nucleus and cytoplasm of early microspores, as wall as in the exine. When microspores formed some small vacuoles containing some calcium granules, and then the small vacuoles fused to form a large vacuole, the calcium granules in the nucleus and cytoplasm evidently decreased, microspore developed to the late stage. The result suggested that calcium is related to the formation of large vacuole in microspores. The wall of microspore also is a main location of calcium granules during its developing. At early microspore some calcium granules began to accumulate in exine, which suggested calcium related with exine formation. At late stage of microspore, most of calcium granules were mainly deposited on the surface of exine. After the first mitosis of microspores, the large vacuole of bicellular pollen disappeared and calcium granules in the large vacuole went back to cytoplasm again. When bicellular pollen synthesized starches some calcium granules appeared on the surface of starches, which suggested calcium may regulate starch synthesis. With amount of starches increasing, calcium granules disappeared from pollen cytoplasm and only some of them located on the surface of pollen.

  19. [Calcium distribution in the egg cell, zygote and proembryo of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi Lan; Liu, Ru Shi; Wei, Dong Mei; Tian, Hui Qiao

    2006-02-01

    Potassium antimonite precipitation was used to located calcium in the egg cells (before and after anthesis), zygotes and proembryos of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). A few calcium precipitates (ppts) were located in the small vacuoles of cytoplasm of egg cell at 3 d before anthesis, when egg cells just formed. Then the small vacuoles fused to form some bigger vacuoles in egg cell at 2d before anthesis. Calcium ppts increased evidently in the cytoplasm and nucleus of egg cells at this time. At 1d before anthesis, a biggest vacuole located at the micropyle end of the cell and its nucleus was pushed toward the chalazal end of the cell, which made an evident cellular polarity. The number of calcium ppts in the egg cell markedly decreased, suggesting that change of calcium distribution may be related to the development of egg cell. After anthesis and before fertilization, calcium ppts were still few in the egg cells, and most of them were accumulated in the nucleus, especially in the vacuoles of nucleolus. At 4h after anthesis, egg cell was fertilized and the wall at the chalazal end of egg cell was formed completely. Calcium ppts evidently increased again in egg cell, and some big ppts appeared in the karyoplasm of nucleus and abundant small ppts in the large vacuole. At 9h after anthesis, zygote completed its first division. Calcium ppts in the nucleus and cytoplasm of two-celled proembryo began to decrease, and only some ones accumulated in the vacuoles of nucleolus. At 18h after anthesis, zygote divided several times and became a multi-celled proembryo. Calcium ppts in the cells of proembryo ulteriorly diminished but there were many ppts on the surface of proembryo. The result indicates that calcium in egg cell, zygote and the cells of proembryo orderly changes its temporal and spatial position, which suggests that calcium may play a role during the development of egg cell and zygote.

  20. Germination and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) at low atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanarkel, Robert; Drew, Malcolm C.

    2002-01-01

    The response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green) to low atmospheric pressure was examined during the initial 5 days of germination and emergence, and also during subsequent growth to vegetative maturity at 30 days. Growth took place inside a 66-l-volume low pressure chamber maintained at 70 kPa, and plant response was compared to that of plants in a second, matching chamber that was at ambient pressure (approximately 101 kPa) as a control. In other experiments, to determine short-term effects of low pressure transients, plants were grown at ambient pressure until maturity and then subjected to alternating periods of 24 h of low and ambient atmospheric pressures. In all treatments the partial pressure of O2 was maintained at 21 kPa (approximately the partial pressure in air at normal pressure), and the partial pressure of CO2 was in the range 66.5-73.5 Pa (about twice that in normal air) in both chambers, with the addition of CO2 during the light phase. With continuous exposure to low pressure, shoot and root growth was at least as rapid as at ambient pressure, with an overall trend towards slightly greater performance at the lower pressure. Dark respiration rates were greater at low pressure. Transient periods at low pressure decreased transpiration and increased dark respiration but only during the period of exposure to low pressure. We conclude that long-term or short-term exposure to subambient pressure (70 kPa) was without detectable detriment to vegetative growth and development.

  1. Avaliação do efeito da peletização sobre o vigor de sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L. Evaluation of the pelletization effect on lettuce seed vigor (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Coraspe

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Verônica, do tipo crespo, foram submetidas a testes de umidade, germinação, velocidade de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, teste de frio, condutividade elétrica, e emergência. Os testes de laboratório não evidenciaram diferenças significativas da qualidade fisiológica entre sementes peletizadas e sem paletes, exceto o teste de envelhecimento acelerado. As correlações entre os testes de laboratório e a emergência em campo não foram significativas. A emergência em campo foi significativamente maior nas sementes peletizadas.Seeds of "Veronica", a crisphead lettuce cultivar (Lactuca sativa L., were submitted to laboratory tests of humidity, germination, velocity of germination, accelerated aging, cold, electrical conductivity and field emergence. Tests did not show any significant difference of the physiological quality between bare and pelleted seeds, except the accelerated aging. Correlations among laboratory tests and the field emergence were not significant. The field emergence was significantly higher from pelleted seeds than seeds without pellets.

  2. Toxicity assessment of a complex industrial wastewater using aquatic and terrestrial bioassays Daphnia pulex and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Meza, Juan Carlos; Pacheco-Salazar, Víctor Francisco; Pavón-Silva, Thelma Beatriz; Guiérrez-García, Víctor Guadalupe; Avila-González, Clemente De Jesús; Guerrero-García, Patricia

    2007-08-01

    Aquatic and terrestrial bioassays were used to assess toxicity at several stages in an industrial wastewater treatment plant that processes 400 L/s from a complex influent formed by wastewater from 135 industries. Daphnia pulex and Lactuca sativa were used to assess and compare toxicity between the influent wastewater and effluent wastewater from an activated sludge process, and compare their relationship with physicochemical parameters of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD); Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD); Total Suspended Solids (TSS); total Nitrogen (N (N-total)), and ammonia Nitrogen (N (N - NH3)). Samples from the primary clarifiers (PC), mix liquor stage (ML) and secondary clarifiers (SC) were processed using physicochemical and bioassay test. Toxicity results with Daphnia pulex showed decreased mean values of acute Toxic Units (a.T.U.) between PC (2.1 a.T.U.) and SC (1,25 a.T.U.). Lactuca sativa showed high values of toxicity between PC and SC (3.37 and 3.32 a.T.U. respectively). Some samples exhibited higher toxicity values at the effluent stage (SC) than the influent stage (PC). The highest correlations of physicochemical properties with toxicity were obtained with COD and nitrogen compounds in effluent samples (SC), but not with influent samples (PC).

  3. LSGermOPA, a custom OPA of 384 EST-derived SNPs for high-throughput lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) germplasm fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed the genetic diversity and population structure among 148 cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) accessions using the high-throughput GoldenGate assay and 384 EST (Expressed Sequence Tag)-derived SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers. A custom OPA (Oligo Pool All), LSGermOPA was fo...

  4. Complete genome sequence of the biofilm-forming Curtobacterium sp. strain BH-2-1-1, isolated from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) originating from a conventional field in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Merete Wiken; Brurberg, May Bente; Lysøe, Erik

    2016-12-01

    Here, we present the 3,795,952 bp complete genome sequence of the biofilm-forming Curtobacterium sp. strain BH-2-1-1, isolated from conventionally grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) from a field in Vestfold, Norway. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into NCBI GenBank under the accession CP017580.

  5. Differential Scanning Calorimetry as a Tool for Nondestructive Measurements of Seed Deterioration in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, CV “Black Seeded Simpson”)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was undertaken to determine if changes in lipid phase behavior could be used to detect lost viability in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds. We used seeds from the cultivar ‘Black Seeded Simpson’ that were purchased every 2-3 years since 1989 and stored in resealable plastic bags at constan...

  6. Protective effects of Lactuca sativa ethanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative damage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawy, Hefnawy Taha M.; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) leaves against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in reproductive system of rats. Methods Lettuce leaves were dried and extracted with ethanol (plant: solvent, 1:10, w/v). The extract was filtered and evaporated to yield dried lettuce extract. Animals were divided into seven groups and treated with CCl4 and different concentrations of lettuce extract. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected and centrifuged for serum separation. Body weights, testis size, histopathology of testis and liver, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite level, and serum hormones were determined. Results Oxidative stress induced by CCl4 (2 mL/kg body weight) in rat decreases the increase in body weight and relative testis weight. It also markedly increases the level of TBARS and nitrites along with corresponding decrease in reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in testis (i.e., CAT, POD, SOD and GSH-Px). Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone was decreased while estradiol and prolactin were increased during CCl4 treatment. Histopathology of CCl4-treated rats indicated the partial degeneration of germ and leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis. Supplementation of lettuce extract (100, 150, 200 mg/kg body weight orally) once a week for 10 weeks results in decrease of TBARS and nitrite, while increase in antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px and GSH contents. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, prolactin, histology, body weight and relative testis weight was also concomitantly restored to near normal level by

  7. [Studies on the calcium distribution in developing synergids of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi Lan; Liu, Ru Shi; Tian, Hui Qiao

    2007-08-01

    Potassium antimonite was used to locate calcium in the synergids of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) during their development. The two synergids on 3d before anthesis formed evident polarity with most cytoplasm located in the micropylar end and nucleus in the middle and a big vacuole in the chalazal end. At this time, calcium precipitates were a few in both cells. Calcium precipitates in the two synergids began to increase on 2d before anthesis. Synergid wall in the micropylar end thickened on 1d before anthesis, in which many calcium precipitates located. Near anthesis, synergids formed filiform apparatus in which abundant calcium precipitates accumulated to prepare for attracting pollen tubes entering. At anthesis, the distribution of calcium precipitates between two synergids was the same. At 1h after pollination, calcium precipitates evidently increased in one synergid that seemed to degenerate, the other one was persistent and the distribution of calcium granules did not change. Two synergids kept intact at 1d after emasculated, and the distribution of calcium precipitates did not display difference, suggesting that the degeneration of one synergid was caused by approaching pollen tubes which might give some signal to induce calcium increase of the synergid. Before fusion of sperm cell with egg cell, the cytoplasm of degenerated synergid embraced the egg and formed a thin layer between the egg and the central cell. Calcium precipitates in the different parts of degenerated synergid were closely connected with the fertilization: calcium precipitates accumulated in the near chalazal end of degenerated synergid at 1h after pollination. At 2.5h after pollination, the calcium precipitates increased at the chalazal end, especially abundant in the thin layer between the egg and the central cell. However, at 4h after pollination, the fertilization had finished at this time, the distribution of calcium precipitates in degenerated synergid changed again: the precipitates

  8. Allelopathic evaluation of ethanol extracts of Copaifera sabulicola on the initial development of Lactuca sativa, Lycopersicum esculentum, and Zea mays

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    Manoel Viana Linhares Neto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the allelopathic potential of ethanol extracts from stem and leaves of Copaifera sabulicola on seed germination and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicum esculentum, as well as to evaluate the allelopathic effect of these extracts on seedling germination and growth of Zea mays, through bioassays under laboratory conditions. The extracts were tested at the concentrations 0, 250, 500, and 1,000 mg.L-1. We evaluated the germination percentage, germination average speed, germination speed index, and seedling average length. All parameters underwent variance analysis, and the mean values were compared by means of Scott-nott test p 0.05. We found out that, in L. sativa, the extract from stem promoted signicant stimuli on germination percentage and root growth, while the extract from leaves only stimulated root growth. In L. esculentum, the extract from stem promoted signicant stimulus on hypocotyl and root growth, in turn, the extract from leaves stimulated only root growth. In Z. mays, both extracts signicantly inhibited germination. Therefore, we found out the allelopathic potential of ethanol extracts of C. sabulicola on L. sativa and L. esculentum, as well as inhibitory allelopathic effect on Z. mays.

  9. Allelopathic evaluation of ethanol extracts of Copaifera sabulicola on the initial development of Lactuca sativa, Lycopersicum esculentum, and Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Viana Linhares Neto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n3p23 This paper aimed to evaluate the allelopathic potential of ethanol extracts from stem and leaves of Copaifera sabulicola on seed germination and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicum esculentum, as well as to evaluate the allelopathic effect of these extracts on seedling germination and growth of Zea mays, through bioassays under laboratory conditions. The extracts were tested at the concentrations 0, 250, 500, and 1,000 mg.L-1. We evaluated the germination percentage, germination average speed, germination speed index, and seedling average length. All parameters underwent variance analysis, and the mean values were compared by means of Scott-Knott test (p ≤ 0.05. We found out that, in L. sativa, the extract from stem promoted significant stimuli on germination percentage and root growth, while the extract from leaves only stimulated root growth. In L. esculentum, the extract from stem promoted significant stimulus on hypocotyl and root growth, in turn, the extract from leaves stimulated only root growth. In Z. mays, both extracts significantly inhibited germination. Therefore, we found out the allelopathic potential of ethanol extracts of C. sabulicola on L. sativa and L. esculentum, as well as inhibitory allelopathic effect on Z. mays.

  10. Qualidade física, microbiológica e parasitológica de alfaces (Lactuca sativa de diferentes sistemas de cultivo Physical, microbiological and parasitological quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa from different growing processes

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    Ligia Regina R. de Santana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A alface (Lactuca sativa é a hortaliça folhosa mais comercializada no Brasil. Seu baixo valor calórico a qualifica para diversas dietas, o que favorece o seu consumo sob a forma crua, possibilitando a ocorrência de enfermidades intestinais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma avaliação física, microbiológica e parasitológica de amostras de alfaces, variedade crespa, provenientes dos sistemas de cultivo orgânico, tradicional e hidropônico, comercializadas nos principais supermercados da cidade de Salvador (BA, no período de setembro de 2003 a junho de 2004. As amostras do cultivo hidropônico apresentaram o menor peso total e da parte bio-comestível, diferindo significativamente (pThe lettuce (Lactuca sativa has economic importance to the people in Brazil. The aim of this study was to carry out a physical, microbiological and parasitological evaluations in the lettuce samples - crisp variety, according to organic, traditional and hydroponics growing processes, commercialized at the supermarkets of the City of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, collected from September/2003 until June/2004. The hydroponics lettuce samples showed the lowest total and edible part weight; they were inserted into Extra rate quality standard, according to the current legislation, whereas the organic and traditional lettuce samples were inserted into First and Second rate quality standard, respectively. The lettuce samples, independently of the growing process, showed low hygienic conditions, indicated by the presence of parasites of animal or human origin, and high concentration of fecal coliforms; the organic lettuce samples showed the highest frequencies of enteroparasities and fecal coliforms concentration, followed by the traditional and hydroponics lettuce samples. Considering the obtained results, the importance of this kind of food in the transmission of enteroparasities is stressed, as well as the need of actions which improve the sanitary conditions

  11. Heavy metals deposited in the culture of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by the influence of vehicular traffic in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Fernanda C S S; Albuuerque, Adriana M A; Almeida, Amanda C; Silveira, Patrícia B; Filho, Crescêncio A; Hazin, Clovis A; Honorato, Eliane V

    2017-01-15

    Currently one of the main sources of atmospheric pollution identified in urban centers is derived from both industrial and motor vehicle emissions. These pollutants can be adsorbed to particulate matter which is present in the air or deposited in the soil and plants, eventually reaching the human food chain. In this context, the present study aimed to determine the concentration of metals such as Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni and Zn in two subspecies of Lactuca sativa L. and in the soil from were lettuce samples were collected. The results for the soil samples analyzed show a possible contamination by Pb with concentration values as high as 140mg.kg(-1), which are above the Brazilian standards defined by Resolution CONAMA 420/2009 (Brazilian Environmental Council). However, the values found in the lettuce itself reveal that it is still suitable for consumption.

  12. Allelopathic Activity of Extracts from Different Brazilian Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Cultivars on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Weed Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casimiro, G S; Mansur, E; Pacheco, G; Garcia, R; Leal, I C R; Simas, N K

    2017-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the fourth most consumed oleaginous plant in the world, producing seeds with high contents of lipids, proteins, vitamins, and carbohydrates. Biological activities of different extracts of this species have already been evaluated by many researchers, including antioxidant, antitumoral, and antibacterial. In this work, the allelopathic activity of extracts from different Brazilian peanut cultivars against lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and two weed plants (Commelina benghalensis and Ipomoea nil) was studied. Aerial parts, roots, seeds, and seed coats were used for the preparation of crude extracts. Seed extract partitioning was performed with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous residue. Germination and growth of hypocotyls and rootlets were evaluated after one and five days of incubation with plant extracts, respectively. Crude seed extract and its dichloromethanic partition displayed highest allelopathic activity. These results contribute for the study of new potential natural herbicides.

  13. Expression of the mouse metallothionein mutant ββ-cDNA in the lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mouse metallothionein (MT) domain mutant ββ-cDNA gene has been inserted into the plant expression vector pGPTVd35S which has herbicide (PPT)-resistance gene bar as a selective marker. The chimeric gene was introduced into the lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Salinas 88) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR and Southern blot analysis of some putative transformants indicated that the introduced ββ-cDNA was integrated into lettuce genome and inheritted by sexual reproduction. The expression of ββ gene in lettuce plants was demonstrated by Northern and Western blot analysis. Meanwhile, the zinc content of the transformed lettuce plants is up to 400 μg/g dry weight, remarkably higher than the control plants.

  14. Agronomical response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., variety “Black Seed Simpson”, to Enerplant biostimulant aplication

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    Michel Baldoquin Hernandez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was done at the school vegetable garden of Los Indios in the municipality of Rio Cauto, Granma, from March through April, 2014. The objective was to evaluate the agronomical response of the cultivation of the lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L variety “Black Seeded Simpson to the foliar application of three doses of Enerplant. The biostimulant was applied in the morning 7 days after transplantation. The doses used were 0.5 mL.ha-1, 1 mL.ha-1 and 1.5 mL.ha-1. The yield components were evaluated. The obtained data were statistically processed using the software package STASTISTICA 6.0 for Windows. Results showed that the three doses had a positive effect on the cultivation yield. Best results were obtained with the application of the 1.5 mL.ha-1 dose. The majority of the evaluated indicators significantly increased.

  15. Fitotoxicidade e citogenotoxicidade da água e sedimento de córrego urbano em bioensaio com Lactuca sativa

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    Luiz C. de A. Rodrigues

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a influência espacial e temporal da fitotoxicidade e da citogenotoxicidade da água e do sedimento de córrego urbano quanto às características germinativas e de crescimento inicial de Lactuca sativa. Amostras de água e de sedimento foram coletadas em 5 pontos do Córrego do Pântano (Alfenas, Minas Gerais, no período de outubro de 2010 a julho de 2011 e as concentrações dos metais Cd, Pb e Zn foram quantificadas. Os ensaios de fitotoxicidade e de citogenotoxicidade foram realizados com as amostras de água e extratos aquosos dos sedimentos. Os parâmetros avaliados foram taxa de germinação, comprimento de raízes, biomassa fresca e seca, índice mitótico e a frequência de anormalidades cromossômicas. Constataram-se maiores concentrações de Cd e Pb nas amostras de água coletadas nos meses com a ocorrência de precipitações pluviométricas. Água e sedimento apresentaram efeito fitotóxico sobre germinação, biomassa fresca e seca de Lactuca sativa. O comprimento de raízes foi estimulado e apenas as amostras de água reduziram o índice mitótico. Evidenciou-se, também, variação temporal significativa relacionada com o regime pluviométrico apenas para o teste de fitotoxicidade.

  16. Analysis of bacteria, parasites, and heavy metals in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.) irrigated with treated effluent from a biological wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Meire; Tonani, Karina A A; Julião, Fabiana C; Trevilato, Tânia M B; Takayanagui, Angela M M; Sanches, Sérgio M; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the viability of using treated residuary water from the Biological Wastewater Treatment Plant of Ribeirão Preto to grow vegetables, through the characterization and quantification of parasites, coliforms, and heavy metals. Three equal cultivation areas were prepared. The first was irrigated with treated/chlorinated (0.2 mg L(-1)) wastewater, the second one with treated wastewater without chlorination, and the third site with potable water, which was the control group. The presence of Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, nematode larvae, and Entamoeba coli was verified in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) samples. Although nematode larvae were observed in rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.), no significant differences were found between the number of parasites and type of irrigation water used. No significant differences were found between the number of fecal coliforms in vegetables and the different types of irrigation. However, the vegetables irrigated with treated effluent without chlorination showed higher levels of fecal coliforms. The risk of pathogens is reduced with bleach addition to the treated effluent at 0.2 mg/L. Concentration of heavy metals in vegetables does not mean significant risks to human health, according with the parameters recommended by the World Health Organization.

  17. Plant growth-promoting bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus P23 increases the chlorophyll content of the monocot Lemna minor (duckweed) and the dicot Lactuca sativa (lettuce).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Wakako; Sugawara, Masayuki; Miwa, Kyoko; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2014-07-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus P23 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium that was isolated from the surface of duckweed (Lemna aoukikusa). The bacterium was observed to colonize on the plant surfaces and increase the chlorophyll content of not only the monocotyledon Lemna minor but also the dicotyledon Lactuca sativa in a hydroponic culture. This effect on the Lactuca sativa was significant in nutrient-poor (×1/100 dilution of H2 medium) and not nutrient-rich (×1 or ×1/10 dilutions of H2 medium) conditions. Strain P23 has the potential to play a part in the future development of fertilizers and energy-saving hydroponic agricultural technologies. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Complete genome sequence of the biofilm-forming Microbacterium sp. strain BH-3-3-3, isolated from conventional field-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Merete Wiken; Brurberg, May Bente; Lysøe, Erik

    2017-03-01

    The genus Microbacterium contains bacteria that are ubiquitously distributed in various environments and includes plant-associated bacteria that are able to colonize tissue of agricultural crop plants. Here, we report the 3,508,491 bp complete genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. strain BH-3-3-3, isolated from conventionally grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) from a field in Vestfold, Norway. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into NCBI GenBank under the accession CP017674.

  19. Preliminary studies on growth and fresh weight of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as affected by clay pot irrigation and spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakari, Abdul-Halim; Nyarko, George; Maalinyuur, Sheila

    2011-07-15

    An experiment (Completely Randomized Design) was set up to determine the effects of Clay Pot Sub-surface Irrigation (CPSI) and spacing on the growth and fresh weight of lettuce (Lactuca sativa). The treatments were: CPSI with spacing; 15 x 15 cm, 20 x 20 cm and 30 x 30 cm. Control treatments were Watering Can Irrigation (WCI) with the same spacing as above. Treatments were replicated three times given a total of 18 experimental units. Eighteen large enamel basins of 50/20 cm (diameter/height) were filled with good topsoil and a clay pot buried neck deep in each of the basins. Seedlings were planted in all the eighteen basins. Five Hundred mL of wastewater was applied daily to plants in each container having either clay pot or watering can treatment. Plant height increased from 2.50 to 4.25 cm within 6 Weeks after Transplanting (WAT) under CPSI and only increased from 2.14 to 2.99 cm under WCI. The CPSI also supported better leave growth and fresh weight. The fresh weight of lettuce increased almost two fold under 15 x 15 cm spacing compared to 20 x 20 and 30 x 30 cm.

  20. Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of polycontaminated industrial effluents using the lettuce plant (Lactuca sativa) as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Jérémie; Sancey, Bertrand; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Degiorgi, François; Trunfio, Giuseppe; Crini, Grégorio

    2011-10-01

    Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is generally decontaminated by physicochemical treatment consisting in insolublizing the contaminants and separating the two phases, water and sludge, by a physical process (filtration, settling or flotation). However, chemical precipitation does not usually remove the whole pollution load and the effluent discharged into the environment can be toxic even if it comes up to regulatory standards. To assess the impact of industrial effluent from 4 different surface treatment companies, we performed standardized bioassays using seeds of the lettuce Lactuca sativa. We measured the rate of germination, and the length and mass of the lettuce plantlet. The results were used to compare the overall toxicity of the different effluents: effluents containing copper and nickel had a much higher impact than those containing zinc or aluminum. In addition, germination tests conducted using synthetic solutions confirmed that mixtures of metals have higher toxicity than the sum of their separate constituents. These biological tests are cheap, easy to implement, reproducible and highlight the effects caused by effluent treated with the methods commonly applied in industry today. They could be routinely used to check the impact of industrial discharges, even when they meet regulatory requirements for the individual metals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Foliar exposure of the crop Lactuca sativa to silver nanoparticles: evidence for internalization and changes in Ag speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Camille; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Sobanska, Sophie; Cécillon, Lauric; Bureau, Sarah; Barthès, Véronique; Ouerdane, Laurent; Carrière, Marie; Sarret, Géraldine

    2014-01-15

    The impact of engineered nanomaterials on plants, which act as a major point of entry of contaminants into trophic chains, is little documented. The foliar pathway is even less known than the soil-root pathway. However, significant inputs of nanoparticles (NPs) on plant foliage may be expected due to deposition of atmospheric particles or application of NP-containing pesticides. The uptake of Ag-NPs in the crop species Lactuca sativa after foliar exposure and their possible biotransformation and phytotoxic effects were studied. In addition to chemical analyses and ecotoxicological tests, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and electron microscopy were used to localize and determine the speciation of Ag at sub-micrometer resolution. Although no sign of phytotoxicity was observed, Ag was effectively trapped on lettuce leaves and a thorough washing did not decrease Ag content significantly. We provide first evidence for the entrapment of Ag-NPs by the cuticle and penetration in the leaf tissue through stomata, for the diffusion of Ag in leaf tissues, and oxidation of Ag-NPs and complexation of Ag(+) by thiol-containing molecules. Such type of information is crucial for better assessing the risk associated to Ag-NP containing products.

  2. Evaluation of the toxic potential of coffee wastewater on seeds, roots and meristematic cells of Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Luara Louzada; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; de Oliveira David, José Augusto

    2016-11-01

    Coffee wastewater (CWW) is an effluent produced through wet processing of coffee containing high concentration of organic matter, nutrients, salts and also agrochemicals. It is released directly into the argillaceous soil or into decantation tanks for later disposal into soils, by fertigation, subsurface infiltration or superficial draining. However, this practice is not followed by the monitoring the toxicity potential of this effluent. In this sense, the present work aimed to evaluate the phytotoxic, cytogenotoxic and mutagenic potential of CWW on seed germination, root elongation and cell cycle alterations in the plant model Lactuca sativa L. The effluent (CWW) collected was diluted in distilled water into six concentrations solutions (1.25%, 1.66%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 10%, 20%). A solution of raw CWW (100%) was also applied. Distilled water was used as negative control), and the DNA alkylating agent, metilmetano sulfonate (4×10(-4)M) as positive control. Physico-chemical parameters of the CWW was accessed and it was found that the effluent contained total phenols and inorganic matter in amounts within the limits established by the National Environment Council (CONAMA). Nevertheless, the biologicals assays performed demonstrated the phytotoxicity and cytogenotoxicty of CWW. Seed germination was totally inhibited after exposure of raw CWW. In addition, a decrease in seed germination speed as well as in root growth dose-dependently manner was noticed. Moreover, nuclear and chromosomal alterations were observed in the cell cycle, mostly arising from aneugenic action.

  3. Construction of transplastomic lettuce (Lactuca sativa) dominantly producing astaxanthin fatty acid esters and detailed chemical analysis of generated carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Hisashi; Maoka, Takashi; Osawa, Ayako; Hattan, Jun-Ichiro; Kanamoto, Hirosuke; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Otomatsu, Toshihiko; Misawa, Norihiko

    2014-04-01

    The plastid genome of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cv. Berkeley was site-specifically modified with the addition of three transgenes, which encoded β,β-carotenoid 3,3'-hydroxylase (CrtZ) and β,β-carotenoid 4,4'-ketolase (4,4'-oxygenase; CrtW) from a marine bacterium Brevundimonas sp. strain SD212, and isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase from a marine bacterium Paracoccus sp. strain N81106. Constructed transplastomic lettuce plants were able to grow on soil at a growth rate similar to that of non-transformed lettuce cv. Berkeley and generate flowers and seeds. The germination ratio of the lettuce transformants (T0) (98.8%) was higher than that of non-transformed lettuce (93.1 %). The transplastomic lettuce (T1) leaves produced the astaxanthin fatty acid (myristate or palmitate) diester (49.2% of total carotenoids), astaxanthin monoester (18.2%), and the free forms of astaxanthin (10.0%) and the other ketocarotenoids (17.5%), which indicated that artificial ketocarotenoids corresponded to 94.9% of total carotenoids (230 μg/g fresh weight). Native carotenoids were there lactucaxanthin (3.8%) and lutein (1.3 %) only. This is the first report to structurally identify the astaxanthin esters biosynthesized in transgenic or transplastomic plants producing astaxanthin. The singlet oxygen-quenching activity of the total carotenoids extracted from the transplastomic leaves was similar to that of astaxanthin (mostly esterified) from the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis.

  4. Effect of mycorrhiza on growth criteria and phosphorus nutrition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under different phosphorus application rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fatih Ergin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of mycorrhiza on growth criteria and phosphorus nutrition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under different phosphorus fertilization rates were investigated. Phosphorus were added into growing media as 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg P2O5/kg with and without mycorrhiza applications. Phosphorus applications significantly increased yield criteria of lettuce according to the control treatment statistically. Mycorrhiza application also significantly increased plant diameter, plant dry weight and phosphor uptake by plant. The highest phosphorus uptakes by plants were determined in 200 mg P2O5/kg treatments as 88.8 mg P/pot with mycorrhiza and 83.1 mg P/pot without mycorrhiza application. In the control at 0 doses of phosphorus with mycorrhiza treatment, phosphorus uptake (69.9 mg P/pot, edible weight (84.36 g, dry weight (8.64 g and leaf number (28 of lettuce were higher than that (47.7 mg P/pot, 59.33 g, 6.75 g and 20, respectively in the control without mycorrhiza application. It was determined that mycorrhiza had positive effect on growth criteria and phosphorus nutrition by lettuce plant, and this effect decreased at higher phosphorus application rates.

  5. Physiological Mechanisms Only Tell Half Story: Multiple Biological Processes are involved in Regulating Freezing Tolerance of Imbibed Lactuca sativa Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Ganesh K; Han, Yingying; Li, Weijie; Song, Danping; Song, Xiaoyan; Shen, Mengqi; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Chenxue; Liu, Baolin

    2017-03-13

    The physiological mechanisms by which imbibed seeds survive freezing temperatures in their natural environment have been categorized as freezing avoidance by supercooling and freezing tolerance by extracellular freeze-desiccation, but the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring seed freezing tolerance is unexplored. In this study, using imbibed Lactuca sativa seeds we show that fast cooled seeds (60 °C h(-1)) suffered significantly higher membrane damage at temperature between -20 °C and -10 °C than slow cooled (3 °Ch(-1)) seeds (P  0.05). However, both SOD activity and accumulation of free proline were induced significantly after slow cooling to -20 °C compared with fast cooling. RNA-seq demonstrated that multiple pathways were differentially regulated between slow and fast cooling. Real-time verification of some differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that fast cooling caused mRNA level changes of plant hormone and ubiquitionation pathways at higher sub-zero temperature, whilst slow cooling caused mRNA level change of those pathways at lower sub-zero ttemperatures. Thus, we conclude that imbibed seed tolerate low temperature not only by physiological mechanisms but also by biochemical and molecular changes.

  6. Effect of salicylhydroxamic acid on endosperm strength and embryo growth of Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, C. A.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) stimulated germination of photosensitive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green) seeds in darkness. To determine whether SHAM acts on the embryo or the endosperm, we investigated separately effects of SHAM on growth potential of isolated embryos as well as on endosperm strength. Embryo growth potential was quantified by incubating decoated embryos in various concentrations of osmoticum and measuring subsequent radicle elongation. Growth potential of embryos isolated from seeds pretreated with 4 millimolar SHAM was equal to that of untreated controls. Rupture strength of endosperm tissue excised from seeds pretreated with SHAM was 33% less than that of controls in the micropylar region. To determine if the embryo must be in contact with the endosperm of SHAM to weaken the endosperm, some endosperms were incubated with SHAM only after dissection from seeds. Rupture strength of SHAM-treated, isolated endosperms in the micropylar region was 25% less than that of untreated controls. There was no difference in rupture strength in the cotyledonary region of endosperm isolated from seeds treated with SHAM in buffer or buffer alone. SHAM therefore stimulates germination not by enhancing embryo growth potential, but by weakening the micropylar region of the endosperm enclosing the embryo.

  7. Bioavailability of silver and silver sulfide nanoparticles to lettuce (Lactuca sativa): Effect of agricultural amendments on plant uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolette, Casey L; McLaughlin, Michael J; Kirby, Jason K; Navarro, Divina A

    2015-12-30

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can enter terrestrial systems as sulfidised AgNPs (Ag2S-NPs) through the application of biosolids to soil. However, the bioavailability of Ag2S-NPs in soils is unknown. The two aims of this study were to investigate (1) the bioavailability of Ag to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) using a soil amended with biosolids containing Ag2S-NPs and (2) the effect of commonly used agricultural fertilisers/amendments on the bioavailability of Ag, AgNPs and Ag2S-NPs to lettuce. The study used realistic AgNP exposure pathways and exposure concentrations. The plant uptake of Ag from biosolids-amended soil containing Ag2S-NPs was very low for all Ag treatments (0.02%). Ammonium thiosulfate and potassium chloride fertilisation significantly increased the Ag concentrations of plant roots and shoots. The extent of the effect varied depending on the type of Ag. Ag2S-NPs, the realistic form of AgNPs in soil, had the lowest bioavailability. The potential risk of AgNPs in soils is low; even in the plants that had the highest Ag concentrations (Ag(+)+thiosulfate), only 0.06% of added Ag was found in edible plant parts (shoots). Results from the study suggest that agricultural practises must be considered when carrying out risk assessments of AgNPs in terrestrial systems; such practises can affect AgNP bioavailability.

  8. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of polyphenolic extracts from Lactuca sativa (var. Maravilla de Verano) under different farming methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Simona; Pepe, Giacomo; Sommella, Eduardo; Manfra, Michele; Scopa, Antonio; Sofo, Adriano; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Russo, Mariateresa; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Autore, Giuseppina; Campiglia, Pietro; Marzocco, Stefania

    2016-09-01

    Besides their nutritional value, vegetables are a source of health-promoting compounds, such as polyphenols, and their content can be influenced by the particular farming method. In this study polyphenolic extracts from Lactuca sativa (var. Maravilla de verano) plants cultivated with different farming methods were chemically characterised and tested in vitro and ex vivo inflammation models. The tested extacts (250-2.5 µg mL(-1) ) were able to reduce both the inflammatory and oxidative stress in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 murine monocyte macrophage cells, by lowering the release of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and promoting nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2; (Nrf2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In this regard, quantitative profiles revealed different amounts of polyphenols, in particular quercetin levels were higher in plants under mineral fertilised treatment. Those extract showed an enhanced anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Our data showed the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of Maravilla de Verano polyphenolic extracts. The effect of farming methods on polyphenolic levels was highlighted. The higher reduction of inflammatory mediators release in extracts from plants cultivated under mineral fertilisation treatment was correlated to the higher amount of quercetin. These results can be useful for both nutraceutical or agronomic purposes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effect of salicylhydroxamic acid on endosperm strength and embryo growth of Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, C. A.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) stimulated germination of photosensitive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green) seeds in darkness. To determine whether SHAM acts on the embryo or the endosperm, we investigated separately effects of SHAM on growth potential of isolated embryos as well as on endosperm strength. Embryo growth potential was quantified by incubating decoated embryos in various concentrations of osmoticum and measuring subsequent radicle elongation. Growth potential of embryos isolated from seeds pretreated with 4 millimolar SHAM was equal to that of untreated controls. Rupture strength of endosperm tissue excised from seeds pretreated with SHAM was 33% less than that of controls in the micropylar region. To determine if the embryo must be in contact with the endosperm of SHAM to weaken the endosperm, some endosperms were incubated with SHAM only after dissection from seeds. Rupture strength of SHAM-treated, isolated endosperms in the micropylar region was 25% less than that of untreated controls. There was no difference in rupture strength in the cotyledonary region of endosperm isolated from seeds treated with SHAM in buffer or buffer alone. SHAM therefore stimulates germination not by enhancing embryo growth potential, but by weakening the micropylar region of the endosperm enclosing the embryo.

  10. [The dynamics of calcium distribution in stigma and style of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) before and after pollination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi Lan; Liu, Ru Shi; Xie, Chao Tian; Yang, Yan Hong; Gu, Li; Tian, Hui Qiao

    2005-08-01

    Potassium antimonite was used to deposit calcium in the stigma and style of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) before and after pollination. The stigma of lettuce is two splits. Abundant calcium granules are displayed in the wall of papillae on the receptive surface of stigma before and after pollination, which may facilitate pollen germination. However, a few calcium granules in the wall of epidermis cell on no-receptive surface. Calcium distribution in style presents a gradient in transmitting tissue and parenchyma cells from the top to the base of the style before pollination. After pollination, calcium in transmitting tissue distinctly increased and its gradient distribution became more evident. Pollen tubes grow in the intercellular gaps of transmitting tissue. When pollen tubes grew into transmitting tissue, calcium granules in parenchyma around transmitting tissue decreased, suggesting a calcium movement was controlled by pollen tubes. The calcium gradient distribution also appeared in the trachea of vascular bundle of style. In general, calcium in style displays a feature of time-special distribution: transmitting tissue doesn't need much more calcium that is only stored in the parenchyma before pollination. However, calcium in parenchyma cells may be transported to transmitting tissue and make the latter contain more calcium to form an evident calcium gradient and meet the requirement of pollen tubes directionally growing after pollination. This is the second sample of calcium gradient existing in style, which was found by using potassium antimonite method.

  11. Evaluation of the cultivation of the lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under organoponico and semi-protected systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Bárbara Núñez Sosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was done in the organoponico at the Soil Laboratory in Matanzas. The objective was to evaluate the response of the of the lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L. cultivation under conditions of organoponic and Semi-protected cultivation systems. Two varieties were studied: Fomento 95 and Black Seeded Simpson (BSS. The random block design was used. The data were processed using the Statgraphic plus 5.1 package for WINDOWS. The total number of leaves, number of commercial leaves, diameter of bush, yield in kg/m2, total content of soluble proteins and carbohydrates were evaluated. In conclusion, the variety Fomento 95 showed a significant increment of the total number of leaves in the organoponico system and commercial leaves with respect to the semi-protected conditions; the BSS variety showed only significant differences in commercial leaves; no significant differences in yield for both varieties were reported under the studied conditions. The analysis showed that the total soluble carbohydrates and proteins content decreased significantly in both varieties under semi-protected conditions.

  12. Effects of microcystin-LR, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate and their mixture on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds and seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Xiao, Bangding; Song, Lirong; Wu, Xingqiang; Zhang, Junqian; Wang, Chunbo

    2011-06-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) are present widely in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, but their combined ecotoxicological risk is unknown. This study investigated the toxic effects of MCLR, LAS and their mixture on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and evaluated MCLR accumulation level in lettuce with or without LAS. The changes in seed germination and shoot/root growth, responses of the antioxidative defense system, and the accumulation of MCLR in lettuce were tested to evaluate the single and combined toxic effect of MCLR and LAS in well-controlled conditions. The results showed that seedling growth (except for root elongation and leaf weight) was more sensitive to toxicant exposure than seed germination. For seedling leaves, lipid peroxidation was not observed when the antioxidative defense system (including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione) was activated to relieve the adverse effects of oxidative stress via different pathways. Our results also confirmed that the interaction between MCLR and LAS was synergistic. Both toxicants in combination not only significantly inhibited seedling growth, but also increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, as well as the contents of glutathione. Furthermore, LAS dramatically enhanced the accumulation of MCLR in the plant, thus leading to a reduction in quality and yield and posing greater potential risk to humans via consumption of these edible plants.

  13. Dissection of Two Complex Clusters of Resistance Genes in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulou, Marilena; McHale, Leah K; Kozik, Alex; Reyes-Chin Wo, Sebastian; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Michelmore, Richard W

    2015-07-01

    Of the over 50 phenotypic resistance genes mapped in lettuce, 25 colocalize to three major resistance clusters (MRC) on chromosomes 1, 2, and 4. Similarly, the majority of candidate resistance genes encoding nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NLR) proteins genetically colocalize with phenotypic resistance loci. MRC1 and MRC4 span over 66 and 63 Mb containing 84 and 21 NLR-encoding genes, respectively, as well as 765 and 627 genes that are not related to NLR genes. Forward and reverse genetic approaches were applied to dissect MRC1 and MRC4. Transgenic lines exhibiting silencing were selected using silencing of β-glucuronidase as a reporter. Silencing of two of five NLR-encoding gene families resulted in abrogation of nine of 14 tested resistance phenotypes mapping to these two regions. At MRC1, members of the coiled coil-NLR-encoding RGC1 gene family were implicated in host and nonhost resistance through requirement for Dm5/8- and Dm45-mediated resistance to downy mildew caused by Bremia lactucae as well as the hypersensitive response to effectors AvrB, AvrRpm1, and AvrRpt2 of the nonpathogen Pseudomonas syringae. At MRC4, RGC12 family members, which encode toll interleukin receptor-NLR proteins, were implicated in Dm4-, Dm7-, Dm11-, and Dm44-mediated resistance to B. lactucae. Lesions were identified in the sequence of a candidate gene within dm7 loss-of-resistance mutant lines, confirming that RGC12G confers Dm7.

  14. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seedling production with different sources of phosphate and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms / Produção de mudas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. em presença de diferentes fontes fosfatadas e microrganismos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Nunes Silva Filho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the behaviour of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (fungus: 310A, 061, 062 e 251, bacterias 163, 160 e 161 in promoting nutrition and growth of lettuce(Lactuca sativa L. seedlings cultivated in trays with sterilized substrate fertilized and phosphates source. A randomized completely design was used, with a factorial 4x8 scheme (four treatments with phosphate nutrition and inoculated with eight phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and four replications. Each replication was made of 10 cells. The experiment was evaluated 35 days after planting for dry matter, P percentage and total phosphorus of above ground parts. The triple super phosphate (SFT had better results than the others, including the control treatment, in all analyzed parameters. On the dry matter production, it was observed negative effect from inoculation in five treatments fertilized with SFT. There was no effect of isolates on the phosphorus content values. In the values of total phosphorus, the isolates 061, 062 e 163 increased the parameter values on the fertilized treatment with SFT. The natural phosphates presented low efficiency when compared to dissolvable fertilizer on the availability of phosphorus to the plants.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de microrganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos (fungos: 310A, 061, 062 e 251; bactérias: 163, 160 e 161 na promoção da nutrição e crescimento de mudas de alface (Lactuca sativa L., cultivadas em bandejas com substrato esterilizado e adubadas com fontes fosfatadas. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, arranjo fatorial 4 x 8 (quatro tratamentos de adubação fosfatada e oito tratamentos de inoculação microrganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos com quatro repetições por isolado. Cada repetição foi constituída de 10 células. Aos 35 dias de cultivo, as plantas foram colhidas avaliando-se a matéria seca, porcentagem de P e P total da parte a

  15. Efeito do cultivo orgânico e convencional sobre a vida-de-prateleira de alface americana (Lactuca sativa L.) minimamente processada

    OpenAIRE

    Mello Júlio César; Dietrich Renato; Meinert Elza Maria; Teixeira Evanilda; Amante Edna Regina

    2003-01-01

    A alface americana (Lactuca sativa), minimamente processada, foi avaliada quanto aos efeitos dos diferentes sistemas de cultivo (orgânico e convencional), sobre a vida-de-prateleira. A alface minimamente processada foi embalada em sacos de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD), armazenada em refrigerador a 4masculineC e avaliada até o final da vida-de-prateleira, estabelecida por métodos sensoriais. As avaliações foram realizadas durante a estocagem, nas condições pré-estabelecidas. Nos tempo...

  16. Effect of foliar calcium chloride treatment on the level of chlorogenic acid, β-carotene, lutein and tocopherols in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Perucka; Katarzyna Olszówka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was to determine the effect of foliar application of CaCl2 on the level of β-carotene, lutein, tocopherols and phenolic compounds in the leaves of lettuce cv. Omega (Lactuca sativa L.). The experiments were conducted in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Cultivation and Fertilisation of Horticultural Plants, University of Life Sciences in Lublin. During the growing period, 7 and 14 days before harvest, the plants were treated with a solution of CaCl2 with concentr...

  17. Delineating ion-ion interactions by electrostatic modeling for predicting rhizotoxicity of metal mixtures to lettuce Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T T Yen; Wang, Peng; Vijver, Martina G; Kinraide, Thomas B; Hendriks, A Jan; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2014-09-01

    Effects of ion-ion interactions on metal toxicity to lettuce Lactuca sativa were studied based on the electrical potential at the plasma membrane surface (ψ0 ). Surface interactions at the proximate outside of the membrane influenced ion activities at the plasma membrane surface ({M(n+)}0). At a given free Cu(2+) activity in the bulk medium ({Cu(2+)}b), additions of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) resulted in substantial decreases in {Cu(2+)}0. Additions of Zn(2+) led to declines in {Cu(2+)}0, but Cu(2+) and Ag(+) at the exposure levels tested had negligible effects on the plasma membrane surface activity of each other. Metal toxicity was expressed by the {M(n+)}0 -based strength coefficient, indicating a decrease of toxicity in the order: Ag(+)  > Cu(2+)  > Zn(2+). Adsorbed Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) had significant and dose-dependent effects on Cu(2+) toxicity in terms of osmolarity. Internal interactions between Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) and between Cu(2+) and Ag(+) were modeled by expanding the strength coefficients in concentration addition and response multiplication models. These extended models consistently indicated that Zn(2+) significantly alleviated Cu(2+) toxicity. According to the extended concentration addition model, Ag(+) significantly enhanced Cu(2+) toxicity whereas Cu(2+) reduced Ag(+) toxicity. By contrast, the response multiplication model predicted insignificant effects of adsorbed Cu(2+) and Ag(+) on the toxicity of each other. These interactions were interpreted using ψ0, demonstrating its influence on metal toxicity.

  18. Use of hairy roots extracts for 2,4-DCP removal and toxicity evaluation by Lactuca sativa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Vanina A; Agostini, Elizabeth; Medina, María I; González, Paola S

    2014-02-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is widely distributed in wastewaters discharged from several industries, and it is considered as a priority pollutant due to its high toxicity. In this study, the use of different peroxidase extracts for 2,4-DCP removal from aqueous solutions was investigated. Tobacco hairy roots (HRs), wild-type (WT), and double-transgenic (DT) for tomato basic peroxidases (TPX1 and TPX2) were used to obtain different peroxidase extracts: total peroxidases (TPx), soluble peroxidases (SPx), and peroxidases ionically bound to the cell wall (IBPx). All extracts derived from DT HRs exhibited higher peroxidase activity than those obtained from WT HRs. TPx and IBPx DT extracts showed the highest catalytic efficiency values. The optimal conditions for 2,4-DCP oxidation were pH 6.5, H2O2 0.5 mM, and 200 U mL(-1) of enzyme, for all extracts analyzed. Although both TPx extracts were able to oxidize different 2,4-DCP concentrations, the removal efficiency was higher for TPx DT. Polyethylene glycol addition slightly improved 2,4-DCP removal efficiency, and it showed some protective effect on TPx WT after 2,4-DCP oxidation. In addition, using Lactuca sativa test, a reduction of the toxicity of post removal solutions was observed, for both TPx extracts. The results demonstrate that TPx extracts from both tobacco HRs appear to be promising candidate for future applications in removing 2,4-DCP from wastewaters. This is particularly true considering that these peroxidase sources are associated with low costs and are readily available. However, TPx DT has increased peroxidase activity, catalytic efficiency, and higher removal efficiency than TPx WT, probably due to the expression of TPX1 and TPX2 isoenzymes.

  19. Experimental determinations of soil copper toxicity to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) growth in highly different copper spiked and aged soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Karen S; Borggaard, Ole K; Holm, Peter E; Vijver, Martina G; Hauschild, Michael Z; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2015-04-01

    Accurate knowledge about factors and conditions determining copper (Cu) toxicity in soil is needed for predicting plant growth in various Cu-contaminated soils. Therefore, effects of Cu on growth (biomass production) of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were tested on seven selected, very different soils spiked with Cu and aged for 2 months at 35 °C. Cu toxicity was expressed as pEC50(Cu(2+)), i.e., the negative logarithm of the EC50(Cu(2+)) activity to plant growth. The determined pEC50(Cu(2+)) was significantly and positively correlated with both the analytically readily available soil pH and concentration of dissolved organic carbon [DOC] which together could explain 87% of the pEC50(Cu(2+)) variation according to the simple equation: pEC50(Cu(2+)) = 0.98 × pH + 345 × [DOC] - 0.27. Other soil characteristics, including the base cation concentrations (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)), the cation exchange capacity at soil pH (ECEC), and at pH 7 (CEC7), soil organic carbon, clay content, and electric conductivity as well as the distribution coefficient (Kd) calculated as the ratio between total soil Cu and water-extractable Cu did not correlate significantly with pEC50(Cu(2+)). Consequently, Cu toxicity, expressed as the negative log of the Cu(2+) activity, to plant growth increases at increasing pH and DOC, which needs to be considered in future management of plant growth on Cu-contaminated soils. The developed regression equation allows identification of soil types in which the phytotoxicity potential of Cu is highest.

  20. Impact of non-functionalized and amino-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes on pesticide uptake by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Helmi; De La Torre-Roche, Roberto; Hawthorne, Joseph; White, Jason C

    2015-03-01

    The effect of non-functionalized and amino-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) exposure, as well as the impact of CNT presence on coexistent pesticide accumulation, was investigated in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Lettuce seeds were sown directly into CNT-amended vermiculite (1000 mg L(-1)) to monitor phytotoxicity during germination and growth. During growth, lettuce seedlings were subsequently exposed to chlordane (cis-chlordane [CS], trans-chlordane [TC] and trans-nonachlor [TN]) and p,p'-DDE (all at 100 ng/L) in the irrigation solution for a 19-d growth period. CNT exposure did not significantly influence seed germination (82-96%) or plant growth. Similarly, pesticide exposure had no impact on plant growth, total pigment production or tissue lipid peroxidation. After 19 d, the root content of total chlordane and p,p'-DDE was 390 and 73.8 µg g(-1), respectively; in plants not exposed to CNTs, the shoot levels were 1.58 and 0.40 µg g(-1), respectively. The presence and type of CNT significantly influenced pesticide availability to lettuce seedlings. Non-functionalized CNT decreased the root and shoot pesticide content by 88% and 78%, respectively, but amino-functionalized CNT effects were significantly more modest, with decreases of 57% in the roots and 23% in the shoots, respectively. The presence of humic acid completely reversed the reduced accumulation of pesticides induced by amino-functionalized CNT, likely due to strong competition over adsorption sites on the nanomaterial (NM). These findings have implications for food safety and for the use of engineered NMs in agriculture, especially with leafy vegetables.

  1. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) as affected by different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, G; Bott, S; Ohler, M A; Mock, H-P; Lippmann, R; Grosch, R; Smalla, K

    2014-01-01

    Development and activity of plant roots exhibit high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for 10 years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) was grown as a model plant under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes). Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils), root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development) as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue). The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes.

  2. Influence of diesel contamination in soil on growth and dry matter partitioning of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, Kayode; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-09-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil was investigated on growth and dry matter partitioning in Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas in greenhouse pot experiment at two concentration range (0-30 ml and 0-6 ml diesel kg(-1) soil) for 14 weeks. The results indicated thatwhole plant biomass, stem length, root length, number of leaves and leaf chlorophyll in two plants were negatively correlated with increasing diesel concentrations. The critical concentration of diesel associated with 10% decrease in plant growth was 0.33 ml for lettuce and 1.50 ml for sweet potato. Thus, growth of lettuce in diesel contaminated soil was more sensitive than sweet potato. The pattern of dry matter partitioning between root and shoot in both plants were similar. In 0-6 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to shoot system was favoured resulting in high shoot: root ratio of 4.54 and 12.91 for lettuce and sweet potato respectively. However, in 0-30 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to root was favoured, which may have been an adaptive mechanism in which the root system was used for storage in addition to increasing the capacity for foraging for mineral nutrients and water. Although lettuce accumulated more metals in its tissue than sweet potato, the tissue mineral nutrients in both species did not vary to great extent. The critical diesel concentration for toxicity suggested that the cause of mortality and poor growth of sweet potato and lettuce grown in diesel contaminated soil was due to presence of hydrocarbons in diesel.

  3. Foliar exposure of the crop Lactuca sativa to silver nanoparticles: Evidence for internalization and changes in Ag speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, Camille, E-mail: camille.larue@rub.de [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Castillo-Michel, Hiram, E-mail: castillo@esrf.fr [ESRF, Beamline ID21, Grenoble (France); Sobanska, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.sobanska@univ-lille1.fr [LASIR, UMR CNRS 8516, Université Lille 1, Bât C5, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Cécillon, Lauric, E-mail: lauric.cecillon@irstea.fr [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Bureau, Sarah, E-mail: sarah.bureau@ujf-grenoble.fr [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Barthès, Véronique, E-mail: veronique.barthes@cea.fr [CEA/LITEN/DTNM/L2T, CEA Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ouerdane, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.ouerdane@univ-pau.fr [LCABIE/IPREM-UMR 5254, Université de Pau et des Pays de l‘Adour, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Carrière, Marie, E-mail: marie.carriere@cea.fr [UMR E3 CEA-UJF/LAN, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sarret, Géraldine, E-mail: geraldine.sarret@ujf-grenoble.fr [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Ag-NPs are internalized inside lettuce leaves after foliar exposure to a suspension of Ag-NPs. • A classical washing process is inefficient at decreasing significantly Ag content. • Ag-NPs in plants undergo oxidation, and resulting ionic Ag are complexed with organic compounds including thiol-containing molecules. • Foliar exposure to Ag-NPs does not lead to detectable phytotoxicity symptoms. -- Abstract: The impact of engineered nanomaterials on plants, which act as a major point of entry of contaminants into trophic chains, is little documented. The foliar pathway is even less known than the soil-root pathway. However, significant inputs of nanoparticles (NPs) on plant foliage may be expected due to deposition of atmospheric particles or application of NP-containing pesticides. The uptake of Ag-NPs in the crop species Lactuca sativa after foliar exposure and their possible biotransformation and phytotoxic effects were studied. In addition to chemical analyses and ecotoxicological tests, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and electron microscopy were used to localize and determine the speciation of Ag at sub-micrometer resolution. Although no sign of phytotoxicity was observed, Ag was effectively trapped on lettuce leaves and a thorough washing did not decrease Ag content significantly. We provide first evidence for the entrapment of Ag-NPs by the cuticle and penetration in the leaf tissue through stomata, for the diffusion of Ag in leaf tissues, and oxidation of Ag-NPs and complexation of Ag{sup +} by thiol-containing molecules. Such type of information is crucial for better assessing the risk associated to Ag-NP containing products.

  4. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.cv. Tizian as affected by different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter eNeumann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and activity of plant roots exhibits high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for ten years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian was used as a model plant, grown under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes. Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils, root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue. The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes.

  5. Silencing the lettuce homologs of small rubber particle protein does not influence natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Romit; Qu, Yang; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-05-01

    Natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, is an important raw material in chemical industries, but its biosynthetic mechanism remains elusive. Natural rubber is known to be synthesized in rubber particles suspended in laticifer cells in the Brazilian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In the rubber tree, rubber elongation factor (REF) and its homolog, small rubber particle protein (SRPP), were found to be the most abundant proteins in rubber particles, and they have been implicated in natural rubber biosynthesis. As lettuce (Lactuca sativa) can synthesize natural rubber, we utilized this annual, transformable plant to examine in planta roles of the lettuce REF/SRPP homologs by RNA interference. Among eight lettuce REF/SRPP homologs identified, transcripts of two genes (LsSRPP4 and LsSRPP8) accounted for more than 90% of total transcripts of REF/SRPP homologs in lettuce latex. LsSRPP4 displays a typical primary protein sequence as other REF/SRPP, while LsSRPP8 is twice as long as LsSRPP4. These two major LsSRPP transcripts were individually and simultaneously silenced by RNA interference, and relative abundance, polymer molecular weight, and polydispersity of natural rubber were analyzed from the LsSRPP4- and LsSRPP8-silenced transgenic lettuce. Despite previous data suggesting the implications of REF/SRPP in natural rubber biosynthesis, qualitative and quantitative alterations of natural rubber could not be observed in transgenic lettuce lines. It is concluded that lettuce REF/SRPP homologs are not critically important proteins in natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) as affected by different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, G.; Bott, S.; Ohler, M. A.; Mock, H.-P.; Lippmann, R.; Grosch, R.; Smalla, K.

    2014-01-01

    Development and activity of plant roots exhibit high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for 10 years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) was grown as a model plant under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes). Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils), root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development) as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue). The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes. PMID:24478764

  7. Yield and nutritional quality of greenhouse lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. as affected by genotype and production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govedarica-Lučić Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiments were conducted in winter growing seasons in order to evaluate the effects of genotype and production methods on yield and nutritional quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. A three-year (2009-2011 study was conducted by randomized block system in a greenhouse without additional heating. The trial included three genotypes of lettuce (Archimedes RZ, Santoro RZ, Kibou RZ. Each row with these genotypes was exposed to the following variants of covering: control-planting on bare soil, mulching before sowing with PE-black foil, agro textile-covering plants after planting with agro textile (17 g, a combination of mulching + agro textile. Throughout of all the three years of the trial, it was continuously evidenced that the genotype “Santoro RZ” had the biggest heads and the highest yield (15.33 kg 10 m-2, which leads to conclusion that the yield of lettuce is a genotype characteristics. Moreover, the nutritional value (ascorbic acid concentration has shown that, depending on the method of production, in average, the combination of mulching + agro textile (26.77 mg 100 g-1 had the highest content while the control variant had significantly lower vitamin C content (21.10 mg 100 g-1. The three-year researches have shown that the production method and genotype significantly affect the nitrate content. An average nitrate content was 2196.33 mg kg-1 on the control variant, and 2526.24 mg kg-1 on agro textile. Leafy lettuce of genotyp „Kibou RZ“ had lower nitrate content (2176.85 mg kg-1 compared to „Archimedes RZ“ (2843.05 mg kg-1 and „Santoro RZ“ (2221.37 mg kg-1. However nitrate concentration in all treatments remained within the European Union’s permissible levels.

  8. Potencial alelopático de espécies nativas na germinação e crescimento inicial de Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae Allelopathic potential of native species in Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae germination and initial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maraschin-Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A alelopatia caracteriza-se pelos efeitos danosos ou benéficos sobre o desenvolvimento da vegetação, causados por substâncias químicas produzidas e liberadas para o ambiente por uma planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial alelopático de espécies brasileiras, foram testados extratos foliares de Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae e Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burg., Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae, utilizando-se bioensaios de germinação e crescimento e alface (Lactuca sativa L. como planta alvo. Nesses bioensaios, foram usados extratos foliares aquosos nas concentrações de 2 e 4%, preparados por maceração estática com água fria e quente. Os extratos das cinco espécies causaram atraso na germinação dos aquênios da alface, bem como efeitos tóxicos no crescimento das plântulas, com redução e enfraquecimento das raízes. Os resultados obtidos mostraram a presença de substâncias químicas inibidoras nos extratos, revelando potencial alelopático para as cinco espécies avaliadas.Allelopathy is characterized by harmful or beneficial effects on vegetation development, caused by chemical substances produced and released into the environment by the plant. Aiming to assess the allelopathic potential of Brazilian species, aqueous leaf extracts of Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae, and Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burger, Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae were tested on lettuce using germination and growth bioassays. In these bioassays, aqueous leaf extracts were used at concentrations of 2 and 4%, prepared by static maceration with cold and hot water. The five species extracts delayed lettuce germination and produced toxic effects on seedling growth, with root

  9. Remote sensing of nutrient deficiency in Lactuca sativa using neural networks for terrestrial and advanced life support applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Edie Seldon

    2000-12-01

    A remote sensing study using reflectance and fluorescence spectra of hydroponically grown Lactuca sativa (lettuce) canopies was conducted. An optical receiver was designed and constructed to interface with a commercial fiber optic spectrometer for data acquisition. Optical parameters were varied to determine effects of field of view and distance to target on vegetation stress assessment over the test plant growth cycle. Feedforward backpropagation neural networks (NN) were implemented to predict the presence of canopy stress. Effects of spatial and spectral resolutions on stress predictions of the neural network were also examined. Visual inspection and fresh mass values failed to differentiate among controls, plants cultivated with 25% of the recommended concentration of phosphorous (P), and those cultivated with 25% nitrogen (N) based on fresh mass and visual inspection. The NN's were trained on input vectors created using reflectance and test day, fluorescence and test day, and reflectance, fluorescence, and test day. Four networks were created representing four levels of spectral resolution: 100-nm NN, 10-nm NN, 1-nm NN, and 0.1-nm NN. The 10-nm resolution was found to be sufficient for classifying extreme nitrogen deficiency in freestanding hydroponic lettuce. As a result of leaf angle and canopy structure broadband scattering intensity in the 700-nm to 1000-nm range was found to be the most useful portion of the spectrum in this study. More subtle effects of "greenness" and fluorescence emission were believed to be obscured by canopy structure and leaf orientation. As field of view was not as found to be as significant as originally believed, systems implementing higher repetitions over more uniformly oriented, i.e. smaller, flatter, target areas would provide for more discernible neural network input vectors. It is believed that this technique holds considerable promise for early detection of extreme nitrogen deficiency. Further research is recommended using

  10. Dependence of plant biometrics of cutting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varietis on the concentration of microfertilizer Avatar-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Б. Кутовенко

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the variability of plant biometrics of cutting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varieties depending on the concentration of microfertilizer Avatar-1. Methods. Field study, biometric technique, comparative approach, statistical evaluation, generalization. Results. Dependence of the plant height, the diameter of the leaf rosette, the number of leaves per plant, the leaf area of plants on the concentration of microfertilizer Avatar-1 was defined. Investigations of cutting lettuce ‘Afitsyon’ and ‘Concord’ varieties by Dutch breeding were conducted in 2016–2017 in the collection sites of the department of vegetable growing in the scientific-experimental field  “Fruit and vegetable garden” of the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine. In order to determine dependence of plant biometrics of cutting lettuce varieties on the concentration of complex microfertilizer Avatar-1, the following scheme was used for the both varieties: variant 1 – water (control; variant 2 – 0,10% solution; variant 3 – 0,25% solution; variant 4 – 0,50% solution. Plants were treated with microfertilizer three times during the vegetative period. Alterations of plant biometrics of cutting lettuce ‘Afitsyon’ and ‘Concord’ varieties  depending on the concentration of complex microfertilizer Avatar-1 was studied. Conclusions. It was found that in case of three-time plant treatment with complex microfertilizer Avatar-1 at the time of harvesting, the best plant biometrics was registered in variant 3 (concentration 0,25% for the both ‘Afitsyon’ and ‘Concord’ varie­ties of cutting lettuce. The height of plants of the cutting lettuce in ‘Afitsyon’ variety exceeded this figure in ‘Concord variety by 1,1–1,4 cm. The concentration of microfertilizer had no significant effect on the diameter of the leaf rosette of ‘Concord’ variety (25,1–25,9 см. The diame­ter of the leaf rosette of

  11. Health risks resulting from contaminants transfers in soil-plants systems: case study of Atrazine in Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Camoin

    2015-04-01

    Food safety is presently at the center of great part of scientific and political debates. This represents a field of study in its own right of health risks, including ingestion by humans of hazardous biological, physical, chemical or radiological substances, from contaminated foods during different stages of production. Plant cultivation step is often one of the main sources of contamination, whether of voluntary (pesticide application) or accidental (nuclear, industrial waste, etc.) origin. As a result, the plants growth in an contaminated environment may increase the risk of transfer within the plant, and finally the exposure of humans. Furthermore, pesticides are among the main contaminants investigated in the frame of human health risks resulting from food intakes. However, most of these scientific works focus mainly on their occurrence and persistence in water bodies, and few of them are interested in soil/plants transfer. In this context, the understanding of the processes governing transfers of pesticides in plants is become a necessity, in particular to prevent human risks linked the ingestion of food produced in contaminated environments. This objective can be reached by studying the pollutants behavior in soils/plants transfers, and using various substances/plants couples. In our study, we selected a salad/pesticide couple as our experimental model. Atrazine was chosen as model contaminant because of its problematic presence in a large amount of environmental compartments, its physico-chemical properties and because of its long-term toxicity. Lactuca sativa has been selected as model plant because of its importance in French agriculture, and specifically in Languedoc-Roussillon. Salad has been cultivated in peats and irrigated with an atrazine spiked water solution (concentrations from 10 to 100 μg/L). Plant growth in such conditions has been compared to a growth in clean condition (irrigation with non spiked water). Measurements of atrazine contents in

  12. The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhao, Lulu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yanchun; Du, Daolin

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species can exhibit allelopathic effects on native species. Meanwhile, the types of acid deposition are gradually changing. Thus, the allelopathic effects of invasive species on seed germination and growth of native species may be altered or even enhanced under conditions with diversified acid deposition. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaves extracts) of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of native species Lactuca sativa treated with five types of acid deposition with different SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 5:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:5, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid). Solidago canadensis leaf extracts exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. High concentration of S. canadensis leaf extracts also similarly exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on root length of L. sativa. This may be due to that S. canadensis could release allelochemicals and then trigger allelopathic effects on seed germination and growth of L. sativa. Acid deposition exhibited significantly negative effects on seedling biomass, root length, seedling height, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be ascribed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could produce toxic effects on seedling growth. Sulfuric acid deposition triggered more toxic effects on seedling biomass and vigor index of L. sativa than nitric acid deposition. This may be attributing to the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4(2-) and NO3(-) as well as the fertilizing effects mediated by nitric deposition. All types of acid deposition significantly enhanced the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on root length, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be due to the negatively synergistic effects of

  13. Genetic investigation of the nonhost resistance of wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna, to lettuce downy mildew, Bremia lactucae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, den E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a devastating foliar disease causing high losses in lettuce cultivation. The wild lettuce and nonhost species, Lactuca saligna, is absolute resistant to downy mildew and cross-fertile with L. sativa, albeit with

  14. Influência alelopática de hortelã (Mentha x villosa Huds. sobre emergência de plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. Allelopathic influence of mint (Mentha x villosa Huds. on the emergence of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T.L.S. Maia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar a interferência de possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de Mentha x villosa Huds. sobre a emergência de Lactuca sativa L. As atividades foram conduzidas em laboratório, no Instituto de Ciências Agrárias (ICA da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, em Montes Claros/MG. Foram propostos três tratamentos, sendo esses: solo A, coletado em área cultivada com hortelã no horto medicinal do ICA/UFMG; solo B, coletado em áreas adjacentes e, testemunha (papel germiteste.O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC, com sete repetições. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem e índice de velocidade de emergência. Observou-se que a emergência de plântulas de Lactuca sativa foi significativamente afetada pelo solo A (6,95% se comparada com o solo B (21,71%, representando assim, uma inibição da emergência, ou seja, efeito alelopático da hortelã sobre a emergência de alface. Já o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE não diferiu significativamente entre os solos testados.This study aimed to assess the interference of possible allelopathic effects of Mentha x villosa Huds. on the germination of Lactuca sativa L. The activities were carried out in laboratory, at the Institute of Agricultural Sciences (ICA of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The following three treatments were proposed: soil A, collected in area cultivated with mint at the garden of ICA; soil B, collected in adjacent areas; and control (germitest paper. Experimental design was completely randomized (CR, with seven replicates. The evaluated variables were: germination percentage and speed index. The emergence of Lactuca sativa seedlings was significantly affected by soil A (6.95% when compared to soil B (21.71%, indicating thus emergence inhibition, i.e. an allelopathic effect of mint on lettuce emergence. On the other hand, the germination speed index (GSI did not

  15. Influência alelopática de hortelã (Mentha x villosa Huds.) sobre emergência de plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) Allelopathic influence of mint (Mentha x villosa Huds.) on the emergence of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Maia,J.T.L.S.; BONFIM,F.P.G.; Barbosa,C.K.R.; Guilherme,D.O.; Honório,I.C.G.; Martins,E. R.

    2011-01-01

    Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar a interferência de possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de Mentha x villosa Huds. sobre a emergência de Lactuca sativa L. As atividades foram conduzidas em laboratório, no Instituto de Ciências Agrárias (ICA) da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, em Montes Claros/MG. Foram propostos três tratamentos, sendo esses: solo A, coletado em área cultivada com hortelã no horto medicinal do ICA/UFMG; solo B, coletado em áreas adjacentes e, testemunha (papel germitest...

  16. EFEITOS DE DOSES DE ADUBOS MINERAL E ORGÂNICO SOBRE CARACTERÍSTICAS AGRONÔMICAS DA ALFACE (Lactuca sativa L. EFFECT OF DOSES OF MINERAL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS IN AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF LETTUCE (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Rogério Azevedo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses de adubos mineral e orgânico nas características da cultura da alface (Lactuca sativa L., foi conduzido experimento em campo, em latossolo vermelho-escuro, no município de Rio Verde (GO. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso com nove tratamentos (combinação das doses 0 kg.ha-1, 18.500 kg.ha-1 e 36.900 kg.ha-1 de adubo orgânico com as doses 0 kg.ha-1, 870 kg.ha-1 e 1.750 kg.ha-1 de adubo mineral e três repetições. Foram avaliados peso da matéria fresca (g.planta-1, peso da matéria seca (g.planta-1, teor de matéria seca (%, largura e comprimento da folha (cm, umidade da parte aérea da planta. As doses de 18.500 kg.ha-1 de adubo orgânico e de 1.750 kg.ha-1 de adubo mineral foram as que proporcionaram maiores produções, mantendo baixo custo financeiro e contribuindo significativamente para a maioria das características avaliadas

  17. Carbon dioxide evolution and temperature factors in early growth of plastic mulched plants. [Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus; Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betts, C.; Ruf, R.H. Jr.

    1966-01-01

    Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa) were grown in the greenhouse in redwood boxes with bare and plastic mulched soil. Soil temperature in the bare boxes was equated to the plastic mulch with buried temperature coils. Bottled CO/sub 2/ was used to bring the concentration around the plants in bare soil up to the concentration around mulched plants. Carbon dioxide was sampled in leaf canopy. The temperature treatment increased the yields of the bare soil so that they were comparable to those of the plastic mulched soil. Yields from the soil with the auxiliary CO/sub 2/ were lower than those of the mulched treatment.

  18. 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid promotes root elongation in Lactuca sativa independent of ethylene synthesis and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nenggang; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the mode of action of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3- (indole-3-) butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, on primary root growth of Lactuca sativa L. seedlings. TFIBA (100 micromoles) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% in 72 h but inhibited hypocotyl growth by 35%. TFIBA induced root growth was independent of pH. TFIBA did not affect ethylene production, but reduced the inhibitory effect of ethylene on root elongation. TFIBA promoted root growth even in the presence of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)glycine. TFIBA and the ethylene-binding inhibitor silver thiosulphate (STS) had a similar effect on root elongation. The results indicate that TFIBA-stimulated root elongation was neither pH-dependent nor related to inhibition of ethylene synthesis, but was possibly related to ethylene action.

  19. Influence of fine process particles enriched with metals and metalloids on Lactuca sativa L. leaf fatty acid composition following air and/or soil-plant field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Eva; Laplanche, Christophe; Le Guédard, Marina; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques; Austruy, Annabelle; Xiong, Tiantian; Foucault, Yann; Dumat, Camille

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the effect of both foliar and root uptake of a mixture of metal(loid)s on the fatty acid composition of plant leaves. Our objectives are to determine whether both contamination pathways have a similar effect and whether they interact. Lactuca sativa L. were exposed to fine process particles enriched with metal(loid)s in an industrial area. Data from a first experiment were used to conduct an exploratory statistical analysis which findings were successfully cross-validated by using the data from a second one. Both foliar and root pathways impact plant leaf fatty acid composition and do not interact. Z index (dimensionless quantity), weighted product of fatty acid concentration ratios was built up from the statistical analyses. It provides new insights on the mechanisms involved in metal uptake and phytotoxicity. Plant leaf fatty acid composition is a robust and fruitful approach to detect and understand the effects of metal(loid) contamination on plants.

  20. Root adaptation and ion selectivity affects the nutritional value of salt-stressed hydroponically grown baby-leaf Nasturtium officinale and Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Fernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The response of watercress (Nasturtium officinale L. to salinity has been scarcely addressed in literature despite its growing importance in the baby-leaf market and its wide cultivation in salt-affected agricultural regions. This work evaluates the effect of salinity (2.5, 5 and 10 dS m-1 on productive and quality features of watercress compared with another crop widely cultivated for the baby-leaf sector (lettuce, Lactuca sativa. In watercress, a linear relationship (R2=0.75 was observed between yield decrease and Cl– accumulation in leaves, whereas yield was not affected by salinity in lettuce. NaCl application increased Na+ accumulation at the expense of Ca2+ uptake in the leaf tissues of both crops, but also of K+ in watercress. Health-related features were improved by salinity (e.g. increased phenolics and reduced nitrates, especially in watercress, with limited sensorial quality evaluation effects.

  1. 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid promotes root elongation in Lactuca sativa independent of ethylene synthesis and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nenggang; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the mode of action of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3- (indole-3-) butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, on primary root growth of Lactuca sativa L. seedlings. TFIBA (100 micromoles) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% in 72 h but inhibited hypocotyl growth by 35%. TFIBA induced root growth was independent of pH. TFIBA did not affect ethylene production, but reduced the inhibitory effect of ethylene on root elongation. TFIBA promoted root growth even in the presence of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)glycine. TFIBA and the ethylene-binding inhibitor silver thiosulphate (STS) had a similar effect on root elongation. The results indicate that TFIBA-stimulated root elongation was neither pH-dependent nor related to inhibition of ethylene synthesis, but was possibly related to ethylene action.

  2. Performance and feeding behaviour of two biotypes of the black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, on resistant and susceptible Lactuca sativa near-isogenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Broeke, Cindy J M; Dicke, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J A

    2013-10-01

    The black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, is an important pest of cultivated lettuce, Lactuca sativa. Since 1982, the control of this aphid on lettuce is largely based on host plant resistance, conferred by the Nr gene, introgressed from Lactuca virosa. The resistance mechanism remains to be identified. N. ribisnigri populations virulent on the Nr-based resistance in lettuce have emerged in several locations in Europe since 2007. The objective of this study was to investigate the resistance mechanism mediated by the Nr gene in lettuce by detailed studies of aphid feeding behaviour and performance. Both avirulent (Nr:0) and virulent (Nr:1)biotypes of N. ribisnigri were studied on five resistant and two susceptible near isogenic lines (NILs). In addition, survival and colony development were quantified.Nr:0 aphids showed a strong decrease in sieve element ingestion and took longer to accept a sieve element on resistant NILs compared with susceptible NILs, and no aphids survived on the resistant NIL. Nr:1 aphids fed and performed equally well on the resistant and susceptible NILs. The resistance mechanism against Nr:0 aphids encoded by the Nr gene seems to be located in the phloem, although we also observed differences in feeding behaviour during the pathway phase to the phloem. Nr:1 aphids were highly virulent to the resistance conferred by the Nr gene. The consequences of the appearance of Nr:1 aphids for control of N. ribisnigri are discussed.

  3. Enzymologic properties of polyphenol oxidase of Lactuca sativa var.angustata%苔干多酚氧化酶的酶学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 陈乃富

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic property of polyphenol oxidase(PPO)in Lactuca sativa var. angustata was analyzed. The result showed that,by using the catechol as the substrate,the most suitable pH and temperature for this enzyme was at 7. 4 and 30℃,respectively,and it would be rapid inactivated if the temperature went above 70℃. The kinetic equation was v=518. 96[S]/(0. 0166+[S]),and VC,sodium D-isoascorbate,NaHSO3,L-Cys could completely inhibit PPO activity. Saturated NaCl,sugar(10%),SDS and EDTA-Na2 could remarkably inhibite PPO activity. This enzyme could catalyze the oxidization of catechol and pyrogallic acid,and had higher affinity to catechol.%研究了苔干(Lactuca sativa var.angustata)多酚氧化酶的酶学性质。结果表明:以邻苯二酚为底物,该酶的最适pH为7.4,最适温度30℃,70℃以上温度使酶迅速失活,动力学方程v=518.96[S]/(0.0166+[S]),VC、异VC钠、NaHSO3、L-Cys可完全抑制酶活性,饱和NaCl、10%蔗糖、SDS、EDTA-Na2均可显著抑制酶活性。该酶能催化邻苯二酚、焦性没食子酸氧化,但对邻苯二酚的亲和力更强。

  4. Combined effects of dissolved humic acids and tourmaline on the accumulation of 2, 2', 4, 4', 5, 5'- hexabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-153) in Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Ma, Chuanxin; Jia, Weili; Wang, Dong; Sun, Hongwen; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-08-05

    In order to investigate the effects of dissolved humic acid (DHA) and tourmaline on uptake of 2, 2', 4, 4', 5, 5'- hexabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-153) by Lactuca sativa, different fractions of DHA, including DHA1 and DHA4, as well as different doses of tourmaline were introduced into BDE-153 contaminated solutions for plant growth. The levels of BDE-153 in L. sativa tissues were positively correlated with the Fe levels (R(2) = 0.9264) in seedings of the treatments with different doses of tourmaline. However, when adding DHA1 and DHA4 into the system, the correlation coefficients (R(2)) decreased to 0.6976 and 0.5451 from 0.9264, respectively. In contrast with the Fe contents, the presence of DHAs didn't affect the R(2) between the levels of BDE-153 and the lipid contents in plant tissues. Our results indicated that both DHA1 and DHA4 could severely alter the BDE-153 uptake by L. sativa through reducing the Fe uptake instead of the lipid contents. Additionally, DHA4 exhibited much stronger abilities to alter the BDE-153 accumulation than DHA1. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations indicated that either DHA1 or tourmaline or co-treatment with DHA and tourmaline had no negative impact on L. sativa at the cellular level. The present study provides important information for the impacts of different fractions of DHA extracted from soil on the BDE-153 migration in plant systems. Moreover, we elucidated the importance of the iron in tourmaline for migration of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in plant systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of SPL (Spent Pot Liner) and its main components on root growth, mitotic activity and phosphorylation of Histone H3 in Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Aline Silva; Fontes Cunha, Isabela Martinez; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Techio, Vânia Helena

    2016-02-01

    Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a solid waste from the aluminum industry frequently disposed of in industrial landfills; it can be leached and contaminate the soil, sources of drinking water and plantations, and thus may pose a risk to human health and to ecosystems. Its composition is high variable, including cyanide, fluoride and aluminum salts, which are highly toxic and environmental pollutants. This study evaluated the effect of SPL and its main components on root growth and the mitosis of Lactuca sativa, by investigating the mechanisms of cellular and chromosomal alterations with the aid of immunolocalization. To this end, newly emerged roots of L. sativa were exposed to SPL and its main components (solutions of cyanide, fluoride and aluminum) and to calcium chloride (control) for 48h. After this, root length was measured and cell cycle was examined by means of conventional cytogenetics and immunolocalization. Root growth was inhibited in the treatments with SPL and aluminum; chromosomal and nuclear alterations were observed in all treatments. The immunolocalization evidenced normal dividing cells with regular temporal and spatial distribution of histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 (H3S10ph). However, SPL and its main components inhibited the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, inactivated pericentromeric regions and affected the cohesion of sister chromatids, thus affecting the arrangement of chromosomes in the metaphase plate and separation of chromatids in anaphase. In addition, these substances induced breaks in pericentromeric regions, characterized as fragile sites.

  6. Acclimation to UV-B radiation and visible light in Lactuca sativa involves up-regulation of photosynthetic performance and orchestration of metabolome-wide responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargent, J J; Nelson, B C W; McGhie, T K; Barnes, P W

    2015-05-01

    UV-B radiation is often viewed as a source of stress for higher plants. In particular, photosynthetic function has been described as a common target for UV-B impairment; yet as our understanding of UV-B photomorphogenesis increases, there are opportunities to expand the emerging paradigm of regulatory UV response. Lactuca sativa is an important dietary crop species and is often subjected to rapid sunlight exposure at field transfer. Acclimation to UV-B and visible light conditions in L. sativa was dissected using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements, in addition to non-destructive assessments of UV epidermal shielding (SUV ). After UV-B treatment, seedlings were subjected to wide-range metabolomic analysis using liquid chromatography hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-HRMS). During the acclimation period, net photosynthetic rate increased in UV-treated plants, epidermal UV shielding increased in both subsets of plants transferred to the acclimatory conditions (UV+/UV- plants) and Fv /Fm declined slightly in UV+/UV- plants. Metabolomic analysis revealed that a key group of secondary compounds was up-regulated by higher light conditions, yet several of these compounds were elevated further by UV-B radiation. In conclusion, acclimation to UV-B radiation involves co-protection from the effects of visible light, and responses to UV-B radiation at a photosynthetic level may not be consistently viewed as damaging to plant development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. MECANISMOS DE AÇÃO DO EXTRATO AQUOSO DE Piper amalago EM CÉLULAS MERISTEMÁTICAS DE Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thammyres de Assis Alves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Para manutenção da segurança alimentar o uso de agrotóxicos tem aumentado em todo o mundo, sendo o Brasil o seu maior consumidor desde 2009. Porém, os danos ambientais e à saúde humana, causados por essas substâncias sintéticas, tem provocado preocupações. Uma forma de amenizar o uso dos agrotóxicos é substituí-los totalmente ou em partes por compostos naturais, encontrados em plantas. Piper amalago é uma espécie que possui diferentes compostos químicos em sua constituição, tais como: alcaloides, amidos, terpenos e esteroides, o que determina nas suas diferentes atividades biológicas. Em virtude da sua constituição química, essa espécie é indicada para estudos de alelopatia. Assim, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial mutagênico do extrato aquoso de P.  amalago através de bioensaio em Lactuca sativa. Para isso, análises de fitotoxicidade e citotoxicidade foram realizadas. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao teste de Dunnett com 5% de significância. Os resultados demonstram o potencial mutagênico do extrato aquoso de P. amalago em L. sativa, bem como, seus mecanismos de ação: clastogênicos e aneugênicos.

  8. [Combination of phosphorus solubilizing and mobilizing fungi with phosphate rocks and volcanic materials to promote plant growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, María S; Cabello, Marta N; Elíades, Lorena A; Russo, María L; Allegrucci, Natalia; Schalamuk, Santiago

    2017-09-08

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) increase the uptake of soluble phosphates, while phosphorus solubilizing fungi (S) promote solubilization of insoluble phosphates complexes, favoring plant nutrition. Another alternative to maintaining crop productivity is to combine minerals and rocks that provide nutrients and other desirable properties. The aim of this work was to combine AMF and S with pyroclastic materials (ashes and pumices) from Puyehue volcano and phosphate rocks (PR) from Rio Chico Group (Chubut) - to formulate a substrate for the production of potted Lactuca sativa. A mixture of Terrafertil®:ashes was used as substrate. Penicillium thomii was the solubilizing fungus and Rhizophagus intraradices spores (AMF) was the P mobilizer (AEGIS® Irriga). The treatments were: 1) Substrate; 2) Substrate+AMF; 3) Substrate+S; 4) Substrate+AMF+S; 5) Substrate: PR; 6) Substrate: PR+AMF; 7) Substrate: PR+S and 8) Substrate: PR+AMF+S. Three replicates were performed per treatment. All parameters evaluated (total and assimilable P content in substrate, P in plant tissue and plant dry biomass) were significantly higher in plants grown in substrate containing PR and inoculas with S and AMF. This work confirms that the combination of S/AMF with Puyehue volcanic ashes, PR from the Río Chico Group and a commercial substrate promote the growth of L. sativa, thus increasing the added value of national geomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  10. Efecto de la aplicación de dos fuentes de hierro en solución nutritiva y foliar sobre el rendimiento de dos cultivares de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera González, Victor Hugo

    2010-01-01

    La lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.) es la planta más importante del grupo de hortalizas de hoja; se consume en ensaladas, es ampliamente conocida y se cultiva casi en todos los países del mundo. En Ecuador esta especie es mayormente cultivada en suelo, las mismas que vienen contaminadas con pesticidas, que son aplicados durante el cultivo, además de microorganismos dañinos para la salud humana.

  11. A chlorophyll fluorescence analysis of photosynthetic efficiency, quantum yield and photon energy dissipation in PSII antennae of Lactuca sativa L. leaves exposed to cinnamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M Iftikhar; Reigosa, Manuel J

    2011-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of cinnamic acid (CA) on growth, biochemical and physiological responses of Lactuca sativa L. CA (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM) treatments decreased plant height, root length, leaf and root fresh weight, but it did not affect the leaf water status. CA treatment (1.5 mM) significantly reduced F(v), F(m), photochemical efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F(m)) and quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII) photochemistry in L. sativa. The photochemical fluorescence quenching (qP) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) were reduced after treatment with 1.5 mM CA. Fraction of photon energy absorbed by PS II antennae trapped by "open" PS II reaction centers (P) was reduced by CA (1.5 mM) while, portion of absorbed photon energy thermally dissipated (D) and photon energy absorbed by PSII antennae and trapped by "closed" PSII reaction centers (E) was increased. Carbon isotope composition ratios (δ(13)C) was less negative (-27.10) in CA (1.5 mM) treated plants as compared to control (-27.61). Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C) and ratio of intercellular CO(2) concentration (ci/ca) from leaf to air were also less in CA treated plants. CA (1.5 mM) also decreased the leaf protein contents of L. sativa as compared to control.

  12. Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant and anti-coagulant properties of Lactuca sativa (CV. Grand Rapids) plant tissues and cell suspension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-06-27

    Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been traditionally used for relieving pain, inflammation, stomach problems including indigestion and lack of appetite. Moreover, the therapeutic significance of L. sativa includes its anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic and antioxidant properties. In the present study, the MC (methanol and chloroform; 1:1) and aqueous extracts of seed and leaf along with cell suspension exudate were prepared. These extracts were explored for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and anticoagulant effects by hot plate analgesic assay; carrageenan induced hind paw edema test, forced swimming test and capillary method for blood clotting respectively in a rat model. The results were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey multiple comparison test. Interestingly, the extracts and the cell suspension exudate showed dual inhibition by reducing pain and inflammation. The results indicated that the aqueous extracts of leaf exhibited highest analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities followed by leaf MC, cell suspension exudate, seed aqueous and seed MC extracts. The current findings show that aqueous and MC extracts of seed have the least immobility time in the forced swimming test, which could act as an anti-depressant on the central nervous system. The leaf extracts and cell suspension exudate also expressed moderate anti-depressant activities. In anticoagulant assay, the coagulation time of aspirin (positive control) and MC extract of leaf was comparable, suggesting strong anti-coagulant effect. Additionally, no abnormal behavior or lethality was observed in any animal tested. Taken together, L. sativa can potentially act as a strong herbal drug due to its multiple pharmaceutical effects and is therefore of interest in drug discovery and development of formulations.

  13. Effect of Ni and Urea on Growth, Nitrate and Nutrients Concentration in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa Grown in Hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Nazari Mamaqani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The N source used in commercial hydroponic culture of vegetables is mainly NO3-N. The rate of NO3- uptake is usually high, particularly in leafy vegetables and it can be markedly increased when the NO3- supply in the environment is high. An abundant N supply leads to a high NO3-N absorption and accumulation in plants. When NO3- rich vegetables are consumed, various harmful effects on human health may occur such as met-hemoglobinemia (Blue Baby Syndrome and cancer. Keeping levels of NO3- below limits of FAO seems to be impossible without changing conventional fertilizer application techniques. The suitability of urea for the cultivation of field crops has been well documented. Urea is used as the main source of N fertilizer for crops grown in soil. Its use as N source for crops grown under the hydroponic system has yet to be evaluated. To hydrolyze urea, the enzyme urease requires Ni as a component. Substitution of urea for commonly used N03-N fertilizers in hydroponic culture of vegetables would not only enable to avoid excessive accumulation of N03- in plants but would also reduce the cost of production. Leafy vegetable crops, such as lettuce and spinach, contain large amounts of N03-N. Therefore, it is important to reduce N03- concentrations in hydroponically grown with lowest negative effects on yield. Materials and Methods: The experiments were carried outin greenhouse hydroponicsResearchFaculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz in randomized complete block designwithtwo factors ureaatfivelevels of 0,25, 50, 75and100milligrams perliter(U0, U25,U50, U75, U100andnickelattwo levels of0and2mg per liter (Ni0, Ni2ofnickelsulfate(NiSO4in4replicatesusinglettuce(Lactuca sativa cv. Siyahoo. Plants fed with the modifiedHoagland solutionorhalf theconcentration. Treatments added to nutrient solution when plants were in four leaf stage. Plants were harvested 50 days after treatment. Different organs (leaves, stems and roots were separated

  14. Role of ascorbic acid in the inhibition of polyphenol oxidase and the prevention of browning in different browning-sensitive Lactuca sativa var. capitata (L.) and Eruca sativa (Mill.) stored as fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Degl'Innocenti, Elena; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and, to a minor extent, peroxidase (POD) represent the key enzymes involved in enzymatic browning, a negative process induced by cutting fresh-cut produce such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rocket salad (Eruca sativa). Although ascorbic acid is frequently utilised as an anti-browning agent, its mechanism in the prevention of the browning phenomenon is not clearly understood. The activity of PPO and POD and their isoforms in lettuce (a high-browning and low-ascorbic acid species) and rocket salad (a low-browning and high-ascorbic species) was characterised. The kinetic parameters of PPO and in vitro ascorbic acid-PPO inhibition were also investigated. In rocket salad, PPO activity was much lower than that in lettuce and cutting induced an increase in PPO activity only in lettuce. Exogenous ascorbic acid (5 mmol L(-1)) reduced PPO activity by about 90% in lettuce. POD did not appear to be closely related to browning in lettuce. PPO is the main enzyme involved in the browning phenomenon; POD appears to play a minor role. The concentration of endogenous ascorbic acid in rocket salad was related to its low-browning sensitivity after cutting. In lettuce, the addition of ascorbic acid directly inhibited PPO activity. The results suggest that the high ascorbic acid content found in rocket salad plays an effective role in reducing PPO activity. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Lactuca saligna, a non-host for lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae), harbors a new race-specific Dm gene and three QTL's for resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, M.J.W.; Lindhout, P.

    2002-01-01

    Lactuca sativa (lettuce) is susceptible to Bremia lactucae (downy mildew). In cultivated and wild Lactuca species, Dm genes have been identified that confer race-specific resistance. However, these genes were soon rendered ineffective by adaptation of the pathogen. Lactuca saligna (wild lettuce) is

  16. Efeito do cultivo orgânico e convencional sobre a vida-de-prateleira de alface americana (Lactuca sativa L. minimamente processada Effect of the organic and conventional cultive in the shelf life of iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Mello

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A alface americana (Lactuca sativa, minimamente processada, foi avaliada quanto aos efeitos dos diferentes sistemas de cultivo (orgânico e convencional, sobre a vida-de-prateleira. A alface minimamente processada foi embalada em sacos de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD, armazenada em refrigerador a 4ºC e avaliada até o final da vida-de-prateleira, estabelecida por métodos sensoriais. As avaliações foram realizadas durante a estocagem, nas condições pré-estabelecidas. Nos tempos zero a dez dias, uma equipe sensorial treinada avaliou a alface quanto a: cor, brilho, escurecimento enzimático, aroma, odor estranho, textura e sabor (escores de zero a dez. O teste sensorial determinou que o escore seis (6 eliminaria a amostra; a alface orgânica, atingiu o escore mínimo em tempo superior ao da alface convencional, tendo sido sensivelmente superior a esta em todos os atributos testados.Iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa obtained by conventional and organic cultivation systems and minimally processed was evaluated for the effect of different cultivation systems on shelf life. The minimally processed lettuce was packed in low-density polyethylene bags, stored in refrigerator at 4ºC and evaluated until the end of shelf life period established by a sensorial team. The evaluation was performed during the storage period under pre-determined conditions. At days zero and ten, a skilled sensorial team evaluated the lettuce for: color, brightness, enzymatic darkening, flavor, off flavor, texture and smell (scores 0 -10. The sensorial team determined that score six (6 would eliminate the sample; the organic lettuce took longer to reach the minimum score compared to the conventional lettuce and proved substantially superior to the latter regarding all the attributes tested.

  17. Supplemental upward lighting from underneath to obtain higher marketable lettuce (Lactuca sativa leaf fresh weight by retarding senescence of outer leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng eZhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the so-called plant factory with artificial lighting (PFAL approach has been developed to provide safe and steady food production. Although PFALs can produce high-yielding and high-quality plants, the high plant density in these systems accelerates leaf senescence in the bottom (or outer leaves owing to shading by the upper (or inner leaves and by neighboring plants. This decreases yield and increases labor costs for trimming. Thus, the establishment of cultivation methods to retard senescence of outer leaves is an important research goal to improve PFAL yield and profitability. In the present study, we developed an LED lighting apparatus that would optimize light conditions for PFAL cultivation of a leafy vegetable. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. was hydroponically grown under white, red, or blue LEDs, with light provided from above (downward, with or without supplemental upward lighting from underneath the plant. White LEDs proved more appropriate for lettuce growth than red or blue LEDs, and the supplemental lighting retarded the senescence of outer leaves and decreased waste (i.e., dead or low-quality senescent leaves, leading to an improvement of the marketable leaf fresh weight.

  18. Effects of sewage sludge on Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate uptake by plants. [Lactuca sativa L. ; Daucus carota L. ; Capsicum annuum L. ; Festuca arundinacea Schreb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, J.M.; O' Connor, G.A.; Eiceman, G.A. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces (USA))

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a priority organic pollutant frequently found in municipal sludges. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effect of sludge on plant uptake of {sup 14}C-DEHP (carbonyl labeled). Plants grown included three food chain crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Net {sup 14}C concentration in plants grown in soil amended with {sup 14}C-DEHP-contaminated sludge was independent of sludge rate (at the same DEHP loading) for lettuce, chile fruit, and carrot roots. Net {sup 14}C concentration, however, was inversely related to sludge rate in carrot tops, fescue, and chile plants. Intact DEHP was not detected in plants by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Calculated plant DEHP concentrations (based on measured net {sup 14}C concentrations and DEHP specific activities) were generally correlated better with DEHP soil solution concentrations than with total DEHP soil concentrations. Net {sup 14}C-DEHP bioconcentration factors were calculated from initial soil DEHP concentration and plant fresh weights. Bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 for fescue, lettuce, carrots, and chile, suggesting little DEHP uptake. Additionally, because intact DEHP was not detected in any plants, DEHP uptake by plants was of minor importance and would not limit sludge additions to soils used to grow these crops.

  19. Production characteristics of lettuce Lactuca sativa L. in the frame of the first crop tests in the Higher Plant Chamber integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lawson, Jamie; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Paille, Christel; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Godia, Francesc

    Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an artificial closed ecosystem that is considered a tool for the development of a bioregenerative life support system for manned space missions. One of the five compartments of MELiSSA loop -Higher Plant Chamber was recently integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility at Universitat Aut`noma deo Barcelona. The main contributions expected by integration of this photosynthetic compartment are oxygen, water, vegetable food production and CO2 consumption. Production characteristics of Lactuca sativa L., as a MELiSSA candidate crop, were investigated in this work in the first crop experiments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility. The plants were grown in batch culture and totaled 100 plants with a growing area 5 m long and 1 m wide in a sealed controlled environment. Several replicates of the experiments were carried out with varying duration. It was shown that after 46 days of lettuce cultivation dry edible biomass averaged 27, 2 g per plant. However accumulation of oxygen in the chamber, which required purging of the chamber, and decrease in the food value of the plants was observed. Reducing the duration of the tests allowed uninterrupted test without opening the system and also allowed estimation of the crop's carbon balance. Results of productivity, tissue composition, nutrient uptake and canopy photosynthesis of lettuce regardless of test duration are discussed in the paper.

  20. Investigating the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens UW4 to reduce cadmium stress in Lactuca sativa via an intervention in the ethylene biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Lucas J; Macfie, Sheila M

    2016-12-01

    A typical plant response to any biotic or abiotic stress, including cadmium (Cd), involves increased ethylene synthesis, which causes senescence of the affected plant part. Stressed plants can experience reduced ethylene and improved growth if they are inoculated with bacteria that have the enzyme ACC deaminase, which metabolizes the ethylene precursor ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate). We investigated whether one such bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens UW4, reduces the production of ethylene and improves the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) sown in Cd-contaminated potting material (PRO-MIX® BX). Plants were inoculated with the wild-type P. fluorescens UW4 or a mutant strain that cannot produce ACC deaminase. Cadmium-treated plants contained up to 50 times more Cd than did control plants. In noninoculated plants, Cd induced a 5-fold increase in ethylene concentration. The wild-type bacterium prevented Cd-induced reductions in root biomass but there was no relationship between Cd treatment and ethylene production in inoculated plants. In contrast, when the concentration of ethylene was plotted against the extent of bacterial colonization of the roots, increased colonization with wild-type P. fluorescens UW4 was associated with 20% less ethylene production. Ours is the first study to show that the protective effect of this bacterium is proportional to the quantity of bacteria on the root surface.

  1. Supplemental Upward Lighting from Underneath to Obtain Higher Marketable Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Leaf Fresh Weight by Retarding Senescence of Outer Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Shen, Shanqi; Takagaki, Michiko; Kozai, Toyoki; Yamori, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the so-called "plant factory with artificial lighting" (PFAL) approach has been developed to provide safe and steady food production. Although PFALs can produce high-yielding and high-quality plants, the high plant density in these systems accelerates leaf senescence in the bottom (or outer) leaves owing to shading by the upper (or inner) leaves and by neighboring plants. This decreases yield and increases labor costs for trimming. Thus, the establishment of cultivation methods to retard senescence of outer leaves is an important research goal to improve PFAL yield and profitability. In the present study, we developed an LED lighting apparatus that would optimize light conditions for PFAL cultivation of a leafy vegetable. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was hydroponically grown under white, red, or blue LEDs, with light provided from above (downward), with or without supplemental upward lighting from underneath the plant. White LEDs proved more appropriate for lettuce growth than red or blue LEDs, and the supplemental lighting retarded the senescence of outer leaves and decreased waste (i.e., dead or low-quality senescent leaves), leading to an improvement of the marketable leaf fresh weight.

  2. Particle trajectories in seeds of Lactuca sativa and chromosome aberrations after exposure to cosmic heavy ions on cosmos biosatellites 8 and 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facius, R.; Scherer, K.; Reitz, G.; Bücker, H.; Nevzgodina, L. V.; Maximova, E. N.

    1994-10-01

    The potentially specific importance of the heavy ions of the galactic cosmic radiation for radiation protection in manned spaceflight continues to stimulate in situ, i.e., spaceflight experiments to investigate their radiobiological properties. Chromosome aberrations as an expression of a direct assault on the genome are of particular interest in view of cancerogenesis being the primary radiation risk for man in space. In such investigations the establishment of the geometrical correlation between heavy ions' trajectories and the location of radiation sensitive biological substructures is an essential task. The overall qualitative and quantitative precision achieved for the identification of particle trajectories in the order of 2~10 μm as well as the contributing sources of uncertainties are discussed. We describe how this was achieved for seeds of Lactuca sativa as biological test organisms, whose location and orientation had to be derived from contact photographies displaying their outlines and those of the holder plates only. The incidence of chromosome aberrations in cells exposed during the COSMOS 1887 (Biosatellite 8) and the COSMOS 2044 (Biosatellite 9) mission was determined for seeds hit by cosmic heavy ions. In those seeds the incidence of both single and multiple chromosome aberrations was enhanced. The results of the Biosatellite 9 experiment, however, are confounded by spaceflight effects unrelated to the passage of heavy ions.

  3. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity and fast UHPLC-DAD-IT-TOF profiling of polyphenolic compounds extracted from green lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.; var. Maravilla de Verano).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Giacomo; Sommella, Eduardo; Manfra, Michele; De Nisco, Mauro; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Scopa, Antonio; Sofo, Adriano; Marzocco, Stefania; Adesso, Simona; Novellino, Tiziana; Campiglia, Pietro

    2015-01-15

    Fresh cut vegetables represent a widely consumed food worldwide. Among these, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most popular on the market. The growing interest for this "healthy" food is related to the content of bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols, that show many beneficial effects. In this study, we report the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of polyphenols extracted from lettuce (var. Maravilla de Verano), in J774A.1 macrophages stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Lettuce extract significantly decreased reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide release, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cycloxygenase-2 expression. A detailed quali/quantitative profiling of the polyphenolic content was carried out, obtaining fast separation (10 min), good retention time and peak area repeatability, (RSD% 0.80 and 8.68, respectively) as well as linearity (R(2)⩾ 0.999) and mass accuracy (⩽ 5 ppm). Our results show the importance in the diet of this cheap and popular food for his healthy properties.

  4. Metallic Nanoparticle (TiO2 and Fe3O4) Application Modifies Rhizosphere Phosphorus Availability and Uptake by Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, Zahra; Arshad, Muhammad; Rafique, Rafia; Mahmood, Arshad; Habib, Amir; Qazi, Ishtiaq A; Khan, Saud A

    2015-08-12

    Application of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) with respect to nutrient uptake in plants is not yet well understood. The impacts of TiO2 and Fe3O4 NPs on the availability of naturally soil-bound inorganic phosphorus (Pi) to plants were studied along with relevant parameters. For this purpose, Lactuca sativa (lettuce) was cultivated on the soil amended with TiO2 and Fe3O4 (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg kg(-1)) over a period of 90 days. Different techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to monitor translocation and understand the possible mechanisms for phosphorus (P) uptake. The trends for P accumulation were different for roots (TiO2 > Fe3O4 > control) and shoots (Fe3O4 > TiO2 > control). Cystine and methionine were detected in the rhizosphere in Raman spectra. Affinities of NPs to adsorb phosphate ions, modifications in P speciation, and NP stress in the rhizosphere had possibly contributed to enhanced root exudation and acidification. All of these changes led to improved P availability and uptake by the plants. These promising results can help to develop an innovative strategy for using NPs for improved nutrient management to ensure food security.

  5. Root Zone Cooling and Exogenous Spermidine Root-Pretreatment Promoting Lactuca sativa L. Growth and Photosynthesis in the High-temperature Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin; Lu, Na; Xu, Hongjia; Maruo, Toru; Guo, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    Root zone high-temperature stress is a major factor limiting hydroponic plant growth during the high-temperature season. The effects of root zone cooling (RZC; at 25°C) and exogenous spermidine (Spd) root-pretreatment (SRP, 0.1 mM) on growth, leaf photosynthetic traits, and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of hydroponic Lactuca sativa L. grown in a high-temperature season (average temperature > 30°C) were examined. Both treatments significantly promoted plant growth and photosynthesis in the high-temperature season, but the mechanisms of photosynthesis improvement in the hydroponic grown lettuce plants were different between the RZC and SRP treatments. The former improved plant photosynthesis by increasing stoma conductance (G s) to enhance CO2 supply, thus promoting photosynthetic electron transport activity and phosphorylation, which improved the level of the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), rather than enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency. The latter improved plant photosynthesis by enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency, rather than stomatal regulation. Combination of RZC and SRP significantly improved P N of lettuce plants in a high-temperature season by both improvement of G s to enhance CO2 supply and enhancement of CO2 assimilation. The enhancement of photosynthetic efficiency in both treatments was independent of altering light-harvesting or excessive energy dissipation.

  6. Genotype variations in cadmium and lead accumulations of leafy lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and screening for pollution-safe cultivars for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Jiangang; Kong, Wei; Yang, Zhongyi

    2013-06-01

    Heavy-metals in polluted soils can accumulate in plants and threaten crop safety. To evaluate the risk of heavy-metal pollution in leafy lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), two pot experiments were conducted to investigate Cd and Pb accumulation and transfer potential in 28 cultivars of lettuce and to screen for low-Cd and low-Pb accumulative cultivars. In the three treatments, 5.2-fold, 4.8-fold and 4.8-fold differences in the shoot Cd concentration were observed between the cultivars with the highest and the lowest Cd concentrations, respectively. This genotype variation was sufficiently large to identify low-Cd accumulative genotypes to reduce Cd contamination in food. Cadmium accumulation in the low-Cd accumulative genotypes was significantly positively correlated with Pb accumulation. At the cultivar level, Cd and Pb accumulation in lettuce was stable and genotype-dependent. High Pb soil levels did not affect shoot Cd accumulation in lettuce. Lettuce was concluded to be at high risk for Cd pollution and low risk for Pb pollution. Among the tested cultivars, cvs. SJGT, YLGC, N518, and KR17 had the lowest Cd and Pb accumulation abilities in shoots and are thus important parental material for breeding pollution-safe cultivars to minimize Cd and Pb accumulation.

  7. Effect of abscisic acid on biochemical constituents, enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidant status of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under varied irrigation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Al Muhairi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economically important vegetable crop lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. of family Asteraceae was selected for the present investigation. It is being cultivated in UAE due to its commercial importance. In lettuce cultivation, the major problem is the requirement of large quantities of irrigation water. The present study was aimed to reduce the water consumption of lettuce cultivation; for that, a varied irrigation regime was used with the application of abscisic acid (ABA. The parameters studied were biochemical constituents, antioxidant potential and antioxidant enzymes’ activities in lettuce plants under drought stress and its response to ABA under stress. Drought stress caused an increase in the biochemical constituents like proline and amino acid contents when compared with control and also increased under individual ABA treatments and treatments under drought stress. The non-enzymatic antioxidant molecules like ascorbate and α-tocopherol showed significant increase under drought condition in lettuce. ABA slightly reduced these contents. The antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase showed significant increase under drought condition and ABA caused significant enhancement in these antioxidant enzymes under drought stress and also in unstressed conditions, thereby protecting the plants from the deleterious effects of drought stress. From the results of this investigation, it can be concluded that ABA in 10 mg g−1 can be used as a potential tool to minimise the drought stress effects in lettuce cultivation.

  8. Root Zone Cooling and Exogenous Spermidine Root-Pretreatment Promoting Lactuca sativa L. Growth and Photosynthesis in the High-Temperature Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin eSun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Root zone high-temperature stress is a major factor limiting hydroponic plant growth during the high-temperature season. The effects of root zone cooling (RZC; at 25°C and exogenous spermidine (Spd root-pretreatment (SRP, 0.1 mM on growth, leaf photosynthetic traits, and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of hydroponic Lactuca sativa L. grown in a high-temperature season (average temperature > 30°C were examined. Both treatments significantly promoted plant growth and photosynthesis in the high-temperature season, but the mechanisms of photosynthesis improvement in the hydroponic grown lettuce plants were different between the RZC and SRP treatments. The former improved plant photosynthesis by increasing stoma conductance (Gs to enhance CO2 supply, thus promoting photosynthetic electron transport activity and phosphorylation, which improved the level of the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII, rather than enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency. The latter improved plant photosynthesis by enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency, rather than stomatal regulation. Combination of RZC and SRP significantly improved PN of lettuce plants in a high-temperature season by both improvement of Gs to enhance CO2 supply and enhancement of CO2 assimilation. The enhancement of photosynthetic efficiency in both treatments was independent of altering light-harvesting or excessive energy dissipation.

  9. Transformation of Lactuca sativa L. with rol C gene results in increased antioxidant potential and enhanced analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant activities in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hammad; Dilshad, Erum; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Sajid, Moniba; Kayani, Waqas Khan; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-12-01

    Lettuce is an important edible crop which possesses various medicinal properties. In this study Lactuca sativa L. (cv Grand Rapids) was transformed by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with rol C gene. Transgene integration and expression was confirmed through PCR and semiquantitative RT-PCR. The transformed extracts were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant and in vivo analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant activities in rats. The transformed plants showed 53-98 % increase in total phenolic and 45-58 % increase in total flavonoid contents compared with untransformed plants. Results of total reducing power and total antioxidant capacity exhibited 90-118 and 61-75 % increase in transformed plants, respectively. In contrast to control, DPPH, lipid peroxidation and DNA protection assay showed up to 37, 20 and 50 % enhancement in transformed plants, respectively. The extracts showed similar but significant enhancement behavior in hot plate analgesic and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema test. The transformed extracts showed 72.1 and 78.5 % increase for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively. The transformants of rol C gene exhibited prominent antidepressant activity with 64-73 % increase compared with untransformed plants. In conclusion, the present work suggests that transformation with rol C gene can be used to generate lettuce with enhanced medicinally important properties, such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant potential.

  10. Linking the morphological and metabolomic response of Lactuca sativa L exposed to emerging contaminants using GC × GC-MS and chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Carlos; Parastar, Hadi; Matamoros, Víctor; Piña, Benjamín; Tauler, Romà; Bayona, Josep M

    2017-07-26

    The occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in irrigation waters (up to low μg L(-1)) and irrigated crops (ng g(-1) in dry weight) has been reported, but the linkage between plant morphological changes and plant metabolomic response has not yet been addressed. In this study, a non-targeted metabolomic analysis was performed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) exposed to 11 CECs (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, anticorrosive agents and surfactants) by irrigation. The plants were watered with different CEC concentrations (0-50 µg L(-1)) for 34 days under controlled conditions and then harvested, extracted, derivatised and analysed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC × GC-TOFMS). The resulting raw data were analysed using multivariate curve resolution (MCR) and partial least squares (PLS) methods. The metabolic response indicates that exposure to CECs at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.05 µg L(-1)) can cause significant metabolic alterations in plants (carbohydrate metabolism, the citric acid cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and glutathione pathway) linked to changes in morphological parameters (leaf height, stem width) and chlorophyll content.

  11. Proximate nutrient analyses of four species of submerged aquatic vegetation consumed by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) compared to romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Harr, Kendal; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Scott, Karen C; Gerlach, Trevor; Sirois, Paul; Reuter, Mike; Crewz, David W; Hill, Richard C

    2010-12-01

    Free-ranging Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) consume a variety of sea grasses and algae. This study compared the dry matter (DM) content, proximate nutrients (crude protein [CP], ether-extracted crude fat [EE], nonfiber carbohydrate [NFC], and ash), and the calculated digestible energy (DE) of sea grasses (Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Syringodium filiforme) collected in spring, summer, and winter, and an alga (Chara sp.) with those of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia). Neutral-detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF), and lignin (L) measured after ash-extraction were also compared. Results of statistical tests (C = 0.01) revealed DM content was higher in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce (P = 0.0001), but NDF and ADF were up to threefold greater, EE (P = 0.00001) and CP (P = 0.00001) were 2-9 times less, and NFC (P = 0.0001) was 2-6 times lower in sea grass than in lettuce, on a DM basis. Chara was lower in NDF, ADF, L, EE, CP, and NFC relative to lettuce on a DM basis. Ash content (DM basis) was higher (P = 0.0001), and DE was 2-6 times lower in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce. Sea grass rhizomes had lower L and higher ash contents (DM basis) than sea grass leaves. Based on the nutrient analyses, romaine lettuce and sea grasses are not equivalent forages, which suggests that the current diet of captive Florida manatees should be reassessed.

  12. Root Zone Cooling and Exogenous Spermidine Root-Pretreatment Promoting Lactuca sativa L. Growth and Photosynthesis in the High-temperature Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin; Lu, Na; Xu, Hongjia; Maruo, Toru; Guo, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    Root zone high-temperature stress is a major factor limiting hydroponic plant growth during the high-temperature season. The effects of root zone cooling (RZC; at 25°C) and exogenous spermidine (Spd) root-pretreatment (SRP, 0.1 mM) on growth, leaf photosynthetic traits, and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of hydroponic Lactuca sativa L. grown in a high-temperature season (average temperature > 30°C) were examined. Both treatments significantly promoted plant growth and photosynthesis in the high-temperature season, but the mechanisms of photosynthesis improvement in the hydroponic grown lettuce plants were different between the RZC and SRP treatments. The former improved plant photosynthesis by increasing stoma conductance (Gs) to enhance CO2 supply, thus promoting photosynthetic electron transport activity and phosphorylation, which improved the level of the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), rather than enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency. The latter improved plant photosynthesis by enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency, rather than stomatal regulation. Combination of RZC and SRP significantly improved PN of lettuce plants in a high-temperature season by both improvement of Gs to enhance CO2 supply and enhancement of CO2 assimilation. The enhancement of photosynthetic efficiency in both treatments was independent of altering light-harvesting or excessive energy dissipation. PMID:27047532

  13. The Impact of Biochar Application on Soil Properties and Plant Growth of Pot Grown Lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Cabbage (Brassica chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Haefele

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rice-husk char (potentially biochar application on the growth of transplanted lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis was assessed in a pot experiment over a three crop (lettuce-cabbage-lettuce cycle in Cambodia. The biochar was the by-product of a rice-husk gasification unit and consisted of 28.7% carbon (C by mass. Biochar application rates to potting medium of 25, 50 and 150 g kg−1 were used with and without locally available fertilizers (a mixture of compost, liquid compost and lake sediment. The rice-husk biochar used was slightly alkaline (pH 7.79, increased the pH of the soil, and contained elevated levels of some trace metals and exchangeable cations (K, Ca and Mg in comparison to the soil. The biochar treatments were found to increase the final biomass, root biomass, plant height and number of leaves in all the cropping cycles in comparison to no biochar treatments. The greatest biomass increase due to biochar additions (903% was found in the soils without fertilization, rather than fertilized soils (483% with the same biochar application as in the “without fertilization” case. Over the cropping cycles the impact was reduced; a 363% increase in biomass was observed in the third lettuce cycle.

  14. Strong increase of foliar inulin occurs in transgenic lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) overexpressing the Asparagine Synthetase A gene from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Anatoli P; Segre, Anna L; Giannino, Donato; Mariotti, Domenico; Nicolodi, Chiara; Brosio, Elvino; Amato, Maria E

    2007-12-26

    Transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. 'Cortina') lines expressing the asparagine synthetase A gene from Escherichia coli were produced to alter the plant nitrogen status and eventually enhance growth. The relative molecular abundance of water-soluble metabolites was measured by 1H NMR in transgenic and conventional plants at early developmental stages and grown under the same conditions. NMR metabolic profiles assessed that a transgenic line and the wild-type counterpart shared the same compounds, but it also revealed side effects on the carbon metabolism following genetic modification. Concerning the nitrogen status, the amino acid content did not vary significantly, except for glutamic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid, which diminished in the transgenics. As for the carbon metabolism, in transgenic leaves the contents of sucrose, glucose, and fructose decreased, whereas that of inulin increased up to 30 times, accompanied by the alteration of most Krebs's cycle organic acids and the rise of tartaric acid compared to nontransformed controls. Lettuce leaf inulins consisted of short oligomeric chains made of one glucose unit bound to two/four fructose units. Inulins are beneficial for human health, and they are extracted from plants and commercialized as long-chain types, whereas the short forms are synthesized chemically. Hence, lettuce genotypes with high content of foliar short-chain inulin represent useful materials for breeding strategies and a potential source for low molecular weight inulin.

  15. The Study on Dissipation Dynamics of Beta-cypermethrin and Imidacloprid in Lactuca sativa%高效氯氰菊酯和吡虫啉在叶用莴苣中消解动态的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪; 章冰川; 肖伟; 钱坤; 邓新平

    2015-01-01

    采用气相色谱法和高效液相色谱法,研究高效氯氰菊酯和吡虫啉在叶用莴苣中的消解动态,为高效氯氰菊酯和吡虫啉在叶用莴苣上的安全合理使用提供理论依据。结果表明:叶用莴苣中吡虫啉0~5 d消解迅速,5 d时消解率达到78.22%;高效氯氰菊酯0~9 d消解迅速,9 d时消解率达到84.99%。这说明不同类型的农药在叶用莴苣中的降解特性有所不同。吡虫啉和高效氯氰菊酯在叶用莴苣中的半衰期分别为2.82 d和6.13 d。药后14 d,叶用莴苣中的吡虫啉和高效氯氰菊酯的残留量分别为0.2439、0.0662 mg/kg,低于GB2763—2014《食品中农药最大残留限量》规定的吡虫啉在蔬菜中最大残留限量0.5 mg/kg和高效氯氰菊酯在莴苣中的最大残留限量2 mg/kg。%Dissipation dynamics ofbeta-cypermethrin and imidacloprid inLactuca sativawas studied by gas chromatography(GC) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), providing the theory basis for the security and rational use of beta-cypermethrin and imidacloprid inLactuca sativa. The results were as follows. From 0 to 5 days, the imidacloprid dissolves quickly inLactuca sativa and the digestion rate reaches 78.22% on the 5th day; from 0 to 9 days, the beta-cypermethrin dissolves quickly inLactuca sativa, with the digestion rate of 84.99% on the 9th day. It shows that different types of pesticide have different degradation characteristics in Lactuca sativa. The residual half-life of imidacloprid and beta-cypermethrin inLactuca sativa was 2.82 days and 6.13 days respectively. After 14 days, the residue cencentration of imidacloprid and beta-cypermethrin inLactuca sativa were 0.243 9 and 0.066 2 mg/kg, lower than the maximum residue limit of pesticide in food for imidacloprid (0.5 mg/kg) and for beta-cypermethrin (2 mg/kg).

  16. Nivel de contaminación enteroparasitaria de lechugas (Lactuca Sativa) irrigadas con aguas del Río Rímac para consumo humano en la zona de Carapongo.

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Morales, Félix Nicolás

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar el nivel de la contaminación enteroparasitaria de lechugas para consumo humano irrigadas con aguas servidas del río Rímac en poscosecha. Metodología: Se estableció tres zonas de estudio Z-1 curva del cerro Cuncacucho, Z-2 puente o mercado de Carapongo a 50 m de rivera del río y Z-3 paradero Portillo a 50 m de la ribera del río Las muestras de lechuga, (Lactuca sativa), fueron tomadas in situ en número de dos unidades, de las cuales s...

  17. Potentiel évolutif et adaptation des populations de l'agent du mildiou de la laitue, Bremia lactucae, face aux pressions de sélection de la plante hôte, Lactuca sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Valade, Romain

    2012-01-01

    Resistance genes introgressed into cultivated plants are frequently overcame by pathogens, causing outbreaks and economic losses. Therefore, understanding the evolutionary strategies involved in the adaptation of pathogen populations is needed to improve the sustainable management of resistance. Bremia lactucae, the lettuce downy mildew, is under strong selection pressure exerted by host resistance genes. Under this selection pressure, B. lactucae populations showed a rapid adaptation to host...

  18. Selective toxin effects on faster and slower growing individuals in the formation of hormesis at the population level - A case study with Lactuca sativa and PCIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Regina G; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2016-10-01

    Natural plant populations have large phenotypic plasticity that enhances acclimation to local stress factors such as toxin exposures. While consequences of high toxin exposures are well addressed, effects of low-dose toxin exposures on plant populations are seldom investigated. In particular, the importance of 'selective low-dose toxicity' and hormesis, i.e. stimulatory effects, has not been studied simultaneously. Since selective toxicity can change the size distribution of populations, we assumed that hormesis alters the size distribution at the population level, and investigated whether and how these two low-dose phenomena coexist. The study was conducted with Lactuca sativa L. exposed to the auxin-inhibitor 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (PCIB) in vitro. In two separate experiments, L. sativa was exposed to 12 PCIB doses in 24 replicates (50 plants/replicate). Shoot/root growth responses at the population level were compared to the fast-growing (≥90% percentile) and the slow-growing subpopulations (≤10% percentile) by Mann-Whitney U testing and dose-response modelling. In the formation of pronounced PCIB hormesis at the population level, low-dose effects proved selective, but widely stimulatory which seems to counteract low-dose selective toxicity. The selectivity of hormesis was dose- and growth rate-dependent. Stimulation occurred at lower concentrations and stimulation percentage was higher among slow-growing individuals, but partly or entirely masked at the population level by moderate or negligible stimulation among the faster growing individuals. We conclude that the hormetic effect up to the maximum stimulation may be primarily facilitated by an increase in size of the most slow-growing individuals, while thereafter it seems that mainly the fast-growing individuals contributed to the observed hormesis at the population level. As size distribution within a population is related to survival, our study hints that selective effects on slow

  19. Leaf Morphology, Photosynthetic Performance, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Stomatal Development of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Exposed to Different Ratios of Red Light to Blue Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Lu, Wei; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    Red and blue light are both vital factors for plant growth and development. We examined how different ratios of red light to blue light (R/B) provided by light-emitting diodes affected photosynthetic performance by investigating parameters related to photosynthesis, including leaf morphology, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal development, light response curve, and nitrogen content. In this study, lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) were exposed to 200 μmol⋅m(-2)⋅s(-1) irradiance for a 16 h⋅d(-1) photoperiod under the following six treatments: monochromatic red light (R), monochromatic blue light (B) and the mixture of R and B with different R/B ratios of 12, 8, 4, and 1. Leaf photosynthetic capacity (A max) and photosynthetic rate (P n) increased with decreasing R/B ratio until 1, associated with increased stomatal conductance, along with significant increase in stomatal density and slight decrease in stomatal size. P n and A max under B treatment had 7.6 and 11.8% reduction in comparison with those under R/B = 1 treatment, respectively. The effective quantum yield of PSII and the efficiency of excitation captured by open PSII center were also significantly lower under B treatment than those under the other treatments. However, shoot dry weight increased with increasing R/B ratio with the greatest value under R/B = 12 treatment. The increase of shoot dry weight was mainly caused by increasing leaf area and leaf number, but no significant difference was observed between R and R/B = 12 treatments. Based on the above results, we conclude that quantitative B could promote photosynthetic performance or growth by stimulating morphological and physiological responses, yet there was no positive correlation between P n and shoot dry weight accumulation.

  20. The use of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation wastewater for the production of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) in water recirculation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendi, Hefni; Wahyuningsih, Sri; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2016-05-01

    In the recirculation aquaponic system (RAS), fish farming waste was utilized as a nutrient for plant, minimizing the water need, reducing the waste disposal into the environment, and producing the fish and plant as well. The study aimed to examine the growth of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Longifolia) in aquaponic system without the addition of artificial nutrient. The nutrient relies solely on wastewater of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation circulated continuously on the aquaponic system. The results showed that tilapia weight reached 48.49 ± 3.92 g of T3 (tilapia, romaine lettuce, and inoculated bacteria), followed by T2 (tilapia and romaine lettuce) and T1 (tilapia) of 47.80 ± 1.97 and 45.89 ± 1.10 g after 35 days of experiment. Tilapia best performance in terms of growth and production occurred at T3 of 3.96 ± 0.44 g/day, 12.10 ± 0.63 %/day, 96.11 ± 1.44 % and 1.60 ± 0.07 for GR, SGR, SR, and FCR, respectively. It is also indicated by better water quality characteristic in this treatment. Romaine lettuce harvests of T2 and T3 showed no significant difference, with the final weight of 61.87 ± 5.59 and 57.74 ± 4.35 g. Overall, the integration of tilapia fish farming and romaine lettuce is potentially a promising aquaponic system for sustainable fish and horticulture plant production.

  1. Effects of microcystin-LR, cylindrospermopsin and a microcystin-LR/cylindrospermopsin mixture on growth, oxidative stress and mineral content in lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Marisa; Azevedo, Joana; Pinto, Edgar; Neves, Joana; Campos, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-06-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are documented worldwide as an emerging environmental concern. Recent studies support the hypothesis that microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) produce toxic effects in crop plants. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an important commercial leafy vegetable that supplies essential elements for human nutrition; thus, the study of its sensitivity to MC-LR, CYN and a MC-LR/CYN mixture is of major relevance. This study aimed to assess the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations (1, 10 and 100 µg/L) of MC-LR, CYN and a MC-LR/CYN mixture on growth, antioxidant defense system and mineral content in lettuce plants. In almost all treatments, an increase in root fresh weight was obtained; however, the fresh weight of leaves was significantly decreased in plants exposed to 100 µg/L concentrations of each toxin and the toxin mixture. Overall, GST activity was significantly increased in roots, contrary to GPx activity, which decreased in roots and leaves. The mineral content in lettuce leaves changed due to its exposure to cyanotoxins; in general, the mineral content decreased with MC-LR and increased with CYN, and apparently these effects are time and concentration-dependent. The effects of the MC-LR/CYN mixture were almost always similar to the single cyanotoxins, although MC-LR seems to be more toxic than CYN. Our results suggest that lettuce plants in non-early stages of development are able to cope with lower concentrations of MC-LR, CYN and the MC-LR/CYN mixture; however, higher concentrations (100 µg/L) can affect both lettuce yield and nutritional quality.

  2. A lettuce (Lactuca sativa) homolog of human Nogo-B receptor interacts with cis-prenyltransferase and is necessary for natural rubber biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Chakrabarty, Romit; Tran, Hue T; Kwon, Eun-Joo G; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-01-23

    Natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is an indispensable biopolymer used to manufacture diverse consumer products. Although a major source of natural rubber is the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is also known to synthesize natural rubber. Here, we report that an unusual cis-prenyltransferase-like 2 (CPTL2) that lacks the conserved motifs of conventional cis-prenyltransferase is required for natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. CPTL2, identified from the lettuce rubber particle proteome, displays homology to a human NogoB receptor and is predominantly expressed in latex. Multiple transgenic lettuces expressing CPTL2-RNAi constructs showed that a decrease of CPTL2 transcripts (3-15% CPTL2 expression relative to controls) coincided with the reduction of natural rubber as low as 5%. We also identified a conventional cis-prenyltransferase 3 (CPT3), exclusively expressed in latex. In subcellular localization studies using fluorescent proteins, cytosolic CPT3 was relocalized to endoplasmic reticulum by co-occurrence of CPTL2 in tobacco and yeast at the log phase. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid data showed that CPTL2 and CPT3 interact. Yeast microsomes containing CPTL2/CPT3 showed enhanced synthesis of short cis-polyisoprenes, but natural rubber could not be synthesized in vitro. Intriguingly, a homologous pair CPTL1/CPT1, which displays ubiquitous expressions in lettuce, showed a potent dolichol biosynthetic activity in vitro. Taken together, our data suggest that CPTL2 is a scaffolding protein that tethers CPT3 on endoplasmic reticulum and is necessary for natural rubber biosynthesis in planta, but yeast-expressed CPTL2 and CPT3 alone could not synthesize high molecular weight natural rubber in vitro. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. A Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Homolog of Human Nogo-B Receptor Interacts with cis-Prenyltransferase and Is Necessary for Natural Rubber Biosynthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Chakrabarty, Romit; Tran, Hue T.; Kwon, Eun-Joo G.; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is an indispensable biopolymer used to manufacture diverse consumer products. Although a major source of natural rubber is the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is also known to synthesize natural rubber. Here, we report that an unusual cis-prenyltransferase-like 2 (CPTL2) that lacks the conserved motifs of conventional cis-prenyltransferase is required for natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. CPTL2, identified from the lettuce rubber particle proteome, displays homology to a human NogoB receptor and is predominantly expressed in latex. Multiple transgenic lettuces expressing CPTL2-RNAi constructs showed that a decrease of CPTL2 transcripts (3–15% CPTL2 expression relative to controls) coincided with the reduction of natural rubber as low as 5%. We also identified a conventional cis-prenyltransferase 3 (CPT3), exclusively expressed in latex. In subcellular localization studies using fluorescent proteins, cytosolic CPT3 was relocalized to endoplasmic reticulum by co-occurrence of CPTL2 in tobacco and yeast at the log phase. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid data showed that CPTL2 and CPT3 interact. Yeast microsomes containing CPTL2/CPT3 showed enhanced synthesis of short cis-polyisoprenes, but natural rubber could not be synthesized in vitro. Intriguingly, a homologous pair CPTL1/CPT1, which displays ubiquitous expressions in lettuce, showed a potent dolichol biosynthetic activity in vitro. Taken together, our data suggest that CPTL2 is a scaffolding protein that tethers CPT3 on endoplasmic reticulum and is necessary for natural rubber biosynthesis in planta, but yeast-expressed CPTL2 and CPT3 alone could not synthesize high molecular weight natural rubber in vitro. PMID:25477521

  4. Impacts of major cations (K(+), Na (+), Ca (2+), Mg (2+)) and protons on toxicity predictions of nickel and cadmium to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) using exposure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2014-04-01

    Biotic ligand models (BLM) explicitly accounting for hypothetical interactions with biotic ligands and bioavailability as dictated by water chemistry have been developed for various metals and different organisms. It is only recently that BLMs for plants have received increasing attention. Lettuce is one of the most important vegetable crops in the world. This study investigated the impacts of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), Na(+) and pH, on acute toxicity of Ni and Cd to butter-head lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.). 4-day assays with the root elongation inhibition (REI) as the endpoint were performed in hydroponic solutions. Magnesium was found to be the sole cation significantly enhancing the median inhibition concentration (IC50) of Ni(2+) with increasing concentration. By incorporating the competitive effects of Mg(2+), the Ni-toxicity prediction was improved significantly as compared to the total metal model (TMM) and the free ion activity model (FIAM). The conditional stability constants derived from the Ni-BLM were log K MgBL = 2.86, log K NiBL = 5.1, and f NiBL (50%)  = 0.57. A slight downtrend was observed in the 4-d IC50 of Cd(2+) at increasing H(+) concentrations, but this tendency was not consistent and statistically significant (p = 0.07) over the whole range. The overall variations of Cd-toxicity within the tested Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentration ranges were relatively small and not statistically significant. 80 % of lettuce REI by Cd could be explained using both TMM and FIAM instead of BLM in the present study. Thus, the mechanistically underpinned models for soil quality guidelines should be developed on a metal-specific basis across different exposure conditions.

  5. Standardized extract of Lactuca sativa Linn. and its fractions abrogates scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice: A possible cholinergic and antioxidant mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Jai; Kaur, Jagpreet; Choudhary, Sunayna

    2017-02-28

    The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Lactuca sativa (LS) Linn. (Asteraceae) against scopolamine- induced amnesia and to validate its traditional claim as memory enhancer. Ethanol extract of fresh LS leaves (LSEE), standardized on the basis of quercetin content, was successively partitioned using various solvents viz., hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol in increasing order of polarity. LSEE (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) and its various fractions (at a dose equivalent to dose of LSEE exhibiting maximum activity), administered orally for 14 days, were evaluated for their memory enhancing effect against scopolamine-induced (1 mg/kg, i.p.) amnesia in 3-4 months old male Laca mice (n = 6 in each group). The memory enhancing effect was evaluated using behavioural (elevated plus maze, novel object recognition and Morris water maze tests) and biochemical parameters (acetylcholinesterase activity, malonaldehyde, superoxide dismutase, nitrite, catalase, and reduced gultathione content). The results of the test substances were compared with both scopolamine and donepezil that was used as a standard memory enhancer and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Scopolamine elicit marked deterioration of memory and alteration in biochemical parameters in comparison to the control group. LSEE and its n-butanol and aqueous fractions significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the scopolamine- induced amnesia that was evident in all the behavioural and biochemical test parameters. LSEE (200 mg/kg) and n-butanol fraction (15 mg/kg) exhibited maximum anti-amnesic effect among various tested dose levels. The results exhibited that LS prophylaxis attenuated scopolamine- induced memory impairment through its acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activity validating its traditional claim.

  6. Calidad microbiológica y parasitológica de lechuga (Lactuca sativa y cilantro (Coriandrum sativum expendidos en la Parroquia Santa Rita, Aragua, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirza Noguera Machado

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Las hortalizas aportan grandes beneficios para la salud debido a sus innumerables propiedades alimenticias; sin embargo, existe una gran variedad de factores que ponen en riesgo la calidad sanitaria de las mismas constituyéndose en vehículos para enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria (ETA. Por ello, se decidió evaluar la calidad microbiológica y parasitológica de dos hortalizas, lechuga (Lactuca sativa y cilantro (Coriandrum sativum expendidas en la Parroquia Santa Rita del Municipio Francisco Linares Alcántara (Aragua, Venezuela. Se analizaron un total de 20 muestras, 10 de cilantro y 10 de lechuga; la determinación microbiológica se realizó por la técnica del Número Más Probable y el análisis parasitológico, mediante observación directa, tinción de Kinyoun y la técnica de Faust. Los resultados mostraron la presencia de coliformes totales (1,1x104 NMP/g en el 100 % de las muestras. No se evidenció coliformes fecales en ninguna de las muestras. En relación al análisis parasitológico, se identificaron protozoarios intestinales, con mayor prevalencia de Blastocystis spp. y menor en helmintos. Los resultados demuestran el peligro potencial que representa el consumo de hortalizas frescas contaminadas para la salud pública. Se debe concientizar a la población sobre medidas sanitarias preventivas que deben aplicar antes del consumo e implementar medidas de control que mejoren las condiciones higiénicas en la cadena de comercialización.

  7. Uptake of arsenic species by turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) treated with roxarsone and its metabolites in chicken manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lian Xi; Yao, Li Xian; He, Zhao Huan; Zhou, Chang Min; Li, Guo Liang; Yang, Bao Mei; Li, Ying Fen

    2013-01-01

    Roxarsone is an organoarsenic feed additive that can be metabolised to other higher toxic arsenic (As) species in animal manure such as arsenate, arsenite, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid and other unknown As species. The accumulation, transport and distribution of As species in turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) amended with roxarsone and its metabolites in chicken manure were investigated. Results showed arsenite was the predominant As form, followed by arsenate in turnip and lettuce plants, and a low content of dimethylarsinic acid was detected only in lettuce roots. Compared with the control plants treated with chicken manure without roxarsone and its metabolites, the treatments containing roxarsone and its metabolites increased arsenite content by 2.0-3.2% in turnip shoots, by 6.6-6.7% in lettuce shoots, by 11-44% in turnip tubers and by 18-20% in lettuce roots at two growth stages. The enhanced proportion of arsenate content in turnip shoots, turnip tubers and lettuce roots was 4.3-14%, 20-35% and 70%, respectively, while dimethylarsinic acid content in lettuce roots increased 2.4 times. Results showed that the occurrence of dimethylarsinic acid in lettuce roots might be converted from the inorganic As species and the uptake of both inorganic and organic As compounds in turnip and lettuce plants would be enhanced by roxarsone and its metabolites in chicken manure. The pathway of roxarsone metabolites introduced into the human body via roxarsone → animal → manure → soil → crop was indicated.

  8. 不同品种叶用莴苣感官品质评价%Quality Evaluation of Different Lactuca sativa L.Varieties by Sensory Organs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪莹; 李君平; 范双喜; 韩莹琰

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable quality by sensory organs is a comprehensive reflection of taste and tactile by oral cavity.It is usually identified by taste method.In this experiment,an expert panel consist of 10 senior tasters at different ages carried out systematic scoring on 5 indexes of quality by sensory organs among 50 varieties ofLactuca sativa L.,and then made objective evaluations on their sensory quality.The results showed that there were significant differences between lettuce with different varieties and colors.The sensory quality of head lettuce was better than loose leaf lettuce,and for the lettuce with different colors,green leaf was better than purple leaf.%蔬菜的感官品质是指人们食用蔬菜时口腔味觉与触觉的综合反映,通常采用品尝方法进行鉴定。本试验选择10位不同年龄段的资深品尝员组成专家小组,采用系统评分法对50个叶用莴苣品种的感官品质指标进行评价。结果表明:不同叶形、不同颜色叶用莴苣间的多个感官品质指标存在显著差异,结球莴苣的口感优于散叶莴苣,绿叶莴苣的口感优于紫叶莴苣。

  9. Effect of foliar calcium chloride treatment on the level of chlorogenic acid, β-carotene, lutein and tocopherols in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Perucka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented study was to determine the effect of foliar application of CaCl2 on the level of β-carotene, lutein, tocopherols and phenolic compounds in the leaves of lettuce cv. Omega (Lactuca sativa L.. The experiments were conducted in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Cultivation and Fertilisation of Horticultural Plants, University of Life Sciences in Lublin. During the growing period, 7 and 14 days before harvest, the plants were treated with a solution of CaCl2 with concentrations of 0.1 M and 0.2 M. Plants sprayed with water were the control treatment in the experiment. Analyses were performed on whole leaves and the blade without midrib. The obtained results indicate that the leaves of lettuce cv. Omega are a good source of phenolic compounds, carotenoids and tocopherols. The dominant carotenoid in lettuce cv. Omega was β-carotene. Foliar application of CaCl2 on the plants did not have any significant effect on the level of β-carotene and lutein in the whole leaves. The contents of tocopherols, total phenolic compounds and chlorogenic acid were dependent on the concentration of CaCl2. The application of 0.1 M CaCl2 solution in the plants resulted in a decrease in the level of total phenolic compounds and chlorogenic acid, and an increase in tocopherol content. However, the treatment of the plants with 0.2M CaCl2 solution caused a lowering of the concentration of tocopherols and an increase in the content of chlorogenic acid and total phenolic compounds.

  10. A transgenic mutant of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) with a T-DNA tightly linked to loss of downy mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubara, P A; Arroyo-Garcia, R; Shen, K A; Mazier, M; Meyers, B C; Ochoa, O E; Kim, S; Yang, C H; Michelmore, R W

    1997-11-01

    One hundred and ninety-two independent primary transformants of lettuce cv. Diana were obtained by co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying constructs containing maize Ac transposase and Ds. R2 families were screened for mutations at four genes (Dm) for resistance to downy mildew. One family, designated dm3t524, had lost resistance to an isolate of Bremia lactucae expressing the avirulence gene Avr3. Loss of resistance segregated as a single recessive allele of Dm3. The mutation was not due to a large deletion as all molecular markers flanking Dm3 were present. Loss of Dm3 activity co-segregated with a T-DNA from which Ds had excised. Genomic DNA flanking the right border of this T-DNA was isolated by inverse polymerase chain reaction. This genomic sequence was present in four to five copies in wild-type cv. Diana. One copy was missing in all eight deletion mutants of Dm3 and altered in dm3t524, indicating tight physical linkage to Dm3. Three open reading frames (ORFs) occurred in a 6.6-kb region flanking the insertion site; however, expression of these ORFs was not detected. No similarities were detected between these ORFs and resistance genes cloned from other species. Transgenic complementation with 11-to 27-kb genomic fragments of Diana spanning the insertion site failed to restore Dm3 function to two ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutants of Dm3 or to cv. Cobham Green, which naturally lacks Dm3 activity. Therefore, either the T-DNA inserted extremely close to, but not within, Dm3 and the mutation may have been caused by secondary movement of Ds, or Dm3 activity is encoded by a gene extending beyond the fragments used for complementation.

  11. Folhas de alface lisa (Lactuca sativa minimamente processadas armazenadas em atmosfera modificada: análises físicas, químicas e físico-químicas Minimally processed smooth lettuce leaves (Lactuca sativa stored at modified atmosphere: physica, chemical and physico-chemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M S Menezes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfaces (Lactuca sativa cv. lisa, após seleção e pré-lavagem, foram lavadas com água clorada a 5ºC contendo 150ppm de cloro residual livre e pH ajustado para 6.0, enxagüadas e centrifugadas por 8 minutos a 2200rpm. Em seguida, foram acondicionadas em embalagens plásticas de nylon poli 5 camadas, sem e com atmosfera modificada (N2 contendo 20ppm de O2 e no máximo 20ppm umidade e estocadas a 4ºC. Durante 5 dias foram realizadas mensurações de pH, concentração de sólidos solúveis (graus Brix e análises de acidez (mL NaOH 0,1M/100g folhas de alface. Os produtos sofreram acidificação detectável pela diminuição do pH em ambas as atmosferas. O incremento da acidez foi mostrado, sendo os registros maiores para as amostras controle (sem atmosfera modificada, e não ocorreram variações de graus Brix. Os resultados fizeram concluir que avanços tecnológicos vêm sendo alcançados visando melhorar a qualidade e vida-de-prateleira do vegetal.Lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. smooth, after being selected and washed, was cleaned with chlorine water at 5ºC, with 150ppm of free chlorine and pH adjusted to 6.0, rinsed and centrifuged for 8 minutes at 2200rpm. Right after, the lettuce leaves were packaged in plastic bags made of nylon poli 5 layers, with and without modified atmosphere (N2 having 20ppm of O2 and 20ppm of maximum moisture and stored at 4ºC. During 5 days there were pH, soluble solids concentration measurements and acid analysis (mL NaOH 0,1M/100g lettuce leaves. The products became acid, detectable by a pH decrease in both atmospheres. A raise in acidity was shown, being the highest marks for the control samples (without modified atmosphere and there was no soluble solids variation. Results have shown that technological progress is being reached aiming to improve the vegetable's quality and shelf life.

  12. 麦冬水提液对莴苣等3种植物化感作用的初步研究%Preliminary Study on the Allelopathy of Ophiopogon japonicus Extracts on Lactuca sativa and 2 Other Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莹梅; 田胜尼

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the experiments were carried out to study the allelopathy of Ophiopogon japonicus extracts on Lactuca sativa,Cucumis sativus and Raphanus sativus.The results showed that the water extracts of underground and aboveground parts of Ophiopogon japonicus had significant inhibiting effects on the seed germination rate of Cucumis sativus and Raphanus sativus,but no obvious inhibiting effects on that of Lactuca sativa.The extracts also had inhibiting effects on the growth of the main roots of the tested plants,while accelerating the stem growth of Cucumis sativus.%通过麦冬水提液对莴苣、黄瓜、萝卜3种不同植物的化感作用试验研究,结果表明:麦冬地下和地上部分水提液对供试种子黄瓜、萝卜的萌发表现显著的抑制作用,但对莴苣的抑制作用不明显;麦冬水提液对供试植物主根的生长产生抑制作用,而对黄瓜茎的生长表现促进作用。

  13. Bioensaios de desenvolvimento inicial de alface (Lactuca Sativa como potencial bioindicador de toxicidade de amostra comercial contendo corante alimentício azorrubina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ensaios biológicos têm sido utilizados, frequentemente, no monitoramento de substâncias potencialmente tóxicas. Neste contexto, avaliou-se o potencial tóxico de amostras comerciais de mistura contendo corante alimentício orgânico-sintético azorrubina (C2OH12N2Na2O7S2 sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa como potencial bioindicador para monitorar a redução de toxicidade das amostras. Os bioensaios foram realizados previamente avaliando-se os efeitos causados à espécie-teste, por meio de exposição das sementes (sem tratamento com fungicida à solução de 2500 ppm de mistura contendo o corante. Também foram analisados resíduos de amostras que foram submetidas a ensaios fotocatalíticos (reações de Fenton e foto-Fenton. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (aleatório, com cinco repetições para cada tratamento. Para avaliar a germinação realizou-se monitoramento diário até 72 horas, após esse período, aferiu-se o comprimento do hipocótilo e radícula de cada plântula. As amostras utilizadas nos ensaios iniciais e após o processo fotocatalítico (duração de 120 min não influenciaram na germinação. Já no desenvolvimento das plântulas houve inibição considerável. Os resultados indicaram que os ensaios biológicos, foram eficazes para indicar a redução da influência do corante alimentício sobre o desenvolvimento das plântulas, além disso, leva-se em conta, que o método é eficaz e barato.

  14. Influence of season growth, soils and irrigation water composition on the concentration of uranium in two lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) varieties. Field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M. M.; Neves, O.; Marcelino, M.

    2012-04-01

    Former uranium mines areas are frequently the sources of environmental radionuclides problems even many years after the closure of mining operations. A concern for inhabitants from mining areas is the use of contaminated land or irrigation water for agriculture, and the potential transfer of metals from soils to vegetables, and to humans through the food chain. The main aim of this study was to compare the uranium concentration in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varieties Marady and Romana) grown in different seasons (autumn and summer) and exposed to high and low uranium concentrations both in irrigation water and agricultural soil. The content of uranium in irrigation water, soil (total and available fraction) and in lettuce leaf samples was analyzed in a certified laboratory. In the field experiments, two agricultural soils were divided into two plots (four replicates each); one of them was irrigated with uranium contaminated water (0.94 to 1.14 mg/L) and the other with uncontaminated water (< 0.02 mg/L). Irrigation with contaminated water together with highest soil uranium available concentration (10 to 13 mg/kg) had negative effects on both studied lettuce varieties, namely yield reduction (up to 53% and 87% in autumn and summer experiments, respectively) and increase of uranium leaf concentration (up to 1.4 and 7 fold in autumn and summer, respectively). Effect on lettuce yield was mainly due to the high soil salinity (1.01 to 6.31 mS/cm) as a consequence of high irrigation water electrical conductivity (up to 1.82 mS/cm) and low lettuce soil salinity tolerance (1 to 3 mS/cm). The highest lettuce uranium concentration (dry weight) observed was 2.13 and 5.37 mg/kg for Marady and Romana variety, respectively. The highest uranium lettuce concentration in Romana variety was also the effect of its growing in summer season when it was subject to greatest frequency and amount of water irrigation. The consumption by an adult of the lettuce that concentrate more uranium

  15. Lactucaxanthin - a potential anti-diabetic carotenoid from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) inhibits α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity in vitro and in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Sowmya Shree; Lakshmi, Magisetty Jhansi; Sharavana, Gurunathan; Sathaiah, Gunaseelan; Sreerama, Yadahally N; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2017-03-22

    Intestinal and pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors offer an approach to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia through the control of dietary starch breakdown in digestion. This study hypothesized that lactucaxanthin (Lxn) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) inhibits the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In this study, the interaction of Lxn with α-amylase and α-glucosidase in silico and its inhibitory effect on these enzymes were studied using in vitro and STZ-induced diabetic rat models. Lxn was isolated from lettuce with 96% purity confirmed by HPLC and LCMS. The in silico analysis showed that Lxn has a lower binding energy (-6.05 and -6.34 kcal mol(-1)) with α-amylase and α-glucosidase compared to their synthetic inhibitors, acarbose (-0.21 kcal mol(-1)) and miglitol (-2.78 kcal mol(-1)), respectively. In vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assays revealed that Lxn had IC50 values of 435.5 μg mL(-1) and 1.84 mg mL(-1), but acarbose has values of 2.5 and 16.19 μg mL(-1). The in vivo results showed an increased activity for α-amylase and α-glucosidase in the intestine (4.7 and 1.30 fold, p < 0.05) and pancreas (1.3 and 1.48 fold, p < 0.05) of STZ induced diabetic rats compared to normal rats. Whereas the activity decreased (p < 0.05) in the Lxn fed diabetic rats, except for the intestinal α-glucosidase activity (1.69 ± 0.12 PNP per min per mg protein). This was confirmed by the low blood glucose level (239.4 ± 18.2 mg dL(-1)) in diabetic rats fed Lxn compared to the diabetic group (572.2 ± 30.5 mg dL(-1), p < 0.05). Lxn significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase and could be of medical and nutritional relevance in the treatment of diabetes.

  16. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. "Batavia" (green) and cv. "Lollo Rossa" (red)] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T) lamps yielding 90 (±10) μmol m(-2) s(-1) for up to 20 h, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED) light treatments were Control (no blue addition), 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 06:00 to 08:00), 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 21:00 to 08:00), 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 17:00 to 19:00), and 1B 17-19 (Blue at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 17:00 to 19:00). Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent.

  17. Effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis in NMRI mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Radan, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    One of the considerable uses of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed in traditional medicine has been to reduce semen, sperm and sexuality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis. In this experimental study 24 adult male NMRI mice weighing 20-25gr were purchased. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: controls, hydro-alcoholic (200 mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (50, 100mg/kg). The extracts were injected intraperitoneally once a day for 10 consecutive days. 2 weeks after the last injection, the mice were anaesthetized by ether and after laparatomy blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone by ELISA assay kit. Then testis and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for analyzing testis morphology and sperm count and viability. Testis weight in hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.001) and aqueous extract 50 mg/kg (p=0.008) groups was increased. Sperm viability in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 50 (p=0.026), 100 mg/kg (p=0.045) groups was decreased, Also the results showed a significant decrease in sperm count in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.035) and aqueous extracts 50 mg/kg (p=0.006) groups in comparison with control group. Also there was a significant increase in serum level of testosterone in aqueous extract 50 mg/kg group in comparison with control (p=0.002) hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.003) groups. Present results demonstrated that hydro-alcoholic and aqueous 50 mg/kg extracts of lettuce seed have antispermatogenic effects, also aqueous extract 50 mg/kg increased serum level of testosterone in mice. Therefore we can suggest that lettuce seed could be a potential contraceptive agent. This article extracted from M.Sc. student research project. (Ali Akbar Oroojan).

  18. The Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB (isolate 7/3/14) transcriptome during interaction with the host plant lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwaaijen, Bart; Wibberg, Daniel; Kröber, Magdalena; Winkler, Anika; Zrenner, Rita; Bednarz, Hanna; Niehaus, Karsten; Grosch, Rita; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The necrotrophic pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most economically important soil-borne pathogens of crop plants. Isolates of R. solani AG1-IB are the major pathogens responsible for bottom-rot of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and are also responsible for diseases in other plant species. Currently, there is lack of information regarding the molecular responses in R. solani during the pathogenic interaction between the necrotrophic soil-borne pathogen and its host plant. The genome of R. solani AG1-IB (isolate 7/3/14) was recently established to obtain insights into its putative pathogenicity determinants. In this study, the transcriptional activity of R. solani AG1-IB was followed during the course of its pathogenic interaction with the host plant lettuce under controlled conditions. Based on visual observations, three distinct pathogen-host interaction zones on lettuce leaves were defined which covered different phases of disease progression on tissue inoculated with the AG1-IB (isolate 7/3/14). The zones were defined as: Zone 1-symptomless, Zone 2-light brown discoloration, and Zone 3-dark brown, necrotic lesions. Differences in R. solani hyphae structure in these three zones were investigated by microscopic observation. Transcriptional activity within these three interaction zones was used to represent the course of R. solani disease progression applying high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of samples collected from each Zone. The resulting three transcriptome data sets were analyzed for their highest expressed genes and for differentially transcribed genes between the respective interaction zones. Among the highest expressed genes was a group of not previously described genes which were transcribed exclusively during early stages of interaction, in Zones 1 and 2. Previously described importance of up-regulation in R. solani agglutinin genes during disease progression could be further confirmed; here, the corresponding genes exhibited

  19. El modelo V.S.P. en lechuga Batavia Lactuca sativa var. Capitata L. y respuesta de dos variedades a las aplicaciones de compuestos orgánicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruzón C. Serapio F.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available

    An investigation was realized in the region of Pavitas, municipality of La Cumbre, Santa Fe farm, 1480 meters above sea level in a soil of Pavas Association (Aeric Tropaquept to prove the plastic cup-sustrate-plant model in the production of Batavia lecttuce Lactuca sativa var. capitata, and the effects of the organic matter filter cake press, cattle manure, poultry manure and earthworm soil, incorporated in the soil. Twenty two (22 treatments and fours repetitions were applied with each of the two varieties (Great lakes 118 and Pacific, the treatments corresponded to 5, 10, 15 t/ha of the organic matter which were applied to the soil fifteen days before transplantations occured. The results showed an excellent plant vigour and quality after the transplantation. It was also observed a good plant poblation and uniformity. The sustrate filter cake press mixed with botton fly ash presented better results in the field than the other treatments, having the highest crop yield and the best quality. The Great Lakes 118 with this treatment doubled the production of the treatment with soil. With the organic sustrates, the poultry manure 5 t/ha projected better results. The work showed the good behavior of the varity Great Lakes 118 compared to the Pacific. This treatments also improved the chemical caracteristics of the soil, especially increased the organic matter, potassium, phosporus, manganesum and zinc.

    En el Corregimiento Pavitas, municipio de La Cumbre, en la Finca Santafé, a 1.480 msnm en un suelo de la Asociación Pavas (Aeric Tropaquept se probó el modelo vaso-sustrato-planta (VSP, en la producción de plántulas de lechuga Batavia L. sativa var. capitata y el efecto en la producción de los compuestos orgánicos, cachaza, lombricompuesto, gallinaza y bovinaza, incorporados al suelo. Los 22 tratamientos con cuatro repeticiones, repartidos en dos variedades (Great Lake 118 y Pacific correspondieron a dosis (5, 10, 15 t/ha de las

  20. Genetic diversity and evolution in Lactuca L. (Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an important leafy vegetable worldwide. However, the phylogenetic relationships between domesticated lettuce and its wild relatives are still not clear. In this thesis, I focus on the phylogenetic relationships within Lactuca L., including an analysis of the

  1. Di-and tri-hydroxylated Kaurane derivatives from microbial transformation of Ent-Kaur-16-En-19-Ol by Cephalosporium aphidicola and their allelopathic activity on Lactuca sativa (lettuce)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, D.; Takahashi, J.A.; Boaventura, M.A.D. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: dianadb@netuno.lcc.ufmg.br

    2009-01-15

    The use of microorganisms to induce chemical modifications in organic molecules is a very useful tool in organic synthesis, to obtain biologically active substances. The fungus Cephalosporium aphidicola is known by its ability to hydroxylate several skeleton positions of many classes of organic compounds. In this work, the microbial transformation of ent-kaur-16-en-19-01 (1) by C. aphidicola, afforded two hydroxylated compounds, ent-kauran-16{beta},19-diol (2) and ent-kauran-16{beta},17,19-triol (3). Their structures were established by 1D and 2D-NMR studies. Both compounds were tested for their action on the growth of radical and shoot of Lactuca sativa. (author)

  2. The influence of the combined effects of acute gamma-radiation, sodium bromate and sodium nitrate on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling root growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryakhin, E.; Osipov, D. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Among special industrial reservoirs used for the storage of liquid radioactive waste of Mayak PA, Russia, one of the most radioactively contaminated is the R-17 reservoir, so-called 'Staroye Boloto' (the total β-activity of water ranged in the observation period from 0.4 MBq/l to 4.5 MBq/l, the total a-activity ranged from 43 to 420 Bq/l). Also this reservoir is characterized by high level of chemical contamination, in particular, the concentration of nitrates in water is 2.5-4,4 g/l, sodium bromate - up to 35 mg/l. One of the interesting questions is interaction of radiation and chemical contamination in their effect on living organisms in this reservoir. In laboratory experiments seeds of Lactuca sativa were used; the effect of the studied factor on the length of the sprout's root was estimated. To assess the effect of chemical toxicants the solutions of each salt in 7 different concentrations were used, distilled water was used as a control. For evaluation of acute effects of external gamma irradiation the seeds after exposure for 24 hours in distilled water, were irradiated at 7 different doses using gamma-unit on the basis of Cs-137 with the dose rate of 0.62 Gy/min. To assess the combined effects of acute external gamma irradiation, of nitrates and bromates, seeds after 24 hour exposure at each test concentration of the salts solutions were irradiated using gamma-unit. To calculate the effective concentrations or doses was used drc package for R software. To calculate the dose rate to aquatic organisms in the R-17 was used ERICA Assessment Tool 2012. It was found out that the EC50 of sodium nitrate for lettuce was 2.69 g/l, which is comparable to the concentration of nitrates in the 'Staroye Boloto'. This indicates that nitrate can have significant toxic effect on aquatic higher plants of the reservoir. The EC50 of sodium bromate was 14.6 mg/l. This is less than the maximum concentration of the substance in the R-17, which suggests

  3. Control in vitro de Botrytis (Botrytis cinerea), Mildiu (Bremia lactucae) Y Esclerotinia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) en lechuga (Lactuca sativa), usando extractos de Cola de Caballo (Equisetum arvense), Ortiga (Urtica dioica L.), Ruda (Ruta graveolens) y Tomillo (Thymus vulgaris).

    OpenAIRE

    Tayupanta Rodríguez, Verónica Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Se realizó el control biológico de Botrytis cinerea, Bremia lactucae y Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, con 4 extractos de plantas: Ruta graveolens, Thymus vulgaris, Urtica dioica, Equisetum arvense y Trichoderma harzianum como tratamiento adicional. Se realizaron ensayos en laboratorio dentro de cajas Petri, donde se inoculó el hongo obtenido previamente en cultivo puro, junto con los extractos de cada planta para evaluar el halo de inhibición y se realizó el conteo del número de UFC (Unidades f...

  4. Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Nomaani, Rahma Said Salim; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

    2013-05-01

    To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as α-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), γ-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55% and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), α-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99% and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including β-pinene, α-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases.

  5. Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahma Said Salim Al Nomaani; Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). Methods: The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. Results: About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as α-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), γ-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55%and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), α-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99%and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including β-pinene, α-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. Conclusions: The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases.

  6. Bioatividade de extratos hidroalcoólicos de Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf. sobre picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. e alface (Lactuca sativa L. Bioactivity of hydroalcoholic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf. on germination and early growth of beggartick (Bidens pilosa L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Lousada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou avaliar a bioatividade de extratos hidroalcoólicos de capim-limão sobre germinação e crescimento inicial da planta daninha picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. e da planta teste alface (Lactuca sativa L.. A partir de maceração hidroalcoólica de folhas secas e rasuradas (127,46 g de capim-limão em 1L de álcool de cereais (70%, foram preparados os tratamentos como extratos hidroalcoólicos (HA pela diluição (v/v do macerado filtrado em água deionizada na proporção 1:1 (HA1:1 e 1:2 (HA1:2; dos quais foram obtidos os respectivos extratos secos (ES, a partir da evaporação da fase líquida de duas alíquotas de 50 mL de cada extrato HA, que após re-suspendidas em igual volume de água, sendo uma autoclavada (1 atm por 15 minutos, resultando nos extratos secos de HA1:1 e HA1:2 autoclavados (ES1:1A e ES1:2A e nos extratos secos não autoclavados (ES1:1 e ES1:2; e água (AG como controle. No primeiro dia dos bioensaios, foram aplicados 2 mL dos tratamentos, em DIC, com cinco repetições. Avaliou-se a porcentagem de germinação (G%, Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IVG, altura da parte aérea (AA e comprimento de radícula (CR de aquênios (25 de picão-preto e de alface distribuídos em placas de Petri e mantidos em câmara de germinação (B.O.D. por duas semanas. Os extratos HA1:1 e HA1:2 inibiram a G%, AA e CR das duas espécies. Todos os extratos secos reduziram a G%, IVG e o CR da alface. Para o picão preto, apenas o extrato ES1:1 reduziu a G% e o IVG foi reduzido por todos os extratos, a exceção do ES1:1A, mas nenhum extrato influenciou o crescimento inicial desta espécie.This study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of hydroalcoholic extract of lemongrass on the germination and early growth of the weed plant beggartick (Bidens pilosa L. and the test plant lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. From the hydroalcoholic maceration of dried and cut leaves of lemon grass (127.46 g in 1 L grain alcohol (70%, the following

  7. Efeito alelopático de Artemisia annua L. na germinação e desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. e leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla L. Allelopathic effect of Artemisia annua L. on the germination and initial development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Magiero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas de A. annua sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. e leiteiro (Euphorbia heterophylla L.. O extrato aquoso bruto foi preparado a partir de 250 g folhas frescas extraídas em 1 L de água destilada. Este primeiro extrato foi filtrado e centrifugado, sendo utilizado o sobrenadante. Foram utilizadas as seguintes concentrações de 100% (extrato filtrado e centrifugado; 75%, 50% e 25% (diluições do extrato 100%; e 0% (água destilada. As sementes das espécies testadas foram distribuídas em placas de petri e acondicionadas em câmara de germinação. Foram analisadas as variáveis: germinabilidade (G, velocidade média de germinação (V, tempo médio de germinação (t, comprimento da radícula (CR e massa seca das plântulas. A elevação da concentração do extrato aquoso de A. annua provocou redução na germinabilidade de alface e, a partir da concentração de 50%, a germinação foi completamente inibida. Para o leiteiro, a germinação foi totalmente inibida a partir da concentração de 75%. Observou-se também redução significativa na velocidade média de germinação de alface com a elevação da concentração do extrato, efeito que não foi observado para o leiteiro. O comprimento radicular do leiteiro foi significativamente reduzido nas concentrações de 25 e 50%, e totalmente inibido em 75 e 100%. Para alface, a concentração de 25% reduziu significativamente o comprimento radicular, e as concentrações de 50, 75 e 100% inibiram completamente a formação de raízes, mostrando ser esta espécie mais sensível que o leiteiro. Extratos aquosos de A. annua apresentaram ação alelopática inibitória sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface e leiteiro.The aim of this work was to study the allelopathic effect of leaf aqueous extract of A

  8. Stratification periods in seeds germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under different conditions of light and temperaturePeríodos de estratificação na germinação de sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa L. sob diferentes condições de luz e temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce seeds have a high sensitivity to variations in humidity and temperature of the environment where they germinate, therefore, studies with the aim of improve the germination and physiological performance of these have been conducted. Thus, the study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of pre-germination treatment stratification (5 °C for different periods, and increase the uniformity of germination of lettuce seeds submitted to different conditions of light and germination temperatures. In the pre-germinative treatment, the seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. American Great Lakes were placed in plastic boxes dark of the type “gerbox” and subjected to temperature stratification of 5 °C and the dark for 4, 8, 12 and 16 hours. After periods of stratification the seeds were submitted to germination tests which were transferred to plastic boxes type “gerbox” transparent (constant light and dark (no light and were maintained in a germination chamber B.O.D with light constant at temperatures of 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. The design used was the entirely randomized with four repetitions, in a factorial outline 5x4x2, five pre-germinative treatments, four germination temperatures and two light conditions. Stratification for 16 hours and temperatures of 20 and 25 °C stimulated the germination of lettuce seeds, providing a higher germination percentage, germination speed index and minor mean germination time. The presence of light resulted in increased germination at 0, 4, 8 and 12 hours of stratification.As sementes de alface apresentam grande sensibilidade às variações na umidade e temperatura do meio onde germinam e, por isso, estudos com o intuito de melhorar a porcentagem de germinação e o desempenho fisiológico dessas têm sido realizados. Dessa maneira, o trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência do tratamento pré-germinativo de estratificação (5°C por diferentes períodos, na uniformização e incremento da germina

  9. Uso do rejeito da dessalinização de água salobra no cultivo da alface (Lactuca sativa L. em sistema hidropônico NFT Use of the desalted wastewater for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. production in NFT hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaelly Suzanye da Silva Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A dessalinização por osmose reversa tem sido bastante utilizada para o tratamento de água salobra, possibilitando a sua utilização para o consumo humano, especialmente em regiões semiáridas. Esse processo tem um fator limitante que é a produção de um rejeito de água com alta salinidade. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da utilização de água de rejeito da dessalinização no cultivo de alface cultivar Vera (Lactuca sativa L. em sistema hidropônico NFT foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação no departamento de ciências ambientais da UFERSA, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os níveis de salinidade da água entre os tratamentos foram obtidos com, ou sem a necessidade de diluição da água de rejeito da dessalinização acrescido da solução nutritiva com salinidade de 1 dS m-1 (100% de água potável de abastecimento - 1,4 dS m-1; 85% abastecimento e 15% água de rejeito - 1,9 dS m-1; 75 % água de rejeito + 25 % água de abastecimento - 2,7 dS m-1; 50% água de rejeito e 50% água de abastecimento - 3,8 dS m-1; 25 % água de rejeito e 75 % água de abastecimento - 4,9 dS m-1 e água de rejeito coletada no dessalinizador - 5,5 dS m-1. Os parâmetros analisados foram área foliar, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, peso de matéria fresca e o peso de matéria seca. Todas as variáveis estudadas foram influenciadas negativamente de forma linear pelo efeito da concentração de sais na água de irrigação, sendo que a área foliar e a matéria fresca da parte aérea são as que melhor representam a sensibilidade ao estresse salino na cultivar estudada, tendo a produção em termos de matéria fresca uma redução de 94,83%, ao se elevar a CEa de 1,4 a 5,5 dS m-1.The desalination process by reverse osmosis was used for the treatment of brackish water, making possible the usage human consume in semiarid zones. This process has a limiting factor: it produces

  10. Aspectos sanitários do cultivo da alface americana, irrigada com águas recptoras de efluentes urbanos Sanitary aspects of lectucce (Lactuca sativa L. culture irrigated with receiving waters of urban effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Biscaro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência da disposição de mangueiras gotejadoras nos canteiros e a injeção ou não de cloro na água de irrigação, nas condições sanitárias do solo e da alface americana irrigada (Lactuca sativa L. com águas receptoras de efluentes urbanos. Foram realizadas análises microbiológicas de amostras de água do solo e da alface, no decorrer de todo o ciclo de cultivo. Objetivou-se determinar a possível existência de Salmonella spp. e de formas evolutivas de parasitos humanos e a quantidade de coliformes fecais, em pontos e épocas diferentes do experimento, impedindo assim o consumo da alface. Os resultados não indicaram a presença dos dois primeiros em nenhuma das amostras, mas sim de parasitos não humanos (nematóides de vida livre no solo. Em relação à quantidade de coliformes fecais (NMP ml-1, o valor encontrado na cultura atende às exigências da Secretaria de Vigilância Sanitária do Ministério da Saúde brasileiro, porém a presença dos nematóides em quantidades superiores ao permitido pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS inviabiliza o seu consumo.One evaluated the influence of drip tape arrangement and the use of chloride in the irrigation water, on soil sanitary conditions and growing lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., irrigated with receiving urban waters. Water, soil and lettuce microbiological analyses were performed during crop cycle. The objective was to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., evolutive forms of human parasites and the amount of fecal coliforms in different locations and time, avoiding the lettuce consumption. Although results did not indicate the presence of Salmonella spp. and evolutive forms of human parasites in none of the samples but non human parasites (nematodes of free life in soil. Total fecal coliforms count (NMP ml-1 met is according to the Brazilian Ministry of Health, Secretary of Health Surveillance requirements. Yet, the lettuce was not good for human consumption

  11. Responses of Lactuca sativa and Festuca arundinacea to the allelopathy of water extracts from Jacaranda mimosifolia flowers%莴苣与高羊茅对蓝花楹花水浸液化感作用的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 石锦安; 刘月婷; 孙莹; 邵小鹏

    2015-01-01

    In order to verify whether there are relevant substances in J acaranda mimosifolia that can produce the al-lelopathy to other plants.We studied the allelopathy of the concentration of 0.001,0.025,0.050 g·mL-1 water ex-tract of the flowers of J .mimosifolia for the seed germination and seedling growth,taking the complete single flow-ers of J .mimosifolia grown in Wenjiang region as materials,the seeds of Lactuca sativa and Festuca arundinacea as receptor materials,and the water treatment as the control CK .The results were as follows:firstly,the seed germi-nation of F .arundinacea and Lactuca sativa was suppressed by the water extract,especially performance on the ger-mination index,and the comprehensive allelopathies (SE 2 )were-0.13 and-0.27 respectively;secondly,the seedling height of L .sativa was promoted but its root length and root-shoot ratio were suppressed,and the values of SE 3 ,SE 4 ,SE 5 were 0.13,-0.36,-0.16,while the root-shoot ratio of Festuca arundinacea were promoted but its seedling height and root length were suppressed,and the values of SE 3 ,SE 4 ,SE 5 were-0.12,-0.08,0.16 respectively.Mean-while the MDA contents and root vigor of Lactuca sativa were also suppressed,whose values of SE 6 and SE 7 were-0.25 and-0.44,the values of Festuca arundinacea were 0.04 and 0.34 reversely.Most of all,when the concentration of the water extracts was 0.025 g·mL-1 ,it showed the RI peak and inflection point of some trend in many places, especially the changes in MDA contents and root vigor of receiver plant’s leaves.Thus,the experiment proved the existence of allelochemicals in water extract of J acaranda mimosifolia flowers,Lactuca sativa and Festuca arundi-nacea ,and they had different responses to the allelochemicals,which will provide the relevant theoretical basis to the plant landscape design and maintenance of J acaranda mimosifolia in the future.%为探明蓝花楹是否存在对其它植物产生化感作用的相关物质,以生长在四川温

  12. Toxicity assessment using Lactuca sativa L. bioassay of the metal(loid)s As, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in soluble-in-water saturated soil extracts from an abandoned mining site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagur-Gonzalez, Maria Gracia [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Granada (Spain); Univ. of Granada-CSIC, Inst. Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Faculty of Sciences, Granada (Spain); Estepa-Molina, Carmen [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Mineralogy and Petrology, Granada (Spain); Martin-Peinado, Francisco [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Soil Science, Granada (Spain); Morales-Ruano, Salvador [Univ. of Granada-CSIC, Inst. Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Faculty of Sciences, Granada (Spain); Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Mineralogy and Petrology, Granada (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We used the different soluble-in-water concentrations of As, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn from contaminated soils in an abandoned mining area (anthropogenic origin) to assess the phytotoxicity of the abandoned site using the results obtained with a Lactuca sativa L. bioassay. Material and methods The study has been carried out on potentially polluted samples from the Rodalquilar mining district (southern Spain). The area was sampled according to the different metallurgical treatments for gold extraction used in each one: dynamic cyanidation and heap leaching. The saturation extracts were obtained by filtering each saturated paste with a vacuum-extraction pump, in which measurements of metal(loid) concentrations, pH and electrical conductivity were made. The variables evaluated in the bioassay, defined as toxicity indices ranging from -1 (maximum phytotoxicity) to >0 (hormesis), were seed germination (SG) and root elongation (RE) of lettuce seeds. Results and discussion In areas with a low degree of contamination, the most sensitive toxicity index is RE, whereas in highly contaminated areas, both RE and SG are good estimators of soil toxicity. According to these results, samples from the western area showed moderate to low toxicity, which was closely related to water-soluble As concentrations. Samples from the eastern area had a high degree of toxicity in 40% of the soils. Conclusions The comparison of the two indices (SG and RE) defined using the L. sativa L. bioassay indicates that, for areas with a low degree of contamination, the most sensitive toxicity index is RE, whereas in highly contaminated areas, both RE and SG are good estimators of soil phytotoxicity. Unsupervised pattern recognition methods such as HCA and PCA enabled us to conclude that the low/moderate phytotoxicity of the soils is related to the extraction process used for the recovery of gold (mainly dynamic cyanidation in tanks located in the eastern area) and to the As and Pb contents. (orig.)

  13. Modelling metal-metal interactions and metal toxicity to lettuce Lactuca sativa following mixture exposure (Cu²⁺-Zn²⁺ and Cu²⁺-Ag⁺).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T T Yen; Vijver, Martina G; Kinraide, Thomas B; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Hendriks, A Jan

    2013-05-01

    Metal toxicity to lettuce Lactuca sativa was determined following mixture exposure based on the concepts of concentration addition (CA) and response addition (RA). On the basis of conventional models assuming no interaction between mixture components, Ag(+) was the most toxic, followed by Cu(2+) and Zn(2+). Furthermore, ion-ion interactions were included in quantitatively estimating toxicity of interactive mixtures of Cu(2+)-Zn(2+) and Cu(2+)-Ag(+) by linearly expanding the CA and RA models. About 80-92% of the variability in the root growth could be explained by this approach. Estimates by the extended models indicate significant alleviative effects of Zn(2+) on Cu(2+) toxicity whereas Cu(2+) did not significantly affect Zn(2+) toxicity. According to the extended CA model, Cu(2+) significantly reduced Ag(+) toxicity while Ag(+) enhanced Cu(2+) toxicity. Similar effects were not found by the extended RA model. These interactions might result from their individual uptake mechanisms and toxic actions as published in literature.

  14. Exposure studies of core-shell Fe/Fe(3)O(4) and Cu/CuO NPs to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants: Are they a potential physiological and nutritional hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Reyes, J; Majumdar, S; Botez, C E; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2014-02-28

    Iron and copper nanomaterials are widely used in environmental remediation and agriculture. However, their effects on physiological parameters and nutritional quality of terrestrial plants such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are still unknown. In this research, 18-day-old hydroponically grown lettuce seedlings were treated for 15 days with core-shell nanoscale materials (Fe/Fe(3)O(4), Cu/CuO) at 10 and 20mg/L, and FeSO(4)·7H(2)O and CuSO(4)·5H(2)O at 10mg/L. At harvest, Fe, Cu, micro and macronutrients were determined by ICP-OES. Also, we evaluated chlorophyll content, plant growth, and catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities. Our results showed that iron ions/NPs did not affect the physiological parameters with respect to water control. Conversely, Cu ions/NPs reduced water content, root length, and dry biomass of the lettuce plants. ICP-OES results showed that nano-Cu/CuO treatments produced significant accumulation of Cu in roots compared to the CuSO(4)·5H(2)O treatment. In roots, all Cu treatments increased CAT activity but decreased APX activity. In addition, relative to the control, nano-Cu/CuO altered the nutritional quality of lettuce, since the treated plants had significantly more Cu, Al and S but less Mn, P, Ca, and Mg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hatay ili marul (Lactuca sativa L.) ekim alanlarında görülen önemli hastalık etmenleri, zararlı ve yabancı ot türleri ve yaygınlık durumları

    OpenAIRE

    Soylu, Soner; SERTKAYA, Erdal; Üremiş, İlhan; Bozkurt, İ. Adem; KURT, Şener

    2017-01-01

    Bu çalışmada 2015ve 2016 yetiştirme sezonunda Hatay ilinin önemli marul (Lactuca sativa L.) yetiştiriciliği yapılan alanlarında rastgeleseçilmiş tarlalarda erken dönem fide ile hasat dönemlerinde sorun olan hastalıketmeni, zararlı ve yabancı ot türlerinin tanılanması ve yaygınlık durumlarıbelirlenmiştir. Tipik hastalık belirtileri gösteren bitki örneklerinden yapılanizolasyonlar sonucunda Sclerotiniasclerotiorum, Botrytis cinerea, Golovinomyces cichoracearum ve Bremia lactucae en sık karşılaş...

  16. EFFECT OF LOW DOSE IRRADIATION OF 60Coγ-RAYS ON SEED GERMINATION, SEEDLING GROWTH AND ENZYMES ACTIVITY OF Lactuca sativa%~(60)Coγ射线低剂量辐照对生菜种子萌发、幼苗生长及酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀清; 章铁

    2012-01-01

    The seeds of Lactuca sativa were irradiated by different doses (10,20,30,40,50Gy) of 60Co Lactuca sativa ; 60 Co γ-rays ; low dose irradiation ; enzyme activity ; germination- rays. The effects of low dose irradiation on seed germination, seedling growth and enzymes activity were investigated. The results indicated that low dose irradiation could promote germination rate, germinating viability, germination rate in the field, root length and height of seedling. The suitable dosage for low dose irradiation for Lactuca sativa was 30Gy. POD activity after irradiation treatment in the range of 10 to 50Gy and CAT activity after irradiation treatment in the range of 20Gy to 40Gy was lower than that of control.%用不同剂量(10、20、30、40和50Gy)60Coγ射线辐照生菜种子,研究其对种子萌发,幼苗生长和酶活性的影响。结果表明,低剂量辐照可显著提高生菜种子的发芽率、发芽势、田间出苗率、幼苗高度和主根长度,对种子萌发和幼苗生长有一定的促进作用。综合考虑各苗期性状指标初步确定生菜低剂量辐照的适宜剂量为30Gy。在所试剂量范围内辐照处理的POD活性均低于对照;在20~40Gy剂量范围内辐照处理的CAT活性与对照相比也有所降低。

  17. Genetic characterization of quantitative resistance to Bremia lactucae, the causal organism of lettuce downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most valuable vegetable crops in the United States. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Bremia lactucae, is the most important foliar disease of lettuce worldwide, which decreases the quality of the marketable portion of the crop. The use of resistant varieties carryi...

  18. Genetic dissection of nonhost resistance of wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna, to downy mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, N.

    2008-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew is the most destructive disease in lettuce (Lactuca spp.) cultivation and is caused by Bremia lactucae. The successful cross between its host L. sativa and the nonhost, L. saligna, and offers a rare chance to study the genetics of the nonhost resistance. From a set of 29 Backcro

  19. Creación de un módulo de ambiente protegido para producción de semillas de lechuga Lactuca sativa y albahaca Ocimum basilicum para abastecer un Sistema Integral de Producción Agrícola. Centro de Prácticas Docentes e Investigación Agropecuaria. CEPDIA. Escuela de Ingeniería en Agronegocios.

    OpenAIRE

    Marín-Rivas, Fabián

    2013-01-01

    Proyecto Estudiantil. Este trabajo corresponde a un proceso investigativo en diseño y construcción de un ambiente protegido para la producción de semillas hortícolas, propuesto para el Centro de Prácticas Docentes e Investigación Agropecuaria CEPDIA, perteneciente a la Escuela de Ingeniería de Agro negocios, ubicado en el Campus Central del ITCR. Este proyecto intenta suplir una necesidad de auto abastecimiento de semillas hortícolas en particular de lechuga Lactuca sativa y albahaca Oc...

  20. Reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry as a powerful tool for metabolic profiling of vegetables: Lactuca sativa as an example of its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Reidah, I M; Contreras, M M; Arráez-Román, D; Segura-Carretero, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A

    2013-10-25

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), a leafy vegetal widely consumed worldwide, fresh cut or minimally processed, constitutes a major dietary source of natural antioxidants and bioactive compounds. In this study, reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UHPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of polar and semi-polar metabolites from three lettuce cultivars (baby, romaine, and iceberg). The UHPLC systems allowed the use of a small-particle-size C18 column (1.8 μm), with very fine resolution for the separation of up to seven isomers, and the QTOF mass analyzer enabled sensitive detection with high mass resolution and accuracy in full scan. Thus, a total of 171 compounds were tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals and suggested molecular formula with those previously reported in family Asteraceae. Afterwards, their structures were also corroborated by the MS/MS data provided by the QTOF analyzer. Well-known amino acids, organic acids, sesquiterpene lactones, phenolic acids and flavonoids were characterized, e.g. lactucin, lactucopicrin, caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeoylmalic acid, chicoric acid, isochlorogenic acid A, luteolin, and quercetin glycosides. For this plant species, this is the first available report of several isomeric forms of the latter polyphenols and other types of components such as nucleosides, peptides, and tryptophan-derived alkaloids. Remarkably, 10 novel structures formed by the conjugation of known amino acids and sesquiterpene lactones were also proposed. Thus, the methodology applied is a useful option to develop an exhaustive metabolic profiling of plants that helps to explain their potential biological activities and folk uses.

  1. Determinación de enteroparásitos en lechuga Lactuca sativa en fincas dedicadas a su producción en Pasto, Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Andrés Polo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Actualmente las verduras, como la lechuga, se recomiendan ampliamente como parte de la dieta diaria por su gran aporte nutricional, sin embargo, los consumidores al sentirse atraídos por los beneficios proporcionados por la hortaliza, están expuestos a infecciones con parásitos intestinales. Objetivo. Determinar la presencia o ausencia de enteroparásitos en la lechuga (Lactuca sativa cultivada en la zona rural de municipio de Pasto y analizar factores asociados previa caracterización de los predios. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal doble ciego de tipo descriptivo. Se tomaron 105 muestras de 21 predios en el periodo de junio a diciembre de 2013 y se procesaron mediante pruebas de flotación y sedimentación. Adicionalmente, se encuestó a los propietarios para obtener información sobre las posibles variables que influyen en la aparición de enteroparásitos. Resultados. Se encontró contaminación del 100% de las muestras, las cuales presentaban estructuras parasitarias representadas en huevos y larvas correspondientes al 95,25% con quistes de Entamoeba spp., 71,43% con ooquistes de Isospora spp., 61,90% con larvas (L3 de Strongyloides stercoralis, 28,57% con huevos de Toxocara spp. y 4,76% con ooquistes de Eimeria spp. En los factores asociados mediante la prueba de Ji cuadrado, se encontró relación entre Entamoeba spp. con acequia (p= 0,008, perros (p= 0,008 y pozo séptico (p= 0,029 Isospora spp. con compostaje (p= 0,0001, perros (p= 0,0001 y babosas (p=0,002; Strongyloides stercoralis con manipulación (p= 0,003 y Toxocara spp. con el no uso de biodigestores (p= 0,002. Conclusiones. Existe contaminación de la lechuga por enteroparásitos en las áreas de cultivo del municipio de Pasto, los cuales provienen de fuentes animales y humanas como sus principales reservorios, y otros están presentes en el medio ambiente.

  2. Avaliação bacteriológica e físico-química de águas de irrigação, solo e alface (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Scherer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A contaminação de hortaliças por micro-organismos patogênicos está diretamente relacionada com a qualidade das águas de irrigação utilizadas na agricultura e com o solo onde se encontram. Com o objetivo de se verificar as condições empregadas na produção de alface (Lactuca sativa L. em três pequenas propriedades do interior do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, foram avaliadas a condição físico-química das águas de irrigação, e a condição microbiológica das águas, solo e folhas de alface. As análises bacteriológicas das águas de irrigação, hortaliças e do solo foram realizadas usando a técnica dos tubos múltiplos ou por contagem em placa, e levou em conta os coliformes totais, coliformes termotolerantes, e presença ou ausência de Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. e Listeria sp.. As análises físico-químicas realizadas nas águas de irrigação foram pH, turbidez, oxigênio dissolvido, demanda bioquímica de oxigênio, carbono orgânico total e nitrogênio total. As análises bacteriológicas nas águas de irrigação indicaram a ausência de Salmonella sp. e Listeria sp.. Entretanto, foi detectada a presença de E. coli e valores acima do permitido pela legislação para coliformes termotolerantes. Desta forma, estas águas se encontram fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela Resolução CONAMA n° 357. A pesquisa também mostrou a presença de E. coli, Salmonella sp. e Listeria sp. nas hortaliças irrigadas, sugerindo que a fonte de contaminação por Salmonella sp. e Listeria sp. deve ser a partir do solo, e não a partir da água de irrigação. Os dados físico-químicos mostraram que apenas uma das propriedades analisadas apresentou todos os parâmetros adequados, segundo a legislação vigente para águas doces de classe 1. Portanto, apenas uma das propriedades apresentou condições físico-químicas para ser utilizada na irrigação de alface, embora nenhuma tenha apresentado condições higi

  3. Avaliação parasitológica de alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em feiras livres e supermercados do município de Campo Mourão, Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1514 Occurence of parasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercializaed in the street markets and supermarkets of Campo Mourão, state of Paraná, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1514

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Simonelli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou e comparou a contaminação por enteroparasitas em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em supermercados e feiras livres do município de Campo Mourão, Estado do Paraná. Foram analisadas 150 amostras de alfaces, pelo método de sedimentação espontânea (Hoffmann, sendo 75 amostras provenientes de supermercados e 75 amostras de feiras livres. O sedimento foi analisado em microscópio óptico. Das amostras analisadas, 56% (42/75 e 58,7% (44/75 apresentaram contaminação por parasitas, dos supermercados e feiras livres, respectivamente. Os principais parasitas encontrados em supermercados foram: Ascaris spp 54,7%, Toxocara spp 2,4%, Strongyloides spp 4,8%, Entamoeba spp 35,7% e Taenia spp 2,4%; e em feiras livres foram: Ascaris spp 13,6%, Strongyloides spp 11,4%, Entamoeba spp 47,7%, Ancylostoma spp 9,1%, /em>Taenia spp 2,3%, Fasciola hepatica 6,8% e Trichuris spp 9,1%. Esses resultados indicam que as amostras de alfaces estão em desacordo com a legislação vigente e salientam a necessidade de aplicação de um programa de educação sanitária direcionado a horticultores e manipuladores de hortaliçasThis work researched and compared the contamination by enteroparasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in the supermarkets and street markets of Campo Mourão, State of Paraná. 150 samples of lettuce were analyzed through sedimentation method (Hoffmam, being 75 samples from supermarkets and 75 from street markets. The sediment was analyzed in optic microscope. The supermarkets samples showed contamination by parasites of 56% (42/75; while contamination of street markets samples showed 58.7% (44/75. The principal parasites observed in supermarkets samples were: Ascaris spp 54.7%, Toxocara spp 2.4%, Strongyloides spp 4.8%, Entamoeba spp 35.7% and Taenia spp 2.4%. Important parasites observed in street markets were: Ascaris spp 13.6%, Strongyloides spp 11.4%, Entamoeba spp 47.7%, Ancylostoma spp 9.1%, Taenia

  4. Genetic dissection of nonhost resistance of wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna, to downy mildew

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, N.

    2008-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew is the most destructive disease in lettuce (Lactuca spp.) cultivation and is caused by Bremia lactucae. The successful cross between its host L. sativa and the nonhost, L. saligna, and offers a rare chance to study the genetics of the nonhost resistance. From a set of 29 Backcross Inbred Lines (BILs) representing in total 96% of the L. saligna genome, 15 introgressions were identified to contribute to this resistance at one to four tested lettuce developmental stages and ...

  5. Цитогенетические эффекты острого гамма-облучения в клетках меристемы проростка латука (Lactuca sativa L. )

    OpenAIRE

    Букатич, Екатерина; Обвинцева, Надежда; Пряхин, Евгений

    2013-01-01

    Представлена оценка генотоксического действия острого гамма-облучения на клетки меристемы проростка латука (Lactuca sativa L.).The paper presents an assessment of genotoxic effects of acute gamma irradiation on the meristem cells of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

  6. Phosphatase activity in sandy soil influenced by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Kunze

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops may difffer in the way they affect rhizosphere microbiota nutrient dynamics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cover crops on soil phosphatase activity and its persistence in subsequent crops. A three-year experiment was carried out with a Typic Quartzipsamment. Treatments were winter species, either mycorrhizal black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb or the non-mycorrhizal species oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L.. The control treatment consisted of resident vegetation (fallow in the winter season. In the summer, a mixture of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L. with sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L. or with soybean (Glycine max L. was sown in all plots. Soil cores (0-10 cm and root samples were collected in six growing seasons (winter and summer of each year. Microbial biomass P was determined by the fumigation-extraction method and phosphatase activity using p-nitrophenyl-phosphate as enzyme substrate. During the flowering stage of the winter cover crops, acid phosphatase activity was 30-35 % higher in soils with the non-mycorrhizal species oilseed radish, than in the control plots, regardless of the amount of P immobilized in microbial biomass. The values of enzyme activity were intermediate in the plots with corn spurry and black oat. Alkaline phosphatase activity was 10-fold lower and less sensitive to the treatments, despite the significant relationship between the two phosphatase activities. The effect of plant species on the soil enzyme profile continued in the subsequent periods, during the growth of mycorrhizal summer crops, after completion of the life cycle of the cover crops.

  7. Specific In Planta Recognition of Two GKLR Proteins of the Downy Mildew Bremia lactucae Revealed in a Large Effector Screen in Lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stassen, J.H.M.; Boer, den E.; Vergeer, P.W.J.; Andel, A.; Ellendorff, U.; Pelgrom, K.T.B.; Pel, M.; Schut, J.; Zonneveld, O.; Jeuken, M.J.W.; Ackerveken, van den G.

    2013-01-01

    Breeding lettuce (Lactuca sativa) for resistance to the downy mildew pathogen Bremia lactucae is mainly achieved by introgression of dominant downy mildew resistance (Dm) genes. New Bremia races quickly render Dm genes ineffective, possibly by mutation of recognized host-translocated effectors or by

  8. Extreme size and sequence variation in the ITS rDNA of Bremia lactucae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Joon; Hong, Seung-Boem; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2007-02-01

    Bremia lactucae Regel (Chromista, Peronosporaceae) is an economically destructive pathogen, which causes downy mildew disease on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) worldwide. The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of Bremia lactucae isolates was analyzed for the first time. The ITS region of lettuce downy mildew was observed to have a size of 2458 bp; thereby, having one of the longest ITS sizes recorded to date. The majority of the extremely large sized ITS2 length of 2086 was attributed to the additional presences of nine repetitive elements with lengths of 179-194 bp, which between them shared the low homology of 48-69%. Comparison of the ITS2 sequences with the B. lactucae isolates from other host plants showed that isolates present on Lactuca sativa were distinct from those on L. indica var. laciniata, as well as Hemistepta and Youngia. We suggest the high degree of sequence heterogeneity exhibited in the ITS2 region of B. lactucae may warrant the specific detection and diagnosis of this destructive pathogen or its division into several distinct species.

  9. A Lactuca universal hybridizer, and its use in creation of fertile interspecific somatic hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupeau, M C; Maisonneuve, B; Bellec, Y; Chupeau, Y

    1994-10-28

    A Lactuca sativa cv. Ardente line heterozygous for a gene encoding resistance to kanamycin, a positive and dominant trait, was crossed with cv. Girelle, which is heterozygous for a recessive albinism marker. The resulting seeds yielded 25% albino seedlings, of which 50% were also resistant to kanamycin. Such plantlets (KR, a) grown in vitro were used for preparation of universal hybridizer protoplasts, since green buds that can develop on kanamycin containing-medium should result from fusion with any wild-type protoplast. To test the practicability of this selection scheme, we fused L. sativa KR, a protoplasts with protoplasts derived from various wild Lactuca as well as various other related species. Protoplast-derived cell colonies were selected for resistance to kanamycin at the regeneration stage. Green buds were regenerated after fusion with protoplasts of L. tatarica and of L. perennis. So far, 9 interspecific hybrid plants have been characterized morphologically. In addition, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with selected primers confirmed that these plants are indeed interspecific hybrids. Some plants are female-fertile and production of backcross progenies with L. sativa is in progress. Since many desirable traits such as resistances to viruses, bacteria and fungi (Bremia lactucae) have been characterized in wild Lactuca species, the use of somatic hybridization in breeding programmes now appears a practical possibility.

  10. Potenciação alelopática de extratos vegetais na germinação e no crescimento inicial de picão-preto e alface Allelopathy of plant extracts on germination and initial growth of beggartick (Bidens pilosa L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Cristiani Ferreira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. é uma planta daninha muito agressiva, que está presente em quase todo Brasil. O principal método de controle é o químico, porém apresenta elevado impacto ambiental, risco de intoxicação humana e possibilidade de causar fitotoxicidade as culturas. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos etanólicos de Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. e Pinus elliottii L. na germinação e no crescimento inicial de picão-preto e alface (Lactuca sativa L.. Foram testadas quatro concentrações de cada extrato (0,25; 0,50; 1,0 e 2,0 % além do controle (0,0 % água destilada com Tween 20 a 0,08 %. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições em condições de laboratório. O extrato de P. elliottii não causou efeito alelopático sobre o picão-preto e o alface. O extrato de E. citriodora reduziu significativamente o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG do picão-preto em todas as concentrações testadas quando comparadas com o controle (0,0%, porém para a alface o IVG foi significativo apenas na concentração de 2,0 %. Para o comprimento da raiz não foi possível observar diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para os dois extratos testados tanto para o alface como para o picão preto.Bidens pilosa L. is an aggressive weed found all over Brazil. The main control method for this species is chemical treatment however, causes strong environmental impact, and it has great human contamination risks, and may cause phytotoxity to crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extracts of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. and Pinus elliottii L. on seed germination and initial growth of B. pilosa and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. Five concentrations of each extract (0.0; 0.25; 0.50; 1.0; 2.0% were tested in laboratory conditions using a randomized complete block design with four replicates. P. elliottii extract had no effect on B

  11. Effector identification in the lettuce downy mildew Bremia lactucae by massively parallel transcriptome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassen, Joost H M; Seidl, Michael F; Vergeer, Pim W J; Nijman, Isaäc J; Snel, Berend; Cuppen, Edwin; Van den Ackerveken, Guido

    2012-09-01

    Lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) is a rapidly adapting oomycete pathogen affecting commercial lettuce cultivation. Oomycetes are known to use a diverse arsenal of secreted proteins (effectors) to manipulate their hosts. Two classes of effector are known to be translocated by the host: the RXLRs and Crinklers. To gain insight into the repertoire of effectors used by B. lactucae to manipulate its host, we performed massively parallel sequencing of cDNA derived from B. lactucae spores and infected lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedlings. From over 2.3 million 454 GS FLX reads, 59 618 contigs were assembled representing both plant and pathogen transcripts. Of these, 19 663 contigs were determined to be of B. lactucae origin as they matched pathogen genome sequences (SOLiD) that were obtained from >270 million reads of spore-derived genomic DNA. After correction of cDNA sequencing errors with SOLiD data, translation into protein models and filtering, 16 372 protein models remained, 1023 of which were predicted to be secreted. This secretome included elicitins, necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1-like proteins, glucanase inhibitors and lectins, and was enriched in cysteine-rich proteins. Candidate host-translocated effectors included 78 protein models with RXLR effector features. In addition, we found indications for an unknown number of Crinkler-like sequences. Similarity clustering of secreted proteins revealed additional effector candidates. We provide a first look at the transcriptome of B. lactucae and its encoded effector arsenal.

  12. Three combined quantitative trait loci from nonhost Lactuca saligna are sufficient to provide complete resistance of lettuce against Bremia lactucae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningwen W; Pelgrom, Koen; Niks, Rients E; Visser, Richard G F; Jeuken, Marieke J W

    2009-09-01

    The nonhost resistance of wild lettuce (Lactuca saligna) to downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) is based on at least 15 quantitative trait loci (QTL), each effective at one or more plant developmental stages. We used QTL pyramiding (stacking) to determine how many of these QTL from L. saligna are sufficient to impart complete resistance towards B. lactucae to cultivated lettuce, L. sativa. The alleles of four of the most promising QTL, rbq4, rbq5, rbq6+11, and rbq7 are effective at both the young and adult plant stages. Lines with these four QTL in all possible combinations were generated by crossing the respective backcross inbred lines (BIL). Using the 11 resulting lines (combiBIL), we determined that combinations of three QTL, rbq4, rbq5, and rbq6+11, led to increased levels of resistance; however, one QTL, rbq7, did not add to the resistance level when combined with the other QTL. One line, tripleBIL268, which contains the three QTL rbq4, rbq5, and rbq6+11, was completely resistant to B. lactucae at the young plant stage. This suggests that these three QTL are sufficient to confer the complete resistance of the nonhost L. saligna and any additional QTL in L. saligna are redundant. Histological analysis of B. lactucae infection in L. saligna, the BIL, and the combiBIL 48 h after inoculation revealed different microscopical phenotypes of resistance. The QTL differed with respect to the stage of the infection process with which they interfered.

  13. Avaliação da contaminação por enteroparasitas em alfaces (lactuca sativa comercializadas em restaurantes com alimentos expostos ao consumo no município de Sorocaba/SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Vieira Magalhães Ornelas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diante de um cotidiano pauta do por uma intensa influência dos meios decomunicação a respeito da alimentação saudável e de baixo teor calórico,bem como de um progressivo número de campanhas sociais combatendoa obesidade e seu alto valor epidemiológico sobre a sociedadecontemporânea, as hortaliças têm recebido ampla ênfase no cenárionutricional dos dias de hoje. Entretanto, tais aspectos são tambémacompanhados de extrema cautela, uma vez que as hortaliças sãoimportantes veículos de infecções ao organismo humano através de umavasta gama de possíveis parasitas, devido à manipulação pré-consumo einclusive o consumo cru. O trabalho que se segue teve como objetivopesquisar a presença de enteroparasitas especificamente em alfacescomercializadas em restaurantes com alimentos expostos ao consumo nomunicípio de Sorocaba-SP. As amostras de alface crespa (Lactuca sativacoletadas foram submetidas a uma série de etapas para análise:inicialmente houve lavagem em sacos plásticos durante 30 minutos,seguida de sedimentação do líquido por 24 horas e, por fim, análiseparasitológica da amostra por microscopia óptica. Das 40 amostrasrealizadas, apenas 5% continham enteroparasitas. Outras duas amostrascontinham achados como Paramecium spp. e ácaro. Os resultadosreforçam a necessidade de um a boa higienização das hortaliças, mas,devido ao grande número de restaurantes em Sorocaba comparado com ode amostras coletadas, é inadequado considerar generalizar a premissade que os restaurantes self-service possuam alfaces crespa (Lactucasativa higienizadas e próprias para o consumo em Sorocaba.

  14. Selection pressure exerted by host resistance genes shapes the population genetic structure of the lettuce downy mildew, Bremia lactucae, in France

    OpenAIRE

    Valade, Romain; Ducasse, Aurélie; Maisonneuve, Brigitte; Neema, Claire,

    2012-01-01

    Most pathogens are submitted to high selection pressure which can be induced by several variables (climatic, biotic, anthropogenicoe) according to their life traits. In the case of plant pathogens, host resistance may be considered as the main driving force of pathogen evolution, with pathogens evolving to overcome host resistance. In the interaction between Bremia lactucae and Lactuca sativa, several specific resistance genes are used to counter this pathogen in crops. In turn, pathogens sho...

  15. The development of lettuce backcross inbred lines (BILs) for exploitation of the Lactuca saligna (wild lettuce) germplasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, M.J.W.; Lindhout, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Backcross inbred lines (BILs) were developed in which chromosome segments of Lactuca saligna (wild lettuce) were introgressed into L. sativa (lettuce). These lines were developed by four to five backcrosses and one generation of selfing. The first three generations of backcrossing were random. Marke

  16. Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Naiying [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Department of Chemistry, Shangqiu Normal College, Shangqiu 476000 (China); Huang Honglin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Shuzhen, E-mail: szzhang@rcees.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu Yongguan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Christie, Peter [Agri-Environment Branch, Agriculture Food and Environmental Science Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Zhang Yong [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Environmental Science Research Centre, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2009-05-15

    Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. was investigated under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation of lucerne with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum L. resulted in higher phenanthrene accumulation in the roots and lower accumulation in the shoots compared to non-mycorrhizal controls. Studies on sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by roots and characterization of heterogeneity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots using solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 13}C NMR) demonstrated that increased aromatic components due to mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in enhanced phenanthrene uptake by the roots but lower translocation to the shoots. Direct visualization using two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) revealed higher phenanthrene accumulation in epidermal cells of roots and lower transport into the root interior and stem in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal controls. These results provide some insight into the mechanisms by which arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation may influence the uptake of organic contaminants by plants. - Colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus promoted root uptake and decreased shoot uptake of phenanthrene by Medicago sativa L.

  17. 铅与丁草胺的交互作用对油麦菜生长和抗氧化酶活性的影响%The influence of Pb~(2+) and butachlor interaction on growth and antioxidant enzyme activities of Lactuca Sativa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文霞; 郭华武; 李博; 沈连峰

    2011-01-01

    The pot experiment was conducted to study the toxic effects of combined pollution of Pb2 + and butachlor on the growth and physiology of Lactuca sativa L.The results indicated that germination rates of L.sativa were not obviously affected when the Pb2 + concentration was below 500 mg.kg-1.With the concentration of added Pb2 + of 150 mg.kg-1,the plant height was increased,but activities of peroxidase(POD) and catalase(CAT) in leaves were evidently inhibited.When the concentration of added Pb2+ reached 500 mg.kg-1,the root vitality and POD and CAT activities in leaves were inhibited;the inhibition effect was enhanced when the Pb2 + concentration was increased.Experiments with butachlor at concentrations of 2 ~ 6 mg.kg-1 showed inhibition effects on plant height,biomass,root weight and vitality,and POD and CAT activities in leaves.Further experiments with combination of two pollutants showed lower germination rates of L.sativa when the concentration of complex pollution was increased.At both low and high concentrations,the root weight of L.sativa was most severely inhibited and the root vitality was least affected,but the chlorophyll content in leaves was increased.Pb2 + and butachlor at low concentrations had synergistic effects on the inhibition of biomass and antagonistic effects on the inhibition of root vitality,POD and CAT activities.However,at high concentrations,the two pollutants had synergistic effects on inhibition of plant height,biomass and root vitality,and antagonistic effects on inhibition of POD and CAT activities.Additionally,Pb2 + and butachlor demonstrated synergistic effects on chlorophyll biosynthesis.%盆栽土培试验研究了重金属铅与除草剂丁草胺的复合污染对油麦菜生长及生理生化的毒性效应.结果表明土壤铅浓度小于500mg.kg-1对油麦菜发芽率的影响不明显,铅浓度为150mg.kg-1对油麦菜株高有促进作用,但对叶片过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT

  18. Specific in planta recognition of two GKLR proteins of the downy mildew Bremia lactucae revealed in a large effector screen in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassen, Joost H M; den Boer, Erik; Vergeer, Pim W J; Andel, Annemiek; Ellendorff, Ursula; Pelgrom, Koen; Pel, Mathieu; Schut, Johan; Zonneveld, Olaf; Jeuken, Marieke J W; Van den Ackerveken, Guido

    2013-11-01

    Breeding lettuce (Lactuca sativa) for resistance to the downy mildew pathogen Bremia lactucae is mainly achieved by introgression of dominant downy mildew resistance (Dm) genes. New Bremia races quickly render Dm genes ineffective, possibly by mutation of recognized host-translocated effectors or by suppression of effector-triggered immunity. We have previously identified 34 potential RXLR(-like) effector proteins of B. lactucae that were here tested for specific recognition within a collection of 129 B. lactucae-resistant Lactuca lines. Two effectors triggered a hypersensitive response: BLG01 in 52 lines, predominantly L. saligna, and BLG03 in two L. sativa lines containing Dm2 resistance. The N-terminal sequences of BLG01 and BLG03, containing the signal peptide and GKLR variant of the RXLR translocation motif, are not required for in planta recognition but function in effector delivery. The locus responsible for BLG01 recognition maps to the bottom of lettuce chromosome 9, whereas recognition of BLG03 maps in the RGC2 cluster on chromosome 2. Lactuca lines that recognize the BLG effectors are not resistant to Bremia isolate Bl:24 that expresses both BLG genes, suggesting that Bl:24 can suppress the triggered immune responses. In contrast, lettuce segregants displaying Dm2-mediated resistance to Bremia isolate Bl:5 are responsive to BLG03, suggesting that BLG03 is a candidate Avr2 protein.

  19. Molecular diversity at the major cluster of disease resistance genes in cultivated and wild Lactuca spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, D; Woo, S S; Arroyo-Garcia, R; Ochoa, O; Nguyen, D; Korol, A; Nevo, E; Michelmore, R

    1999-08-01

    Diversity was analyzed in wild and cultivated Lactuca germplasm using molecular markers derived from resistance genes of the NBS-LRR type. Three molecular markers, one microsatellite marker and two SCAR markers that amplified LRR-encoding regions, were developed from sequences of resistance gene homologs at the main resistance gene cluster in lettuce. Variation for these markers were assessed in germplasm including accessions of cultivated lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. and three wild Lactuca spp., L. serriola L., L. saligna and L. virosa L. Diversity was also studied within and between natural populations of L. serriola from Israel and California; the former is close to the center of diversity for Lactuca spp. while the latter is an area of more recent colonization. Large numbers of haplotypes were detected indicating the presence of numerous resistance genes in wild species. The diversity in haplotypes provided evidence for gene duplication and unequal crossing-over during the evolution of this cluster of resistance genes. However, there was no evidence for duplications and deletions within the LRR-encoding regions studied. The three markers were highly correlated with resistance phenotypes in L. sativa. They were able to discriminate between accessions that had previously been shown to be resistant to all known isolates of Bremia lactucae. Therefore, these markers will be highly informative for the establishment of core collections and marker-aided selection. A hierarchical analysis of the population structure of L. serriola showed that countries, as well as locations, were significantly differentiated. These differences may reflect local founder effects and/or divergent selection.

  20. Lactuca saligna, a non-host for lettuce downy mildew ( Bremia lactucae), harbors a new race-specific Dm gene and three QTLs for resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuken, M.; Lindhout, P.

    2002-08-01

    Lactuca sativa (lettuce) is susceptible to Bremia lactucae (downy mildew). In cultivated and wild Lactuca species, Dm genes have been identified that confer race-specific resistance. However, these genes were soon rendered ineffective by adaptation of the pathogen. Lactuca saligna (wild lettuce) is resistant to all downy mildew races and can be considered as a non-host. Therefore, L. saligna might be an alternative source for a more-durable resistance to downy mildew in lettuce. In order to analyze this resistance, we have developed an F(2) population based on a resistant L. saligna x susceptible L. sativa cross. This F(2) population was fingerprinted with AFLP markers and tested for resistance to two Bremia races NL14 and NL16. The F(2) population showed a wide and continuous range of resistance levels from completely resistant to completely susceptible. By comparison of disease tests, we observed a quantitative resistance against both Bremia races as well as a race-specific resistance to Bremia race NL16 and not to NL14. QTL mapping revealed a qualitative gene ( R39) involved in the race-specific resistance and three QTLs ( RBQ1, RBQ2 and RBQ3) involved in the quantitative resistance. The qualitative gene R39 is a dominant gene that gives nearly complete resistance to race NL16 in L. saligna CGN 5271 and therefore it showed features similar to Dm genes. The three QTLs explained 51% of the quantitative resistance against NL14, which indicated that probably only the major QTLs have been detected in this F(2) population. The perspectives for breeding for durable resistance are discussed.

  1. Growing patterns to produce 'nitrate-free' lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Mircea Dumitru; Muntean, Daniela-Lucia; Fülöp, Ibolya; Modroiu, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables can contain significant amounts of nitrate and, therefore, may pose health hazards to consumers by exceeding the accepted daily intake for nitrate. Different hydroponic growing patterns were examined in this work in order to obtain 'nitrate-free lettuces'. Growing lettuces on low nitrate content nutrient solution resulted in a significant decrease in lettuces' nitrate concentrations (1741 versus 39 mg kg(-1)), however the beneficial effect was cancelled out by an increase in the ambient temperature. Nitrate replacement with ammonium was associated with an important decrease of the lettuces' nitrate concentration (from 1896 to 14 mg kg(-1)) and survival rate. An economically feasible method to reduce nitrate concentrations was the removal of all inorganic nitrogen from the nutrient solution before the exponential growth phase. This method led to lettuces almost devoid of nitrate (10 mg kg(-1)). The dried mass and calcinated mass of lettuces, used as markers of lettuces' quality, were not influenced by this treatment, but a small reduction (18%, p lettuces and their modifications are also discussed in the paper. It is possible to obtain 'nitrate-free' lettuces in an economically feasible way.

  2. Linkage analysis of genes for resistance to downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, S H; Michelmore, R W

    1985-08-01

    The genetics of specific resistance was studied in F2 populations which segregated for either one or two resistance genes. The resistance factors 1, 11 and 14 which had not previously been characterized genetically segregated as single dominant genes (Dm). Resistance was determined by three linkage groups; R 1/14, 2, 3, and 6 in the first, R 5/8, and 10 in the second and R 4, 7 and 11 in the third. Cultivars of lettuce commonly used in the differential series to detect virulence to R3 and R10, were demonstrated to carry two tightly linked resistance genes. Implications of this linkage arrangement to the manipulation and characterization of these resistance genes are discussed.

  3. Acinetobacter lactucae sp. nov., isolated from iceberg lettuce (Asteraceae: Lactuca sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain NRRL B-41902 and three closely related strains were isolated from iceberg lettuce. The strain was found to consist of strictly aerobic, gram-negative rods that formed cocci in late stationary phase. Subsequent to sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, it was found that strain NRRL B-41902 was...

  4. The presence of amino acids affects inorganic N uptake in non-mycorrhizal seedlings of European beech (Fagus sylvatica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelken, Gunda; Simon, Judy; Ehlting, Barbara; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the impact of organic N compounds for inorganic nitrogen uptake in the rhizosphere, we fed ammonium nitrate with or without amino acids (i.e., glutamine or arginine) to the roots of non-mycorrhizal beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings under controlled conditions at different levels of N availability. Uptake of individual N sources was determined from ¹⁵N (inorganic N) and ¹⁵N ¹³C (organic N) accumulation in the roots. In addition, gene fragments encoding proteins involved in N uptake and metabolism were cloned from beech for gene expression analyses by quantitative real-time PCR in the roots. Generally, ammonium was preferred over nitrate as N source. Organic N sources were taken up by beech roots as intact molecules. Uptake of organic N was significantly higher than inorganic N uptake, thus contributing significantly to N nutrition of beech. Depending on the level of N availability, inorganic N uptake was negatively affected by the presence of organic N sources. This result indicates an overestimation of the contribution of inorganic N uptake to N nutrition of beech in previous studies. Apparently, association with mycorrhizal fungi is not essential for organic N uptake by beech roots. Gene expression analyses showed that transcriptional regulation of the amino acid transporters FsCAT3, FsCAT5, FsAAT and FsAAP and the ammonium transporter FsAMT1.2 in the roots is involved in N nutrition of beech.

  5. P depletion and activity of phosphatases in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joner, E.J.; Magid, J.; Gahoonia, T.S.;

    1995-01-01

    was sectioned in a freezing microtome and analyzed for extracellular acid (pH 5.2) and alkaline (pH 8.5) phosphatase activity as well as depletion of NaHCO-3-extractable inorganic P (P-i) and P-o. Roots and mycorrhizal hyphae depleted the soil of P-i but did not influence the concentration of P-o in spite......An experiment was set up to test the ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) roots and hyphae to produce extracellular phosphatases and to study the relationship between phosphatase activity and soil organic P (P-o). Non-mycorrhizal cucumber and cucumber in symbiosis with either of two mycorrhizal...... fungi were grown in a sandy loam-sand mixture in three-compartment pots. Plant roots were separated from two consecutively adjoining compartments, first by a 37 m mesh excluding roots and subsequently by a 0.45 m membrane excluding mycorrhizal hyphae. Soil from the two root-free compartments...

  6. Flavonoids from Lactuca quercina and L. tatarica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Kisiel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From aerial parts of Lactuca quercina L. and Lactuca tatarica C. A. Meyer six flavonoids were isolated using different chromatographic techniques. Of these, three compounds, apigenin, luteolin and quercetin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside, were found in both species, two compounds, apigenin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside and kaempferol-3-O-β-glucopyranoside, originated from the latter, and one compound, luteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside, from the former.

  7. Pathogenic variation and sexual reproduction in Swedish populations of Bremia lactucae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, M; Liljeroth, E; Gustafsson, I

    1985-09-01

    The host-pathogen interaction between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) is mainly differential and the resistance so far utilized in the host is vertical. As in many other obligate parasites, the introduction of cultivars with new vertical resistance has exerted a strong selection pressure on the pathogen resulting in significant changes in virulence frequencies and in the establishment of races with new combinations of virulence. Genetic diversity in pathogen populations may arise through mutation and gene flow, and new virulence genotypes may then be established through parasexuality and sexual recombination. In Swedish populations of Bremia lactucae, the pattern of variation in the parasite agrees well with that which might be expected in a diploid, outcrossing organism with frequent sexual reproduction. This is supported by: two or more isolates, different in virulence and mating type, may occur together on the same lettuce leaf; zygotes (oospores) are formed in all populations investigated and the frequency varies from 22% to 98%; oospores germinate rather frequently under suitable conditions. To breed for resistance in dynamic host-pathogen systems such as this one is difficult and the program should preferably be based on race-non-specific resistance.

  8. Uptake of 32P from labelled organic matter by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joner, E.J.; Jakobsen, I.

    1995-01-01

    to partially avoid isotopic exchange and adsorption. Mycorrhizal colonization influenced specific activity of P-32 in plants from three of the nine combinations of P and labelled organic matter: At the lowest level of P the specific activity was highest in non-mycorrhizal plants, and at the intermediate level...... of P there was one treatment where mycorrhizal plants had the highest specific activity. These differences are discussed. Plant dry weight and P concentration did not respond to addition of organic matter, though soil extracts consistently contained higher amounts of inorganic P as a result of organic...

  9. Energy production from marine biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Daugbjerg Jensen, P.; Svane Bech, K. [Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark)] [and others

    2011-11-15

    In this project, methods for producing liquid, gaseous and solid biofuel from the marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca has been studied. To get an understanding of the growth conditions of Ulva lactuca, laboratory scale growth experiments describing N, P, and CO{sub 2} uptake and possible N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} production are carried out. The macroalgae have been converted to bioethanol and methane (biogas) in laboratory processes. Further the potential of using the algae as a solid combustible biofuel is studied. Harvest and conditioning procedures are described together with the potential of integrating macroalgae production at a power plant. The overall conclusions are: 1. Annual yield of Ulva lactuca is 4-5 times land-based energy crops. 2. Potential for increased growth rate when bubbling with flue gas is up to 20%. 3. Ethanol/butanol can be produced from pretreated Ulva of C6 and - for butanol - also C5 sugars. Fermentation inhibitors can possibly be removed by mechanical pressing. The ethanol production is 0,14 gram pr gram dry Ulva lactuca. The butanol production is lower. 4. Methane yields of Ulva are at a level between cow manure and energy crops. 5. Fast pyrolysis produces algae oil which contains 78 % of the energy content of the biomass. 6. Catalytic supercritical water gasification of Ulva lactuca is feasible and a methane rich gas can be obtained. 7. Thermal conversion of Ulva is possible with special equipment as low temperature gasification and grate firing. 8. Co-firing of Ulva with coal in power plants is limited due to high ash content. 9. Production of Ulva only for energy purposes at power plants is too costly. 10. N{sub 2}O emission has been observed in lab scale, but not in pilot scale production. 11. Analyses of ash from Ulva lactuca indicates it as a source for high value fertilizers. 12. Co-digestion of Ulva lactuca together with cattle manure did not alter the overall fertilization value of the digested cattle manure alone. (LN)

  10. Characterization of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase from Brassica and Lactuca spp. and its modulation during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichá, Tereza; Činčalová, Lucie; Kopečný, David; Sedlářová, Michaela; Kopečná, Martina; Luhová, Lenka; Petřivalský, Marek

    2016-12-08

    Cellular homeostasis of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a major cache of nitric oxide bioactivity in plants, is controlled by the NADH-dependent S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) belonging to the family of class III alcohol dehydrogenases (EC 1.1.1.1). GSNOR is a key regulator of S-nitrosothiol metabolism and is involved in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. This study was focused on GSNOR from two important crop plants, cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, BoGSNOR) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa, LsGSNOR). Both purified recombinant GSNORs were characterized in vitro and found to exists as dimers, exhibit high thermal stability and substrate preference towards GSNO, although both enzymes have dehydrogenase activity with a broad range of long-chain alcohols and ω-hydroxy fatty acids in presence of NAD(+). Data on enzyme affinities to their cofactors NADH and NAD(+) obtained by isothermal titration calorimetry suggest the high affinity to NADH might underline the GSNOR capacity to function in the intracellular environment. GSNOR activity and gene expression peak during early developmental stages of lettuce and cauliflower at 20 and 30 days after germination, respectively. GSNOR activity was also measured in four other Lactuca spp. genotypes with different degree of resistance to biotrophic pathogen Bremia lactucae. Higher GSNOR activities were found in non-infected plants of susceptible genotypes L. sativa UCDM2 and L. serriola as compared to resistant genotypes. GSNOR and GSNO were localized by confocal laser scanning microscopy in vascular bundles and in epidermal and parenchymal cells of leaf cross-sections. The presented results bring new insight in the role of GSNOR in the regulation of S-nitrosothiol levels in plant growth and development.

  11. Three Combined Quantitative Trait Loci from Nonhost Lactuca saligna Are Sufficient to Provide Complete Resistance of Lettuce Against Bremia lactucae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, N.; Pelgrom, K.T.B.; Niks, R.E.; Visser, R.G.F.; Jeuken, M.J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The nonhost resistance of wild lettuce (Lactuca saligna) to downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) is based on at least 15 quantitative trait loci (QTL), each effective at one or more plant developmental stages. We used QTL pyramiding (stacking) to determine how many of these QTL from L. saligna are suffici

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: garden lettuce [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available garden lettuce Lactuca sativa Lactuca_sativa_L.png Lactuca_sativa_NL.png Lactuca_sativa_S.png Lactuca..._sativa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lactuca+sativa&t=L http://...biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lactuca+sativa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lactuca...+sativa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lactuca+sativa&t=NS ...

  13. The phosphate transporters LjPT4 and MtPT4 mediate early root responses to phosphate status in non mycorrhizal roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Veronica; Giovannetti, Marco; Sun, Xue-Guang; Fiorilli, Valentina; Bonfante, Paola

    2016-03-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis improves host plant phosphorous (P) status and elicits the expression of AM-inducible phosphate transporters (PTs) in arbuscule-containing cells, where they control arbuscule morphogenesis and P release. We confirmed such functions for LjPT4 in mycorrhizal Lotus japonicus. Promoter-GUS experiments showed LjPT4 transcription not only in arbusculated cells but also in root tips, in the absence of the fungus: here LjPT4 transcription profile depended on the phosphate level. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the expression of Lotus and Medicago truncatula PT4 in the tips of non-mycorrhizal roots. Starting from these observations, we hypothesized that AM-inducible PTs may have a regulatory role in plant development, irrespective of the fungal presence. Firstly, we focused on root development responses to different phosphate treatments in both plants demonstrating that phosphate starvation induced a higher number of lateral roots. By contrast, Lotus PT4i plants and Medicago mtpt4 mutants did not show any differential response to phosphate levels, suggesting that PT4 genes affect early root branching. Phosphate starvation-induced genes and a key auxin receptor, MtTIR1, showed an impaired expression in mtpt4 plants. We suggest PT4 genes as novel components of the P-sensing machinery at the root tip level, independently of AM fungi.

  14. Irradiation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L.): microbiological and sensory aspects;Irradiacao de alface (Lactuca sativa. L.): aspectos microbiologicos e sensoriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuhako, Vanessa Provenzano

    2005-07-01

    The increasing demand for fresh foods have stimulated the marketing of minimally processed vegetables. However, these products maintain most of their natural microbiota even after being sanitized, including pathogenic microorganisms. Refrigerated storage allows the growth of psychotropic microorganisms and among them the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The ingestion of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes may represent a risk to pregnant women and their fetuses and to immunocompromised people. Non-thermal alternative processes for food preservation, such as irradiation, can reduce pathogenic and spoilage microorganism populations without impairing substantial changes in sensory, physical or chemical attributes. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on L. monocytogenes artificially inoculated on minimally processed lettuce, to evaluate its effect on lettuce leaves through acceptance sensory test and to determine the irradiated vegetable shelf life through sensory and microbiological tests. A mixture of 4 types of lettuce (Iceberg, Boston, Loose-leaf and Red loose-leaf) were artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes (7 log UFC/g lettuce) and then exposed to 0.3; 0.6; 0.9 and 1.2 kGy, under refrigeration. The DlO values for L. monocytogenes varied fram 0.18 to 0.21 kGy. Sensory and microbiological tests indicated that the shelf life of Iceberg lettuce stored at 7 deg C was 5 and 7 days for the irradiated and non-irradiated samples, respectively, and for the irradiated and non-irradiated Loose-leaf lettuce samples were 10 days. For the non-irradiated Boston sample, the shelf life was 3 days and for the Irradiated 7 days. Red loose-leaf showed 5 and 4 days of shelf lives for the irradiated and non-irradiated, respectively. Irradiated samples presented better microbiological quality than non-irradiated ones. The irradiation is feasible process to improve quality and safety of lettuce leaves. (author)

  15. Dynamics of Short-Term Phosphorus Uptake by Intact Mycorrhizal and Non-mycorrhizal Maize Plants Grown in a Circulatory Semi-Hydroponic Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Garcés-Ruiz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A non-destructive cultivation system was developed to study the dynamics of phosphorus (Pi uptake by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize plantlets. The system consisted of a plant container connected via silicon tubes to a glass bottle containing a nutrient solution supplemented with Pi. The nutrient solution is pumped with a peristaltic pump to the upper part of the container via the silicon tubes and the solution percolate through the plantlet container back into the glass bottle. Pi is sampled from the glass bottle at regular intervals and concentration evaluated. Maize plantlets were colonized by the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 and Pi uptake quantified at fixed intervals (9, 21, and 42 h from the depletion of the Pi in the nutrient solution flowing through the plantlets containers. Plants and fungus grew well in the perlite substrate. The concentration of Pi in the bottles followed an almost linear decrease over time, demonstrating a depletion of Pi in the circulating solution and a concomitant uptake/immobilization by the plantlet-AMF associates in the containers. The Pi uptake rate was significantly increased in the AMF-colonized plantlets (at 9 and 21 h as compared to non-colonized plantlets, although no correlation was noticed with plant growth or P accumulation in shoots. The circulatory semi-hydroponic cultivation system developed was adequate for measuring Pi depletion in a nutrient solution and by corollary Pi uptake/immobilization by the plant-AMF associates. The measurements were non-destructive so that the time course of Pi uptake could be monitored without disturbing the growth of the plant and its fungal associate. The system further opens the door to study the dynamics of other micro and macro-nutrients as well as their uptake under stressed growth conditions such as salinity, pollution by hydrocarbon contaminants or potential toxic elements.

  16. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Sucrine) growth performance in complemented aquaponic solution outperforms hydroponics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaide, Boris; Goddek, Simon; Gott, James; Soyeurt, Hélène; Jijakli, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth performance is optimized under hydroponic conditions. The comparison between aquaponics and hydroponics has attracted considerable attention recently, particularly regarding plant yield. However, previous research has not focused on the potential of using aquaponic solution complemen

  17. ANÁLISIS DE INCERTIDUMBRE DE UN MODELO PARA LECHUGAS (Lactuca sativa L.) CULTIVADAS EN INVERNADERO

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Ramírez-Arias; Mario Alberto Vázquez-Peña; Agustín Ruiz-García; Irineo Lorenzo López-Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Un análisis de incertidumbre para un modelo de crecimiento de un cultivo permite evaluar la variabilidad en sus parámetros y deducir una distribución de incertidumbre para cada variable que el modelo predice. Estos estudios se han practicado raramente en modelos para cultivos bajo invernadero. En el presente trabajo se presenta una metodología para llevar a cabo un análisis de incertidumbre para un modelo de un cultivo bajo invernadero y se aplica para determinar la variabilidad de los paráme...

  18. Quantitative detection of Salmonella enterica and the specific interaction with Lactuca sativa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerks, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella is among the most commonly known bacterial pathogens to cause human illness. Often Salmonellosis is associated with the consumption of contaminated foods like meat, eggs or egg products. However, during the last decades an increase of outbreaks is recognized to be caused by human pathogen

  19. Photoprotection vs. Photoinhibition of Photosystem II in Transplastomic Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Dominantly Accumulating Astaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Ritsuko; Yamano, Nami; Hashimoto, Hideki; Misawa, Norihiko; Ifuku, Kentaro

    2016-07-01

    Transplastomic (chloroplast genome-modified; CGM) lettuce that dominantly accumulates astaxanthin grows similarly to a non-transgenic control with almost no accumulation of naturally occurring photosynthetic carotenoids. In this study, we evaluated the activity and assembly of PSII in CGM lettuce. The maximum quantum yield of PSII in CGM lettuce was lettuce showed a lower ability to induce non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) than the control under various light intensities. The fraction of slowly recovering NPQ in CGM lettuce, which is considered to be photoinhibitory quenching (qI), was less than half that of the control. In fact, (1)O2 generation was lower in CGM than in control leaves under high light intensity. CGM lettuce contained less PSII, accumulated mostly as a monomer in thylakoid membranes. The PSII monomers purified from the CGM thylakoids bound echinenone and canthaxanthin in addition to β-carotene, suggesting that a shortage of β-carotene and/or the binding of carbonyl carotenoids would interfere with the photophysical function as well as normal assembly of PSII. In contrast, high accumulation of astaxanthin and other carbonyl carotenoids was found within the thylakoid membranes. This finding would be associated with the suppression of photo-oxidative stress in the thylakoid membranes. Our observation suggests the importance of a specific balance between photoprotection and photoinhibition that can support normal photosynthesis in CGM lettuce producing astaxanthin.

  20. Effect of Salt Stress on Morphological Traits of Lettuce Genotypes (Lactuca Sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam zare

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The recognition of salt tolerant plants is important as a result ofincreasing saline lands in Iran and world. Cultivation of plants in hydroponic environment is a reliable and economical method in order to select the salt tolerant plant. Salt stress can effect on plant growth and development by ion toxicity, ionic disturb the balance and osmotic potential. Lettuce is one of the most important vegetable crops. This plant is one of the most important leafy vegetables which is used for salad and fresh marketing, also some types of this vegetable is used in baked type. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of lettuce genotypes undersalt stress in the hydroponic system. Materials and Methods: To assess response of lettuce seedlings to salt stress, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications at Biotechnology Research Institute for hydroponic cultivation of Zabol. In this experiment, the effects of three salinity levels (0, 2 and 4 dS/m on morphological characteristics of 15 lettuce genotypes were evaluated. The seeds were sterilized for ten seconds in ethanol 96% and then 15% sodium hypochlorite solution for 50 seconds, then rinsed several times with distilled water, then disinfected seeds were cultured in plastic pots containing coco peat and perlite. After …days plants were transferred to hydroponic system containing Hoagland solution. Collected data were analyzed and means comparisons were made using LSD by SAS software. Results and Discussion: The results showed that salinity has a significant effect on seedling growth of lettuce genotypes (p≤0.01. significant difference between salinity levels and genotype were observed for all traits. Interaction of genotype and salinity for all the traits except root length, plant length and leaf were significant at 1%. Based on the results, the greatest root length was belong to Esfahan Varzaneh leafy lettuce and Romaine lettuce long green Teresa genotype, respectivly. Increasing salinity led to significant reduction (p≤0.01 in the plant length lettuce in all genotypes. Root and plant fresh weight lettuce genotypes were significantly (p≤0.01 influenced by different levels of salinity. The greatest amount in root and plant fresh weight lettuce genotypes were obtained in the control treatment and the lowest amount at the level of 4 dS/m. Root and plant dry weight lettuce genotypes were significantly (p≤0.01 influenced by the salinity. Root and plant dry weight decreased with increasing salinity. So that the greatest amount of root and plant dry weight lettuce genotypes were obtained in control treatment and the lowest amount at the level of 4 dS/m.. The results showed that root and plant length ,root fresh and dry weight, plant fresh and dry weight and leaf length and width reduced with increasing salinity. The clustering pattern the genotypes were grouped into 3 clusters based on their charachters at 4 dS/m salinity. The first cluster were placed in salt tolerant groups, while the other genotypes were clustered into moderately tolerant cluster. Romaine lettuce long green Teresa genotype was placed in salt-tolerant group and Lettuce Everest, Lettuce May Queen, Curly endive hair angel, Cabbage Milan Aubervilliers and Romaine lettuce long blonde Galaica were placed in salt-sensitive group.

  1. MADS-Box Genes and Gibberellins Regulate Bolting in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingyan; Chen, Zijing; Lv, Shanshan; Ning, Kang; Ji, Xueliang; Liu, Xueying; Wang, Qian; Liu, Renyi; Fan, Shuangxi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    Bolting in lettuce is promoted by high temperature and bolting resistance is of great economic importance for lettuce production. But how bolting is regulated at the molecular level remains elusive. Here, a bolting resistant line S24 and a bolting sensitive line S39 were selected for morphological, physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic comparisons. A total of 12204 genes were differentially expressed in S39 vs. S24. Line S39 was featured with larger leaves, higher levels of chlorophyll, soluble sugar, anthocyanin and auxin, consistent with its up-regulation of genes implicated in photosynthesis, oxidation-reduction and auxin actions. Proteomic analysis identified 30 differentially accumulated proteins in lines S39 and S24 upon heat treatment, and 19 out of the 30 genes showed differential expression in the RNA-Seq data. Exogenous gibberellins (GA) treatment promoted bolting in both S39 and S24, while 12 flowering promoting MADS-box genes were specifically induced in line S39, suggesting that although GA regulates bolting in lettuce, it may be the MADS-box genes, not GA, that plays a major role in differing the bolting resistance between these two lettuce lines.

  2. Characterization of volatile production during storage of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The duration that seeds stay vigorous during storage is difficult to predict but critical to seed industry and conservation communities. Production of volatile compounds from lettuce seeds during storage was investigated as a non-invasive and early detection method of seed aging rates. Over thirty...

  3. Improving Water Use Efficiency of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Using Phosphorous Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhader, Asad M F; Abu Rayyan, Azmi M

    2013-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of phosphorous (P) fertilizers application to an alkaline calcareous soil on the water use efficiency (WUE) of lettuce cultivar "robinson" of iceberg type. Head fresh and dry weights, total water applied and WUE were affected significantly by the P fertilizer type and rate. P fertilizers addition induced a significant enhancement in the WUE and fresh and dry weights of the crop. A local phosphate rock (PR) applied directly was found to be inferior to the other types of P fertilizers (Mono ammonium phosphate (MAP), Single superphosphate (SSP), and Di ammonium phosphate ((DAP)). MAP fertilizer at 375 and 500 kg P2O5/ha application rates recorded the highest significant values of head fresh weight and WUE, respectively.

  4. Cadmium uptake in above-ground parts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiwang; Pang, Yan; Ji, Puhui; Gao, Pengcheng; Nguyen, Thanh Hung; Tong, Yan'an

    2016-03-01

    Because of its high Cd uptake and translocation, lettuce is often used in Cd contamination studies. However, there is a lack of information on Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of lettuce during the entire growing season. In this study, a field experiment was carried out in a Cd-contaminated area. Above-ground lettuce parts were sampled, and the Cd content was measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that the Cd concentration in the above-ground parts of lettuce increased from 2.70 to 3.62mgkg(-1) during the seedling stage, but decreased from 3.62 to 2.40mgkg(-1) during organogenesis and from 2.40 to 1.64mgkg(-1) during bolting. The mean Cd concentration during the seedling stage was significantly higher than that during organogenesis (a=0.05) and bolting (a=0.01). The Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of an individual lettuce plant could be described by a sigmoidal curve. Cadmium uptake during organogenesis was highest (80% of the total), whereas that during bolting was only 4.34%. This research further reveals that for Rome lettuce: (1) the highest Cd content of above-ground parts occurred at the end of the seedling phase; (2) the best harvest time with respect to Cd phytoaccumulation is at the end of the organogenesis stage; and (3) the organogenesis stage is the most suitable time to enhance phytoaccumulation efficiency by adjusting the root:shoot ratio.

  5. Nutritional value, bioactive compounds, and health benefits of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce is one of the most popularly consumed vegetables worldwide but its nutritional value has been underestimated. Lettuce is low in calories and fat but high in fiber. Moreover, lettuce is high in potassium but low in sodium. Lettuce is also a good source of health-beneficial bioactive compounds...

  6. Ultrastructural and developmental evidence of phytotoxicity on cos lettuce (Lactuca sativa) associated with nonylphenol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Willeke; van der Merwe, Chris; Kritzinger, Quenton; Bornman, Riana; Korsten, Lise

    2017-02-01

    It has long been understood that the presence of endocrine disrupter chemicals (EDCs) in water can affect the reproductive, behavioural and regulatory systems of different types of mammals. Thus far, only a handful of studies have examined its impact on plant systems. Present research is limited to the potential uptake of these chemicals by plants and the general phytotoxic effects it can elicit. The aim of this study was to determine what effect an EDC has on developing plant and cell organelles and how it affects it. In this study, cos lettuce plants were exposed to different concentrations of nonylphenol (NP), an EDC, in a static hydroponic system. Changes in plant morphology, mass and length, chlorophyll content, as well as electrolyte leakage were examined. Furthermore an in-depth investigation of the plant cell ultrastructure was carried out with transmission electron microscopy. Results indicated that cos lettuce growth was severely restricted, chlorophyll content was reduced, leakage of electrolytes increased and roots were stunted especially after ≥3200 μg/l NP exposures. The structure of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, vacuole and chloroplast were also changed. This study emphasizes the importance of water quality management, since the presence of an EDC, like NP, can negatively impact the yield and internal structure of one of the world's most significant salad crops, namely lettuce.

  7. Genetic Control of Water and Nitrate Capture and Their Use Efficiency in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbiriou, Pauline J; Maliepaard, Chris A; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Koper, Martin; Froissart, Dorothee; Roobeek, Ilja; Lammerts Van Bueren, Edith T; Struik, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    Robustness in lettuce, defined as the ability to produce stable yields across a wide range of environments, may be associated with below-ground traits such as water and nitrate capture. In lettuce, research on the role of root traits in resource acquisition has been rather limited. Exploring genetic variation for such traits and shoot performance in lettuce across environments can contribute to breeding for robustness. A population of 142 lettuce cultivars was evaluated during two seasons (spring and summer) in two different locations under organic cropping conditions, and water and nitrate capture below-ground and accumulation in the shoots were assessed at two sampling dates. Resource capture in each soil layer was measured using a volumetric method based on fresh and dry weight difference in the soil for soil moisture, and using an ion-specific electrode for nitrate. We used these results to carry out an association mapping study based on 1170 single nucleotide polymorphism markers. We demonstrated that our indirect, high-throughput phenotyping methodology was reliable and capable of quantifying genetic variation in resource capture. QTLs for below-ground traits were not detected at early sampling. Significant marker-trait associations were detected across trials for below-ground and shoot traits, in number and position varying with trial, highlighting the importance of the growing environment on the expression of the traits measured. The difficulty of identifying general patterns in the expression of the QTLs for below-ground traits across different environments calls for a more in-depth analysis of the physiological mechanisms at root level allowing sustained shoot growth.

  8. MADS-box genes and gibberellins regulate bolting in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyan Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bolting in lettuce is promoted by high temperature and bolting resistance is of great economic importance for lettuce production. But how bolting is regulated at the molecular level remains elusive. Here, a bolting resistant line S24 and a bolting sensitive line S39 were selected for morphological, physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic comparisons. A total of 12204 genes were differentially expressed in S39 vs S24. Line S39 was featured with larger leaves, higher levels of chlorophyll, soluble sugar, anthocyanin and auxin, consistent with its up-regulation of genes implicated in photosynthesis, oxidation-reduction and auxin actions. Proteomic analysis identified 30 differentially accumulated proteins in lines S39 and S24 upon heat treatment, and 19 out of the 30 genes showed differential expression in the RNA-Seq data. Exogenous gibberellins (GA treatment promoted bolting in both S39 and S24, while 12 flowering promoting MADS-box genes were specifically induced in line S39, suggesting that although GA regulates bolting in lettuce, it may be the MADS-box genes, not GA, that plays a major role in differing the bolting resistance between these two lettuce lines.

  9. Irrigation with treated wastewater: effects on soil, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crop and dynamics of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañas, Pilar; Castro, Elena; de Las Heras, Jorge

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of treated wastewater for horticultural crops, assess the effects of continuous use of treated water on soil and crops, and analyse the physical, chemical and biological effects of irrigation with recycled water. Two lettuce plots watered with drinking water and treated wastewater were monitored over a three year period. Nutrients, heavy metal and the dynamics of pathogen and indicator microorganism content in soil and foliar tissues were analysed. Wastewater irrigation had a high influence on soil parameters: organic matter, N, P, Ca, Al, Fe, Pb and Zn. Indicator and pathogenic microorganisms were detected in soil and plants grown in the wastewater-irrigated plot, and persisted in the soil for 27 days during the study under humid conditions. N, P, Pb and Al content were significantly higher in plant tissues of wastewater-irrigated plots than in the control after 3 years of irrigation. Harvest was significantly higher in the wastewater-irrigated plot. Wastewater can be a resource for agricultural irrigation. In any case, the possible heavy metal accumulation in soils and presence of pathogenic organisms require careful management of this alternative resource: use of a drip irrigation system, previous wastewater disinfection and a limited irrigation period are recommended.

  10. Occurrence of aphids on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) under hydroponic cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Auad,Alexander M.; FREITA, SÉRGIO DE [UNESP; Barbosa,Leonardo R.

    2002-01-01

    A ocorrência de afideos foi avaliada em alface cultivada hidroponicamente na área de produção da Escola Agrotécnica da Universidade Estadual de São Paulo (UNESP), em Jaboticabal, São Paulo, de janeiro a dezembro de 1999. Foi constatado que o número total de cada espécie de afideo, presentes em amostragens conduzidas semanalmente durante o período, foi correlacionada com a média de temperaturas registradas dentro do período de amostragem. Foi registrada a ocorrência de três espécies de afideos...

  11. RNAi-mediated resistance to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in genetically engineered lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdulrazak B; Monteiro, Tatiane R; Cabral, Glaucia B; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2017-07-15

    RNA interference (RNAi)-based transgenic technologies have evolved as potent biochemical tools for silencing specific genes of plant pathogens and pests. The approach has been demonstrated to be useful in silencing genes in insect species. Here, we report on the successful construction of RNAi-based plasmid containing an interfering cassette designed to generate dsRNAs that target a novel v-ATPase transcript in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), an important agricultural pest in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The presence of the transgene was confirmed in T0 and T1 generations of transgenic lettuce lines, segregating in a Mendelian fashion. Seven lines were infested with whiteflies and monitored over a period of 32 days. Analysis of mortality showed that within five days of feeding, insects on transgenic plants showed a mortality rate of 83.8-98.1%. In addition, a reduced number of eggs (95 fold less) was observed in flies feeding on transgenic lettuce plants than insects on control lines. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR showed decreased expression level of endogenous v-ATPase gene in whiteflies feeding on transgenic plants. This technology is a foundation for the production of whitefly-resistant commercial crops, improving agricultural sustainability and food security, reducing the use of more environmentally aggressive methods of pest control.

  12. PERIGOS ASSOCIADOS AO CONSUMO DA ALFACE, (Lactuca sativa, IN NATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. I. MOGHARBEL

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A prevenção de riscos de contaminação por agentes patogênicos em folhas de alface passa pelas boas práticas agrícolas que vai desde a semeadura até a colheita além de outros importantes aspectos, ainda no processo do cultivar, como qualidade da água usada para irrigação, emprego de práticas sanitárias adequadas pelos produtores na manipulação das plantas e higiene do agricultor no campo. Manter a segurança de contaminação bacteriana de frutas e de vegetais frescos requer um conhecimento de sistemas que abranja todos os aspectos da produção, do processamento, da distribuição e do uso. A orientação aos consumidores quanto aos cuidados no armazenamento e na manipulação apropriados do produto fresco, deve ser incentivada pelas autoridades sanitárias, como forma de se evitar doenças veiculadas pelos alimentos. Desta forma, a proteção de contaminantes patológicos em vegetais frescos, visando a proteção tanto do produtor como do consumidor, vão de encontro a algumas práticas similares do sistema APPCC, onde se projetam atributos de limitação, controle, e monitoramento das fontes de contato na produção dos vegetais.

  13. MADS-Box Genes and Gibberellins Regulate Bolting in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingyan; Chen, Zijing; Lv, Shanshan; Ning, Kang; Ji, Xueliang; Liu, Xueying; Wang, Qian; Liu, Renyi; Fan, Shuangxi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    Bolting in lettuce is promoted by high temperature and bolting resistance is of great economic importance for lettuce production. But how bolting is regulated at the molecular level remains elusive. Here, a bolting resistant line S24 and a bolting sensitive line S39 were selected for morphological, physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic comparisons. A total of 12204 genes were differentially expressed in S39 vs. S24. Line S39 was featured with larger leaves, higher levels of chlorophyll, soluble sugar, anthocyanin and auxin, consistent with its up-regulation of genes implicated in photosynthesis, oxidation-reduction and auxin actions. Proteomic analysis identified 30 differentially accumulated proteins in lines S39 and S24 upon heat treatment, and 19 out of the 30 genes showed differential expression in the RNA-Seq data. Exogenous gibberellins (GA) treatment promoted bolting in both S39 and S24, while 12 flowering promoting MADS-box genes were specifically induced in line S39, suggesting that although GA regulates bolting in lettuce, it may be the MADS-box genes, not GA, that plays a major role in differing the bolting resistance between these two lettuce lines. PMID:28018414

  14. Quantitative detection of Salmonella enterica and the specific interaction with Lactuca sativa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerks, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella is among the most commonly known bacterial pathogens to cause human illness. Often Salmonellosis is associated with the consumption of contaminated foods like meat, eggs or egg products. However, during the last decades an increase of outbreaks is recognized to be caused by human

  15. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Sucrine Growth Performance in Complemented Aquaponic Solution Outperforms Hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Delaide

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth performance is optimized under hydroponic conditions. The comparison between aquaponics and hydroponics has attracted considerable attention recently, particularly regarding plant yield. However, previous research has not focused on the potential of using aquaponic solution complemented with mineral elements to commercial hydroponic levels in order to increase yield. For this purpose, lettuce plants were put into AeroFlo installations and exposed to hydroponic (HP, aquaponic (AP, or complemented aquaponic (CAP solutions. The principal finding of this research was that AP and HP treatments exhibited similar (p > 0.05 plant growth, whereas the shoot weight of the CAP treatment showed a significant (p < 0.05 growth rate increase of 39% on average compared to the HP and AP treatments. Additionally, the root weight was similar (p > 0.05 in AP and CAP treatments, and both were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that observed in the HP treatment. The results highlight the beneficial effect of recirculating aquaculture system (RAS water on plant growth. The findings represent a further step toward developing decoupled aquaponic systems (i.e., two- or multi-loops that have the potential to establish a more productive alternative to hydroponic systems. Microorganisms and dissolved organic matter are suspected to play an important role in RAS water for promoting plant roots and shoots growth.

  16. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Sucrine) growth performance in complemented aquaponic solution outperforms hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Delaide; Simon Goddek; James Gott; Hélène Soyeurt; M Haissam Jijakli

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth performance is optimized under hydroponic conditions. The comparison between aquaponics and hydroponics has attracted considerable attention recently, particularly regarding plant yield. However, previous research has not focused on the potential of using aquaponic solution complemented with mineral elements to commercial hydroponic levels in order to increase yield. For this purpose, lettuce plants were put into AeroFlo installations and exposed to hydroponic (HP), aquaponic (AP...

  17. Anxiolytic property of Lactuca sativa, effect on anxiety behaviour induced by novel food and height

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SN Harsha; KR Anilakumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study anxiolytic property of hydro alchohol extract and to estimate polyphenols present in the extract by HPLC. Methods: To evaluate anxiolytic property two animal models were used viz. Elevated T maze and hyponeophagia. Diazepam (1 mg/kg body wt.) served as the standard anxiolytic agent for all the tests. The dried extract of the plant leaf in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to mice for duration of 15 or 30 days and locomotor and anxiolytic activities were performed. Polyphenols was estimated using HPLC.Results:The HPLC analysis of the polyphenols revealed the presence chlorogenic acid, vanillin, epicatechin, caffeic acid, rutin hydrate, sinapic acid, quercetin-3-rhamnoside, p-coumeric acid and quercitin. Time spent and number of entries into the open arm was improved in 30 days treated animals than that of 15 days treated groups, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight treated group showed significant results when comparing with the control group. Conclusions: The hydro alcohol extract rich in Polyphenols and other secondary metabolites is a potent anxiolytic agent.

  18. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Growth and Nitrate Content of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

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    Cheng-Wei Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development; however, due to environmental pollution, high nitrate concentrations accumulate in the edible parts of these leafy vegetables, particularly if excessive nitrogen fertilizer has been applied. Consuming these crops can harm human health; thus, developing a suitable strategy for the agricultural application of nitrogen fertilizer is important. Organic, inorganic, and liquid fertilizers were utilized in this study to investigate their effect on nitrate concentrations and lettuce growth. The results of this pot experiment show that the total nitrogen concentration in soil and the nitrate concentration in lettuce increased as the amount of nitrogen fertilizer increased. If the recommended amount of inorganic fertilizer (200 kg·N·ha−1 is used as a standard of comparison, lettuce augmented with organic fertilizers (200 kg·N·ha−1 have significantly longer and wider leaves, higher shoot, and lower concentrations of nitrate.

  19. Effects of nitrogen fertilizers on the growth and nitrate content of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Wei; Sung, Yu; Chen, Bo-Ching; Lai, Hung-Yu

    2014-04-22

    Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development; however, due to environmental pollution, high nitrate concentrations accumulate in the edible parts of these leafy vegetables, particularly if excessive nitrogen fertilizer has been applied. Consuming these crops can harm human health; thus, developing a suitable strategy for the agricultural application of nitrogen fertilizer is important. Organic, inorganic, and liquid fertilizers were utilized in this study to investigate their effect on nitrate concentrations and lettuce growth. The results of this pot experiment show that the total nitrogen concentration in soil and the nitrate concentration in lettuce increased as the amount of nitrogen fertilizer increased. If the recommended amount of inorganic fertilizer (200 kg·N·ha⁻¹) is used as a standard of comparison, lettuce augmented with organic fertilizers (200 kg·N·ha⁻¹) have significantly longer and wider leaves, higher shoot, and lower concentrations of nitrate.

  20. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Sucrine) growth performance in complemented aquaponic solution outperforms hydroponics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaide, Boris; Goddek, Simon; Gott, James; Soyeurt, Hélène; Jijakli, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth performance is optimized under hydroponic conditions. The comparison between aquaponics and hydroponics has attracted considerable attention recently, particularly regarding plant yield. However, previous research has not focused on the potential of using aquaponic solution

  1. Quantitative detection of Salmonella enterica and the specific interaction with Lactuca sativa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerks, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella is among the most commonly known bacterial pathogens to cause human illness. Often Salmonellosis is associated with the consumption of contaminated foods like meat, eggs or egg products. However, during the last decades an increase of outbreaks is recognized to be caused by human pathogen

  2. NUTRIENTS DYNIMIC IN AN AQUAPONIC RECIRCULATING SYSTEM FOR STURGEON AND LETTUCE (LACTUCA SATIVA PRODUCTION

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    LORENA SFETCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics are modern production systems, which integrate the aquaculture technology with hydroponic systems (vegetable production without soil with a goal of fructification of residual nutrients resulted from metabolic activity of fish biomass as high quality vegetable biomass sealable as ecological products. In the present study, as a first step in aquaponic recirculating systems evaluation, the authors aim to compare two types of recirculating systems: classical (hereby noted with RAS and integrated/aquaponic (RAS_A regarding water quality parameters generally, and TAN (total ammonia nitrogen production and transformation, particularly.

  3. Phytochemical relationship of Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia pulcherrima with Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Hafiza Ayesha; Yousaf, Zubaida; Rashid, Madiha; Younas, Afifa; Arif, Ayesha; Afzal, Ismah; Akram, Waheed

    2014-01-01

    Allelopathy is an important phenomenon that modifies the ecosystem. A plant can enhance or reduce the growth of other plant due to the presence of a number of allelochemicals in its different parts. Euphorbia helioscopia and Euphorbia pulcherrima are medicinal plant species. Both these species are collected from wild resources for various purposes. To reduce the pressure on wild population, it is important to bring them into cultivation. Therefore, the allelopathic effects of E. helioscopia and E. pulcherrima on the growth of lettuce seeds were studied. Three different concentrations (2%, 4% and 6%) of five different solvents (methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, n-hexane and distilled water) were used to estimate the allelopathic potential of the above-mentioned Euphorbia species. Results indicated a non-significant growth inhibitory effect of both plants on lettuce seeds. Different extracts reduced the growth of test plant to some extent but this inhibition was not significant. From the observed results, it was concluded that the studied Euphorbia species, being medicinally important crops, can be introduced as intercrop with other cash crops.

  4. Transcriptome analysis of Glomus mosseae/Medicago sativa mycorrhiza on atrazine stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fuqiang; Li, Jize; Fan, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Quan; Chang, Wei; Yang, Fengshan; Geng, Gui

    2016-02-02

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) protect host plants against diverse biotic and abiotic stresses, and promote biodegradation of various contaminants. In this study effect of Glomus mosseae/Medicago sativa mycorrhiza on atrazine degradation was investigated. It was observed that the atrazine degradation rates with any addition level in mycorrhizal treatments were all significantly higher than those in non-mycorrhizal treatments. When atrazine was applied at 20 mg kg(-1), the removal efficiency was up to 74.65%. Therefore, G. mosseae can be considered as ideal inhabitants of technical installations to facilitate phytoremediation. Furthermore, a total of 10.4 Gb was used for de novo transcriptome assembly, resulting in a comprehensive data set for the identification of genes corresponding to atrazine stress in the AM association. After comparative analysis with edgeR, a total of 2,060 differential expressed genes were identified, including 570 up-regulated genes and 1490 down-regulated genes. After excluding 'function unknown' and 'general function predictions only' genes, 172 up-regulated genes were obtained. The differentially expressed genes in AM association with and without atrazine stress were associated with molecular processes/other proteins, zinc finger protein, intracellular/extracellular enzymes, structural proteins, anti-stress/anti-disease protein, electron transport-related protein, and plant growth associated protein. Our results not only prove AMF has important ecological significance on atrazine degradation but also provide evidence for the molecular mechanisms of atrazine degradation by AMF.

  5. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  6. Genetic dissection of Lactuca saligna nonhost resistance to downy mildew at various lettuce developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, N.; Lindhout, P.; Niks, R.E.; Jeuken, M.J.W.

    2009-01-01

    This study used the pathosystem of lettuce (Lactuca spp.) and downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) as a model to investigate the inheritance of nonhost resistance, and focused on the contribution of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to nonhost resistance at various developmental stages in the lettuce life cy

  7. Factors affecting the survival of Bremia lactucae sporangia deposited on lettuce leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, B.M.; Subbarao, K.V.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments to identify the factors affecting survival of Bremia lactucae sporangia after deposition on lettuce leaves were conducted in growth chambers and outdoors under ambient conditions. Lettuce seedlings at the four-leaf stage were inoculated with B. lactucae sporangia under dry conditions. Sp

  8. Isolation of a polysaccharide with antiviral effect from Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, V; Rouseva, R; Kolarova, M; Serkedjieva, J; Rachev, R; Manolova, N

    1994-05-01

    A polysaccharide from the green marine algae Ulva lactuca has been isolated. The substance has been investigated after acid hydrolysis by thin-layer and gas chromatography. The following carbohydrate components have been found: arabinose-xylose-rhamnose-galactose-mannose-glucose in ratio 1:1:9:5:2.5:16 respectively. One unidentified sugar has been demonstrated too. The polysaccharide has been studied for antiviral activity in vitro against a number of human and avian influenza viruses. A considerable inhibition of the viral reproduction was found. The effect was dose-dependent, strain-specific and selective.

  9. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

    2015-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection medium were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines, and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using PCR and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23% ± 0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1-55.3%.

  10. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  11. Avaliação parasitológica em alfaces (Lactuca sativa L. comercializadas em Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brasil / Parasitological evaluation in lettuces (Lactuca sativa L. marketed in Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência de parasitoses intestinais cresce de forma expansiva no Brasil e em muitos países. A ocorrência de enteroparasitoses advém de várias maneiras, inclusive por con-sumo de vegetais contaminados, representando um grande problema em nível mundial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a contaminação por parasitas intestinais em horta-liças comercializadas em Serra Talhada-PE. As amostras das hortaliças foram coletadas nas unidades de produção (hortas, na unidade de recepção do Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos (PAA e em diversos estabelecimentos comerciais localizadas no município. As amostras foram colocadas em sacos plásticos e mantidas em caixa isotérmica; em seguida, foram encaminhadas ao laboratório de Biologia da Unidade Acadêmica de Serra Talhada-UFRPE. Para a identificação dos parasitas foi utilizado o método de sedimenta-ção espontânea. Observou-se que das 80 amostras de alface analisadas 97,5% estavam positivas para formas parasitárias e outros organismos microscópicos, incluindo ovos e larvas de nematoides, cistos de protozoários, ovos de cestódeos e alguns artrópodes (insetos e ácaros. É de suma importância o conhecimento dos produtores e manipu-ladores em geral a respeito da contaminação, bem como o conhecimento das técnicas sanitizantes desenvolvidas para hortaliças, com intuito de diminuir a contaminação em todas as etapas ocorrentes desde o cultivo até ao consumo. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Prevalence of intestinal parasites growing in Brazil and in many countries so expansive. The intestinal parasites comes in several ways, including by consumption of contami-nated vegetables, which represents a significant worldwide problem. The objective of this study is to assess the contamination by intestinal parasites in vegetables commer-cialized in Serra Talhada, in Pernambuco state. Samples of vegetables were collected at the production units (vegetable gardens and the receiving unit of the Food Acquisition Program (FAP and several commercial establishments in the municipality. Samples were placed in plastic bags and kept in an isothermal box, then sent to the laboratory of Biology Academic Unit of Serra Talhada — UAST/UFRPE. For the identification of para-sites was performed the spontaneous sedimentation. It was observed that the lettuce samples analyzed 97.5% were positive for parasitic forms and other microscopic organis-ms, including eggs and larvae of nematodes, protozoan cysts, cestodes eggs and some arthropods (insects and mites. Is extremely important to know the producers and han-dlers in general with respect to contamination, as well as the knowledge of the techni-ques developed for sanitizing vegetables crops, aiming at diminishing the contamination occurred in all steps occurring from cultivation to consumption.

  12. CRESCIMENTO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DA ALFACE (Lactuca sativa L. CONDUZIDA EM ESTUFA PLÁSTICA COM FERTIRRIGAÇÃO EM SUBSTRATOS GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF LETTUCE (Lactuca sativa L. IN A PLASTIC GREENHOUSE WITH FERTIRRIGATION IN SUBSTRATES

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    Luis Aquiles Martins Medeiros

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, um cultivo no outono e outro no inverno de 1998, em estufa plástica localizada no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, com o objetivo de estudar a influência da fertirrigação em substratos no crescimento e desenvolvimento da alface, cultivar Brisa. Os tratamentos, com e sem fertirrigação, foram constituídos pelos substratos húmus de minhoca mais casca de arroz natural (H+CN, húmus de minhoca mais casca de arroz carbonizada (H+CC e solo como testemunha, constituindo um bifatorial 3x2. A fertirrigação foi realizada em função da condutividade elétrica (CE da solução drenada dos substratos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Semanalmente, foram determinados o número de folhas por planta, a massa fresca e seca da parte aérea das plantas e o índice de área foliar. Avaliou-se, ainda, a capacidade de retenção de água (CRa dos substratos isolados e das misturas, antes e após os cultivos. A CRa dos substratos aumentou ao longo dos cultivos enquanto a do solo permaneceu constante. Os substratos irrigados com solução nutritiva proporcionaram maior número de folhas, maior produção de massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e maior índice de área foliar do que quando irrigados apenas com água, sendo que os substratos H+CN e H+CC foram significativamente mais produtivos do que o substrato testemunha em ambos os cultivosIn order to study the effects of fertirrigation in growing substrates on the development of lettuce cultivar Brisa, two essays were conducted, one during the fall of 1998 and the other during the winter, in a plastic greenhouse in the Federal University of Santa Maria. The treatments with and without fertirrigation were constituted by earthworm humus plus rice hulls (H+CN, earthworm humus plus carbonized rice hulls (H+CC and pure soil as check. The fertirrigation timing was established by monitoring the electric conductivity of the substrates drained solution. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. Once a week, the number of leaves per plant, fresh and dry weight of above ground plant parts and leaf area index were determined. The water retention capacity (CRa of the isolated substrates and mixtures both before and after the establishment of the plants was also determined. The substrates CRa values increased along the growing season whereas soil CRa was constant. The substrates irrigated with nutritive solution resulted in plants with greater leaf numbers, higher dry and fresh above ground weight and higher leaf area index when compared with plants irrigated with water only. The H+CN and H+CC substrates were significantly more productive that the check substrates in both growing seasons.

  13. Botanical Files on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa). On the chance for gene flow between wild and cultivated Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. including L. serriola L., Compositae) and the generalized implications for risk-assessments on genetically modified plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frietema de Vries, F.T.; Meijden, van der R.; Brandenburg, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    In Botanical Files, a study of the real chances for gene flow from cultivated plants to the wild a system of dispersal codes (Dpdf) was introduced (see text box Dpdf).³7 They are indications of already occurring gene flow from cultivated plants to the wild flora, as can be deduced from herbarium col

  14. DESEMPENHO DE CULTURAS DE ALFACE (LACTUCA SATIVA L NO PERIODO DE VERAO EM CASAS DE VEGETAÇÃO COM DIFERENTES COBERTURAS PERFORMANCE OF THE LETTUCE (LACTUCA SATIVA L ON SUMMER CONDITIONS IN GREENHOUSES WITH DIFFERENT COVERINGS

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    Fernando da Costa Baêta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as condições térmicas ambientais no interior de quatro protótipos, iguais em concepção e geometria arquitetônicas e diferentes nas soluções dos componentes de fechamento da cobertura, e avaliar o desempenho deles na produção de alface em períodos de verão. Para fins de avaliação de desempenho ambiental, foram considerados quatro tratamentos de cobertura: (T testemunha, somente com lona plástica; (L lona plástica e componente de ventilação (lanternim; (LS lona plástica sob tela de sombreamento, associado a componente de ventilação (lanternim; e, (S lona plástica sob tela de sombreamento. Como pressupostamente esperado, pode-se afirmar que as casas de vegetação sombreadas apresentaram melhor desempenho ambiental, comparativamente às não-sombreadas, e proporcionaram um ambiente mais confortável ao desenvolvimento da cultura da alface no verão.The aim of this work had concentrated in the study of solutions for the closing of the covering for greenhouses under summer conditions, experimented with the lettuce. Four covering treatments were considerate for the evaluation of the environmental performance: (T testifier, with only plastic canvas; (C plastic canvas and ventilation compound (an overture on the roof; (CS plastic canvas under shading screen, with a ventilation compound(an overture on the roof associated; and (S plastic canvas under shading screen. It can be declared, as expected, that shaded greenhouses presented a best environment performance than the unshaded greenhouses, and provided a more comfortable environment for the growth of lettuce culture on Summer.

  15. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  16. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  17. Sensitivity of salad greens (Lactuca sativa L. and Eruca sativa Mill.) exposed to crude extracts of toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt-Oliveira, M C; Hereman, T C; Macedo-Silva, I; Cordeiro-Araújo, M K; Sasaki, F F C; Dias, C T S

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of crude extracts of the microcystin-producing (MC+) cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa on seed germination and initial development of lettuce and arugula, at concentrations between 0.5 μg.L(-1) and 100 μg.L(-1) of MC-LR equivalent, and compared it to crude extracts of the same species without the toxin (MC-). Crude extracts of the cyanobacteria with MC (+) and without MC (-) caused different effects on seed germination and initial development of the salad green seedlings, lettuce being more sensitive to both extracts when compared to arugula. Crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC+) caused more evident effects on seed germination and initial development of both species of salad greens than MC-. Concentrations of 75 μg.L(-1) and 100 μg.L(-1) of MC-LR equivalent induced a greater occurrence of abnormal seedlings in lettuce, due to necrosis of the radicle and shortening of this organ in normal seedlings, as well as the reduction in total chlorophyll content and increase in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POD). The MC- extract caused no harmful effects to seed germination and initial development of seedlings of arugula. However, in lettuce, it caused elevation of POD enzyme activity, decrease in seed germination at concentrations of 75 μg.L(-1) (MC-75) and 100 μg.L(-1) (MC-100), and shortening of the radicle length, suggesting that other compounds present in the cyanobacteria extracts contributed to this result. Crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC-) may contain other compounds, besides the cyanotoxins, capable of causing inhibitory or stimulatory effects on seed germination and initial development of salad green seedlings. Arugula was more sensitive to the crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC+) and (MC-) and to other possible compounds produced by the cyanobacteria.

  18. Sensitivity of salad greens (Lactuca sativa L. and Eruca sativa Mill. exposed to crude extracts of toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC. Bittencourt-Oliveira

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of crude extracts of the microcystin-producing (MC+ cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa on seed germination and initial development of lettuce and arugula, at concentrations between 0.5 μg.L–1 and 100 μg.L–1 of MC-LR equivalent, and compared it to crude extracts of the same species without the toxin (MC–. Crude extracts of the cyanobacteria with MC (+ and without MC (– caused different effects on seed germination and initial development of the salad green seedlings, lettuce being more sensitive to both extracts when compared to arugula. Crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC+ caused more evident effects on seed germination and initial development of both species of salad greens than MC–. Concentrations of 75 μg.L–1 and 100 μg.L–1 of MC–LR equivalent induced a greater occurrence of abnormal seedlings in lettuce, due to necrosis of the radicle and shortening of this organ in normal seedlings, as well as the reduction in total chlorophyll content and increase in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POD. The MC– extract caused no harmful effects to seed germination and initial development of seedlings of arugula. However, in lettuce, it caused elevation of POD enzyme activity, decrease in seed germination at concentrations of 75 μg.L–1 (MC-75 and 100 μg.L–1 (MC-100, and shortening of the radicle length, suggesting that other compounds present in the cyanobacteria extracts contributed to this result. Crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC– may contain other compounds, besides the cyanotoxins, capable of causing inhibitory or stimulatory effects on seed germination and initial development of salad green seedlings. Arugula was more sensitive to the crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC+ and (MC– and to other possible compounds produced by the cyanobacteria.

  19. Transcriptome Profiling of Caco-2 Cancer Cell Line following Treatment with Extracts from Iodine-Biofortified Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L..

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    Aneta A Koronowicz

    Full Text Available Although iodization of salt is the most common method used to obtain iodine-enriched food, iodine deficiency disorders are still a global health problem and profoundly affect the quality of human life. Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulators of human metabolism, cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and have been reported to be involved in carcinogenesis. In this study, for the first time, we evaluated the effect of iodine-biofortified lettuce on transcriptomic profile of Caco-2 cancer cell line by applying the Whole Human Genome Microarray assay. We showed 1326 differentially expressed Caco-2 transcripts after treatment with iodine-biofortified (BFL and non-fortified (NFL lettuce extracts. We analysed pathways, molecular functions, biological processes and protein classes based on comparison between BFL and NFL specific genes. Iodine, which was expected to act as a free ion (KI-NFL or at least in part to be incorporated into lettuce macromolecules (BFL, differently regulated pathways of numerous transcription factors leading to different cellular effects. In this study we showed the inhibition of Caco-2 cells proliferation after treatment with BFL, but not potassium iodide (KI, and BFL-mediated induction of mitochondrial apoptosis and/or cell differentiation. Our results showed that iodine-biofortified plants can be effectively used by cells as an alternative source of this trace element. Moreover, the observed differences in action of both iodine sources may suggest a potential of BFL in cancer treatment.

  20. Treated wastewater phytotoxicity assessment using Lactuca sativa: Focus on germination and root elongation test parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priac, Anne; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Crini, Grégorio

    2017-03-01

    Sensitive and simple ecotoxicological bioassays like seed germination and root elongation tests are commonly used to evaluate the phytotoxicity of waste and industrial discharge waters. Although the tests are performed following national and international standards, various parameters such as the number of seeds per dish, the test duration or the type of support used remain variable. To be able to make a correct comparison of results from different studies, it is crucial to know which parameter(s) could affect ecotoxicological diagnosis. We tested four different control waters and three seed densities. No significant differences on either germination rate or root elongation endpoints were shown. Nevertheless, we found that the four lettuce cultivars (Appia, batavia dorée de printemps, grosse blonde paresseuse, and Kinemontepas) showed significantly different responses when watered with the same and different metal-loaded industrial discharge water. From the comparison, it is clear that a differential sensitivity scale occurs among not just species but cultivars.

  1. Transcriptome Profiling of Caco-2 Cancer Cell Line following Treatment with Extracts from Iodine-Biofortified Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koronowicz, Aneta A; Kopeć, Aneta; Master, Adam; Smoleń, Sylwester; Piątkowska, Ewa; Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Renata; Ledwożyw-Smoleń, Iwona; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Rakoczy, Roksana; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Pysz, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Although iodization of salt is the most common method used to obtain iodine-enriched food, iodine deficiency disorders are still a global health problem and profoundly affect the quality of human life. Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulators of human metabolism, cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and have been reported to be involved in carcinogenesis. In this study, for the first time, we evaluated the effect of iodine-biofortified lettuce on transcriptomic profile of Caco-2 cancer cell line by applying the Whole Human Genome Microarray assay. We showed 1326 differentially expressed Caco-2 transcripts after treatment with iodine-biofortified (BFL) and non-fortified (NFL) lettuce extracts. We analysed pathways, molecular functions, biological processes and protein classes based on comparison between BFL and NFL specific genes. Iodine, which was expected to act as a free ion (KI-NFL) or at least in part to be incorporated into lettuce macromolecules (BFL), differently regulated pathways of numerous transcription factors leading to different cellular effects. In this study we showed the inhibition of Caco-2 cells proliferation after treatment with BFL, but not potassium iodide (KI), and BFL-mediated induction of mitochondrial apoptosis and/or cell differentiation. Our results showed that iodine-biofortified plants can be effectively used by cells as an alternative source of this trace element. Moreover, the observed differences in action of both iodine sources may suggest a potential of BFL in cancer treatment.

  2. MANEJO DA IRRIGAÇÃO DA CULTURA DA ALFACE (Lactuca sativa L. ATRAVÉS DO TANQUE CLASSE A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRADE JÚNIOR A.S. de

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de irrigação, baseados em frações da evaporação do Tanque Classe A (ECA (0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,00 sobre o comportamento produtivo da cultura da alface, variedade "Mesa 659" (tipo americana, cultivada em uma estufa plástica e irrigada por gotejamento, foi conduzido um experimento durante o período de julho a setembro de 1993. O comportamento produtivo foi avaliado através da determinação da matéria fresca (MFP, produtividade (PROD e eficiência do uso de água (EUA. Os resultados de MFP e PROD mostraram resposta quadrática, indicando acréscimo em ambos à medida que aumentaram as lâminas de irrigação aplicadas até o nível 0,75 da ECA, apresentando valores máximos de 818,72 g e 90,97 t.ha-1, respectivamente. Os dados relativos à EUA revelaram resposta linear decrescente, significando que à medida que os níveis de irrigação aumentam ocorre uma diminuição na EUA.

  3. High-Throughput Growth Prediction for Lactuca sativa L. Seedlings Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence in a Plant Factory with Artificial Lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyuki, Shogo; Fukuda, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Poorly grown plants that result from differences in individuals lead to large profit losses for plant factories that use large electric power sources for cultivation. Thus, identifying and culling the low-grade plants at an early stage, using so-called seedlings diagnosis technology, plays an important role in avoiding large losses in plant factories. In this study, we developed a high-throughput diagnosis system using the measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) in a commercial large-scale plant factory, which produces about 5000 lettuce plants every day. At an early stage (6 days after sowing), a CF image of 7200 seedlings was captured every 4 h on the final greening day by a high-sensitivity CCD camera and an automatic transferring machine, and biological indices were extracted. Using machine learning, plant growth can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy based on biological indices including leaf size, amount of CF, and circadian rhythms in CF. Growth prediction was improved by addition of temporal information on CF. The present data also provide new insights into the relationships between growth and temporal information regulated by the inherent biological clock.

  4. Effect of proline on biochemical and molecular mechanisms in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) exposed to UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksakal, Ozkan; Tabay, Dilruba; Esringu, Aslıhan; Icoglu Aksakal, Feyza; Esim, Nevzat

    2017-02-15

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of proline (Pro) in relieving UV-B radiation-induced oxidative stress in lettuce. Lettuce seedlings were exposed to 3.3 W m(-2) UV-B radiation for 12 h after pre-treatment sprayed with 20 mM Pro. The data for malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), endogenous Pro level, the activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD)], total phenolic concentration, antioxidant capacity, expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) and proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) genes, phytohormone levels such as abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA), indole acetic acid (IAA) and salicylic acid (SA), soluble sugars and organic acids were recorded. It was found that Pro alleviated the oxidative damage in the seedlings of lettuce as demonstrated by lower lipid peroxidation and H2O2 content, increasing the endogenous Pro level, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, total phenolic concentration and the antioxidant capacity. Additionally, it was revealed that exogenous application of Pro enhanced the levels of GA, IAA, the concentrations of soluble sugars and organic acids and expressions of PAL, γ-TMT and ProDH genes as compared to the control. The results obtained in this study suggest that pre-treatment with exogenous Pro provides important contributions to the increase in the UV-B tolerance of lettuce by regulating the biochemical mechanisms of UV-B response.

  5. Effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) pretreatment on UV-B stress tolerance in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esringu, Aslıhan; Aksakal, Ozkan; Tabay, Dilruba; Kara, Ayse Aydan

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is one of the most important abiotic stress factors that could influence plant growth, development, and productivity. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important plant growth regulator involved in a wide variety of physiological processes. In the present study, the possibility of enhancing UV-B stress tolerance of lettuce seedlings by the exogenous application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was investigated. UV-B radiation increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD) and total phenolic concentrations, antioxidant capacity, and expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene in seedlings, but the combination of SNP pretreatment and UV-B enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities, total phenolic concentrations, antioxidant capacity, and PAL gene expression even more. Moreover, UV-B radiation significantly inhibited chlorophylls, carotenoid, gibberellic acid (GA), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents and increased the contents of abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide radical (O2•(-)) in lettuce seedlings. When SNP pretreatment was combined with the UV-B radiation, we observed alleviated chlorophylls, carotenoid, GA, and IAA inhibition and decreased content of ABA, SA, MDA, H2O2, and O2•(-) in comparison to non-pretreated stressed seedlings.

  6. Metabolomics to Detect Response of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) to Cu(OH)2 Nanopesticides: Oxidative Stress Response and Detoxification Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Ortiz, Cruz; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Hu, Qirui; Zhou, Hongjun; Huang, Yuxiong; Keller, Arturo A

    2016-09-06

    There has been an increasing influx of nanopesticides into agriculture in recent years. Understanding the interaction between nanopesticides and edible plants is crucial in evaluating the potential impact of nanotechnology on the environment and agriculture. Here we exposed lettuce plants to Cu(OH)2 nanopesticides (1050-2100 mg/L) through foliar spray for one month. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) results indicate that 97-99% (1353-2501 mg/kg) of copper was sequestered in the leaves and only a small percentage (1-3%) (17.5-56.9 mg/kg) was translocated to root tissues through phloem loading. Gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) based metabolomics combined with partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) multivariate analysis revealed that Cu(OH)2 nanopesticides altered metabolite levels of lettuce leaves. Tricarboxylic (TCA) cycle and a number of amino acid-related biological pathways were disturbed. Some antioxidant levels (cis-caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, dehydroascorbic acid) were significantly decreased compared to the control, indicating that oxidative stress and a defense response occurred. Nicotianamine, a copper chelator, increased by 12-27 fold compared to the control, which may represent a detoxification mechanism. The up-regulation of polyamines (spermidine and putrescine) and potassium may mitigate oxidative stress and enhance tolerance. The data presented here provide a molecular-scale perspective on the response of plants to copper nanopesticides.

  7. UTILIZAÇÃO DE COMPOSTOS ORGÂNICOS SEMICURADOS NA PRODUÇÃO DA ALFACE (LACTUCA SATIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Fernando Araújo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of two doses of organics composts of two different origins in the lettuce yield was conduced this work. The composts, originated from mixture of straw brachiaria seed, cattle manure and chicken manure. The composting was conduced by 35 days with monitoring of temperature. Lettuce yield was evaluated in experiment carried during 30 days. The chicken manure compost increased lettuce yield in the two doses evaluated. The cattle manure compost didn¿t increased the growth of lettuce in the larger dose. The chicken manure compost, with 35 days, was recommeded for utilization in the fertilization of lettuce with increments in the yeld.

  8. Effect of supplemental ultraviolet radiation on the concentration of phytonutrients in green and red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, Steven; Caldwell, Charles; Mirecki, Roman; Slusser, James; Gao, Wei

    2005-08-01

    Eight cultivars each of red and green leaf lettuce were raised in a greenhouse with supplemental UV radiation, either UV-A (wavelengths greater than ca. 315 nm) or UV-A+UV-B (wavelengths greater than ca. 290 nm; 6.4 kJ m-2 daily biologically effective UV-B), or no supplemental UV (controls). Several phytonutrients were analyzed in leaf flours to identify lines with large differences in composition and response to UV-B. Red leaf lettuce had higher levels of phenolic acid esters, flavonols and anthocyanins than green lines. Both green and red lines exposed to UV-B for 9 days showed 2-3-fold increases in flavonoids compared to controls, but only 45% increases in phenolic acid esters, suggesting these compounds may be regulated by different mechanisms. There were large differences between cultivars in levels of phenolic compounds under control conditions and also large differences in UV-B effects. Among red varieties, cv. Galactic was notable for high levels of phenolics and a large response to UV-B. Among green varieties, cvs. Black-Seeded Simpson and Simpson Elite had large increases in phenolics with UV-B exposure. Photosynthetic pigments were also analyzed. Green leaf lettuce had high levels of pheophytin, a chlorophyll degradation product. Total chlorophylls (including pheophytin) were much lower in green compared to red varieties. Lutein, a carotenoid, was similar for green and red lines. Total chlorophylls and lutein increased 2-fold under supplemental UV-B in green lines but decreased slightly under UV-B in red lines. Lettuce appears to be a valuable crop to use to study phytochemical-environment interactions.

  9. Expression analysis of polyphenol oxidase isozymes by active staining method and tissue browning of head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takahiro; Iimure, Kazuhiko; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Saito, Akira

    2017-08-01

    Browning of plant tissue is generally considered attributable to enzymatic oxidation by polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Electrophoresis followed by activity staining has been used as an effective procedure to visually detect and isolate isozymes; however, it has not been applied for examination of various PPO isozymes in lettuce. Our study demonstrated that different lettuce PPO isozymes could be detected at different pH in active staining, and multiple isozymes were detected only under alkaline conditions. As a result, we concluded that activity staining with approximately pH 8 enabled to detect various PPO isozymes in lettuce. By expression analysis of the PPO isozymes after wounding, PPO isozymes that correlated with time-course of tissue browning were detected. The wound-induced PPO may play a key role in enzymatic browning.

  10. Filth fly transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica to lettuce, Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filth flies have been implicated in the dispersal of human disease pathogens; however, fly transmission parameters of human pathogens to plants are largely undescribed. The capacity of the black blow fly, Phormia regina, to acquire and subsequently release bacteria onto baby lettuce leaves was comp...

  11. Assessment of the impact of Aluminum on germination, early growth and free proline content in Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia; Matos, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major problem in crop production on acid soils. The use of industrial or municipal wastewaters, which may be contaminated with metals, for irrigation in agriculture is common over the world. This action can increase the concentration of these agents in the soil and decrease crops yields. In order to evaluate the toxicological effects of recommended Al levels in irrigation water, under acidic conditions, on lettuce, seeds of two cultivars ("cv Reine de Mai" and "cv White Boston") were exposed to five different Al concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5 and 20mg/L) and germination percentage, root and shoot lengths were measured. Also, the germination rate and the vigor index were calculated, and the proline content was estimated for all concentrations. Results showed that seed germination was not negatively affected by Al, but the germination rate decreased in both cultivars. For the other factors analyzed, with the exception of 20mg/L concentration for "cv White Boston", Al induced, in general, negative effects including the content of proline that increased in the seeds that were exposed to this metal. The "cv Reine de Mai" was more sensitive for the analyzed concentrations than the other cultivar.. The results indicated that even recommended Al concentrations for irrigation, under acidic conditions, can interfere negatively in seed germination and seedling establishment and possibly with crop production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid Transient Production of a Monoclonal Antibody Neutralizing the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) in Nicotiana benthamiana and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanapisit, Kaewta; Srijangwad, Anchalee; Chuanasa, Taksina; Sukrong, Suchada; Tantituvanont, Angkana; Mason, Hugh S; Nilubol, Dachrit; Phoolcharoen, Waranyoo

    2017-06-02

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, weight loss, and high mortality rate in neonatal piglets. Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has been reported in Europe, America, and Asia including Thailand. The disease causes substantial losses to the swine industry in many countries. Presently, there is no effective PEDV vaccine available. In this study, we developed a plant-produced monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2C10 as a prophylactic candidate to prevent the PEDV infection. Recently, plant expression systems have gained interest as an alternative for the production of antibodies because of many advantages, such as low production cost, lack of human and animal pathogen, large scalability, etc. The 2C10 mAb was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and lettuce using geminiviral vector. After purification by protein A affinity chromatography, the antibody was tested for the binding and neutralizing activity against PEDV. Our result showed that the plant produced 2C10 mAb can bind to the virus and also inhibit PEDV infection in vitro. These results show excellent potential for a plant-expressed 2C10 as a PEDV prophylaxis and a diagnostic for PEDV infection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. ÍNDICES MORFO-FISIOLÓGICOS E RENDIMENTO DA ALFACE (Lactuca sativa L. EM AMBIENTES NATURAL E PROTEGIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renilson Targino Dantas

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para se avaliar e comparar o crescimento e rendimento da alface na área experimental do Departamento de Física e Biofísica do Instituto de Biociências da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Botucatu (22º54'S; 48º27'W; 850 m, no verão de 1995/96 e no inverno de 1996, consistindo de três parcelas com dimensões de 7m x 5m, sendo duas situadas em ambientes protegidos, tipo túnel, nas direções Leste-Oeste e Norte-Sul, e a outra parcela em condições naturais ou externas. A taxa de crescimento absoluto, no verão, foi de 5,22 g/semana nos ambientes protegidos, e de 3,97 g/semana na parcela externa, e no inverno esses valores foram de 3,02 e 2,85 g/semana. A taxa de assimilação líquida sofreu mais efeitos dos ambientes protegidos que da época do ano e a taxa de crescimento da cultura evidenciou que a cobertura do solo pelas plantas nos ambientes protegidos foi mais rápida. Conforme os resultados obtidos do rendimento, pode-se afirmar que existiu influência dos ambientes protegidos nas duas épocas do ano, com pequena vantagem no inverno.

  14. Efectividad del agua electrolizada oxidadora (EO en la inactivación de Listeria monocytogenes en lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casadiego P

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la efectividad del agua electrolizada oxidadora (EO en la inactivación de Listeria monocytogenes enlechuga; para ello se construyó una celda electrolítica para la producción de agua EO a partir de una soluciónde NaCl al 5%, con una concentración de cloro residual de 29 partes por millón (ppm y pH 2.83. Cinco de las10 cepas de Listeria monocytogenes mas resistentes a la acción del hipoclorito de sodio, fueron obtenidas apartir de muestras de pollo procesado e inoculadas en 9 ml de agua EO o 9 ml de agua desionizada estéril(control e incubadas a 15°C durante 5, 10, 15 y 20 minutos. La población se determinó por recuento en placaen agar Columbia, obteniéndose una reducción de 6.6 UL a los 5 minutos de exposición. Las cepas seleccionadasfueron utilizadas como suspensión mixta (9.56 UL, 109 UFC/ml para inocular 35 lechugas por el método deinmersión. Se sumergieron 6.25 g de cada lechuga en 375 ml de agua EO o agua destilada (control a 15 °Cdurante 5 minutos. La población promedio de Listeria monocytogenes después del tratamiento con agua EO ycon agua destilada, se redujo en 3.92 y 2.46 UL respectivamente. Se demostró que el agua EO tiene un efectobactericida estadísticamente significativo (p=0.00001. Para mejorar el efecto del agua EO sobre L .monocytogenes en lechuga, se evaluó su efectividad en combinación con ácido acético al 6% (vinagre.Reducción de la población en 5.49 UL demuestran que hay un efecto sinergista de ambos agentes antimicrobianossobre la viabilidad de las células de L. monocytogenes.

  15. Storage of intact heads prior to processing limits the shelf-life of fresh-cut Lactuca sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Harvested lettuce heads are usually transported and stored for some period of time under a variety of conditions prior to processing. During storage, especially under suboptimal conditions, nutritional composition of the harvested produce continues to change. The possible impact of prior storage of

  16. Nitrate content in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) from organic and conventional origin: intake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenjak, Alenka Hmelak; Koležnik, Urška Rizman; Cencič, Avrelija

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the actual intake of nitrate by consumption of different lettuce varieties, 52 samples of lettuce of different origins and dandelion from 15 different areas of northeast Slovenia were analysed. For determination of actual nitrate content, a continuous flow method was used. The lowest nitrate content was detected in dandelion, with a mean value of 195 mg kg(-1) (ranging 47-487 mg kg(-1)). Nitrate content in lettuce of different origins ranged 85-3237 mg kg(-1), with a mean value of 1196 mg kg(-1). The mean nitrate content in organically cultivated lettuce was 890 mg kg(-1), which was considerably lower than the nitrate level in conventionally cultivated lettuce (1298 mg kg(-1)). Consumption of 100 g of dandelion would result in a maximal nitrate intake corresponding to 22% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI), with values up to seven times higher for lettuce.

  17. Studi Kandungan Mineral Kalium, Natrium, Magnesium Pada Selada (Lactuca sativa L.) Hidroponik Dan Non-Hidroponik Secara Spektrofotometri Serapan Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Novin, Sondang

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce is one of the many cultivated plants in hydroponics. The method of hydroponics is cultivate method plants without the use of soil as a growing medium, but using water. The lettuce has a high mineral content to the needs of human beings is like minerals potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B, and vitamin C. In the extracellular fluid potassium and sodium is an essential cations play a role in pH balance and osmolarity. While magnesium plays an imp...

  18. Experiencia de producción de lechuga americana (Lactuca sativa hidropónica, tipo NFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Brenes-Peralta

    2014-06-01

    En el Centro de Prácticas Docentes e Investigación Agropecuaria de la Escuela de Agronegocios del Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica (TEC se cuenta, actualmente, con un sistema de este tipo NFT donde estableció una actividad de fortalecimiento que ha resultado en la observación de ciertas características a partir de la experiencia generada, de la cual se espera fomentar el uso de la hidroponía, así como divulgar información técnica y de buenas prácticas en este tipo de cultivo entre usuarios interesados.

  19. The influence of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA on tipburn of internal leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Ostrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available NAA potassium salt (preparation Pomonit applied at a concentration of 25 mg·dm;-3 markedly inhibited tipburn of internal leaves in lettuce plants grown in a greenhouse. Reduction of tipburn symptoms ranged from 9.6 to 96.9% depending on the cultivar. In the internal leaves, on which the disorder usually appears, the calcium level was generally lower and the level of phenolic substances higher. Treating the plants with a potassium salt of NAA, 2-3 weeks before harvest usually caused a rise of the Ca++ level and a decrease in the level of phenolic substances in the internal leaves. The NAA potassium salt was rapidly degraded in the plant and after only 24 hours was almost undetectable by a method sensitive to 0.3 µg NAA·g-1 fresh matter, therefore it is probable that NAA treatment may be permitted in practice.

  20. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF ANACARDIUM HUMILE MART. IN THE GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF LACTUCA SATIVA L. AND RAPHANUS SATIVUS L.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando PERIOTTO; Juliano Gualtieri, Sonia Cristina; Lima,Maria Inês Salgueiro

    2012-01-01

    AbstractIn this research it was evaluated the allelopathic potential of aqueous extracts from Anacardium humile stems and leaves in seed germination and seedling growth of radish and lettuce. In the germination tests the aqueous extracts were used at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16% (w/v) concentration. Four replicates of thirty seeds of lettuce and radish were distributed in Petri dishes covered with filter paper moistened with 5 mL different extracts, kept at 27 oC and light absence. The counting of ger...

  1. High-throughput growth prediction for Lactuca sativa L. seedlings using chlorophyll fluorescence in a plant factory with artificial lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo eMoriyuki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Poorly grown plants that result from differences in individuals lead to large profit losses for plant factories that use large electric power sources for cultivation. Thus, identifying and culling the low-grade seedlings at an early stage, using so-called seedling diagnosis technology, plays an important role in avoiding large losses in plant factories. In this study, we developed a high-throughput diagnosis system using the measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF in a commercial large-scale plant factory, which produces about 5,000 lettuce plants every day. At an early stage (6 days after sowing, a CF image of 6,000 seedlings was captured every 4 hours on the final greening day by a high-sensitivity CCD camera and an automatic transferring machine, and biological indices were extracted. Using machine learning, plant growth can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy based on biological indices including leaf size, amount of CF, and circadian rhythms in CF. Growth prediction was improved by addition of temporal information on CF. The present data also provide new insights into the relationships between growth and temporal information regulated by the inherent biological clock.

  2. ANÁLISIS DE SENSIBLIDAD GLOBAL DE UN MODELO DE LECHUGAS (Lactuca sativa L.) CULTIVADAS EN INVERNADERO

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El análisis de sensibilidad de un modelo matemático es relevante ya que permite determinar como la incertidumbre de las salidas del modelo puede ser asignada a sus variables de entrada. Hasta ahora se aplican métodos locales basados en el cálculo de derivadas parciales para modelos de cultivos en invernadero. Sin embargo, la limitante principal del análisis de sensibilidad local es que proporciona información únicamente en el punto base donde las derivadas son calculadas, sin tomar en c...

  3. Liquid humus and microorganisms to promote the production of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Crespa in hydroponic crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco José

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In an initial phase, a trial with growing hydroponic lettuce was installed, considering all the macro and micronutrients necessary and sufficient for growth, where treatments were applied with and without liquid humus, combining separately with inoculation of mycorrhiza and bacteria Bacillus type, observing that the significant effect by the individual use of the liquid humus is up to 50%. Subsequently, in a Phase II, different doses of only liquid humus with only mycorrhizae were evaluated, where applying of 8 L of pure liquid humus per 36 L of stock solution of hydroponics crop, the plants had the highest weight (40.7%, the highest altitude (39% and the longest (42% compared to the witness. Instead, the combination of liquid humus plus mycorrhizal is 6 L per 36 L of stock solution, which stimulated a further growth and weight of growing lettuce in hydroponics conditions. In general, the use of liquid humus decreased the production time from 60 to 52 days.

  4. Growth and Tissue Elemental Composition Response of Butterhead Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, cv. Flandria to Hydroponic and Aquaponic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler S. Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research was to compare lettuce performance under conventional hydroponics at pH 5.8 (referred to as H5, hydroponics at pH 7.0 (referred to as H7, and recirculated aquaponic water at pH 7.0 (referred to as A7. Aquaponic nutrients were supplied by continuously recirculating water between a fish rearing system (recirculating aquaculture system or RAS and the lettuce growing system (with the sole addition being chelated iron. This paper builds upon our previous research where we found that H7 produced 26% less shoot fresh weight (FW growth than H5 and an 18% reduction in dry weight (DW. In this research, we also evaluated the inorganic hydroponics nutrient solution at pH 7.0 (H7 to provide continuity between experiments and to isolate the pH effect. The A7 plant biomass responses were not different from H5 in all biomass response categories. H7 was different from H5 in shoot FW, DW, and DW/FW, as well as root FW and DW. H7 was different from the A7 in shoot FW, DW/FW, and root DW. There were no tissue elemental differences between H5 and H7 except Cu. The Ca and Na contents differed between H5 and A7, while the microelements Mn, Mo, and Zn differed. Generally, the elemental tissue differences between treatments were proportional to the differences for the same elements in the nutrient solutions. Aquaponic systems are often viewed to be more complicated and more risky because two complex systems are being joined (hydroponics plus RAS. However, the aquaponics system proved to be surprisingly simple to manage in daily operations. Our data suggested that the aquaponics system (A7, which was operated at a higher pH 7.0, was able to offset any negative biomass and elemental effects that occurred in the inorganic hydroponic pH 7.0 treatment (H7 from its increased pH and less optimized nutrient solution elemental concentrations.

  5. Marine biomass research in Florida. [Gracilaria tikvahiae, Ulva Lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry weight/sq. m/day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs when the plants are grown in suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet weight/sq.m, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two week's growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing of CO/sub 2/ eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can be grown at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce through selective breeding, a high-temperature tolerant strain of Ulva. 21 references.

  6. Deugdelijkheidsonderzoek van 4 middelen tegen valse meeldauw (Bremia lactuca) in sla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaring, M.A.; Slooten, van M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Najaar 2003 is er door PPO-Business Unit Glastuinbouw in Naaldwijk onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de werking van nieuwe bestrijdingsmiddelen tegen Bremia lactuca in sla. Deze proef is een herhaling van het onderzoek van begin 2003. Naast de 3 middelen uit die betreffende proef is een vierde middel in dit

  7. Effector identification in the lettuce downy mildew Bremia lactucae by massively parallel transcriptome sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stassen, J.H.; Seidl, M.F.; Vergeer, P.W.; Nijman, I.J.; Snel, B.; Cuppen, E.; van den Ackerveken, G.

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) is a rapidly adapting oomycete pathogen affecting commercial lettuce cultivation. Oomycetes are known to use a diverse arsenal of secreted proteins (effectors) to manipulate their hosts. Two classes of effector are known to be translocated by the host: the

  8. Genetic analysis of the fungus, Bremia lactucae, using restriction fragment length polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, S H; Ilott, T W; Legg, E J; Lincoln, S E; Lander, E S; Michelmore, R W

    1988-12-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were developed as genetic markers for Bremia lactucae, the biotrophic Oomycete fungus which causes lettuce downy mildew. By using 55 genomic and cDNA probes, a total of 61 RFLP loci were identified among three heterothallic isolates of B. lactucae. Of these 61 RFLP loci, 53 were heterozygous in at least one of the three strains and thus were informative for linkage analysis in at least one of two F1 crosses that were performed. Analysis of the cosegregation of these 53 RFLPs, eight avirulence loci and the mating type locus allowed the construction of a preliminary genetic linkage map consisting of 13 small linkage groups. Based on the extent of linkage detected among probes, the genome of B. lactucae can be estimated to be approximately 2000 cM. Linkage was detected between a RFLP locus and an avirulence gene, providing a potential starting point for chromosome walking to clone an avirulence gene. The high frequency of DNA polymorphism in naturally occurring isolates and the proper Mendelian segregation of loci detected by low copy number probes indicates that it will be possible to construct a detailed genetic map of B. lactucae using RFLPs as markers. The method of analysis employed here should be applicable to many other outbreeding, heterozygous species for which defined inbred lines are not available.

  9. Robustness and accuracy of Maxent niche modelling for Lactuca species distributions in light of collecting expeditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, M.M.P.; Treuren, van R.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Khoury, C.K.; Kik, C.; Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Niche modelling software can be used to assess the probability of detecting a population of a plant species at a certain location. In this study, we used the distribution of the wild relatives of lettuce (Lactuca spp.) to investigate the applicability of Maxent species distribution models for collec

  10. Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der H.; Sperber, B.L.H.M.; Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Lopez Contreras, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A

  11. Detection and quantification of Bremia lactucae by spore trapping and quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremia lactucae causes the characteristic vein-delimited lesions, leaf chlorosis and necrosis and adversely affects marketability of lettuce. The disease has been managed with a combination of host resistance and fungicide applications with mixed success over the years. Fungicide applications are ro...

  12. Effector identification in the lettuce downy mildew Bremia lactucae by massively parallel transcriptome sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stassen, J.H.; Seidl, M.F.; Vergeer, P.W.; Nijman, I.J.; Snel, B.; Cuppen, E.; van den Ackerveken, G.

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) is a rapidly adapting oomycete pathogen affecting commercial lettuce cultivation. Oomycetes are known to use a diverse arsenal of secreted proteins (effectors) to manipulate their hosts. Two classes of effector are known to be translocated by the host: the RXLR

  13. Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der H.; Sperber, B.L.H.M.; Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Lopez Contreras, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A hydrolys

  14. Robustness and accuracy of Maxent niche modelling for Lactuca species distributions in light of collecting expeditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, M.M.P.; Treuren, van R.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Khoury, C.K.; Kik, C.; Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Niche modelling software can be used to assess the probability of detecting a population of a plant species at a certain location. In this study, we used the distribution of the wild relatives of lettuce (Lactuca spp.) to investigate the applicability of Maxent species distribution models for

  15. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a ...... of bioenergy....

  16. Biorefinery of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca to produce animal feed, chemicals and biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, Paul; van Krimpen, Marinus M; van Wikselaar, Piet; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Scaccia, Nazareno; van Hal, Jaap W; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Cone, John W; López-Contreras, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    The growing world population demands an increase in animal protein production. Seaweed may be a valuable source of protein for animal feed. However, a biorefinery approach aimed at cascading valorisation of both protein and non-protein seaweed constituents is required to realise an economically feasible value chain. In this study, such a biorefinery approach is presented for the green seaweed Ulva lactuca containing 225 g protein (N × 4.6) kg(-1) dry matter (DM). The sugars in the biomass were solubilised by hot water treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and centrifugation resulting in a sugar-rich hydrolysate (38.8 g L(-1) sugars) containing glucose, rhamnose and xylose, and a protein-enriched (343 g kg(-1) in DM) extracted fraction. This extracted fraction was characterised for use in animal feed, as compared to U. lactuca biomass. Based on the content of essential amino acids and the in vitro N (85 %) and organic matter (90 %) digestibility, the extracted fraction seems a promising protein source in diets for monogastric animals with improved characteristics as compared to the intact U. lactuca. The gas production test indicated a moderate rumen fermentation of U. lactuca and the extracted fraction, about similar to that of alfalfa. Reduction of the high content of minerals and trace elements may be required to allow a high inclusion level of U. lactuca products in animal diets. The hydrolysate was used successfully for the production of acetone, butanol, ethanol and 1,2-propanediol by clostridial fermentation, and the rhamnose fermentation pattern was studied.

  17. Glucosinolate biosynthesis in Eruca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Dimitra; Omirou, Michalis; Liadaki, Kalliopi; Tsikou, Daniela; Delis, Costas; Garagounis, Constantine; Krokida, Afrodite; Zambounis, Antonis; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

    2016-12-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a highly important group of secondary metabolites in the Caparalles order, both due to their significance in plant-biome interactions and to their chemoprotective properties. This study identified genes involved in all steps of aliphatic and indolic GSL biosynthesis in Eruca sativa, a cultivated plant closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana with agronomic and nutritional value. The impact of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) availability on GSL biosynthetic pathways at a transcriptional level, and on the final GSL content of plant leaf and root tissues, was investigated. N and S supply had a significant and interactive effect on the GSL content of leaves, in a structure-specific and tissue-dependent manner; the metabolites levels were significantly correlated with the relative expression of the genes involved in their biosynthesis. A more complex effect was observed in roots, where aliphatic and indolic GSLs and related biosynthetic genes responded differently to the various nutritional treatments suggesting that nitrogen and sulfur availability are important factors that control plant GSL content at a transcriptional level. The biological activity of extracts derived from these plants grown under the specific nutritional schemes was examined. N and S availability were found to significantly affect the cytotoxicity of E. sativa extracts on human cancer cells, supporting the notion that carefully designed nutritional schemes can promote the accumulation of chemoprotective substances in edible plants.

  18. Growing different Lactuca genotypes aeroponically within a tropical greenhouse – Cool rootzone temperatures decreased rootzone ethylene concentrations and increased shoot growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui Wei CHOONG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperate crops cannot grow well in the tropics without rootzone cooling. As cooling increased production costs, this experiment aimed to study the growth of various Lactuca genotypes and propose possible ways of reducing these costs, without compromising productivity. A recombinant inbred line (RIL of lettuce and its parental lines (L. serriola and L. sativa ‘Salinas’ were grown aeroponically in a tropical greenhouse under 24 C cool (C or warm fluctuating 30-36 C ambient (A rootzone temperature (RZT. Their roots were misted with Netherlands standard nutrient solution for 1 min, at intervals of either 5 min (A5, C5 or 10 min (A10, C10 in attempting to reduce electricity consumption and production costs. Lower mortality and higher productivity were observed in all genotypes when grown in C-RZT. Higher shoot fresh weight was observed under C5 than C10, for the RIL and L. serriola. Since ‘Salinas’ had similar shoot fresh weight at both C-RZ treatments, this may indicate it is more sensitive to RZT than water availability. Under A-RZ treatments, higher carotenoid content, with correspondingly higher nonphotochemical quenching, was observed in A10 for the RIL and ‘Salinas’. Further, total chlorophyll content was also highest at this RZ treatment for the RIL though photochemical quenching was contrastingly the lowest. Cumulatively, productivity was compromised at A10 as the RIL seemed to prioritize photoprotection over efficiency in photosynthesis, under conditions of higher RZT and lower water availability. Generally, higher RZ ethylene concentrations accumulated in A10 and C10 than A5 and C5, respectively – probably due to spray frequency exerting a greater effect on RZ ethylene accumulation than RZT. In the C5 RZ treatment, lowest RZ ethylene concentration corresponded with highest shoot fresh weight. As such, further research on ethylene (insensitivity and water use efficiency could be conducted to identify Lactuca cultivars

  19. Growing Different Lactuca Genotypes Aeroponically within a Tropical Greenhouse-Cool Rootzone Temperatures Decreased Rootzone Ethylene Concentrations and Increased Shoot Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Tsui-Wei; He, Jie; Lee, Sing K; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-01-01

    Temperate crops cannot grow well in the tropics without rootzone cooling. As cooling increased production costs, this experiment aimed to study the growth of various Lactuca genotypes and propose possible ways of reducing these costs, without compromising productivity. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) of lettuce and its parental lines (L. serriola and L. sativa "Salinas") were grown aeroponically in a tropical greenhouse under 24°C cool (C) or warm fluctuating 30-36°C ambient (A) rootzone temperature (RZT). Their roots were misted with Netherlands standard nutrient solution for 1 min, at intervals of either 5 min (A5, C5) or 10 min (A10, C10) in attempting to reduce electricity consumption and production costs. Lower mortality and higher productivity were observed in all genotypes when grown in C-RZT. Higher shoot fresh weight was observed under C5 than C10, for the RIL and L. serriola. Since "Salinas" had similar shoot fresh weight at both C-RZ treatments, this may indicate it is more sensitive to RZT than water availability. Under A-RZ treatments, higher carotenoid content, with correspondingly higher nonphotochemical quenching, was observed in A10 for the RIL and "Salinas." Further, total chlorophyll content was also highest at this RZ treatment for the RIL though photochemical quenching was contrastingly the lowest. Cumulatively, productivity was compromised at A10 as the RIL seemed to prioritize photoprotection over efficiency in photosynthesis, under conditions of higher RZT and lower water availability. Generally, higher RZ ethylene concentrations accumulated in A10 and C10 than A5 and C5, respectively-probably due to spray frequency exerting a greater effect on RZ ethylene accumulation than RZT. In the C5 RZ treatment, lowest RZ ethylene concentration corresponded with highest shoot fresh weight. As such, further research on ethylene (in)sensitivity and water use efficiency could be conducted to identify Lactuca cultivars that are better suited for growth

  20. Growing Different Lactuca Genotypes Aeroponically within a Tropical Greenhouse—Cool Rootzone Temperatures Decreased Rootzone Ethylene Concentrations and Increased Shoot Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Tsui-Wei; He, Jie; Lee, Sing K.; Dodd, Ian C.

    2016-01-01

    Temperate crops cannot grow well in the tropics without rootzone cooling. As cooling increased production costs, this experiment aimed to study the growth of various Lactuca genotypes and propose possible ways of reducing these costs, without compromising productivity. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) of lettuce and its parental lines (L. serriola and L. sativa “Salinas”) were grown aeroponically in a tropical greenhouse under 24°C cool (C) or warm fluctuating 30–36°C ambient (A) rootzone temperature (RZT). Their roots were misted with Netherlands standard nutrient solution for 1 min, at intervals of either 5 min (A5, C5) or 10 min (A10, C10) in attempting to reduce electricity consumption and production costs. Lower mortality and higher productivity were observed in all genotypes when grown in C-RZT. Higher shoot fresh weight was observed under C5 than C10, for the RIL and L. serriola. Since “Salinas” had similar shoot fresh weight at both C-RZ treatments, this may indicate it is more sensitive to RZT than water availability. Under A-RZ treatments, higher carotenoid content, with correspondingly higher nonphotochemical quenching, was observed in A10 for the RIL and “Salinas.” Further, total chlorophyll content was also highest at this RZ treatment for the RIL though photochemical quenching was contrastingly the lowest. Cumulatively, productivity was compromised at A10 as the RIL seemed to prioritize photoprotection over efficiency in photosynthesis, under conditions of higher RZT and lower water availability. Generally, higher RZ ethylene concentrations accumulated in A10 and C10 than A5 and C5, respectively—probably due to spray frequency exerting a greater effect on RZ ethylene accumulation than RZT. In the C5 RZ treatment, lowest RZ ethylene concentration corresponded with highest shoot fresh weight. As such, further research on ethylene (in)sensitivity and water use efficiency could be conducted to identify Lactuca cultivars that are better

  1. Nigella sativa provides protection against metabolic syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... The seeds of Nigella sativa have been used in folk medicine all over the world. ... In Group II (Nigella seeds group), patients were advised the above standard medication plus Nigella seeds 250 mg twice ...

  2. [Therapeutic potential of Cannabis sativa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avello L, Marcia; Pastene N, Edgar; Fernández R, Pola; Córdova M, Pia

    2017-03-01

    Cannabis sativa (marihuana) is considered an illicit drug due to its psychoactive properties. Recently, the Chilean government opened to the use cannabis in the symptomatic treatment of some patients. The biological effects of cannabis render it useful for the complementary treatment of specific clinical situations such as chronic pain. We retrieved scientific information about the analgesic properties of cannabis, using it as a safe drug. The drug may block or inhibit the transmission of nervous impulses at different levels, an effect associated with pain control. Within this context and using adequate doses, forms and administration pathways, it can be used for chronic pain management, considering its effectiveness and low cost. It could also be considered as an alternative in patients receiving prolonged analgesic therapies with multiple adverse effects.

  3. Identification of new Bremia lactucae races in lettuce in São Paulo state Identificação de novas raças de Bremia lactucae em alface no estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Castoldi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is the most consumed leafy vegetable in Brazil. However, its production has faced increasing difficulties mainly due to the infestation of producing areas with Bremia lactucae, the causing agent of downy mildew, the worst disease in lettuce. The aim of this study was to identify B. lactucae races occurring in lettuce producing areas of São Paulo state, during 2008 and 2009. Lettuce leaf samples containing B. lactucae sporangia were collected in the major lettuce producing areas of São Paulo. Each sample was considered an isolate. After the multiplication of sporangia in the susceptible cultivar Solaris, with subsequent inoculation in the differentiating cultivars, the evaluations were performed on the same day of the first sporulation in the susceptible cultivar 'Cobham Green (DM 0'. In 2008 one new B. lactucae code was identified. SPBl:05 was the denomination proposed to it. In 2009 one another B. lactucae code was identified, that is, 63/63/02/00, whose denomination was proposed to be SPBl:06.A alface é o grupo de hortaliças folhosas de maior consumo no Brasil. No entanto a dificuldade em produzi-la vem aumentando, principalmente pela infestação das áreas de produção por Bremia lactucae, agente causador do míldio, principal doença da alface. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as raças de B. lactucae que ocorreram nos municípios produtores de alface do Estado de São Paulo nos anos de 2008 e 2009. Para isso, coletaram-se folhas com esporângios de B. lactucae em municípios produtores de alface, sendo que cada amostra foi considerada um isolado. Após a multiplicação dos esporângios na cultivar suscetível Solaris, com posterior inoculação nas diferenciadoras, realizaram-se as avaliações, no mesmo dia do aparecimento da primeira esporulação na cultivar suscetível 'Cobham Green (DM 0'. No ano 2008 identificou-se um novo código de B. lactucae em alface, à qual se propôs a denominação de SPBl:05. No ano

  4. Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Hetty; Sperber, Bram L H M; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Bakker, Robert R C; Brandenburg, Willem; López-Contreras, Ana M

    2013-01-01

    Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A hydrolysate was used for the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Hydrolysate-based media were fermentable without nutrient supplementation. C. beijerinckii utilized all sugars in the hydrolysate and produced ABE at high yields (0.35 g ABE/g sugar consumed), while C. acetobutylicum produced mostly organic acids (acetic and butyric acids). These results demonstrate the great potential of U. lactuca as feedstock for fermentation. Interestingly, in control cultures of C. beijerinckii on rhamnose and glucose, 1,2 propanediol was the main fermentation product (9.7 g/L).

  5. In vitro exposure of Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta) to gasoline - Biochemical and morphological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatti, Fernanda Kokowicz; Ramlov, Fernanda; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Débora Tomazi; Costa, Christopher; de Oliveira, Eva Regina; Bauer, Cláudia M; Rocha, Miguel; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-08-01

    Refined fuels have considerable share of pollution of marine ecosystems. Gasoline is one of the most consumed fuel worldwide, but its effects on marine benthic primary producers are poorly investigated. In this study, Ulva lactuca was chosen as a biological model due to its cosmopolitan nature and tolerance to high levels and wide range of xenobiotics and our goal was to evaluate the effects of gasoline on ultrastructure and metabolism of that seaweed. The experimental design consisted of in vitro exposure of U. lactuca to four concentrations of gasoline (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0%, v/v) over 30 min, 1 h, 12 h, and 24 h, followed by cytochemical, SEM, and biochemical analysis. Increase in the number of cytoplasmic granules, loss of cell turgor, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and alterations in the mucilage were some of the ultrastructural alterations observed in thalli exposed to gasoline. Decrease in carotenoid and polyphenol contents, as well as increase of soluble sugars and starch contents were associated with the time of exposure to the xenobiotic. In combination, the results revealed important morphological and biochemical alterations in the phenotype of U. lactuca upon acute exposure to gasoline. This seaweed contain certain metabolites assigned as candidates to biomarkers of the environmental stress investigated and it is thought to be a promise species for usage in coastal ecosystems perturbation monitoring system. In addition, the findings suggest that U. lactuca is able to metabolize gasoline hydrocarbons and use them as energy source, acting as bioremediator of marine waters contaminated by petroleum derivatives.

  6. Nitrogen fertilizer enhances growth and nutrient uptake of Medicago sativa inoculated with Glomus tortuosum grown in Cd-contaminated acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mohan; Sun, Jian; Li, Yang; Xiao, Yan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore whether nitrogen availability could influence mycorrhizal function and their associations with host plants in Cd-contaminated acidic soils or not. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation (non-mycorrhizal inoculation (NM), Glomus aggregatum (Ga), G. tortuosum (Gt) and G. versiforme (Gv)) and inorganic N amendment on the growth, nutrient and Cd uptake of Medicago sativa grown in Cd-contaminated acidic soils (10 mg Cd kg(-1) soil). AMF inoculations significantly increased the shoot and total biomass and decreased the shoot Cd concentration in comparison to plants uninoculated. N addition increased markedly concentration and content of N and decreased those of P in plants at all inoculation treatments. Shoot K, Na and Mg concentration in plants inoculated with Ga and Gv were decreased by N addition, whereas shoot K, Na, Ca and Mg concentration in plants inoculated with Gt were not negatively affected. It was observed that N addition only increased mycorrhizal colonization, shoot biomass, shoot K, Ca and Mg content of plants inoculated with Gt. Irrespective of N addition, plants with Gt inoculation got the maximum shoot and root P concentration and content, as well as P/Cd concentration molar ratio among all inoculation treatment. Neither AMF nor N fertilizer contributed to the decrease of soil exchangeable Cd and increase of soil pH. These results suggested that N fertilizer only elevated plant performance of alfalfa with Gt inoculation grown in acidic soil, by diluting Cd concentration and alleviating of nutrient deficiency, especially P.

  7. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Judith K; Page, Jonathan E; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  8. Phytochemistry of Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Radwan, Mohamed M; Gul, Waseem; Chandra, Suman; Galal, Ahmed

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa, or hemp) and its constituents-in particular the cannabinoids-have been the focus of extensive chemical and biological research for almost half a century since the discovery of the chemical structure of its major active constituent, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). The plant's behavioral and psychotropic effects are attributed to its content of this class of compounds, the cannabinoids, primarily Δ(9)-THC, which is produced mainly in the leaves and flower buds of the plant. Besides Δ(9)-THC, there are also non-psychoactive cannabinoids with several medicinal functions, such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabigerol (CBG), along with other non-cannabinoid constituents belonging to diverse classes of natural products. Today, more than 560 constituents have been identified in cannabis. The recent discoveries of the medicinal properties of cannabis and the cannabinoids in addition to their potential applications in the treatment of a number of serious illnesses, such as glaucoma, depression, neuralgia, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, and alleviation of symptoms of HIV/AIDS and cancer, have given momentum to the quest for further understanding the chemistry, biology, and medicinal properties of this plant.This contribution presents an overview of the botany, cultivation aspects, and the phytochemistry of cannabis and its chemical constituents. Particular emphasis is placed on the newly-identified/isolated compounds. In addition, techniques for isolation of cannabis constituents and analytical methods used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of cannabis and its products are also reviewed.

  9. Differential toxic effects of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) on the herbivorous gastropods, Littorina littorea and L. obtusata (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckol, Paulette; Putnam, Alysha B

    2017-04-01

    Members of the genus Ulva are widespread and abundant in intertidal and shallow subtidal areas but there are conflicting data regarding susceptibility to herbivory. While some studies have documented that Ulva spp. were favored by a diversity of marine herbivores, other work has revealed herbivore deterrence. We investigated grazing and growth rates of the littorinid species, Littorina littorea and L. obtusata, when offered Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Ulva lactuca, and Chondrus crispus, highlighting distinctive vulnerabilities to toxic effects of U. lactuca. Ulva lactuca was the preferred food of L. littorea, while L. obtusata showed no grazing on this ephemeral algal species. In contrast, F. vesiculosus was highly preferred by L. obtusata. Although L. littorea demonstrated a grazing preference for U. lactuca, growth rate of this gastropod species was nearly 3× greater when fed F. vesiculosus, suggesting a non-lethal, negative effect of U. lactuca on L. littorea with long-term exposure. Mortality of L. obtusata ranged from 0% to 100% when held in the presence of various Ulva densities for 1 week, and Ulva exudate depressed herbivory of this gastropod. We conclude that the water-soluble, toxic exudate produced by U. lactuca in response to herbivory had allelochemical properties, and may contain a cleavage product (acrylic acid) of dimethylsulfoniopropionate or reactive oxygen species (i.e., H2 O2 ). Observed differences in susceptibility to Ulva toxicity by the littorinid species may be related to generalist versus specialist feeding and habitat strategies. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  10. A Quantitative Dynamic Simulation of Bremia lactucae Airborne Conidia Concentration above a Lettuce Canopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamadou Lamine Fall

    Full Text Available Lettuce downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Bremia lactucae Regel, is a major threat to lettuce production worldwide. Lettuce downy mildew is a polycyclic disease driven by airborne spores. A weather-based dynamic simulation model for B. lactucae airborne spores was developed to simulate the aerobiological characteristics of the pathogen. The model was built using the STELLA platform by following the system dynamics methodology. The model was developed using published equations describing disease subprocesses (e.g., sporulation and assembled knowledge of the interactions among pathogen, host, and weather. The model was evaluated with four years of independent data by comparing model simulations with observations of hourly and daily airborne spore concentrations. The results show an accurate simulation of the trend and shape of B. lactucae temporal dynamics of airborne spore concentration. The model simulated hourly and daily peaks in airborne spore concentrations. More than 95% of the simulation runs, the daily-simulated airborne conidia concentration was 0 when airborne conidia were not observed. Also, the relationship between the simulated and the observed airborne spores was linear. In more than 94% of the simulation runs, the proportion of the linear variation in the hourly-observed values explained by the variation in the hourly-simulated values was greater than 0.7 in all years except one. Most of the errors came from the deviation from the 1:1 line, and the proportion of errors due to the model bias was low. This model is the only dynamic model developed to mimic the dynamics of airborne inoculum and represents an initial step towards improved lettuce downy mildew understanding, forecasting and management.

  11. Polyketide synthases in Cannabis sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Sanchez, Isvett Josefina

    2008-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, which have been grouped in cannabinoids, flavonoids, stilbenoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and lignans; the cannabinoids are the best known group of natural products from this plant. The pharmacological aspects of this secondar

  12. Differential growth response of Ulva lactuca to ammonium and nitrate assimilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Meyer, Anne S

    2011-01-01

    as the nitrogen source. The NH4Cl and NaNO3 rich media (50 μM of N) accelerated U. lactuca growth to a maximum specific growth rate of 16.4 ± 0.18% day−1 and 9.4 ± 0.72% day−1, respectively. The highest biomass production rate obtained was 22.5 ± 0.24 mg DW m−2·day−1. The presence of ammonium apparently...

  13. Sterol composition of the Adriatic Sea algae Ulva lactuca, Codium dichotomum, Cystoseira adriatica and Fucus virsoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADOMIR KAPETANOVIC

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The sterol composition of two green algae and two brown algae from the South Adriatic was determined. In the green alga Ulva lactuca, the principal sterols were cholesterol and isofucosterol. In the brown alga Cystoseira adriatica, the main sterols were cholesterol and stigmast-5-en-3ß-ol, while the characteristic sterol of the brown algae, fucosterol, was found only in low concentration. The sterol fractions of the green alga Codium dichotomum and the brown alga Fucus virsoides contained practically only one sterol each, comprising more than 90 % of the total sterols (clerosterol in the former and fucosterol in the latter.

  14. Monitoramento de raças de Bremia lactucae em 2010 e 2011 no Estado de São Paulo Monitoring of Bremia lactucae races in 2010 and 2011 in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine de Souza Galatti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A alface é uma das mais importantes hortaliças folhosas cultivadas no Brasil. Porém, com a intensificação da produção, a dificuldade em se cultivar essa hortaliça tem aumentado principalmente pela infestação das áreas de produção pelo fitopatógeno Bremia lactucae Regel, agente causador do míldio, uma das principais doenças da alface. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar raças de Bremia lactucae nos anos de 2010 e 2011 nos principais municípios produtores de alface do Estado de São Paulo. Para isso, coletaram-se folhas com esporângios de B. lactucae em municípios produtores de alface, sendo que cada amostra foi considerada um isolado, totalizando 56 e 96 nos anos de 2010 e 2011, respectivamente. Os esporângios coletados foram multiplicados na cultivar suscetível Solaris, com posterior inoculação nas cultivares diferenciadoras, realizando-se as avaliações no mesmo dia do aparecimento da primeira esporulação na cultivar suscetível 'Green Tower' (DM 0. No ano de 2010, identificou-se um novo código de B. lactucae em alface (63/31/03/00, correspondente a uma nova raça na qual se propôs a denominação de SPBl:07. No ano de 2011, outros dois códigos de B. lactucae foram identificados (31/63/51/00 e 31/63/9/00, aos quais se propôs as denominações de SPBl:08 e SPBl:09, respectivamente.Lettuce is one of the most important leafy vegetables grown in Brazil. However, intensification of its production has led to increased difficulty in cultivating this vegetable, especially due to infestation of producing areas with the phytopathogen Bremia lactucae Regel, the causative agent of downy mildew, one of the worst diseases affecting lettuce. The aim of this study was to identify B. lactucae races in 2010 and 2011 in major lettuce producing cities in the state of Sao Paulo. Thus, leaves with sporangia of B. lactucae were collected from lettuce producing cities and each sample was considered an isolate, totaling 56 and 96 in

  15. Highly abundant and stage-specific mRNAs in the obligate pathogen Bremia lactucae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judelson, H S; Michelmore, R W

    1990-01-01

    Germinating spores of the obligate pathogen Bremia lactucae (lettuce downy mildew) contain several unusually abundant species of mRNA. Thirty-nine cDNA clones corresponding to prevalent transcripts were isolated from a library synthesized using poly(A)+ RNA from germinating spores; these clones represented only five distinct classes. Each corresponding mRNA accounted for from 0.4 to 9 percent by mass of poly(A)+ RNA from germinating spores and together represented greater than 20 percent of the mRNA. The expression of the corresponding genes, and a gene encoding Hsp70, was analyzed in spores during germination and during growth in planta. The Hsp70 mRNA and mRNA from one abundant cDNA clone (ham34) were expressed constitutively. Two clones (ham9 and ham12) hybridized only to mRNA from spores and germinating spores. Two clones (ham37 and ham27) showed hybridization specific to germinating spores. Quantification of the number of genes homologous to each cDNA clone indicated that four clones corresponded to one or two copies per haploid genome, and one hybridized to an approximately 11-member family of genes. A sequence of the gene corresponding to ham34 was obtained to investigate its function and to identify sequences conferring high levels of gene expression for use in constructing vectors for the transformation of B. lactucae.

  16. Role of Ulva lactuca Extract in Alleviation of Salinity Stress on Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are potentially excellent sources of highly bioactive materials that could represent useful leads in the alleviation of salinity stress. The effects of presoaking wheat grains in water extract of Ulva lactuca on growth, some enzymatic activities, and protein pattern of salinized plants were investigated in this study. Algal presoaking of grains demonstrated a highly significant enhancement in the percentage of seed germination and growth parameters. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT increased with increasing the algal extract concentration while activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX and glutathione reductase (GR was decreased with increasing concentration of algal extract more than 1% (w/v. The protein pattern of wheat seedling showed 12 newly formed bands as result of algal extract treatments compared with control. The bioactive components in U. lactuca extract such as ascorbic acid, betaine, glutathione, and proline could potentially participate in the alleviation of salinity stress. Therefore, algal presoaking is proved to be an effective technique to improve the growth of wheat seedlings under salt stress conditions.

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye using silver (Ag) nanoparticles synthesized from Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Govindaraju, M; Senthamilselvi, S; Premkumar, K

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we report on biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ulva lactuca (seaweed) at room temperature along with photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye. UV spectral analysis showed peak at 430 nm with special reference to the excitation of surfaces plasmon vibration by silver nanoparticles. FT-IR studies reveal the presence of bioactive functional groups such as phenolic compounds, amines and aromatic ring are found to be the capping and stabilizing agents of nanoparticles. The morphology of silver nanoparticles was found to be spherical and ranges about 48.59 nm as confirmed by HR-SEM. Negative zeta potential value of -34 mV suggests that the nanoparticles are highly stable in colloidal solution. XRD patterns also suggest the occurrence of spherical shaped particles due to the presence of silver ions. Further, photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange was measured spectrophotometrically by using silver as nanocatalyst under visible light illumination. The results revealed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using U. lactuca was found to be impressive in degrading methyl orange.

  18. Detection of Genetic Variations in Marine Algae Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta Induced by Heavy Metal Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Saleh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta green macroalgae has been successfully used as bioindicator for heavy metals pollution in ecosystems. Random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMP marker was employed to investigate genetic DNA pattern variability in green U. lactuca 5 days after exposure to Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn heavy metals stress. Genomic template stability (GTS% value was employed as a qualitative DNA changes measurement based on RAMP technique. In this respect, estimated GTS% value was recorded to be 65.215, 64.630, 59.835 and 59.250% for Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn treatment, respectively. Moreover, genetic similarity (GS induced by the above heavy metals was also evaluated to measure genetic distance between algae treated plants and their respective control. In this respect, estimated GS values generated by RAMP marker ranged between 0.576 (between control and Zn treatment - 0.969 (for both case; between Pb and Cu and between Cd and Zn treatment with an average of 0.842. Based upon data presented herein based on variant bands number (VB, GTS% and GS values; the present study could be suggested that Pb and Cu followed similar tendency at genomic DNA changes. Similar finding was also observed with Cd and Zn ions. Thereby, RAMP marker successfully highlighted DNA change patterns induced by heavy metals stress.

  19. Lead (Pb heavy metal impacts in the green Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae marine algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saleh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity of different lead (Pb (0, 2, 4 and 8 mg/L concentrations in the green Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta marine algae at physiological level has been investigated 48 h after Pb treatment under laboratory conditions. Thalus algae damages followed Pb treatment as revealed by microscopy test showed that the 4 and 8 mg/L Pb caused morphological changes in cells viability; whereas, no effect observed at the lowest Pb applied concentration (2 mg/L. Data revealed that Pb stress caused reduction in most investigated physiological parameters i.e. Pigments content, osmotic potential and membrane stability index values. This decline in osmotic potential was significantly (p ≤ 0.001 different. Whereas, estimated electric conductivity (EC values increased significantly (p ≤ 0.001 as applied Pb concentration increased. The current study allowed somewhat to highlight and better understanding Pb impacts in U. lactuca algae. Thereby, the studied algae could be used as a useful bioindicator in Pb polluted ecosystems.

  20. The Medicago sativa gene index 1.2: a web-accessible gene expression atlas for investigating expression differences between Medicago sativa subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the primary forage legume crop species in the United States and plays essential economic and ecological roles in agricultural systems across the country. Modern alfalfa is the result of hybridization between tetraploid M. sativa ssp. sativa and M. sativa ssp. falcata....

  1. Evolution and genetic population structure of prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola) and its RGC2 resistance gene cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuang, H.; Eck, van H.J.; Sicard, D.; Michelmore, R.; Nevo, E.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic structure and diversity of natural populations of prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola) were studied using AFLP markers and then compared with the diversity of the RGC2 disease resistance gene cluster. Screening of 696 accessions from 41 populations using 319 AFLP markers showed that eastern Tu

  2. Spore release of Bremia lactucae on lettuce is affected by timing of light initiation and decrease in relative humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, H.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Subbarao, K.V.

    2000-01-01

    A suction-impaction mini-spore trap was developed to study the effect of light initiation and decreasing relative humidity (RH) on spore release of Bremia lactucae in a controlled environment. Three light periods (from 0400 to 1600, 0600 to 1800, and 0800 to 2000 h, circadian time) at a constant RH

  3. The complete chloroplast genomes of Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Daniela; White, Kristin H; Keepers, Kyle G; Kane, Nolan C

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis and Humulus are sister genera comprising the entirety of the Cannabaceae sensu stricto, including C. sativa L. (marijuana, hemp), and H. lupulus L. (hops) as two economically important crops. These two plants have been used by humans for many purposes including as a fiber, food, medicine, or inebriant in the case of C. sativa, and as a flavoring component in beer brewing in the case of H. lupulus. In this study, we report the complete chloroplast genomes for two distinct hemp varieties of C. sativa, Italian "Carmagnola" and Russian "Dagestani", and one Czech variety of H. lupulus "Saazer". Both C. sativa genomes are 153 871 bp in length, while the H. lupulus genome is 153 751 bp. The genomes from the two C. sativa varieties differ in 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), while the H. lupulus genome differs in 1722 SNPs from both C. sativa cultivars.

  4. Monitoramento de raças de Bremia lactucae em 2010 e 2011 no Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine de Souza Galatti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A alface é uma das mais importantes hortaliças folhosas cultivadas no Brasil. Porém, com a intensificação da produção, a dificuldade em se cultivar essa hortaliça tem aumentado principalmente pela infestação das áreas de produção pelo fitopatógeno Bremia lactucae Regel, agente causador do míldio, uma das principais doenças da alface. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar raças de Bremia lactucae nos anos de 2010 e 2011 nos principais municípios produtores de alface do Estado de São Paulo. Para isso, coletaram-se folhas com esporângios de B. lactucae em municípios produtores de alface, sendo que cada amostra foi considerada um isolado, totalizando 56 e 96 nos anos de 2010 e 2011, respectivamente. Os esporângios coletados foram multiplicados na cultivar suscetível Solaris, com posterior inoculação nas cultivares diferenciadoras, realizando-se as avaliações no mesmo dia do aparecimento da primeira esporulação na cultivar suscetível 'Green Tower' (DM 0. No ano de 2010, identificou-se um novo código de B. lactucae em alface (63/31/03/00, correspondente a uma nova raça na qual se propôs a denominação de SPBl:07. No ano de 2011, outros dois códigos de B. lactucae foram identificados (31/63/51/00 e 31/63/9/00, aos quais se propôs as denominações de SPBl:08 e SPBl:09, respectivamente.

  5. Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Macchiavello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2 and water exchange rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1. The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

  6. Cultivation of alfalfa (medicago sativa L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmi, R; Sarkar, M; Vikramaditya

    1997-10-01

    Madicago sativa Linn, commonly known as 'Alfalfa', is a tonic plant rich in proteins, minerals, enzymes and vitamins, Bulk quantity of the whole plant is required in the pharmaceutical industries especially in homoecopathic pharmacies, Hence, there is a great need to cultivate this plant for sustained supply of the drug. Use of good and adequate phosphatecontaining farm yard manure, timely irrigation and appropriate spacing between plants results in good yield.

  7. Potential antidepressant constituents of Nigella sativa seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab S Elkhayat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nigella sativa Linn. is well known seed in the Middle East, Asia, and the Far East as a natural remedy for many ailments and as a flavoring agent proclaimed medicinal usage dating back to the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. An authentic saying of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him about black seed is also quoted in Al-Bukhari. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the antidepressant effect and isolate the potential antidepressant constituents of the polar extract of N. sativa seeds. Materials and Methods: The antidepressant effect was evaluated through the immobility duration in tail suspension and forced swim tests (FSTs. Albino mice were orally treated with N. sativa polar extract and its RP-18 column chromatography fractions (50 and 100 mg/kg,. Results: The polar extract and two of its sub-fractions were significantly able to decrease the immobility time of mice when subjected to both tail suspension and FSTs, the effects are comparable to standard drug (Sertraline, 5 mg/kg. However, these treatments did not affect the number of crossings and rearing in the open field test. Phytochemical investigation of the two active fractions led to the isolation of quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside 1, quercetin-7-O-β-D-gluco- pyranoside 2, tauroside E 3, and sapindoside B as the potential antidepressant constituents.

  8. Efeito alelopático de Andira humilis Mart. ex Benth na germinação e no crescimento de Lactuca sativa L. e Raphanus sativus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Periotto, Fernando; PEREZ,SONIA CRISTINA JULIANO GUALTIERI DE ANDRADE; Lima,Maria Inês Salgueiro

    2004-01-01

    Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito alelopático de caules e folhas de Andira humilis na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de plântulas de rabanete e alface. Para os experimentos de germinação foram preparados extratos aquosos de caules e folhas de A. humilis nas concentrações de 0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% (p/v). Foram realizadas quatro réplicas de trinta sementes de alface ou de rabanete, distribuídas em placas de Petri forradas com papel-filtro umedecido com 5mL dos extratos, mantidas...

  9. Interferência alelopática de Raphanus raphanistrum L. sobre a germinação de Lactuca sativa L. e Solanum lycopersicon L.

    OpenAIRE

    Wandscheer,Alana Cristina Dorneles; Pastorini,Lindamir Hernandez

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar os possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de Raphanus raphanistrum L. sobre a germinação de sementes de alface e tomate. Para isso, prepararam-se extratos aquosos de folhas e raízes de nabiça, após serem trituradas em liquidificador industrial e o extrato bruto diluído em água destilada até as concentrações de 5 e 10% (m/v). Os testes de germinação foram realizados colocando-se 25 sementes de alface e tomate em placas de Petri, umedecidas com os extrat...

  10. Influence of green, red and blue light emitting diodes on multiprotein complex proteins and photosynthetic activity under different light intensities in lettuce leaves (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Kim, Eun Jeong; Park, Jeong Suk; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2014-03-17

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of light emitting diodes (LEDs) at different light intensities (70 and 80 for green LEDs, 88 and 238 for red LEDs and 80 and 238 μmol m-2 s-1 for blue LEDs) at three wavelengths in lettuce leaves. Lettuce leaves were exposed to (522 nm), red (639 nm) and blue (470 nm) LEDs of different light intensities. Thylakoid multiprotein complex proteins and photosynthetic metabolism were then investigated. Biomass and photosynthetic parameters increased with an increasing light intensity under blue LED illumination and decreased when illuminated with red and green LEDs with decreased light intensity. The expression of multiprotein complex proteins including PSII-core dimer and PSII-core monomer using blue LEDs illumination was higher at higher light intensity (238 μmol m-2 s-1) and was lowered with decreased light intensity (70-80 μmol m-2 s-1). The responses of chloroplast sub-compartment proteins, including those active in stomatal opening and closing, and leaf physiological responses at different light intensities, indicated induced growth enhancement upon illumination with blue LEDs. High intensity blue LEDs promote plant growth by controlling the integrity of chloroplast proteins that optimize photosynthetic performance in the natural environment.

  11. Composted slaughterhouse sludge as a substitute for chemical fertilizers in the cultures of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juscelino de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract Flotation sludge (FS is produced in huge amounts at slaughterhouses in western Santa Catarina, Brazil. This waste is rich in plant nutrients and a valuable resource for soil amendments. Five FS composts were tested as a replacement for chemical fertilizers (QF, namely T1 (75% poultry manure (PM and 25% sawdust (SD; T2 (50% PM and 50% SD; T3 (25% PM and 75% SD; T4 (100% PM and 0% SD; and T5 (0% PM x 100% SD. For lettuce plants, treatments containing composted FS resulted in an increased number of leaves, leaf area and leaf fresh weight (LFW. T1 presented the best results with increases of 1.4 fold in LFW compared to plants supplemented with QF. T2 was the most effective treatment for radish with the best results of root fresh weight and root diameter. Although T4 had the highest nitrogen content, it did not present the best results in growth performance for lettuce or radish. The presence of higher proportions of SD in composts (25% for lettuce and 50% for radish improved the physical characteristics of the soil and proved to be a more balanced compost.

  12. Distribusi Frekuensi Soil Transmitted Helminth pada Sayuran Selada (Lactuca sativa yang Dijual di Pasar Tradisional dan Pasar Modern di Kota Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdira Asihka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenyakit kecacingan sampai saat ini masih merupakan masalah kesehatan di daerah tropis, termasuk Indonesia. Banyak faktor yang menyebabkan tingginya angka kejadian penyakit ini, salah satunya yaitu memakan sayuran mentah yang tidak dicuci bersih seperti selada atau kol yang sering dijadikan lalapan. Daun selada berposisi duduk sehingga dapat kontak langsung dengan tanah. Keadaan ini memungkinkan STH (Soil Transmitted Helminth yang berada ditanah akan mudah menempel pada daun selada. Tujuan peneliti melakukan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui ada atau tidaknya STH pada selada yang dijual di pasar tradisional dan modern di Kota Padang. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Laboratorium Parasitologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas sejak Bulan September-Desember 2013. Penelitian ini berjenis deskriptif menggunakan metode sedimentasi. Hasil yang peneliti dapatkan dari penelitian ini adalah ditemukan STH positif pada 32 dari 44 sayuran selada dari pasar tradisional di Kota Padang dengan persentase 73%. Tiga dari 5 sayuran selada dari pasar modern di Kota Padang dinyatakan positif dengan persentase 40%. Jenis STH terbanyak yang peneliti temukan pada penelitian ini adalah telur Ascaris sp (79%, larva Trichostrongylus orientalis (16% dan telur cacing tambang (5%. Jadi, Terdapat kontaminasi STH pada selada yang dijual di pasar tradisional maupun pasar modern di Kota Padang.Kata kunci: Soil Transmitted Helminth, sayuran selada, pasar tradisional, pasar modernAbstractWorm disease is still a health problem in the tropics, including Indonesia. Many factors contribute to the high incidence of this disease, one of which is eating unwashed raw vegetables such as lettuce or cabbage cleaner is often used as vegetables. Lettuce sitting position so that it can direct contact with the ground. This situation allows STH ( Soil Transmitted Helminths that are ground will easily stick to the leaves selada. Purposes of researchers conducted this study was to determine the presence or absence of STH on lettuce sold in traditional markets and modern in the city of Padang. This research was conducted in the Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Andalas since Month from September to December 2013. This study was descriptive using sedimentation method. Researchers get results of this study were found positive on STH 32 of 44 lettuce from traditional markets in the city of Padang with a percentage of 73%. Three of 5 lettuce of the modern market in Padang tested positive with a percentage of 40%. Most types of STH that researchers have found in this study are the eggs of Ascaris sp (79%, Trichostrongylus orientalis larvae (16% and hookworm eggs (5%. So, There STH contamination on lettuce sold in traditional markets and modern markets in Padang.Keywords: Soil Transmitted helminths, lettuce, traditional markets, modern market

  13. Study on Development of Non-Destructive Measurement Technique for Viability of Lettuce Seed (Lactuca sativa L) Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Chi Kook; Cho, Byoung Kwan [College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mo, Chang Yeon [National Acadamy of Agricultural Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moon S. [Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington (United States)

    2012-10-15

    In this study, the feasibility of hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique was investigated for the discrimination of viable and non-viable lettuce seeds. The spectral data of hyperspectral reflectance images with the spectral range between 750 nm and 1000 nm were used to develop PLS-DA model for the classification of viable and non-viable lettuce seeds. The discrimination accuracy of the calibration set was 81.6% and that of the test set was 81.2%. The image analysis method was developed to construct the discriminant images of non-viable seeds with the developed PLS-DA model. The discrimination accuracy obtained from the resultant image were 91%, which showed the feasibility of hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the mass discrimination of non-viable lettuce seeds from viable ones.

  14. Association analysis of bacterial leaf spot resistance and SNP markers derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial leaf spot of lettuce, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians, is a devastating disease of lettuce worldwide. Since there are no chemicals available for effective control of the disease, host-plant resistance is highly desirable to protect lettuce production. A total of 179 lettuce ge...

  15. Selection for resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by race 2 isolates of Verticillium dahliae in accessions of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt of lettuce caused by Verticillium dahliae can cause severe economic damage to lettuce producers. The pathogen exists as two races (races 1 and 2) in lettuce, and complete resistance to race 1 is known. Resistance to race 2 isolates has not been reported, and production of race 1 re...

  16. A dose-response relationship for marketable yield reduction of two lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars exposed to tropospheric ozone in Southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuoli, Riccardo; Finco, Angelo; Chiesa, Maria; Gerosa, Giacomo

    2016-12-27

    The present study investigated the response to ozone (O3) of two cultivars (cv.'Romana' and cv. 'Canasta') of irrigated lettuce grown in an open-top chamber (OTC) experiment in Mediterranean conditions. Two different levels of O3 were applied, ambient O3 in non-filtered OTCs (NF-OTCs) and -40% of ambient O3 in charcoal-filtered OTCs (CF-OTCs), during four consecutive growing cycles. At the end of each growing cycle, the marketable yield (fresh biomass) was assessed while during the growing periods, measurements of the stomatal conductance at leaf level were performed and used to define a stomatal conductance model for calculation of the phytotoxic ozone dose (POD) absorbed by the plants.Results showed that O3 caused statistically significant yield reductions in the first and in the last growing cycle. In general, the marketable yield of the NF-OTC plants was always lower than the CF-OTC plants for both cultivars, with mean reductions of -18.5 and -14.5% for 'Romana' and 'Canasta', respectively. On the contrary, there was no statistically significant difference in marketable yield due to the cultivar factor or to the interaction between O3 and cultivar in any of the growing cycle performed.Dose-response relationships for the marketable relative yield based on the POD values were calculated according to different flux threshold values (Y). The best regression fit was obtained using an instantaneous flux threshold of 6 nmol O3 m(-2) s(-1) (POD6); the same value was obtained also for other crops. According to the generic lettuce dose-response relationship, an O3 critical level of 1 mmol O3 m(-2) of POD6 for a 15% of marketable yield loss was found.

  17. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) leaf-proteome profiles after exposure to cylindrospermopsin and a microcystin-LR/cylindrospermopsin mixture: a concentration-dependent response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Marisa; Campos, Alexandre; Azevedo, Joana; Barreiro, Aldo; Planchon, Sébastien; Renaut, Jenny; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-02-01

    The intensification of agricultural productivity is an important challenge worldwide. However, environmental stressors can provide challenges to this intensification. The progressive occurrence of the cyanotoxins cylindrospermopsin (CYN) and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) as a potential consequence of eutrophication and climate change is of increasing concern in the agricultural sector because it has been reported that these cyanotoxins exert harmful effects in crop plants. A proteomic-based approach has been shown to be a suitable tool for the detection and identification of the primary responses of organisms exposed to cyanotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare the leaf-proteome profiles of lettuce plants exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of CYN and a MC-LR/CYN mixture. Lettuce plants were exposed to 1, 10, and 100 μg/l CYN and a MC-LR/CYN mixture for five days. The proteins of lettuce leaves were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), and those that were differentially abundant were then identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). The biological functions of the proteins that were most represented in both experiments were photosynthesis and carbon metabolism and stress/defense response. Proteins involved in protein synthesis and signal transduction were also highly observed in the MC-LR/CYN experiment. Although distinct protein abundance patterns were observed in both experiments, the effects appear to be concentration-dependent, and the effects of the mixture were clearly stronger than those of CYN alone. The obtained results highlight the putative tolerance of lettuce to CYN at concentrations up to 100 μg/l. Furthermore, the combination of CYN with MC-LR at low concentrations (1 μg/l) stimulated a significant increase in the fresh weight (fr. wt) of lettuce leaves and at the proteomic level resulted in the increase in abundance of a high number of proteins. In contrast, many proteins exhibited a decrease in abundance or were absent in the gels of the simultaneous exposure to 10 and 100 μg/l MC-LR/CYN. In the latter, also a significant decrease in the fr. wt of lettuce leaves was obtained. These findings provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms of the lettuce response to CYN and MC-LR/CYN and may contribute to the identification of potential protein markers of exposure and proteins that may confer tolerance to CYN and MC-LR/CYN. Furthermore, because lettuce is an important crop worldwide, this study may improve our understanding of the potential impact of these cyanotoxins on its quality traits (e.g., presence of allergenic proteins).

  18. Effects of biochar and alkaline amendments on cadmium immobilization, selected nutrient and cadmium concentrations of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in two contrasting soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldetsadik, Desta; Drechsel, Pay; Keraita, Bernard; Marschner, Bernd; Itanna, Fisseha; Gebrekidan, Heluf

    2016-01-01

    To assess the efficiency of seven treatments including biochars produced from dried faecal matter and manures as stabilizing agents of cadmium (Cd)-spiked soils, lettuce was grown in glasshouse on two contrasting soils. The soils used were moderately fertile silty loam and less fertile sandy loam and the applied treatments were 7 % w/w. The reduction of bioavailable Cd (ammonium nitrate extractable) and its phytoavailability for lettuce were used as assessment criteria in the evaluation of stabilization performance of each treatment. Moreover, the agronomic values of the treatments were also investigated. Ammonium nitrate extraction results indicated that faecal matter biochar, cow manure biochar and lime significantly reduced bioavailable Cd by 84-87, 65-68 and 82-91 %, respectively, as compared to the spiked controls. Unpredictably, coffee husk biochar induced significant increment of Cd in NH4NO3 extracts. The immobilization potential of faecal matter biochar and lime were superior than the other treatments. However, lime and egg shell promoted statistically lower yield and P, K and Zn concentrations response of lettuce plants compared to the biochar treatments. The lowest Cd and highest P tissue concentrations of lettuce plants were induced by faecal matter and cow manure biochar treatments in both soils. Additionally, the greatest Cd phytoavailability reduction for lettuce was induced by poultry litter and cow manure biochars in the silty loam soil. Our results indicate that faecal matter and animal manure biochars have shown great potential to promote Cd immobilization and lettuce growth response in heavily contaminated agricultural fields.

  19. Effects of co-cropping Bidens pilosa (L.) and Tagetes minuta (L.) on bioaccumulation of Pb in Lactuca sativa (L.) growing in polluted agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Carolina Vergara; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Salazar, María Julieta; Blanco, Andrés; Pignata, María Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Polluted agricultural soils are a serious problem for food safety, with phytoremediation being the most favorable alternative from the environmental perspective. However, this methodology is generally time-consuming and requires the cessation of agriculture. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate two potential phytoextractor plants (the native species Bidens pilosa and Tagetes minuta) co-cropped with lettuce growing on agricultural lead-polluted soils. The concentrations of Pb, as well as of other metals, were investigated in the phytoextractors, crop species, and in soils, with the potential risk to the health of consumers being estimated. The soil parameters pH, EC, organic matter percentage and bioavailable lead showed a direct relationship with the accumulation of Pb in roots. In addition, the concentration of Pb in roots of native species was closely related to Fe (B. pilosa, r = 0.81; T. minuta r = 0.75), Cu (T. minuta, r = 0.93), Mn (B. pilosa, r = 0.89) and Zn (B. pilosa, r = 0.91; T. minuta, r = 0.91). Our results indicate that the interaction between rhizospheres increased the phytoextraction of lead, which was accompanied by an increase in the biomass of the phytoextractor species. However, the consumption of lettuce still revealed a toxicological risk from Pb in all treatments.

  20. Effect of replacement interval of nutrients solution and concentration of replenishment solution on growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under floating culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barzegar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Floating culture of lettuce is developing because of the increase in water use efficiency and chemical fertilizers. In order to assess replacement time of nutrient solution and concentration of replenishment solution on growth and yield of Butterhead lettuce, a factorial experiment was conducted through completely randomized design with three replications. Each experimental unit was a 60×40×15 cm (36 L plastic box, and four plants were grown in a spacing of 20×25 cm apart on polyester sheets. The nutrient solutions were replaced with new solutions once every 3, 4 and 5 weeks. For compensating the removed water and depleted nutrients from the solution, replenishment solutions with ⅓ and ⅔ strength were added to the tank once a week. Plants were harvested 35 days after transplanting. Results showed that there was no significant difference in fresh head weight, head periphery, number of leaves per plant, leaf dry weight, root weight, and stem length and diameter among treatments. The interaction effects between replacement time × concentration of replenishment solution was not significant for none of the growth parameters. Fresh head weight and number of leaves per plant were 265-312 g (mean 286 g and 32-37 leaves, respectively. Chemical analysis of lettuce-head tissue indicated that concentration of macro-and-micronutrients was in optimum range in all the treatments. Head weight per plant was found significantly and positively correlated with number of leaves/plant, root weight, stem diameter and head periphery. Results of the present experiment indicated that lettuce growth and nutrients could be managed well by adding replenishment solution with ⅓ strength, without replacing the nutrients solution.

  1. Biosurfactant Produced by Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 Can Increase Adherence and Resistance to Sanitizers on Lettuce Leaves (Lactuca sativa L., cichoraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Eliandra M; Beilke, Luniele; Kochhann, Marília; Sarzi, Diana H; Tondo, Eduardo C

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 is an important foodborne pathogen in Southern Brazil and it is able to produce a biosurfactant. However, the importance of this compound for the microorganism is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the influence of the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 on adherence to slices of lettuce leaves and on resistance to sanitizers. First, lettuce leaves were inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE86 in order to determine the amount of biosurfactant produced. Subsequently, lettuce leaves were inoculated with S. Enteritidis SE86 with and without the biosurfactant, and the adherence and bacterial resistance to different sanitization methods were evaluated. S. Enteritidis SE86 produced biosurfactant after 16 h (emulsification index of 11 to 52.15 percent, P < 0.05) and showed greater adherence capability and resistance to sanitization methods when the compound was present. The scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that S. Enteritidis was able to adhere, form lumps, and invade the lettuce leaves' stomata in the presence of the biosurfactant. Results indicated that the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 contributed to adherence and increased resistance to sanitizers when the microorganism was present on lettuce leaves.

  2. Iodine and Selenium Biofortification with Additional Application of Salicylic Acid Affects Yield, Selected Molecular Parameters and Chemical Composition of Lettuce Plants (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoleń, Sylwester; Kowalska, Iwona; Czernicka, Małgorzata; Halka, Mariya; Kęska, Kinga; Sady, Włodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Iodine (I) and selenium (Se) are included in the group of beneficial elements. They both play important roles in humans and other animals, particularly in the regulation of thyroid functioning. A substantial percentage of people around the world suffer from health disorders related to the deficiency of these elements in the diet. Salicylic acid (SA) is a compound similar to phytohormones and is known to improve the efficiency of I biofortification of plants. The influence of SA on Se enrichment of plants has not, however, been recognized together with its effect on simultaneous application of I and Se to plants. Two-year studies (2014-2015) were conducted in a greenhouse with hydroponic cultivation of lettuce in an NFT (nutrient film technique) system. They included the application of I (as KIO3), Se (as Na2SeO3) and SA into the nutrient solution. KIO3 was used at a dose of 5 mg I⋅dm(-3) (i.e., 39.4 μM I), while Na2SeO3 was 0.5 mg Se⋅dm(-3) (i.e., 6.3 μM Se). SA was introduced at three doses: 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 mg⋅dm(-3) nutrient solutions, equivalent to 0.724, 7.24, and 72.4 μM SA, respectively. The tested combinations were as follows: (1) control, (2) I + Se, (3) I + Se + 0.1 mg SA⋅dm(-3), (4) I + Se + 1.0 mg SA⋅dm(-3) and (5) I + Se + 10.0 mg SA⋅dm(-3). The applied treatments had no significant impact on lettuce biomass (leaves and roots). Depending on the dose, a diverse influence of SA was noted with respect to the efficiency of I and Se biofortification; chemical composition of leaves; and mineral nutrition of lettuce plants, including the content of macro- and microelements and selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) gene expression. SA application at all tested doses comparably increased the level of selenomethionine (SeMet) and decreased the content of SA in leaves.

  3. Biosurfactant produced by Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 can increase the adherence and resistance to sanitizers on lettuce leaves (Lactuca sativa L., cichoraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliandra Mirlei Rossi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 is an important foodborne pathogen in Southern Brazil and it is able to produce a biosurfactant. However, the importance of this compound for the microorganism is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the influence of biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 on the adherence to slices of lettuce leaves and on the resistance to sanitizers. First, S. Enteritidis SE86 was inoculated on lettuce leaves in order to determine the amount of biosurfactant produced. Subsequently, S. Enteritidis SE86 was inoculated on lettuce leaves, with and without the biosurfactant, and the adherence and bacterial resistance to different sanitization methods were evaluated. S. Enteritidis SE86 produced biosurfactant after 16 hours (emulsification index of 11 to 52.15% and showed greater adherence capability and resistance to sanitization methods when the compound was present. The scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that S. Enteritidis was able to adhere, form lumps, and invade the lettuce leaves stomata in the presence of biosurfactant. Results indicated that the biosurfactant produced by S. Enteritidis SE86 contributed to the adherence and increased the resistance to sanitizers when the microorganism was present on lettuce leaves.

  4. Growth and Tissue Elemental Composition Response of Butterhead Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, cv. Flandria to Hydroponic Conditions at Different pH and Alkalinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler S. Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomass and tissue elemental differences were quantified for lettuce grown in deep-water conventional hydroponic conditions at two pH and alkalinity conditions. Nutrient solutions were created using inorganic salts and either reverse osmosis (RO water or municipal water with high alkalinity. Three treatments were evaluated: (a nutrient solution created with reverse osmosis (RO water and maintained at pH 5.8 (H5; (b same as H5 but maintained at pH 7.0 (H7; and (c nutrient solution created using municipal water and maintained at pH 7.0, referred to as HA7. Averaged across three trials, the HA7 and H7 treatments produced 26% less shoot fresh weight (FW than the H5 treatment with an 18% reduction in dry weight (DW. The H5 treatment had the least biomass in root FW and DW. In tissue elemental analyses, both the pH 7.0 treatments showed lower concentrations than H5 in Cu, N, Mo, and Sr, and increased concentrations in Ba, Mg, Na, and Zn. There were no differences in Al, C, Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, P, S, and Si concentrations among treatments (p = 0.05. The results from this experiment can be used to isolate the effects of pH and alkalinity in aquaponic conditions where pH and alkalinity will mimic HA7 conditions.

  5. Influence of the temporal and spatial variation of nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and soil composition in the N species content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Edgar; Fidalgo, Fernanda; Teixeira, Jorge; Aguiar, Ana A; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2014-04-01

    The variation of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and N content in lettuce was evaluated at 5 stages of lettuce growth. Soil physicochemical properties and its N content were also assessed to elucidate the soil-to-plant transfer of inorganic N and potential leaching to groundwater. A decrease of NR activity and an increase of NO3(-) and N-Kjeldahl content in lettuces were observed during plant growth, whereas GS activity and NH4(+) increased during the first few weeks of lettuce growth and then decreased. Although the temporal variation was similar in lettuces grown in different soils, quantitative differences were observed, indicating that high NO3(-) content in soil caused a higher NO3(-) accumulation in lettuce despite the higher NR activity during the initial stage of plant growth. Higher levels of NO3(-) and NH4(+) were correlated with higher levels of N-Kjeldahl in lettuce suggesting a positive effect of these N species in the biosynthesis of organic forms of N. Soil physicochemical properties influenced the mobility of inorganic N within the groundwater-soil-plant system. Sandy soils with low OM content allowed NO3(-) leaching, which was confirmed by higher NO3(-) levels in groundwater. Therefore, lettuces grown in those soils presented lower N content and the inputs of N to the environment were higher. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Elicitation effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Złotek, Urszula; Świeca, Michał

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a study on changes in the main phytochemical levels and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of lettuce caused by different doses and times of application of yeast extracts. Elicitation with yeast extract caused an increase in the total phenolic compounds and chlorophyll content, which varied according to the dose and time of spraying, but it did not have a positive impact on vitamin C, flavonoid and carotenoid content in lettuce. The best effect was achieved by double spraying with 1% yeast extract and by single spraying with 0.1% yeast extract. The increase in phytochemical content was positively correlated with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of the studied lettuce leaves. Chicoric acid seems to be the major contributor to these antioxidant activities. Yeast extract may be used as a natural, environmentally friendly and safe elicitor for improving the health-promoting qualities of lettuce. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Assessing the effect of sodium dichloroisocyanurate concentration on transfer of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in wash water for production of minimally processed iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, D F; Sant'Ana, A S; Monteiro, G; Schaffner, D W; Franco, B D G M

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the impact of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 250 mg l(-1) ) in wash water on transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium from contaminated lettuce to wash water and then to other noncontaminated lettuces washed sequentially in the same water. Experiments were designed mimicking the conditions commonly seen in minimally processed vegetable (MPV) processing plants in Brazil. The scenarios were as follows: (1) Washing one inoculated lettuce portion in nonchlorinated water, followed by washing 10 noninoculated portions sequentially. (2) Washing one inoculated lettuce portion in chlorinated water followed by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially. (3) Washing five inoculated lettuce portions in chlorinated water sequentially, followed by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially. (4) Washing five noninoculated lettuce portions in chlorinated water sequentially, followed by washing five inoculated portions sequentially and then by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially in the same water. Salm. Typhimurium transfer from inoculated lettuce to wash water and further dissemination to noninoculated lettuces occurred when nonchlorinated water was used (scenario 1). When chlorinated water was used (scenarios 2, 3 and 4), no measurable Salm. Typhimurium transfer occurred if the sanitizer was ≥10 mg l(-1) . Use of sanitizers in correct concentrations is important to minimize the risk of microbial transfer during MPV washing. In this study, the impact of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in the wash water on transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium from inoculated lettuce to wash water and then to other noninoculated lettuces washed sequentially in the same water was evaluated. The use of chlorinated water, at concentration above 10 mg l(-1) , effectively prevented Salm. Typhimurium transfer under several different washing scenarios. Conversely, when nonchlorinated water was used, Salm. Typhimurium transfer occurred in up to at least 10 noninoculated batches of lettuce washed sequentially in the same water. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Effect of Different Elicitors and Preharvest Day Application on the Content of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Butterhead Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) Produced under Hydroponic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Escamilla, Jesús Omar; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; de la Rosa, Laura A; Núñez-Gastélum, José Alberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Rodrigo-García, Joaquín

    2017-07-05

    The effect of four elicitors on phytochemical content in two varieties of lettuce was evaluated. The best preharvest day for application of each elicitor was chosen. Solutions of arachidonic acid (AA), salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MJ), and Harpin protein (HP) were applied by foliar aspersion on lettuce leaves while cultivating under hydroponic conditions. Application of elicitors was done at 15, 7, 5, 3, or 1 day before harvest. Green lettuce showed the highest increase in phytochemical content when elicitors (AA, SA, and HP) were applied on day 7 before harvest. Similarly, antioxidant activity rose in all treatments on day 7. In red lettuce, the highest content of bioactive molecules occurred in samples treated on day 15. AA, SA, and HP were the elicitors with the highest effect on phytochemical content for both varieties, mainly on polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity also increased in response to elicitation. HPLC-MS showed an increase in the content of phenolic acids in green and red lettuce, especially after elicitation with SA, suggesting activation of the caffeic acid pathway due to elicitation.

  9. Effects of biochar and alkaline amendments on cadmium immobilization, selected nutrient and cadmium concentrations of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in two contrasting soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldetsadik, Desta; Drechsel, Pay; Keraita, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    To assess the efficiency of seven treatments including biochars produced from dried faecal matter and manures as stabilizing agents of cadmium (Cd)-spiked soils, lettuce was grown in glasshouse on two contrasting soils. The soils used were moderately fertile silty loam and less fertile sandy loam....... Ammonium nitrate extraction results indicated that faecal matter biochar, cow manure biochar and lime significantly reduced bioavailable Cd by 84-87, 65-68 and 82-91 %, respectively, as compared to the spiked controls. Unpredictably, coffee husk biochar induced significant increment of Cd in NH4NO3...... extracts. The immobilization potential of faecal matter biochar and lime were superior than the other treatments. However, lime and egg shell promoted statistically lower yield and P, K and Zn concentrations response of lettuce plants compared to the biochar treatments. The lowest Cd and highest P tissue...

  10. Root adaptation and ion selectivity affects the nutritional value of salt-stressed hydroponically grown baby-leaf Nasturtium officinale and Lactuca sativa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan A. Fernández; Diana Niñirola; Jesús Ochoa; Francesco Orsini; Giuseppina Pennisi; Giorgio Gianquinto; Catalina Egea-Gilabert

    2016-01-01

    The response of watercress (Nasturtium officinale L.) to salinity has been scarcely addressed in literature despite its growing importance in the baby-leaf market and its wide cultivation in salt-affected agricultural regions...

  11. Effets des rayonnements UV-C sur la réponse de la laitue romaine Lactuca sativa var Claudius aux contraintes biotoques et abiotiques

    OpenAIRE

    Ouhibi, Chayma

    2014-01-01

    Applied in high doses, UV-C radiations are harmful, while administered at low doses, these same radiations stimulate beneficial answers. This phenomenon is known as hormesis and the beneficial dose is qualified hormic. The application of low doses of UV-C on fruits and vegetables in post harvest enhances resistance against pathogens (Charles et al, 2008), improve their nutritional quality (Mercier et al, 2001) and their performance to grow (Siddiqui et al, 2011). This works were carried out o...

  12. Iodine and Selenium Biofortification with Additional Application of Salicylic Acid Affects Yield, Selected Molecular Parameters and Chemical Composition of Lettuce Plants (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoleń, Sylwester; Kowalska, Iwona; Czernicka, Małgorzata; Halka, Mariya; Kęska, Kinga; Sady, Włodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Iodine (I) and selenium (Se) are included in the group of beneficial elements. They both play important roles in humans and other animals, particularly in the regulation of thyroid functioning. A substantial percentage of people around the world suffer from health disorders related to the deficiency of these elements in the diet. Salicylic acid (SA) is a compound similar to phytohormones and is known to improve the efficiency of I biofortification of plants. The influence of SA on Se enrichment of plants has not, however, been recognized together with its effect on simultaneous application of I and Se to plants. Two-year studies (2014–2015) were conducted in a greenhouse with hydroponic cultivation of lettuce in an NFT (nutrient film technique) system. They included the application of I (as KIO3), Se (as Na2SeO3) and SA into the nutrient solution. KIO3 was used at a dose of 5 mg I⋅dm-3 (i.e., 39.4 μM I), while Na2SeO3 was 0.5 mg Se⋅dm-3 (i.e., 6.3 μM Se). SA was introduced at three doses: 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 mg⋅dm-3 nutrient solutions, equivalent to 0.724, 7.24, and 72.4 μM SA, respectively. The tested combinations were as follows: (1) control, (2) I + Se, (3) I + Se + 0.1 mg SA⋅dm-3, (4) I + Se + 1.0 mg SA⋅dm-3 and (5) I + Se + 10.0 mg SA⋅dm-3. The applied treatments had no significant impact on lettuce biomass (leaves and roots). Depending on the dose, a diverse influence of SA was noted with respect to the efficiency of I and Se biofortification; chemical composition of leaves; and mineral nutrition of lettuce plants, including the content of macro- and microelements and selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) gene expression. SA application at all tested doses comparably increased the level of selenomethionine (SeMet) and decreased the content of SA in leaves. PMID:27803709

  13. RESÍDUOS DE AGROTÓXICOS NO SOLO SOBRE A GERMINAÇÃO E CRESCIMENTO DE ALFACE (Lactuca sativa E RABANETE (Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOUSA, Danilo Teixeira de

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the presence of pesticide residues in soil where it was previously cultivated maize by evaluating the germination, development and weight test of the plants. The experiment was conducted at Faculdade Dr. Francisco Maeda "FAFRAM" lab . It was collected soil in a layer two inches deep in three growing areas. The treatments were two areas and the witness was washed sand, with three treatments. Placed in 300g of soil per container, eight replicates for each treatment. Crops sown as test plants were lettuce and radish, with 10 seeds per plastic container at a depth of one centimeter. The tests were conducted in a climatic chamber with temperature of 27 ± 2 º C, relative humidity of 70 % and illumination of approximately 1000 lux. For the evaluation of plant tests, It was considered the following: germination ( % , length of the root system - SR ( cm , length of the aerial part of the plant - PA ( cm , total height ( cm , wet weight ( g and dry weight ( g . Plants were evaluated 21 days after sowing. It was concluded that the soil of the Salopao farm is most likely to have pesticide residue , therefore negatively affect plant growth test. O objetivo foi avaliar a presença de resíduo de agrotóxicos em solo onde anteriormente cultivou-se a cultura do milho através da avaliação da germinação, desenvolvimento e peso das plantas teste. O experimento foi desenvolvido no laboratório da Faculdade Dr. Francisco Maeda “FAFRAM”. Coletaram-se os solos em uma camada de cinco centímetros de profundidade em três áreas de cultivo. Os tratamentos foram as duas áreas e a testemunha foi areia lavada, totalizando três tratamentos. Colocou-se 300g de solo por recipiente, sendo oito replicas para cada tratamento. As culturas semeadas como plantas testes foram o alface e o rabanete, sendo 10 sementes por recipiente plástico em uma profundidade de um centímetro. Os ensaios foram conduzidos em sala climatizada com temperatura entre 27±2ºC, umidade relativa do ar em 70% e iluminação de aproximadamente 1000 lux. Para a avaliação das plantas testes, foram consideradas as seguintes características: germinação (%, comprimento do sistema radicular – SR (cm, comprimento da parte aérea da planta – PA (cm, altura total (cm, peso úmido (g e peso seco (g. As plantas foram avaliadas com 21 dias após a semeadura. Concluiu-se que o solo da fazenda Solapão tem grande possibilidade de ter resíduo de agrotóxicos, pois interferiu negativamente no desenvolvimento das plantas teste.

  14. Shoot growth, root growth and resource capture under limiting water and N supply for two cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbiriou, P.J.; Stomph, T.J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims - To improve vegetable crops adapted to low input and variable resource availability, better understanding is needed of root system functioning, including nitrogen and water capture. Methods - This study quantified shoot and root development and patterns of water and nitrate

  15. The effect of light and ancymidol on the metabolism of sup 14 C-ent-Kaurene in photoblastic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grand Rapids) seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazebroek, J.P.; Coolbaugh, R.C. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The effect of light ancymidol on the metabolism of {sup 14}C-kaurene in light-requiring lettuce seeds was investigated. Seeds were soaked in a solution of {sup 14}C-kaurene in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} with 0.1% Tween-20 for 24 h. The treatment did not reduce viability nor alter the light requirement. The solvent was removed and the seeds were incubated at 25{degree}C in continuous light or dark in 20% (w/v) PEG or 10 mM anycymidol. Labeled metabolites were extracted and analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. {sup 14}C-Kaurenol and {sup 14}C-kaurenal were identified in seed incubated in 20% PeG in the light, while no acid EtOAc-soluble metabolites were found in seeds incubated in the dark. In the presence of ancymidol, {sup 14}C-karuenol, {sup 14}C-kaurenal, and a polar metabolite were found in seeds exposed to light, while only a trace of {sup 14}C-kaurenol was detected in seeds incubated in the dark. These results indicate that the oxidation of kaurene is a light sensitive step in the biosynthesis of gibberellins in photoblastic lettuce seeds. Under these conditions ancymidol inhibits germination at a site different than the light sensitive kaurene oxidation step.

  16. The effect of three liquid bio-fertilizers in the production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criollo Escobar Hernando Artemio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In modern agriculture, the use of agrochemicals has grown considerably, increasing production costs and causing serious problems for the environment. The use of bio-fertilizers is a viable alternative to improve the profitability of crops, particularly for agriculture on medium and small-sized farms with intensive production systems, such as vegetables. Given that bio-fertilizers can be produced on the farm and used successfully in crop production, this research focused on the effect of three bio-fertilizers on the production of lettuce and cabbage, biweekly applications were made with liquid fertilizers produced from the manure of cows (BFC, guinea pigs (BFGp and pigs (BFPi and compared to a commercial foliar fertilizer (CFF and a control without an application. We observed the presence of Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces in the BFC and BFGp fertilizers and Bacillus in the BFPi fertilizer. The weight and head diameter and yield of lettuce and cabbage favored the bio-fertilizer applications compared to the control, but no statistical differences were found compared to the commercial foliar fertilizer (CFF. This behavior is attributed not only to the mineral content, but also to the presence of metabolite regulators of plant physiology, produced by the microbial action of the bio-fertilizers.

  17. Iodine and Selenium Biofortification with Additional Application of Salicylic Acid Affects Yield, Selected Molecular Parameters and Chemical Composition of Lettuce Plants (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Smoleń

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Iodine (I and selenium (Se are included in the group of beneficial elements. They both play important roles in humans and other animals, particularly in the regulation of thyroid functioning. A substantial percentage of people around the world suffer from health disorders related to the deficiency of these elements in the diet. Salicylic acid (SA is a compound similar to phytohormones and is known to improve the efficiency of I biofortification of plants. The influence of SA on Se enrichment of plants has not, however, been recognised together with its effect on simultaneous application of I and Se to plants. Two-year studies (2014–2015 were conducted in a greenhouse with hydroponic cultivation of lettuce in an NFT (nutrient film technique system. They included the application of I (as KIO3, Se (as Na2SeO3 and SA into the nutrient solution. KIO3 was used at a dose of 5 mg I•dm-3 (i.e., 39.4 µM I, while Na2SeO3 was 0.5 mg Se•dm-3 (i.e., 6.3 µM Se. SA was introduced at three doses: 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg∙dm-3 nutrient solutions, equivalent to 0.724 µM, 7.24 µM and 72.4 µM SA, respectively. The tested combinations were as follows: 1. control, 2. I + Se, 3. I + Se + 0.1 mg SA∙dm-3, 4. I + Se + 1.0 mg SA∙dm-3 and 5. I + Se + 10.0 mg SA∙dm-3. The applied treatments had no significant impact on lettuce biomass (leaves and roots. Depending on the dose, a diverse influence of SA was noted with respect to the efficiency of I and Se biofortification; chemical composition of leaves; and mineral nutrition of lettuce plants, including the content of macro- and microelements and selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT gene expression. SA application at all tested doses comparably increased the level of selenomethionine (SeMet and decreased the content of SA in leaves.

  18. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI PUPUK HAYATI MAJEMUK DAN BATUAN FOSFAT ALAM TERHADAP SERAPAN P OLEH TANAMAN SELADA (Lactuca sativa L. DI TANAH ANDISOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Maryanto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the experiment were to study the effect of Compound Biofertilizer (CB and Rock Phosphate (RP on the several soil chemistry properties of Andisols as well as the P-uptake by lettuce. The research had been conducted in the greenhouse of Agriculture Faculty, Unsoed at Karangreja, Purbalingga, since May up to August, 2009. The experiment was arranged in factorial 4 x 4 based on Completely Block Randomyzed Design with three replications. The firsrt factor was the concentration of CB consists of 4 levels, i.e. 0, 1, 2 and 3 %; and the second factor was the dosage of RP consists of 4 levels, i.e. 0; 25, 50 and 75 kg P2O5 per hectare.  The variables observed were the soil pH, exchangeable aluminium, the availability of P, P-uptake by plant, plant height, number of leaf, fresh weight of plant and dry weight of plant. The data collected was analyzed using Fisher and DMR-test. The results indicated that the application of 75 kg P2O5 of RP could increase soil pH, reduce exchangeable-Al, increase the availability of P in the soil, P-uptake by plant, the fresh weight and dry weight of plant. The application of 2% concentration of CB could reduce exchangeable-Al, increase the availability of P in the soil, P-uptake by plant, the fresh weight and dry weight of plant.

  19. Lactuca tatarica (Asteraceae in embryonic dunes on Wolin Island (NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Wojciech Kowalski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 19th century, Lactuca tatarica was reported for the first time from an adventive occurrence on the North Sea and Baltic Sea coasts. In Wolin Island, the species has become established in the natural habitat and is clearly spreading in recent years. The community with L. tatarica was studied currently on the western point of Wolin Island along the stretch between the mouth of the Świna (Swine River and a newly constructed breakwater of the external harbour. The taxon occupies relatively low parts of the sandy elevations of dune ridges, in patches of the Honckenyo-Agropyretum juncei association (habitat 2110. Furthermore, L. tatarica has been reported in recent years from some locations in Świnoujście (Usedom (Uznam Island, Międzyzdroje, Wisełka and Międzywodzie.

  20. Genetic and biochemical evaluation of natural rubber from Eastern Washington prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jared L; Burke, Ian C; Neff, Michael M

    2015-01-21

    Alternative sources of natural rubber are of importance due to economic, biological, and political threats that could diminish supplies of this resource. Prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) synthesizes long-chain natural rubber and was studied to determine underlying genetic and phenotypic characteristics of rubber biosynthesis. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of an F2 segregating population using EST-SSR markers led to the discovery of genetic regions linked to natural rubber production. Interval mapping (IM) and multiple QTL mapping (MQM) identified several QTL in the mapping population that had significance based on LOD score thresholds. The discovered QTL and the corresponding local markers are genetic resources for understanding rubber biosynthesis in prickly lettuce and could be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding. Prickly lettuce is an excellent candidate for elucidating the rubber synthesis mechanism and has potential as a crop plant for rubber production.

  1. Phylogenetic relationship and antifouling activity of bacterial epiphytes from the marine alga Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, S; Thomas, T; Holmström, C; Kjelleberg, S

    2000-06-01

    It is widely accepted that bacterial epiphytes can inhibit the colonization of surfaces by common fouling organisms. However, little information is available regarding the diversity and properties of these antifouling bacteria. This study assessed the antifouling traits of five epiphytes of the common green alga, Ulva lactuca. All isolates were capable of preventing the settlement of invertebrate larvae and germination of algal spores. Three of the isolates also inhibited the growth of a variety of bacteria and fungi. Their phylogenetic positions were determined by 16S ribosomal subunit DNA sequencing. All isolates showed a close affiliation with the genus Pseudoalteromonas and, in particular, with the species P. tunicata. Strains of this bacterial species also display a variety of antifouling activities, suggesting that antifouling ability may be an important trait for members of this genus to be highly successful colonizers of animate surfaces and for such species to protect their host against fouling.

  2. Dietary Supplementation of Seaweed (Ulva lactuca to alleviate the Impact of Heat Stress in Growing Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kkalid A. Abdoun, Aly B. Okab, Ahmed M. El-Waziry, Emad M. Samara and Ahmed A. Al-Haidary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental and nutritional management approaches have been used to mitigate heat stress and improve performance of farm animals in semi-arid and arid regions. The present study was designed with the intention to alleviate the negative effects of heat stress and to promote the performance of growing lambs reared under hot environmental conditions. The study was conducted on 18 male Naimey lambs with average body weight of 22.78±0.49 kg, and 4-5 months old. The animals were randomly divided into 3 equal groups (A, B and C, and fed diets containing different concentrations of seaweed (Ulva lactuca for 90 days. Group A served as control and was offered diet containing 0.0% seaweed. Groups B and C served as treated groups and were offered diets containing 3.0 and 5.0% seaweed, respectively. Dietary inclusion of seaweed to the diet of growing lambs exposed to heat stress (max Ta 43.9oC, max RH 81.1%, max THI 84.6 neither influenced (P>0.05 the thermo-physiological parameters (rectal and skin temperatures, nor affected (P>0.05 the performance parameters (feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency. Furthermore, dietary seaweed supplementation did not alter (P>0.05 blood constituents or blood antioxidant capacity. However, dietary seaweed supplementation significantly (P<0.05 reduced respiratory rate, and increased serum potassium concentration. Based on the data of the present study, seaweed (Ulva lactuca supplementation to the diets of growing lambs reared under heat stress conditions did not show any indication of promoting their production performance or heat tolerance.

  3. Ulva Lactuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Peri Rossi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available She looked loathingly at the spoon. It was a metal spoon, dark, with a small engraving on its handle – a sharp taste. “Open your mouth, slowly, eaaaasy, like a little birdie in its nest,” he said, bringing the spoon to her mouth. He hated spoons; they had seemed despicable little things since he was small. Why did he now find himself having to wield it, full of soup, having to usher it now into this young child’s mouth, as his parents had done to him, as surely as his parents’ parents had also done? If they even had spoons then, if some fool had already invented them. He had to find himself an encyclopedia and figure out when the first spoon had been forged; he had to get his hands on an encyclopedia, a source of infinite knowledge by which he might survive. Spoon: A piece of silverware with a concave scoop at its end; typically used for carrying liquids to the mouth.

  4. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Eruca sativa Mill. (Garden Rocket)

    OpenAIRE

    Yankun Wang; Pu Chu; Qing Yang; Shengxin Chang; Jianmei Chen; Maolong Hu; Rongzhan Guan

    2014-01-01

    Eruca sativa (Cruciferae family) is an ancient crop of great economic and agronomic importance. Here, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa was sequenced and annotated. The circular molecule is 247,696 bp long, with a G+C content of 45.07%, containing 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes, and 18 tRNA genes. The Eruca sativa mitochondrial genome may be divided into six master circles and four subgenomic molecules via three pairwise large repeats, resulting in a more dynamic st...

  5. Emerging clinical and therapeutic applications of Nigella sativa in gastroenterology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shailendra Kapoor

    2009-01-01

    Nigella sativa decreases DNA damage and thereby prevents initiation of carcinogenesis in colonic tissue secondary to exposure to toxic agents such as azoxymethane. N. sativa is of immense therapeutic benefit in diabetic individuals and those with glucose intolerance as it accentuates glucose-induced secretion of insulin besides having a negative impact on glucose absorption from the intestinal mucosa. N. sativa administration protects hepatic tissue from deleterious effects of toxic metals such as lead, and attenuates hepatic lipid peroxidation following exposure to chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride.

  6. Cross-Amplification of Vicia sativa subsp. sativa Microsatellites across 22 Other Vicia Species

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    Sebastin Raveendar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperate and herbaceous genus Vicia L. is a member of the legume tribe Fabeae of the subfamily Papilionoideae. The genus Vicia comprises 166 annual or perennial species distributed mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America, but also extending to the temperate regions of South America and tropical Africa. The use of simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for Vicia species has not been investigated as extensively as for other crop species. In this study, we assessed the potential for cross-species amplification of cDNA microsatellite markers developed from common vetch (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa. For cross-species amplification of the SSRs, amplification was carried out with genomic DNA isolated from two to eight accessions of 22 different Vicia species. For individual species or subspecies, the transferability rates ranged from 33% for V. ervilia to 82% for V. sativa subsp. nigra with an average rate of 52.0%. Because the rate of successful SSR marker amplification generally correlates with genetic distance, these SSR markers are potentially useful for analyzing genetic relationships between or within Vicia species.

  7. [Quality standard of uygur medicine Medicago sativa seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wen-Huan; Xu, Hai-Yan; Wang, Dong-Dong; Li, Jie; Tian, Shu-Ge

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, microscopic identification method was adopted to observe the microscopic characters of ten batches of Medicago sativa seeds. And M. sativa seeds were identificated by TLC method in contrast to trigonelline and stachydrine hydrochloride. The impurities, moisture, ash, sour insoluble ash were detected based on Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 version (Vol I ). An HPLC method was also established for determination of trigonelline in the M. sativa seeds. The contents of impurities, moisture, ash, sour insoluble ash should not exceed 5%, 10%, 6%, and 2%, respectively. The content of trigonelline should be not less than 0.795 6 mg x g(-1). The experimental methods were accurate and reliable, and can be used as the quality control of the seeds of M. sativa.

  8. Nonlinear modelisation of heavy metal removal from aqueous solution using Ulva lactuca algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhama, S; Dhaouadi, H; M'Henni, F

    2011-01-01

    After extensive analysis, Ulva lactuca dried algae, collected from the Monastir coastal zone, was proven to be successful as an adsorbent for the removal of certain inorganic pollutants. The main objective of this study was the nonlinear modeling of heavy metal removal from an aqueous solution, using a freely available and well analyzed biomaterial, as well as the evaluation of its efficacy on various metal ion sorptions. Although relatively low specific surface area, compared to more conventional adsorbents, the selected biomaterial displays very interesting retention capacities when used with aqueous inorganic pollutants. The pseudo, first and second-order kinetic models were used to investigate the kinetic retention mechanism. Assuming the nonlinear form, the results indicate that the retention mechanism is diffusion controlled. Concerning the heavy metal uptake capacity, it was found that the selected biomaterial has a retention capacity of 67 mg g(-1) of Ni(II), 112 mg g(-1) of Cu(II), 127 mg g(-1) of Cd(II) and 230 mg g(-1) of Pb(II).

  9. Cannabinoids production in Cannabis sativa L.: An in vitro approach

    OpenAIRE

    Farag, Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) is the oldest known medicinal plant. For millennia, the plant has also been used for fibre and oil production.The most prominent feature of C. sativa is the psychoactive effect ascribed to its secondary metabolites, cannabinoids (mainly to tetrahydrocannabinol, THC). However, many other pharmacological properties of the aforementioned specialized compounds have been described. Currently, the demand for THC for various medical applications is substantial, while...

  10. Atividade alelopática de folhas e pseudofrutos de Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (Rhamnaceae sobre a germinação de Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae Allelopathic activity of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (Rhamnaceae leaves and pseudofruits on the germination of Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Cristina Dorneles Wandscheer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito alelopático de folhas secas e pseudofrutos de Hovenia dulcis Thunb. sobre sementes de alface. Para isso, prepararam-se extratos aquosos de folhas e pseudofrutos nas concentrações 1, 2 e 4% (m/v. Realizou-se quatro repetições de 25 sementes de alface, distribuídas em placas de Petri forradas com papel Germitest e umedecidas com os extratos, mantidas em câmara de germinação à temperatura de 25°C, fotoperíodo constante e presença de luz por cinco dias, sendo o controle água destilada. Calculou-se a porcentagem, a velocidade, o índice de velocidade de germinação, o comprimento radicular e da parte aérea das plântulas, bem como o efeito das sementes na presença de diferentes soluções de pH. Observou-se que as plântulas foram significativamente afetadas na presença de extratos aquosos de folhas secas e pseudofrutos nas concentrações 2 e 4%. Os efeitos foram desvinculados do pH e potencial osmótico, indicando, portanto, interferência alelopática dos extratos obtidos de Hovenia dulcis.This paper aims to evaluate the allelopathic effect of dry leaves and pseudofruits of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. on lettuce seeds. Therefore, aqueous extracts of leaves and pseudofruits were prepared in 1%, 2% and 4% (m/v concentrations. Four replicates were done of 25 lettuce seeds distributed in Petri dishes lined with Germitest paper and humidified with the extracts, maintained in germination chamber at 25 °C, constant photoperiod and light presence for five days, the control being distilled water. The percentage, speed, germination rate index, root length and aerial-part length of the seedlings were calculated, as well as the seeds effect in the presence of different pH solutions. It was observed that the seedlings were significantly affected in the presence of aqueous extracts of dry leaves and pseudofruits at 2% and 4% concentrations. The effects were not linked to pH and osmotic potential, indicating, therefore, allelopathic interference of Hovenia dulcis extracts.

  11. Interferência alelopática de Raphanus raphanistrum L. sobre a germinação de Lactuca sativa L. e Solanum lycopersicon L. Allelopathic interference of Raphanus raphanistrum L. on the germination of Lactuca sativa L. and Solanum lycopersicon L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Cristina Dorneles Wandscheer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar os possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de Raphanus raphanistrum L. sobre a germinação de sementes de alface e tomate. Para isso, prepararam-se extratos aquosos de folhas e raízes de nabiça, após serem trituradas em liquidificador industrial e o extrato bruto diluído em água destilada até as concentrações de 5 e 10% (m/v. Os testes de germinação foram realizados colocando-se 25 sementes de alface e tomate em placas de Petri, umedecidas com os extratos obtidos, com quatro repetições em cada tratamento. O tratamento controle foi regado somente com água destilada. As sementes foram mantidas em câmara de germinação a 25°C por cinco dias. Após este período, observou-se que todas as concentrações de extrato de nabiça reduziram a porcentagem, a velocidade, o índice de velocidade de germinação e o comprimento radicular de sementes de alface, sendo maior o efeito nos tratamentos com folhas. Em sementes de tomate, somente o extrato de folha 10% reduziu a porcentagem de germinação e o comprimento radicular e do epicótilo. No entanto, extratos de folhas e raiz 10% causaram atraso no processo germinativo e no número de plântulas germinadas por dia, sendo o extrato de folha 10% mais ativo.This article aims at verifying the possible allelopathic effects of Raphanus raphanistrum L. on the germination of lettuce and tomato seeds. For that, we prepare aqueous extracts of nabiça leaves and roots. After the leaves and roots were triturated in industrial blender, we diluted the raw extract in distilled water, until the concentrations of five and ten percent (m/v. The germination tests were accomplished by putting twenty-five lettuce and tomato seeds in Petri plates, which were humidified with the obtained extracts, accomplishing four repetitions in each treatment. The control treatment was only watered with distilled water. The seeds were kept in germination camera at twenty-five degrees Celsius for five days. After that period, we observed that all the concentrations of nabiça extract reduced the percentage, speed, index of germination speed and radicular length of lettuce seeds, being larger the effect in the treatments with leaves. In tomato seeds, only the ten-percent extract of leaves reduced the germination percentage, radicular and epicotyl length. However, ten-percent extracts of leaves and roots caused delay in the germination process and number of plantules germinated a day, being the ten-percent extract of leaves more active.

  12. Efeito alelopático de Andira humilis Mart. ex Benth na germinação e no crescimento de Lactuca sativa L. e Raphanus sativus L. Allelopathic effect of Andira humilis Mart. ex Benth in the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa L. and Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Periotto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito alelopático de caules e folhas de Andira humilis na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de plântulas de rabanete e alface. Para os experimentos de germinação foram preparados extratos aquosos de caules e folhas de A. humilis nas concentrações de 0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% (p/v. Foram realizadas quatro réplicas de trinta sementes de alface ou de rabanete, distribuídas em placas de Petri forradas com papel-filtro umedecido com 5mL dos extratos, mantidas a 27 ºC e na ausência de luz. As contagens das sementes germinadas foram realizadas a cada 12h, calculando-se a percentagem e a velocidade de germinação. Extratos de caules e folhas reduziram significativamente a velocidade e a percentagem de germinação, em relação ao grupo controle. Os experimentos de crescimento foram realizados com quatro réplicas de oito sementes germinadas de alface ou de rabanete, a 27 ºC, na ausência de luz e em papel-filtro como substrato, sendo avaliadas as concentrações 0, 4 e 12% (p/v. Plântulas de alface e rabanete sofreram inibição significativa em seus comprimentos, pelos extratos de folhas. Extratos de caules a 4 e 12% (p/v não causaram inibição do crescimento em rabanete. A interferência dos extratos na germinação e no crescimento em alface e rabanete foi desassociada de qualquer efeito do potencial osmótico e do pH, indicando, portanto, atividade alelopática.The objective of this study was to evaluate allelopathic effects of stems and leaves of Andira humilis in the germination and growth of radish and lettuce. For the germination's experiments, aqueous extracts of stems and leaves of A. humilis in the concentrations of 0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% (w/v were done. Were employed four replicates of thirty seeds of lettuce and radish. The seeds were distributed in Petri dishes with filter paper moistened with 5mL of the extracts. The experiments were conducted at 27 ºC in light absence. The counting of germinated seeds was done each 12h, calculating the percentage and germination rate. The extracts at 8, 12 and 16% (w/v reduced lettuce and radish germination rate, extracts of stems at 100% reduced the percentage of germination. Four replicates of eight germinated seeds of lettuce or radish were employed in the growth experiments conducted at 27 ºC in the absence of light and having filter paper as substracts moistened with concentrations of 0, 4 e 12% (w/v.Lettuce and radish seedlings suffered significant inhibition in length, when using leaves extracts. Only 4 e 12% (w/v stems extracts didn't caused growth inhibition in radish. The interference of extracts in germination and growth of lettuce and radish was disassociated of any pH and osmotic potential, indicating allelopathic activity.

  13. Atividade alelopática de extratos aquosos de Aristolochia esperanzae O. Kuntze na germinação e no crescimento de Lactuca sativa L. e Raphanus sativus L. Allelopathic activity of aqueous extracts of Aristolochia esperanzae O. Kuntze in the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa L. and Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Gatti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os efeitos de extratos aquosos de diferentes órgãos de Aristolochia esperanzae na germinação e no crescimento de alface e rabanete. Todos os extratos preparados obedeceram à proporção de 100g de material vegetal fresco para 300mL de água destilada, que produziu o extrato considerado 100% concentrado. A partir deste, foram feitas diluições com água destilada para 75, 50 e 25%. Nos testes de germinação foram avaliados os efeitos dos extratos obtidos de folha, caule, raiz, fruto e flor a 100, 75, 50 e 25%. Para o teste de crescimento foram utilizados extratos de folha, caule e raiz na concentração de 100 e 50%. Nos testes de germinação foram utilizadas quatro repetições de 30 sementes distribuídas em placas de Petri forradas com duas folhas de papel de filtro umedecidas com 5 mL dos referidos extratos, secas durante 12h e reumedecidas com 4,5mL de água destilada. No primeiro teste avaliou-se a percentagem e a velocidade de germinação das sementes. No teste de crescimento, as sementes foram previamente germinadas (2-4mm de radícula e depois transferidas para caixas plásticas contendo os substratos de papel de filtro e fibra de coco umedecidos com os respectivos extratos. Avaliou-se a altura da parte aérea, o comprimento radicular, a massa seca das plântulas e a presença de anormalidades nas plântulas. Os testes foram mantidos à temperatura constante de 27ºC. Através dos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que os extratos de folha foram os que mais afetaram a percentagem de germinação e que todos os extratos e as diferentes concentrações retardaram a germinação de sementes de alface e de rabanete. Quanto ao teste de crescimento, pode-se verificar que os extratos de caule e de raiz causaram anormalidades nas plântulas. As plântulas crescidas no substrato papel de filtro apresentaram maior inibição do crescimento, em relação àquelas crescidas no substrato fibra de coco. A concentração dos extratos foi a principal responsável pelo estímulo ou inibição causada no crescimento das plântulas de alface e rabanete.This work analyzed the effects of aqueous extractsof Aristolochia esperanzae organs in the germination and initial growth of lettuce and radish. All the extracts were prepared using 100g of plant fresh material + 300mL of distilled water to produce the extract 100% concentrated. This extract was diluted with distilled water to produce a final concentrations of 75, 50 and 25%. The germination was evaluated by tests using the extracts of leaf, stem, root, fruit and flower, with concentration of 100, 75, 50, and 25%. In the seedlings growth, the extracts of leaf, stem, and root were used in the concentration of 100 and 50%. In the germination tests, four replicates of 30 seeds were distributed in Petri dishes with two filter paper moistened with 5mL of the extracts, dried during 12 hours and moistened again with 4,5mL of distilled water. In the first test, the rate and germination percentage were evaluated. In the growth test, the seeds were previously germinated (2-4mm radicle length and transferred for plastic boxes containing the filter paper or coconut fiber, moistened with the extracts. The shoot height, radicle length, dry mass and the presence of abnormalities in the seedlings were evaluated. Both tests were maintained at constant temperature (27ºC. The results showed that the leaf extracts affected strongly the germination percentage and all the extract, in different concentrations, delayed the germination of lettuce and radish seeds. In the growth tests could be verified that the stem and root extracts caused abnormality in the seedlings. The seedlings grown in filter paper presented bigger growth inhibition in relation to seedlings from coconut fiber. The extract concentration was the main responsible for the promotion or inhibition caused on lettuce and radish seedlings growth.

  14. Contaminação microbiológica e parasitológica em alfaces (Lactuca sativa de restaurantes self-service, de Niterói, RJ Microbiological and parasitological contamination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa from self service restaurants of Niterói city, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Paula

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se 30 amostras de alfaces de restaurantes self-service de Niterói quanto à presença de bactérias e parasitas. Dezesseis amostras apresentaram coliformes fecais, 16 mesófilos acima de 10(7 UFC/g e 3 cistos de Entamoeba coli. Estes dados indicam a necessidade da orientação dos manipuladores quanto a higienização no preparo de hortaliças.Thirty samples of lettuces from self service restaurants of Niterói were analyzed to detect bacteriological and parasitological contamination. Sixteen samples presented fecal coliform, 16 mesophilic aerobic microorganisms greater than 10(7 UFC/g and 3 cysts of Entamoeba coli. These data suggest the need of better orientation for food handlers regarding the hygiene of processed vegetables.

  15. Uso do rejeito da dessalinização de água salobra no cultivo da alface (Lactuca sativa L.) em sistema hidropônico NFT Use of the desalted wastewater for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production in NFT hydroponic system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rafaelly Suzanye da Silva Santos; Nildo da Silva Dias; Osvaldo Nogueira de Sousa Neto; Marcelo Tavares Gurgel

    2010-01-01

    ... hidropônico NFT foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação no departamento de ciências ambientais da UFERSA, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os...

  16. Variação sazonal na alelopatia de extratos aquosos de Coleus barbatus (A. Benth. sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento de Lactuca sativa L. Seasonal variation in the allelopathy of aqueous extracts from Coleus barbatus (A. Benth. on the germination and development of Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Pelegrini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos de Coleus barbatus sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório, em diferentes concentrações de extratos obtidos de folhas de falso-boldo (0; 7,5; 15; 22,5; 30%, coletadas nas quatro estações do ano, obtidos por trituração, maceração, infusão e decocção. As sementes de alface foram distribuídas sobre placas de petri umidecidas com 10 mL de solução. Os resultados mostraram que os extratos de folhas afetaram a germinabilidade de sementes de alface apenas na concentração de 30% do extrato preparado por decocção de folhas coletadas no inverno. O índice de velocidade de germinação apresentou redução significativa nos extratos triturados preparados no outono e inverno; na maceração de folhas coletadas no verão e outono e no extrato de decocção preparado no inverno. Os extratos estimularam o crescimento da parte aérea das plântulas de alface, ao passo que, o comprimento das raízes foi afetado pelos extratos, ora inibindo, ora estimulando o crescimento das mesmas. Os extratos de folhas de falso-boldo coletadas nas quatro estações do ano apresentaram efeito alelopático sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento da alface, sendo que estes variaram em função da sazonalidade da coleta, da forma de obtenção dos extratos e das concentrações testadas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effects of extracts from Coleus barbatus on germination and seedling growth of lettuce. The experiments were conducted in the laboratory using different concentrations (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5, 30% of aqueous extracts from "falso-boldo" leaves harvested in all four seasons; extracts were obtained by grinding, maceration, infusion and decoction. Seeds were distributed on Petri dishes moistened with 10 mL solution. Results showed that the leaf extracts affected the germination of lettuce seeds only at the concentration of 30% extract prepared by decoction of leaves harvested in the winter. Germination speed index showed significant reduction for ground extracts prepared in the fall and winter, as well as for macerated leaves harvested in the summer and fall and for extracts prepared through decoction in the winter. The extracts stimulated the growth of shoots of lettuce seedlings, whereas root length was affected by the extracts, which either stimulated or inhibited its growth. Extracts of "falso-boldo" leaves harvested in all four seasons had allelopathic effect on germination and development of lettuce, and the latter varied depending on the harvest season, the form of preparing the extracts and the tested concentrations.

  17. Chemical compositions of the marine algae Gracilaria salicornia (Rhodophyta) and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) as a potential food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarsa, Mehdi; Rezaei, Masoud; Ramezanpour, Zohreh; Waaland, Joseph Robert

    2012-09-01

    The nutritional compositions of two edible red (Gracilaria salicornia) and green (Ulva lactuca) seaweeds were determined to evaluate their possible uses as potential food ingredients. In general, these species contained limited amounts of lipids ranging between 0.99 and 2.00 g 100 g(-1) dry weight) and considerably high amount of minerals, especially in G. salicornia (38.91 g 100 g(-1) d.w.). The crude protein values varied between 9.58 and 10.69 g 100 g(-1) d.w. Amounts for total amino acids were 889.78 ± 22.64 mg g(-1) protein d.w. in G. salicornia and 543.3 ± 15.14 mg g(-1) protein d.w. in U. lactuca. The most abundant fatty acids were C12:0, C16:0, C20:4 ω6 and C22:5 ω3, in addition to C18:1 in G. salicornia. Both seaweed species were balanced sources of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids with a ratio of ω6/ω3 that varied between 1.2 and 1.17. Between the seaweeds investigated, high levels of K (2414.02-11 380.06 mg 100 g(-1) d.w.) were observed and the amounts of Ca, Na and Fe were higher than those reported for land plants. Thus, G. salicornia and U. lactuca may be utilised as value-added products for human nutrition purposes. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Efecto de la temperatura y humedad relativa en la germinación de esporangios de Bremia lactucae Regel

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Yáñez López; Juan Ángel Quijano Carranza; Carlos Manuel Bucio Villalobos; María Irene Hernández Zul; José Honorato Arreguín Centeno; Jesús Narro Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo realizado en 2009, fue estudiar el efecto de la temperatura, y la humedad relativa, en la germinación de esporangios de Bremia lactucae Regel. El efecto de estas variables sobre la germinación de esporangios in vitro, se evaluó en cámaras de incubación mediante 21 tratamientos formados por los niveles de temperatura de 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 oC en combinación con humedades de 70, 80, 90%. La germinación se evaluó a las 24 h de establecer el tratamiento. Se real...

  19. In vivo effects of Cannabis sativa L. extract on blood coagulation, fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivo effects of Cannabis sativa L. extract on blood coagulation, fat and ... only), decreased left rectus femorus muscle mass (normal only), increased total ... The results indicate that Cannabis sativa increased energy utilization due to a ...

  20. Effect of Nigella sativa on the kidney function in rats

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    Mohammad Aziz Dollah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nigella sativa (N. sativa is an amazing herb which is used in traditional medicine for a wide range of illnesses including bronchial asthma, dysentery, gastrointestinal problems, as well as beneficial effect on blood lipids, lowering blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and triglycerides level. This study aimed to determine the toxic effect of N. sativa powder on the kidney function which was evaluated by serum urea and creatinine and through histopathological examination of kidney tissue. Methods and Materials: In this study, 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (six each. The rats were kept in the separate cage with three rats per cage. The treatment groups were given rat pellet containing N. sativa dose at 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 g/kg body weight which were considered as low, normal, and high dose for five weeks while control group fed with rat chow pellet without supplementation. At the end of 35 days, the rats were sacrificed to take the blood sample and to remove the kidney organ for toxicity evaluation. Statistical analyses were done through one-way ANOVA using SPSS. Results: The finding revealed that there was no significant difference in serum urea of treatment groups compared with the control group. The results showed a significant decline in serum creatinine of high dose of Nigella sativa  treated  compared with low dose treated and control groups (p

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa Mill. (Garden rocket.

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    Yankun Wang

    Full Text Available Eruca sativa (Cruciferae family is an ancient crop of great economic and agronomic importance. Here, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa was sequenced and annotated. The circular molecule is 247,696 bp long, with a G+C content of 45.07%, containing 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes, and 18 tRNA genes. The Eruca sativa mitochondrial genome may be divided into six master circles and four subgenomic molecules via three pairwise large repeats, resulting in a more dynamic structure of the Eruca sativa mtDNA compared with other cruciferous mitotypes. Comparison with the Brassica napus MtDNA revealed that most of the genes with known function are conserved between these two mitotypes except for the ccmFN2 and rrn18 genes, and 27 point mutations were scattered in the 14 protein-coding genes. Evolutionary relationships analysis suggested that Eruca sativa is more closely related to the Brassica species and to Raphanus sativus than to Arabidopsis thaliana.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa Mill. (Garden rocket).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yankun; Chu, Pu; Yang, Qing; Chang, Shengxin; Chen, Jianmei; Hu, Maolong; Guan, Rongzhan

    2014-01-01

    Eruca sativa (Cruciferae family) is an ancient crop of great economic and agronomic importance. Here, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa was sequenced and annotated. The circular molecule is 247,696 bp long, with a G+C content of 45.07%, containing 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes, and 18 tRNA genes. The Eruca sativa mitochondrial genome may be divided into six master circles and four subgenomic molecules via three pairwise large repeats, resulting in a more dynamic structure of the Eruca sativa mtDNA compared with other cruciferous mitotypes. Comparison with the Brassica napus MtDNA revealed that most of the genes with known function are conserved between these two mitotypes except for the ccmFN2 and rrn18 genes, and 27 point mutations were scattered in the 14 protein-coding genes. Evolutionary relationships analysis suggested that Eruca sativa is more closely related to the Brassica species and to Raphanus sativus than to Arabidopsis thaliana.

  3. Renal injury, nephrolithiasis and Nigella sativa: A mini review

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    Parichehr Hayatdavoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The incidence and prevalence of kidney stone is increasing worldwide. After the first recurrence the risk of subsequent relapses is higher and the time period between relapses is shortened. Urinary stones can be severely painful and make a huge economic burden. The stone disease may increase the vulnerability of patients to other diseases such as renal failure. Medicinal herbs are rich sources of antioxidants which are increasingly consumed globally for their safety, efficacy and low price. Nigella sativa is a spice plant that is widely used for prevention and treatment of many ailments in Muslim countries and worldwide. This review aims at investigation of the effects of Nigella sativa on renal injury and stone formation. Materials and Method: The scientific resources including PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar were searched using key words such as: nephrolithiasis, urolithiasis, kidney/renal stone, renal injury, renal failure, urinary retention and black seed, black cumin, Nigella sativa and thymoquinone.    Results: N. sativa and its main component, thymoquinone showed positive effects in prevention or curing kidney stones and renal failure through various mechanism such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-eicosanoid and immunomodulatory effects. The putative candidate in many cases has been claimed to be thymoquinone but it seems that at least in part, particularly in kidney stones, the herbal melanin plays a role which requires further investigation to prove. Conclusion: N. sativa and its components are beneficial in prevention and curing of renal diseases including nephrolithiasis and renal damages.

  4. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessmann, H.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R.A. (Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (USA)); Geno, P.W. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of {sup 14}C-labeled, elicited cells with L-{alpha}-aminooxy-{beta}-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures.

  5. Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa

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    Honório Káthia Maria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.

  6. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Younis, El-Sayed M I; Al-Asgah, Nasser A

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between these two diets compared with D3 and D4, with weights of 70.52, 60.92, 40.57 and 35.66 g recorded for D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. In the same trend significant differences were also evident in weight gain, specific growth rate and feed utilization. Fish fed with a diet containing 20% or 30% U. lactuca meal had poorer growth performance and feed utilization. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with D3 and D4 than in the control D1 and D2. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca.

  7. New developments in fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Zhang, Qingying; Amaducci, Stefano; Yang, Ming; Trindade, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a sustainable and high yielding industrial crop that can help to meet the high global demand for fibers. Hemp can be grown for fiber, seeds, and/or for dual purpose in a wide range of geographic zones and climates. Currently the main hemp producing regions in th

  8. Crop physiology of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der H.

    1994-01-01

    Fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) may be an alternative to wood as a raw material for the production of paper pulp. The effects of enviromnental factors and cultural measures on the functioning, yield and quality of fibre hemp crops in the Netherlands were investigated.Until flowering (generally in

  9. Nigella sativa: reduces the risk of various maladies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2010-08-01

    Coinage of terms like nutraceuticals, functional, and pharma foods has diverted the attention of human beings to where they are seeking more natural cures. Though pharmaceutical drugs have been beneficial for human health and have cured various diseases but they also impart some side effects. Numerous plants have been tested for their therapeutic potential; Nigella sativa, commonly known as black cumin, is one of them. It possesses a nutritional dense profile as its fixed oil (lipid fraction), is rich in unsaturated fatty acids while essential oil contains thymoquinone and carvacrol as antioxidants. N. sativa seeds also contain proteins, alkaloids (nigellicines and nigelledine), and saponins (alpha-hederin) in substantial amounts. Recent pharmacological investigations suggested its potential role, especially for the amelioration of oxidative stress through free radical scavenging activity, the induction of apoptosis to cure various cancer lines, the reduction of blood glucose, and the prevention of complications from diabetes. It regulates hematological and serological aspects and can be effective in dyslipidemia and respiratory disorders. Moreover, its immunopotentiating and immunomodulating role brings balance in the immune system. Evidence is available supporting the utilization of Nigella sativa and its bioactive components in a daily diet for health improvement. This review is intended to focus on the composition of Nigella sativa and to elaborate its possible therapeutic roles as a functional food to prevent an array of maladies.

  10. ESTUDOS NUTRICIONAIS COM ARROZ (Oryza sativa, L.

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    Alfredo LAM-SÁNCHEZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: Estudos com arroz (Oryza sativa, L. foram realizados a fim de determinar a variabilidade do teor de proteína em coleções de cultivares e a possibilidade de utilizar as camadas periféricas do grão na alimentação humana. Foram analisadas 626 linhagens e cultivares de arroz que mostraram uma variação quanto ao teor de proteína de 4.00 a 14.31 g/100 g de amostra. Para se extrair as camadas periféricas do grão, foi desenvolvida uma máquina experimental, que removia as camadas superficiais dos grãos de arroz integral (inteiros somente com a casca removida. Verificou-se que a quantidade de proteína do grão diminui de fora para dentro. O resíduo, que era constituído de grande parte de restos de endosperma com um teor protéico menor mas incluía o embrião, que é a primeira estrutura a se deslocar de grão no beneficiamento e contém proteínas, vitaminas, sais minerais e lípides, tinha um bom valor nutritivo. Desenvolveu-se também uma fórmula para alimentação infantil a partir da mistura de leite de vaca com arroz, com composição semelhante à do leite materno, a ser utilizada sob a forma de bebida ou mingau. Formulações com 40%-20% arroz + 60%-80% leite de vaca proporcionaram valores de Coeficiente de Eficiência Protéica (2,39 e 2,38, respectivamente que não diferiam estatisticamente do valor de 2,43 obtido na fórmula com 100% de leite de vaca. Seus preços foram 59% e 65% do obtido para o leite de vaca integral. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Arroz; qualidade do grão; proteína; camadas periféricas; misturas arroz-leite; nutrição humana.

  11. A link between lead and cadmium kinetic speciation in seawater and accumulation by the green alga Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muse, J.O. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Qulmica Analitica, 3er. Piso, Junin 956-1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: jmuse@ffyb.uba.ar; Carducci, C.N. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Qulmica Analitica, 3er. Piso, Junin 956-1113, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Stripeikis, J.D. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tudino, M.B. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez, F.M. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, 3er. Piso, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitavia, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-05-15

    In this work, studies on the bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb by Ulva lactuca at different sites of Gulf San Jorge (Patagonia, Argentina) are presented. Higher values of bioaccumulated Cd were found in Punta Maqueda - a site believed to serve as a control - in comparison to those in Punta Borja, a place highly exposed to urban and industrial activities. Consequently; the labile fractions of Cd and Pb in seawater were determined with a flow injection-preconcentration manifold interfaced to a graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-GFAAS). The results obtained by kinetic speciation showed that the variable that correctly explains heavy metals accumulation in the alga, is the labile metal fraction in seawater. We propose to use an enhancement ratio - on the basis of the kinetically labile metal fraction - for calculation of the metal accumulated by the alga relative to its environment. - Metal kinetic speciation can overcome CF limitations for the evaluation of marine pollution.

  12. Novas raças de Bremia lactucae, agente causador do míldio da alface, identificadas no estado de São Paulo New races of Bremia lactucae, causal agent of lettuce downy mildew, identified in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean de O Souza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar o surgimento de raças de Bremia lactucae, agente causal do míldio nas principais regiões produtoras de alface do estado de São Paulo. O estudo foi realizado no Laboratório de Melhoramento Genético de Hortaliças do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal. No período de 2006 e 2007, foram coletados 36 isolados de B. lactucae de diferentes regiões produtoras de alface no estado. Para identificação das raças foram utilizadas as cultivares diferenciadoras conforme o código "Sextet". Foram identificadas três novas raças, SPBl:02, SPBl:03 e SPBl:04 com os referidos comportamentos do fungo: (63/31/19/00, (63/63/19/00 e (63/63/03/00. Os genes Dm-14, Dm-17, Dm-18, Dm-37 e Dm-38 conferem resistência a essas novas raças identificadas.The objective of this paper was to report new races of lettuce downy mildew causal agent Bremia lactucae in São Paulo State. The study was carried out in the laboratory of Crop Genetics in the Department of Crop Science at the college of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, Jaboticabal campus. A total of 36 isolates of B. lactucae was collected in different regions. The identification of races was based on compatibility reaction on the differential cultivars of the "Sextet". Three new races of B. lactucae, SPBl:02 (63/31/19/00, SPBl:03 (63/63/19/00 and SPBl:04 (63/63/03/00 were identified according to "Sextet" code. Genes Dm-14, Dm-17, Dm-18, Dm-37 and Dm-38 confer resistance to these new races identified.

  13. Nigella sativa seed extract: 1. Enhancement of sheep macrophage immune functions in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmowalid, Gamal; Amar, Ahmad M; Ahmad, Adel Attia M

    2013-10-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed, Black cumin, immunomodulatory activity has been investigated in human and mice. Little is known about the immunomodulatory effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed extract on animals' immune cells, specifically, antigen presenting cells such as macrophages. This study focused on the immunomodulatory effect of N. sativa seed extract on sheep macrophage functions in vitro. Sheep peripheral blood monocytes were isolated and derived to macrophages (MDM). The MDM were cultured with N. sativa seed extract and their morphological changes, phagocytic activity, nitric oxide production, and microbicidal activity were investigated. Marked morphological changes were observed in MDM cultured with N. sativa seed extract including cell size enlargement; increase in both cytoplasmic space and cytoplasmic granules. Significant increases in phagocytic activity to Candida albicans yeast and in number of yeast engulfed per individual MDM were observed in cells cultured with seed extract. MDM capacity to produce nitric oxide was higher in the culture media of the seed extract-cultured cells compared to the control. Interestingly, prominent enhancement in MDM microbicidal activity to yeast or bacteria was observed in MDM cultured with N. sativa seed extract confirming the potent immunostimulatory effect of the extract. From this study, it could be concluded that N. sativa seed extract can enhance macrophages' important innate immune functions that could control infectious diseases and regulate adaptive immunity.

  14. Chemical characterisation of bioactive compounds in Medicago sativa growing in the desert of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Al-Maskari, Ahmed Yahya; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser; Al-Hdhrami, Ibtisam; Khan, Muhammad Mumtaz; Al-Azkawi, Ahlam; Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz

    2015-01-01

    Medicago sativa Linn growing in Omani desert were chemically characterised using flame photometry, inductively coupled plasma, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis. HPLC analyses were performed to determine the phenolics and flavonoids present in M. sativa. The major compounds detected in M. sativa leaves were protchaechenic acid (3.22%), hydroxyl benzoic acid (1.05%), β-Phenyl caffate (0.97%) and kaempherol (0.89%). Pterostilbene, a cholesterol-lowering compound, was detected in M. sativa.

  15. Biofunctional properties of Eruca sativa Miller (rocket salad) hydroalcoholic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Rauf, Abdur; Akber, Noor Ul; Khan, Murad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Eruca sativa Miller is a worldwide common alimentary plant (rocket leaves). The aim of this study was to correlate the potential in vitro scavenging activity of the E. sativa hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) with its in vivo hypoglycaemic effect. In DDPH free radical (DFR) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays, HAE in a concentration dependent manner (25-100 μg/mL) displayed a strong scavenging activity with maximum effect of 88% and 75% at 100 μg/mL, respectively. Daily administration of HAE (50 mg/kg; p.o.) in the in vivo model of alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits for 28 days showed significant reduction in glycaemia, also supported by recovery of body weight. In conclusion, our results give preliminary information on the potential use of this plant as a nutraceutical, useful to control and/or prevent a hyperglycaemic status.

  16. Bioactive prenylogous cannabinoid from fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollastro, Federica; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Allarà, Marco; Muñoz, Eduardo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Appendino, Giovani

    2011-09-23

    The waxy fraction from the variety Carma of fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa) afforded the unusual cannabinoid 4, identified as the farnesyl prenylogue of cannabigerol (CBG, 1) on the basis of its spectroscopic properties. A comparative study of the profile of 4 and 1 toward metabotropic (CB1, CB2) and ionotropic (TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPM8, TRPA1) targets of phytocannabinoids showed that prenylogation increased potency toward CB2 by ca. 5-fold, with no substantial difference toward the other end-points, except for a decreased affinity for TRPM8. The isolation of 4 suggests that C. sativa could contain yet-to-be-discovered prenylogous versions of medicinally relevant cannabinoids, for which their biological profiles could offer interesting opportunities for biomedical exploitation.

  17. Genetic Variation of Host Populations of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ping; DU Yu-zhou; HE Ya-ting; ZHENG Fu-shan; LU Zi-qiang

    2008-01-01

    In this study, partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit Ⅰ (mtDNA-COI) gene and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (rDNA-ITS1) gene, isolated from five artificial populations of Liriomyza sativae (Diptera:Agromyzidae), were sequenced and compared, to analyze their genetic variation. Analysis of the mtDNA-CO1 gene showed that a low genetic variation was detected among the five populations and only five variable sites were found in the nucleotide sequences. Most of the observed variations that occurred within the populations were because of nucleotide transitions, whereas, the interpopulation variation was because of the differences in haplotype frequencies occurring among the host populations. Analysis of the rDNA-ITS1 gene revealed a small diversity in the five host populations. The trend of genetic differentiation in the host populations was consistent with the preference of L. sativae to the plant hosts.

  18. RAPD analysis of seized marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Pinarkara,Emine; Seyit A. KAYIS; Hakki, Erdogan E.; Sag,Ayla

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is a multiple-use plant. However, its cultivation is strictly controlled due to its psychoactive nature and usage in producing drugs such as marijuana, and hashish. In this study, psychoactive type Cannabis samples, which were seized from 29 different locations of Turkey, were used. Interests were to identify the genetic relatedness of the seized samples and to partition molecular variance between and within populations. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNAs were employed for...

  19. The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis sativa

    OpenAIRE

    van Bakel, Harm; Stout, Jake M.; Cote, Atina G; Tallon, Carling M; Sharpe, Andrew G; Hughes, Timothy R.; Page, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cannabis sativa has been cultivated throughout human history as a source of fiber, oil and food, and for its medicinal and intoxicating properties. Selective breeding has produced cannabis plants for specific uses, including high-potency marijuana strains and hemp cultivars for fiber and seed production. The molecular biology underlying cannabinoid biosynthesis and other traits of interest is largely unexplored. Results We sequenced genomic DNA and RNA from the marijuana strain Pur...

  20. THE EFFECT OF NIGELLA SATIVA L. ON INTRACTABLE PEDIATRIC SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. AKHONDIAN MD

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Despite availability and administration of numerous antiepileptic drugs (AEDs nearly 15% of childhood epilepsy cases are resistant to treatment; in traditional medicine however Nigella sativa L. (Black seed has been known for its anticonvulsant effects.Materials and Methods:In this double-blind clinical trial conducted on children with refractory epilepsy we administered the aqueous extract of black seed as an adjunct therapy and compared the effects with those of a placebo. The study was performed between Sep 2003 and Nov 2004. The subjects received either extract or placebo for a period of four weeks and between these two periods for two weeks they received only their pre-existing anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs.Results:The mean frequency of seizures decreased significantly during treatment with extract, (p-value =0/007.Conclusion:It can be concluded that the water extract of Nigella sativa L. has antiepileptic effects in children with refractory seizures that do not respond to known AEDS.keywords:Nigella sativa, Intractable seizures, Children

  1. In vitro lethal effects of various extracts of Nigella sativa seed on hydatid cyst protoscoleces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mahmoudvand

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that N. sativa may be a natural source for the production of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be required to evaluate scolicidal effects of N. sativa in the in vivo model.

  2. Utilización de extractos de avena sativa l. en dermatitis Utilization of avena sativa l. extract in dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L López Agüero

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Los polifenoles (flavonoides y antocianinas están ampliamente distribuidos entre las diferentes especies vegetales. Estos poseen gran capacidad antioxidante; existiendo correlación positiva entre la actividad antioxidante y los polifenoles totales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar: 1° El contenido de polifenoles y antocianas totales de semillas, glumelas y extracto acuoso de Avena sativa L. 2° El efecto de la aplicación tópica de extracto acuoso de avena en 45 casos (10 mujeres y 35 hombres, entre 1 y 56 años de edad con dermatitis atópica, dermatitis de contacto irritativa y dermatitis de contacto alérgica; y 30 controles normales (15 mujeres y 15 hombres, entre 1 y 60 años de edad. Tratamiento: aplicación de compresas del extracto crudo de avena en la piel dañada durante 5 minutos, seguida de la colocación de la biomasa (T°= 33 + 2°C cubierta por una tela de gasa durante 5 minutos. Dicha biomasa se retira con el extracto de avena líquido. Entre 1 y 36 meses de iniciado el tratamiento se observó remisión de los síntomas cutáneos. El extracto acuoso, la biomasa de Avena sativa L., glumelas y semillas enteras contenían 6.12+0,45, 46,11+0,36, 212,81+0,19 y 286,60+0,50 mg/100 g ác. Gálico, respectivamente, de polifenoles totales.Polyphenols (flavonoids and anthocyanins are widely spread among the different vegetables species. They have a big antioxidant capacity. One important correlation exists between the antioxidant activity and the quantity of total polyphenols. The objective of this work was to evaluate: 1- the contents of polyphenols and anthocyanins of whole seeds, glumes and aqueous extract of Avena Sativa L., 2- the effects of topical application of aqueous extract of Avena sativa L. in 45 patients (10 females and 35 males, between 1 and 56 years olds with Atopic Dermatitis, Contact Irritative Dermatitis and Contact Allergic Dermatitis, and 30 normal controls (15 females and 15 males, between 1 and 60 years

  3. Effect of corn steep liquor on lettuce root rot (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae) in hydroponic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinta, Yufita D; Kano, Kazuki; Widiastuti, Ani; Fukahori, Masaru; Kawasaki, Shizuka; Eguchi, Yumi; Misu, Hideyuki; Odani, Hiromitsu; Zhou, Songying; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Fujiwara, Kazuki; Shinohara, Makoto; Sato, Tatsuo

    2014-08-01

    Recent reports indicate that organic fertilisers have a suppressive effect on the pathogens of plants grown under hydroponic systems. Furthermore, microorganisms exhibiting antagonistic activity to diseases have been observed in organic hydroponic systems. This study evaluated the effect of corn steep liquor (CSL) on controlling lettuce root rot disease [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lactucae (FOL)] in a hydroponic system. The effect of CSL and Otsuka A (a chemical fertiliser) on the inhibition of FOL in terms of mycelial growth inhibition was tested in vivo. Addition of CSL suppressed FOL infection rates. CSL inhibited FOL infection by 26.3-42.5% from 2 days after starting incubation. In comparison, Otsuka A inhibited FOL growth by 5.5-19.4%. In addition, four of 10 bacteria isolated from the nutrient media containing CSL exhibited inhibition zones preventing FOL mycelial growth. We found that CSL suppressed FOL in lettuce via its antifungal and biostimulatory effects. We suggest that activation of beneficial microorganisms present in CSL may be used to decrease lettuce root rot disease and contribute to lettuce root growth. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The protective effect of Nigella sativa against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

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    Sara Hosseinian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The clinical use of cisplatin is highly restricted, because of its nephrotoxicity.In this study the protective effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: In the current study, the effects of the administration of aqueous-ethanolic extract of N. sativa (100 and 200 mg/kg, BW and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, BW against blood and urine biochemical alterations and kidney function in rats treated with cisplatin were investigated. Cisplatin was injected at a dose of 6 mg/kg, BW, on the sixth day of the experiment. Results: The results indicated significant changes in serum urea and creatinine concentration, urine glucose concentration, and urine output in cisplatin group compared with control group. Serum urea and creatinine concentration in preventive and preventive+treatment vitamin E and preventive+treatment N. sativa (200 mg/kg, BW groups and also serum creatinine concentration in preventive+treatment N. sativa (100 mg/kg, BW group significantly decreased compared with cisplatin group. Urine glucose concentration in preventive and preventive+treatment N. sativa groups and urine output in preventive and preventive+treatment N. sativa (200 mg/kg, BW groups significantly decreased compared with cisplatin group.Osmolarity excretion rate in preventive and preventive+treatment vitamin E and preventive N. sativa groups was significantly higher than control group. Conclusions: The current study suggests that N. sativa extract and vitamin E in a dose- and time-dependent manner improved the serum and urine biochemical parameters and kidney function in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. However, it needs more investigations to determine the mechanism of N. sativa action on cisplatin-induced kidney toxicity.

  5. Domestication and geographic origin of Oryza sativa in China: insights from multilocus analysis of nucleotide variation of O. sativa and O. rufipogon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Qiao, Wei-Hua; Chen, You-Tao; Wang, Rong-Sheng; Cao, Li-Rong; Zhang, Wan-Xia; Yuan, Nan-Nan; Li, Zi-Chao; Zeng, Han-Lai; Yang, Qing-Wen

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that China is one of the domestication centres of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), and common wild rice (O. rufipogon) is the progenitor of O. sativa. However, the number of domestication times and the geographic origin of Asian cultivated rice in China are still under debate. In this study, 100 accessions of Asian cultivated rice and 111 accessions of common wild rice in China were selected to examine the relationship between O. sativa and O. rufipogon and thereby infer the domestication and evolution of O. sativa in China through sequence analyses of six gene regions, trnC-ycf6 in chloroplast genomes, cox3 in mitochondrial genomes and ITS, Ehd1, Waxy, Hd1 in nuclear genomes. The results indicated that the two subspecies of O. sativa (indica and japonica) were domesticated independently from different populations of O. rufipogon with gene flow occurring later from japonica to indica; Southern China was the genetic diversity centre of O. rufipogon, and the Pearl River basin near the Tropic of Cancer was the domestication centre of O. sativa in China.

  6. Nigella sativa and its active constituent thymoquinone in oral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAttas, Safia A.; Zahran, Fat’heya M.; Turkistany, Shereen A.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we summarized published reports that investigated the role of Nigella sativa (NS) and its active constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) in oral health and disease management. The literature studies were preliminary and scanty, but the results revealed that black seed plants have a potential therapeutic effect for oral and dental diseases. Such results are encouraging for the incorporation of these plants in dental therapeutics and hygiene products. However, further detailed preclinical and clinical studies at the cellular and molecular levels are required to investigate the mechanisms of action of NS and its constituents, particularly TQ. PMID:26905343

  7. Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Angelika; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Steger, Gerhard; Schubert, Jörg

    2012-02-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa) was found to be a useful propagation host for hop latent virus, a carlavirus. However, when virus preparations were analysed by electron microscopy, along with the expected filamentous particles, spherical particles with a diameter of around 34 nm were found. RNA from virus preparations was purified, and cDNA was prepared and cloned. Sequence information was used to search databases, and the greatest similarity was found with Primula malacoides virus 1, a putative new member of the genus Partitivirus. The full sequences of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of this new hemp cryptic virus were obtained.

  8. Evaluation of ensilage potential of alfalfa cultivars (Medicago sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, ALG; Costa,Ciniro; Arrigoni, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the ensilage potential of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L,.). The material used in the evaluation was harvested from an experiment in a complete randomized blocks design with three replicates, with seventeen alfalfa cultivars, Criouil, Florida 77, P555, P581, Moapa, Gilboa, 34 Linea, C/W 8754, C/W 4468, C/W 86, C/W 8746, Hunter Field, Trifecta, Sequel, CUF 101, Aurora e Siriver, during three years. The harvest used for the determinations was collected at 30...

  9. Efecto de la temperatura y humedad relativa en la germinación de esporangios de Bremia lactucae Regel Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the germination of Bremia lactucae Regel sporangia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Yáñez López

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo realizado en 2009, fue estudiar el efecto de la temperatura, y la humedad relativa, en la germinación de esporangios de Bremia lactucae Regel. El efecto de estas variables sobre la germinación de esporangios in vitro, se evaluó en cámaras de incubación mediante 21 tratamientos formados por los niveles de temperatura de 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 ºC en combinación con humedades de 70, 80, 90%. La germinación se evaluó a las 24 h de establecer el tratamiento. Se realizó un análisis estadístico para determinar la importancia de estas variables y su interacción sobre la germinación de esporangios e inferir sobre el rango óptimo de temperatura y humedad. Se encontró que existe efecto significativo de la interacción entre estas variables sobre la germinación, presentándose esta desde los 5 ºC hasta los 25 ºC. El tratamiento que presentó el mayor porcentaje de germinación fue el de 10 ºC en combinación con humedad relativa 90%. Con base en una análisis de superficie de respuesta. Se concluyó que el óptimo de germinación de esporangios se consigue con temperaturas de entre 9.5 y 12.5 ºC con una humedad de 90%.The purpose of this work, performed in 2009, was to study the effect of temperature and relative humidity on the germination of Bremia lactucae Regel sporangia. The effect of these variables on the in vitro germination of sporangia was evaluated in incubation chambers, with 21 treatments formed by the temperature levels of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 ºC combined with humidities of 70, 80, 90%. Germination was evaluated 24 h after the treatment was established. A statistical analysis was carried out to determine the importance of these variables and their interaction on the germination of sporangia and infer on the optimum temperature and humidity ranges. We found that there is a significant effect of the interaction between these variables on germination, which appears starting at 5 º

  10. Methanosarcina Play an Important Role in Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Seaweed Ulva lactuca: Taxonomy and Predicted Metabolism of Functional Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Jamie A.; Allen, Eoin; Wall, David M.; Jackson, Stephen A.; Murphy, Jerry D.; Dobson, Alan D. W.

    2015-01-01

    Macro-algae represent an ideal resource of third generation biofuels, but their use necessitates a refinement of commonly used anaerobic digestion processes. In a previous study, contrasting mixes of dairy slurry and the macro-alga Ulva lactuca were anaerobically digested in mesophilic continuously stirred tank reactors for 40 weeks. Higher proportions of U. lactuca in the feedstock led to inhibited digestion and rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids, requiring a reduced organic loading rate. In this study, 16S pyrosequencing was employed to characterise the microbial communities of both the weakest (R1) and strongest (R6) performing reactors from the previous work as they developed over a 39 and 27-week period respectively. Comparing the reactor communities revealed clear differences in taxonomy, predicted metabolic orientation and mechanisms of inhibition, while constrained canonical analysis (CCA) showed ammonia and biogas yield to be the strongest factors differentiating the two reactor communities. Significant biomarker taxa and predicted metabolic activities were identified for viable and failing anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca. Acetoclastic methanogens were inhibited early in R1 operation, followed by a gradual decline of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Near-total loss of methanogens led to an accumulation of acetic acid that reduced performance of R1, while a slow decline in biogas yield in R6 could be attributed to inhibition of acetogenic rather than methanogenic activity. The improved performance of R6 is likely to have been as a result of the large Methanosarcina population, which enabled rapid removal of acetic acid, providing favourable conditions for substrate degradation. PMID:26555136

  11. Methanosarcina Play an Important Role in Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Seaweed Ulva lactuca: Taxonomy and Predicted Metabolism of Functional Microbial Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie A FitzGerald

    Full Text Available Macro-algae represent an ideal resource of third generation biofuels, but their use necessitates a refinement of commonly used anaerobic digestion processes. In a previous study, contrasting mixes of dairy slurry and the macro-alga Ulva lactuca were anaerobically digested in mesophilic continuously stirred tank reactors for 40 weeks. Higher proportions of U. lactuca in the feedstock led to inhibited digestion and rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids, requiring a reduced organic loading rate. In this study, 16S pyrosequencing was employed to characterise the microbial communities of both the weakest (R1 and strongest (R6 performing reactors from the previous work as they developed over a 39 and 27-week period respectively. Comparing the reactor communities revealed clear differences in taxonomy, predicted metabolic orientation and mechanisms of inhibition, while constrained canonical analysis (CCA showed ammonia and biogas yield to be the strongest factors differentiating the two reactor communities. Significant biomarker taxa and predicted metabolic activities were identified for viable and failing anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca. Acetoclastic methanogens were inhibited early in R1 operation, followed by a gradual decline of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Near-total loss of methanogens led to an accumulation of acetic acid that reduced performance of R1, while a slow decline in biogas yield in R6 could be attributed to inhibition of acetogenic rather than methanogenic activity. The improved performance of R6 is likely to have been as a result of the large Methanosarcina population, which enabled rapid removal of acetic acid, providing favourable conditions for substrate degradation.

  12. [Seasonal variations of metal contents (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in seaweed Ulva lactuca from the coast of El Jadida city (Morocco)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimoussi, Aziz; Mouzdahir, Abdelkrim; Saih, Abdelkbir

    2004-04-01

    The quality of El Jadida Atlantic coastal water was monitored from April 1998 to March 1999 by measuring hydrological parameters (dissolved oxygen, suspended particulate matter, phosphates and nitrites) and using the seaweed Ulva lactuca as a quantitative bio-indicator of cadmium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc contamination. Metal content in seaweeds, collected every month from four stations characterized by the discharge of urban and industrial waste water, showed significant variations depending on the station and sampling period. However, the seaweed of El Jadida exhibited generally lower contents compared to those of similar species from other geographical areas.

  13. Essential oils of Nigella sativa protects Artemia from the pathogenic effect of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju, Sivalingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-05-01

    The anti-Vibrio activity of essential oils (EOs) of nine medicinal plants was tested against 28 Vibrio spp. isolated from diseased Fenneropenaeus indicus. EO of Nigella sativa exhibited anti-Vibrio activity against all Vibrio spp. and greater inhibition was noted for the isolate V2 which was identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2. Further, EO of N. sativa effectively inhibited V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 with an inhibition zone of 23.9mm at 101.2μgml(-1). Moreover, EO of N. sativa revealed anti-biofilm activity at 101.2μgml(-1) against V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 and inhibited the growth of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 100μgml(-1).In vivo experimental infection studies showed that the survival of Artemia spp. infected with V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at 1×10(3)cfuml(-1) was only 40%. However, the survival of Artemia spp. was significantly increased after challenge with 100μgml(-1) of EO of N. sativa. EO of N. sativa showed higher anti-oxidant potential and total phenol content than other EOs tested. The anti-oxidant activity of EO of N. sativa was highly correlated to their total phenolic contents (r=0.836, P<0.05). This observation suggests that EO of N. sativa protected the Artemia spp. after experimental infection of V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Oryza sativa Calli Under Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Chen, Haiying; Cai, Weiming

    2015-11-01

    The transcriptome of Oryza sativacalli was analyzed on board the Chinese spaceship "Shenzhou 8" to study the effects of microgravity on plant signal transduction and secondary metabolism (as one of the experiments with SIMBOX on Shenzhou 8). Calli of Oryza sativa were pre-cultured for 4 days on ground and then loaded into the stationary platform or the rotating platform of a biological incubator, called SIMBOX, to grow in space under microgravity conditions or 1g-conditions, respectively. The calli were fixed by RNAlater after grew 324 h under microgravity. After 17 days, Shenzhou 8 returned to Earth carrying SIMBOX. Oryza sativa calli were recovered, and the RNA was extracted for transcriptome analysis. After comparing 1 gspaceflight controls-inflight controls with 1 g-ground controls, 157 probe sets with different expression levels (fold change ≥2, p<0.05) were identified. When comparing spaceflight controls to 1 g-ground controls and to 1 g-inflight controls, 678 probe sets with different expression levels (fold change ≥2, p<0.05) were identified. The fact that the same 678 probe sets were identified in these two comparisons suggests that transcription was affected under microgravity conditions. MapMan analysis was used to classify 627 microgravity responsive (MR) transcripts. The MR transcripts were mainly involved in cell wall structure, the TCA cycle, primary metabolism, transcription, protein modification and degradation, hormone metabolism, calcium regulation, receptor like kinase activity and transport.

  15. GC-MS study of Nigella sativa (seeds fatty oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta, B. K.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The GC-MS study of N. sativa (seeds fatty oil revealed the presence of 26 compounds which were identified as methyl hept-6-enoate,1-phenylhepta-2,4-dione, pentadecane, hexadec-1-ene, 1-phenyldecan-2-one, octadec-1-ene, octadecane, methyl pentadecanoate, bis(3-chlorophenyl ketone, diethyl phthalate, ethyl octadec-7-enoate, methyl octadecanoate, tricos-9-ene, octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, methyl hexadecanoate, methyl octadec-15-enoate, henicosan-10-one, 2-methyl octadecanoic acid, docos-1-ene, ethyl octadecanoate, methyl octadecanoate, pentacos-5-ene,12-methyltricosane, dibutyl phthalate and 2-methyltetracosane.El estudio por GC-MS del aceite de la semilla de Nigella sativa reveló la presencia de 26 compuestos los cuales fueron identificados como: hept-6-enoato de metilo, 1-fenilhepta-2,4-diona, pentadecano, hexadec-1-eno, 1-fenildecan-2-ona, octadec-1-eno, octadecano, pentadecanoato de metilo, bis(3-clorofenil cetona, ftalato de dietilo, octadec-7-enoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, tricos-9-eno, ácido octadeca-9,12-dienoico, ácido hexadecanoico, hexadecanoato de metilo, octadec-15-enoato de metilo, henicosan-10-ona, ácido 2-metil octadecanoico, docos-1-eno, octadecanoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, pentacos-5-eno, 12-metiltricosano, ftalato de dibutilo y 2-metiltetracosano.

  16. EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF CONDENSED TANNINS IN CASTANEA SATIVA MILL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Živković

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins are widespread in woody plants, but are also found in certain forages. Castanea sativa Mill. are exploited for various purposes, but a little is known about potential of this species and possible application in diet and therapy. The parts of chestnut such as: seed, peeled seed, brown seed shell, red internal seed shell, leaves, catkin, spiny bur, as well as the new and old chestnut bark were extracted with 50% ethanol as an extragents. Contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids were measured by application of the standard colorimetric assay. The total condensed tannins content estimated was highest in red internal seed shell 15.29%CE (vanillin assay and 3.12%CT (acid butanol assay. Also high content of total phenolic compounds and condensed tannins had extracts of catkin, brown seed shell of chestnut and new chestnut bark. Extracts of C. sativa Mill. can be a potential resource of natural tannins with possible application in diet and therapy.

  17. Construction of Oryza Sativa genome contigs by fingerprint strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAOQUAZHOU; GUOFANHONG; 等

    1995-01-01

    We described the construction of BAC contigs of the genome of a indica variety of Oryza sativa.Guang Lu Ai 4. An entire representative(Sixfold coverage of rice chromosomes)and genetically stable BAC library of rice genome constructed in this lab has been systematically analysed by restriction enzyme fragmentation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.And all the images thus obtained were subject to image-processing,which consisted of preliminary location of bands,cooperative tracking of lanes by correlation of adjacent bads.a precise densitometric pass,alignment at the marker bands with the standard,optional interactive editing,and normalization of the accepted bands.The contigs were generated based on the Computer Software specially designed for genome mapping.The number of contigs with 600 kb in length on average was 464.of contigs with 1000kb in length on average was 107; of contigs with 1500 kb in length on average was Construction of Oryza Sativa genome contigs.23.Therefor,all the contigs we have obtained ampunted up to 420 megabases in length.Considering the size of rice genome(430 megabased),the contigs generated in this lab have covered nearly 98% of the rice genome.We are now in the process of mapping the contigs to chromosomes.

  18. Determination of Fatty Acids Profile and Physicochemical Study of Sea Lettuce (Ulva lactuca Oil from Bushehr City Coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soror Shaghuli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sea lettuce is a kind green alga with scientific name "Ulva lactuca", has many uses in many countries. With Notice to the presence of this alga in the coasts of Bushehr and its ease of propagation and cultivation, we can take advantage of beneficial interest. The objectives of this current study was to determine the amount of total fat, survey the quality and quantity of some physicochemical parameters and the profile of fatty acids in its oil. Materials and Methods: After samples collecting of sea lettuce (Sea lettuce from Bushehr coasts, sample preparation and extraction of fat, quantity of some physicochemical parameters according to AOAC method; and fatty acid profile were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Results: The acidity index in extracted oil in Shoraye-shahr, Bandargah and Naftkesh regions were, 0.73, 0.73 and 0.72 respectively, and the peroxide value was 0.75, 0.74 and 0.75 respectively. The refractive index and average oil contents for all areas were reported 3 % and 1412, respectively. In the three mentioned regions, sixteen fatty acids including (C6, (C10, (C12, (C13, (C14, (C15, (C16, (C17, (C18, (C19, (C20, (C21, (C18: 1, (C18: 2, (C18: 3 were identified with different amounts. Palmitic acid had the highest levels in all three regions. Conclusion: Sea lettuce contains different fatty acids that each of them has different applications in food industry, medicine and cosmetics. The favorable amounts of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the sea lettuce oil increase their nutritional importance. Caltivating of this beneficial alga is suggested due to the appropriate geographic climate of Bushehr.

  19. Efeito alelopático de folhas de bamburral [Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.] sobre a germinação de sementes de sorgo (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.) e alface (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Rodrigues; Artioli,F.A.; Polo, M.; Barbosa,L.C.A; L.A. Beijo

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi à verificação do efeito alelopático de Hyptis. suaveolens na germinação de sorgo, alface e rabanete, bem como, a comprovação da existência de compostos com potencial alelopático. Sementes de sorgo, alface e rabanete foram semeadas em substrato constituído de areia, terra e adubo orgânico contendo folhas de H. suaveolens. As análises da germinação foram feitas considerando a protrusão da radícula para o término do evento germinativo. Foi calculado o IVG (índ...

  20. Evaluación de la Actividad Nitrato Reductasa y Crecimiento Hidropónico de Lechuga (Lactuca Sativa L. ‘Crufia’) en Función de Cuatro Soluciones Nutritivas

    OpenAIRE

    Malca Soto, Flori; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Perú

    2013-01-01

    El experimento se realizó en la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Lima – Perú; 2009-2010), con el objetivo de determinar los efectos de la aplicación de cuatro soluciones nutritivas (150, 200, 250 y 300 mg N/L) sobre los parámetros: nitrato reductasa, materia fresca y seca, diámetro de cabeza, número de hojas y área foliar en dos sistemas hidropónicos: raíz  flotante  y  usando  arena.  Se presentaron en las lechugas tratadas con 300 mg N/L, en raíz flotante y usando arena, los mayores ...

  1. Validación y comparación de un programa de manejo no convencional para el cultivo de la lechuga (lactuca sativa) con el sistema de producción en campo abierto e hidróponico

    OpenAIRE

    Solano Martínez, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    Proyecto de Graduación (Maestría en Gestión de Recursos Naturales y Tecnologías de Producción) Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica. Área Académica Agroforestal, 2011. La lechuga es un bien hortícola de alto consumo en el país, se estima que anualmente se cultivan de 300 a 350 hectáreas y gran parte de ésta se siembra en suelo; sin embargo, en los últimos años se ha incrementado la superficie de siembra bajo el sistema hidropónico tanto a nivel doméstico en pequeñas áreas menores a 50 m² as...

  2. Reuse of Organomineral Substrate Waste from Hydroponic Systems as Fertilizer in Open-Field Production Increases Yields, Flavonoid Glycosides, and Caffeic Acid Derivatives of Red Oak Leaf Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Much More than Synthetic Fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannehl, Dennis; Becker, Christine; Suhl, Johanna; Josuttis, Melanie; Schmidt, Uwe

    2016-09-28

    Effects of organic waste from a hydroponic system added with minerals (organomineral fertilizer) and synthetic fertilizer on major polyphenols of red oak leaf lettuce using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(3) were investigated. Interestingly, contents of the main flavonoid glycosides and caffeic acid derivatives of lettuce treated with organomineral fertilizer were equal to those synthesized without soil additives. This was found although soil nutrient concentrations, including that of nitrogen, were much lower without additives. However, lettuce treated with synthetic fertilizer showed a significant decrease in contents of caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoid glycosides up to 78.3 and 54.2%, respectively. It is assumed that a negative effect of a high yield on polyphenols as described in the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis can be counteracted by (i) a higher concentration of Mg or (ii) optimal physical properties of the soil structure. Finally, the organomineral substrate waste reused as fertilizer and soil improver resulted in the highest yield (+78.7%), a total fertilizer saving of 322 kg ha(-1) and waste reduction in greenhouses.

  3. A single recessive gene conferring short leaves in romaine x Latin type lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crosses, and its effect on plant morphology and resistance to lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor Jagger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the relationship between plant morphology and disease resistance is crucial to successful breeding, particularly resistance to lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor. Latin type lettuce cultivars are small plants with upright leaves longer than they are wide, similar to romaine type...

  4. Interações do Lettuce mosaic vírus (LMV) x afídeos vetores nas regiões produtoras de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) do cinturão verde de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves,Alexandre Levi Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    A alface é uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasil e o estado de São Paulo destaca-se como sendo o maior produtor, gerando uma renda anual de cerca de 40 milhões de reais. Como a virose causada pelo Lettuce mosaic vírus (LMV) é uma das principais doenças da cultura, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a diversidade, a dinâmica populacional e o papel dos afídeos na disseminação do LMV, em três áreas recentemente destinadas à produção intensiva de alface. Assim, os campos de ...

  5. 纳米包装材料对生菜保鲜品质的影响%Effect of Nano-Packaging Material on Quality Preservation of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宁; 石学彬; 方勇; 汤晓智; 杨芹; 杨燕婷; 胡秋辉

    2012-01-01

    A nano-packaging material was prepared by blending polyethylene (PE) with nano-Ag, nano-TiO2 and kaolin, structurally characterized and analyzed for physical properties. Its effect on quality preservation of lettuce was investigated by periodically measuring the changes of weight loss rate, chlorophyll, vitamin C and MDA contents, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity during refrigerated storage. It was observed that nano-particles were evenly distributed in the composite material. Compared with ordinary PE material, it showed an increase in tensile strength of 31.69%, a decrease in water vapor permeability of 28.07%, and a decrease in oxygen permeability of 2.10%. After 14 d of storage at 4 ℃, the weight loss rate, MDA content and PPO activity of lettuce packaged with the nano-material were 1.35%, 23.01 nmol/g and 5.43 U/g, respectively, which were those from ordinary PE packaging (2.75%, 26.35 nmol/g and 7.63 U/g, respectively), while the nano-material resulted in significantly increased VC and chlorophyll contents in lettuce in comparison with the control (ordinary PE material). This composite material could better maintain the sensory quality and nutrients of lettuce during cold storage and consequently extend its shelf life.%制备一种含纳米银、纳米Ti02和高岭土的食品用纳米包装材料,研究该材料在生菜贮藏过程中的保鲜效果。对纳米膜进行结构表征及物理特性检测。并检测贮藏过程中生菜质量损失率、叶绿素、VC、多酚氧化酶活性、丙二醛含量等指标变化。研究结果表明:纳米粒子均匀分布在包装材料中,与普通包装材料相比,纵向拉伸强度增加31.69%,透湿量和透氧量降低28.07%和2.10%;4℃、贮藏14d,纳米包装处理的生菜质量损失率、丙二醛含量、多酚氧化酶比活力分别为1.35%、23.01nmol/g、5.43U/g,显著低于普通包装2.75%、26.35nmol/g(P〈0.05)、7.63U/g(P〈0.01),VC和叶绿素含量显著高于对照组。纳米包装材料较好地保持生菜在贮藏过程中感官品质和营养成分,延长贮藏时间.

  6. Potential of a metal-organic framework as a new material for solid-phase extraction of pesticides from lettuce (Lactuca sativa), with analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Alysson S; da Silva, Rogério Luiz; Dos Santos Silva, Silvia Caroline G; Rodrigues, Marcelo O; de Simone, Carlos A; de Sá, Gilberto F; Júnior, Severino A; Navickiene, Sandro; de Mesquita, Maria Eliane

    2010-12-01

    The metal-organic framework (∞)[(La(0.9)Eu(0.1))(2)(DPA)(3)(H(2)O)(3)] was tested for extraction of pyrimicarb, procymidone, malathion, methyl parathion and α- and β-endosulfan from lettuce, with analysis using GC/MS in SIM mode. Experiments were carried out in triplicate at two fortification levels (0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg), and resulted in recoveries in the range of 78-107%, with RSD values between 1.6 and 8.0% for (∞)[(La(0.9)Eu(0.1))(2)(DPA)(3)(H(2)O)(3)] sorbent. Detection and quantification limits ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 mg/kg and from 0.05 to 0.10 mg/kg, respectively, for the different pesticides studied. The method developed was linear over the range tested (0.05-10.0 μg/mL), with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9990 to 0.9997. Comparison between (∞)[(La(0.9)Eu(0.1))(2)(DPA)(3)(H(2)O)(3)] and conventional sorbent (silica gel) showed better performance of the (∞)[(La(0.9)Eu(0.1))(2)(DPA)(3)(H(2)O)(3)] polymeric sorbent for all pesticides tested.

  7. Activity of enzymes that hydrolyze sucrose and raffinose in the first stages of germination of Lactuca sativa cv. Grand rapids. [Invertase, alpha-galactosidose, and sucrose synthetase were observed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slabnik, E.; Calderon, P.; Diaz, H.

    1981-01-01

    The activities of enzymes capable of metabolizing raffinose and sucrose on achenes of lettuce were studied. During the first stages of germination, evidence was obtained for the occurrence of invertase in the endosperm and embryonic axis. Alpha-galactosidase was localized in the endosperm and cotyledons. Sucrose synthetase was present in the dry seed.

  8. Use of spent mushroom substrates from Agaricus subrufescens (syn. A. blazei, A. brasiliensis) and Lentinula edodes productions in the enrichment of a soil-based potting media for lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivation: Growth promotion and soil bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, L C C; de Mendonça, M M; Camelini, C M; Soares, C H L

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to assess physicochemical and microbiological properties of fresh spent mushroom substrates (SMSs)--without post-crop heat treatment--from Agaricus subrufescens and Lentinula edodes production to optimize the use of these residues in the soil enrichment for lettuce growth promotion and soil remediation. Organic matter and C content of both SMSs were high. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was a good source of N, P and K. On the other hand, L. edodes SMS presented a lower concentration of these nutrients and a high level of immaturity. Both SMSs presented high electric conductivity values (2.5-3.4 mS/cm). Microbiological analysis, based upon enumeration of culturable bacteria (thermophilic and mesophilic) and fungi, and also evolution of CO(2), showed that SMSs played higher microbial diversity than soil control. Laccase activity from A. subrufescens SMS tended to remain constant during a 2-month period, while L. edodes SMS presented low laccase activity throughout the same period. Agaricus subrufescens and L. edodes were able to grow on a PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) media supplemented with different concentrations of atrazine (1-50 microg/ml), degraded the herbicide, attaining rates of 35% and 26%, respectively. On experiments of lettuce growth promotion using a soil-based potting media with different SMS rates, 5% and 10% (dw) rates of A. subrufescens SMS resulted in higher lettuce aerial dry weights than the rates of 25% and 40%, the chemical fertilization (NPK) and the control (soil). At 10% supplementation, lettuce aerial dry weight increased 2.2 and 1.3 times compared to the control and the NPK treatment, respectively. Protein content increased along with SMS rates. Fresh A. subrufescens SMS was an excellent supplement for lettuce growth promotion and showed potential for remediation of biocides possibly due to improved microbial diversity and enzymatic activity. Fresh L. edodes SMS was not a good fertilizer, at least under the conditions tested. However, microbiological analysis showed that promising results may be achieved when using fresh L. edodes SMS for soil remediation.

  9. AVALIAÇÃO PARASITOLÓGICA EM LACTUCA SATIVA (ALFACE E BRASSICA OLERACEA L. (COUVE PROCEDENTES DA CEASA NO MUNICÍPIO DE ANÁPOLIS – GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Resende Moura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the occurrence of intestinal parasites of interest to health in vegetables sold in Central de Abastecimento de Goiás S.A (CEASA in the city of Anapolis (GO. Methods: 42 samples of lettuce and cabbage were collected during the second half of January 2012 and submitted to the spontaneous sedimentation technique. Results: There were 11.9% and 14.2% of samples of lettuce and cabbage contaminated respectively. Conclusions: The most prevalent enteroparasites were Endolimax nana (lettuce: 19% and cabbage: 14.2%, Entamoeba coli (lettuce: 0 % and cabbage: 9.2% and Ascaris lumbricoides (lettuce: 4.7% and cabbage: 0 %. Possibly the lack of supervision for observance of compliance with standards for implementation of marketing within the CEASAAnapolis (GO promotes non-compliance with such rules and compromises the quality of products.

  10. Effects of nitrogen forms on the photosynthetic characteristic of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)in nitrogen hydroponics%不同形态氮素营养对生菜光合特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 王梅农; 赖涛; 沈其荣

    2007-01-01

    采用0: 100、10: 90、25: 75和50: 50(质量比)4种铵硝比的营养液,研究了其对生菜光合特性的影响.结果表明:在营养液中铵硝比为25: 75时,生菜的地上部生物量、SPAD值、净光合速率(Pn)及气孔导度(Gs)最高.随着NH+4-N比例的进一步增加,生菜的地上部生物量、SPAD值、净光合速率及气孔导度反而有所下降,表明适量增铵对生菜生长发育具有促进作用.不同铵硝配比对生菜胞间二氧化碳浓度(Ci)的影响与对SPAD值、净光合速率及气孔导度的影响相反.申选1号的光合特性对不同铵硝配比比耐热耐抽苔生菜敏感.

  11. ANÁLISE COMPARATIVA DO POTENCIAL ALELOPÁTICO DO ÓLEO ESSENCIAL DE THYMUS VULGARIS E SEU CONSTITUINTE MAJORITÁRIO NA GERMINAÇÃO E VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE ALFACE (LACTUCA SATIVA L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Cíntia Alvarenga Santos Fraga de; Universidade Federal de Lavras; Cardoso, Maria Graças; Universidade Federal de Lavras; Carvalho, Maria Laene Moreira de; Universidade Federal de Lavras; Machado, Samísia Maria Fernandes; Universidade Federal de Lavras; Andrade, Milene Aparecida; Universidade Federal de Lavras; Oliveira, Christiane Maria de; Universidade Federal de Lavras

    2015-01-01

    Os óleos essenciais são metabólitos secundários obtidos de plantas que, dependendo de suas características, podem atuar como bactericidas, fungicidas, antioxidantes, inseticidas, antiparasitários, bioherbicidas, além de apresentarem grande aceitabilidade pelos consumidores. Diante dos numerosos transtornos ambientais causados pelos herbicidas sintéticos, os óleos essenciais, como produtos naturais, tornaram-se uma proposta promissora, diante da possibilidade de obtenção de um herbicida ecolog...

  12. Biofortification of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with iodine: The effect of iodine form and concentration in the nutrient solution on growth, development and iodine uptake of lettuce grown in water culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Holwerda, H.T.; Khodabaks, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Two billion individuals have insufficient iodine intake. Biofortification of vegetables with iodine offers an excellent opportunity to increase iodine intake by humans. The main aim was to study the effect of iodine form and concentration

  13. Análise dos indicadores biométricos e nutricionais da cultura da alface (Lactuca sativa L.) irrigada com água tratada magneticamente utilizando modelagem fuzzy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Current water crises worldwide have caused water rationing, involving urban and rural areas. Several researches have been undertaken to optimize the rational use of water, especially water for irrigation. Researches have recently been conducted on the effects of magnetically treated water for irrigation. Since regression analyses have inherent errors, statistic techniques have been employed to prove the true effects of the experiments and thus more advanced techniques, such as the fuzzy mathe...

  14. Contaminação, crescimento e inativação de microrganismos na cadeia de produção de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) variedade Vitória de Santo Antão

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Maria Aparecida

    2009-01-01

    Foi analisada a cadeia de produção da alface, cultivar Vitória de Santo Antão, do campo à mesa, sob as diretrizes do sistema Análise de Perigo se Pontos Críticos de Controle(APPCC)e do sistema de Análise de Risco Microbiológico. P