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Sample records for non-mycorrhizal lactuca sativa

  1. Origin and domestication of Lactuca sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de I.M.

    1997-01-01

    The domestication of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. is described on the basis of literature study. The centre of origin is discussed. A historical survey is made of the distribution of the groups of Lactuca cultivars over the world.

  2. Genetic transformation of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ): A review | Dan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a globally important leafy vegetable that can be grown worldwide. Due to the rapid growth of population and the human desire to progress, there have been a lot of studies made by researchers, especially in genetic engineering. Improvements in regeneration system and transformation ...

  3. Transformation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelmore, R; Marsh, E; Seely, S; Landry, B

    1987-12-01

    Lactuca sativa can be routinely transformed using Ti plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing a chimeric kanamycin resistance gene (NOS.NPTII.NOS). Critical experimental variables were plant genotype, bacterial concentration, presence of a nurse culture and timing of transfers between tissue culture media. Transformation was confirmed by the ability to callus and root in the presence of kanamycin, nopaline production, and by hybridization in Southern blots. Transformation has been achieved with several Ti vectors. Several hundred transformed plants have been regenerated. Kanamycin resistance was inherited monogenically. Homozygotes can be selected by growing R2 seedlings on media containing G418.

  4. [Analysis of essential oil extracted from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Wang, Qiang; Haji, Akber Aisa

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang. The components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 62 components were identified from 71 separated peaks,amounting to total mass fraction 95.07%. The dominant compounds were n-Hexanol (36.31%), n-Hexanal (13.71%), trans-2-Octen-l-ol (8.09%) and 2-n-Pentylfuran (4.41%). The research provides a theoretical basis for the exploitation and use of Lactuca sativa seeds resource.

  5. Influence of Salicylic Acid on the Growth of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    2018-04-10

    Apr 10, 2018 ... Keywords: Water stress, Salicylic acid, Growth, Lactuca sativa. Water stress in plant is an ... processes in plant adaptation to drought stress as it synthesis and ... manure was added to the soil in the preparation for planting.

  6. Influence of lead upon the plant cell. [Lactuca sativa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekerka, V; Bobak, M

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to study the influence of tetramethyl lead upon the mitotic activity of cells, structural changes of the chromosomes, upon the mitotic apparatus and the ultrastructure of the cells in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Tetramethyl lead is an antidetonant additive to the gasoline of automobiles. The authors have found that the Pb ions are toxic for the plant cell, its toxicity increases with an increasing concentration and the prolonged time of action of the Pb solution. Tetramethyl lead influences the cell division causing especially different disturbances of the chromosomes and of the dividing figure during karykinesis and evoking damages of the submicroscopic structure of the plant cell. First of all, the following organels are damaged: the nucleus, the mitochondria, the Golgi apparatus, the endoplasmatic reticulum and the proplastids. A considerable number of formations similar to translosomes arises in the plant cells at the same time.

  7. An integrated interspecific AFLP map of lettuce (Lactuca) based on two L. Saligna x L. sativa F2-populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, M.; Wijk, van R.; Peleman, J.; Lindhout, P.

    2001-01-01

    AFLP markers were obtained with 12 EcoRI/ MseI primer combinations on two independent F2 populations of Lactuca sativa 2 Lactuca saligna. The polymorphism rates of the AFLP products between the two different L. saligna lines was 39°between the two different L. sativa cultivars 13 nd between the L.

  8. Isolation and culture of protoplast from leaves of Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witool Chaipakdee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Protoplasts were isolated from leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seedlings after in vitro germination for 25, 30, 40 and 50 days. The leaves were stripped and incubated in various combinations of cellulase and pectinase. Protoplasts were cultured on MS medium containing various kinds and concentrations of plant growth regulators in different culture systems including liquid media, hanging, drop culture and solid media. Results revealed that the highest number of viable protoplasts, 14.1x105 cells per gram of fresh weight, was obtained from 30 day-old leaves of lettuce seedlings and isolated by using 2% cellulase in combination with 1% pectinase. Liquid MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l BA promoted the highest cell division up to 17.67%. First division of protoplasts was observed at 4 days after culture and microcolony formation occurred at the 4th week after culturing. Unfortunately, neither callus formation nor plantlet regeneration were obtained.

  9. Initiation and elongation of lateral roots in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Lactuca sativa cv. Baijianye seedlings do not normally produce lateral roots, but removal of the root tip or application of auxin, especially indole-butyric acid, triggered the formation of lateral roots. Primordia initiated within 9 h and were fully developed after 24 h by activating the pericycle cells opposite the xylem pole. The pericycle cells divided asymmetrically into short and long cells. The short cells divided further to form primordia. The effect of root tip removal and auxin application was reversed by 6-benzylaminopurine at concentrations >10(-8) M. The cytokinin oxidase inhibitor N1-(2chloro4pyridyl)-N2-phenylurea also suppressed auxin-induced lateral rooting. The elongation of primary roots was promoted by L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine and silver ions, but only the latter enhanced elongation of lateral roots. The data indicate that the induction of lateral roots is controlled by basipetally moving cytokinin and acropetally moving auxin. Lateral roots appear to not produce ethylene.

  10. Potentiating Effects of Lactuca sativa on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Ahmad; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been recommended for its hypnotic property. The present study was planned to investigate sleep-prolonging effect of this plant. The hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of lettuce and its water fraction (WF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), and n-butanol fraction (NBF) were administrated (IP) to mice 30 min before the pentobarbital injection. Moreover, both in-vivo and in-vitro toxicity of the extracts were determined. The quality of HAE and NBF was also evaluated using HPLC fingerprint. The HAE prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleep duration at dose of 400 mg/Kg. The NBF was the only fraction which could increase the sleep duration and decrease sleep latency. The effects of NBF were comparable to those of induced by diazepam. The LD50-value for HAE was found to be 4.8 g/Kg. No neurotoxic effect was observed either by HAE or by its fractions in cultured PC12 neuron-like cells. The results suggest that lettuce potentiates pentobarbital hypnosis without major toxic effect. The main component(s) responsible for this effect is most likely to be non-polar agent(s) which found in NBF of this plant.

  11. Halogenated auxins affect microtubules and root elongation in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, and 5,6-dichloro-indole-3-acetic acid (DCIAA) on growth and microtubule (MT) organization in roots of Lactuca sativa L. DCIAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) inhibited root elongation and depolymerized MTs in the cortex of the elongation zone, inhibited the elongation of stele cells, and promoted xylem maturation. Both auxins caused the plane of cell division to shift from anticlinal to periclinal. In contrast, TFIBA (100 micromolar) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% and stimulated the elongation of lateral roots, even in the presence of IBA, the microtubular inhibitors oryzalin and taxol, or the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. However, TFIBA inhibited the formation of lateral root primordia. Immunostaining showed that TFIBA stabilized MTs orientation perpendicular to the root axis, doubled the cortical cell length, but delayed xylem maturation. The data indicate that the auxin-induced inhibition of elongation and swelling of roots results from reoriented phragmoplasts, the destabilization of MTs in elongating cells, and promotion of vessel formation. In contrast, TFIBA induced promotion of root elongation by enhancing cell length, prolonging transverse MT orientation, delaying cell and xylem maturation.

  12. Anxiolytic property of hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa and its effect on behavioral activities of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, Singapura Nagesh; Anilakumar, Kandangath Raghavan

    2013-01-01

    Lactuca sativa, belonging to the Asteraceae family, is a leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties. This study aimed to understand the mechanism of Lactuca sativa extract with respect to pharmacological action.We investigated the anxiolytic effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of Lactuca sativa on mice. The behavioral tests performed on mice models to assess anti-anxiety properties were: open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze test (EPM), elevated T maze test, and marble burying test. Increased locomotor activity and time spent in the "open-arm" were observed in extract fed group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite levels were decreased, catalase and glutathione levels were increased in Lactuca sativa treated mice. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the extract of Lactuca sativa can afford significant protection against anxiolytic activity.

  13. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  14. Pb low doses induced genotoxicity in Lactuca sativa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S; Silva, P; Oliveira, H; Gaivão, I; Matos, M; Pinto-Carnide, O; Santos, C

    2017-03-01

    Soil and water contamination by lead (Pb) remains a topic of great concern, particularly regarding crop production. The admissible Pb values in irrigation water in several countries range from ≈0.1 to ≈5 mg L -1 . In order to evaluate putative effects of Pb within legal doses on crops growth, we exposed Lactuca sativa seeds and seedlings to increasing doses of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 up to 20 mg L -1 . The OECD parameter seed germination and seedling/plant growth were not affected by any of the Pb-concentrations used. However, for doses higher than 5 mg L -1 significant DNA damage was detected: Comet assay detected DNA fragmentation at ≥ 5 mg L -1 and presence of micronuclei (MN) were detected for 20 mg L -1 . Also, cell cycle impairment was observed for doses as low as 0.05 mg L -1 and 0.5 mg L -1 (mostly G 2 arrest). Our data show that for the low doses of Pb used, the OECD endpoints were not able to detect toxicity, while more sensitive endpoints (related with DNA damage and mitotic/interphase disorders) identified genotoxic and cytostatic effects. Furthermore, the nature of the genotoxic effect was dependent on the concentration. Finally, we recommend that MN test and the comet assay should be included as sensitive endpoints in (eco)toxicological assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence for a race-specific resistance factor in some lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars previously considered to be universally susceptible to Bremia lactucae regel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crute, I R; Lebeda, A

    1981-05-01

    Previously undetected race-specific resistance to Bremia lactucae (downy mildew) was located in many lettuce cultivars hitherto considered to be universally susceptible to this disease. This resistance factor(s) may also be widely distributed in other cultivars known to carry combinations of already recognised factors R1 to R11. Specific virulence to match this resistance is almost invariably present in pathogen collections. This situation may be either a relic of the evolutionary history of the B. lactucae - L. sativa asssociation or may reflect a rare mutation in B. lactucae for avirulence on all but a few specialised L. sativa genotypes.

  16. ANALISIS TUMBUH SELADA (LACTUCA SATIVA L) PADA PERBEDAAN JENIS PUPUK ORGANIK CAIR ( Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L) Growth Analysis At Different Type Of Liquid Organic Fertilizer)

    OpenAIRE

    Duaja, Made Deviani; Arzita, .; Redo, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to analysis the growth and yield of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) at different type of organic liquid fertilizers. The experiment has conducted at Agriculture Faculty Research Farm, Jambi University. Six treatments were arranged in Randomized Completed Block Design. The treatments are kinds of liquid organic fertilizers, they are P0 (none of liquid organic fertilizers), P1 (Golden Harvest liquid organic fertilizers), P2 (NASA liquid organic fertilizers), P3 (C...

  17. Allelopathic effect of medicinal plant Cannabis sativa L. on Lactuca sativa L. seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa MAHMOODZADEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine allelopathic effect of Cannabis sativa L. on germination capability and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa L., a study was performed in laboratory conditions. Treatments were set up in randomised block design in four replications for each of four concentration ranges of 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of aqueous extract made of shoot parts and 4 identical extract concentrations made of root of cannabis. Control variant was lettuce seed treated by distilled water. During the studies shoot and seminal root length of lettuce seedlings were measured after treatments with different concentrations of extracts made of root and shoot parts of cannabis, and the obtained values were compared with the control. The obtained results suggest that the extract from the shoot parts of cannabis in high concentrations of 75 and 100 % had inhibiting effect to the germination indices while the extract from the root had no statistically significant effect on germination of lettuce seeds. Extract made of root part of cannabis showed also stimulatory effect to shoot and seminal root length of lettuce seedlings in extract concentrations of 50, 75 and 100 %.

  18. Differential distribution of cadmium in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florijn, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Large genotypic variation in shoot Cd concentrations has been reported in literature for several plant species including lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.). The objective of this thesis was to elucidate the physiological andlor

  19. Semi-high throughput screening for potential drought-tolerance in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) germplasm collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    This protocol describes a method by which a large collection of the leafy green vegetable lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) germplasm was screened for likely drought-tolerance traits. Fresh water availability for agricultural use is a growing concern across the United States as well as many regions of th...

  20. Phosphomannose isomerase gene for selection in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) transformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bříza, Jindřich; Růžičková, N.; Niedermeierová, Hana; Dusbábková, Jana; Vlasák, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2010), s. 63-68 ISSN 0001-527X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : pmi * npt II * Lactuca sativa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.234, year: 2010

  1. Plant Age Affects Wound-Induced Senescense in Lactuca Sativa L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the performance of dark-stored wounded leaf discs and pieces (to some extent mimicking fresh-cut product) of Lactuca sativa L. in relation to the physiological maturity at harvest. We used two related genotypes, i.e. a green (cv. Troubadour) and a red butterhead

  2. Uptake of perfluorinated alkyl acids by hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felizeter, S.; McLachlan, M.; de Voogt, P.

    2012-01-01

    An uptake study was carried out to assess the potential human exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) through the ingestion of vegetables. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was grown in PFAA-spiked nutrient solutions at four different concentrations, ranging from 10 ng/L to 10 μg/L. Eleven

  3. SSH reveals a linkage between a senescence-associated protease and Verticillium wilt symptom development in lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was employed to identify lettuce (Lactuca sativa) genes that are differentially expressed in symptomatic leaves infected with Verticillium dahliae. Genes expressed only in symptomatic leaves included those with homology to pathogenesis-related (PR) protei...

  4. Inhibitory effect of marine green algal extracts on germination of Lactuca sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon

    2016-03-01

    The allelopathic potential of nine green seaweed species was examined based on germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Out of nine methanol extracts, Capsosiphon fulvescens and Monostroma nitidum extracts completely inhibited germination of L. sativa at 4 mg/filter paper after 24 hr of treatment. Water extracts of these seaweeds generally showed low anti-germination activities than methanol extracts. Of the nine water extracts, Enteromorpha linza extract completely inhibited L. sativa germination at 16 mg/filter paper after 24 hrs. To identify the primary active compounds, C. fulvescens. powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against L. sativa were determined to be lipids (0.0% germination at 0.5 mg of lipids/paper disc). According to these results, extracts of C. fulvescens can be used to develop natural herbicidal agents and manage terrestrial weeds.

  5. [Analysis of the mineral elements of Lactuca sativa under the condition of different spectral components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Li; Guo, Wen-Zhong; Xue, Xu-Zhang; Wang, Li-Chun; Li, Liang; Chen, Fei

    2013-08-01

    Mineral elements absorption and content of Lactuca sativa under different spectral component conditions were studied by ICP-AES technology. The results showed that: (1) For Lactuca sativa, the average proportion for Ca : Mg : K : Na : P was 5.5 : 2.5 : 2.3 : 1.5 : 1.0, the average proportion for Fe : Mn : Zn : Cu : B was 25.9 : 5.9 : 2.8 : 1.1 : 1.0; (2) The absorptions for K, P, Ca, Mg and B are the largest under the LED treatment R/B = 1 : 2.75, red light from fluorescent lamps and LED can both promote the absorptions of Fe and Cu; (3)The LED treatments exhibiting relatively higher content of mineral elements are R/B = 1 : 2.75 and R/W = 1 : 1 while higher dry matter accumulations are R/B = 1 : 2.75 and B/W = 1 : 1.

  6. Toxicity Effect of Cr Stress on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Lactuca Sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wan Zheng; Ma, Wan Min; Du, Ying Ying; Dan, Qiong Peng; Yin, Bing; Dai, Shan Shan; Hao, Xiang

    2018-03-01

    The impact of Cr6+ on the growth of lactuca sativa in Greenhouse Cucumber was investigated. The seeds of lacuna sativa Italian bolting resistance lettuce were treated by different Cr6+ concentration to study the effects on its seed germination and seedling growth. The results showed that the seed germination rate, vigor index of seedlings decreased with increment of Cr6+ concentration to varying degrees, and vigor germination, vigor index, raw weight, root length significantly lower. The absorption of lettuce seedlings on different nutrient elements is impacted by the concentration of Cr6+.

  7. Plant Age Affects Wound-Induced Senescense in Lactuca Sativa L

    OpenAIRE

    Witkowska, I.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the performance of dark-stored wounded leaf discs and pieces (to some extent mimicking fresh-cut product) of Lactuca sativa L. in relation to the physiological maturity at harvest. We used two related genotypes, i.e. a green (cv. Troubadour) and a red butterhead (cv. Teodore) differing in their pigment levels. For both genotypes, senescence of the wounded (fresh-cut) tissue prepared from leaves of younger plants was significantly delayed compared to wounde...

  8. Exogenous Glycine Nitrogen Enhances Accumulation of Glycosylated Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Yang; Xiaoxian Cui; Xiaoxian Cui; Li Zhao; Doudou Guo; Lei Feng; Shiwei Wei; Chao Zhao; Chao Zhao; Danfeng Huang

    2017-01-01

    Glycine, the simplest amino acid in nature and one of the most abundant free amino acids in soil, is regarded as a model nutrient in organic nitrogen studies. To date, many studies have focused on the uptake, metabolism and distribution of organic nitrogen in plants, but few have investigated the nutritional performance of plants supplied with organic nitrogen. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), one of the most widely consumed leafy vegetables worldwide, is a significant source of antioxidants and ...

  9. Plastid transformation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by biolistic DNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, Tracey A

    2014-01-01

    The interest in producing pharmaceutical proteins in a nontoxic plant host has led to the development of an approach to express such proteins in transplastomic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). A number of therapeutic proteins and vaccine antigen candidates have been stably integrated into the lettuce plastid genome using biolistic DNA delivery. High levels of accumulation and retention of biological activity suggest that lettuce may provide an ideal platform for the production of biopharmaceuticals.

  10. The effect of outer space environments on Lactuca sativa seeds flown on Cosmos biosatellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevzgodina, L.V.; Maksimova, E.N.; Akatov, Yu.A.; Kaminskaya, E.V.; Marennyj, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of cosmic radiation on air-dry lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds was investigated. It was attempted to discriminate the effects of cosmic ionizing radiation per se and its combination with solar light radiation. It was found that the number of aberrant cells in the seeds exposed to solar light was smaller than that of cells chielded with 0.0008 to 0.0035 g/cm 3 foil which could be attributed to photoreactivity

  11. Effects of Lactuca sativa extract on exploratory behavior pattern, locomotor activity and anxiety in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Harsha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antianxiety property of Lactuca sativa, an important and commonly used leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties belongs to Asteraceae family. Methods: Elevated plus maze (EPM, open field test (OFT, rat exposure test, hyponeophagia and marble burying test were performed in mice models to assess the exploratory behaviour and to assess anxiolytic property of hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa. Diazepam (1 mg/kg body wt. served as the standard anxiolytic agent for all the tests. The dried extract of the plant leaf in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to mice for duration of 15 or 30 days and evaluated exploratory behaviour, locomotor and anxiolytic activities. Results: Time spent and number of entries into the open arm was measured in EPM followed by total locomotor activity in OFT and latency to enter the food zone in hyponeophagia. Conclusions: The study suggested that hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa leaves possess potent anxiolytic property.

  12. Phyotoxicity of diesel soil contamination on the germination of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, Kayode; Lewu, Francis Bayo; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-11-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil on germination rate of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas, at two concentrations ranges (0-6ml and 0-30ml), were investigated and compared. Diesel soil contamination was simulated and soil samples were taken from contaminated soil at 1, 5,10, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days should be after planting. The result showed that in both plant species, diesel inhibited germination in a concentration dependent manner, Also, the influence of diesel contamination diminished with increased time duration; suggesting possible reduction in diesel toxicity over time. However, germination of lettuce was significant and negatively correlated (r2 = -0.941) with diesel contamination as compared to sweet potato (r2 = -0.638).Critical concentration of diesel in relation to seed germination of L. sativa was lower than vegetative germination of I. batatas, indicating that germination of I. batatas was less sensitive to diesel contamination as compared to L. sativa.

  13. Influence of tetramethyl lead on the proplastids of plant cells. [Lactuca sativa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herich, R.; Bobak, M.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of tetramethyl lead upon the meristematic cells of the root tips of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is dealt with in this article. The following phenomena have been observed: (1) differentiation of atypical proplastids; (2) gradual differentiation of tubular formations in the proplastids, the differentiating process is described in detail; (3) destruction of marginal membrane of the proplastid after the differentiation of these tubular formations together with disappearing of the individuality of the proplastid; (4) dislocation of the tubular formations from the plastid into the basic cytoplasm after destruction of the marginal membrane. In the cytoplasm the tubular formations are dispersed or persist in several groups. 8 references, 11 figures.

  14. Effect of fly-ash amended soil on growth of Lactuca sativa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, K.; Farooqui, A.; Kulshreshtha, K.; Ahmad, K.J. [National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India). Environmental Botany Lab.

    1995-04-01

    The present study has been undertaken with a view to evaluate the impact of fly-ash amended soil on growth and photosynthetic pigments of Lactuca sativa L. It was seen that 10% treatment showed marked increase in plant growth while 20-30% treated plants showed retarded growth as compared to control. Similar trends of increase and decrease in pigment formation was also observed. Results indicate the utilization of fly-ash in low concentrations for better growth, dry matter production and increased photosynthetic pigments.

  15. Blue and Green Light-Induced Phototropism in Arabidopsis thaliana and Lactuca sativa L. Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinitz, Benjamin; Ren, Zhangling; Poff, Kenneth L.

    1985-01-01

    Exposure time-response curves for blue and green light-induced phototropic bending in hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and Lactuca sativa L. seedlings are presented. These seedlings show significant phototropic sensitivity up to 540 to 550 nanometers. Since wave-lengths longer than 560 nanometers do not induce phototropic bending, it is suggested that the response to 510 to 550 nanometers light is mediated by the specific blue light photoreceptor of phototropism. We advise care in the use of green `safelights' for studies of phototropism. PMID:16664021

  16. Interspecific somatic hybridization between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and wild species L. virosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, E

    1991-02-01

    Somatic hybrids between cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and a wild species L. virosa were produced by protoplast electrofusion. Hybrid selection was based on inactivation of L. sativa with 20mM iodoacetamide for 15 min, and the inability of L. virosa protoplasts to divide in the culture conditions used. Protoplasts were cultured in agarose beads in a revised MS media. In all 71 calli were formed and 21 of them differentiated shoots on LS medium containing 0.1mg/l NAA and 0.2mg/l BA. Most regenerated plants exhibited intermediate morphology. These plants were confirmed as hybrids by isoenzyme analysis. The majority of somatic hybrids had 2n=4x=36 chromosomes, and had more vigorous growth than either parent. Hybrids had normal flower morphology, but all were sterile.

  17. Allelopathic effect of Raphanus sativus on Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa = Efeito alelopático de Raphanus sativus em Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Navas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of an extract from the leaves and roots of Raphanus sativus, on the species Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa L. To obtain the extract, the leaves and roots of R. sativus were used separately, crushed at a proportion of 200 g of leaves to 1 L of water to give a crude aqueous extract (100%. Dilutions of 60%, 40% and 20%, and the control were produced from this extract. Seeds of U. decumbens and L. sativa were evenly distributed over two sheets of germitest paper, with four replications of 40 seeds each. Germination was evaluated at 7 and 14 days after sowing, together with the germination speed index (GSI, length of the shoots and roots, and dry weight. The design was completely randomised, and the values submitted to analysis of variance by F-test and regression analysis. The leaf extract gave a reduction in the germination of L. sativa at all tested doses. With application of the root extract, an increase was seen in germination, in the GSI and length of the radicle in U. decumbens at doses of from 40%. Moreover, with application of the leaf extract, the length of the shoot and radicle were also greater, irrespective of the dose applied. There was no effect from the treatments on the dry mass of the species. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o potencial alelopático de extrato de folhas e raízes de Raphanus sativus, nas espécies Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa L. Para obtenção do extrato, foram utilizadas separadamente folhas e raízes de R. sativus, trituradas na proporção de 200 g de folhas para 1 L de água, resultando no extrato aquoso bruto (100%. A partir desse extrato, foram realizadas as diluições de 60%, 40% e 20% e testemunha. Sementes de U. decumbens e L. sativa foram distribuídas uniformemente sobre duas folhas de papel germitest, com quatro repetições, com 40 sementes cada. As avaliações de germinação foram realizadas aos 7 e aos 14 dias

  18. Acinetobacter lactucae sp. nov., isolated from iceberg lettuce (Asteraceae: Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Alejandro P; Dunlap, Christopher A; Flor-Weiler, Lina B

    2016-09-01

    Strain NRRL B-41902T and three closely related strains were isolated from iceberg lettuce. The strain was found to consist of strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative rods that formed cocci in late stationary phase. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NRRL B-41902T was most closely related to species within the genera Acinetobacter, and that a grouping of it and the three other closely related strains was most closely related to the type strain of Acinetobacter pittii, which was also confirmed through a phylogenomic analysis. Moreover, in silico DNA-DNA hybridization analysis revealed a substantial amount of genomic divergence (39.1 %) between strain NRRL B-41902T and the type strain of A. pittii, which is expected if the strains represent distinct species. Further phenotypic analysis revealed that strain NRRL B-41902T was able to utilize a combination of l-serine, citraconic acid and citramalic acid, which differentiated it from other, closely related Acinetobacter species. Therefore, strain NRRL B-41902T (=CCUG 68785T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species, Acinetobacter lactucae sp. nov.

  19. Experimental determinations of soil copper toxicity to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) growth in highly different copper spiked and aged soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karen Søgaard; Borggaard, Ole K.; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge about factors and conditions determining copper (Cu) toxicity in soil is needed for predicting plant growth in various Cu-contaminated soils. Therefore, effects of Cu on growth (biomass production) of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were tested on seven selected, very different soils...

  20. A note on the measurement of genetic diversity within genebank accessions of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) using AFLP markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Verbakel, H.; Peleman, J.; Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses a statistical approach for measuring genetic diversity within genebank accessions of a self-fertilising species. This approach is applied to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), using AFLP marker data on a set of 1,390 accessions, representing six different lettuce types. Knowledge of

  1. Development of genomic SSR markers for fingerprinting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars and mapping genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Gilda; Simko, Ivan

    2013-01-22

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is the major crop from the group of leafy vegetables. Several types of molecular markers were developed that are effectively used in lettuce breeding and genetic studies. However only a very limited number of microsattelite-based markers are publicly available. We have employed the method of enriched microsatellite libraries to develop 97 genomic SSR markers. Testing of newly developed markers on a set of 36 Lactuca accession (33 L. sativa, and one of each L. serriola L., L. saligna L., and L. virosa L.) revealed that both the genetic heterozygosity (UHe = 0.56) and the number of loci per SSR (Na = 5.50) are significantly higher for genomic SSR markers than for previously developed EST-based SSR markers (UHe = 0.32, Na = 3.56). Fifty-four genomic SSR markers were placed on the molecular linkage map of lettuce. Distribution of markers in the genome appeared to be random, with the exception of possible cluster on linkage group 6. Any combination of 32 genomic SSRs was able to distinguish genotypes of all 36 accessions. Fourteen of newly developed SSR markers originate from fragments with high sequence similarity to resistance gene candidates (RGCs) and RGC pseudogenes. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of L. sativa accessions showed that approximately 3% of genetic diversity was within accessions, 79% among accessions, and 18% among horticultural types. The newly developed genomic SSR markers were added to the pool of previously developed EST-SSRs markers. These two types of SSR-based markers provide useful tools for lettuce cultivar fingerprinting, development of integrated molecular linkage maps, and mapping of genes.

  2. Enteroparasitas em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas na cidade de Guarapuava (PR / Enteroparasites on commercial lettuce (Lactuca sativa in Guarapuava City, Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Osaki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de hortaliças cruas constitui importante meio de transmissão de enteroparasitoses. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a contaminação parasitária em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas na cidade de Guarapuava (PR. No período de julho/2005 a junho/2006, 52 supermercados foram visitados, com colheita de um pé de alface. A análise parasitológica foi realizada após duas lavagens, filtragem em gaze e sedimentação. O sedimento, corado pelo lugol, foi analisado microscopicamente por exame direto e após centrífugo-flutuação em sulfato de zinco. Das 52 amostras de alface avaliadas, 18 (34,6% apresentaram uma ou mais estruturas parasitárias como cistos de Giardia spp. (7,7%, de Entamoeba spp. (11,5% e de Balantidium coli (3,8%, oocistos de coccídios (7,7% e ovos de Capillaria spp. (3,8%. Esse alto número de amostras contaminadas aponta deficiências na cadeia produtiva dessas hortaliças, indicando a necessidade de adequada higienização antes de seu consumo. AbstractThe ingestion of raw vegetables is an important mode of enteroparasites transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitological contamination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in Guarapuava City, Parana State. Fifty-two samples of lettuce were collected from supermarkets during the period of July 2005 and June 2006. Parasitological analysis was realized by the sedimentation technique. Lugol-stained sediments were microscopically analyzed by direct exam and after centrifugation-fluctuation in zinc sulfate. A total of 18 out of 52 lettuce samples analyzed (34.6% were positive for one or more parasitic structures. The parasites found in the analysis were Giardia spp. (7.7%, Entamoeba spp. (11.5%, Balantidium coli (3.8%, coccidian oocysts (7.7% and Capillaria spp. eggs (3.8%. Such high occurrence of contaminated samples revealed deficiencies in the chain of lettuce cultivation, which suggests a need for improvement in the current

  3. Toxic effects of copper-based nanoparticles or compounds to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie; Rico, Cyren M; Zhao, Lijuan; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Keller, Arturo A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    The increased production and use of nanoparticles (NPs) has generated concerns about their impact on living organisms. In this study, nCu, bulk Cu, nCuO, bulk CuO, Cu(OH)2 (CuPRO 2005, Kocide 3000), and CuCl2 were exposed for 15 days to 10 days-old hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Each compound was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg L(-1). At harvest, we measured the size of the plants and determined the concentration of Cu, macro and microelements by using ICP-OES. Catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity was also determined. Results showed that all Cu NPs/compounds reduced the root length by 49% in both plant species. All Cu NPs/compounds increased Cu, P, and S (>100%, >50%, and >20%, respectively) in alfalfa shoots and decreased P and Fe in lettuce shoot (>50% and >50%, respectively, excluding Fe in CuCl2 treatment). Biochemical assays showed reduced catalase activity in alfalfa (root and shoot) and increased ascorbate peroxidase activity in roots of both plant species. Results suggest that Cu NPs/compounds not only reduced the size of the plants but altered nutrient content and enzyme activity in both plant species.

  4. Performance and feeding behaviour of two biotypes of the black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, on resistant and susceptible Lactuca sativa near-isogenic lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, ten C.J.M.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, is an important pest of cultivated lettuce, Lactuca sativa. Since 1982, the control of this aphid on lettuce is largely based on host plant resistance, conferred by the Nr gene, introgressed from Lactuca virosa. The resistance mechanism remains

  5. Efecto de rizobacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal solubilizadoras de fosfato en Lactuca sativa cultivar White Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Beatriz Sanchez López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en español: Efecto de rizobacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal solubilizadoras de fosfato en Lactuca sativa cultivar White Boston Título en ingles: Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria phosate solubilizing  Lactuca sativa cultivar White Boston Resumen:  En las últimas décadas, la agricultura colombiana se ha visto afectada por la reducción de la productividad en las zonas hortícolas, el incremento de los costos de producción y la dependencia del uso de productos químicos, produciendo un daño irreversible al medio ambiente y la calidad de vida de productores y consumidores. El objetivo de investigación fue evaluar el efecto de rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento  vegetal del género Pseudomonas sp. sobre Lactuca sativa cultivar White Boston como solubilizadoras de roca fosfórica. El estudio se realizó en el Centro de Investigación Tibaitatá (Corpoica ubicado en Mosquera (Cundinamarca-Colombia. Los resultados demostraron que las cepas tienen la capacidad intrínseca para solubilizar fuentes de fósforo de baja solubilidad como la roca fosfórica. La aplicación de inoculantes con base en las cepas: Pseudomonas fluorescens FR1, Pseudomonas sp., UVLO27 y Pseudomonas sp. LEAV18 arrojaron los mejores resultados. Las cepas Pseudomonas sp. FR2, UVLO27 y K35, tienen la capacidad de producir índoles y sideróforos. El experimento en invernadero evidenció que las cepas Pseudomonas fluorescens FR1, Pseudomonas sp. FR2 y UVLO27 incrementaron de manera significativa (P<0.05 la biomasa y el desarrollo de las plantas. El uso de rocas fosfóricas representa una alternativa económica y ecológica viable, en sistemas de agricultura sostenible.  Palabras claves: Pseudomonas sp., Biofertilizantes, Roca fosfórica, Fósforo, Índoles totales. Abstract:  In the last decades, Colombian agriculture has been affected by the reduction in productivity in horticultural areas, increase in production costs and the dependence

  6. Dependence of UV effect on quality of light during raising of seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogenrieder, A.; Klein, R.

    1978-01-01

    Greenhouse seedlings of Lactuca sativa L. show a decreased rate of photosynthesis under normal outdoor light conditions due to the effect of UV-light. In this study, the relationship between the declining rate of photosynthesis and the amount of UV in the spectrum was investigated. The determination was made in climatized gas exchange chambers under Xenon arc lamps (XBO 2500 W, Osram). The amount of UV in the spectrum was varied by the use of different surface mirrors made by aluminium evaporation. A linear relationship between the amount of UV-light in the spectrum and the rate of decrease of photosynthesis was obtained with 12 hour radiation. The decrease in photosynthesis is less when the plants are raised under UV-light lamps. (orig.) [de

  7. Transfer and expression of the rabbit defensin NP-1 gene in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, D; Xiong, X; Tu, W F; Yao, W; Liang, H W; Chen, F J; He, Z Q

    2017-01-23

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an annual plant of the daisy family, Asteraceae, with high food and medicinal value. However, the crop is susceptible to several viruses that are transmitted by aphids and is highly vulnerable to post-harvest diseases, as well as insect and mammal pests and fungal and bacterial diseases. Here, the rabbit defensin gene NP-1 was transferred into lettuce by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to obtain a broad-spectrum disease-resistant lettuce. Transgenic lettuce plants were selected and regenerated on selective media. The presence of the NP-1 gene in these plants was confirmed by western blot analyses. Resistance tests revealed native defensin NP-1 expression conferred partial resistance to Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which suggests new possibilities for lettuce disease resistance.

  8. Growth promotion of Lactuca sativa in response to volatile organic compounds emitted from diverse bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincheira, Paola; Venthur, Herbert; Mutis, Ana; Parada, Maribel; Quiroz, Andrés

    2016-12-01

    Agrochemicals are currently used in horticulture to increase crop production. Nevertheless, their indiscriminate use is a relevant issue for environmental and legal aspects. Alternative tools for reducing fertilizers and synthetic phytohormones are being investigated, such as the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as growth inducers. Some soil bacteria, such as Pseudomonas and Bacillus, stimulate Arabidopsis and tobacco growth by releasing VOCs, but their effects on vegetables have not been investigated. Lactuca sativa was used as model vegetable to investigate bacterial VOCs as growth inducers. We selected 10 bacteria strains, belonging to Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Serratia genera that are able to produce 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin), a compound with proven growth promoting activity. Two-day old-seedlings of L. sativa were exposed to VOCs emitted by the selected bacteria grown in different media cultures for 7 days. The results showed that the VOCs released from the bacteria elicited an increase in the number of lateral roots, dry weight, root growth and shoot length, depending on the media used. Three Bacillus strains, BCT53, BCT9 and BCT4, were selected according to its their growth inducing capacity. The BCT9 strain elicited the greatest increases in dry weight and primary root length when L. sativa seedlings were subjected to a 10-day experiment. Finally, because acetoin only stimulated root growth, we suggest that other volatiles could be responsible for the growth promotion of L. sativa. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that bacteria volatiles can be used as growth-inducers as alternative or complementary strategies for application in horticulture species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Freqüência de enteroparasitas em amostras de alface (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em Lavras, Minas Gerais Frequency of intestinal parasites in samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in Lavras, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma avaliação parasitológica em amostras de alface (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em Lavras, MG. As amostras de alfaces apresentaram baixos padrões higiênicos, indicados pela presença de formas parasitológicas de origem animal ou humana e alta concentração de coliformes fecais.The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitological contamination in samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in Lavras city, Minas Gerais. The samples of lettuce showed low hygienic conditions, indicated by the presence of parasites of animal or human origin and high concentration of fecal coliforms.

  10. Active packaging for fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. / Embalagem ativa para alface americana (Lactuca sativa L. minimamente processada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Yamashita

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The minimal processing of horticultural products endears the raw material and is convenient to the consumer due to the facility for preparing and consuming. The objective of this work was to develop an active packaging for fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. to increase its shelf life. Minimally processing methodology was defined and the product quality was determined by sensorial, physico-chemical and microbiological analysis. The lettuce tree was selected, trimmed, pre-washed, soaked in sanitized water (100ppm of active chlorine for 15 minutes and centrifuged. The lettuce leafs were packed in polypropylene pots with a sachet containing 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and sealed with biodegradable starch film. Soon after the processing, the product was stored at 4oC for 12 days. Periodically samples were evaluated in terms of appearance and purchase intention, soluble solids and vitamin C contents, pH, texture, color, weight loss and total count of mesophilic and psicotrofic microorganisms, lactic bacteria, mould and yeast. Using 1-MCP in sachet format did not increase the lettuce shelf life but the minimal processing combined with packaging sealed with biodegradable film is practicable as the product showed good sensorial acceptance, low microbiological counts and shelf life of 5 days at 4oC.O processamento mínimo de produtos hortícolas agrega valor à matéria-prima e são convenientes ao consumidor, devido à facilidade de preparo e consumo. O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver uma embalagem ativa para alface americana (Lactuca sativa L. minimamente processada visando o aumento da vida útil. Foi definida uma metodologia de processamento mínimo e a qualidade do produto foi acompanhada através de avaliação sensorial, físico-química e microbiológica. As cabeças de alface foram desfolhadas, selecionadas, pré-lavadas, sanificadas (100 ppm de cloro ativo por 15 minutos e centrifugadas. As folhas foram acondicionadas em potes de

  11. Hybridization rates between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative (L. serriola) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Luigi; Felber, François; Guadagnuolo, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression between crops and wild relatives may have important evolutionary and ecological consequences such as gene swamping or increased invasiveness. In the present study, we investigated hybridization under field conditions between crop lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative prickly lettuce (L. serriola), two cross-compatible, predominantly autogamous and insect pollinated species. In 2003 and 2004, we estimated the rates of hybridization between L. sativa and L. serriola in close-to-reality field experiments carried out in two locations of Northern Switzerland. Seeds set by the experimental wild plants were collected and sown (44 352 in 2003 and 252 345 in 2004). Progeny was screened morphologically for detecting natural hybrids. Prior to the experiment, specific RAPD markers were used to confirm that morphological characters were reliable for hybrid identification. Hybridization occurred up to the maximal distance tested (40 m), and hybridization rates varied between 0 to 26%, decreasing with distance. More than 80% of the wild plants produced at least one hybrid (incidence of hybridization, IH) at 0 m and 1 m. It equaled 4 to 5% at 40 m. In sympatric crop-wild populations, cross-pollination between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative has to be seen as the rule rather than the exception for short distances.

  12. Volatiles emitted by Bacillus sp. BCT9 act as growth modulating agents on Lactuca sativa seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincheira, Paola; Parra, Leonardo; Mutis, Ana; Parada, Maribel; Quiroz, Andrés

    2017-10-01

    Chemical products are applied during horticulture to increase food production, but the environmental problems resulting from these applications have led to a search for more sustainable products. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) demonstrating plant growth promoter (PGP) activity released by bacterial species have emerged as alternatives, but their effects on Lactuca sativa growth are unknown. In this study, VOCs released by Bacillus sp. BCT9 cultures grown in different media (Methyl Red & Voges Proskauer, Murashige & Skoog and nutrient media) at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 0.7 (measured as the absorbance, λ=600nm) were tested to evaluate their activity as growth inducers of L. sativa after 10days of exposure. Lower concentrations of BCT9 increased root length, and higher concentrations induced shoot length and lateral root length. The dry weight and number of lateral roots increased similarly, independent of concentration, for VOCs produced in all culture media. BCT9 cultures grown in Methyl Red & Voges Proskauer medium as bioactive compounds with or without lanolin. These VOCs increased shoot length, root length and dry weight at low concentrations, independent of the presence of lanolin. Lateral root length increased with the application of 2-nonanone (50ppm) and 2-undecanone (0.05ppm). Based on these results, the use of bioactive volatiles as growth inducers of horticultural species represents an alternative or complementary strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Internalization of Murine Norovirus 1 by Lactuca sativa during Irrigation ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Jin, Yan; Sims, Tom; Kniel, Kalmia E.

    2011-01-01

    Romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was grown hydroponically or in soil and challenged with murine norovirus 1 (MNV) under two conditions: one mimicking a severe one-time contamination event and another mimicking a lower level of contamination occurring over time. In each condition, lettuce was challenged with MNV delivered at the roots. In the first case, contamination occurred on day one with 5 × 108 reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) U/ml MNV in nutrient buffer, and irrigation water was replaced with virus-free buffer every day for another 4 days. In the second case, contamination with 5 × 105 RT-qPCR U/ml MNV (freshly prepared) occurred every day for 5 days. Virus had a tendency to adsorb to soil particles, with a small portion suspended in nutrient buffer; e.g., ∼8 log RT-qPCR U/g MNV was detected in soil during 5 days of challenge with virus inoculums of 5 × 108 RT-qPCR U/ml at day one, but sativa. PMID:21296944

  14. Parasitos em alfaces (Lactuca sativa de mercados e feiras livres de Lages - Santa Catarina = Lettuces (Lactuca sativa parasites in markets and free fairs from Lages - Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quadros, Rosiléia Marinho de

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a contaminação por parasitos de interesse em Saúde Pública em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas no município de Lages, Santa Catarina. Materiais e Métodos: Foi utilizado um processo de amostragem intencional, selecionando-se oito supermercados e duas feiras, de acordo com a abrangência e volume de vendas desses estabelecimentos para a cidade. Foram processadas 122 amostras de alfaces, pelas técnicas de sedimentação espontânea (Lutz, centrífugo-flutuação em sulfato de zinco (Faust, centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sacarose (Sheather e coloração de Ziehl Neelsen modificada. Resultados: O índice de parasitismo foi de 88,5% (108/122 com 77% (94/122 e 11,5% (14/122 para as amostras de supermercados e de feiras livres, respectivamente. A técnica de Lutz detectou 46,7% (57/122 de alfaces parasitadas; Sheather e Faust evidenciaram 31,1% (38/122 e 10,6% (13/122 de alfaces com ovos e/ou oocistos de parasitos, respectivamente. Predominaram os gêneros Eimeria, Giardia e Entamoeba. Conclusões: As amostras analisadas apresentaram baixos padrões higiênicos, necessitando de vigilância sanitária mais atuante na fiscalização de todas as etapas do processo produtivo de hortaliças

  15. Effects of simulated acidic rain on yields of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa, Triticum aestivum and Medicago sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L.S.; Gmur, N.F.; Mancini, D.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine effects to simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences among means that differed by less than 10%. Simulated rainfalls of 2.5, 25, 63, 398, 100 and 2512 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 5.6, 4.6, 4.2, 3.4, 3.0 and 2.6, respectively) decreased root yields (fresh mass) of radishes 26, 42, 37, 41, 66 and 73% compared with plants not exposed to rainfalls, Similar reductions were present in radish shoot fresh mass, leaf area, and root diameter. Fresh mass yields of lettuce plants exposed to 100, 794 and 1995 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 4.0, 3.1 and 2.7, respectively) were 11, 10 and 14%, respectively, below heads of plants not exposed to rainfalls. Yields of plants exposed to simulated rainfalls of 2.0 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 5.7) were similar to plants not exposed to rainfalls. Although visible foliar injury occurred to lettuce, this injury was present only on wrapper leaves and would not affect marketable quality. Yields of wheat which were applied during anthesis and caryopsis development were not influenced by exposure to 46 simulated rainfalls even as high as 1996 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 2.7). Alfalfa plants exhibited no overall differences in fresh mass of forage among treatments even after 57 simulated rainfalls of 1996 ..mu..eq H/sup +/ 1/sup -1/ (pH 2.7) over 105 days. 22 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

  16. Formation of seed productivity in lettuce Lactuca sativa var. secalina L. depending on the form of inflorescence habitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Лещук

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is explained the essence of the formation of seed production of lettuce Lactuca sativa var. secalina L. depending on the form of the inflorescence habitus, which formed during the different areas of plant nutrition. It is substantiated the mechanism of seed formation on different parts of the inflorescence of female plant with identification of it’s sowing quality. It is developed the agrotehnologcal measures aimed at improving the productivity of lettuce seed by overcoming its matrical heteroquality

  17. Formation of seed productivity in lettuce Lactuca sativa var. secalina L. depending on the form of inflorescence habitus

    OpenAIRE

    Н. В. Лещук

    2009-01-01

    It is explained the essence of the formation of seed production of lettuce Lactuca sativa var. secalina L. depending on the form of the inflorescence habitus, which formed during the different areas of plant nutrition. It is substantiated the mechanism of seed formation on different parts of the inflorescence of female plant with identification of it’s sowing quality. It is developed the agrotehnologcal measures aimed at improving the productivity of lettuce seed by overcoming its matrical he...

  18. Phytohormone profile in Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea plants grown under Zn deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-León, Eloy; Albacete, Alfonso; Torre-González, Alejandro de la; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2016-10-01

    Phytohormones, structurally diverse compounds, are involved in multiple processes within plants, such as controlling plant growth and stress response. Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants and its deficiency causes large economic losses in crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the role of phytohormones in the Zn-deficiency response of two economically important species, i.e. Lactuca sativa and Brassica oleracea. For this, these two species were grown hydroponically with different Zn-application rates: 10 μM Zn as control and 0.1 μM Zn as deficiency treatment and phytohormone concentration was determined by U-HPLC-MS. Zn deficiency resulted in a substantial loss of biomass in L. sativa plants that was correlated with a decline in growth-promoting hormones such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), and gibberellins (GAs). However these hormones increased or stabilized their concentrations in B. oleracea and could help to maintain the biomass in this species. A lower concentration of stress-signaling hormones such as ethylene precursor aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and also CKs might be involved in Zn uptake in L. sativa while a rise in GA4, isopentenyl adenine (iP), and ACC and a fall in JA and SA might contribute to a better Zn-utilization efficiency (ZnUtE), as observed in B. oleracea plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Elucidating the genetic basis of antioxidant status in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damerum, Annabelle; Selmes, Stacey L; Biggi, Gaia F; Clarkson, Graham Jj; Rothwell, Steve D; Truco, Maria José; Michelmore, Richard W; Hancock, Robert D; Shellcock, Connie; Chapman, Mark A; Taylor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    A diet rich in phytonutrients from fruit and vegetables has been acknowledged to afford protection against a range of human diseases, but many of the most popular vegetables are low in phytonutrients. Wild relatives of crops may contain allelic variation for genes determining the concentrations of these beneficial phytonutrients, and therefore understanding the genetic basis of this variation is important for breeding efforts to enhance nutritional quality. In this study, lettuce recombinant inbred lines, generated from a cross between wild and cultivated lettuce (Lactuca serriola and Lactuca sativa, respectively), were analysed for antioxidant (AO) potential and important phytonutrients including carotenoids, chlorophyll and phenolic compounds. When grown in two environments, 96 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for these nutritional traits: 4 for AO potential, 2 for carotenoid content, 3 for total chlorophyll content and 87 for individual phenolic compounds (two per compound on average). Most often, the L. serriola alleles conferred an increase in total AOs and metabolites. Candidate genes underlying these QTL were identified by BLASTn searches; in several cases, these had functions suggesting involvement in phytonutrient biosynthetic pathways. Analysis of a QTL on linkage group 3, which accounted for >30% of the variation in AO potential, revealed several candidate genes encoding multiple MYB transcription factors which regulate flavonoid biosynthesis and flavanone 3-hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol, which are known to have powerful AO activity. Follow-up quantitative RT-PCR of these candidates revealed that 5 out of 10 genes investigated were significantly differentially expressed between the wild and cultivated parents, providing further evidence of their potential involvement in determining the contrasting phenotypes. These results offer exciting opportunities to improve the nutritional

  20. Production and characterization of cyanocobalamin-enriched lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown using hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Ohishi, Noriharu; Hatanaka, Yuka; Takenaka, Shigeo; Nishihara, Eiji; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2013-04-24

    When lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) grown for 30 days in hydroponic culture were treated with various concentrations of cyanocobalamin for 24 h, its content in their leaves increased significantly from nondetectable to 164.6 ± 74.7 ng/g fresh weight. This finding indicated that consumption of only two or three of these fresh leaves is sufficient to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance for adults of 2.4 μg/day. Analyses using a cobalamin-dependent Escherichia coli 215 bioautogram and LC/ESI-MS/MS demonstrated that the cyanocobalamin absorbed from the nutrient solutions by the leaves did not alter any other compounds such as coenzymes and inactive corrinoids. Gel filtration indicated that most (86%) of the cyanocobalamin in the leaves was recovered in the free cyanocobalamin fractions. These results indicated that cyanocobalamin-enriched lettuce leaves would be an excellent source of free cyanocobalamin, particularly for strict vegetarians or elderly people with food-bound cobalamin malabsorption.

  1. Differential Responses of Two Lactuca sativa Varieties to Bicarbonate-Induced Iron Deficiency

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    Mohamed Chebbi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron chlorosis induced by bicarbonate is very common in calcareous soils, where bicarbonate (HCO3- ions are present at high concentrations. In this study, morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of two Lactuca sativa varieties (Romaine and Vista to bicarbonate induced iron deficiency were investigated. The culture was conducted on nutrient solution containing 5 µM Fe and 10 mM NaHCO3, in a growth chamber with controlled conditions. After 14 days of bicarbonate treatment, the two varieties seedling showed a slight yellowing of young leaves associated with a significant decline of plant biomass, leaf number and area. Furthermore, the concentrations of the nutrient elements (potassium, magnesium, iron and calcium in leaves and roots of two lettuce varieties were modified. In roots of bicarbonate treated plants, the Fe-chelate reductase activity was increased as compared to control in both varieties. PEPC activity was enhanced only in Vista variety. Moreover, Fe deficiency induced a small change in the photosynthetic parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence, especially in Romaine variety. These changes are accompanied by decreases in ribulose 1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco activity. These findings indicated that Vista variety could survive at low iron supply.

  2. Evaluation of response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. to temperature and light stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Tabit Shaban

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of irrigation water temperature and shading on the rate of photosynthesis and transpiration in four varieties of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. – green foliage (‘Salakis’ and ‘Estony’ and red foliage (‘Lollo Rossa’ and ‘Nika’. During the production of seedlings in the greenhouse, two irrigation water temperature regimes (12 and 20°C were applied. After transplanting in the field plants were grown under three lighting systems (100, 70, and 50% of lighting in the open. The rates of photosynthesis and transpiration were measured at the end of the greenhouse period and 14 days after shading in the field using a Li 6400 infrared gas analyzer. In most varieties, cooling of the irrigation water was not found to have an effect on the rate of photosynthesis. Plants of all the varieties responded to the decrease in irrigation water temperature and to strong shading by reducing transpiration and increasing the water use efficiency. The ‘Salakis’ and ‘Estony’ plants have shown the best adaptability to the changing conditions and therefore they could be used successfully in the practice of extending vegetative growth.

  3. Effects of Jatropha curcas oil in Lactuca sativa root tip bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Vieira, Larissa F; Botelho, Carolina M; Laviola, Bruno G; Palmieri, Marcel J; Praça-Fontes, Milene M

    2014-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) is important for biofuel production and as a feed ingredient for animal. However, the presence of phorbol esters in the oil and cake renders the seeds toxic. The toxicity of J. curcas oil is currently assessed by testing in animals, leading to their death. The identification of toxic and nontoxic improved varieties is important for the safe use of J. curcas seeds and byproducts to avoid their environmental toxicity. Hence, the aim of this study was to propose a short-term bioassay using a plant as a model to screen the toxicity of J. curcas oil without the need to sacrifice any animals. The toxicity of J. curcas oil was evident in germination, root elongation and chromosomal aberration tests in Lactuca sativa. It was demonstrated that J. curcas seeds contain natural compounds that exert phyto-, cyto- and genotoxic effects on lettuce, and that phorbol esters act as aneugenic agents, leading to the formation of sticky chromosomes and c-metaphase cells. In conclusion, the tests applied have shown reproducibility, which is important to verify the extent of detoxification and to determine toxic doses, thus reducing the numbers of animals that would be used for toxicity tests.

  4. Effects of Jatropha curcas oil in Lactuca sativa root tip bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LARISSA F. ANDRADE-VIEIRA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae is important for biofuel production and as a feed ingredient for animal. However, the presence of phorbol esters in the oil and cake renders the seeds toxic. The toxicity of J. curcas oil is currently assessed by testing in animals, leading to their death. The identification of toxic and nontoxic improved varieties is important for the safe use of J. curcas seeds and byproducts to avoid their environmental toxicity. Hence, the aim of this study was to propose a short-term bioassay using a plant as a model to screen the toxicity of J. curcas oil without the need to sacrifice any animals. The toxicity of J. curcas oil was evident in germination, root elongation and chromosomal aberration tests in Lactuca sativa. It was demonstrated that J. curcas seeds contain natural compounds that exert phyto-, cyto- and genotoxic effects on lettuce, and that phorbol esters act as aneugenic agents, leading to the formation of sticky chromosomes and c-metaphase cells. In conclusion, the tests applied have shown reproducibility, which is important to verify the extent of detoxification and to determine toxic doses, thus reducing the numbers of animals that would be used for toxicity tests.

  5. Ecotoxicological impact of two soil remediation treatments in Lactuca sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rede, Diana; Santos, Lúcia H M L M; Ramos, Sandra; Oliva-Teles, Filipe; Antão, Cristina; Sousa, Susana R; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been identified as environmental emerging pollutants and are present in different compartments, including soils. Chemical remediation showed to be a good and suitable approach for soil remediation, though the knowledge in their impact for terrestrial organisms is still limited. Therefore, in this work, two different chemical remediation treatments (Fenton oxidation and nanoremediation) were applied to a soil contaminated with an environmental representative concentration of ibuprofen (3 ng g(-1)). The phytotoxic impact of a traditional soil remediation treatment (Fenton oxidation) and of a new and more sustainable approach for soil remediation (nanoremediation using green nano-scale zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs)) was evaluated in Lactuca sativa seeds. Percentage of seed germination, root elongation, shoot length and leaf length were considered as endpoints to assess the possible acute phytotoxicity of the soil remediation treatments as well as of the ibuprofen contaminated soil. Both chemical remediation treatments showed to have a negative impact in the germination and development of lettuce seeds, exhibiting a reduction up to 45% in the percentage of seed germination and a decrease around 80% in root elongation comparatively to the contaminated soil. These results indicate that chemical soil remediation treatments could be more prejudicial for terrestrial organisms than contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goularte, L.; Martins, C.G.; Morales-Aizpurua, I.C.; Destro, M.T.; Franco, B.D.G.M.; Vizeu, D.M.; Hutzler, B.W.; Landgraf, M.

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D 10 -values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage

  7. Determination of Profenofos Pesticidal Residue in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. by Gas Chromatographic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Alen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The determination of profenofos pesticidal residue in the lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. by using gas chromatography using flame photometric detector (FPD had been investigated. The lettuce was collected from Padang Luar area, Agam distric, West Sumatera. Sample for determination of profenofos residue divided into three groups: unwashed (A, washed with water (B, and washed with detergent (C. Maceration with sonication was used for the extraction using ethylacetateas a solvent. The results showed that profenofos pesticide residue in sample A, B and C were 0.204, 0.080 and 0.061 ppm, respectively. These profenofos pesticidal residue are over than the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL that established by The Japan Food Chemical Research Foundation (0.05 ppm even though World Health Organization (WHO has not established Maximum Residue Limits (MRL profenofos on lettuce. Based on the statistical analysis one-way method (Anova using SPSS 20.0 showed that there was a significant concentrations difference between lettuce A from lettuce B and lettuce C with p < 0.05.

  8. Chryseobacterium formosense sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of Lactuca sativa L. (garden lettuce).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chiu-Chung; Kämpfer, Peter; Shen, Fo-Ting; Lai, Wei-An; Arun, A B

    2005-01-01

    A yellow-pigmented bacterial strain (CC-H3-2T), isolated from the rhizosphere of Lactuca sativa L. (garden lettuce) in Taiwan, was investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The cells were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and non-spore-forming. Phylogenetic analyses using the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate indicated that the organism belongs to the genus Chryseobacterium, with the highest sequence similarity to the type strains of Chryseobacterium indoltheticum (97.7 %), Chryseobacterium scophthalmum (97.5 %), Chryseobacterium joostei (97.2 %) and Chryseobacterium defluvii (97.2 %). The major whole-cell fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (52.2 %) and iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed levels of only 27.4 % to C. scophthalmum, 27.1 % to C. indoltheticum, 14.1 % to C. joostei and 7.8 % to C. defluvii. DNA-DNA relatedness and biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties demonstrate that strain CC-H3-2T represents a novel species, for which the name Chryseobacterium formosense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-H3-2T (=CCUG 49271T=CIP 108367T).

  9. Carotenoids of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown on soil enriched with spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Rebeca; Baptista, Paula; Cunha, Sara; Pereira, José Alberto; Casal, Susana

    2012-02-07

    The impact of spent coffee grounds on carotenoid and chlorophyll content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) was evaluated. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted with spent coffee amounts ranging from 0% to 20% (v/v). All evaluated pigments increased proportionally to spent coffee amounts. Lutein and β-carotene levels increased up to 90% and 72%, respectively, while chlorophylls increased up to 61%. Biomass was also improved in the presence of 2.5% to 10% spent coffee, decreasing for higher amounts. Nevertheless, all plants were characterized by lower organic nitrogen content than the control ones, inversely to the spent coffee amounts, pointing to possible induced stress. Collected data suggests that plants nutritional features, with regards to these bioactive compounds, can be improved by the presence of low amounts of spent coffee grounds (up to 10%). This observation is particularly important because soil amendment with spent coffee grounds is becoming increasingly common within domestic agriculture. Still, further studies on the detailed influence of spent coffee bioactive compounds are mandatory, particularly regarding caffeine.

  10. Carotenoids of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. Grown on Soil Enriched with Spent Coffee Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Casal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of spent coffee grounds on carotenoid and chlorophyll content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata was evaluated. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted with spent coffee amounts ranging from 0% to 20% (v/v. All evaluated pigments increased proportionally to spent coffee amounts. Lutein and β-carotene levels increased up to 90% and 72%, respectively, while chlorophylls increased up to 61%. Biomass was also improved in the presence of 2.5% to 10% spent coffee, decreasing for higher amounts. Nevertheless, all plants were characterized by lower organic nitrogen content than the control ones, inversely to the spent coffee amounts, pointing to possible induced stress. Collected data suggests that plants nutritional features, with regards to these bioactive compounds, can be improved by the presence of low amounts of spent coffee grounds (up to 10%. This observation is particularly important because soil amendment with spent coffee grounds is becoming increasingly common within domestic agriculture. Still, further studies on the detailed influence of spent coffee bioactive compounds are mandatory, particularly regarding caffeine.

  11. The Influence of biol in the crop yield of Lactuca sativa L. variety Iceberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomboza-Tamaquiza Pablo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to assess the influence of biol enriched with efficient micro-organisms, in the ecological cultivation of Lactuca sativa L (lettuce variety "Iceberg". The field test was carried out on the farm of Querochaca, Faculty of Sciences Agriculture, of the Technical University of Ambato. The studied factors were doses of biol (2%, 4% and 6% and frequencies of application (8 and 15 days, I know used the experimental design of complete blocks at random, with factorial arrangement of 3x2 1 with three repetitions. We evaluated: plant height, diameter of the main stem, days to harvest, weight and diameter of the bud commercial, performance in kg/plot neta and performance in kg/experimental unit, conducted the significance test of Duncan to 5%. The results showed that the dose of 6 per cent applied every 15 days treatment D3F2, contributed to the larger diameter of the bud commercial (25.9 cm; the greater weight of cogollo commercial (1.14 kg and the higher performance (549 kg/experimental unit. This suggests that the implementation of biol can be an important ecological alternative to fertilize organic farming as the lettuce by reducing the use of fertilizers in chemical synthesis and production costs.

  12. Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goularte, L.; Martins, C.G.; Morales-Aizpurua, I.C.; Destro, M.T.; Franco, B.D.G.M.; Vizeu, D.M.; Hutzler, B.W.; Landgraf, M. E-mail: landgraf@usp.br

    2004-10-01

    The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D{sub 10}-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage.

  13. Biochemical study of leaf browning in minimally processed leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degl'Innocenti, E; Guidi, L; Pardossi, A; Tognoni, F

    2005-12-28

    A series of biochemical parameters, including the concentration of total ascorbic acid (ASA(tot)) and the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidases (PODs), was investigated during cold storage (72 h at 4 degrees C in the dark) in fresh-cut (minimally processed) leaves of two lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. acephala) cultivars differing in the susceptibility to tissue browning: Green Salade Bowl (GSB), susceptible, and Red Salade Bowl (RSB), resistant. The two cultivars showed differences also at the biochemical level. The content in ASA(tot) increased in RSB, as a consequence of increased DHA concentration; conversely, ASA(tot) diminished in GSB, in which ASA was not detectable after 72 h of storage, thus suggesting a disappearance of ascorbate (both ASA and DHA) into nonactive forms. The antioxidant capacity (as determined by using FRAP analysis) decreased significantly during storage in RSB, while a strong increase was observed in GSB. PAL activity increased soon after processing reaching a maximum by 3 h, then it declined to a relatively constant value in RSB, while in GSB it showed a tendency to decrease in the first few hours from harvest and processing. POD activity, at least for chlorogenic acid, increased significantly during storage only in GSB.

  14. Uptake of perfluorinated alkyl acids by hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felizeter, Sebastian; McLachlan, Michael S; de Voogt, Pim

    2012-11-06

    An uptake study was carried out to assess the potential human exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) through the ingestion of vegetables. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was grown in PFAA-spiked nutrient solutions at four different concentrations, ranging from 10 ng/L to 10 μg/L. Eleven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and three perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. At the end of the experiment, the major part of the total mass of each of the PFAAs (except the short-chain, C4-C7, PFCAs) taken up by plants appeared to be retained in the nonedible part, viz. the roots. Root concentration factors (RCF), foliage/root concentration factors (FRCF), and transpiration stream concentration factors (TSCF) were calculated. For the long chained PFAAs, RCF values were highest, whereas FRCF were lowest. This indicates that uptake by roots is likely governed by sorption of PFAAs to lipid-rich root solids. Translocation from roots to shoots is restricted and highly depending on the hydrophobicity of the compounds. Although the TSCF show that longer-chain PFCAs (e.g., perfluorododecanoic acid) get better transferred from the nutrient solution to the foliage than shorter-chain PFCAs (e.g., perfluoroheptanoic acid), the major fraction of longer-chain PFCAs is found in roots due to additional adsorption from the spiked solution. Due to the strong electron-withdrawing effect of the fluorine atoms the role of the negative charge of the dissociated PFAAs is likely insignificant.

  15. Human Norovirus and Its Surrogates Induce Plant Immune Response in Arabidopsis thaliana and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markland, Sarah M; Bais, Harsh; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2017-08-01

    Human norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide with the majority of outbreaks linked to fresh produce and leafy greens. It is essential that we thoroughly understand the type of relationship and interactions that take place between plants and human norovirus to better utilize control strategies to reduce transmission of norovirus in the field onto plants harvested for human consumption. In this study the expression of gene markers for the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) plant defense pathways was measured and compared in romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 plants that were inoculated with Murine Norovirus-1, Tulane Virus, human norovirus GII.4, or Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (control). Genes involving both the SA and JA pathways were expressed in both romaine lettuce and A. thaliana for all three viruses, as well as controls. Studies, including gene expression of SA- and JA-deficient A. thaliana mutant lines, suggest that the JA pathway is more likely involved in the plant immune response to human norovirus. This research provides the first pieces of information regarding how foodborne viruses interact with plants in the preharvest environment.

  16. Semi-High Throughput Screening for Potential Drought-tolerance in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Germplasm Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knepper, Caleb; Mou, Beiquan

    2015-04-17

    This protocol describes a method by which a large collection of the leafy green vegetable lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) germplasm was screened for likely drought-tolerance traits. Fresh water availability for agricultural use is a growing concern across the United States as well as many regions of the world. Short-term drought events along with regulatory intervention in the regulation of water availability coupled with the looming threat of long-term climate shifts that may lead to reduced precipitation in many important agricultural regions has increased the need to hasten the development of crops adapted for improved water use efficiency in order to maintain or expand production in the coming years. This protocol is not meant as a step-by-step guide to identifying at either the physiological or molecular level drought-tolerance traits in lettuce, but rather is a method developed and refined through the screening of thousands of different lettuce varieties. The nature of this screen is based in part on the streamlined measurements focusing on only three water-stress indicators: leaf relative water content, wilt, and differential plant growth following drought-stress. The purpose of rapidly screening a large germplasm collection is to narrow the candidate pool to a point in which more intensive physiological, molecular, and genetic methods can be applied to identify specific drought-tolerant traits in either the lab or field. Candidates can also be directly incorporated into breeding programs as a source of drought-tolerance traits.

  17. Assessment of genetic diversity in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) germplasm using RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shubhangi; Kumar, Pankaj; Gambhir, Geetika; Kumar, Ramesh; Srivastava, D K

    2018-01-01

    The importance of germplasm characterization is an important link between the conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources in various breeding programmes. In the present study, genetic variability and relationships among 25 Lactuca sativa L. genotypes were tested using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers. A total of 45 random decamer oligonucleotide primers were examined to generate RAPD profiles, out of these reproducible patterns were obtained with 22 primers. A total of 87 amplicon were obtained, out of which all were polymorphic and 7 were unique bands. The level of polymorphism across genotypes was 100% as revealed by RAPD. Genetic similarity matrix, based on Jaccard's coefficients ranged from 13.7 to 84.10% indicating a wide genetic base. Dendrogram was constructed by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages method. RAPD technology could be useful for identification of different accessions as well as assessing the genetic similarity among different genotypes of lettuce. The study reveals the limited genetic base and the needs to diversify using new sources from the germplasm.

  18. Zn-biofortification enhanced nitrogen metabolism and photorespiration process in green leafy vegetable Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrameda-Medina, Yurena; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Ruiz, Juan M; Blasco, Begoña

    2017-04-01

    Excessive rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizers may result in elevated concentrations of nitrate (NO 3 - ) in plants. Considering that many programs of biofortification with trace elements are being performed, it has become important to study how the application of these elements affects plant physiology and, particularly, N utilization in leaf crops. The main objective of the present study was to determine whether the NO 3 - accumulation and the nitrogen use efficiency was affected by the application of different doses of Zn in Lactuca sativa plants. Zn doses in the range 80-100 µmol L -1 produced an increase in Zn concentration provoking a decrease of NO 3 - concentration and increase of the nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, as well as the photorespiration processes. As result, we observed an increase in reduced N, total N concentration and N utilization efficiency. Consequently, at a dose of 80 µmol L -1 of Zn, the amino acid concentration increased significantly. Adequate Zn fertilization is an important critical player in lettuce, especially at a dose of 80 µmol L -1 of Zn, because it could result in an increase in the Zn concentration, a reduction of NO 3 - levels and an increase the concentration of essential amino acids, with all of them having beneficial properties for the human diet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Phytotoxicity of 15 common pharmaceuticals on the germination of Lactuca sativa and photosynthesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Ma Rosa; Muñiz, Selene; Val, Jonatan; Navarro, Enrique

    2016-11-01

    Pharmaceuticals reach terrestrial environments through the application of treated wastewaters and biosolids to agricultural soils. We have investigated the toxicity of 15 common pharmaceuticals, classified as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), blood lipid-lowering agents, β-blockers and antibiotics, in two photosynthetic organisms. Twelve pharmaceuticals caused inhibitory effects on the radicle and hypocotyl elongation of Lactuca sativa seeds. The EC 50 values obtained were in the range of 170-5656 mg L -1 in the case of the radicle and 188-4558 mg L -1 for the hypocotyl. Propranolol was the most toxic drug for both root and hypocotyl elongation, followed by the NSAIDs, then gemfibrozil and tetracycline. Other effects, such as root necrosis, inhibition of root growth and curly hairs, were detected. However, even at the highest concentrations tested (3000 mg L -1 ), seed germination was not affected. NSAIDs decreased the photosynthetic yield of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, but only salicylic acid showed EC 50 values below 1000 mg L -1 . The first effects detected at low concentrations, together with the concentrations found in environmental samples, indicate that the use of biosolids and wastewaters containing pharmaceuticals should be regulated and their compositions assessed in order to prevent medium- and long-term impacts on agricultural soils and crops.

  20. Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goularte, L.; Martins, C. G.; Morales-Aizpurúa, I. C.; Destro, M. T.; Franco, B. D. G. M.; Vizeu, D. M.; Hutzler, B. W.; Landgraf, M.

    2004-09-01

    The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D10-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage.

  1. A rapid and efficient in vitro regeneration system for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Isabel; Pogrebnyak, Natalia; Raskin, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Successful biotechnological improvement of crop plants requires a reliable and efficient in vitro regeneration system. Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.), one the most important vegetable crops worldwide, is strongly genotype-dependent in terms of regeneration capacity, limiting the potential for biotechnological improvement of cultivars which show recalcitrance under currently available protocols. The effect of different nutrient sources, plant hormone combinations and activated charcoal supplementation on shoot induction efficiency was evaluated on the cultivar 'RSL NFR', which had previously shown poor regeneration efficiency. Multiple shoot organogenesis from cotyledon explants was recorded at the highest frequency and speed on Murashige and Skoog regeneration medium supplemented with 200 mg/l of activated charcoal, 3% sucrose, 10 mg/l benzylaminopurine and 0.5 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid, which induced shoots through direct regeneration in 90.8 ± 7.9% of explants. High shoot induction efficiency was also observed, albeit not quantified, when using this medium on some other cultivars. This activated charcoal-containing regeneration medium might offer a rapid and efficient option for direct shoot induction in some lettuce genotypes that do not respond well to common lettuce regeneration protocols. This is also the first report of the effect of activated charcoal in lettuce tissue culture.

  2. Role of Ethylene in Lactuca sativa cv ;Grand Rapids' Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, F B

    1986-07-01

    Promotion of thermoinhibited (30 degrees C) lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv ;Grand Rapids') seed germination by ethylene is similar to the action of the gas in other hormonal systems. Ethylene was more active than propylene and ethane was inactive. An inhibitor of ethylene production, aminoethoxy-vinylglycine, reduced ethylene evolution and germination. Inhibitors of ethylene action such as, 5-methyl-7-chloro-4-ethoxycarbonylmethoxy-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, 2,5-norbornadiene, and silver thiosulfate inhibited germination and the effect was reversed by the addition of ethylene to the gas phase. The action of ethylene appears to be due to the promotion of radial cell expansion in the embryonic hypocotyl. The action of N6-benzyladenine and fusiccocin, which also overcome thermoinhibition, appears to be due to a promotion of hypocotyl elongation. None of the germination promoters studied appeared to function by lowering the mechanical resistance of the endosperm to embryonic growth. Data presented here are consistent with the view that ethylene plays a role in lettuce seed germination under thermoinhibited and normal conditions.

  3. Efficient and stable transformation of Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco (lettuce) plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamoto, Hirosuke; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asao, Hiroshi; Okumura, Satoru; Takase, Hisabumi; Hattori, Masahira; Yokota, Akiho; Tomizawa, Ken-Ichi

    2006-04-01

    Transgenic plastids offer unique advantages in plant biotechnology, including high-level foreign protein expression. However, broad application of plastid genome engineering in biotechnology has been largely hampered by the lack of plastid transformation systems for major crops. Here we describe the development of a plastid transformation system for lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco. The transforming DNA carries a spectinomycin-resistance gene (aadA) under the control of lettuce chloroplast regulatory expression elements, flanked by two adjacent lettuce plastid genome sequences allowing its targeted insertion between the rbcL and accD genes. On average, we obtained 1 transplastomic lettuce plant per bombardment. We show that lettuce leaf chloroplasts can express transgene-encoded GFP to approximately 36% of the total soluble protein. All transplastomic T0 plants were fertile and the T1 progeny uniformly showed stability of the transgene in the chloroplast genome. This system will open up new possibilities for the efficient production of edible vaccines, pharmaceuticals, and antibodies in plants.

  4. Evaluation of the plant growth-promoting activity of Pseudomonas nitroreducens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Cao Son; Lee, Hyeri; Lee, Won Je; Lee, Seok Jin; Chung, Namhyun; Han, Juhyeong; Kim, Jongyun; Hong, Suk-Whan; Lee, Hojoung

    2018-06-01

    Pseudomonas nitroreducens: strain IHB B 13561 (PnIHB) enhances the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and Lactuca sativa via the stimulation of cell development and nitrate absorption. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant development through various mechanisms; they improve the uptake of soil resources by plants to greatly promote plant growth. Here, we used Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings and Lactuca sativa to screen the growth enhancement activities of a purified PGPR, Pseudomonas nitroreducens strain IHB B 13561 (PnIHB). When cocultivated with PnIHB, both species of plants exhibited notably improved growth, particularly in regard to biomass. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated high expression levels of the nitrate transporter genes, especially NRT2.1, which plays a major role in the high-affinity nitrate transport system in roots. Moreover, enhanced activity of the cyclin-B1 promoter was observed when wild-type 'Columbia-0' Arabidopsis seedlings were exposed to PnIHB, whereas upregulation of cyclin-B also occurred in the inoculated lettuce seedlings. Overall, these results suggest that PnIHB improves A. thaliana and L. sativa growth via specific pathways involved in the promotion of cell development and enhancement of nitrate uptake.

  5. Effect of low dose irradiation of 60Co γ-rays on seed germination, seedling growth and enzymes activity of Lactuca sativa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiuqing; Zhang Tie

    2012-01-01

    The seeds of Lactuca sativa were irradiated by different doses (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 Gy) of 60 Co γ-rays. The effects of low dose irradiation on seed germination, seedling growth and enzymes activity were investigated. The results indicated that low dose irradiation could promote germination rate, germinating viability, germination rate in the field, root length and height of seedling. The suitable dosage for low dose irradiation for Lactuca sativa was 30 Gy. POD activity after irradiation treatment in the range of 10 to 50 Gy and CAT activity after irradiation treatment in the range of 20 Gy to 40 Gy was lower than that of control. (authors)

  6. PENGARUH MACAM MULSA DAN DOSIS PUPUK KANDANG AYAM TERHADAP HASIL TANAMAN SELADA (Lactuca sativa, L.) VAR. NEW GRAND RAPID

    OpenAIRE

    Herumia, Mia; Haryono, Gembong; Susilowati, Yulia Eko

    2017-01-01

    The research on the effect of mulch kinds and the effect of chiken manure doses to the lettuce yield (Lactuca sativa, L.) var New Grand Rapid. Experiment conducted in August until October 2016. Location of experiment in Dukuhan, Sumber, Dukuh, Magelang. The latitude is 663 m. The soils regosol with pH 6,3. The research method used factorial experiment (3x4) arranged in a randomized complete block design with three blocks. The first factor is mulch kind, transparant plastic mulch, black silver...

  7. The effect of UV on photosynthesis and growth in dependence of mineral nutrition (Lactuca sativa L. and Rumex alpinus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogenrieder, A.; Doute, Y.

    1982-01-01

    A clear increase in relative sensitivity of photosynthesis to UV-B occurs with increasing mineral concentration. As expected the chlorophyll content (a + b) per leaf area of control plants initially also increases (as can easily be noticed visualy). It remains, however, the same for the third to the highest concentration. The sensitivity of Rumex alpinus is higher but less influenced by mineral supply. In case of long term experiments, however, the relative differences between control and irradiated plants decreased clearly with increasing mineral supply. In Lactuca sativa, this is the opposite effect to the situation with short term irradiation. (orig./AJ)

  8. Scientific rationale for cos lettuce growing technology Lactuca sativa var. longifolia L. in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Лещук

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientifically validated items of growing technology disclosed for cos lettuce marketable products in the conditions of Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Impact of environmental factors onto growth and development of Lactuca sativa var. longifolia L. plants. Sowing terms established for the seed of cos lettuce at field-seeded growing. Development parameters are quoted for plant productivity indices and marketable product indices for cos lettuce of national and foreign breeding. According to VCU characteristics a  typical model has been designed for the cos lettuce indices of suitability for dissemination in Ukraine.

  9. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI KALIUM NITRAT PADA MEDIA VERMIKOMPOS TERHADAP KANDUNGAN HARA DAN TRUBUS SELADA (LACTUCA SATIVA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. NAMSERNA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Effect of Potassium Nitrate Concentration in Vermicompost Medium on Nutrients Content and Shoot of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. The content of nitrogen and potassium in vermicompost generally low, i.e. less than two percent, so that still require the addition of another source to meet crop requirement. Potassium nitrate to form the ions K+ and NO3 6 after disolved in water so as to be readily available to plants. The study aims to determine the effect of the addition of potassium nitrate in the growth medium made from vermicompost to increase growth lettuce plant and know the critical level of concentration or nutrient solution electrical conductivity with the addition of potassium nitrate to the lettuce plant. Research conducted in the form of pot experiment. Experiment using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three replications. The treatment consists of 12 levels of concentration or nutrient solution electrical conductivity with the addition of potassium nitrate. The results of experiment indicated that addition of KNO3 highly significant effect on the increasing in fresh and dry weight of shoot per plant. Fresh and dry weight of shoot per plant were significantly increased in a quadratic with increasing concentrations of KNO3. The concentration of KNO3 are optimum for growth of plant shoot weight was at 12.23 g in 100l of water or electrical conductivity equivalent to 2.01 dS.m-1. The concentrations of P and K in plant shoot tissue were significantly increased linearly with the provision of KNO3. The concentration N, Ca, Mg, S, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Al and B in shoot tissue of plants is not affected KNO3.

  10. ANÁLISIS DE INCERTIDUMBRE DE UN MODELO PARA LECHUGAS (Lactuca sativa L. CULTIVADAS EN INVERNADERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineo Lorenzo López-Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Un análisis de incertidumbre para un modelo de crecimiento de un cultivo permite evaluar la variabilidad en sus parámetros y deducir una distribución de incertidumbre para cada variable que el modelo predice. Estos estudios se han practicado raramente en modelos para cultivos bajo invernadero. En el presente trabajo se presenta una metodología para llevar a cabo un análisis de incertidumbre para un modelo de un cultivo bajo invernadero y se aplica para determinar la variabilidad de los parámetros del modelo NICOLET desarrollado para explicar el crecimiento de lechugas (Lactuca sativa L.. Se definieron funciones de densidad de probabilidad para todos los parámetros del modelo y se asignaron sus valores mediante muestreo Monte Carlo, aleatorio e hipercubo latino, mediante un total de N = 2000 muestras. Posteriormente se ejecutaron 2000 simulaciones para calcular las salidas del modelo NICOLET para cada escenario. Finalmente, se analizó la distribución de las variables carbono en las vacuolas, carbono en la estructura, peso seco total y contenido de nitratos, mediante el cálculo de sus histogramas y medidas estadísticas. Las simulaciones se realizaron con el programa para análisis de incertidumbre y sensibilidad Simlab, disponible para el ambiente de programación Matlab. La variable carbono en las vacuolas presentó la mayor incertidumbre ya que su coeficiente de variación (CV en ambos muestreos, aleatorio e hipercubo latino, fue de 35.27 y 35.67 %, respectivamente, seguida del contenido de nitratos (CV = 18.16 % y CV = 19.07 %, el carbono estructural (CV = 5.52 % y CV = 5.67 % y el peso seco total (CV = 4.80 % y CV = 4.82 %.

  11. Exogenous Glycine Nitrogen Enhances Accumulation of Glycosylated Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycine, the simplest amino acid in nature and one of the most abundant free amino acids in soil, is regarded as a model nutrient in organic nitrogen studies. To date, many studies have focused on the uptake, metabolism and distribution of organic nitrogen in plants, but few have investigated the nutritional performance of plants supplied with organic nitrogen. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., one of the most widely consumed leafy vegetables worldwide, is a significant source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, ascorbic acid and tocopherols. In this study, two lettuce cultivars, Shenxuan 1 and Lollo Rossa, were hydroponically cultured in media containing 4.5, 9, or 18 mM glycine or 9 mM nitrate (control for 4 weeks, and the levels of health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity of the lettuce leaf extracts were evaluated. Glycine significantly reduced fresh weight compared to control lettuce, while 9 mM glycine significantly increased fresh weight compared to 4.5 or 18 mM glycine. Compared to controls, glycine (18 mM for Shenxuan 1; 9 mM for Lollo Rossa significantly increased the levels of most antioxidants (including total polyphenols, α-tocopherol and antioxidant activity, suggesting appropriate glycine supply promotes antioxidant accumulation and activity. Glycine induced most glycosylated quercetin derivatives and luteolin derivatives detected and decreased some phenolic acids compared to nitrate treatment. This study indicates exogenous glycine supplementation could be used strategically to promote the accumulation of health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity of hydroponically grown lettuce, which could potentially improve human nutrition.

  12. [Enteroparasite determination in Lactuca sativa from farms dedicated to its production in Pasto, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Giovanni Andrés; Benavides, Carmenza Janneth; Astaiza, Juan Manuel; Vallejo, Dario Antonio; Betancourt, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    Currently, vegetables like lettuce are widely recommended as part of the daily diet given their high nutritional value; however, while consumers feel attracted to the benefits provided by the vegetable, they may also be exposed to parasitic intestinal infections. To determine the presence or absence of enteroparasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) grown in the rural area in the municipality of Pasto, and to analyze associated factors based on the characterization of the lands. We conducted a descriptive double blind cross-sectional study. We took a total of 105 samples from 21 properties from June to December, 2013, and we processed them by sedimentation and flotation tests. Additionally, the owners were surveyed in order to obtain information about the possible variables influencing the occurrence of enteroparasites. We detected contamination in 100% of the lettuce samples and we found parasite eggs and larvae as follows: 95.25% with Entamoeba spp. cysts; 71.43% with Isospora spp. oocysts; 61.90% with Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (L3); 28.57% with Toxocara spp. eggs, and 4.76% with Eimeria spp. oocysts. Using the chi-square test we found association between Entamoeba spp. and ditches (p=0.008), dogs (p=0.008) and septic tanks (p=0.029); between Isospora spp. and compost (p=0.0001), dogs (p=0.0001) and slugs (p=0.002); between S. stercoralis and handling (p=0.003), and between Toxocara spp. and no use of biodigesters (p= 0.002). We found contamination with enteroparasites in lettuce samples from growing areas in the municipality of Pasto with animal and human sources as their main reservoirs, although others were present in the environment.

  13. RESPON DUA VARIETAS TANAMAN SELADA (Lactuca sativa L. TERHADAP MACAM NUTRISI PADA SISTEM HIDROPONIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Wasonowati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L is a common vegetables crops grown in the highland and lowlands.  A sample hydroponic lettuce cultivation provides an sources an alternative for farmers who have a narrow area, so that can server as an adequate source of income.  Providing nutrients to the two varienties of lettuce are expected to yield maximum production.  This tudy aims to determine the effect of nutrients on two varieties of lettuce plants.            The study was conducted in the greenhouse Agroekoteknologi Departement Faculty of Agriculture, University Trunojoyo Madurese from January to March 2011.  The method used was a factorial experiment based on Completely Randomized Design (CRD with three replicates consisting of two treatment factors, the first factor are two different varieties of lecctuce and the second factor are two differwnt kinds of nutrients.            The results showed that the chief varieties of butter (V1 produces the number of leaves and dry biomass is higher than the varieties of cos (V2.  Nutrition in V1 generate the number of leaves, wet biomass, dry biomass, and root length was higher than without the provision of (N0. V1 responses to nutrient hidrogroup (N1 resulted in higher leaf number than nutrition greentonik (N2, but the provision of dry biomass yield N2 higher than N1. Nutrition on V2 generate the number of leaves, wet biomass and dry biomass was higher than N0. V2 response to the provision of N1 and N2 produce the number of leaves, wet biomass, dry biomass, and root length are not significantly different.Key word : lettuce, varieties, nutrition, simple hydroponics

  14. Exogenous Glycine Nitrogen Enhances Accumulation of Glycosylated Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Cui, Xiaoxian; Zhao, Li; Guo, Doudou; Feng, Lei; Wei, Shiwei; Zhao, Chao; Huang, Danfeng

    2017-01-01

    Glycine, the simplest amino acid in nature and one of the most abundant free amino acids in soil, is regarded as a model nutrient in organic nitrogen studies. To date, many studies have focused on the uptake, metabolism and distribution of organic nitrogen in plants, but few have investigated the nutritional performance of plants supplied with organic nitrogen. Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.), one of the most widely consumed leafy vegetables worldwide, is a significant source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, ascorbic acid and tocopherols. In this study, two lettuce cultivars, Shenxuan 1 and Lollo Rossa, were hydroponically cultured in media containing 4.5, 9, or 18 mM glycine or 9 mM nitrate (control) for 4 weeks, and the levels of health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity of the lettuce leaf extracts were evaluated. Glycine significantly reduced fresh weight compared to control lettuce, while 9 mM glycine significantly increased fresh weight compared to 4.5 or 18 mM glycine. Compared to controls, glycine (18 mM for Shenxuan 1; 9 mM for Lollo Rossa) significantly increased the levels of most antioxidants (including total polyphenols, α-tocopherol) and antioxidant activity, suggesting appropriate glycine supply promotes antioxidant accumulation and activity. Glycine induced most glycosylated quercetin derivatives and luteolin derivatives detected and decreased some phenolic acids compared to nitrate treatment. This study indicates exogenous glycine supplementation could be used strategically to promote the accumulation of health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity of hydroponically grown lettuce, which could potentially improve human nutrition.

  15. Low doses of six toxicants change plant size distribution in dense populations of Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Regina G; Patama, Marjo; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2018-08-01

    Toxicants are known to have negligible or stimulatory, i.e. hormetic, effects at low doses below those that decrease the mean response of a plant population. Our earlier observations indicated that at such low toxicant doses the growth of very fast- and slow-growing seedlings is selectively altered, even if the population mean remains constant. Currently, it is not known how common these selective low-dose effects are, whether they are similar among fast- and slow-growing seedlings, and whether they occur concurrently with hormetic effects. We tested the response of Lactuca sativa in complete dose-response experiments to six different toxicants at doses that did not decrease population mean and beyond. The tested toxicants were IAA, parthenin, HHCB, 4-tert-octylphenol, glyphosate, and pelargonic acid. Each experiment consisted of 14,400-16,800 seedlings, 12-14 concentrations, 24 replicates per concentration and 50 germinated seeds per replicate. We analyzed the commonness of selective low-dose effects and explored if toxic effects and hormetic stimulation among fast- and slow-growing individuals occurred at the same concentrations as they occur at the population level. Irrespective of the observed response pattern and toxicant, selective low-dose effects were found. Toxin effects among fast-growing individuals usually started at higher doses compared to the population mean, while the opposite was found among slow-growing individuals. Very low toxin exposures tended to homogenize plant populations due to selective effects, while higher, but still hormetic doses tended to heterogenize plant populations. Although the extent of observed size segregation varied with the specific toxin tested, we conclude that a dose-dependent alteration in size distribution of a plant population may generally apply for many toxin exposures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of soil cadmium on growth, photosynthesis and quality of Raphanus sativus and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navjyot; Jhanji, Shalini

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) raises serious concerns as its accumulation in the plant not only affect the growth and quality of plant but also threaten the health of consumers. In this research, two vegetables, i.e., radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L), were planted in pots having soil treated with Cd as Cd (NO3)2 at different doses (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil ) to investigate the influence of cadmium on their growth, photosynthetic attributes and quality. Cadmium retarded plant growth as dry weight of radish roots decline by 87% and leaves by 83% following 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil application and the corresponding values for lettuce were 64 and 69% respectively. Significant reductions in various photosynthetic parameters viz., leaf area per plant, total chlorophyll, Chl a and Chl b content were also recorded with Cd applications. The Cd treatments resulted in loss of membrane integrity as revealed by significant increase in electrolyte leakage in leaves of both vegetables. There was significant increase in Cd accumulation in radish and lettuce with all applications but no visual symptoms of Cd toxicity were noticed with 25 and 50 mg Cd kg-1 soil application except for yield differences, illustrating that Cd accumulate in this crop without visual evidence of its presence. However, toxicity symptoms in the form of interveinal chlorosis of the leaf lamina, followed by necrosis and leaf rolling, were clearly evident with 100 and 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil application. Apparently, Cd causes harm due to its phytotoxic effects and high accumulation in edible parts of radish and lettuce without any visible symptoms that constitutes a substantial hazard to human health.

  17. Uptake and phytotoxic effect of benzalkonium chlorides in Lepidium sativum and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adnan Hossain; Libby, Mark; Winnick, Daniel; Palmer, John; Sumarah, Mark; Ray, Madhumita B; Macfie, Sheila M

    2018-01-15

    Cationic surfactants such as benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) are used extensively as biocides in hospitals, food processing industries, and personal care products. BACs have the potential to reach the rooting zone of crop plants and BACs might thereby enter the food chain. The two most commonly used BACs, benzyl dimethyl dodecyl ammonium chloride (BDDA) and benzyl dimethyl tetradecyl ammonium chloride (BDTA), were tested in a hydroponic system to assess the uptake by and phytotoxicity to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.). Individually and in mixture, BACs at concentrations up to 100 mg L -1 did not affect germination; however, emergent seedlings were sensitive at 1 mg L -1 for lettuce and 5 mg L -1 for garden cress. After 12 d exposure to 0.25 mg L -1 BACs, plant dry weight was reduced by 68% for lettuce and 75% for garden cress, and symptoms of toxicity (necrosis, chlorosis, wilting, etc.) were visible. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis showed the presence of BACs in the roots and shoots of both plant species. Although no conclusive relationship was established between the concentrations of six macro- or six micro-nutrients, growth inhibition or BAC uptake, N and Mg concentrations in BAC-treated lettuce were 50% lower than that of control, indicating that BACs might induce nutrient deficiency. Although bioavailability of a compound in hydroponics is significantly higher than that in soil, these results confirm the potential of BACs to harm vascular plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Germination and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) at low atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanarkel, Robert; Drew, Malcolm C.

    2002-01-01

    The response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Waldmann's Green) to low atmospheric pressure was examined during the initial 5 days of germination and emergence, and also during subsequent growth to vegetative maturity at 30 days. Growth took place inside a 66-l-volume low pressure chamber maintained at 70 kPa, and plant response was compared to that of plants in a second, matching chamber that was at ambient pressure (approximately 101 kPa) as a control. In other experiments, to determine short-term effects of low pressure transients, plants were grown at ambient pressure until maturity and then subjected to alternating periods of 24 h of low and ambient atmospheric pressures. In all treatments the partial pressure of O2 was maintained at 21 kPa (approximately the partial pressure in air at normal pressure), and the partial pressure of CO2 was in the range 66.5-73.5 Pa (about twice that in normal air) in both chambers, with the addition of CO2 during the light phase. With continuous exposure to low pressure, shoot and root growth was at least as rapid as at ambient pressure, with an overall trend towards slightly greater performance at the lower pressure. Dark respiration rates were greater at low pressure. Transient periods at low pressure decreased transpiration and increased dark respiration but only during the period of exposure to low pressure. We conclude that long-term or short-term exposure to subambient pressure (70 kPa) was without detectable detriment to vegetative growth and development.

  19. Effect of acaricidal components isolated from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) on carmine spider mite (Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Zhang, Y; Ding, W; Luo, J; Li, S; Zhang, Q

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal activity of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) extracts against carmine spider mites (Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisd.) and isolate the acaricidal components. Acaricidal activities of lettuce extracts isolated from different parts (the leaf, root and seed) using various solvents (petroleum ether, acetone and methanol) were evaluated with slide-dip bioassay and relatively high median lethal concentration (LC50) values were detected. Acetone extracts of lettuce leaves harvested in July and September were fractionated and isolated with silica gel and thin-layer chromatography. Consequently, acetone extracts of lettuce leaves harvested in July exhibited higher acaricidal activity than those harvested in September, with an LC50 value of 0.268 mg ml-1 at 72 h post-treatment. A total of 27 fractions were obtained from the acetone extract of lettuce leaves harvested in July, and mite mortalities with the 11th and 12th fractions were higher than those with the other 25 fractions (LC50: 0.751 and 1.258 mg ml-1 at 48 h post-treatment, respectively). Subsequently, active acaricidal components of the 11th fraction were identified by infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Five components were isolated from the 11th fraction, with components 11-a and 11-b showing relatively high acaricidal activities (LC50: 0.288 and 0.114 mg ml-1 at 48 h post-treatment, respectively). Component 11-a was identified as β-sitosterol. In conclusion, acetone extracts of lettuce leaves harvested in July might be used as a novel phytogenic acaricide to control mites.

  20. Evaluation of zinc oxide nanoparticles on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) growth and soil bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiangbing; Luo, Xiaosan; Wang, Yanling; Feng, Youzhi

    2018-02-01

    The wide spread of nanoparticles (NPs) has caused tremendous concerns on agricultural ecosystem. Some metallic NPs, such as zinc oxide (ZnO), can be utilized as a nano-fertilizer when used at optimal doses. However, little is known about the responses of plant development and concomitant soil bacteria community to ZnO NPs. The present pot experiment studied the impacts of different doses of ZnO NPs and bulk ZnO (0, 1, 10, 100 mg ZnO/kg), on the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and the associated rhizospheric soil bacterial community. Results showed that at a dose of 10 mg/kg, ZnO NPs and bulk ZnO, enhanced the lettuce biomass and the net photosynthetic rate; whereas, the Zn content in plant tissue was higher in NPs treatment than in their bulk counterpart at 10 mg/kg dose or higher. For the underground observations, 10 mg/kg treatment doses (NPs or bulk) significantly changed the soil bacterial community structure, despite the non-significant variations in alpha diversity. Taxonomic distribution revealed that some lineages within Cyanobacteria and other phyla individually demonstrated similar or different responses to ZnO NPs and bulk ZnO. Moreover, some lineages associated with plant growth promotion were also influenced to different extents by ZnO NPs and bulk ZnO, suggesting the distinct microbial processes occurring in soil. Collectively, this study expanded our understanding of the influence of ZnO NPs on plant performance and the associated soil microorganisms.

  1. [Calcium distribution in the central cell of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) before and after pollination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi Lan; Liu, Ru Shi; Ye, Lv; Tian, Hui

    2008-02-01

    Potassium antimonite precipitation was used to locate calcium in the central cell of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) before and after pollination. At 3d before anthesis, two polar nuclei of central cell separately located at two polarity of the cell, and few calcium precipitates (ppts) appeared in the polar nuclei and cytoplasm, but some ppts in its small vacuoles. At 2d before anthesis, two polar nuclei moved toward the middle of the cell and fused to form a secondary nucleus, and the ppts evidently increased in the nucleus and cytoplasm. At 1d before anthesis, secondary nucleus again moved toward micropylar end and located near the egg to prepare for fertilization. Calcium precipitates were mainly accumulated in the secondary nucleus. After pollination and before fertilization, the distribution of calcium ppts was similar to that before pollination. At 4h after pollination, the central cell was fertilized, and calcium ppts evidently increased in the cell and numerous were accumulated in its nucleus and cytoplasm. At 6h after pollination, the primary endosperm nucleus completed its first division and formed two dissociate endosperm nuclei, and still many calcium precipitates appeared in the nucleus and cytoplasm. With endosperm development, calcium ppts decreased in the endosperm cell. At 1d after emasculated and without pollination, the secondary nucleus of the cell still bordered on the egg and some calcium ppts appeared in the secondary nucleus. The results indicated that the temporal and spatial changes of calcium in the central cell may play an important physiological role during the development of the central cell and endosperm.

  2. Hybridization rates between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative (L. serriola) under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    D'Andrea, Luigi; Felber, François; Guadagnuolo, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression between crops and wild relatives may have important evolutionary and ecological consequences such as gene swamping or increased invasiveness. In the present study, we investigated hybridization under field conditions between crop lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative prickly lettuce (L. serriola), two cross-compatible, predominantly autogamous and insect pollinated species. In 2003 and 2004, we estimated the rates of hybridization between L. sativa and...

  3. Element uptake and physiological responses of Lactuca sativa upon co-exposures to tourmaline and dissolved humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Weili; Wang, Cuiping; Ma, Chuanxin; Wang, Jicheng; Sun, Hongwen

    2018-03-27

    Element migration and physiological response in Lactuca sativa upon co-exposure to tourmaline (T) and dissolved humic acids (DHAs) were investigated. Different fractions of DHA 1 and DHA 4 and three different doses of T were introduced into Hoagland's solution. The results indicated that T enhanced the contents of elements such as N and C, Si and Al in the roots and shoots. The correlation between TF values of Si and Al (R 2  = 0.7387) was higher than that of Si and Mn (R 2  = 0.4961) without the presence of DHAs. However, both DHA 1 and DHA 4 increased the correlation between Si and Mn, but decreased the one between Si and Al. CAT activities in T treatments were positively correlated to the contents of N and Al in the shoots, whose R 2 was 0.9994 and 0.9897, respectively. In the co-exposure of DHAs and tourmaline, DHA 4 exhibited more impacts on element uptake, CAT activities, as well as ABA contents in comparison with the presence of DHA 1 , regardless of the T exposure doses. These results suggested that DHAs have effects on mineral element behaviors and physiological response in Lactuca sativa upon exposure to tourmaline for the first time, which had great use in guiding soil remediation.

  4. Molecular aspects of the antagonistic interaction of smoke-derived butenolides on the germination process of Grand Rapids lettuce (Lactuca sativa) achenes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soós, V.; Sebestyén, E.; Pošta, Martin; Kohout, Ladislav; Light, M. E.; van Staden, J.; Balázs, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 196, č. 4 (2012), s. 1060-1073 ISSN 0028-646X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : abscisic acid * fire * germination * karrikinolide * Lactuca sativa * smoke Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.736, year: 2012

  5. LSGermOPA, a custom OPA of 384 EST-derived SNPs for high-throughput lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) germplasm fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed the genetic diversity and population structure among 148 cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) accessions using the high-throughput GoldenGate assay and 384 EST (Expressed Sequence Tag)-derived SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers. A custom OPA (Oligo Pool All), LSGermOPA was fo...

  6. Complete genome sequence of the biofilm-forming Curtobacterium sp. strain BH-2-1-1, isolated from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) originating from a conventional field in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Merete Wiken; Brurberg, May Bente; Lysøe, Erik

    2016-12-01

    Here, we present the 3,795,952 bp complete genome sequence of the biofilm-forming Curtobacterium sp. strain BH-2-1-1, isolated from conventionally grown lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) from a field in Vestfold, Norway. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into NCBI GenBank under the accession CP017580.

  7. Testing the toxicity of metals, phenol, effluents, and receiving waters by root elongation in Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jie; Park, Jihae; Kumar Pandey, Lalit; Choi, Soyeon; Lee, Hojun; De Saeger, Jonas; Depuydt, Stephen; Han, Taejun

    2018-03-01

    Phytotoxicity tests using higher plants are among the most simple, sensitive, and cost-effective of the methods available for ecotoxicity testing. In the present study, a hydroponic-based phytotoxicity test using seeds of Lactuca sativa was used to evaluate the water quality of receiving waters and effluents near two industrial sites (Soyo and Daejon) in Korea with respect to the toxicity of 10 metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn) and phenol, and of the receiving waters and effluents themselves. First, the L. sativa hydroponic bioassay was used to determine whether the receiving water or effluents were toxic; then, the responsible toxicant was identified. The results obtained with the L. sativa bioassay ranked the EC 50 toxicities of the investigated metal ions and phenol as: Cd > Ni > Cu > Zn > Hg > phenol > As > Mn > Cr > Pb > Fe. We found that Zn was the toxicant principally responsible for toxicity in Daejeon effluents. The Daejeon field effluent had a higher Zn concentration than permitted by the effluent discharge criteria of the Ministry of Environment of Korea. Our conclusion on the importance of Zn toxicity was supported by the results of the L. sativa hydroponic assay, which showed that the concentration of Zn required to inhibit root elongation in L. sativa by 50% (EC 50 ) was higher in the Daejeon field effluent than that of pure Zn. More importantly, we proved that the L. sativa hydroponic test method can be applied not only as an alternative tool for determining whether a given waste is acceptable for discharge into public water bodies, but also as an alternative method for measuring the safety of aquatic environments using EC 20 values, with respect to the water pollutants investigated (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn, and phenol). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Protective effects of Lactuca sativa ethanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hefnawy Taha M. Hefnawy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia leaves against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in reproductive system of rats. Methods: Lettuce leaves were dried and extracted with ethanol (plant: solvent, 1:10, w/v. The extract was filtered and evaporated to yield dried lettuce extract. Animals were divided into seven groups and treated with CCl4 and different concentrations of lettuce extract. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected and centrifuged for serum separation. Body weights, testis size, histopathology of testis and liver, catalase (CAT activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, peroxidase (POD activity, reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, nitrite level, and serum hormones were determined. Results: Oxidative stress induced by CCl4 (2 mL/kg body weight in rat decreases the increase in body weight and relative testis weight. It also markedly increases the level of TBARS and nitrites along with corresponding decrease in reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in testis (i.e., CAT, POD, SOD and GSH-Px. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone was decreased while estradiol and prolactin were increased during CCl 4 treatment. Histopathology of CCl4-treated rats indicated the partial degeneration of germ and leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis. Supplementation of lettuce extract (100, 150, 200 mg/kg body weight orally once a week for 10 weeks results in decrease of TBARS and nitrite, while increase in antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px and GSH contents. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, prolactin, histology, body weight and relative testis weight was also concomitantly restored to near normal

  9. Productividad de lechuga Lactuca sativa en condiciones de macrotúnel en suelo Vitric haplustands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Velásquez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La agricultura urbana hace parte importante en la producción de alimentos para una población cada día más creciente. En este contexto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la productividad del cultivo de lechuga Lactuca sativa var. Batavia bajo condiciones de macrotúnel con tres niveles de fertilización. El ensayo se realizó en la localidad de San Felipe, Pasto, Nariño, en un suelo Vitric haplustands; se evaluaron dos tipos de ambientes (condiciones de macrotúnel y a campo abierto, con tres niveles de fertilización: alto 115; 69; 210 kg/ha (N, P2 O5, k2O, medio 69; 23; 150 kg/ha (N, P2 O5, k2O y bajo 46; 11,5; 90 kg/ha (N, P2 O5, k2O. El macrotúnel fue construido con arcos de bambú y una cubierta plástica para invernaderos. El ensayo se estableció en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con arreglo de franjas divididas. Las variables agronómicas evaluadas fueron: peso de cabeza (PC, porcentaje de materia seca (aérea y de raíz, diámetro de cabeza (DC, días a cosecha (DCO y rendimiento (R. Además, se realizó un análisis económico de presupuesto parcial. Los resultados mostraron que el cultivo de lechuga en ambiente de macrotúnel obtuvo en: PC=2,24kg/planta; DC=20,33 cm y DCO=74 días; valores que presentaron diferencias estadísticas significativas con respecto al ambiente campo abierto. A diferencia de lo anterior el porcentaje de materia seca aérea, no presentó diferencias significativas en ninguno de los tratamientos; situación similar aconteció con las dosis de fertilización alto, medio y bajo de (N, P, K y las interacciones de estas, con los dos ambientes evaluados. El análisis económico mostró que las mayores utilidades se obtuvieron en el ambiente de macrotúnel con 11278 pesos/m2y una rentabilidad de 507%.

  10. Protective effects of Lactuca sativa ethanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative damage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawy, Hefnawy Taha M.; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) leaves against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in reproductive system of rats. Methods Lettuce leaves were dried and extracted with ethanol (plant: solvent, 1:10, w/v). The extract was filtered and evaporated to yield dried lettuce extract. Animals were divided into seven groups and treated with CCl4 and different concentrations of lettuce extract. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected and centrifuged for serum separation. Body weights, testis size, histopathology of testis and liver, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite level, and serum hormones were determined. Results Oxidative stress induced by CCl4 (2 mL/kg body weight) in rat decreases the increase in body weight and relative testis weight. It also markedly increases the level of TBARS and nitrites along with corresponding decrease in reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in testis (i.e., CAT, POD, SOD and GSH-Px). Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone was decreased while estradiol and prolactin were increased during CCl4 treatment. Histopathology of CCl4-treated rats indicated the partial degeneration of germ and leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis. Supplementation of lettuce extract (100, 150, 200 mg/kg body weight orally) once a week for 10 weeks results in decrease of TBARS and nitrite, while increase in antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px and GSH contents. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, prolactin, histology, body weight and relative testis weight was also concomitantly restored to near normal level by

  11. [Studies on the calcium distribution in developing synergids of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi Lan; Liu, Ru Shi; Tian, Hui Qiao

    2007-08-01

    Potassium antimonite was used to locate calcium in the synergids of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) during their development. The two synergids on 3d before anthesis formed evident polarity with most cytoplasm located in the micropylar end and nucleus in the middle and a big vacuole in the chalazal end. At this time, calcium precipitates were a few in both cells. Calcium precipitates in the two synergids began to increase on 2d before anthesis. Synergid wall in the micropylar end thickened on 1d before anthesis, in which many calcium precipitates located. Near anthesis, synergids formed filiform apparatus in which abundant calcium precipitates accumulated to prepare for attracting pollen tubes entering. At anthesis, the distribution of calcium precipitates between two synergids was the same. At 1h after pollination, calcium precipitates evidently increased in one synergid that seemed to degenerate, the other one was persistent and the distribution of calcium granules did not change. Two synergids kept intact at 1d after emasculated, and the distribution of calcium precipitates did not display difference, suggesting that the degeneration of one synergid was caused by approaching pollen tubes which might give some signal to induce calcium increase of the synergid. Before fusion of sperm cell with egg cell, the cytoplasm of degenerated synergid embraced the egg and formed a thin layer between the egg and the central cell. Calcium precipitates in the different parts of degenerated synergid were closely connected with the fertilization: calcium precipitates accumulated in the near chalazal end of degenerated synergid at 1h after pollination. At 2.5h after pollination, the calcium precipitates increased at the chalazal end, especially abundant in the thin layer between the egg and the central cell. However, at 4h after pollination, the fertilization had finished at this time, the distribution of calcium precipitates in degenerated synergid changed again: the precipitates

  12. Qualidade física, microbiológica e parasitológica de alfaces (Lactuca sativa de diferentes sistemas de cultivo Physical, microbiological and parasitological quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa from different growing processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina R. de Santana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A alface (Lactuca sativa é a hortaliça folhosa mais comercializada no Brasil. Seu baixo valor calórico a qualifica para diversas dietas, o que favorece o seu consumo sob a forma crua, possibilitando a ocorrência de enfermidades intestinais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma avaliação física, microbiológica e parasitológica de amostras de alfaces, variedade crespa, provenientes dos sistemas de cultivo orgânico, tradicional e hidropônico, comercializadas nos principais supermercados da cidade de Salvador (BA, no período de setembro de 2003 a junho de 2004. As amostras do cultivo hidropônico apresentaram o menor peso total e da parte bio-comestível, diferindo significativamente (pThe lettuce (Lactuca sativa has economic importance to the people in Brazil. The aim of this study was to carry out a physical, microbiological and parasitological evaluations in the lettuce samples - crisp variety, according to organic, traditional and hydroponics growing processes, commercialized at the supermarkets of the City of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, collected from September/2003 until June/2004. The hydroponics lettuce samples showed the lowest total and edible part weight; they were inserted into Extra rate quality standard, according to the current legislation, whereas the organic and traditional lettuce samples were inserted into First and Second rate quality standard, respectively. The lettuce samples, independently of the growing process, showed low hygienic conditions, indicated by the presence of parasites of animal or human origin, and high concentration of fecal coliforms; the organic lettuce samples showed the highest frequencies of enteroparasities and fecal coliforms concentration, followed by the traditional and hydroponics lettuce samples. Considering the obtained results, the importance of this kind of food in the transmission of enteroparasities is stressed, as well as the need of actions which improve the sanitary conditions

  13. Agronomical response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., variety “Black Seed Simpson”, to Enerplant biostimulant aplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Baldoquin Hernandez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was done at the school vegetable garden of Los Indios in the municipality of Rio Cauto, Granma, from March through April, 2014. The objective was to evaluate the agronomical response of the cultivation of the lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L variety “Black Seeded Simpson to the foliar application of three doses of Enerplant. The biostimulant was applied in the morning 7 days after transplantation. The doses used were 0.5 mL.ha-1, 1 mL.ha-1 and 1.5 mL.ha-1. The yield components were evaluated. The obtained data were statistically processed using the software package STASTISTICA 6.0 for Windows. Results showed that the three doses had a positive effect on the cultivation yield. Best results were obtained with the application of the 1.5 mL.ha-1 dose. The majority of the evaluated indicators significantly increased.

  14. Allelopathic Activity of Extracts from Different Brazilian Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Cultivars on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Weed Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casimiro, G S; Mansur, E; Pacheco, G; Garcia, R; Leal, I C R; Simas, N K

    2017-01-01

    Peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) is the fourth most consumed oleaginous plant in the world, producing seeds with high contents of lipids, proteins, vitamins, and carbohydrates. Biological activities of different extracts of this species have already been evaluated by many researchers, including antioxidant, antitumoral, and antibacterial. In this work, the allelopathic activity of extracts from different Brazilian peanut cultivars against lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and two weed plants ( Commelina benghalensis and Ipomoea nil ) was studied. Aerial parts, roots, seeds, and seed coats were used for the preparation of crude extracts. Seed extract partitioning was performed with n -hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n -butanol, and aqueous residue. Germination and growth of hypocotyls and rootlets were evaluated after one and five days of incubation with plant extracts, respectively. Crude seed extract and its dichloromethanic partition displayed highest allelopathic activity. These results contribute for the study of new potential natural herbicides.

  15. Heavy metals deposited in the culture of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by the influence of vehicular traffic in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Fernanda C S S; Albuuerque, Adriana M A; Almeida, Amanda C; Silveira, Patrícia B; Filho, Crescêncio A; Hazin, Clovis A; Honorato, Eliane V

    2017-01-15

    Currently one of the main sources of atmospheric pollution identified in urban centers is derived from both industrial and motor vehicle emissions. These pollutants can be adsorbed to particulate matter which is present in the air or deposited in the soil and plants, eventually reaching the human food chain. In this context, the present study aimed to determine the concentration of metals such as Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni and Zn in two subspecies of Lactuca sativa L. and in the soil from were lettuce samples were collected. The results for the soil samples analyzed show a possible contamination by Pb with concentration values as high as 140mg.kg(-1), which are above the Brazilian standards defined by Resolution CONAMA 420/2009 (Brazilian Environmental Council). However, the values found in the lettuce itself reveal that it is still suitable for consumption. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Allelopathic Activity of Extracts from Different Brazilian Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Cultivars on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Weed Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R.; Simas, N. K.

    2017-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the fourth most consumed oleaginous plant in the world, producing seeds with high contents of lipids, proteins, vitamins, and carbohydrates. Biological activities of different extracts of this species have already been evaluated by many researchers, including antioxidant, antitumoral, and antibacterial. In this work, the allelopathic activity of extracts from different Brazilian peanut cultivars against lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and two weed plants (Commelina benghalensis and Ipomoea nil) was studied. Aerial parts, roots, seeds, and seed coats were used for the preparation of crude extracts. Seed extract partitioning was performed with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous residue. Germination and growth of hypocotyls and rootlets were evaluated after one and five days of incubation with plant extracts, respectively. Crude seed extract and its dichloromethanic partition displayed highest allelopathic activity. These results contribute for the study of new potential natural herbicides. PMID:28396881

  17. Fitotoxicidade e citogenotoxicidade da água e sedimento de córrego urbano em bioensaio com Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. de A. Rodrigues

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a influência espacial e temporal da fitotoxicidade e da citogenotoxicidade da água e do sedimento de córrego urbano quanto às características germinativas e de crescimento inicial de Lactuca sativa. Amostras de água e de sedimento foram coletadas em 5 pontos do Córrego do Pântano (Alfenas, Minas Gerais, no período de outubro de 2010 a julho de 2011 e as concentrações dos metais Cd, Pb e Zn foram quantificadas. Os ensaios de fitotoxicidade e de citogenotoxicidade foram realizados com as amostras de água e extratos aquosos dos sedimentos. Os parâmetros avaliados foram taxa de germinação, comprimento de raízes, biomassa fresca e seca, índice mitótico e a frequência de anormalidades cromossômicas. Constataram-se maiores concentrações de Cd e Pb nas amostras de água coletadas nos meses com a ocorrência de precipitações pluviométricas. Água e sedimento apresentaram efeito fitotóxico sobre germinação, biomassa fresca e seca de Lactuca sativa. O comprimento de raízes foi estimulado e apenas as amostras de água reduziram o índice mitótico. Evidenciou-se, também, variação temporal significativa relacionada com o regime pluviométrico apenas para o teste de fitotoxicidade.

  18. Plant growth-promoting bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus P23 increases the chlorophyll content of the monocot Lemna minor (duckweed) and the dicot Lactuca sativa (lettuce).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Wakako; Sugawara, Masayuki; Miwa, Kyoko; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2014-07-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus P23 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium that was isolated from the surface of duckweed (Lemna aoukikusa). The bacterium was observed to colonize on the plant surfaces and increase the chlorophyll content of not only the monocotyledon Lemna minor but also the dicotyledon Lactuca sativa in a hydroponic culture. This effect on the Lactuca sativa was significant in nutrient-poor (×1/100 dilution of H2 medium) and not nutrient-rich (×1 or ×1/10 dilutions of H2 medium) conditions. Strain P23 has the potential to play a part in the future development of fertilizers and energy-saving hydroponic agricultural technologies. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Obcy gatunkowo pyłek i czynnik chemiczny w indukcji rozwoju zarodków haploidalnych u Lactuca sativa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Piosik, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    Wydział Biologii Sałata siewna (Lactuca sativa) jest popularną oraz cenną z ekonomicznego punktu widzenia rośliną warzywną. Głównym celem tej pracy było opracowanie efektywnej metody haploidyzacji Lactuca sativa, która byłaby użyteczna dla hodowców sałaty siewnej. Krzyżowanie oddalone oraz chemiczną indukcję prowadzono w warunkach in vivo oraz in vitro. Pyłek wszystkich gatunków należących do Asteraceae, kiełkował na znamionach sałaty już 1h po zapyleniu. Rozwój haploidalnych prazarodk...

  20. Studying the effects of different levels of salinity which caused by NaCl on early growth and germination of Lactuca Sativa L. seedling

    OpenAIRE

    KESHAVARZI MOHAMMAD HOSEIN BIJEH

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most important constraints that limit crop production in arid and semi arid regions. Seed germination is a critical stage in the history of plants and salt tolerance during germination is crucial for the establishment of plants that grow in saline soils. This research was carried out in order to test the effects of different salinity levels on germination and early growth of lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L.). The experiment was carried out using completely randomized des...

  1. El modelo V.S.P. en lechuga Batavia Lactuca sativa var. Capitata L. y respuesta de dos variedades a las aplicaciones de compuestos orgánicos

    OpenAIRE

    Bruzón C. Serapio F.; Vélez M. José F.; Garzón José L.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation was realized in the region of Pavitas, municipality of La Cumbre, Santa Fe farm, 1480 meters above sea level in a soil of Pavas Association (Aeric Tropaquept) to prove the plastic cup-sustrate-plant model in the production of Batavia lecttuce Lactuca sativa var. capitata, and the effects of the organic matter filter cake press, cattle manure, poultry manure and earthworm soil, incorporated in the soil. Twenty two (22) treatments and fours repetitions were applied wit...

  2. Complete genome sequence of the biofilm-forming Microbacterium sp. strain BH-3-3-3, isolated from conventional field-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Merete Wiken; Brurberg, May Bente; Lysøe, Erik

    2017-03-01

    The genus Microbacterium contains bacteria that are ubiquitously distributed in various environments and includes plant-associated bacteria that are able to colonize tissue of agricultural crop plants. Here, we report the 3,508,491 bp complete genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. strain BH-3-3-3, isolated from conventionally grown lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) from a field in Vestfold, Norway. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into NCBI GenBank under the accession CP017674.

  3. Produção de alface (Lactuca sativa L. sob diferentes doses de vermicomposto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Teodoro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes dosagens de vermicomposto sobre a produção de alface, cultivar Baba de Verão. O ensaio foi conduzido em Latossolo Amarelo Distrófico de textura média fase caatinga litorânea, na Embrapa Meio-Norte, UEP – Parnaíba, de setembro a outubro de 2013. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições.  Os tratamentos constituíram-se das dosagens de vermicomposto aplicadas na adubação das covas: 0 g/cova; 62,5 g/cova; 125 g/cova; 187,5 g/cova e 250 g/cova. As características avaliadas foram: Diâmetro da base (DB; Número de folhas (NF; Massa fresca da parte aérea (MFPA; Massa fresca da raiz (MFR; Massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA e Massa seca da raiz (MSR. Para todas as características avaliadas o vermicomposto de minhoca apresentou resultados aceitáveis, não havendo diferenças significativas para a maioria das características agronômicas estudadas. Os maiores pesos médios foram obtidos com a dosagem de 187,5 g/cova (40 t/ha. A biomassa fresca e seca da alface obtida nesta dosagem foram superiores em aproximadamente 50 e 49%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. O mesmo observa-se para a massa fresca e seca das raízes (25 e 24%, respectivamente, apesar de não diferirem estatisticamente entre os demais tratamentos. Apesar dos problemas relacionados ao pendoamento, a utilização do vermicomposto, permitiu a obtenção de alface, demonstrando que a adubação de plantio com este insumo orgânico pode ser considerada uma prática promissora na produção dessa hortaliça em sistemas orgânicos na região. Entretanto, é importante se adequar a época de cultivo, ou então, trabalhar com cultivares adaptadas para as condições edafoclimáticas da região.  Production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under different doses of worm compostAbstract: Different dosages of fertilization on the production of

  4. Effects of ozone water on growth of Lactuca sativa var. ramosa Hort and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zhenghong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on pathogenic bacteria growth of purple lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. ramosa and its photosynthetic physiology by being sprayed ozone water on the surface of the purple lettuce with different concentration during the reproductive stage. However,little is known regarding its concentration effect. In this study,we found that ozone water in a low concentration such as 2 mg/L did not inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria that originate from purple lettuce and also not affect the photosynthetic physiology of purple lettuce;in a high concentration,for example,14 mg/L,can completely suppressed the growth of pathogenic bacteria but,significantly influenced the activity of photosynthetic physiology;and in a moderate amount (6 mg/L not only completely impeded the growth of pathogenic bacteria,but also slightly increased the activity of photosynthetic physiology. Based on the above results,we propose that spraying the purple lettuce with a moderate concentration of ozone water is an efficient strategy for green disinfection.

  5. Inflorescence Development and the Role of LsFT in Regulating Bolting in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijing; Han, Yingyan; Ning, Kang; Ding, Yunyu; Zhao, Wensheng; Yan, Shuangshuang; Luo, Chen; Jiang, Xiaotang; Ge, Danfeng; Liu, Renyi; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2018-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most important leafy vegetable that is consumed during its vegetative growth. The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is induced by high temperature, which has significant economic effect on lettuce production. However, the progression of floral transition and the molecular regulation of bolting are largely unknown. Here we morphologically characterized the inflorescence development and functionally analyzed the FLOWERING LOCUS T (LsFT) gene during bolting regulation in lettuce. We described the eight developmental stages during floral transition process. The expression of LsFT was negatively correlated with bolting in different lettuce varieties, and was promoted by heat treatment. Overexpression of LsFT could recover the late-flowering phenotype of ft-2 mutant. Knockdown of LsFT by RNA interference dramatically delayed bolting in lettuce, and failed to respond to high temperature. Therefore, this study dissects the process of inflorescence development and characterizes the role of LsFT in bolting regulation in lettuce. PMID:29403510

  6. Evaluation of the toxic potential of coffee wastewater on seeds, roots and meristematic cells of Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Luara Louzada; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; de Oliveira David, José Augusto

    2016-11-01

    Coffee wastewater (CWW) is an effluent produced through wet processing of coffee containing high concentration of organic matter, nutrients, salts and also agrochemicals. It is released directly into the argillaceous soil or into decantation tanks for later disposal into soils, by fertigation, subsurface infiltration or superficial draining. However, this practice is not followed by the monitoring the toxicity potential of this effluent. In this sense, the present work aimed to evaluate the phytotoxic, cytogenotoxic and mutagenic potential of CWW on seed germination, root elongation and cell cycle alterations in the plant model Lactuca sativa L. The effluent (CWW) collected was diluted in distilled water into six concentrations solutions (1.25%, 1.66%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 10%, 20%). A solution of raw CWW (100%) was also applied. Distilled water was used as negative control), and the DNA alkylating agent, metilmetano sulfonate (4×10(-4)M) as positive control. Physico-chemical parameters of the CWW was accessed and it was found that the effluent contained total phenols and inorganic matter in amounts within the limits established by the National Environment Council (CONAMA). Nevertheless, the biologicals assays performed demonstrated the phytotoxicity and cytogenotoxicty of CWW. Seed germination was totally inhibited after exposure of raw CWW. In addition, a decrease in seed germination speed as well as in root growth dose-dependently manner was noticed. Moreover, nuclear and chromosomal alterations were observed in the cell cycle, mostly arising from aneugenic action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of polyphenolic extracts from Lactuca sativa (var. Maravilla de Verano) under different farming methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Simona; Pepe, Giacomo; Sommella, Eduardo; Manfra, Michele; Scopa, Antonio; Sofo, Adriano; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Russo, Mariateresa; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Autore, Giuseppina; Campiglia, Pietro; Marzocco, Stefania

    2016-09-01

    Besides their nutritional value, vegetables are a source of health-promoting compounds, such as polyphenols, and their content can be influenced by the particular farming method. In this study polyphenolic extracts from Lactuca sativa (var. Maravilla de verano) plants cultivated with different farming methods were chemically characterised and tested in vitro and ex vivo inflammation models. The tested extacts (250-2.5 µg mL(-1) ) were able to reduce both the inflammatory and oxidative stress in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 murine monocyte macrophage cells, by lowering the release of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and promoting nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2; (Nrf2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In this regard, quantitative profiles revealed different amounts of polyphenols, in particular quercetin levels were higher in plants under mineral fertilised treatment. Those extract showed an enhanced anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Our data showed the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of Maravilla de Verano polyphenolic extracts. The effect of farming methods on polyphenolic levels was highlighted. The higher reduction of inflammatory mediators release in extracts from plants cultivated under mineral fertilisation treatment was correlated to the higher amount of quercetin. These results can be useful for both nutraceutical or agronomic purposes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Validation of a Method for Cylindrospermopsin Determination in Vegetables: Application to Real Samples Such as Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Prieto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Reports on the occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN have increased worldwide because of CYN toxic effects in humans and animals. If contaminated waters are used for plant irrigation, these could represent a possible CYN exposure route for humans. For the first time, a method employing solid phase extraction and quantification by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS of CYN was optimized in vegetables matrices such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa. The validated method showed a linear range, from 5 to 500 ng CYN g−1 of fresh weight (f.w., and detection and quantitation limits (LOD and LOQ of 0.22 and 0.42 ng CYN g−1 f.w., respectively. The mean recoveries ranged between 85 and 104%, and the intermediate precision from 12.7 to 14.7%. The method showed to be robust for the three different variables tested. Moreover, it was successfully applied to quantify CYN in edible lettuce leaves exposed to CYN-contaminated water (10 µg L−1, showing that the tolerable daily intake (TDI in the case of CYN could be exceeded in elderly high consumers. The validated method showed good results in terms of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and robustness for CYN determination in leaf vegetables such as lettuce. More studies are needed in order to prevent the risks associated with the consumption of CYN-contaminated vegetables.

  9. Beneficial Phytochemicals with Anti-Tumor Potential Revealed through Metabolic Profiling of New Red Pigmented Lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiao Qin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare polyphenols among red lettuce cultivars and identify suitable cultivars for the development and utilization of healthy vegetables. Polyphenols, mineral elements, and antioxidant activity were analyzed in the leaves of six red pigmented lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cultivars; thereafter, we assessed the anti-tumor effects of cultivar B-2, which displayed the highest antioxidant activity. Quadrupole–Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis revealed four classes of polyphenols in these cultivars. The composition and contents of these metabolites varied significantly among cultivars and primarily depended on leaf color. The B-2 cultivar had the highest antioxidant potential than others because it contained the highest levels of polyphenols, especially anthocyanin, flavone, and phenolic acid; furthermore, this cultivar displayed anti-tumor effects against the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549, human hepatoma cell line Bel7402, human cancer colorectal adenoma cell line HCT-8, and HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. Hence, the new red-leaf lettuce cultivar B-2 has a distinct metabolite profile, with high potential for development and utilization of natural phytochemical and mineral resources in lettuces and can be used as a nutrient-dense food product.

  10. Evaluation of the cultivation of the lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under organoponico and semi-protected systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Bárbara Núñez Sosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was done in the organoponico at the Soil Laboratory in Matanzas. The objective was to evaluate the response of the of the lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L. cultivation under conditions of organoponic and Semi-protected cultivation systems. Two varieties were studied: Fomento 95 and Black Seeded Simpson (BSS. The random block design was used. The data were processed using the Statgraphic plus 5.1 package for WINDOWS. The total number of leaves, number of commercial leaves, diameter of bush, yield in kg/m2, total content of soluble proteins and carbohydrates were evaluated. In conclusion, the variety Fomento 95 showed a significant increment of the total number of leaves in the organoponico system and commercial leaves with respect to the semi-protected conditions; the BSS variety showed only significant differences in commercial leaves; no significant differences in yield for both varieties were reported under the studied conditions. The analysis showed that the total soluble carbohydrates and proteins content decreased significantly in both varieties under semi-protected conditions.

  11. Evaluation of the phytotoxicity of polycontaminated industrial effluents using the lettuce plant (Lactuca sativa) as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Jérémie; Sancey, Bertrand; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Degiorgi, François; Trunfio, Giuseppe; Crini, Grégorio

    2011-10-01

    Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is generally decontaminated by physicochemical treatment consisting in insolublizing the contaminants and separating the two phases, water and sludge, by a physical process (filtration, settling or flotation). However, chemical precipitation does not usually remove the whole pollution load and the effluent discharged into the environment can be toxic even if it comes up to regulatory standards. To assess the impact of industrial effluent from 4 different surface treatment companies, we performed standardized bioassays using seeds of the lettuce Lactuca sativa. We measured the rate of germination, and the length and mass of the lettuce plantlet. The results were used to compare the overall toxicity of the different effluents: effluents containing copper and nickel had a much higher impact than those containing zinc or aluminum. In addition, germination tests conducted using synthetic solutions confirmed that mixtures of metals have higher toxicity than the sum of their separate constituents. These biological tests are cheap, easy to implement, reproducible and highlight the effects caused by effluent treated with the methods commonly applied in industry today. They could be routinely used to check the impact of industrial discharges, even when they meet regulatory requirements for the individual metals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation of a Method for Cylindrospermopsin Determination in Vegetables: Application to Real Samples Such as Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Ana I; Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Díez-Quijada, Leticia; Campos, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Jos, Ángeles; Cameán, Ana M

    2018-02-01

    Reports on the occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) have increased worldwide because of CYN toxic effects in humans and animals. If contaminated waters are used for plant irrigation, these could represent a possible CYN exposure route for humans. For the first time, a method employing solid phase extraction and quantification by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) of CYN was optimized in vegetables matrices such as lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ). The validated method showed a linear range, from 5 to 500 ng CYN g -1 of fresh weight (f.w.), and detection and quantitation limits (LOD and LOQ) of 0.22 and 0.42 ng CYN g -1 f.w., respectively. The mean recoveries ranged between 85 and 104%, and the intermediate precision from 12.7 to 14.7%. The method showed to be robust for the three different variables tested. Moreover, it was successfully applied to quantify CYN in edible lettuce leaves exposed to CYN-contaminated water (10 µg L -1 ), showing that the tolerable daily intake (TDI) in the case of CYN could be exceeded in elderly high consumers. The validated method showed good results in terms of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and robustness for CYN determination in leaf vegetables such as lettuce. More studies are needed in order to prevent the risks associated with the consumption of CYN-contaminated vegetables.

  13. Molecular characterization of a divergent strain of calla lily chlorotic spot virus infecting celtuce (Lactuca sativa var. augustana) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Wu, Xiaoyun; Li, Wenbin; Cheng, Xiaofei

    2018-05-01

    Through sequencing and assembly of small RNAs, an orthotospovirus was identified from a celtuce plant (Lactuca sativa var. augustana) showing vein clearing and chlorotic spots in the Zhejiang province of China. The S, M, and L RNAs of this orthotospovirus were determined to be 3146, 4734, and 8934 nt, respectively, and shared 30.4-72.5%, 43.4-80.8%, and 29.84-82.9% nucleotide sequence identities with that of known orthotospoviruses. The full length nucleoprotein (N) of this orthotospovirus shared highest amino acid sequence identity (90.25%) with that of calla lily chlorotic spot virus isolated from calla lily (CCSV-calla) [China: Taiwan: 2001] and tobacco (CCSV-LJ1) [China: Lijiang: 2014]. Phylogenetic analyses showed that this orthotospovirus is phylogenetically associated with CCSV isolates and clustered with CCSV, tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV), and tomato necrotic spot-associated virus (TNSaV) in a separate sub-branch. These results suggest that this orthotospovirus is a divergent isolate of CCSV and was thus named CCSV-Cel [China: Zhejiang: 2017].

  14. Beneficial Phytochemicals with Anti-Tumor Potential Revealed through Metabolic Profiling of New Red Pigmented Lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Ming-Yue; Han, Ying-Yan; Hao, Jing-Hong; Liu, Chao-Jie; Fan, Shuang-Xi

    2018-04-11

    The present study aimed to compare polyphenols among red lettuce cultivars and identify suitable cultivars for the development and utilization of healthy vegetables. Polyphenols, mineral elements, and antioxidant activity were analyzed in the leaves of six red pigmented lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars; thereafter, we assessed the anti-tumor effects of cultivar B-2, which displayed the highest antioxidant activity. Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis revealed four classes of polyphenols in these cultivars. The composition and contents of these metabolites varied significantly among cultivars and primarily depended on leaf color. The B-2 cultivar had the highest antioxidant potential than others because it contained the highest levels of polyphenols, especially anthocyanin, flavone, and phenolic acid; furthermore, this cultivar displayed anti-tumor effects against the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549, human hepatoma cell line Bel7402, human cancer colorectal adenoma cell line HCT-8, and HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. Hence, the new red-leaf lettuce cultivar B-2 has a distinct metabolite profile, with high potential for development and utilization of natural phytochemical and mineral resources in lettuces and can be used as a nutrient-dense food product.

  15. Effect of salicylhydroxamic acid on endosperm strength and embryo growth of Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, C. A.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) stimulated germination of photosensitive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green) seeds in darkness. To determine whether SHAM acts on the embryo or the endosperm, we investigated separately effects of SHAM on growth potential of isolated embryos as well as on endosperm strength. Embryo growth potential was quantified by incubating decoated embryos in various concentrations of osmoticum and measuring subsequent radicle elongation. Growth potential of embryos isolated from seeds pretreated with 4 millimolar SHAM was equal to that of untreated controls. Rupture strength of endosperm tissue excised from seeds pretreated with SHAM was 33% less than that of controls in the micropylar region. To determine if the embryo must be in contact with the endosperm of SHAM to weaken the endosperm, some endosperms were incubated with SHAM only after dissection from seeds. Rupture strength of SHAM-treated, isolated endosperms in the micropylar region was 25% less than that of untreated controls. There was no difference in rupture strength in the cotyledonary region of endosperm isolated from seeds treated with SHAM in buffer or buffer alone. SHAM therefore stimulates germination not by enhancing embryo growth potential, but by weakening the micropylar region of the endosperm enclosing the embryo.

  16. Effect of mycorrhiza on growth criteria and phosphorus nutrition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under different phosphorus application rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fatih Ergin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of mycorrhiza on growth criteria and phosphorus nutrition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under different phosphorus fertilization rates were investigated. Phosphorus were added into growing media as 0, 50, 100 and 200 mg P2O5/kg with and without mycorrhiza applications. Phosphorus applications significantly increased yield criteria of lettuce according to the control treatment statistically. Mycorrhiza application also significantly increased plant diameter, plant dry weight and phosphor uptake by plant. The highest phosphorus uptakes by plants were determined in 200 mg P2O5/kg treatments as 88.8 mg P/pot with mycorrhiza and 83.1 mg P/pot without mycorrhiza application. In the control at 0 doses of phosphorus with mycorrhiza treatment, phosphorus uptake (69.9 mg P/pot, edible weight (84.36 g, dry weight (8.64 g and leaf number (28 of lettuce were higher than that (47.7 mg P/pot, 59.33 g, 6.75 g and 20, respectively in the control without mycorrhiza application. It was determined that mycorrhiza had positive effect on growth criteria and phosphorus nutrition by lettuce plant, and this effect decreased at higher phosphorus application rates.

  17. Inflorescence Development and the Role of LsFT in Regulating Bolting in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijing; Han, Yingyan; Ning, Kang; Ding, Yunyu; Zhao, Wensheng; Yan, Shuangshuang; Luo, Chen; Jiang, Xiaotang; Ge, Danfeng; Liu, Renyi; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2017-01-01

    Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most important leafy vegetable that is consumed during its vegetative growth. The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is induced by high temperature, which has significant economic effect on lettuce production. However, the progression of floral transition and the molecular regulation of bolting are largely unknown. Here we morphologically characterized the inflorescence development and functionally analyzed the FLOWERING LOCUS T (LsFT) gene during bolting regulation in lettuce. We described the eight developmental stages during floral transition process. The expression of LsFT was negatively correlated with bolting in different lettuce varieties, and was promoted by heat treatment. Overexpression of LsFT could recover the late-flowering phenotype of ft-2 mutant. Knockdown of LsFT by RNA interference dramatically delayed bolting in lettuce, and failed to respond to high temperature. Therefore, this study dissects the process of inflorescence development and characterizes the role of LsFT in bolting regulation in lettuce.

  18. Physiological Mechanisms Only Tell Half Story: Multiple Biological Processes are involved in Regulating Freezing Tolerance of Imbibed Lactuca sativa Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Ganesh K; Han, Yingying; Li, Weijie; Song, Danping; Song, Xiaoyan; Shen, Mengqi; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Chenxue; Liu, Baolin

    2017-03-13

    The physiological mechanisms by which imbibed seeds survive freezing temperatures in their natural environment have been categorized as freezing avoidance by supercooling and freezing tolerance by extracellular freeze-desiccation, but the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring seed freezing tolerance is unexplored. In this study, using imbibed Lactuca sativa seeds we show that fast cooled seeds (60 °C h -1 ) suffered significantly higher membrane damage at temperature between -20 °C and -10 °C than slow cooled (3 °Ch -1 ) seeds (P  0.05). However, both SOD activity and accumulation of free proline were induced significantly after slow cooling to -20 °C compared with fast cooling. RNA-seq demonstrated that multiple pathways were differentially regulated between slow and fast cooling. Real-time verification of some differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that fast cooling caused mRNA level changes of plant hormone and ubiquitionation pathways at higher sub-zero temperature, whilst slow cooling caused mRNA level change of those pathways at lower sub-zero ttemperatures. Thus, we conclude that imbibed seed tolerate low temperature not only by physiological mechanisms but also by biochemical and molecular changes.

  19. [The dynamics of calcium distribution in stigma and style of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) before and after pollination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi Lan; Liu, Ru Shi; Xie, Chao Tian; Yang, Yan Hong; Gu, Li; Tian, Hui Qiao

    2005-08-01

    Potassium antimonite was used to deposit calcium in the stigma and style of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) before and after pollination. The stigma of lettuce is two splits. Abundant calcium granules are displayed in the wall of papillae on the receptive surface of stigma before and after pollination, which may facilitate pollen germination. However, a few calcium granules in the wall of epidermis cell on no-receptive surface. Calcium distribution in style presents a gradient in transmitting tissue and parenchyma cells from the top to the base of the style before pollination. After pollination, calcium in transmitting tissue distinctly increased and its gradient distribution became more evident. Pollen tubes grow in the intercellular gaps of transmitting tissue. When pollen tubes grew into transmitting tissue, calcium granules in parenchyma around transmitting tissue decreased, suggesting a calcium movement was controlled by pollen tubes. The calcium gradient distribution also appeared in the trachea of vascular bundle of style. In general, calcium in style displays a feature of time-special distribution: transmitting tissue doesn't need much more calcium that is only stored in the parenchyma before pollination. However, calcium in parenchyma cells may be transported to transmitting tissue and make the latter contain more calcium to form an evident calcium gradient and meet the requirement of pollen tubes directionally growing after pollination. This is the second sample of calcium gradient existing in style, which was found by using potassium antimonite method.

  20. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seedling production with different sources of phosphate and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms / Produção de mudas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. em presença de diferentes fontes fosfatadas e microrganismos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Nunes Silva Filho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the behaviour of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (fungus: 310A, 061, 062 e 251, bacterias 163, 160 e 161 in promoting nutrition and growth of lettuce(Lactuca sativa L. seedlings cultivated in trays with sterilized substrate fertilized and phosphates source. A randomized completely design was used, with a factorial 4x8 scheme (four treatments with phosphate nutrition and inoculated with eight phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and four replications. Each replication was made of 10 cells. The experiment was evaluated 35 days after planting for dry matter, P percentage and total phosphorus of above ground parts. The triple super phosphate (SFT had better results than the others, including the control treatment, in all analyzed parameters. On the dry matter production, it was observed negative effect from inoculation in five treatments fertilized with SFT. There was no effect of isolates on the phosphorus content values. In the values of total phosphorus, the isolates 061, 062 e 163 increased the parameter values on the fertilized treatment with SFT. The natural phosphates presented low efficiency when compared to dissolvable fertilizer on the availability of phosphorus to the plants.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de microrganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos (fungos: 310A, 061, 062 e 251; bactérias: 163, 160 e 161 na promoção da nutrição e crescimento de mudas de alface (Lactuca sativa L., cultivadas em bandejas com substrato esterilizado e adubadas com fontes fosfatadas. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, arranjo fatorial 4 x 8 (quatro tratamentos de adubação fosfatada e oito tratamentos de inoculação microrganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos com quatro repetições por isolado. Cada repetição foi constituída de 10 células. Aos 35 dias de cultivo, as plantas foram colhidas avaliando-se a matéria seca, porcentagem de P e P total da parte a

  1. Análisis técnico de producción de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus y lechuga acrópolis Lactuca sativa en acuaponia

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Cabrera, Sheila Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    Se evaluó la producción de tilapia Oreochromis niloticus y lechuga romana acropolis Lactuca sativa en sistemas acuapónicos utilizando dos sistemas: recirculación de agua sin recambio (utilizando biofiltración) y sistema sin recirculación con recambio parcial de agua. El cultivo se realizó en 4 etapas. En la primera se colocaron 800 alevines de O. niloticus de 0.2 g de peso inicial en tinas plásticas de 800 L (1600 organismos/m3de agua) durante 39 días. La segunda etapa con u...

  2. Yield and nutritional quality of greenhouse lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. as affected by genotype and production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govedarica-Lučić Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiments were conducted in winter growing seasons in order to evaluate the effects of genotype and production methods on yield and nutritional quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. A three-year (2009-2011 study was conducted by randomized block system in a greenhouse without additional heating. The trial included three genotypes of lettuce (Archimedes RZ, Santoro RZ, Kibou RZ. Each row with these genotypes was exposed to the following variants of covering: control-planting on bare soil, mulching before sowing with PE-black foil, agro textile-covering plants after planting with agro textile (17 g, a combination of mulching + agro textile. Throughout of all the three years of the trial, it was continuously evidenced that the genotype “Santoro RZ” had the biggest heads and the highest yield (15.33 kg 10 m-2, which leads to conclusion that the yield of lettuce is a genotype characteristics. Moreover, the nutritional value (ascorbic acid concentration has shown that, depending on the method of production, in average, the combination of mulching + agro textile (26.77 mg 100 g-1 had the highest content while the control variant had significantly lower vitamin C content (21.10 mg 100 g-1. The three-year researches have shown that the production method and genotype significantly affect the nitrate content. An average nitrate content was 2196.33 mg kg-1 on the control variant, and 2526.24 mg kg-1 on agro textile. Leafy lettuce of genotyp „Kibou RZ“ had lower nitrate content (2176.85 mg kg-1 compared to „Archimedes RZ“ (2843.05 mg kg-1 and „Santoro RZ“ (2221.37 mg kg-1. However nitrate concentration in all treatments remained within the European Union’s permissible levels.

  3. Foliar exposure of the crop Lactuca sativa to silver nanoparticles: Evidence for internalization and changes in Ag speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, Camille, E-mail: camille.larue@rub.de [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Castillo-Michel, Hiram, E-mail: castillo@esrf.fr [ESRF, Beamline ID21, Grenoble (France); Sobanska, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.sobanska@univ-lille1.fr [LASIR, UMR CNRS 8516, Université Lille 1, Bât C5, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Cécillon, Lauric, E-mail: lauric.cecillon@irstea.fr [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Bureau, Sarah, E-mail: sarah.bureau@ujf-grenoble.fr [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Barthès, Véronique, E-mail: veronique.barthes@cea.fr [CEA/LITEN/DTNM/L2T, CEA Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ouerdane, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.ouerdane@univ-pau.fr [LCABIE/IPREM-UMR 5254, Université de Pau et des Pays de l‘Adour, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Carrière, Marie, E-mail: marie.carriere@cea.fr [UMR E3 CEA-UJF/LAN, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sarret, Géraldine, E-mail: geraldine.sarret@ujf-grenoble.fr [ISTerre, Université Grenoble 1, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Ag-NPs are internalized inside lettuce leaves after foliar exposure to a suspension of Ag-NPs. • A classical washing process is inefficient at decreasing significantly Ag content. • Ag-NPs in plants undergo oxidation, and resulting ionic Ag are complexed with organic compounds including thiol-containing molecules. • Foliar exposure to Ag-NPs does not lead to detectable phytotoxicity symptoms. -- Abstract: The impact of engineered nanomaterials on plants, which act as a major point of entry of contaminants into trophic chains, is little documented. The foliar pathway is even less known than the soil-root pathway. However, significant inputs of nanoparticles (NPs) on plant foliage may be expected due to deposition of atmospheric particles or application of NP-containing pesticides. The uptake of Ag-NPs in the crop species Lactuca sativa after foliar exposure and their possible biotransformation and phytotoxic effects were studied. In addition to chemical analyses and ecotoxicological tests, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and electron microscopy were used to localize and determine the speciation of Ag at sub-micrometer resolution. Although no sign of phytotoxicity was observed, Ag was effectively trapped on lettuce leaves and a thorough washing did not decrease Ag content significantly. We provide first evidence for the entrapment of Ag-NPs by the cuticle and penetration in the leaf tissue through stomata, for the diffusion of Ag in leaf tissues, and oxidation of Ag-NPs and complexation of Ag{sup +} by thiol-containing molecules. Such type of information is crucial for better assessing the risk associated to Ag-NP containing products.

  4. Silencing the lettuce homologs of small rubber particle protein does not influence natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Romit; Qu, Yang; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-05-01

    Natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, is an important raw material in chemical industries, but its biosynthetic mechanism remains elusive. Natural rubber is known to be synthesized in rubber particles suspended in laticifer cells in the Brazilian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In the rubber tree, rubber elongation factor (REF) and its homolog, small rubber particle protein (SRPP), were found to be the most abundant proteins in rubber particles, and they have been implicated in natural rubber biosynthesis. As lettuce (Lactuca sativa) can synthesize natural rubber, we utilized this annual, transformable plant to examine in planta roles of the lettuce REF/SRPP homologs by RNA interference. Among eight lettuce REF/SRPP homologs identified, transcripts of two genes (LsSRPP4 and LsSRPP8) accounted for more than 90% of total transcripts of REF/SRPP homologs in lettuce latex. LsSRPP4 displays a typical primary protein sequence as other REF/SRPP, while LsSRPP8 is twice as long as LsSRPP4. These two major LsSRPP transcripts were individually and simultaneously silenced by RNA interference, and relative abundance, polymer molecular weight, and polydispersity of natural rubber were analyzed from the LsSRPP4- and LsSRPP8-silenced transgenic lettuce. Despite previous data suggesting the implications of REF/SRPP in natural rubber biosynthesis, qualitative and quantitative alterations of natural rubber could not be observed in transgenic lettuce lines. It is concluded that lettuce REF/SRPP homologs are not critically important proteins in natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) as affected by different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, G; Bott, S; Ohler, M A; Mock, H-P; Lippmann, R; Grosch, R; Smalla, K

    2014-01-01

    Development and activity of plant roots exhibit high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for 10 years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) was grown as a model plant under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes). Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils), root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development) as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue). The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes.

  6. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.cv. Tizian as affected by different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter eNeumann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and activity of plant roots exhibits high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for ten years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian was used as a model plant, grown under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes. Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils, root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue. The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes.

  7. Influence of diesel contamination in soil on growth and dry matter partitioning of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, Kayode; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-09-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil was investigated on growth and dry matter partitioning in Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas in greenhouse pot experiment at two concentration range (0-30 ml and 0-6 ml diesel kg(-1) soil) for 14 weeks. The results indicated thatwhole plant biomass, stem length, root length, number of leaves and leaf chlorophyll in two plants were negatively correlated with increasing diesel concentrations. The critical concentration of diesel associated with 10% decrease in plant growth was 0.33 ml for lettuce and 1.50 ml for sweet potato. Thus, growth of lettuce in diesel contaminated soil was more sensitive than sweet potato. The pattern of dry matter partitioning between root and shoot in both plants were similar. In 0-6 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to shoot system was favoured resulting in high shoot: root ratio of 4.54 and 12.91 for lettuce and sweet potato respectively. However, in 0-30 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to root was favoured, which may have been an adaptive mechanism in which the root system was used for storage in addition to increasing the capacity for foraging for mineral nutrients and water. Although lettuce accumulated more metals in its tissue than sweet potato, the tissue mineral nutrients in both species did not vary to great extent. The critical diesel concentration for toxicity suggested that the cause of mortality and poor growth of sweet potato and lettuce grown in diesel contaminated soil was due to presence of hydrocarbons in diesel.

  8. Experimental determinations of soil copper toxicity to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) growth in highly different copper spiked and aged soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Karen S; Borggaard, Ole K; Holm, Peter E; Vijver, Martina G; Hauschild, Michael Z; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2015-04-01

    Accurate knowledge about factors and conditions determining copper (Cu) toxicity in soil is needed for predicting plant growth in various Cu-contaminated soils. Therefore, effects of Cu on growth (biomass production) of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were tested on seven selected, very different soils spiked with Cu and aged for 2 months at 35 °C. Cu toxicity was expressed as pEC50(Cu(2+)), i.e., the negative logarithm of the EC50(Cu(2+)) activity to plant growth. The determined pEC50(Cu(2+)) was significantly and positively correlated with both the analytically readily available soil pH and concentration of dissolved organic carbon [DOC] which together could explain 87% of the pEC50(Cu(2+)) variation according to the simple equation: pEC50(Cu(2+)) = 0.98 × pH + 345 × [DOC] - 0.27. Other soil characteristics, including the base cation concentrations (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)), the cation exchange capacity at soil pH (ECEC), and at pH 7 (CEC7), soil organic carbon, clay content, and electric conductivity as well as the distribution coefficient (Kd) calculated as the ratio between total soil Cu and water-extractable Cu did not correlate significantly with pEC50(Cu(2+)). Consequently, Cu toxicity, expressed as the negative log of the Cu(2+) activity, to plant growth increases at increasing pH and DOC, which needs to be considered in future management of plant growth on Cu-contaminated soils. The developed regression equation allows identification of soil types in which the phytotoxicity potential of Cu is highest.

  9. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) as affected by different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, G.; Bott, S.; Ohler, M. A.; Mock, H.-P.; Lippmann, R.; Grosch, R.; Smalla, K.

    2014-01-01

    Development and activity of plant roots exhibit high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for 10 years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) was grown as a model plant under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes). Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils), root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development) as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue). The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes. PMID:24478764

  10. Foliar exposure of the crop Lactuca sativa to silver nanoparticles: Evidence for internalization and changes in Ag speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larue, Camille; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Sobanska, Sophie; Cécillon, Lauric; Bureau, Sarah; Barthès, Véronique; Ouerdane, Laurent; Carrière, Marie; Sarret, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag-NPs are internalized inside lettuce leaves after foliar exposure to a suspension of Ag-NPs. • A classical washing process is inefficient at decreasing significantly Ag content. • Ag-NPs in plants undergo oxidation, and resulting ionic Ag are complexed with organic compounds including thiol-containing molecules. • Foliar exposure to Ag-NPs does not lead to detectable phytotoxicity symptoms. -- Abstract: The impact of engineered nanomaterials on plants, which act as a major point of entry of contaminants into trophic chains, is little documented. The foliar pathway is even less known than the soil-root pathway. However, significant inputs of nanoparticles (NPs) on plant foliage may be expected due to deposition of atmospheric particles or application of NP-containing pesticides. The uptake of Ag-NPs in the crop species Lactuca sativa after foliar exposure and their possible biotransformation and phytotoxic effects were studied. In addition to chemical analyses and ecotoxicological tests, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and electron microscopy were used to localize and determine the speciation of Ag at sub-micrometer resolution. Although no sign of phytotoxicity was observed, Ag was effectively trapped on lettuce leaves and a thorough washing did not decrease Ag content significantly. We provide first evidence for the entrapment of Ag-NPs by the cuticle and penetration in the leaf tissue through stomata, for the diffusion of Ag in leaf tissues, and oxidation of Ag-NPs and complexation of Ag + by thiol-containing molecules. Such type of information is crucial for better assessing the risk associated to Ag-NP containing products

  11. Bioavailability of silver and silver sulfide nanoparticles to lettuce (Lactuca sativa): Effect of agricultural amendments on plant uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolette, Casey L; McLaughlin, Michael J; Kirby, Jason K; Navarro, Divina A

    2015-12-30

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can enter terrestrial systems as sulfidised AgNPs (Ag2S-NPs) through the application of biosolids to soil. However, the bioavailability of Ag2S-NPs in soils is unknown. The two aims of this study were to investigate (1) the bioavailability of Ag to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) using a soil amended with biosolids containing Ag2S-NPs and (2) the effect of commonly used agricultural fertilisers/amendments on the bioavailability of Ag, AgNPs and Ag2S-NPs to lettuce. The study used realistic AgNP exposure pathways and exposure concentrations. The plant uptake of Ag from biosolids-amended soil containing Ag2S-NPs was very low for all Ag treatments (0.02%). Ammonium thiosulfate and potassium chloride fertilisation significantly increased the Ag concentrations of plant roots and shoots. The extent of the effect varied depending on the type of Ag. Ag2S-NPs, the realistic form of AgNPs in soil, had the lowest bioavailability. The potential risk of AgNPs in soils is low; even in the plants that had the highest Ag concentrations (Ag(+)+thiosulfate), only 0.06% of added Ag was found in edible plant parts (shoots). Results from the study suggest that agricultural practises must be considered when carrying out risk assessments of AgNPs in terrestrial systems; such practises can affect AgNP bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of non-functionalized and amino-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes on pesticide uptake by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Helmi; De La Torre-Roche, Roberto; Hawthorne, Joseph; White, Jason C

    2015-03-01

    The effect of non-functionalized and amino-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) exposure, as well as the impact of CNT presence on coexistent pesticide accumulation, was investigated in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Lettuce seeds were sown directly into CNT-amended vermiculite (1000 mg L(-1)) to monitor phytotoxicity during germination and growth. During growth, lettuce seedlings were subsequently exposed to chlordane (cis-chlordane [CS], trans-chlordane [TC] and trans-nonachlor [TN]) and p,p'-DDE (all at 100 ng/L) in the irrigation solution for a 19-d growth period. CNT exposure did not significantly influence seed germination (82-96%) or plant growth. Similarly, pesticide exposure had no impact on plant growth, total pigment production or tissue lipid peroxidation. After 19 d, the root content of total chlordane and p,p'-DDE was 390 and 73.8 µg g(-1), respectively; in plants not exposed to CNTs, the shoot levels were 1.58 and 0.40 µg g(-1), respectively. The presence and type of CNT significantly influenced pesticide availability to lettuce seedlings. Non-functionalized CNT decreased the root and shoot pesticide content by 88% and 78%, respectively, but amino-functionalized CNT effects were significantly more modest, with decreases of 57% in the roots and 23% in the shoots, respectively. The presence of humic acid completely reversed the reduced accumulation of pesticides induced by amino-functionalized CNT, likely due to strong competition over adsorption sites on the nanomaterial (NM). These findings have implications for food safety and for the use of engineered NMs in agriculture, especially with leafy vegetables.

  13. Potencial alelopático de espécies nativas na germinação e crescimento inicial de Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae Allelopathic potential of native species in Lactuca sativa L. (Asteraceae germination and initial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maraschin-Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A alelopatia caracteriza-se pelos efeitos danosos ou benéficos sobre o desenvolvimento da vegetação, causados por substâncias químicas produzidas e liberadas para o ambiente por uma planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial alelopático de espécies brasileiras, foram testados extratos foliares de Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae e Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burg., Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae, utilizando-se bioensaios de germinação e crescimento e alface (Lactuca sativa L. como planta alvo. Nesses bioensaios, foram usados extratos foliares aquosos nas concentrações de 2 e 4%, preparados por maceração estática com água fria e quente. Os extratos das cinco espécies causaram atraso na germinação dos aquênios da alface, bem como efeitos tóxicos no crescimento das plântulas, com redução e enfraquecimento das raízes. Os resultados obtidos mostraram a presença de substâncias químicas inibidoras nos extratos, revelando potencial alelopático para as cinco espécies avaliadas.Allelopathy is characterized by harmful or beneficial effects on vegetation development, caused by chemical substances produced and released into the environment by the plant. Aiming to assess the allelopathic potential of Brazilian species, aqueous leaf extracts of Cecropia pachystachya Trec. (Urticaceae, Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (Fabaceae, Psychotria leiocarpa Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae, Sapium glandulatum (Vell. Pax (Euphorbiaceae, and Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Burger, Lanj. & Boer (Moraceae were tested on lettuce using germination and growth bioassays. In these bioassays, aqueous leaf extracts were used at concentrations of 2 and 4%, prepared by static maceration with cold and hot water. The five species extracts delayed lettuce germination and produced toxic effects on seedling growth, with root

  14. The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhao, Lulu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yanchun; Du, Daolin

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species can exhibit allelopathic effects on native species. Meanwhile, the types of acid deposition are gradually changing. Thus, the allelopathic effects of invasive species on seed germination and growth of native species may be altered or even enhanced under conditions with diversified acid deposition. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaves extracts) of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of native species Lactuca sativa treated with five types of acid deposition with different SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 5:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:5, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid). Solidago canadensis leaf extracts exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. High concentration of S. canadensis leaf extracts also similarly exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on root length of L. sativa. This may be due to that S. canadensis could release allelochemicals and then trigger allelopathic effects on seed germination and growth of L. sativa. Acid deposition exhibited significantly negative effects on seedling biomass, root length, seedling height, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be ascribed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could produce toxic effects on seedling growth. Sulfuric acid deposition triggered more toxic effects on seedling biomass and vigor index of L. sativa than nitric acid deposition. This may be attributing to the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4(2-) and NO3(-) as well as the fertilizing effects mediated by nitric deposition. All types of acid deposition significantly enhanced the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on root length, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be due to the negatively synergistic effects of

  15. APPLICATIONS LIQUID ORGANIC FERTILIZER AND COMPOSITION OF PLANT MEDIA TO RESULT OF SELADA PLANTS (Lactuca sativa L

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    Sri Hidayati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:           Lettuce (lactuca sativa is a vegetable that has a very high economic value. Where this plant can be grown in temperate and tropical regions, Lettuce production is still low, then this plant needs to be given fertilizer treatment. One of the fertilizer that can be used is liquid organic fertilizer. Liquid Organic Fertilizer has several benefits such as to encourage and increase the growth and yield of plants.             Objective: To know the effect of combination of planting media composition and liquid organic fertilizer to growth and yield of lettuce crop; To know the influence of plant plant composition on growth and yield of lettuce plant; To know the effect of liquid organic fertilizer on growth and yield of lettuce plant.            The experiment was conducted in experimental garden of Faculty of Agriculture Universitas Merdeka Surabaya Jl.Ketintang Madya VII / 2 Surabaya, with the space 0-20 meters above sea level.      This research is a pot experiment and is a two factor factorial research with Randomized Block Design (RAK, the first factor is Liquid Organic Fertilizer with 3 levels and the second factor is the composition of planting media with 4 levels. Where Factor I: liquid organic fertilizer consisting of: P1: 1 ml / plant; P2: 2 ml / plant; P3: 3 ml / plant, Factor II: planting medium consisting of 4 (four levels, namely: M1: soil + manure + rice husk: 2: 1: 1; M2: soil + manure + rice husk: 1: 1: 1; M3: ground + manure + sand: 2: 1: 1; M4: ground + manure + sand: 1: 1: 1, treatment repeated 3 times and each treatment there are 2 plant samples, so the number of plants as much 72 or 72 polybag.Based on the results of research conducted, it can be concluded as follows:1. POC concentration factor (P showed significant influence on all variables studied such as leaf number, plant length and wet weight of plant.2. The media composition factor (M showed a nonsignificant effect

  16. Dependence of plant biometrics of cutting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varietis on the concentration of microfertilizer Avatar-1

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    В. Б. Кутовенко

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the variability of plant biometrics of cutting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varieties depending on the concentration of microfertilizer Avatar-1. Methods. Field study, biometric technique, comparative approach, statistical evaluation, generalization. Results. Dependence of the plant height, the diameter of the leaf rosette, the number of leaves per plant, the leaf area of plants on the concentration of microfertilizer Avatar-1 was defined. Investigations of cutting lettuce ‘Afitsyon’ and ‘Concord’ varieties by Dutch breeding were conducted in 2016–2017 in the collection sites of the department of vegetable growing in the scientific-experimental field  “Fruit and vegetable garden” of the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine. In order to determine dependence of plant biometrics of cutting lettuce varieties on the concentration of complex microfertilizer Avatar-1, the following scheme was used for the both varieties: variant 1 – water (control; variant 2 – 0,10% solution; variant 3 – 0,25% solution; variant 4 – 0,50% solution. Plants were treated with microfertilizer three times during the vegetative period. Alterations of plant biometrics of cutting lettuce ‘Afitsyon’ and ‘Concord’ varieties  depending on the concentration of complex microfertilizer Avatar-1 was studied. Conclusions. It was found that in case of three-time plant treatment with complex microfertilizer Avatar-1 at the time of harvesting, the best plant biometrics was registered in variant 3 (concentration 0,25% for the both ‘Afitsyon’ and ‘Concord’ varie­ties of cutting lettuce. The height of plants of the cutting lettuce in ‘Afitsyon’ variety exceeded this figure in ‘Concord variety by 1,1–1,4 cm. The concentration of microfertilizer had no significant effect on the diameter of the leaf rosette of ‘Concord’ variety (25,1–25,9 см. The diame­ter of the leaf rosette of

  17. Emergência e crescimento de alface (Lactuca sativa L. submetida a substratos orgânicos

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    Franciele Mara Lucca Zanardo Bohm

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A agricultura orgânica se destaca como modo de produção que consiste em um sistema sustentável. Um dos desafios desse método de cultivo é a produção de alimentos com qualidade em quantidades suficientes sem comprometer o meio ambiente. Objetivou-se analisar o efeito de substratos orgânicos na germinação e crescimento inicial de alface. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (substratos e duas repetições. Foram testados os substratos: composto de Sibipiruna, substrato comercial, composto de Sibipiruna com chorume e substrato comercial com chorume. O chorume foi obtido exclusivamente da decomposição de vegetais. Foi avaliado o efeito dos substratos pelo percentual de germinação, massa fresca, massa seca e comprimento da radícula. Pôde-se considerar que houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. As sementes, quando germinadas em substrato de Sibipiruna com chorume, apresentaram maior massa seca e comprimento de radícula. Com relação à massa fresca, os valores obtidos foram maiores quando o chorume foi adicionado a ambos os substratos. O chorume obtido da decomposição de vegetais aumentou a germinação e o crescimento inicial das plântulas.Emergence and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. submitted to organic substratesAbstract: Organic agriculture stands out as a mode of production consisting of a sustainable system. One of the challenges of this method of cultivation is the production of sufficient quality food in sufficient quantities without compromising the environment. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of organic substrates on germination and initial lettuce growth. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four treatments (substrates and two replicates. The substrates were tested: Sibipiruna compound, commercial substrate, Sibipiruna compound with slurry and commercial slurry substrate. The manure was

  18. Health risks resulting from contaminants transfers in soil-plants systems: case study of Atrazine in Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Camoin

    2015-04-01

    Food safety is presently at the center of great part of scientific and political debates. This represents a field of study in its own right of health risks, including ingestion by humans of hazardous biological, physical, chemical or radiological substances, from contaminated foods during different stages of production. Plant cultivation step is often one of the main sources of contamination, whether of voluntary (pesticide application) or accidental (nuclear, industrial waste, etc.) origin. As a result, the plants growth in an contaminated environment may increase the risk of transfer within the plant, and finally the exposure of humans. Furthermore, pesticides are among the main contaminants investigated in the frame of human health risks resulting from food intakes. However, most of these scientific works focus mainly on their occurrence and persistence in water bodies, and few of them are interested in soil/plants transfer. In this context, the understanding of the processes governing transfers of pesticides in plants is become a necessity, in particular to prevent human risks linked the ingestion of food produced in contaminated environments. This objective can be reached by studying the pollutants behavior in soils/plants transfers, and using various substances/plants couples. In our study, we selected a salad/pesticide couple as our experimental model. Atrazine was chosen as model contaminant because of its problematic presence in a large amount of environmental compartments, its physico-chemical properties and because of its long-term toxicity. Lactuca sativa has been selected as model plant because of its importance in French agriculture, and specifically in Languedoc-Roussillon. Salad has been cultivated in peats and irrigated with an atrazine spiked water solution (concentrations from 10 to 100 μg/L). Plant growth in such conditions has been compared to a growth in clean condition (irrigation with non spiked water). Measurements of atrazine contents in

  19. Remote sensing of nutrient deficiency in Lactuca sativa using neural networks for terrestrial and advanced life support applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Edie Seldon

    2000-12-01

    A remote sensing study using reflectance and fluorescence spectra of hydroponically grown Lactuca sativa (lettuce) canopies was conducted. An optical receiver was designed and constructed to interface with a commercial fiber optic spectrometer for data acquisition. Optical parameters were varied to determine effects of field of view and distance to target on vegetation stress assessment over the test plant growth cycle. Feedforward backpropagation neural networks (NN) were implemented to predict the presence of canopy stress. Effects of spatial and spectral resolutions on stress predictions of the neural network were also examined. Visual inspection and fresh mass values failed to differentiate among controls, plants cultivated with 25% of the recommended concentration of phosphorous (P), and those cultivated with 25% nitrogen (N) based on fresh mass and visual inspection. The NN's were trained on input vectors created using reflectance and test day, fluorescence and test day, and reflectance, fluorescence, and test day. Four networks were created representing four levels of spectral resolution: 100-nm NN, 10-nm NN, 1-nm NN, and 0.1-nm NN. The 10-nm resolution was found to be sufficient for classifying extreme nitrogen deficiency in freestanding hydroponic lettuce. As a result of leaf angle and canopy structure broadband scattering intensity in the 700-nm to 1000-nm range was found to be the most useful portion of the spectrum in this study. More subtle effects of "greenness" and fluorescence emission were believed to be obscured by canopy structure and leaf orientation. As field of view was not as found to be as significant as originally believed, systems implementing higher repetitions over more uniformly oriented, i.e. smaller, flatter, target areas would provide for more discernible neural network input vectors. It is believed that this technique holds considerable promise for early detection of extreme nitrogen deficiency. Further research is recommended using

  20. Root adaptation and ion selectivity affects the nutritional value of salt-stressed hydroponically grown baby-leaf Nasturtium officinale and Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Fernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The response of watercress (Nasturtium officinale L. to salinity has been scarcely addressed in literature despite its growing importance in the baby-leaf market and its wide cultivation in salt-affected agricultural regions. This work evaluates the effect of salinity (2.5, 5 and 10 dS m-1 on productive and quality features of watercress compared with another crop widely cultivated for the baby-leaf sector (lettuce, Lactuca sativa. In watercress, a linear relationship (R2=0.75 was observed between yield decrease and Cl– accumulation in leaves, whereas yield was not affected by salinity in lettuce. NaCl application increased Na+ accumulation at the expense of Ca2+ uptake in the leaf tissues of both crops, but also of K+ in watercress. Health-related features were improved by salinity (e.g. increased phenolics and reduced nitrates, especially in watercress, with limited sensorial quality evaluation effects.

  1. Studying the effects of different levels of salinity which caused by NaCl on early growth and germination of Lactuca Sativa L. seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Bijeh Keshavarzi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most important constraints that limit crop production in arid and semi arid regions. Seed germination is a critical stage in the history of plants and salt tolerance during germination is crucial for the establishment of plants that grow in saline soils. This research was carried out in order to test the effects of different salinity levels on germination and early growth of lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L.. The experiment was carried out using completely randomized design in four replication in 2011 Zabol University laboratory Iran. The results showed that by increasing salinity, percentage and race of germination decreased, So that, in the 150 mM of salinity level, germination reached to minimized (8.33%. Other measured parameters such as plumule length, radicle length, dry and wet weight decreased as well. All the results analyzed by SAS statistical software and comparison of average had done by Duncan test on 5% possible level.

  2. 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-(indole-3-)butyric acid promotes root elongation in Lactuca sativa independent of ethylene synthesis and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nenggang; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the mode of action of 4,4,4-trifluoro-3- (indole-3-) butyric acid (TFIBA), a recently described root growth stimulator, on primary root growth of Lactuca sativa L. seedlings. TFIBA (100 micromoles) promoted elongation of primary roots by 40% in 72 h but inhibited hypocotyl growth by 35%. TFIBA induced root growth was independent of pH. TFIBA did not affect ethylene production, but reduced the inhibitory effect of ethylene on root elongation. TFIBA promoted root growth even in the presence of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl)glycine. TFIBA and the ethylene-binding inhibitor silver thiosulphate (STS) had a similar effect on root elongation. The results indicate that TFIBA-stimulated root elongation was neither pH-dependent nor related to inhibition of ethylene synthesis, but was possibly related to ethylene action.

  3. Carbon dioxide evolution and temperature factors in early growth of plastic mulched plants. [Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus; Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betts, C.; Ruf, R.H. Jr.

    1966-01-01

    Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa) were grown in the greenhouse in redwood boxes with bare and plastic mulched soil. Soil temperature in the bare boxes was equated to the plastic mulch with buried temperature coils. Bottled CO/sub 2/ was used to bring the concentration around the plants in bare soil up to the concentration around mulched plants. Carbon dioxide was sampled in leaf canopy. The temperature treatment increased the yields of the bare soil so that they were comparable to those of the plastic mulched soil. Yields from the soil with the auxiliary CO/sub 2/ were lower than those of the mulched treatment.

  4. Performance and feeding behaviour of two biotypes of the black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, on resistant and susceptible Lactuca sativa near-isogenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Broeke, Cindy J M; Dicke, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J A

    2013-10-01

    The black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, is an important pest of cultivated lettuce, Lactuca sativa. Since 1982, the control of this aphid on lettuce is largely based on host plant resistance, conferred by the Nr gene, introgressed from Lactuca virosa. The resistance mechanism remains to be identified. N. ribisnigri populations virulent on the Nr-based resistance in lettuce have emerged in several locations in Europe since 2007. The objective of this study was to investigate the resistance mechanism mediated by the Nr gene in lettuce by detailed studies of aphid feeding behaviour and performance. Both avirulent (Nr:0) and virulent (Nr:1)biotypes of N. ribisnigri were studied on five resistant and two susceptible near isogenic lines (NILs). In addition, survival and colony development were quantified.Nr:0 aphids showed a strong decrease in sieve element ingestion and took longer to accept a sieve element on resistant NILs compared with susceptible NILs, and no aphids survived on the resistant NIL. Nr:1 aphids fed and performed equally well on the resistant and susceptible NILs. The resistance mechanism against Nr:0 aphids encoded by the Nr gene seems to be located in the phloem, although we also observed differences in feeding behaviour during the pathway phase to the phloem. Nr:1 aphids were highly virulent to the resistance conferred by the Nr gene. The consequences of the appearance of Nr:1 aphids for control of N. ribisnigri are discussed.

  5. Combined effects of dissolved humic acids and tourmaline on the accumulation of 2, 2', 4, 4', 5, 5'- hexabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-153) in Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Ma, Chuanxin; Jia, Weili; Wang, Dong; Sun, Hongwen; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-12-01

    In order to investigate the effects of dissolved humic acid (DHA) and tourmaline on uptake of 2, 2', 4, 4', 5, 5'- hexabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-153) by Lactuca sativa, different fractions of DHA, including DHA 1 and DHA 4 , as well as different doses of tourmaline were introduced into BDE-153 contaminated solutions for plant growth. The levels of BDE-153 in L. sativa tissues were positively correlated with the Fe levels (R 2  = 0.9264) in seedings of the treatments with different doses of tourmaline. However, when adding DHA 1 and DHA 4 into the system, the correlation coefficients (R 2 ) decreased to 0.6976 and 0.5451 from 0.9264, respectively. In contrast with the Fe contents, the presence of DHAs didn't affect the R 2 between the levels of BDE-153 and the lipid contents in plant tissues. Our results indicated that both DHA 1 and DHA 4 could severely alter the BDE-153 uptake by L. sativa through reducing the Fe uptake instead of the lipid contents. Additionally, DHA 4 exhibited much stronger abilities to alter the BDE-153 accumulation than DHA 1 . Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations indicated that either DHA 1 or tourmaline or co-treatment with DHA and tourmaline had no negative impact on L. sativa at the cellular level. The present study provides important information for the impacts of different fractions of DHA extracted from soil on the BDE-153 migration in plant systems. Moreover, we elucidated the importance of the iron in tourmaline for migration of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in plant systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Accumulation of heavy metals by lettuce (lactuca sativa l.) irrigated with different levels of wastewater of Quetta City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achakzai, A.K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils resulting from irrigation by wastewater is causing major concern due to the potential health risk involved. This study was therefore designed to investigate the heavy metal ions viz., Cu/sup 2/sup +/, Fe/sup 2+/, Mn/sup 2+/, Zn/sup 2+/, Pb/sup 2+/, Ni/sup 2+ and Cd/sup 2+/ concentrations by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in pots. This leafy vegetable was irrigated with 5 different concentrations of wastewater collected from 3 different localities viz., Chiltan town, Chiltan Ghee Mill (oil industry) and Zarghoon town of Quetta city. Tap water was used as background water. Plant samples were analyzed for their heavy metal contents using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Results showed that localities, treatments and their interactions (except Cu/sup 2+/ and Pb/sup 2+/) generally exhibited highly significant (P=0.01) influence on the accumulation of heavy metals. The maximum values of 9.71; 509.06; 32.47; 94.38; 8.58; 5.05 and 7.45 mg kg/sup -1/ for Cu/sup 2+/, total Fe/sup 2+/, Mn/sup 2+/, Zn/sup 2+/, Ni/sup 2+/,Pb/sup 2+/, and Cd/sup 2+/ respectively, were generally obtained in highest concentration of effluents. While maximum values of 9.02; 4.47 and 7.90 mg kg-1 of Cu/sup 2+/, Ni/sup 2+/ and Cd/sup 2+/ were obtained for Chiltan ghee mill effluents. However, maximum values i.e., 435.96 and 80.47 mg kg-1 of total Fe and Zn/sup 2+/ were recorded for Chiltan town. The highest values of 30.09 and 6.32 mg kg-1 for Mn/sup 2+/ and Pb/sup 2+/ were noted in Zarghoon town, respectively. On the basis of grand mean values,the magnitude of heavy metals detected for various metals is in order: Fe > Zn >Mn> Cu >Pb> Cd > Ni. Results further demonstrated that the total concentrations of Cu/sup 2+/, Fe/sup 2+/, Mn/sup 2+/, Zn/sup 2+/ and Ni/sup 2+/ are within the recommended international standards set by WHO/FAO, but could be reached to toxic level either by the consecutive use of effluents or by increased dietary pattern of the consumers

  7. MECANISMOS DE AÇÃO DO EXTRATO AQUOSO DE Piper amalago EM CÉLULAS MERISTEMÁTICAS DE Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thammyres de Assis Alves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Para manutenção da segurança alimentar o uso de agrotóxicos tem aumentado em todo o mundo, sendo o Brasil o seu maior consumidor desde 2009. Porém, os danos ambientais e à saúde humana, causados por essas substâncias sintéticas, tem provocado preocupações. Uma forma de amenizar o uso dos agrotóxicos é substituí-los totalmente ou em partes por compostos naturais, encontrados em plantas. Piper amalago é uma espécie que possui diferentes compostos químicos em sua constituição, tais como: alcaloides, amidos, terpenos e esteroides, o que determina nas suas diferentes atividades biológicas. Em virtude da sua constituição química, essa espécie é indicada para estudos de alelopatia. Assim, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial mutagênico do extrato aquoso de P.  amalago através de bioensaio em Lactuca sativa. Para isso, análises de fitotoxicidade e citotoxicidade foram realizadas. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao teste de Dunnett com 5% de significância. Os resultados demonstram o potencial mutagênico do extrato aquoso de P. amalago em L. sativa, bem como, seus mecanismos de ação: clastogênicos e aneugênicos.

  8. Acclimation to UV-B radiation and visible light in Lactuca sativa involves up-regulation of photosynthetic performance and orchestration of metabolome-wide responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargent, J J; Nelson, B C W; McGhie, T K; Barnes, P W

    2015-05-01

    UV-B radiation is often viewed as a source of stress for higher plants. In particular, photosynthetic function has been described as a common target for UV-B impairment; yet as our understanding of UV-B photomorphogenesis increases, there are opportunities to expand the emerging paradigm of regulatory UV response. Lactuca sativa is an important dietary crop species and is often subjected to rapid sunlight exposure at field transfer. Acclimation to UV-B and visible light conditions in L. sativa was dissected using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements, in addition to non-destructive assessments of UV epidermal shielding (SUV ). After UV-B treatment, seedlings were subjected to wide-range metabolomic analysis using liquid chromatography hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-HRMS). During the acclimation period, net photosynthetic rate increased in UV-treated plants, epidermal UV shielding increased in both subsets of plants transferred to the acclimatory conditions (UV+/UV- plants) and Fv /Fm declined slightly in UV+/UV- plants. Metabolomic analysis revealed that a key group of secondary compounds was up-regulated by higher light conditions, yet several of these compounds were elevated further by UV-B radiation. In conclusion, acclimation to UV-B radiation involves co-protection from the effects of visible light, and responses to UV-B radiation at a photosynthetic level may not be consistently viewed as damaging to plant development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Solanum lycocarpum St.-Hil (Solanaceae on the cell cycle of Lactuca sativa and Allium cepa

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    Raquel Bezerra Chiavegatto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solanum lycocarpum St.-Hil popularly known as ‘fruta-de-lobo’ or ‘lobeira’ is native to the Brazilian Cerrado, and used in folk medicine due to its phytotherapic properties. The action of S. lycocarpum on the cell cycle and chromosomes in order to demonstrate whether there are aneugenic and/or clastogenic effects is unknown. Thus, this study aimed at investigating the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of methanol and hexane extracts of S. lycocarpum on growth and cell cycle of Lactuca sativa and Allium cepa. Roots from both species were exposed for 72 hours to methanol and hexane extracts with 50, 100, and 200 µg mL-1 of S. lycocarpum. Slides were prepared by the squash technique and then analyzed to determine the mitotic index and the total of chromosomal and nuclear abnormalities. The frequencies of chromosomal and nuclear abnormalities were high and significant with a dose-dependent effect, indicating that S. lycocarpum has a cytotoxic and genotoxic action depending on the dose used on meristem cells of A. cepa and L. sativa.

  10. [Combination of phosphorus solubilizing and mobilizing fungi with phosphate rocks and volcanic materials to promote plant growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, María S; Cabello, Marta N; Elíades, Lorena A; Russo, María L; Allegrucci, Natalia; Schalamuk, Santiago

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) increase the uptake of soluble phosphates, while phosphorus solubilizing fungi (S) promote solubilization of insoluble phosphates complexes, favoring plant nutrition. Another alternative to maintaining crop productivity is to combine minerals and rocks that provide nutrients and other desirable properties. The aim of this work was to combine AMF and S with pyroclastic materials (ashes and pumices) from Puyehue volcano and phosphate rocks (PR) from Rio Chico Group (Chubut) - to formulate a substrate for the production of potted Lactuca sativa. A mixture of Terrafertil®:ashes was used as substrate. Penicillium thomii was the solubilizing fungus and Rhizophagus intraradices spores (AMF) was the P mobilizer (AEGIS® Irriga). The treatments were: 1) Substrate; 2) Substrate+AMF; 3) Substrate+S; 4) Substrate+AMF+S; 5) Substrate: PR; 6) Substrate: PR+AMF; 7) Substrate: PR+S and 8) Substrate: PR+AMF+S. Three replicates were performed per treatment. All parameters evaluated (total and assimilable P content in substrate, P in plant tissue and plant dry biomass) were significantly higher in plants grown in substrate containing PR and inoculas with S and AMF. This work confirms that the combination of S/AMF with Puyehue volcanic ashes, PR from the Río Chico Group and a commercial substrate promote the growth of L. sativa, thus increasing the added value of national geomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of SPL (Spent Pot Liner) and its main components on root growth, mitotic activity and phosphorylation of Histone H3 in Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Aline Silva; Fontes Cunha, Isabela Martinez; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Techio, Vânia Helena

    2016-02-01

    Spent Pot Liner (SPL) is a solid waste from the aluminum industry frequently disposed of in industrial landfills; it can be leached and contaminate the soil, sources of drinking water and plantations, and thus may pose a risk to human health and to ecosystems. Its composition is high variable, including cyanide, fluoride and aluminum salts, which are highly toxic and environmental pollutants. This study evaluated the effect of SPL and its main components on root growth and the mitosis of Lactuca sativa, by investigating the mechanisms of cellular and chromosomal alterations with the aid of immunolocalization. To this end, newly emerged roots of L. sativa were exposed to SPL and its main components (solutions of cyanide, fluoride and aluminum) and to calcium chloride (control) for 48h. After this, root length was measured and cell cycle was examined by means of conventional cytogenetics and immunolocalization. Root growth was inhibited in the treatments with SPL and aluminum; chromosomal and nuclear alterations were observed in all treatments. The immunolocalization evidenced normal dividing cells with regular temporal and spatial distribution of histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 (H3S10ph). However, SPL and its main components inhibited the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, inactivated pericentromeric regions and affected the cohesion of sister chromatids, thus affecting the arrangement of chromosomes in the metaphase plate and separation of chromatids in anaphase. In addition, these substances induced breaks in pericentromeric regions, characterized as fragile sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  13. Effects of ozone water on growth of Lactuca sativa var. ramosa Hort and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Zhenghong; Wang Zuoming; Yin Lijun; Zhao Xuejun; Wang Wenjia; Wang Quanxi

    2017-01-01

    Research on pathogenic bacteria growth of purple lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. ramosa) and its photosynthetic physiology by being sprayed ozone water on the surface of the purple lettuce with different concentration during the reproductive stage. However,little is known regarding its concentration effect. In this study,we found that ozone water in a low concentration such as 2 mg/L did not inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria that originate from purple lettuce and also not affect the phot...

  14. Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant and anti-coagulant properties of Lactuca sativa (CV. Grand Rapids) plant tissues and cell suspension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-06-27

    Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been traditionally used for relieving pain, inflammation, stomach problems including indigestion and lack of appetite. Moreover, the therapeutic significance of L. sativa includes its anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic and antioxidant properties. In the present study, the MC (methanol and chloroform; 1:1) and aqueous extracts of seed and leaf along with cell suspension exudate were prepared. These extracts were explored for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and anticoagulant effects by hot plate analgesic assay; carrageenan induced hind paw edema test, forced swimming test and capillary method for blood clotting respectively in a rat model. The results were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey multiple comparison test. Interestingly, the extracts and the cell suspension exudate showed dual inhibition by reducing pain and inflammation. The results indicated that the aqueous extracts of leaf exhibited highest analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities followed by leaf MC, cell suspension exudate, seed aqueous and seed MC extracts. The current findings show that aqueous and MC extracts of seed have the least immobility time in the forced swimming test, which could act as an anti-depressant on the central nervous system. The leaf extracts and cell suspension exudate also expressed moderate anti-depressant activities. In anticoagulant assay, the coagulation time of aspirin (positive control) and MC extract of leaf was comparable, suggesting strong anti-coagulant effect. Additionally, no abnormal behavior or lethality was observed in any animal tested. Taken together, L. sativa can potentially act as a strong herbal drug due to its multiple pharmaceutical effects and is therefore of interest in drug discovery and development of formulations.

  15. Effect of Ni and Urea on Growth, Nitrate and Nutrients Concentration in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa Grown in Hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Nazari Mamaqani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The N source used in commercial hydroponic culture of vegetables is mainly NO3-N. The rate of NO3- uptake is usually high, particularly in leafy vegetables and it can be markedly increased when the NO3- supply in the environment is high. An abundant N supply leads to a high NO3-N absorption and accumulation in plants. When NO3- rich vegetables are consumed, various harmful effects on human health may occur such as met-hemoglobinemia (Blue Baby Syndrome and cancer. Keeping levels of NO3- below limits of FAO seems to be impossible without changing conventional fertilizer application techniques. The suitability of urea for the cultivation of field crops has been well documented. Urea is used as the main source of N fertilizer for crops grown in soil. Its use as N source for crops grown under the hydroponic system has yet to be evaluated. To hydrolyze urea, the enzyme urease requires Ni as a component. Substitution of urea for commonly used N03-N fertilizers in hydroponic culture of vegetables would not only enable to avoid excessive accumulation of N03- in plants but would also reduce the cost of production. Leafy vegetable crops, such as lettuce and spinach, contain large amounts of N03-N. Therefore, it is important to reduce N03- concentrations in hydroponically grown with lowest negative effects on yield. Materials and Methods: The experiments were carried outin greenhouse hydroponicsResearchFaculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz in randomized complete block designwithtwo factors ureaatfivelevels of 0,25, 50, 75and100milligrams perliter(U0, U25,U50, U75, U100andnickelattwo levels of0and2mg per liter (Ni0, Ni2ofnickelsulfate(NiSO4in4replicatesusinglettuce(Lactuca sativa cv. Siyahoo. Plants fed with the modifiedHoagland solutionorhalf theconcentration. Treatments added to nutrient solution when plants were in four leaf stage. Plants were harvested 50 days after treatment. Different organs (leaves, stems and roots were separated

  16. Role of ascorbic acid in the inhibition of polyphenol oxidase and the prevention of browning in different browning-sensitive Lactuca sativa var. capitata (L.) and Eruca sativa (Mill.) stored as fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Degl'Innocenti, Elena; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and, to a minor extent, peroxidase (POD) represent the key enzymes involved in enzymatic browning, a negative process induced by cutting fresh-cut produce such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rocket salad (Eruca sativa). Although ascorbic acid is frequently utilised as an anti-browning agent, its mechanism in the prevention of the browning phenomenon is not clearly understood. The activity of PPO and POD and their isoforms in lettuce (a high-browning and low-ascorbic acid species) and rocket salad (a low-browning and high-ascorbic species) was characterised. The kinetic parameters of PPO and in vitro ascorbic acid-PPO inhibition were also investigated. In rocket salad, PPO activity was much lower than that in lettuce and cutting induced an increase in PPO activity only in lettuce. Exogenous ascorbic acid (5 mmol L(-1)) reduced PPO activity by about 90% in lettuce. POD did not appear to be closely related to browning in lettuce. PPO is the main enzyme involved in the browning phenomenon; POD appears to play a minor role. The concentration of endogenous ascorbic acid in rocket salad was related to its low-browning sensitivity after cutting. In lettuce, the addition of ascorbic acid directly inhibited PPO activity. The results suggest that the high ascorbic acid content found in rocket salad plays an effective role in reducing PPO activity. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Synthesis of Copper-Chelates Derived from Amino Acids and Evaluation of Their Efficacy as Copper Source and Growth Stimulator for Lactuca sativa in Nutrient Solution Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewchangwat, Narongpol; Dueansawang, Sattawat; Tumcharern, Gamolwan; Suttisintong, Khomson

    2017-11-15

    Five tetradentate ligands were synthesized from l-amino acids and utilized for the synthesis of Cu(II)-chelates 1-5. The efficacy of Cu(II)-chelates as copper (Cu) source and growth stimulator in hydroponic cultivation was evaluated with Lactuca sativa. Their stability test was performed at pH 4-10. The results suggested that Cu(II)-chelate 3 is the most pH tolerant complex. Levels of Cu, Zn, and Fe accumulated in plants supplied with Cu(II)-chelates were compared with those supplied with CuSO 4 at the same Cu concentration of 8.0 μM. The results showed that Cu(II)-chelate 3 significantly enhanced Cu, Zn, and Fe content in shoot by 35, 15, and 48%, respectively. Application of Cu(II)-chelate 3 also improved plant dry matter yield by 54%. According to the results, Cu(II)-chelate 3 demonstrated the highest stimulating effect on plant growth and plant mineral accumulation so that it can be used as an alternative to CuSO 4 for supplying Cu in nutrient solutions and enhancing the plant growth.

  18. Lettuce Production Hydroponics (Lactuca Sativa L. for the Promotion of Self-Management in Basic School Bolivariana “Los Naranjos”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfredo Díaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims at the promotion of the Hydroponic Lettuce Cultivation (Lactuca Sativa L. as a self - management alternative in the Bolivarian Basic School “Los Naranjos”, Calderas parish, Bolívar municipality of Barinas state. The nature of the study is framed under the modality of the qualitative paradigm, adopting the method of Participatory Action Research. On the other hand, the research will be conducted in (4 four phases: Phase I. Diagnosis, Phase II. Elaboration of the action plan, Phase III. Implementation of the action plan, Phase IV. Reflection, interpretation and integration of results. Information triangulation was used to analyze the information in order to cross-check information from key informants. For all of the above, this study constitutes a significant contribution to the teaching and learning process as it is the responsibility of the family and teachers as promoters and agents of dissemination of knowledge, accept the responsibility in this process of placing children in contact And girls with new techniques of cultivation, in this case with the hydroponic technique, since its early years, so that this is a pleasurable, pleasant and encouraging experience that accompanies him for the rest of his life.

  19. Root Zone Cooling and Exogenous Spermidine Root-Pretreatment Promoting Lactuca sativa L. Growth and Photosynthesis in the High-Temperature Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin eSun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Root zone high-temperature stress is a major factor limiting hydroponic plant growth during the high-temperature season. The effects of root zone cooling (RZC; at 25°C and exogenous spermidine (Spd root-pretreatment (SRP, 0.1 mM on growth, leaf photosynthetic traits, and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of hydroponic Lactuca sativa L. grown in a high-temperature season (average temperature > 30°C were examined. Both treatments significantly promoted plant growth and photosynthesis in the high-temperature season, but the mechanisms of photosynthesis improvement in the hydroponic grown lettuce plants were different between the RZC and SRP treatments. The former improved plant photosynthesis by increasing stoma conductance (Gs to enhance CO2 supply, thus promoting photosynthetic electron transport activity and phosphorylation, which improved the level of the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII, rather than enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency. The latter improved plant photosynthesis by enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency, rather than stomatal regulation. Combination of RZC and SRP significantly improved PN of lettuce plants in a high-temperature season by both improvement of Gs to enhance CO2 supply and enhancement of CO2 assimilation. The enhancement of photosynthetic efficiency in both treatments was independent of altering light-harvesting or excessive energy dissipation.

  20. Phytotoxicity and cytogenotoxicity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Solanum muricatum Ait. and Solanum betaceum Cav. (Solanaceae) in the plant model Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Fabio Eduardo; Carvalho, Marcos Schleiden Sousa; Silveira, Graciele Lurdes; Correa, Felipe Folgaroli; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Vilela, Luciane Resende

    2018-03-05

    Plants are rich in biologically active compounds. They can be explored for the production of bioherbicides. In this context, the present work aimed to evaluate the allelopathic effect of hydroalcoholic extracts from two Solanaceae species: Solanum muricatum Ait. and Solanum betaceum Cav. For this end, we conducted phytochemical screening and biological assays, determining the effects of the extracts on germination, early development, cell cycle, and DNA fragmentation in plantlets and meristematic cells of the plant model Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce). The percentage of seeds germinated under effect of S. muricatum extract did not differ from the control, but plantlet growth was reduced at the highest concentrations. For S. betaceum extract, dose dependence was observed for both germination and plantlet development, with the highest concentrations inhibiting germination. The growth curves revealed the concentrations of 2.06 and 1.93 g/L for S. muricatum and S. betaceum extracts, respectively, as those reducing 50% of root growth (RG). At these concentrations, both extracts presented mitodepressive effect, besides inducing significant increase in the frequency of condensed nuclei, associated to DNA fragmentation and cytoplasmic shrinkage. The frequency of chromosome alterations was not significant. We further discuss the mechanisms of action related to the chemical composition of the extracts, which presented organic acids, reducing sugars, proteins, amino acids, and tannins, besides catechins and flavonoids, only found in the extract of S. betaceum.

  1. The Impact of Biochar Application on Soil Properties and Plant Growth of Pot Grown Lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Cabbage (Brassica chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Haefele

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rice-husk char (potentially biochar application on the growth of transplanted lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis was assessed in a pot experiment over a three crop (lettuce-cabbage-lettuce cycle in Cambodia. The biochar was the by-product of a rice-husk gasification unit and consisted of 28.7% carbon (C by mass. Biochar application rates to potting medium of 25, 50 and 150 g kg−1 were used with and without locally available fertilizers (a mixture of compost, liquid compost and lake sediment. The rice-husk biochar used was slightly alkaline (pH 7.79, increased the pH of the soil, and contained elevated levels of some trace metals and exchangeable cations (K, Ca and Mg in comparison to the soil. The biochar treatments were found to increase the final biomass, root biomass, plant height and number of leaves in all the cropping cycles in comparison to no biochar treatments. The greatest biomass increase due to biochar additions (903% was found in the soils without fertilization, rather than fertilized soils (483% with the same biochar application as in the “without fertilization” case. Over the cropping cycles the impact was reduced; a 363% increase in biomass was observed in the third lettuce cycle.

  2. Increased exposure to UV-B radiation during early development leads to enhanced photoprotection and improved long-term performance in Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargent, Jason J; Elfadly, Eslam M; Moore, Jason P; Paul, Nigel D

    2011-08-01

    Plant responses to solar UV radiation are numerous and have often been considered from a perspective of negative outcomes for plant productivity. In this study, we used two experimental approaches consisting of: (1) field-based spectrally modifying filters in addition to (2) controlled indoor exposure to UV-B, to examine the effects of UV radiation on growth and photosynthetic performance of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings. Various aspects of growth were affected in plants grown under a UV-inclusive environment compared to a UV-depleted environment, including reductions in leaf expansion, increases in leaf thickness and the rate of net photosynthesis. After transplantation to a uniform field environment, lettuce plants initially propagated under the UV-inclusive environment exhibited higher harvestable yields than those from a UV-depleted environment. In controlled conditions, photosynthetic rates were higher in plants grown in the presence of UV-B radiation, and relative growth of plants pre-acclimatized to UV-B was also increased, in addition to higher maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) (F(v) /F(m) ) following subsequent exposure to high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and temperature stress. Our findings are discussed within the context of sustainability in agriculture and the paradigm shift in photobiology which such beneficial responses to UV radiation could represent. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Genotype variations in cadmium and lead accumulations of leafy lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and screening for pollution-safe cultivars for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Jiangang; Kong, Wei; Yang, Zhongyi

    2013-06-01

    Heavy-metals in polluted soils can accumulate in plants and threaten crop safety. To evaluate the risk of heavy-metal pollution in leafy lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), two pot experiments were conducted to investigate Cd and Pb accumulation and transfer potential in 28 cultivars of lettuce and to screen for low-Cd and low-Pb accumulative cultivars. In the three treatments, 5.2-fold, 4.8-fold and 4.8-fold differences in the shoot Cd concentration were observed between the cultivars with the highest and the lowest Cd concentrations, respectively. This genotype variation was sufficiently large to identify low-Cd accumulative genotypes to reduce Cd contamination in food. Cadmium accumulation in the low-Cd accumulative genotypes was significantly positively correlated with Pb accumulation. At the cultivar level, Cd and Pb accumulation in lettuce was stable and genotype-dependent. High Pb soil levels did not affect shoot Cd accumulation in lettuce. Lettuce was concluded to be at high risk for Cd pollution and low risk for Pb pollution. Among the tested cultivars, cvs. SJGT, YLGC, N518, and KR17 had the lowest Cd and Pb accumulation abilities in shoots and are thus important parental material for breeding pollution-safe cultivars to minimize Cd and Pb accumulation.

  4. Effect of abscisic acid on biochemical constituents, enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidant status of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under varied irrigation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Al Muhairi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economically important vegetable crop lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. of family Asteraceae was selected for the present investigation. It is being cultivated in UAE due to its commercial importance. In lettuce cultivation, the major problem is the requirement of large quantities of irrigation water. The present study was aimed to reduce the water consumption of lettuce cultivation; for that, a varied irrigation regime was used with the application of abscisic acid (ABA. The parameters studied were biochemical constituents, antioxidant potential and antioxidant enzymes’ activities in lettuce plants under drought stress and its response to ABA under stress. Drought stress caused an increase in the biochemical constituents like proline and amino acid contents when compared with control and also increased under individual ABA treatments and treatments under drought stress. The non-enzymatic antioxidant molecules like ascorbate and α-tocopherol showed significant increase under drought condition in lettuce. ABA slightly reduced these contents. The antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase showed significant increase under drought condition and ABA caused significant enhancement in these antioxidant enzymes under drought stress and also in unstressed conditions, thereby protecting the plants from the deleterious effects of drought stress. From the results of this investigation, it can be concluded that ABA in 10 mg g−1 can be used as a potential tool to minimise the drought stress effects in lettuce cultivation.

  5. Investigating the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens UW4 to reduce cadmium stress in Lactuca sativa via an intervention in the ethylene biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Lucas J; Macfie, Sheila M

    2016-12-01

    A typical plant response to any biotic or abiotic stress, including cadmium (Cd), involves increased ethylene synthesis, which causes senescence of the affected plant part. Stressed plants can experience reduced ethylene and improved growth if they are inoculated with bacteria that have the enzyme ACC deaminase, which metabolizes the ethylene precursor ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate). We investigated whether one such bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens UW4, reduces the production of ethylene and improves the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) sown in Cd-contaminated potting material (PRO-MIX® BX). Plants were inoculated with the wild-type P. fluorescens UW4 or a mutant strain that cannot produce ACC deaminase. Cadmium-treated plants contained up to 50 times more Cd than did control plants. In noninoculated plants, Cd induced a 5-fold increase in ethylene concentration. The wild-type bacterium prevented Cd-induced reductions in root biomass but there was no relationship between Cd treatment and ethylene production in inoculated plants. In contrast, when the concentration of ethylene was plotted against the extent of bacterial colonization of the roots, increased colonization with wild-type P. fluorescens UW4 was associated with 20% less ethylene production. Ours is the first study to show that the protective effect of this bacterium is proportional to the quantity of bacteria on the root surface.

  6. Linking the morphological and metabolomic response of Lactuca sativa L exposed to emerging contaminants using GC × GC-MS and chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Carlos; Parastar, Hadi; Matamoros, Víctor; Piña, Benjamín; Tauler, Romà; Bayona, Josep M

    2017-07-26

    The occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in irrigation waters (up to low μg L -1 ) and irrigated crops (ng g -1 in dry weight) has been reported, but the linkage between plant morphological changes and plant metabolomic response has not yet been addressed. In this study, a non-targeted metabolomic analysis was performed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) exposed to 11 CECs (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, anticorrosive agents and surfactants) by irrigation. The plants were watered with different CEC concentrations (0-50 µg L -1 ) for 34 days under controlled conditions and then harvested, extracted, derivatised and analysed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC × GC-TOFMS). The resulting raw data were analysed using multivariate curve resolution (MCR) and partial least squares (PLS) methods. The metabolic response indicates that exposure to CECs at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.05 µg L -1 ) can cause significant metabolic alterations in plants (carbohydrate metabolism, the citric acid cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and glutathione pathway) linked to changes in morphological parameters (leaf height, stem width) and chlorophyll content.

  7. Influence of fine process particles enriched with metals and metalloids on Lactuca sativa L. leaf fatty acid composition following air and/or soil-plant field exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreck, Eva; Laplanche, Christophe; Le Guédard, Marina; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques; Austruy, Annabelle; Xiong, Tiantian; Foucault, Yann; Dumat, Camille

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effect of both foliar and root uptake of a mixture of metal(loid)s on the fatty acid composition of plant leaves. Our objectives are to determine whether both contamination pathways have a similar effect and whether they interact. Lactuca sativa L. were exposed to fine process particles enriched with metal(loid)s in an industrial area. Data from a first experiment were used to conduct an exploratory statistical analysis which findings were successfully cross-validated by using the data from a second one. Both foliar and root pathways impact plant leaf fatty acid composition and do not interact. Z index (dimensionless quantity), weighted product of fatty acid concentration ratios was built up from the statistical analyses. It provides new insights on the mechanisms involved in metal uptake and phytotoxicity. Plant leaf fatty acid composition is a robust and fruitful approach to detect and understand the effects of metal(loid) contamination on plants. -- Highlights: •The study compares foliar and root transfers of metal(loid)s and their effects on plants. •Field experiments are performed combining ecotoxicological and statistical analyses. •The use of leaf fatty acid composition is a relevant indicator of exposure pathway. •The uptake pathways are independent, with an additive effect in terms of phytotoxicity. -- Metal uptake via both foliar and root pathways alters in a distinctive manner the fatty acid composition of lettuce leaves

  8. Particle trajectories in seeds of Lactuca sativa and chromosome aberrations after exposure to cosmic heavy ions on cosmos biosatellites 8 and 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facius, R.; Scherer, K.; Reitz, G.; Bücker, H.; Nevzgodina, L. V.; Maximova, E. N.

    1994-10-01

    The potentially specific importance of the heavy ions of the galactic cosmic radiation for radiation protection in manned spaceflight continues to stimulate in situ, i.e., spaceflight experiments to investigate their radiobiological properties. Chromosome aberrations as an expression of a direct assault on the genome are of particular interest in view of cancerogenesis being the primary radiation risk for man in space. In such investigations the establishment of the geometrical correlation between heavy ions' trajectories and the location of radiation sensitive biological substructures is an essential task. The overall qualitative and quantitative precision achieved for the identification of particle trajectories in the order of 2~10 μm as well as the contributing sources of uncertainties are discussed. We describe how this was achieved for seeds of Lactuca sativa as biological test organisms, whose location and orientation had to be derived from contact photographies displaying their outlines and those of the holder plates only. The incidence of chromosome aberrations in cells exposed during the COSMOS 1887 (Biosatellite 8) and the COSMOS 2044 (Biosatellite 9) mission was determined for seeds hit by cosmic heavy ions. In those seeds the incidence of both single and multiple chromosome aberrations was enhanced. The results of the Biosatellite 9 experiment, however, are confounded by spaceflight effects unrelated to the passage of heavy ions.

  9. Transformation of Lactuca sativa L. with rol C gene results in increased antioxidant potential and enhanced analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant activities in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hammad; Dilshad, Erum; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Sajid, Moniba; Kayani, Waqas Khan; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-12-01

    Lettuce is an important edible crop which possesses various medicinal properties. In this study Lactuca sativa L. (cv Grand Rapids) was transformed by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with rol C gene. Transgene integration and expression was confirmed through PCR and semiquantitative RT-PCR. The transformed extracts were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant and in vivo analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant activities in rats. The transformed plants showed 53-98 % increase in total phenolic and 45-58 % increase in total flavonoid contents compared with untransformed plants. Results of total reducing power and total antioxidant capacity exhibited 90-118 and 61-75 % increase in transformed plants, respectively. In contrast to control, DPPH, lipid peroxidation and DNA protection assay showed up to 37, 20 and 50 % enhancement in transformed plants, respectively. The extracts showed similar but significant enhancement behavior in hot plate analgesic and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema test. The transformed extracts showed 72.1 and 78.5 % increase for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively. The transformants of rol C gene exhibited prominent antidepressant activity with 64-73 % increase compared with untransformed plants. In conclusion, the present work suggests that transformation with rol C gene can be used to generate lettuce with enhanced medicinally important properties, such as antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant potential.

  10. LCM-seq reveals the crucial role of LsSOC1 in heat-promoted bolting of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijing; Zhao, Wensheng; Ge, Danfeng; Han, Yingyan; Ning, Kang; Luo, Chen; Wang, Shenglin; Liu, Renyi; Zhang, Xiaolan; Wang, Qian

    2018-05-17

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most economically important vegetables. The floral transition in lettuce is accelerated under high temperatures, which can significantly decrease yields. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the floral tranition in lettuce is poorly known. Using laser capture microdissection coupled with RNA sequencing, we isolated shoot apical meristem cells from the bolting-sensitive lettuce line S39 at four critical stages of development. Subsequently, we screened specifically for the flowering-related gene LsSOC1 during the floral transition through comparative transcriptomic analysis. Molecular biology, developmental biology, and biochemical tools were combined to investigate the biological function of LsSOC1 in lettuce. LsSOC1 knockdown by RNA interference resulted in a significant delay in the timing of bolting and insensitivity to high temperature, which indicated that LsSOC1 functions as an activator during heat-promoted bolting in lettuce. We determined that two heat-shock transcription factors, HsfA1e and HsfA4c, bound to the promoter of LsSOC1 to confirm that LsSOC1 played an important role in heat-promoted bolting. This study indicates that LsSOC1 plays a crucial role in the heat-promoted bolting process in lettuce. Further investigation of LsSOC1 may be useful for clarification of the bolting mechanism in lettuce. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity and fast UHPLC-DAD-IT-TOF profiling of polyphenolic compounds extracted from green lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.; var. Maravilla de Verano).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Giacomo; Sommella, Eduardo; Manfra, Michele; De Nisco, Mauro; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Scopa, Antonio; Sofo, Adriano; Marzocco, Stefania; Adesso, Simona; Novellino, Tiziana; Campiglia, Pietro

    2015-01-15

    Fresh cut vegetables represent a widely consumed food worldwide. Among these, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most popular on the market. The growing interest for this "healthy" food is related to the content of bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols, that show many beneficial effects. In this study, we report the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of polyphenols extracted from lettuce (var. Maravilla de Verano), in J774A.1 macrophages stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Lettuce extract significantly decreased reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide release, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cycloxygenase-2 expression. A detailed quali/quantitative profiling of the polyphenolic content was carried out, obtaining fast separation (10 min), good retention time and peak area repeatability, (RSD% 0.80 and 8.68, respectively) as well as linearity (R(2)⩾ 0.999) and mass accuracy (⩽ 5 ppm). Our results show the importance in the diet of this cheap and popular food for his healthy properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Supplemental Upward Lighting from Underneath to Obtain Higher Marketable Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Leaf Fresh Weight by Retarding Senescence of Outer Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Shen, Shanqi; Takagaki, Michiko; Kozai, Toyoki; Yamori, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the so-called "plant factory with artificial lighting" (PFAL) approach has been developed to provide safe and steady food production. Although PFALs can produce high-yielding and high-quality plants, the high plant density in these systems accelerates leaf senescence in the bottom (or outer) leaves owing to shading by the upper (or inner) leaves and by neighboring plants. This decreases yield and increases labor costs for trimming. Thus, the establishment of cultivation methods to retard senescence of outer leaves is an important research goal to improve PFAL yield and profitability. In the present study, we developed an LED lighting apparatus that would optimize light conditions for PFAL cultivation of a leafy vegetable. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was hydroponically grown under white, red, or blue LEDs, with light provided from above (downward), with or without supplemental upward lighting from underneath the plant. White LEDs proved more appropriate for lettuce growth than red or blue LEDs, and the supplemental lighting retarded the senescence of outer leaves and decreased waste (i.e., dead or low-quality senescent leaves), leading to an improvement of the marketable leaf fresh weight.

  13. Root Zone Cooling and Exogenous Spermidine Root-Pretreatment Promoting Lactuca sativa L. Growth and Photosynthesis in the High-temperature Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin; Lu, Na; Xu, Hongjia; Maruo, Toru; Guo, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    Root zone high-temperature stress is a major factor limiting hydroponic plant growth during the high-temperature season. The effects of root zone cooling (RZC; at 25°C) and exogenous spermidine (Spd) root-pretreatment (SRP, 0.1 mM) on growth, leaf photosynthetic traits, and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of hydroponic Lactuca sativa L. grown in a high-temperature season (average temperature > 30°C) were examined. Both treatments significantly promoted plant growth and photosynthesis in the high-temperature season, but the mechanisms of photosynthesis improvement in the hydroponic grown lettuce plants were different between the RZC and SRP treatments. The former improved plant photosynthesis by increasing stoma conductance (G s) to enhance CO2 supply, thus promoting photosynthetic electron transport activity and phosphorylation, which improved the level of the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), rather than enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency. The latter improved plant photosynthesis by enhancing CO2 assimilation efficiency, rather than stomatal regulation. Combination of RZC and SRP significantly improved P N of lettuce plants in a high-temperature season by both improvement of G s to enhance CO2 supply and enhancement of CO2 assimilation. The enhancement of photosynthetic efficiency in both treatments was independent of altering light-harvesting or excessive energy dissipation.

  14. Assembly of the Lactuca sativa, L. cv. Tizian draft genome sequence reveals differences within major resistance complex 1 as compared to the cv. Salinas reference genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwaaijen, Bart; Wibberg, Daniel; Nelkner, Johanna; Gordin, Miriam; Rupp, Oliver; Winkler, Anika; Bremges, Andreas; Blom, Jochen; Grosch, Rita; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2018-02-10

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) is an important annual plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). The commercial lettuce cultivar Tizian has been used in various scientific studies investigating the interaction of the plant with phytopathogens or biological control agents. Here, we present the de novo draft genome sequencing and gene prediction for this specific cultivar derived from transcriptome sequence data. The assembled scaffolds amount to a size of 2.22 Gb. Based on RNAseq data, 31,112 transcript isoforms were identified. Functional predictions for these transcripts were determined within the GenDBE annotation platform. Comparison with the cv. Salinas reference genome revealed a high degree of sequence similarity on genome and transcriptome levels, with an average amino acid identity of 99%. Furthermore, it was observed that two large regions are either missing or are highly divergent within the cv. Tizian genome compared to cv. Salinas. One of these regions covers the major resistance complex 1 region of cv. Salinas. The cv. Tizian draft genome sequence provides a valuable resource for future functional and transcriptome analyses focused on this lettuce cultivar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Compartmental analysis of roots in intact rapidly-growing Spergularia marina and Lactuca sativa: partial characterization of the symplasms functional in the radial transport of Na+ and K+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazof, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques of compartmental analysis were adapted to the study of intact roots of rapidly-growing Spergularia marine and Lactuca sativa. Using large numbers of plants short time-courses of uptake and chase, 42 K + and 22 Na + transport could be resolved, even during a chase following a brief 10 minute labeling period. The use of intact plant systems allowed distinction of that portion of the isotope flux into the root, associated with the ion-conducting symplasms. A small compartment, which rapidly (t/sub .5/ + , accounting for the observed obtention of linear translocation rates within minutes of transferring to labeled solution. The ion contents of this compartment varied in proportion to the external ion concentration. When K + was at a high external concentration, labeled K + exchanged into this same symplasm, but chasing a short pulse indicated that K + transport to the xylem was not through a rapidly-exchanging compartment. At physiological concentrations of K + the evidence indicated that transport of K + across the root proceeded through a compartment which was not exchanging rapidly with the external medium. The rise to a linear rate of isotope translocation was gradual and translocation during a chase, following a brief pulse,was prolonged, indicating that this compartment retained its specific activity for a considerable period

  16. Metallic Nanoparticle (TiO2 and Fe3O4) Application Modifies Rhizosphere Phosphorus Availability and Uptake by Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, Zahra; Arshad, Muhammad; Rafique, Rafia; Mahmood, Arshad; Habib, Amir; Qazi, Ishtiaq A; Khan, Saud A

    2015-08-12

    Application of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) with respect to nutrient uptake in plants is not yet well understood. The impacts of TiO2 and Fe3O4 NPs on the availability of naturally soil-bound inorganic phosphorus (Pi) to plants were studied along with relevant parameters. For this purpose, Lactuca sativa (lettuce) was cultivated on the soil amended with TiO2 and Fe3O4 (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg kg(-1)) over a period of 90 days. Different techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to monitor translocation and understand the possible mechanisms for phosphorus (P) uptake. The trends for P accumulation were different for roots (TiO2 > Fe3O4 > control) and shoots (Fe3O4 > TiO2 > control). Cystine and methionine were detected in the rhizosphere in Raman spectra. Affinities of NPs to adsorb phosphate ions, modifications in P speciation, and NP stress in the rhizosphere had possibly contributed to enhanced root exudation and acidification. All of these changes led to improved P availability and uptake by the plants. These promising results can help to develop an innovative strategy for using NPs for improved nutrient management to ensure food security.

  17. Production characteristics of lettuce Lactuca sativa L. in the frame of the first crop tests in the Higher Plant Chamber integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lawson, Jamie; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Paille, Christel; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Godia, Francesc

    Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an artificial closed ecosystem that is considered a tool for the development of a bioregenerative life support system for manned space missions. One of the five compartments of MELiSSA loop -Higher Plant Chamber was recently integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility at Universitat Aut`noma deo Barcelona. The main contributions expected by integration of this photosynthetic compartment are oxygen, water, vegetable food production and CO2 consumption. Production characteristics of Lactuca sativa L., as a MELiSSA candidate crop, were investigated in this work in the first crop experiments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility. The plants were grown in batch culture and totaled 100 plants with a growing area 5 m long and 1 m wide in a sealed controlled environment. Several replicates of the experiments were carried out with varying duration. It was shown that after 46 days of lettuce cultivation dry edible biomass averaged 27, 2 g per plant. However accumulation of oxygen in the chamber, which required purging of the chamber, and decrease in the food value of the plants was observed. Reducing the duration of the tests allowed uninterrupted test without opening the system and also allowed estimation of the crop's carbon balance. Results of productivity, tissue composition, nutrient uptake and canopy photosynthesis of lettuce regardless of test duration are discussed in the paper.

  18. Growth and phenolic compounds of Lactuca sativa L. grown in a closed-type plant production system with UV-A, -B, or -C lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Jeong; Son, Jung Eek; Oh, Myung-Min

    2014-01-30

    The production of high-quality crops based on phytochemicals is a strategy for accelerating the practical use of plant factories. Previous studies have demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) light is effective in improving phytochemical production. This study aimed to determine the effect of various UV wavelengths on growth and phenolic compound accumulation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown in a closed-type plant production system. Seven days, 1 day and 0.25 day were determined as the upper limit of the irradiation periods for UV-A, -B, and -C, respectively, in the lettuce based on physiological disorders and the fluorescence parameter F(v)/F(m). Continuous UV-A treatment significantly induced the accumulation of phenolic compounds and antioxidants until 4 days of treatment without growth inhibition, consistent with an increase in phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and PAL activity. Repeated or gradual UV-B exposure yielded approximately 1.4-3.6 times more total phenolics and antioxidants, respectively, than the controls did 2 days after the treatments, although both treatments inhibited lettuce growth. Repeated UV-C exposure increased phenolics but severely inhibited the growth of lettuce plants. Our data suggest that UV irradiation can improve the accumulation of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties in lettuce cultivated in plant factories. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Influence of fine process particles enriched with metals and metalloids on Lactuca sativa L. leaf fatty acid composition following air and/or soil-plant field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Eva; Laplanche, Christophe; Le Guédard, Marina; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques; Austruy, Annabelle; Xiong, Tiantian; Foucault, Yann; Dumat, Camille

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the effect of both foliar and root uptake of a mixture of metal(loid)s on the fatty acid composition of plant leaves. Our objectives are to determine whether both contamination pathways have a similar effect and whether they interact. Lactuca sativa L. were exposed to fine process particles enriched with metal(loid)s in an industrial area. Data from a first experiment were used to conduct an exploratory statistical analysis which findings were successfully cross-validated by using the data from a second one. Both foliar and root pathways impact plant leaf fatty acid composition and do not interact. Z index (dimensionless quantity), weighted product of fatty acid concentration ratios was built up from the statistical analyses. It provides new insights on the mechanisms involved in metal uptake and phytotoxicity. Plant leaf fatty acid composition is a robust and fruitful approach to detect and understand the effects of metal(loid) contamination on plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic investigation of the nonhost resistance of wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna, to lettuce downy mildew, Bremia lactucae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, den E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a devastating foliar disease causing high losses in lettuce cultivation. The wild lettuce and nonhost species, Lactuca saligna, is absolute resistant to downy mildew and

  1. Nivel de contaminación enteroparasitaria de lechugas (Lactuca Sativa) irrigadas con aguas del Río Rímac para consumo humano en la zona de Carapongo.

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Morales, Félix Nicolás

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar el nivel de la contaminación enteroparasitaria de lechugas para consumo humano irrigadas con aguas servidas del río Rímac en poscosecha. Metodología: Se estableció tres zonas de estudio Z-1 curva del cerro Cuncacucho, Z-2 puente o mercado de Carapongo a 50 m de rivera del río y Z-3 paradero Portillo a 50 m de la ribera del río Las muestras de lechuga, (Lactuca sativa), fueron tomadas in situ en número de dos unidades, de las cuales s...

  2. Selective toxin effects on faster and slower growing individuals in the formation of hormesis at the population level - A case study with Lactuca sativa and PCIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Regina G; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2016-10-01

    Natural plant populations have large phenotypic plasticity that enhances acclimation to local stress factors such as toxin exposures. While consequences of high toxin exposures are well addressed, effects of low-dose toxin exposures on plant populations are seldom investigated. In particular, the importance of 'selective low-dose toxicity' and hormesis, i.e. stimulatory effects, has not been studied simultaneously. Since selective toxicity can change the size distribution of populations, we assumed that hormesis alters the size distribution at the population level, and investigated whether and how these two low-dose phenomena coexist. The study was conducted with Lactuca sativa L. exposed to the auxin-inhibitor 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid (PCIB) in vitro. In two separate experiments, L. sativa was exposed to 12 PCIB doses in 24 replicates (50 plants/replicate). Shoot/root growth responses at the population level were compared to the fast-growing (≥90% percentile) and the slow-growing subpopulations (≤10% percentile) by Mann-Whitney U testing and dose-response modelling. In the formation of pronounced PCIB hormesis at the population level, low-dose effects proved selective, but widely stimulatory which seems to counteract low-dose selective toxicity. The selectivity of hormesis was dose- and growth rate-dependent. Stimulation occurred at lower concentrations and stimulation percentage was higher among slow-growing individuals, but partly or entirely masked at the population level by moderate or negligible stimulation among the faster growing individuals. We conclude that the hormetic effect up to the maximum stimulation may be primarily facilitated by an increase in size of the most slow-growing individuals, while thereafter it seems that mainly the fast-growing individuals contributed to the observed hormesis at the population level. As size distribution within a population is related to survival, our study hints that selective effects on slow

  3. Produção de alface (Lactuca sativa L., em função de diferentes concentrações e tipos de biofertilizantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Pereira de Sousa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE A alface (Lactuca sativa L. originou-se de espécies silvestres, ainda atualmente encontradas em regiões de clima temperado, no sul da Europa e na Ásia Ocidental. Objetivou-se com este trabalho, estudar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de urina de vaca e biofertilizante aplicados via foliar na cultura da alface em condições edafoclimáticas do município de Catolé do Rocha-PB. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de campo na estação experimental agroecológica do Campus IV da UEPB. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualisados com 12 tratamentos, no esquema fatorial 6x2, com 4 repetições. Testou-se 06 concentrações de biofertilizante: (C1= 0,0; C2= 10; C3= 20; C4= 30; C5= 40 e C6= 50 m/L planta/vez, respectivamente e aplicação do biofertilizante (T1 e da urina de vaca (T2, na produção da alface. Utilizou-se sementes da cultivar Elba (grupo crespo. Avaliou-se: número de folhas (NF, peso verde da folha (PVF e peso verde da parte aérea (PVPA. As concentrações de biofertilizante se comportaram de maneira semelhante dentro dos tipos de biofertilizante e vice-versa. As plantas de alface Elba submetidas á concentração C3= 20 ml/L planta/vez, na presença de urina de vaca (T2 proporcionaram maiores taxas de desenvolvimento foliar.

  4. The use of nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation wastewater for the production of romaine lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) in water recirculation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendi, Hefni; Wahyuningsih, Sri; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2017-10-01

    In the recirculation aquaponic system (RAS), fish farming waste was utilized as a nutrient for plant, minimizing the water need, reducing the waste disposal into the environment, and producing the fish and plant as well. The study aimed to examine the growth of romaine lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. Longifolia) in aquaponic system without the addition of artificial nutrient. The nutrient relies solely on wastewater of nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation circulated continuously on the aquaponic system. The results showed that tilapia weight reached 48.49 ± 3.92 g of T3 (tilapia, romaine lettuce, and inoculated bacteria), followed by T2 (tilapia and romaine lettuce) and T1 (tilapia) of 47.80 ± 1.97 and 45.89 ± 1.10 g after 35 days of experiment. Tilapia best performance in terms of growth and production occurred at T3 of 3.96 ± 0.44 g/day, 12.10 ± 0.63 %/day, 96.11 ± 1.44 % and 1.60 ± 0.07 for GR, SGR, SR, and FCR, respectively. It is also indicated by better water quality characteristic in this treatment. Romaine lettuce harvests of T2 and T3 showed no significant difference, with the final weight of 61.87 ± 5.59 and 57.74 ± 4.35 g. Overall, the integration of tilapia fish farming and romaine lettuce is potentially a promising aquaponic system for sustainable fish and horticulture plant production.

  5. Calidad microbiológica y parasitológica de lechuga (Lactuca sativa y cilantro (Coriandrum sativum expendidos en la Parroquia Santa Rita, Aragua, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirza Noguera Machado

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Las hortalizas aportan grandes beneficios para la salud debido a sus innumerables propiedades alimenticias; sin embargo, existe una gran variedad de factores que ponen en riesgo la calidad sanitaria de las mismas constituyéndose en vehículos para enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria (ETA. Por ello, se decidió evaluar la calidad microbiológica y parasitológica de dos hortalizas, lechuga (Lactuca sativa y cilantro (Coriandrum sativum expendidas en la Parroquia Santa Rita del Municipio Francisco Linares Alcántara (Aragua, Venezuela. Se analizaron un total de 20 muestras, 10 de cilantro y 10 de lechuga; la determinación microbiológica se realizó por la técnica del Número Más Probable y el análisis parasitológico, mediante observación directa, tinción de Kinyoun y la técnica de Faust. Los resultados mostraron la presencia de coliformes totales (1,1x104 NMP/g en el 100 % de las muestras. No se evidenció coliformes fecales en ninguna de las muestras. En relación al análisis parasitológico, se identificaron protozoarios intestinales, con mayor prevalencia de Blastocystis spp. y menor en helmintos. Los resultados demuestran el peligro potencial que representa el consumo de hortalizas frescas contaminadas para la salud pública. Se debe concientizar a la población sobre medidas sanitarias preventivas que deben aplicar antes del consumo e implementar medidas de control que mejoren las condiciones higiénicas en la cadena de comercialización.

  6. Detección de Salmonella en lechuga (Lactuca sativa L. var. Capitata mediante Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Casabonne

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available La metodología de referencia para la búsqueda de Salmonella es el cultivo tradicional, sin embargo, es una técnica laboriosa y requiere varios días de procesamiento. Los métodos genotípicos resultan una alternativa eficaz frente a esta problemática. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa para la detección de Salmonella en muestras de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L. var. Capitata para su implementación en un laboratorio de microbiología de alimentos de la ciudad de Rosario, Argentina. Se empleó la técnica de la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa para detección del gen invA como marcador de Salmonella spp. Se realizó la validación de la técnica mediante la determinación de la inclusividad, la exclusividad y el límite de detección. El límite de detección fue de 1,0 µg/mL de ADN. La técnica presentó una inclusividad y una exclusividad del 100 % y exhibió un grado de concordancia muy bueno con respecto a la técnica de cultivo. Este trabajo permitió demostrar la factibilidad en el uso de la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa para detección de Salmonella en muestras de lechuga; sin embargo, es necesario estandarizar esta metodología de acuerdo a las condiciones de cada laboratorio y del alimento a procesar para asegurar su validez diagnóstica.

  7. Effects of microcystin-LR, cylindrospermopsin and a microcystin-LR/cylindrospermopsin mixture on growth, oxidative stress and mineral content in lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Marisa; Azevedo, Joana; Pinto, Edgar; Neves, Joana; Campos, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-06-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are documented worldwide as an emerging environmental concern. Recent studies support the hypothesis that microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) produce toxic effects in crop plants. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an important commercial leafy vegetable that supplies essential elements for human nutrition; thus, the study of its sensitivity to MC-LR, CYN and a MC-LR/CYN mixture is of major relevance. This study aimed to assess the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations (1, 10 and 100 µg/L) of MC-LR, CYN and a MC-LR/CYN mixture on growth, antioxidant defense system and mineral content in lettuce plants. In almost all treatments, an increase in root fresh weight was obtained; however, the fresh weight of leaves was significantly decreased in plants exposed to 100 µg/L concentrations of each toxin and the toxin mixture. Overall, GST activity was significantly increased in roots, contrary to GPx activity, which decreased in roots and leaves. The mineral content in lettuce leaves changed due to its exposure to cyanotoxins; in general, the mineral content decreased with MC-LR and increased with CYN, and apparently these effects are time and concentration-dependent. The effects of the MC-LR/CYN mixture were almost always similar to the single cyanotoxins, although MC-LR seems to be more toxic than CYN. Our results suggest that lettuce plants in non-early stages of development are able to cope with lower concentrations of MC-LR, CYN and the MC-LR/CYN mixture; however, higher concentrations (100 µg/L) can affect both lettuce yield and nutritional quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Homolog of Human Nogo-B Receptor Interacts with cis-Prenyltransferase and Is Necessary for Natural Rubber Biosynthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Chakrabarty, Romit; Tran, Hue T.; Kwon, Eun-Joo G.; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is an indispensable biopolymer used to manufacture diverse consumer products. Although a major source of natural rubber is the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is also known to synthesize natural rubber. Here, we report that an unusual cis-prenyltransferase-like 2 (CPTL2) that lacks the conserved motifs of conventional cis-prenyltransferase is required for natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. CPTL2, identified from the lettuce rubber particle proteome, displays homology to a human NogoB receptor and is predominantly expressed in latex. Multiple transgenic lettuces expressing CPTL2-RNAi constructs showed that a decrease of CPTL2 transcripts (3–15% CPTL2 expression relative to controls) coincided with the reduction of natural rubber as low as 5%. We also identified a conventional cis-prenyltransferase 3 (CPT3), exclusively expressed in latex. In subcellular localization studies using fluorescent proteins, cytosolic CPT3 was relocalized to endoplasmic reticulum by co-occurrence of CPTL2 in tobacco and yeast at the log phase. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid data showed that CPTL2 and CPT3 interact. Yeast microsomes containing CPTL2/CPT3 showed enhanced synthesis of short cis-polyisoprenes, but natural rubber could not be synthesized in vitro. Intriguingly, a homologous pair CPTL1/CPT1, which displays ubiquitous expressions in lettuce, showed a potent dolichol biosynthetic activity in vitro. Taken together, our data suggest that CPTL2 is a scaffolding protein that tethers CPT3 on endoplasmic reticulum and is necessary for natural rubber biosynthesis in planta, but yeast-expressed CPTL2 and CPT3 alone could not synthesize high molecular weight natural rubber in vitro. PMID:25477521

  9. A lettuce (Lactuca sativa) homolog of human Nogo-B receptor interacts with cis-prenyltransferase and is necessary for natural rubber biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Chakrabarty, Romit; Tran, Hue T; Kwon, Eun-Joo G; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-01-23

    Natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is an indispensable biopolymer used to manufacture diverse consumer products. Although a major source of natural rubber is the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is also known to synthesize natural rubber. Here, we report that an unusual cis-prenyltransferase-like 2 (CPTL2) that lacks the conserved motifs of conventional cis-prenyltransferase is required for natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. CPTL2, identified from the lettuce rubber particle proteome, displays homology to a human NogoB receptor and is predominantly expressed in latex. Multiple transgenic lettuces expressing CPTL2-RNAi constructs showed that a decrease of CPTL2 transcripts (3-15% CPTL2 expression relative to controls) coincided with the reduction of natural rubber as low as 5%. We also identified a conventional cis-prenyltransferase 3 (CPT3), exclusively expressed in latex. In subcellular localization studies using fluorescent proteins, cytosolic CPT3 was relocalized to endoplasmic reticulum by co-occurrence of CPTL2 in tobacco and yeast at the log phase. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid data showed that CPTL2 and CPT3 interact. Yeast microsomes containing CPTL2/CPT3 showed enhanced synthesis of short cis-polyisoprenes, but natural rubber could not be synthesized in vitro. Intriguingly, a homologous pair CPTL1/CPT1, which displays ubiquitous expressions in lettuce, showed a potent dolichol biosynthetic activity in vitro. Taken together, our data suggest that CPTL2 is a scaffolding protein that tethers CPT3 on endoplasmic reticulum and is necessary for natural rubber biosynthesis in planta, but yeast-expressed CPTL2 and CPT3 alone could not synthesize high molecular weight natural rubber in vitro. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Arabidopsis R2R3-MYB transcription factor AtMYB60 functions as a transcriptional repressor of anthocyanin biosynthesis in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Sug; Kim, Jung-Bong; Cho, Kang-Jin; Cheon, Choong-Ill; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Choung, Myoung-Gun; Roh, Kyung-Hee

    2008-06-01

    The MYB transcription factors play important roles in the regulation of many secondary metabolites at the transcriptional level. We evaluated the possible roles of the Arabidopsis R2R3-MYB transcription factors in flavonoid biosynthesis because they are induced by UV-B irradiation but their associated phenotypes are largely unexplored. We isolated their genes by RACE-PCR, and performed transgenic approach and metabolite analyses in lettuce (Lactuca sativa). We found that one member of this protein family, AtMYB60, inhibits anthocyanin biosynthesis in the lettuce plant. Wild-type lettuce normally accumulates anthocyanin, predominantly cyanidin and traces of delphinidin, and develops a red pigmentation. However, the production and accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in AtMYB60-overexpressing lettuce was inhibited. Using RT-PCR analysis, we also identified the complete absence or reduction of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) transcripts in AtMYB60- overexpressing lettuce (AtMYB60-117 and AtMYB60-112 lines). The correlation between the overexpression of AtMYB60 and the inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation suggests that the transcription factorAtMYB60 controls anthocyanin biosynthesis in the lettuce leaf. Clarification of the roles of the AtMYB60 transcription factor will facilitate further studies and provide genetic tools to better understand the regulation in plants of the genes controlled by the MYB-type transcription factors. Furthermore, the characterization of AtMYB60 has implications for the development of new varieties of lettuce and other commercially important plants with metabolic engineering approaches.

  11. High-Resolution Analysis of the Efficiency, Heritability, and Editing Outcomes of CRISPR/Cas9-Induced Modifications of NCED4 in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertier, Lien D; Ron, Mily; Huo, Heqiang; Bradford, Kent J; Britt, Anne B; Michelmore, Richard W

    2018-05-04

    CRISPR/Cas9 is a transformative tool for making targeted genetic alterations. In plants, high mutation efficiencies have been reported in primary transformants. However, many of the mutations analyzed were somatic and therefore not heritable. To provide more insights into the efficiency of creating stable homozygous mutants using CRISPR/Cas9, we targeted LsNCED4 ( 9-cis-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE4) , a gene conditioning thermoinhibition of seed germination in lettuce. Three constructs, each capable of expressing Cas9 and a single gRNA targeting different sites in LsNCED4 , were stably transformed into lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cvs. Salinas and Cobham Green. Analysis of 47 primary transformants (T 1 ) and 368 T 2 plants by deep amplicon sequencing revealed that 57% of T 1 plants contained events at the target site: 28% of plants had germline mutations in one allele indicative of an early editing event (mono-allelic), 8% of plants had germline mutations in both alleles indicative of two early editing events (bi-allelic), and the remaining 21% of plants had multiple low frequency mutations indicative of late events (chimeric plants). Editing efficiency was similar in both genotypes, while the different gRNAs varied in efficiency. Amplicon sequencing of 20 T 1 and more than 100 T 2 plants for each of the three gRNAs showed that repair outcomes were not random, but reproducible and characteristic for each gRNA. Knockouts of NCED4 resulted in large increases in the maximum temperature for seed germination, with seeds of both cultivars capable of germinating >70% at 37°. Knockouts of NCED4 provide a whole-plant selectable phenotype that has minimal pleiotropic consequences. Targeting NCED4 in a co-editing strategy could therefore be used to enrich for germline-edited events simply by germinating seeds at high temperature. Copyright © 2018 Bertier et al.

  12. Standardized extract of Lactuca sativa Linn. and its fractions abrogates scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice: A possible cholinergic and antioxidant mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Jai; Kaur, Jagpreet; Choudhary, Sunayna

    2018-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Lactuca sativa (LS) Linn. (Asteraceae) against scopolamine-induced amnesia and to validate its traditional claim as memory enhancer. Ethanol extract of fresh LS leaves (LSEE), standardized on the basis of quercetin content, was successively partitioned using various solvents viz., hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol in increasing order of polarity. LSEE (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) and its various fractions (at a dose equivalent to dose of LSEE exhibiting maximum activity), administered orally for 14 days, were evaluated for their memory enhancing effect against scopolamine-induced (1 mg/kg, i.p.) amnesia in 3-4 months old male Laca mice (n = 6 in each group). The memory enhancing effect was evaluated using behavioural (elevated plus maze, novel object recognition and Morris water maze tests) and biochemical parameters (acetylcholinesterase activity, malonaldehyde, superoxide dismutase, nitrite, catalase, and reduced gultathione content). The results of the test substances were compared with both scopolamine and donepezil that was used as a standard memory enhancer and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Scopolamine elicit marked deterioration of memory and alteration in biochemical parameters in comparison to the control group. LSEE and its n-butanol and aqueous fractions significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the scopolamine-induced amnesia that was evident in all the behavioural and biochemical test parameters. LSEE (200 mg/kg) and n-butanol fraction (15 mg/kg) exhibited maximum anti-amnesic effect among various tested dose levels. The results exhibited that LS prophylaxis attenuated scopolamine-induced memory impairment through its acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activity validating its traditional claim.

  13. Leaf Morphology, Photosynthetic Performance, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Stomatal Development of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Exposed to Different Ratios of Red Light to Blue Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Lu, Wei; Tong, Yuxin; Yang, Qichang

    2016-01-01

    Red and blue light are both vital factors for plant growth and development. We examined how different ratios of red light to blue light (R/B) provided by light-emitting diodes affected photosynthetic performance by investigating parameters related to photosynthesis, including leaf morphology, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal development, light response curve, and nitrogen content. In this study, lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) were exposed to 200 μmol⋅m(-2)⋅s(-1) irradiance for a 16 h⋅d(-1) photoperiod under the following six treatments: monochromatic red light (R), monochromatic blue light (B) and the mixture of R and B with different R/B ratios of 12, 8, 4, and 1. Leaf photosynthetic capacity (A max) and photosynthetic rate (P n) increased with decreasing R/B ratio until 1, associated with increased stomatal conductance, along with significant increase in stomatal density and slight decrease in stomatal size. P n and A max under B treatment had 7.6 and 11.8% reduction in comparison with those under R/B = 1 treatment, respectively. The effective quantum yield of PSII and the efficiency of excitation captured by open PSII center were also significantly lower under B treatment than those under the other treatments. However, shoot dry weight increased with increasing R/B ratio with the greatest value under R/B = 12 treatment. The increase of shoot dry weight was mainly caused by increasing leaf area and leaf number, but no significant difference was observed between R and R/B = 12 treatments. Based on the above results, we conclude that quantitative B could promote photosynthetic performance or growth by stimulating morphological and physiological responses, yet there was no positive correlation between P n and shoot dry weight accumulation.

  14. Influence of composted tobacco waste and farmyard manure applications on the yield and nutrient composition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezai Delibacak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic wastes in agriculture, forestry and land reclamation has been increasingly identified as an important issue for soil fertility, soil conservation and residue disposal. Using organic wastes in agriculture helps not only to dispose these materials economi¬cally, but also reduces negative effects on the envi¬ronment. In the present study, composted tobacco waste (CTW combined with farmyard manure (FM at different ratios was applied to Typic Xerofluvent soil, and the influence of these amendments on the yield and nutrient composition of butter head letttuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata were investigated. The experiment was conducted in 18 parcels in a randomized-block design with three replications at the Agriculture Faculty’s Research Farm of Ege University in Menemen plain, in the Western Anatolia Region of Turkey (38°58′35.51″-38°58′36.03″N; 27°03′84.56″-27°03′89.81″E. Organic materials were applied to the soil after composting. The treatments were (1 control, (2 12.5 t ha-1 FM + 37.5 t ha-1 CTW, (3 25 t ha-1 FM + 25 t ha-1 CTW, (4 50 t ha-1 FM, (5 50 t ha-1 CTW, and (6 37.5 t ha-1 FM + 12.5 t ha-1 CTW. The maximum yield was obtained during the 1st vegetation period (62,7 t ha-1 in the 100 % CTW application. On account of the 2nd vegetation period’s coinciding with winter and the coldness of the months December, January and February, there happened a slowdown in the lettuce yield. The highest total yield of lettuce in both vegetation periods (102.7 t ha-1 was determined in 100% CTW application parcels. The lower lettuce yields were determined in the control parcels. CTW and FM applications raised N, P, K Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Zn and Mn contents of the lettuce. According to the results obtained, it can be said that CTW can be used in agricultural fields just like FM.

  15. The Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB (isolate 7/3/14 transcriptome during interaction with the host plant lettuce (Lactuca sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Verwaaijen

    Full Text Available The necrotrophic pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most economically important soil-borne pathogens of crop plants. Isolates of R. solani AG1-IB are the major pathogens responsible for bottom-rot of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and are also responsible for diseases in other plant species. Currently, there is lack of information regarding the molecular responses in R. solani during the pathogenic interaction between the necrotrophic soil-borne pathogen and its host plant. The genome of R. solani AG1-IB (isolate 7/3/14 was recently established to obtain insights into its putative pathogenicity determinants. In this study, the transcriptional activity of R. solani AG1-IB was followed during the course of its pathogenic interaction with the host plant lettuce under controlled conditions. Based on visual observations, three distinct pathogen-host interaction zones on lettuce leaves were defined which covered different phases of disease progression on tissue inoculated with the AG1-IB (isolate 7/3/14. The zones were defined as: Zone 1-symptomless, Zone 2-light brown discoloration, and Zone 3-dark brown, necrotic lesions. Differences in R. solani hyphae structure in these three zones were investigated by microscopic observation. Transcriptional activity within these three interaction zones was used to represent the course of R. solani disease progression applying high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq analysis of samples collected from each Zone. The resulting three transcriptome data sets were analyzed for their highest expressed genes and for differentially transcribed genes between the respective interaction zones. Among the highest expressed genes was a group of not previously described genes which were transcribed exclusively during early stages of interaction, in Zones 1 and 2. Previously described importance of up-regulation in R. solani agglutinin genes during disease progression could be further confirmed; here, the corresponding genes

  16. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theoharis eOuzounis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. ’Batavia’ (green and cv. ‘Lollo Rossa’ (red] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T lamps yielding 90 (±10 µmol m-2 s-1 for up to 20 hr, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED light treatments were Control (no blue addition, 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 µmol m-2 s-1 from 06:00 to 08:00, 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 µmol m-2 s-1 from 21:00 to 08:00, 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 µmol m-2 s-1 from 17:00 to 19:00, and (1B 17-19 Blue at 45 µmol m-2 s-1from 17:00 to 19:00. Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent.

  17. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. "Batavia" (green) and cv. "Lollo Rossa" (red)] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T) lamps yielding 90 (±10) μmol m(-2) s(-1) for up to 20 h, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED) light treatments were Control (no blue addition), 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 06:00 to 08:00), 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 21:00 to 08:00), 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 17:00 to 19:00), and 1B 17-19 (Blue at 45 μmol m(-2) s(-1) from 17:00 to 19:00). Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent.

  18. Effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis in NMRI mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Radan, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    One of the considerable uses of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed in traditional medicine has been to reduce semen, sperm and sexuality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis. In this experimental study 24 adult male NMRI mice weighing 20-25gr were purchased. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: controls, hydro-alcoholic (200 mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (50, 100mg/kg). The extracts were injected intraperitoneally once a day for 10 consecutive days. 2 weeks after the last injection, the mice were anaesthetized by ether and after laparatomy blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone by ELISA assay kit. Then testis and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for analyzing testis morphology and sperm count and viability. Testis weight in hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.001) and aqueous extract 50 mg/kg (p=0.008) groups was increased. Sperm viability in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 50 (p=0.026), 100 mg/kg (p=0.045) groups was decreased, Also the results showed a significant decrease in sperm count in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.035) and aqueous extracts 50 mg/kg (p=0.006) groups in comparison with control group. Also there was a significant increase in serum level of testosterone in aqueous extract 50 mg/kg group in comparison with control (p=0.002) hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.003) groups. Present results demonstrated that hydro-alcoholic and aqueous 50 mg/kg extracts of lettuce seed have antispermatogenic effects, also aqueous extract 50 mg/kg increased serum level of testosterone in mice. Therefore we can suggest that lettuce seed could be a potential contraceptive agent. This article extracted from M.Sc. student research project. (Ali Akbar Oroojan).

  19. Predawn and high intensity application of supplemental blue light decreases the quantum yield of PSII and enhances the amount of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and pigments in Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of blue light intensity and timing, two cultivars of lettuce [Lactuca sativa cv. “Batavia” (green) and cv. “Lollo Rossa” (red)] were grown in a greenhouse compartment in late winter under natural light and supplemental high pressure sodium (SON-T) lamps yielding 90 (±10) μmol m−2 s−1 for up to 20 h, but never between 17:00 and 21:00. The temperature in the greenhouse compartments was 22/11°C day/night, respectively. The five light-emitting diode (LED) light treatments were Control (no blue addition), 1B 06-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 06:00 to 08:00), 1B 21-08 (Blue light at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 21:00 to 08:00), 2B 17-19 (Blue at 80 μmol m−2 s−1 from 17:00 to 19:00), and 1B 17-19 (Blue at 45 μmol m−2 s−1 from 17:00 to 19:00). Total fresh and dry weight was not affected with additional blue light; however, plants treated with additional blue light were more compact. The stomatal conductance in the green lettuce cultivar was higher for all treatments with blue light compared to the Control. Photosynthetic yields measured with chlorophyll fluorescence showed different response between the cultivars; in red lettuce, the quantum yield of PSII decreased and the yield of non-photochemical quenching increased with increasing blue light, whereas in green lettuce no difference was observed. Quantification of secondary metabolites showed that all four treatments with additional blue light had higher amount of pigments, phenolic acids, and flavonoids compared to the Control. The effect was more prominent in red lettuce, highlighting that the results vary among treatments and compounds. Our results indicate that not only high light level triggers photoprotective heat dissipation in the plant, but also the specific spectral composition of the light itself at low intensities. However, these plant responses to light are cultivar dependent. PMID:25767473

  20. The Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB (isolate 7/3/14) transcriptome during interaction with the host plant lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwaaijen, Bart; Wibberg, Daniel; Kröber, Magdalena; Winkler, Anika; Zrenner, Rita; Bednarz, Hanna; Niehaus, Karsten; Grosch, Rita; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The necrotrophic pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most economically important soil-borne pathogens of crop plants. Isolates of R. solani AG1-IB are the major pathogens responsible for bottom-rot of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and are also responsible for diseases in other plant species. Currently, there is lack of information regarding the molecular responses in R. solani during the pathogenic interaction between the necrotrophic soil-borne pathogen and its host plant. The genome of R. solani AG1-IB (isolate 7/3/14) was recently established to obtain insights into its putative pathogenicity determinants. In this study, the transcriptional activity of R. solani AG1-IB was followed during the course of its pathogenic interaction with the host plant lettuce under controlled conditions. Based on visual observations, three distinct pathogen-host interaction zones on lettuce leaves were defined which covered different phases of disease progression on tissue inoculated with the AG1-IB (isolate 7/3/14). The zones were defined as: Zone 1-symptomless, Zone 2-light brown discoloration, and Zone 3-dark brown, necrotic lesions. Differences in R. solani hyphae structure in these three zones were investigated by microscopic observation. Transcriptional activity within these three interaction zones was used to represent the course of R. solani disease progression applying high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of samples collected from each Zone. The resulting three transcriptome data sets were analyzed for their highest expressed genes and for differentially transcribed genes between the respective interaction zones. Among the highest expressed genes was a group of not previously described genes which were transcribed exclusively during early stages of interaction, in Zones 1 and 2. Previously described importance of up-regulation in R. solani agglutinin genes during disease progression could be further confirmed; here, the corresponding genes exhibited

  1. Influence of season growth, soils and irrigation water composition on the concentration of uranium in two lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) varieties. Field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M. M.; Neves, O.; Marcelino, M.

    2012-04-01

    Former uranium mines areas are frequently the sources of environmental radionuclides problems even many years after the closure of mining operations. A concern for inhabitants from mining areas is the use of contaminated land or irrigation water for agriculture, and the potential transfer of metals from soils to vegetables, and to humans through the food chain. The main aim of this study was to compare the uranium concentration in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varieties Marady and Romana) grown in different seasons (autumn and summer) and exposed to high and low uranium concentrations both in irrigation water and agricultural soil. The content of uranium in irrigation water, soil (total and available fraction) and in lettuce leaf samples was analyzed in a certified laboratory. In the field experiments, two agricultural soils were divided into two plots (four replicates each); one of them was irrigated with uranium contaminated water (0.94 to 1.14 mg/L) and the other with uncontaminated water (< 0.02 mg/L). Irrigation with contaminated water together with highest soil uranium available concentration (10 to 13 mg/kg) had negative effects on both studied lettuce varieties, namely yield reduction (up to 53% and 87% in autumn and summer experiments, respectively) and increase of uranium leaf concentration (up to 1.4 and 7 fold in autumn and summer, respectively). Effect on lettuce yield was mainly due to the high soil salinity (1.01 to 6.31 mS/cm) as a consequence of high irrigation water electrical conductivity (up to 1.82 mS/cm) and low lettuce soil salinity tolerance (1 to 3 mS/cm). The highest lettuce uranium concentration (dry weight) observed was 2.13 and 5.37 mg/kg for Marady and Romana variety, respectively. The highest uranium lettuce concentration in Romana variety was also the effect of its growing in summer season when it was subject to greatest frequency and amount of water irrigation. The consumption by an adult of the lettuce that concentrate more uranium

  2. Lactucaxanthin - a potential anti-diabetic carotenoid from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) inhibits α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity in vitro and in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Sowmya Shree; Lakshmi, Magisetty Jhansi; Sharavana, Gurunathan; Sathaiah, Gunaseelan; Sreerama, Yadahally N; Baskaran, Vallikannan

    2017-03-22

    Intestinal and pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors offer an approach to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia through the control of dietary starch breakdown in digestion. This study hypothesized that lactucaxanthin (Lxn) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) inhibits the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In this study, the interaction of Lxn with α-amylase and α-glucosidase in silico and its inhibitory effect on these enzymes were studied using in vitro and STZ-induced diabetic rat models. Lxn was isolated from lettuce with 96% purity confirmed by HPLC and LCMS. The in silico analysis showed that Lxn has a lower binding energy (-6.05 and -6.34 kcal mol -1 ) with α-amylase and α-glucosidase compared to their synthetic inhibitors, acarbose (-0.21 kcal mol -1 ) and miglitol (-2.78 kcal mol -1 ), respectively. In vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assays revealed that Lxn had IC 50 values of 435.5 μg mL -1 and 1.84 mg mL -1 , but acarbose has values of 2.5 and 16.19 μg mL -1 . The in vivo results showed an increased activity for α-amylase and α-glucosidase in the intestine (4.7 and 1.30 fold, p < 0.05) and pancreas (1.3 and 1.48 fold, p < 0.05) of STZ induced diabetic rats compared to normal rats. Whereas the activity decreased (p < 0.05) in the Lxn fed diabetic rats, except for the intestinal α-glucosidase activity (1.69 ± 0.12 PNP per min per mg protein). This was confirmed by the low blood glucose level (239.4 ± 18.2 mg dL -1 ) in diabetic rats fed Lxn compared to the diabetic group (572.2 ± 30.5 mg dL -1 , p < 0.05). Lxn significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase and could be of medical and nutritional relevance in the treatment of diabetes.

  3. El modelo V.S.P. en lechuga Batavia Lactuca sativa var. Capitata L. y respuesta de dos variedades a las aplicaciones de compuestos orgánicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruzón C. Serapio F.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available

    An investigation was realized in the region of Pavitas, municipality of La Cumbre, Santa Fe farm, 1480 meters above sea level in a soil of Pavas Association (Aeric Tropaquept to prove the plastic cup-sustrate-plant model in the production of Batavia lecttuce Lactuca sativa var. capitata, and the effects of the organic matter filter cake press, cattle manure, poultry manure and earthworm soil, incorporated in the soil. Twenty two (22 treatments and fours repetitions were applied with each of the two varieties (Great lakes 118 and Pacific, the treatments corresponded to 5, 10, 15 t/ha of the organic matter which were applied to the soil fifteen days before transplantations occured. The results showed an excellent plant vigour and quality after the transplantation. It was also observed a good plant poblation and uniformity. The sustrate filter cake press mixed with botton fly ash presented better results in the field than the other treatments, having the highest crop yield and the best quality. The Great Lakes 118 with this treatment doubled the production of the treatment with soil. With the organic sustrates, the poultry manure 5 t/ha projected better results. The work showed the good behavior of the varity Great Lakes 118 compared to the Pacific. This treatments also improved the chemical caracteristics of the soil, especially increased the organic matter, potassium, phosporus, manganesum and zinc.

    En el Corregimiento Pavitas, municipio de La Cumbre, en la Finca Santafé, a 1.480 msnm en un suelo de la Asociación Pavas (Aeric Tropaquept se probó el modelo vaso-sustrato-planta (VSP, en la producción de plántulas de lechuga Batavia L. sativa var. capitata y el efecto en la producción de los compuestos orgánicos, cachaza, lombricompuesto, gallinaza y bovinaza, incorporados al suelo. Los 22 tratamientos con cuatro repeticiones, repartidos en dos variedades (Great Lake 118 y Pacific correspondieron a dosis (5, 10, 15 t/ha de las

  4. Di-and tri-hydroxylated Kaurane derivatives from microbial transformation of Ent-Kaur-16-En-19-Ol by Cephalosporium aphidicola and their allelopathic activity on Lactuca sativa (lettuce)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, D.; Takahashi, J.A.; Boaventura, M.A.D.

    2009-01-01

    The use of microorganisms to induce chemical modifications in organic molecules is a very useful tool in organic synthesis, to obtain biologically active substances. The fungus Cephalosporium aphidicola is known by its ability to hydroxylate several skeleton positions of many classes of organic compounds. In this work, the microbial transformation of ent-kaur-16-en-19-01 (1) by C. aphidicola, afforded two hydroxylated compounds, ent-kauran-16β,19-diol (2) and ent-kauran-16β,17,19-triol (3). Their structures were established by 1D and 2D-NMR studies. Both compounds were tested for their action on the growth of radical and shoot of Lactuca sativa. (author)

  5. Di-and tri-hydroxylated Kaurane derivatives from microbial transformation of Ent-Kaur-16-En-19-Ol by Cephalosporium aphidicola and their allelopathic activity on Lactuca sativa (lettuce)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, D.; Takahashi, J.A.; Boaventura, M.A.D. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: dianadb@netuno.lcc.ufmg.br

    2009-01-15

    The use of microorganisms to induce chemical modifications in organic molecules is a very useful tool in organic synthesis, to obtain biologically active substances. The fungus Cephalosporium aphidicola is known by its ability to hydroxylate several skeleton positions of many classes of organic compounds. In this work, the microbial transformation of ent-kaur-16-en-19-01 (1) by C. aphidicola, afforded two hydroxylated compounds, ent-kauran-16{beta},19-diol (2) and ent-kauran-16{beta},17,19-triol (3). Their structures were established by 1D and 2D-NMR studies. Both compounds were tested for their action on the growth of radical and shoot of Lactuca sativa. (author)

  6. Genetic diversity and evolution in Lactuca L. (Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an important leafy vegetable worldwide. However, the phylogenetic relationships between domesticated lettuce and its wild relatives are still not clear. In this thesis, I focus on the phylogenetic relationships within Lactuca L.,

  7. The influence of the combined effects of acute gamma-radiation, sodium bromate and sodium nitrate on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling root growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryakhin, E.; Osipov, D. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Among special industrial reservoirs used for the storage of liquid radioactive waste of Mayak PA, Russia, one of the most radioactively contaminated is the R-17 reservoir, so-called 'Staroye Boloto' (the total β-activity of water ranged in the observation period from 0.4 MBq/l to 4.5 MBq/l, the total a-activity ranged from 43 to 420 Bq/l). Also this reservoir is characterized by high level of chemical contamination, in particular, the concentration of nitrates in water is 2.5-4,4 g/l, sodium bromate - up to 35 mg/l. One of the interesting questions is interaction of radiation and chemical contamination in their effect on living organisms in this reservoir. In laboratory experiments seeds of Lactuca sativa were used; the effect of the studied factor on the length of the sprout's root was estimated. To assess the effect of chemical toxicants the solutions of each salt in 7 different concentrations were used, distilled water was used as a control. For evaluation of acute effects of external gamma irradiation the seeds after exposure for 24 hours in distilled water, were irradiated at 7 different doses using gamma-unit on the basis of Cs-137 with the dose rate of 0.62 Gy/min. To assess the combined effects of acute external gamma irradiation, of nitrates and bromates, seeds after 24 hour exposure at each test concentration of the salts solutions were irradiated using gamma-unit. To calculate the effective concentrations or doses was used drc package for R software. To calculate the dose rate to aquatic organisms in the R-17 was used ERICA Assessment Tool 2012. It was found out that the EC50 of sodium nitrate for lettuce was 2.69 g/l, which is comparable to the concentration of nitrates in the 'Staroye Boloto'. This indicates that nitrate can have significant toxic effect on aquatic higher plants of the reservoir. The EC50 of sodium bromate was 14.6 mg/l. This is less than the maximum concentration of the substance in the R-17, which suggests

  8. Chemical composition of essential oils and in vitro antioxidant activity of fresh and dry leaves crude extracts of medicinal plant of Lactuca Sativa L. native to Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Nomaani, Rahma Said Salim; Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim; Al-Sabahi, Jamal Nasser

    2013-05-01

    To isolate and analyse the chemical composition in the essential oils and free radical scavenging activity of different crude extracts from the fresh and dry leaves of vegetable plants of Lactuca sativa L. (L. sativa). The essential oils and volatile chemical constituents were isolated from the fresh and dry leaves of L. sativa (lettuce) grown in Sultanate of Oman by hydro distillation method. The antioxidant activity of the crude extracts was carried out by well established free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) method. About 20 chemical compounds of different concentration representing 83.07% and 79.88% respectively were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the essential oils isolated from the fresh and dry leaves as α-pinene (5.11% and 4.05%), γ-cymene (2.07% and 1.92%), thymol (11.55% and 10.73%), durenol (52.00% and 49.79%), α-terpinene (1.66% and 1.34%), thymol acetate (0.99% and 0.67%), caryophyllene (2.11% and 1.98%), spathulenol (3.09% and 2.98%), camphene (4.11% and 3.65%), limonene (1.28% and 1.11%) representing these major chemical compounds. However, some other minor chemical constituents were also isolated and identified from the essential oil of lettuce including β-pinene, α-terpinolene, linalool, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, o-methylthymol, L-alloaromadendrene and viridiflorene. The chemical constituents in the essential oils from the locally grown lettuce were identified in the following classes or groups of chemical compounds such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes volatile organic compounds and their oxygenated hydrocarbons. Therefore, the essential oils and the crude extracts from Omani vegetable species of lettuce are active candidates which would be used as antioxidant, antifungal or antimicrobial agents in new drugs preparation for therapy of infectious diseases.

  9. Uso do rejeito da dessalinização de água salobra no cultivo da alface (Lactuca sativa L. em sistema hidropônico NFT Use of the desalted wastewater for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. production in NFT hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaelly Suzanye da Silva Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A dessalinização por osmose reversa tem sido bastante utilizada para o tratamento de água salobra, possibilitando a sua utilização para o consumo humano, especialmente em regiões semiáridas. Esse processo tem um fator limitante que é a produção de um rejeito de água com alta salinidade. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da utilização de água de rejeito da dessalinização no cultivo de alface cultivar Vera (Lactuca sativa L. em sistema hidropônico NFT foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação no departamento de ciências ambientais da UFERSA, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os níveis de salinidade da água entre os tratamentos foram obtidos com, ou sem a necessidade de diluição da água de rejeito da dessalinização acrescido da solução nutritiva com salinidade de 1 dS m-1 (100% de água potável de abastecimento - 1,4 dS m-1; 85% abastecimento e 15% água de rejeito - 1,9 dS m-1; 75 % água de rejeito + 25 % água de abastecimento - 2,7 dS m-1; 50% água de rejeito e 50% água de abastecimento - 3,8 dS m-1; 25 % água de rejeito e 75 % água de abastecimento - 4,9 dS m-1 e água de rejeito coletada no dessalinizador - 5,5 dS m-1. Os parâmetros analisados foram área foliar, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, peso de matéria fresca e o peso de matéria seca. Todas as variáveis estudadas foram influenciadas negativamente de forma linear pelo efeito da concentração de sais na água de irrigação, sendo que a área foliar e a matéria fresca da parte aérea são as que melhor representam a sensibilidade ao estresse salino na cultivar estudada, tendo a produção em termos de matéria fresca uma redução de 94,83%, ao se elevar a CEa de 1,4 a 5,5 dS m-1.The desalination process by reverse osmosis was used for the treatment of brackish water, making possible the usage human consume in semiarid zones. This process has a limiting factor: it produces

  10. Bioatividade de extratos hidroalcoólicos de Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf. sobre picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. e alface (Lactuca sativa L. Bioactivity of hydroalcoholic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf. on germination and early growth of beggartick (Bidens pilosa L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Lousada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou avaliar a bioatividade de extratos hidroalcoólicos de capim-limão sobre germinação e crescimento inicial da planta daninha picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. e da planta teste alface (Lactuca sativa L.. A partir de maceração hidroalcoólica de folhas secas e rasuradas (127,46 g de capim-limão em 1L de álcool de cereais (70%, foram preparados os tratamentos como extratos hidroalcoólicos (HA pela diluição (v/v do macerado filtrado em água deionizada na proporção 1:1 (HA1:1 e 1:2 (HA1:2; dos quais foram obtidos os respectivos extratos secos (ES, a partir da evaporação da fase líquida de duas alíquotas de 50 mL de cada extrato HA, que após re-suspendidas em igual volume de água, sendo uma autoclavada (1 atm por 15 minutos, resultando nos extratos secos de HA1:1 e HA1:2 autoclavados (ES1:1A e ES1:2A e nos extratos secos não autoclavados (ES1:1 e ES1:2; e água (AG como controle. No primeiro dia dos bioensaios, foram aplicados 2 mL dos tratamentos, em DIC, com cinco repetições. Avaliou-se a porcentagem de germinação (G%, Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IVG, altura da parte aérea (AA e comprimento de radícula (CR de aquênios (25 de picão-preto e de alface distribuídos em placas de Petri e mantidos em câmara de germinação (B.O.D. por duas semanas. Os extratos HA1:1 e HA1:2 inibiram a G%, AA e CR das duas espécies. Todos os extratos secos reduziram a G%, IVG e o CR da alface. Para o picão preto, apenas o extrato ES1:1 reduziu a G% e o IVG foi reduzido por todos os extratos, a exceção do ES1:1A, mas nenhum extrato influenciou o crescimento inicial desta espécie.This study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of hydroalcoholic extract of lemongrass on the germination and early growth of the weed plant beggartick (Bidens pilosa L. and the test plant lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. From the hydroalcoholic maceration of dried and cut leaves of lemon grass (127.46 g in 1 L grain alcohol (70%, the following

  11. Crescimento de plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. em solo oriundo de um povoamento de Luetzelburgia auriculata (Allemão Ducke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika do Nascimento Fernandes Pinto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa buscou conhecer características alelopáticas e de fertilidade de um solo oriundo de povoamento de Luetzelburgia auriculata (Allemão Ducke, através da avaliação do crescimento de plantas de alface. Inicialmente, realizou-se a coleta do solo sob o povoamento da L. auriculata (SPL e de uma área externa a esse povoamento (SAE, na Fazenda Cachoeira de São Porfírio, em Várzea-PB, e encaminhou-se para o Centro de Saúde e Tecnologia Rural da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos. Em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, aplicaram-se cinco tratamentos com cinco repetições, colocando-se três sementes de alface por vaso contendo os seguintes tratamentos: T1=100%SAE; T2=100%SPL; T3=75%SPL; T4=50%SPL e T5=25%SPL. Aos 63 dias da semeadura, realizou-se a colheita e mensuraram-se as variáveis: comprimento da parte aérea, da raiz, peso da massa fresca da parte aérea, área foliar e número de folhas de cada indivíduo e a análise química dos substratos. Aplicou-se a ANOVA e o teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. O solo do povoamento da L. auriculata (SPL apresentou uma maior quantidade de nutrientes em relação ao solo da área externa ao povoamento (SAE e influenciou positivamente no crescimento das plantas de alface. No entanto, em apenas três dos cinco tratamentos aplicados (T1, T2 e T3, a alface se desenvolveu. Em T1, T2 e T3 as variáveis analisadas diferiram estatisticamente em função da origem dos solos utilizados e da proporção do esterco bovino. O solo oriundo do povoamento de L. auriculata não apresentou efeito alelopático sobre os parâmetros de crescimento da alface.Seedling growth lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. in soil arising out of a settlement Luetzelburgia auriculata (Allemão DuckeAbstract: This research aimed to know allelopathic characteristics and fertility of the soil arising out settlement Luetzelburgia auriculata (Allemão Ducke by assessing the growth of lettuce plants. Initially

  12. Aspectos sanitários do cultivo da alface americana, irrigada com águas recptoras de efluentes urbanos Sanitary aspects of lectucce (Lactuca sativa L. culture irrigated with receiving waters of urban effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Biscaro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência da disposição de mangueiras gotejadoras nos canteiros e a injeção ou não de cloro na água de irrigação, nas condições sanitárias do solo e da alface americana irrigada (Lactuca sativa L. com águas receptoras de efluentes urbanos. Foram realizadas análises microbiológicas de amostras de água do solo e da alface, no decorrer de todo o ciclo de cultivo. Objetivou-se determinar a possível existência de Salmonella spp. e de formas evolutivas de parasitos humanos e a quantidade de coliformes fecais, em pontos e épocas diferentes do experimento, impedindo assim o consumo da alface. Os resultados não indicaram a presença dos dois primeiros em nenhuma das amostras, mas sim de parasitos não humanos (nematóides de vida livre no solo. Em relação à quantidade de coliformes fecais (NMP ml-1, o valor encontrado na cultura atende às exigências da Secretaria de Vigilância Sanitária do Ministério da Saúde brasileiro, porém a presença dos nematóides em quantidades superiores ao permitido pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS inviabiliza o seu consumo.One evaluated the influence of drip tape arrangement and the use of chloride in the irrigation water, on soil sanitary conditions and growing lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., irrigated with receiving urban waters. Water, soil and lettuce microbiological analyses were performed during crop cycle. The objective was to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., evolutive forms of human parasites and the amount of fecal coliforms in different locations and time, avoiding the lettuce consumption. Although results did not indicate the presence of Salmonella spp. and evolutive forms of human parasites in none of the samples but non human parasites (nematodes of free life in soil. Total fecal coliforms count (NMP ml-1 met is according to the Brazilian Ministry of Health, Secretary of Health Surveillance requirements. Yet, the lettuce was not good for human consumption

  13. Zooming in on the lettuce genome: species relationships in Lactuca s.l., inferred from chromosomal and molecular characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Lactuca sativa (cultivated lettuce) is the world's most important leafy salad vegetable. Apart from L. sativa , the genus Lactuca contains ca. 75 wild species, potentially useful to improve, for example, taste, texture, and

  14. Toxicity assessment using Lactuca sativa L. bioassay of the metal(loid)s As, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in soluble-in-water saturated soil extracts from an abandoned mining site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagur-Gonzalez, Maria Gracia [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Granada (Spain); Univ. of Granada-CSIC, Inst. Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Faculty of Sciences, Granada (Spain); Estepa-Molina, Carmen [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Mineralogy and Petrology, Granada (Spain); Martin-Peinado, Francisco [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Soil Science, Granada (Spain); Morales-Ruano, Salvador [Univ. of Granada-CSIC, Inst. Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Faculty of Sciences, Granada (Spain); Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Mineralogy and Petrology, Granada (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We used the different soluble-in-water concentrations of As, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn from contaminated soils in an abandoned mining area (anthropogenic origin) to assess the phytotoxicity of the abandoned site using the results obtained with a Lactuca sativa L. bioassay. Material and methods The study has been carried out on potentially polluted samples from the Rodalquilar mining district (southern Spain). The area was sampled according to the different metallurgical treatments for gold extraction used in each one: dynamic cyanidation and heap leaching. The saturation extracts were obtained by filtering each saturated paste with a vacuum-extraction pump, in which measurements of metal(loid) concentrations, pH and electrical conductivity were made. The variables evaluated in the bioassay, defined as toxicity indices ranging from -1 (maximum phytotoxicity) to >0 (hormesis), were seed germination (SG) and root elongation (RE) of lettuce seeds. Results and discussion In areas with a low degree of contamination, the most sensitive toxicity index is RE, whereas in highly contaminated areas, both RE and SG are good estimators of soil toxicity. According to these results, samples from the western area showed moderate to low toxicity, which was closely related to water-soluble As concentrations. Samples from the eastern area had a high degree of toxicity in 40% of the soils. Conclusions The comparison of the two indices (SG and RE) defined using the L. sativa L. bioassay indicates that, for areas with a low degree of contamination, the most sensitive toxicity index is RE, whereas in highly contaminated areas, both RE and SG are good estimators of soil phytotoxicity. Unsupervised pattern recognition methods such as HCA and PCA enabled us to conclude that the low/moderate phytotoxicity of the soils is related to the extraction process used for the recovery of gold (mainly dynamic cyanidation in tanks located in the eastern area) and to the As and Pb contents. (orig.)

  15. El modelo v.s.p. en lechuga batavia lactuca sativa var. capitata l. y respuesta de dos variedades a las aplicaciones de compuestos orgánicos

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez M., José F.; Garzón, José L.; Bruzón C., Serapio F.

    2010-01-01

    En el Corregimiento Pavitas, municipio de La Cumbre, en la Finca Santafé, a 1.480 msnm en un suelo de la Asociación Pavas (Aeric Tropaquept) se probó el modelo vaso-sustrato-planta (VSP), en la producción de plántulas de lechuga Batavia L. sativa var. capitata y el efecto en la producción de los compuestos orgánicos, cachaza, lombricompuesto, gallinaza y bovinaza, incorporados al suelo. Los 22 tratamientos con cuatro repeticiones, repartidos en dos variedades (Great Lake 118 y Pacific) corres...

  16. Genetic dissection of nonhost resistance of wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna, to downy mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, N.

    2008-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew is the most destructive disease in lettuce (Lactuca spp.) cultivation and is caused by Bremia lactucae. The successful cross between its host L. sativa and the nonhost, L. saligna, and offers a rare chance to study the genetics of the nonhost resistance. From a set of 29

  17. A Bayesian analysis of gene flow from crops to their wild relatives: cultivated (Lactuca sativa L.) and prickly lettuce (L. serriola L.) and the recent expansion of L. serriola in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwimana, Brigitte; D'Andrea, Luigi; Felber, François; Hooftman, Danny A P; Den Nijs, Hans C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; Van De Wiel, Clemens C M

    2012-06-01

    Interspecific gene flow can lead to the formation of hybrid populations that have a competitive advantage over the parental populations, even for hybrids from a cross between crops and wild relatives. Wild prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola) has recently expanded in Europe and hybridization with the related crop species (cultivated lettuce, L. sativa) has been hypothesized as one of the mechanisms behind this expansion. In a basically selfing species, such as lettuce, assessing hybridization in natural populations may not be straightforward. Therefore, we analysed a uniquely large data set of plants genotyped with SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers with two programs for Bayesian population genetic analysis, STRUCTURE and NewHybrids. The data set comprised 7738 plants, including a complete genebank collection, which provided a wide coverage of cultivated germplasm and a fair coverage of wild accessions, and a set of wild populations recently sampled across Europe. STRUCTURE analysis inferred the occurrence of hybrids at a level of 7% across Europe. NewHybrids indicated these hybrids to be advanced selfed generations of a hybridization event or of one backcross after such an event, which is according to expectations for a basically selfing species. These advanced selfed generations could not be detected effectively with crop-specific alleles. In the northern part of Europe, where the expansion of L. serriola took place, the fewest putative hybrids were found. Therefore, we conclude that other mechanisms than crop/wild gene flow, such as an increase in disturbed habitats and/or climate warming, are more likely explanations for this expansion. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry as a powerful tool for metabolic profiling of vegetables: Lactuca sativa as an example of its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Reidah, I M; Contreras, M M; Arráez-Román, D; Segura-Carretero, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A

    2013-10-25

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), a leafy vegetal widely consumed worldwide, fresh cut or minimally processed, constitutes a major dietary source of natural antioxidants and bioactive compounds. In this study, reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UHPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of polar and semi-polar metabolites from three lettuce cultivars (baby, romaine, and iceberg). The UHPLC systems allowed the use of a small-particle-size C18 column (1.8 μm), with very fine resolution for the separation of up to seven isomers, and the QTOF mass analyzer enabled sensitive detection with high mass resolution and accuracy in full scan. Thus, a total of 171 compounds were tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals and suggested molecular formula with those previously reported in family Asteraceae. Afterwards, their structures were also corroborated by the MS/MS data provided by the QTOF analyzer. Well-known amino acids, organic acids, sesquiterpene lactones, phenolic acids and flavonoids were characterized, e.g. lactucin, lactucopicrin, caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeoylmalic acid, chicoric acid, isochlorogenic acid A, luteolin, and quercetin glycosides. For this plant species, this is the first available report of several isomeric forms of the latter polyphenols and other types of components such as nucleosides, peptides, and tryptophan-derived alkaloids. Remarkably, 10 novel structures formed by the conjugation of known amino acids and sesquiterpene lactones were also proposed. Thus, the methodology applied is a useful option to develop an exhaustive metabolic profiling of plants that helps to explain their potential biological activities and folk uses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mudanças nas características físico-químicas de um latossolo vermelho-amarelo distrófico após a irrigação com água de reúso na cultura da alface-crespa (Lactuca sativa, L. Physical and chemical characteristics changes of a red-yellow latosol after implementation of water reuse in the culture of curly lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. T. Varallo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização do efluente de esgoto tratado para poupar os corpos d'água utilizados para irrigação tem sido de grande interesse na agricultura, e o uso não regulamentado desta prática pode acarretar mudanças no comportamento físico-químico do solo. Sua prática tem sido de grande interesse em vista da redução da quantidade de água retirada dos mananciais, preservando-os. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, a avaliação dos atributos físico-químicos de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo após aplicação de água de reúso. O experimento foi realizado em uma condição de casa de vegetação onde foram cultivados dois ciclos da alface-crespa (Lactuca sativa, L com dois tratamentos, com três repetições cada: testemunhas (água de abastecimento proveniente de poço e reúso (proveniente de esgoto local. Os resultados mostraram que não ocorreram aumentos em alguns atributos químicos de fertilidade, como ferro, magnésio, zinco, boro, potássio, nitrato, sódio e cálcio; decréscimo nos valores de matéria orgânica e manganês, além de diminuição da condutividade hidráulica e aumento na condutividade elétrica do solo. Observou-se, ainda, redução do pH no solo, além do aumento da RAS e PST. Desta forma, concluiu-se que a utilização de água de reúso para fins agronômicos deve ser de forma racional, monitorando-se, principalmente, a elevação do teor de sais no solo.The use of treated sewage effluent to save the ponds used for irrigation has been of great interest in agriculture, and the unregulated use of this practice can cause changes in physical and chemical behavior of the soil. This practice has been of great interest in view of reducing the quantity of water withdrawal from the springs and its preservation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the physical and chemical attributes of a Red-yellow Dystrophic Latosol after the implementation of water reuse. The experiment was conducted in a condition of greenhouse

  20. Evaluación de tres métodos de control del Moho blanco (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary en lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias Luis Alejandro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    El principal limitante fitosanitario del cultivo de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L. es la enfermedad conocida como moho blanco causada por el hongo Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary. Con el fin de realizar un aporte al conocimiento de esta enfermedad y establecer protocolos para su control en campo se realizó un experimento entre los meses de febrero y mayo de 2006 en el cual se compararon tres métodos de control: aplicación de 0,5 kg· ha-1 de procimidona, dosis de conidiosporas (Trichoderma harzianum DSM 14944 de 0,25 g· m-2 de suelo, solarización, integración de solarización con procimidona y solarización con T. harzianum. Se evaluó la incidencia de la enfermedad, densidad de inóculo en el suelo antes y al finalizar el ensayo, temperatura del suelo durante la solarización y productividad. La densidad promedio del inóculo fue de 1,67 esclerocios de S. sclerotiorum por100 g de suelo al inicio y 2,07 esclerocios por 100 g de suelo al finalizar el ensayo. La temperatura del suelo solarizado se incrementó hasta 50°C con un promedio de 34,69°C hacia el medio día. Los porcentajes de incidencia de la enfermedad fueron: con procimidona, 3,3%; con T. harzianum, 10,0%; con solarización, 15,8%; con solarización y procimidona, 8,8%; con solarización y T. harzianum, 9,2% y testigo 18,3%. No se presentaron diferencias significativas en la productividad. En conclusión el control de la enfermedad fue mejor con la aplicación de procimidona y deficiente con T. harzianum y la solarización.

  1. Determinación de enteroparásitos en lechuga Lactuca sativa en fincas dedicadas a su producción en Pasto, Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Andrés Polo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Actualmente las verduras, como la lechuga, se recomiendan ampliamente como parte de la dieta diaria por su gran aporte nutricional, sin embargo, los consumidores al sentirse atraídos por los beneficios proporcionados por la hortaliza, están expuestos a infecciones con parásitos intestinales. Objetivo. Determinar la presencia o ausencia de enteroparásitos en la lechuga (Lactuca sativa cultivada en la zona rural de municipio de Pasto y analizar factores asociados previa caracterización de los predios. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal doble ciego de tipo descriptivo. Se tomaron 105 muestras de 21 predios en el periodo de junio a diciembre de 2013 y se procesaron mediante pruebas de flotación y sedimentación. Adicionalmente, se encuestó a los propietarios para obtener información sobre las posibles variables que influyen en la aparición de enteroparásitos. Resultados. Se encontró contaminación del 100% de las muestras, las cuales presentaban estructuras parasitarias representadas en huevos y larvas correspondientes al 95,25% con quistes de Entamoeba spp., 71,43% con ooquistes de Isospora spp., 61,90% con larvas (L3 de Strongyloides stercoralis, 28,57% con huevos de Toxocara spp. y 4,76% con ooquistes de Eimeria spp. En los factores asociados mediante la prueba de Ji cuadrado, se encontró relación entre Entamoeba spp. con acequia (p= 0,008, perros (p= 0,008 y pozo séptico (p= 0,029 Isospora spp. con compostaje (p= 0,0001, perros (p= 0,0001 y babosas (p=0,002; Strongyloides stercoralis con manipulación (p= 0,003 y Toxocara spp. con el no uso de biodigestores (p= 0,002. Conclusiones. Existe contaminación de la lechuga por enteroparásitos en las áreas de cultivo del municipio de Pasto, los cuales provienen de fuentes animales y humanas como sus principales reservorios, y otros están presentes en el medio ambiente.

  2. Variation within Lactuca for resistance to Impatiens necrotic spot virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production in coastal California, one of the major lettuce-producing areas of the US, is affected by outbreaks of Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) from the genus Tospovirus. Transmission of INSV among lettuce crops in this growing region has been attributed mostly to ...

  3. Phylogenetic relationships among Lactuca (Asteraceae) species and related genera based on ITS-1 DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, W J; Guetta, E; van de Wiel, C C; Vosman, B; van den Berg, R G

    1998-11-01

    Internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) sequences from 97 accessions representing 23 species of Lactuca and related genera were determined and used to evaluate species relationships of Lactuca sensu lato (s.l.). The ITS-1 phylogenies, calculated using PAUP and PHYLIP, correspond better to the classification of Feráková than to other classifications evaluated, although the inclusion of sect. Lactuca subsect. Cyanicae is not supported. Therefore, exclusion of subsect. Cyanicae from Lactuca sensu Feráková is proposed. The amended genus contains the entire gene pool (sensu Harlan and De Wet) of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa). The position of the species in the amended classification corresponds to their position in the lettuce gene pool. In the ITS-1 phylogenies, a clade with L. sativa, L. serriola, L. dregeana, L. altaica, and L. aculeata represents the primary gene pool. L. virosa and L. saligna, branching off closest to this clade, encompass the secondary gene pool. L. virosa is possibly of hybrid origin. The primary and secondary gene pool species are classified in sect. Lactuca subsect. Lactuca. The species L. quercina, L. viminea, L. sibirica, and L. tatarica, branching off next, represent the tertiary gene pool. They are classified in Lactuca sect. Lactucopsis, sect. Phaenixopus, and sect. Mulgedium, respectively. L. perennis and L. tenerrima, classified in sect. Lactuca subsect. Cyanicae, form clades with species from related genera and are not part of the lettuce gene pool.

  4. Zooming in on the lettuce genome: species relationships in Lactuca s.l., inferred from chromosomal and molecular characters

    OpenAIRE

    Koopman, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Lactuca sativa (cultivated lettuce) is the world's most important leafy salad vegetable. Apart from L. sativa , the genus Lactuca contains ca. 75 wild species, potentially useful to improve, for example, taste, texture, and disease resistance of cultivated lettuce. The wild species L. serriola (Prickly Lettuce), L. saligna (Least Lettuce), and L. virosa (Great...

  5. Frost hardiness of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine under two fertilization treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Anna; Lehto, Tarja; Repo, Tapani

    2015-07-01

    Survival and functioning of mycorrhizal associations at low temperatures are not known well. In an earlier study, ectomycorrhizas did not affect the frost hardiness of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) roots, but here we studied whether differential nutrient availability would change the result and additionally, alter frost hardiness aboveground. The aim in this experiment was to compare the frost hardiness of roots and needles of mycorrhizal (Hebeloma sp.) and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine seedlings raised using two fertilization treatments and two cold-hardening regimes. The fertilization treatments were low (LF) and high (HF) application of a complete nutrient solution. Three hundred mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal seedlings were cultivated in growth chambers in four blocks for 16 weeks. For the first 9 weeks, the seedlings grew in long-day and high-temperature (LDHT) with low fertilization and then they were raised for 3 weeks in LDHT with either low or high fertilization. After this, half of the plants in each treatment combination remained in LDHT, and half were transferred to short-day and low-temperature (SDLT) conditions to cold acclimatize. The frost hardiness of the roots and needles was assessed using controlled freezing tests followed by electrolyte leakage tests (REL). Mycorrhizal roots were slightly more frost hardy than non-mycorrhizal roots, but only in the growing-season conditions (LDHT) in low-nutrient treatment. In LDHT and LF, the frost hardiness of the non-mycorrhizal roots was about -9 °C, and that of the non-mycorrhizal HF roots and the mycorrhizal roots in both fertilization levels was about -11 °C. However, no difference was found in the roots within the SDLT regime, and in needles, there was no difference between mycorrhizal and fertilization treatments. The frost hardiness of needles increased by SDLT treatment, being -8.5 and -14.1 °C in LDHT and SDLT, respectively. The dry mass of roots, stems, and needles was lower in LF than in

  6. Avaliação parasitológica de alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em feiras livres e supermercados do município de Campo Mourão, Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1514 Occurence of parasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercializaed in the street markets and supermarkets of Campo Mourão, state of Paraná, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1514

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Simonelli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou e comparou a contaminação por enteroparasitas em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas em supermercados e feiras livres do município de Campo Mourão, Estado do Paraná. Foram analisadas 150 amostras de alfaces, pelo método de sedimentação espontânea (Hoffmann, sendo 75 amostras provenientes de supermercados e 75 amostras de feiras livres. O sedimento foi analisado em microscópio óptico. Das amostras analisadas, 56% (42/75 e 58,7% (44/75 apresentaram contaminação por parasitas, dos supermercados e feiras livres, respectivamente. Os principais parasitas encontrados em supermercados foram: Ascaris spp 54,7%, Toxocara spp 2,4%, Strongyloides spp 4,8%, Entamoeba spp 35,7% e Taenia spp 2,4%; e em feiras livres foram: Ascaris spp 13,6%, Strongyloides spp 11,4%, Entamoeba spp 47,7%, Ancylostoma spp 9,1%, /em>Taenia spp 2,3%, Fasciola hepatica 6,8% e Trichuris spp 9,1%. Esses resultados indicam que as amostras de alfaces estão em desacordo com a legislação vigente e salientam a necessidade de aplicação de um programa de educação sanitária direcionado a horticultores e manipuladores de hortaliçasThis work researched and compared the contamination by enteroparasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa commercialized in the supermarkets and street markets of Campo Mourão, State of Paraná. 150 samples of lettuce were analyzed through sedimentation method (Hoffmam, being 75 samples from supermarkets and 75 from street markets. The sediment was analyzed in optic microscope. The supermarkets samples showed contamination by parasites of 56% (42/75; while contamination of street markets samples showed 58.7% (44/75. The principal parasites observed in supermarkets samples were: Ascaris spp 54.7%, Toxocara spp 2.4%, Strongyloides spp 4.8%, Entamoeba spp 35.7% and Taenia spp 2.4%. Important parasites observed in street markets were: Ascaris spp 13.6%, Strongyloides spp 11.4%, Entamoeba spp 47.7%, Ancylostoma spp 9.1%, Taenia

  7. A Bayesian analysis of gene flow from crops to their wild relatives: cultivated (Lactuca sativa L.) and prickly lettuce (L. serriola L.) and the recent expansion of L. serriola in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uwimana, B; D'andrea, L.; Felber, F.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; den Nijs, H.C.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; van de Wiel, C.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Interspecific gene flow can lead to the formation of hybrid populations that have a competitive advantage over the parental populations, even for hybrids from a cross between crops and wild relatives. Wild prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola) has recently expanded in Europe and hybridization with the

  8. Genetic dissection of nonhost resistance of wild lettuce, Lactuca saligna, to downy mildew

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, N.

    2008-01-01

    Lettuce downy mildew is the most destructive disease in lettuce (Lactuca spp.) cultivation and is caused by Bremia lactucae. The successful cross between its host L. sativa and the nonhost, L. saligna, and offers a rare chance to study the genetics of the nonhost resistance. From a set of 29 Backcross Inbred Lines (BILs) representing in total 96% of the L. saligna genome, 15 introgressions were identified to contribute to this resistance at one to four tested lettuce developmental stages and ...

  9. Phosphatase activity in sandy soil influenced by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Kunze

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops may difffer in the way they affect rhizosphere microbiota nutrient dynamics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cover crops on soil phosphatase activity and its persistence in subsequent crops. A three-year experiment was carried out with a Typic Quartzipsamment. Treatments were winter species, either mycorrhizal black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb or the non-mycorrhizal species oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg and corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L.. The control treatment consisted of resident vegetation (fallow in the winter season. In the summer, a mixture of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L. with sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L. or with soybean (Glycine max L. was sown in all plots. Soil cores (0-10 cm and root samples were collected in six growing seasons (winter and summer of each year. Microbial biomass P was determined by the fumigation-extraction method and phosphatase activity using p-nitrophenyl-phosphate as enzyme substrate. During the flowering stage of the winter cover crops, acid phosphatase activity was 30-35 % higher in soils with the non-mycorrhizal species oilseed radish, than in the control plots, regardless of the amount of P immobilized in microbial biomass. The values of enzyme activity were intermediate in the plots with corn spurry and black oat. Alkaline phosphatase activity was 10-fold lower and less sensitive to the treatments, despite the significant relationship between the two phosphatase activities. The effect of plant species on the soil enzyme profile continued in the subsequent periods, during the growth of mycorrhizal summer crops, after completion of the life cycle of the cover crops.

  10. Frost hardiness of mycorrhizal (Hebeloma sp.) and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Anna; Lehto, Tarja; Repo, Tapani

    2013-10-01

    The frost hardiness (FH) of mycorrhizal [ectomycorrhizal (ECM)] and non-mycorrhizal (NM) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings was studied to assess whether mycorrhizal symbiosis affected the roots' tolerance of below-zero temperatures. ECM (Hebeloma sp.) and NM seedlings were cultivated in a growth chamber for 18 weeks. After 13 weeks' growth in long-day and high-temperature (LDHT) conditions, a half of the ECM and NM seedlings were moved into a chamber with short-day and low-temperature (SDLT) conditions to cold acclimate. After exposures to a range of below-zero temperatures, the FH of the roots was assessed by means of the relative electrolyte leakage test. The FH was determined as the inflection point of the temperature-response curve. No significant difference was found between the FH of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots in LDHT (-8.9 and -9.8 °C) or SDLT (-7.5 and -6.8 °C). The mycorrhizal treatment had no significant effect on the total dry mass, the allocation of dry mass among the roots and needles or nutrient accumulation. The mycorrhizal treatment with Hebeloma sp. did not affect the FH of Scots pine in this experimental setup. More information is needed on the extent to which mycorrhizas tolerate low temperatures, especially with different nutrient contents and different mycorrhiza fungi.

  11. Interactions of NH4+ and L-glutamate with NO3- transport processes of non-mycorrhizal Fagus sylvatica roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreuzwieser, J; Herschbach, C; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, P; Vaalburg, W; Rennenberg, H

    The processes of NO3- uptake and transport and the effects of NH4+ or L-glutamate on these processes were investigated with excised non-mycorrhizal beech (Fagus sylvatica L,) roots, NO3- net uptake followed uniphasic Michaelis-Menten kinetics in a concentration range of 10 mu M to 1 mM with an

  12. Potenciação alelopática de extratos vegetais na germinação e no crescimento inicial de picão-preto e alface Allelopathy of plant extracts on germination and initial growth of beggartick (Bidens pilosa L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Cristiani Ferreira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. é uma planta daninha muito agressiva, que está presente em quase todo Brasil. O principal método de controle é o químico, porém apresenta elevado impacto ambiental, risco de intoxicação humana e possibilidade de causar fitotoxicidade as culturas. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos etanólicos de Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. e Pinus elliottii L. na germinação e no crescimento inicial de picão-preto e alface (Lactuca sativa L.. Foram testadas quatro concentrações de cada extrato (0,25; 0,50; 1,0 e 2,0 % além do controle (0,0 % água destilada com Tween 20 a 0,08 %. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições em condições de laboratório. O extrato de P. elliottii não causou efeito alelopático sobre o picão-preto e o alface. O extrato de E. citriodora reduziu significativamente o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG do picão-preto em todas as concentrações testadas quando comparadas com o controle (0,0%, porém para a alface o IVG foi significativo apenas na concentração de 2,0 %. Para o comprimento da raiz não foi possível observar diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para os dois extratos testados tanto para o alface como para o picão preto.Bidens pilosa L. is an aggressive weed found all over Brazil. The main control method for this species is chemical treatment however, causes strong environmental impact, and it has great human contamination risks, and may cause phytotoxity to crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extracts of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. and Pinus elliottii L. on seed germination and initial growth of B. pilosa and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. Five concentrations of each extract (0.0; 0.25; 0.50; 1.0; 2.0% were tested in laboratory conditions using a randomized complete block design with four replicates. P. elliottii extract had no effect on B

  13. Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Naiying [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Department of Chemistry, Shangqiu Normal College, Shangqiu 476000 (China); Huang Honglin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Shuzhen, E-mail: szzhang@rcees.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu Yongguan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Christie, Peter [Agri-Environment Branch, Agriculture Food and Environmental Science Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Zhang Yong [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Environmental Science Research Centre, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2009-05-15

    Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. was investigated under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation of lucerne with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum L. resulted in higher phenanthrene accumulation in the roots and lower accumulation in the shoots compared to non-mycorrhizal controls. Studies on sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by roots and characterization of heterogeneity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots using solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 13}C NMR) demonstrated that increased aromatic components due to mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in enhanced phenanthrene uptake by the roots but lower translocation to the shoots. Direct visualization using two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) revealed higher phenanthrene accumulation in epidermal cells of roots and lower transport into the root interior and stem in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal controls. These results provide some insight into the mechanisms by which arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation may influence the uptake of organic contaminants by plants. - Colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus promoted root uptake and decreased shoot uptake of phenanthrene by Medicago sativa L.

  14. Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Naiying; Huang Honglin; Zhang Shuzhen; Zhu Yongguan; Christie, Peter; Zhang Yong

    2009-01-01

    Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. was investigated under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation of lucerne with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum L. resulted in higher phenanthrene accumulation in the roots and lower accumulation in the shoots compared to non-mycorrhizal controls. Studies on sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by roots and characterization of heterogeneity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots using solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 13 C NMR) demonstrated that increased aromatic components due to mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in enhanced phenanthrene uptake by the roots but lower translocation to the shoots. Direct visualization using two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) revealed higher phenanthrene accumulation in epidermal cells of roots and lower transport into the root interior and stem in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal controls. These results provide some insight into the mechanisms by which arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation may influence the uptake of organic contaminants by plants. - Colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus promoted root uptake and decreased shoot uptake of phenanthrene by Medicago sativa L.

  15. Avaliação da contaminação por enteroparasitas em alfaces (lactuca sativa comercializadas em restaurantes com alimentos expostos ao consumo no município de Sorocaba/SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Vieira Magalhães Ornelas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diante de um cotidiano pauta do por uma intensa influência dos meios decomunicação a respeito da alimentação saudável e de baixo teor calórico,bem como de um progressivo número de campanhas sociais combatendoa obesidade e seu alto valor epidemiológico sobre a sociedadecontemporânea, as hortaliças têm recebido ampla ênfase no cenárionutricional dos dias de hoje. Entretanto, tais aspectos são tambémacompanhados de extrema cautela, uma vez que as hortaliças sãoimportantes veículos de infecções ao organismo humano através de umavasta gama de possíveis parasitas, devido à manipulação pré-consumo einclusive o consumo cru. O trabalho que se segue teve como objetivopesquisar a presença de enteroparasitas especificamente em alfacescomercializadas em restaurantes com alimentos expostos ao consumo nomunicípio de Sorocaba-SP. As amostras de alface crespa (Lactuca sativacoletadas foram submetidas a uma série de etapas para análise:inicialmente houve lavagem em sacos plásticos durante 30 minutos,seguida de sedimentação do líquido por 24 horas e, por fim, análiseparasitológica da amostra por microscopia óptica. Das 40 amostrasrealizadas, apenas 5% continham enteroparasitas. Outras duas amostrascontinham achados como Paramecium spp. e ácaro. Os resultadosreforçam a necessidade de um a boa higienização das hortaliças, mas,devido ao grande número de restaurantes em Sorocaba comparado com ode amostras coletadas, é inadequado considerar generalizar a premissade que os restaurantes self-service possuam alfaces crespa (Lactucasativa higienizadas e próprias para o consumo em Sorocaba.

  16. Effector-mediated discovery of a novel resistance gene against Bremia lactucae in a nonhost lettuce species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbers, Anne K J; Pelgrom, Alexandra J E; Visser, Richard G F; Niks, Rients E; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Jeuken, Marieke J W

    2017-11-01

    Candidate effectors from lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) enable high-throughput germplasm screening for the presence of resistance (R) genes. The nonhost species Lactuca saligna comprises a source of B. lactucae R genes that has hardly been exploited in lettuce breeding. Its cross-compatibility with the host species L. sativa enables the study of inheritance of nonhost resistance (NHR). We performed transient expression of candidate RXLR effector genes from B. lactucae in a diverse Lactuca germplasm set. Responses to two candidate effectors (BLR31 and BLN08) were genetically mapped and tested for co-segregation with disease resistance. BLN08 induced a hypersensitive response (HR) in 55% of the L. saligna accessions, but responsiveness did not co-segregate with resistance to Bl:24. BLR31 triggered an HR in 5% of the L. saligna accessions, and revealed a novel R gene providing complete B. lactucae race Bl:24 resistance. Resistant hybrid plants that were BLR31 nonresponsive indicated other unlinked R genes and/or nonhost QTLs. We have identified a candidate avirulence effector of B. lactucae (BLR31) and its cognate R gene in L. saligna. Concurrently, our results suggest that R genes are not required for NHR of L. saligna. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Growing patterns to produce 'nitrate-free' lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Mircea Dumitru; Muntean, Daniela-Lucia; Fülöp, Ibolya; Modroiu, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables can contain significant amounts of nitrate and, therefore, may pose health hazards to consumers by exceeding the accepted daily intake for nitrate. Different hydroponic growing patterns were examined in this work in order to obtain 'nitrate-free lettuces'. Growing lettuces on low nitrate content nutrient solution resulted in a significant decrease in lettuces' nitrate concentrations (1741 versus 39 mg kg(-1)), however the beneficial effect was cancelled out by an increase in the ambient temperature. Nitrate replacement with ammonium was associated with an important decrease of the lettuces' nitrate concentration (from 1896 to 14 mg kg(-1)) and survival rate. An economically feasible method to reduce nitrate concentrations was the removal of all inorganic nitrogen from the nutrient solution before the exponential growth phase. This method led to lettuces almost devoid of nitrate (10 mg kg(-1)). The dried mass and calcinated mass of lettuces, used as markers of lettuces' quality, were not influenced by this treatment, but a small reduction (18%, p < 0.05) in the fresh mass was recorded. The concentrations of nitrite in the lettuces and their modifications are also discussed in the paper. It is possible to obtain 'nitrate-free' lettuces in an economically feasible way.

  18. Genetic transformation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa): A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... by researchers, especially in genetic engineering. ... chain reaction; PPT, phosphinothricin; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; sCT, salmon ..... gene showed higher tolerances than wild-type plants.

  19. Selectivity of thiobencarb between two lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, S.

    1987-01-01

    Thiobencarb [S-(4-chlorobenzyl)N,N-diethylthiocarbamate] was examined for weed control on muck grown lettuce. Weed control results were erratic though differential lettuce tolerance was observed in the field. This led to the testing of five lettuce cultivars for tolerance to the herbicide. Of the five lettuce cultivars evaluated, two were selected with the widest tolerance differences: Great Lakes 366 (GLA) (tolerant) and Dark Green Boston (BOS) (susceptible). Studies examining the mechanism of thiobencarb tolerance were conducted with these two cultivars. Within four days after the addition of thiobencarb to the nutrient solution, BOS had significant reductions in the foliar dry weight. In addition, growth abnormalities including fused leaves were observed, indicating inhibition early in leaf development. Greater amounts of 14 C-thiobencarb were absorbed from nutrient solution by BOS, likely due to a significantly greater root system at the time of treatment. The greater uptake and accumulation of 14 C-label in the leaves, as well as significantly greater amounts of unmetabolized 14 C-thiobencarb in the foliage of BOS may account for the selectivity observed. A thiobencarb sulfoxide was not identified in these studies. This indicates that the metabolism of thiobencarb in lettuce differs from other members of the thiocarbamate family of herbicides

  20. Pengaruh Bokhasi Eceng Gondok pada Tanaman Selada (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seprita Lidar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Isu pertanian organik akhir-akhir ini memang mulai berkembang kembali dengan semakin banyaknya masyarakat yang menyadari pentingnya kesehatan dan mutu bahan pangan yang dikonsumsi. Selain alasan kesehatan, pertanian organik juga diyakini ramah lingkungan karena dapat meminimalkan penggunaan bahan kimia dalam proses produksinya, karena penggunaan pupuk kimia secara terus-menerus dengan dosis yang meningkat justru dapat menyebabkan tanah menjadi keras dan keseimbangan unsur hara tanah terganggu.  Permintaan pasar terhadap tanaman sayuran khususnya selada yang biasanya dikonsumsi mentah terus meningkat, apalagi tanaman selada yang dipupuk dengan pupuk organik. Tanah di Kota Pekanbaru tergolong tanah Podsolid Merah Kuning (PMK yang kandungan bahan organik dan unsur haranya relatif rendah, maka salah satu usaha untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut adalah dengan cara pemupukan yang aman bagi tanaman dan tanah yaitu pupuk bokhasi eceng gondok yang mengandung unsur hara N, P dan K, juga memanfaatkan yang ada di lingkungan yang kalau tidak dimanfaatkan akan menyebabkan pencemaran di perairan.  Dari penelitian yang dilakukan pemberian bokhasi eceng gondok berpengaruh nyata terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman selada dengan dosis terbaik adalah 2000 g/m2. Kata Kunci : Selada, Bokhasi, Eceng Gondok.The issue of organic farming lately indeed began to grow back more and more people will realize the importance of health and quality of food consumed. In addition to health reasons, organic farming is also believed to be environmentally friendly because it can minimize the use of chemicals in the production process, due to the use of chemical fertilizers continuously with increasing doses it can cause the soil to be loud and disturbed soil nutrient balance. Market demand for vegetable crops, especially lettuce is usually consumed raw continue to rise, especially lettuce plants are fertilized with organic fertilizer. Land in the city of Pekanbaru classified as land Podsolid Red Yellow (FMD is organic matter content and nutrient relatively low, then one attempt to overcome this problem is by fertilizing safe for plants and soil is fertilizer bokhasi hyacinth that contains nutrients N , P and K, also take advantage of in the environment that would otherwise be used will cause pollution in the waters. From research conducted bokhasi provision of water hyacinth significantly affect the growth and production of lettuce plants with the best dose is 2000 g / m2. Keywords: Lettuce, Bokhasi, Water Hyacinth.

  1. PENGARUH BOKHASI ECENG GONDOK PADA TANAMAN SELADA ( Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seprita Lidar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of organic farming lately indeed began to grow back more and more people will realize the importance of health and quality of food consumed. In addition to health reasons, organic farming is also believed to be environmentally friendly because it can minimize the use of chemicals in the production process, due to the use of chemical fertilizers continuously with increasing doses it can cause the soil to be loud and disturbed soil nutrient balance. Market demand for vegetable crops, especially lettuce is usually consumed raw continue to rise, especially lettuce plants are fertilized with organic fertilizer. Land in the city of Pekanbaru classified as land Podsolid Red Yellow (FMD is organic matter content and nutrient relatively low, then one attempt to overcome this problem is by fertilizing safe for plants and soil is fertilizer bokhasi hyacinth that contains nutrients N , P and K, also take advantage of in the environment that would otherwise be used will cause pollution in the waters. From research conducted bokhasi provision of water hyacinth significantly affect the growth and production of lettuce plants with the best dose is 2000 g / m2.

  2. Irradiation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L.): microbiological and sensory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuhako, Vanessa Provenzano

    2005-01-01

    The increasing demand for fresh foods have stimulated the marketing of minimally processed vegetables. However, these products maintain most of their natural microbiota even after being sanitized, including pathogenic microorganisms. Refrigerated storage allows the growth of psychotropic microorganisms and among them the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The ingestion of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes may represent a risk to pregnant women and their fetuses and to immunocompromised people. Non-thermal alternative processes for food preservation, such as irradiation, can reduce pathogenic and spoilage microorganism populations without impairing substantial changes in sensory, physical or chemical attributes. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on L. monocytogenes artificially inoculated on minimally processed lettuce, to evaluate its effect on lettuce leaves through acceptance sensory test and to determine the irradiated vegetable shelf life through sensory and microbiological tests. A mixture of 4 types of lettuce (Iceberg, Boston, Loose-leaf and Red loose-leaf) were artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes (7 log UFC/g lettuce) and then exposed to 0.3; 0.6; 0.9 and 1.2 kGy, under refrigeration. The DlO values for L. monocytogenes varied fram 0.18 to 0.21 kGy. Sensory and microbiological tests indicated that the shelf life of Iceberg lettuce stored at 7 deg C was 5 and 7 days for the irradiated and non-irradiated samples, respectively, and for the irradiated and non-irradiated Loose-leaf lettuce samples were 10 days. For the non-irradiated Boston sample, the shelf life was 3 days and for the Irradiated 7 days. Red loose-leaf showed 5 and 4 days of shelf lives for the irradiated and non-irradiated, respectively. Irradiated samples presented better microbiological quality than non-irradiated ones. The irradiation is feasible process to improve quality and safety of lettuce leaves. (author)

  3. Growth experiment in lettuce [Lactuca sativa] using laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y.; Takatsuji, M.

    2001-01-01

    Photosynthetic rate, relative growth rate and vitamin C contents were measured in lettuce cultivated under red and blue lasers and the results were compared with those cultivated under light emitting diodes (LED). It was found that lettuce grew fairly healthily under red laser diode (650 nm) and blue laser (442 nm) with R/B ratio 10. However, both photosynthetic rate and growth rate rather diminished compared with LED cases. As for vitamin C contents, the result was about the same as LED cases

  4. Stable plastid transformation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelivelt, Cilia L C; McCabe, Matthew S; Newell, Christine A; Desnoo, C Bastiaan; van Dun, Kees M P; Birch-Machin, Ian; Gray, John C; Mills, Kingston H G; Nugent, Jacqueline M

    2005-08-01

    Although plastid transformation in higher plants was first demonstrated in the early 1990s it is only recently that the technology is being extended to a broader range of species. To date, the production of fertile transplastomic plants has been reported for tobacco, tomato, petunia, soybean, cotton and Lesquerella fendleri (Brassicaceae). In this study we demonstrate a polyethylene glycol-mediated plastid transformation system for lettuce that generates fertile, homoplasmic, plastid-transformed lines. Transformation was achieved using a vector that targets genes to the trnA/trnI intergenic region of the lettuce plastid genome employing the aadA gene as a selectable marker against spectinomycin. Spectinomycin resistance and heterologous gene transcription were shown in T(1) plants derived from self-pollinated primary regenerants demonstrating transmission of the plastid-encoded transgene to the first seed generation. Crossing with male sterile wild-type lettuce showed that spectinomycin resistance was not transmitted via pollen. Constructs containing the gfp gene showed plastid-based expression of green fluorescent protein. The lettuce plastid could have potential both as a production and a delivery system for edible human therapeutic proteins.

  5. Acinetobacter lactucae sp. nov., isolated from iceberg lettuce (Asteraceae: Lactuca sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain NRRL B-41902 and three closely related strains were isolated from iceberg lettuce. The strain was found to consist of strictly aerobic, gram-negative rods that formed cocci in late stationary phase. Subsequent to sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, it was found that strain NRRL B-41902 was...

  6. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity...

  7. P depletion and activity of phosphatases in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joner, E.J.; Magid, J.; Gahoonia, T.S.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment was set up to test the ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) roots and hyphae to produce extracellular phosphatases and to study the relationship between phosphatase activity and soil organic P (P-o). Non-mycorrhizal cucumber and cucumber in symbiosis with either of two mycorrhizal...... fungi were grown in a sandy loam-sand mixture in three-compartment pots. Plant roots were separated from two consecutively adjoining compartments, first by a 37 m mesh excluding roots and subsequently by a 0.45 m membrane excluding mycorrhizal hyphae. Soil from the two root-free compartments...... was sectioned in a freezing microtome and analyzed for extracellular acid (pH 5.2) and alkaline (pH 8.5) phosphatase activity as well as depletion of NaHCO-3-extractable inorganic P (P-i) and P-o. Roots and mycorrhizal hyphae depleted the soil of P-i but did not influence the concentration of P-o in spite...

  8. Optical properties of Lactuca and Taraxacum seed and fruit coats: Their role as light filters [phytochrome, photoblasty, fiber optics, transmission, spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widell, K.-O.; Vogelmann, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    The optical properties of seed and fruit coats were examined from several varieties of light-sensitive achenes. Taraxacum vulgare L. and Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids achenes with dark fruit coats and L. sativa cvs Huvudsallat and Issallat with white fruit coats were examined. Transmission spectra varied among the different achenes: white fruit coats of Lactuca acted as neutral density filters between 450 and 780 nm, whereas Taraxacum transmitted 2–36% in this region. The ribbed fruit coat structure greatly affected transmission so that at different locations in the same coat, transmission varied between 20 to 80% at 660 and 730 nm. Fruit coats of Grand Rapids lettuce and Taraxacum transmitted more far-red than red light with T 660 /T 730 ratios of 0.8 and 0.4, respectively. The relationship between the optical properties of fruit coats and light-stimulated germination is discussed. (author)

  9. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity caused by wild lettuce intake and an accurate history formed the basis of the diagnosis. Conservative treatment, vital sign monitoring, control of patient intake and output, and reducing patient agitation provided the basis for treatment.

  10. Biorefinery of the macroalgae Ulva lactuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, P.R.; Cerezo-Chinarro, O.; Akkerman, R.J.; Olivieri, G.; Wijffels, R.H.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Eppink, M.H.M.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of osmotic shock, enzymatic incubation, pulsed electric field, and high shear homogenization on the release of water-soluble proteins and carbohydrates from the green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated in this screening study. For osmotic shock, both temperature and incubation time had

  11. Energy production from marine biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L; Daugbjerg Jensen, P; Svane Bech, K [Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark); and others

    2011-11-15

    In this project, methods for producing liquid, gaseous and solid biofuel from the marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca has been studied. To get an understanding of the growth conditions of Ulva lactuca, laboratory scale growth experiments describing N, P, and CO{sub 2} uptake and possible N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} production are carried out. The macroalgae have been converted to bioethanol and methane (biogas) in laboratory processes. Further the potential of using the algae as a solid combustible biofuel is studied. Harvest and conditioning procedures are described together with the potential of integrating macroalgae production at a power plant. The overall conclusions are: 1. Annual yield of Ulva lactuca is 4-5 times land-based energy crops. 2. Potential for increased growth rate when bubbling with flue gas is up to 20%. 3. Ethanol/butanol can be produced from pretreated Ulva of C6 and - for butanol - also C5 sugars. Fermentation inhibitors can possibly be removed by mechanical pressing. The ethanol production is 0,14 gram pr gram dry Ulva lactuca. The butanol production is lower. 4. Methane yields of Ulva are at a level between cow manure and energy crops. 5. Fast pyrolysis produces algae oil which contains 78 % of the energy content of the biomass. 6. Catalytic supercritical water gasification of Ulva lactuca is feasible and a methane rich gas can be obtained. 7. Thermal conversion of Ulva is possible with special equipment as low temperature gasification and grate firing. 8. Co-firing of Ulva with coal in power plants is limited due to high ash content. 9. Production of Ulva only for energy purposes at power plants is too costly. 10. N{sub 2}O emission has been observed in lab scale, but not in pilot scale production. 11. Analyses of ash from Ulva lactuca indicates it as a source for high value fertilizers. 12. Co-digestion of Ulva lactuca together with cattle manure did not alter the overall fertilization value of the digested cattle manure alone. (LN)

  12. Identification, genetic localization, and allelic diversity of selectively amplified microsatellite polymorphic loci in lettuce and wild relatives (Lactuca spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsenboer, H; Michelmore, R W; Vogel, J

    1997-12-01

    Selectively amplified microsatellite polymorphic locus (SAMPL) analysis is a method of amplifying microsatellite loci using generic PCR primers. SAMPL analysis uses one AFLP primer in combination with a primer complementary to microsatellite sequences. SAMPL primers based on compound microsatellite sequences provided the clearest amplification patterns. We explored the potential of SAMPL analysis in lettuce to detect PCR-based codominant microsatellite markers. Fifty-eight SAMPLs were identified and placed on the genetic map. Seventeen were codominant. SAMPLs were dispersed with RFLP markers on 11 of the 12 main linkage groups in lettuce, indicating that they have a similar genomic distribution. Some but not all fragments amplified by SAMPL analysis were confirmed to contain microsatellite sequences by Southern hybridization. Forty-five cultivars of lettuce and five wild species of Lactuca were analyzed to determine the allelic diversity for codominant SAMPLs. From 3 to 11 putative alleles were found for each SAMPL; 2-6 alleles were found within Lactuca sativa and 1-3 alleles were found among the crisphead genotypes, the most genetically homogeneous plant type of L. sativa. This allelic diversity is greater than that found for RFLP markers. Numerous new alleles were observed in the wild species; however, there were frequent null alleles. Therefore, SAMPL analysis is more applicable to intraspecific than to interspecific comparisons. A phenetic analysis based on SAMPLs resulted in a dendrogram similar to those based on RFLP and AFLP markers.

  13. Chromosomal study of lettuce and its allied species (Lactuca spp., Asteraceae) by means of karyotype analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Hideyuki; Mizutani, Takayuki; Nagano, Katsuya; Hoshi, Yoshikazu; Uchiyama, Hiroshi

    2007-12-01

    In this study, in addition to the karyotype analysis, the chromosomal distributions of 5 S and 18 S rDNAs, and the Arabidopsis-type (T3AG3) telomeric sequences were detected by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to promote the information of chromosomal organization and evolution in the cultivated lettuce and its wild relatives, L. sativa, L. serriola, L. saligna and L. virosa. The karyotype analysis revealed the dissimilarity between L. virosa and the remaining species. In all four Lactuca species studied, one 5 S rDNA and two 18 S rDNA loci were detected. The simultaneous FISH of 5 S and 18 S rDNAs revealed that both rDNA loci of L. sativa, L. serriola and L. saligna were identical, however, that of L. virosa was different from the other species. These analyses indicate the closer relationships between L. sativa/L. serriola and L. saligna rather than L. virosa. Arabidopsis-type telomeric sequences were detected at both ends of their chromatids of all chromosomes not in the other regions. This observation suggests the lack of telomere-mediated chromosomal rearrangements among the Lactuca chromosomes.

  14. Reaction of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine fine roots along a deposition gradient of air pollutants in eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenzenberger, B.; Schminke, B.; Strubelt, F.; Huettl, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    Based on an ecosystematic approach within the comprehensive SANA (regeneration of the atmosphere above the new federal states) project the influence of industrial air pollutants (SO 2 , NO x ) (alkaline fly ashes) on the vitality of mycorrhizal, mycorrhizal frequency, and on parameters of root growth such as root biomass and necromass and distribution of different root classes in the soil horizons was investigated. The studies were conducted in three comparable Scots pine ecosystems in eastern Germany which were exposed to different deposition loads of air pollutants during the time of the former German Democratic Republic. Site specific differences were obtained for all parameters investigated. The reference plot Neuglobsow (background deposition) revealed the highest number of vital mycorrhizal, highest mycorrhizal frequency, and largest biomass of finest roots in the humus layer. At the impact-site Roesa and Taura (heavy and moderate deposition) located near Halle/Bitterfeld and Leipzig, the number of vital mycorrhizae was reduced and the life-span of mycorrhizae of reduced vitality was elongated. Finest root biomass and necromass of the humus layer were also lower at these plots as compared to Neuglobsow. At Neuglobsow a higher turnover of mycorrhizae and finest roots of the humus layer is assumed. The reduced growth of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal finest roots at the two pollution impacted sites Roesa and Taura is seen as an adaptation mechanism of the root system to high nutrient inputs. 14 refs., 4 figs

  15. Quantitative trait loci associated with seed and seedling traits in Lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyris, Jason; Truco, María José; Ochoa, Oswaldo; Knapp, Steven J; Still, David W; Lenssen, Ger M; Schut, Johan W; Michelmore, Richard W; Bradford, Kent J

    2005-11-01

    Seed and seedling traits related to germination and stand establishment are important in the production of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Six seed and seedling traits segregating in a L. sativa cv. Salinas x L. serriola recombinant inbred line population consisting of 103 F8 families revealed a total of 17 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) resulting from three seed production environments. Significant QTL were identified for germination in darkness, germination at 25 and 35 degrees C, median maximum temperature of germination, hypocotyl length at 72 h post-imbibition, and plant (seedling) quality. Some QTL for germination and early seedling growth characteristics were co-located, suggestive of pleiotropic loci regulating these traits. A single QTL (Htg6.1) described 25 and 23% of the total phenotypic variation for high temperature germination in California- and Netherlands-grown populations, respectively, and was significant between 33 and 37 degrees C. Additionally, Htg6.1 showed significant epistatic interactions with other Htg QTL and a consistent effect across all the three seed production environments. L. serriola alleles increased germination at these QTL. The estimate of narrow-sense heritability (h2) of Htg6.1 was 0.84, indicating potential for L. serriola as a source of germination thermotolerance for lettuce introgression programs.

  16. Irradiation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L.): microbiological and sensory aspects;Irradiacao de alface (Lactuca sativa. L.): aspectos microbiologicos e sensoriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuhako, Vanessa Provenzano

    2005-07-01

    The increasing demand for fresh foods have stimulated the marketing of minimally processed vegetables. However, these products maintain most of their natural microbiota even after being sanitized, including pathogenic microorganisms. Refrigerated storage allows the growth of psychotropic microorganisms and among them the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The ingestion of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes may represent a risk to pregnant women and their fetuses and to immunocompromised people. Non-thermal alternative processes for food preservation, such as irradiation, can reduce pathogenic and spoilage microorganism populations without impairing substantial changes in sensory, physical or chemical attributes. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on L. monocytogenes artificially inoculated on minimally processed lettuce, to evaluate its effect on lettuce leaves through acceptance sensory test and to determine the irradiated vegetable shelf life through sensory and microbiological tests. A mixture of 4 types of lettuce (Iceberg, Boston, Loose-leaf and Red loose-leaf) were artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes (7 log UFC/g lettuce) and then exposed to 0.3; 0.6; 0.9 and 1.2 kGy, under refrigeration. The DlO values for L. monocytogenes varied fram 0.18 to 0.21 kGy. Sensory and microbiological tests indicated that the shelf life of Iceberg lettuce stored at 7 deg C was 5 and 7 days for the irradiated and non-irradiated samples, respectively, and for the irradiated and non-irradiated Loose-leaf lettuce samples were 10 days. For the non-irradiated Boston sample, the shelf life was 3 days and for the Irradiated 7 days. Red loose-leaf showed 5 and 4 days of shelf lives for the irradiated and non-irradiated, respectively. Irradiated samples presented better microbiological quality than non-irradiated ones. The irradiation is feasible process to improve quality and safety of lettuce leaves. (author)

  17. Queso untable a base de ulva lactuca

    OpenAIRE

    Moroni, Belén

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la aceptación y valoración de los caracteres organolépticos de un queso untable realizado a base de Ulva lactuca, evaluar la calidad del producto terminado e indagar el grado de información de los alumnos encuestados en referencia a las propiedades nutricionales de las algas. Para ello se elabora una encuesta dirigida a 120 alumnos de una carrera universitaria de Mar del Plata, que cursan en el laboratorio de análisis sensorial de los ali...

  18. Dynamics of Short-Term Phosphorus Uptake by Intact Mycorrhizal and Non-mycorrhizal Maize Plants Grown in a Circulatory Semi-Hydroponic Cultivation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Ruiz, Mónica; Calonne-Salmon, Maryline; Plouznikoff, Katia; Misson, Coralie; Navarrete-Mier, Micaela; Cranenbrouck, Sylvie; Declerck, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    A non-destructive cultivation system was developed to study the dynamics of phosphorus (Pi) uptake by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize plantlets. The system consisted of a plant container connected via silicon tubes to a glass bottle containing a nutrient solution supplemented with Pi. The nutrient solution is pumped with a peristaltic pump to the upper part of the container via the silicon tubes and the solution percolate through the plantlet container back into the glass bottle. Pi is sampled from the glass bottle at regular intervals and concentration evaluated. Maize plantlets were colonized by the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 and Pi uptake quantified at fixed intervals (9, 21, and 42 h) from the depletion of the Pi in the nutrient solution flowing through the plantlets containers. Plants and fungus grew well in the perlite substrate. The concentration of Pi in the bottles followed an almost linear decrease over time, demonstrating a depletion of Pi in the circulating solution and a concomitant uptake/immobilization by the plantlet-AMF associates in the containers. The Pi uptake rate was significantly increased in the AMF-colonized plantlets (at 9 and 21 h) as compared to non-colonized plantlets, although no correlation was noticed with plant growth or P accumulation in shoots. The circulatory semi-hydroponic cultivation system developed was adequate for measuring Pi depletion in a nutrient solution and by corollary Pi uptake/immobilization by the plant-AMF associates. The measurements were non-destructive so that the time course of Pi uptake could be monitored without disturbing the growth of the plant and its fungal associate. The system further opens the door to study the dynamics of other micro and macro-nutrients as well as their uptake under stressed growth conditions such as salinity, pollution by hydrocarbon contaminants or potential toxic elements.

  19. Dynamics of Short-Term Phosphorus Uptake by Intact Mycorrhizal and Non-mycorrhizal Maize Plants Grown in a Circulatory Semi-Hydroponic Cultivation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Garcés-Ruiz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A non-destructive cultivation system was developed to study the dynamics of phosphorus (Pi uptake by mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize plantlets. The system consisted of a plant container connected via silicon tubes to a glass bottle containing a nutrient solution supplemented with Pi. The nutrient solution is pumped with a peristaltic pump to the upper part of the container via the silicon tubes and the solution percolate through the plantlet container back into the glass bottle. Pi is sampled from the glass bottle at regular intervals and concentration evaluated. Maize plantlets were colonized by the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 and Pi uptake quantified at fixed intervals (9, 21, and 42 h from the depletion of the Pi in the nutrient solution flowing through the plantlets containers. Plants and fungus grew well in the perlite substrate. The concentration of Pi in the bottles followed an almost linear decrease over time, demonstrating a depletion of Pi in the circulating solution and a concomitant uptake/immobilization by the plantlet-AMF associates in the containers. The Pi uptake rate was significantly increased in the AMF-colonized plantlets (at 9 and 21 h as compared to non-colonized plantlets, although no correlation was noticed with plant growth or P accumulation in shoots. The circulatory semi-hydroponic cultivation system developed was adequate for measuring Pi depletion in a nutrient solution and by corollary Pi uptake/immobilization by the plant-AMF associates. The measurements were non-destructive so that the time course of Pi uptake could be monitored without disturbing the growth of the plant and its fungal associate. The system further opens the door to study the dynamics of other micro and macro-nutrients as well as their uptake under stressed growth conditions such as salinity, pollution by hydrocarbon contaminants or potential toxic elements.

  20. Nutritional value of green seaweed (Ulva lactuca for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaeldein M. Abudabos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current work aimed to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca as an alternative ingredient in broiler chicken diets. The effect of substituting 1.0 or 3.0% of corn with U. lactuca on performance, carcass characteristics, serum constituents and nutrients retention of broilers from 12 to 33 d of age was evaluated. Three treatments were distributed in a RCBD design: T1 = control diet (0% U. lactuca; T2 = 1.0 % U. lactuca; T3 = 3.0 % U. lactuca. Cumulative feed intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and nutrients retention from 12 to 33 d of age were not affected by treatment (P>0.05. Birds which had received T3 had a higher dressing percentage and breast muscle yield compared to those which had received T1 or T2. Serum total lipid, cholesterol and uric acid concentrations were significantly lower in birds which had received T2 and T3 (P<0.05. Serum enzymes and electrolytes were not influenced by any dietary treatment except for alanine transaminase (ALT which was significantly lower for the treated groups. Based on presented evidences, it is recommended to substitute 3.0% of corn with green seaweed (U. lactuca.

  1. Nigella sativa L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... and agro-biodiversity in black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) genotypes from ... analysis. INTRODUCTION. Among the medicinal plants in use from prehistoric times, .... AA240 FS Fast sequential atomic absorption spectrophotometer) ... Lead (Pb) mg kg- ..... for herbal, pharmaceutical, neutraceutical and cosmetic.

  2. Effect of Salt Stress on Morphological Traits of Lettuce Genotypes (Lactuca Sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam zare

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The recognition of salt tolerant plants is important as a result ofincreasing saline lands in Iran and world. Cultivation of plants in hydroponic environment is a reliable and economical method in order to select the salt tolerant plant. Salt stress can effect on plant growth and development by ion toxicity, ionic disturb the balance and osmotic potential. Lettuce is one of the most important vegetable crops. This plant is one of the most important leafy vegetables which is used for salad and fresh marketing, also some types of this vegetable is used in baked type. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of lettuce genotypes undersalt stress in the hydroponic system. Materials and Methods: To assess response of lettuce seedlings to salt stress, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications at Biotechnology Research Institute for hydroponic cultivation of Zabol. In this experiment, the effects of three salinity levels (0, 2 and 4 dS/m on morphological characteristics of 15 lettuce genotypes were evaluated. The seeds were sterilized for ten seconds in ethanol 96% and then 15% sodium hypochlorite solution for 50 seconds, then rinsed several times with distilled water, then disinfected seeds were cultured in plastic pots containing coco peat and perlite. After …days plants were transferred to hydroponic system containing Hoagland solution. Collected data were analyzed and means comparisons were made using LSD by SAS software. Results and Discussion: The results showed that salinity has a significant effect on seedling growth of lettuce genotypes (p≤0.01. significant difference between salinity levels and genotype were observed for all traits. Interaction of genotype and salinity for all the traits except root length, plant length and leaf were significant at 1%. Based on the results, the greatest root length was belong to Esfahan Varzaneh leafy lettuce and Romaine lettuce long green Teresa genotype, respectivly. Increasing salinity led to significant reduction (p≤0.01 in the plant length lettuce in all genotypes. Root and plant fresh weight lettuce genotypes were significantly (p≤0.01 influenced by different levels of salinity. The greatest amount in root and plant fresh weight lettuce genotypes were obtained in the control treatment and the lowest amount at the level of 4 dS/m. Root and plant dry weight lettuce genotypes were significantly (p≤0.01 influenced by the salinity. Root and plant dry weight decreased with increasing salinity. So that the greatest amount of root and plant dry weight lettuce genotypes were obtained in control treatment and the lowest amount at the level of 4 dS/m.. The results showed that root and plant length ,root fresh and dry weight, plant fresh and dry weight and leaf length and width reduced with increasing salinity. The clustering pattern the genotypes were grouped into 3 clusters based on their charachters at 4 dS/m salinity. The first cluster were placed in salt tolerant groups, while the other genotypes were clustered into moderately tolerant cluster. Romaine lettuce long green Teresa genotype was placed in salt-tolerant group and Lettuce Everest, Lettuce May Queen, Curly endive hair angel, Cabbage Milan Aubervilliers and Romaine lettuce long blonde Galaica were placed in salt-sensitive group.

  3. Human Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (hG-CSF) Expression in Plastids of Lactuca sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifi Tabar, Mehdi; Habashi, Ali Akbar; Rajabi Memari, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) can serve as valuable biopharmaceutical for research and treatment of the human blood cancer. Transplastomic plants have been emerged as a new and high potential candidate for production of recombinant biopharmaceutical proteins in comparison with transgenic plants due to extremely high level expression, biosafety and many other advantages. Methods: hG-CSF gene was cloned into pCL vector between prrn16S promoter and TpsbA ter...

  4. Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) expression in plastids of Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi Tabar, Mehdi; Habashi, Ali Akbar; Rajabi Memari, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) can serve as valuable biopharmaceutical for research and treatment of the human blood cancer. Transplastomic plants have been emerged as a new and high potential candidate for production of recombinant biopharmaceutical proteins in comparison with transgenic plants due to extremely high level expression, biosafety and many other advantages. hG-CSF gene was cloned into pCL vector between prrn16S promoter and TpsbA terminator. The recombinant vector was coated on nanogold particles and transformed to lettuce chloroplasts through biolistic method. Callogenesis and regeneration of cotyledonary explants were obtained by Murashige and Skoog media containing 6-benzylaminopurine and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid hormones. The presence of hG-CSF gene in plastome was studied with four specific PCR primers and expression by Western immunoblotting. hG-CSF gene cloning was confirmed by digestion and sequencing. Transplastomic lettuce lines were regenerated and subjected to molecular analysis. The presence of hG-CSF in plastome was confirmed by PCR using specific primers designed from the plastid genome. Western immunoblotting of extracted protein from transplastomic plants showed a 20-kDa band, which verified the expression of recombinant protein in lettuce chloroplasts. This study is the first report that successfully express hG-CSF gene in lettuce chloroplast. The lettuce plastome can provide a cheap and safe expression platform for producing valuable biopharmaceuticals for research and treatment.

  5. NUTRIENTS DYNIMIC IN AN AQUAPONIC RECIRCULATING SYSTEM FOR STURGEON AND LETTUCE (LACTUCA SATIVA PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORENA SFETCU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics are modern production systems, which integrate the aquaculture technology with hydroponic systems (vegetable production without soil with a goal of fructification of residual nutrients resulted from metabolic activity of fish biomass as high quality vegetable biomass sealable as ecological products. In the present study, as a first step in aquaponic recirculating systems evaluation, the authors aim to compare two types of recirculating systems: classical (hereby noted with RAS and integrated/aquaponic (RAS_A regarding water quality parameters generally, and TAN (total ammonia nitrogen production and transformation, particularly.

  6. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Sucrine) growth performance in complemented aquaponic solution outperforms hydroponics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaide, Boris; Goddek, Simon; Gott, James; Soyeurt, Hélène; Jijakli, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth performance is optimized under hydroponic conditions. The comparison between aquaponics and hydroponics has attracted considerable attention recently, particularly regarding plant yield. However, previous research has not focused on the potential of using aquaponic solution

  7. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Sucrine Growth Performance in Complemented Aquaponic Solution Outperforms Hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Delaide

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth performance is optimized under hydroponic conditions. The comparison between aquaponics and hydroponics has attracted considerable attention recently, particularly regarding plant yield. However, previous research has not focused on the potential of using aquaponic solution complemented with mineral elements to commercial hydroponic levels in order to increase yield. For this purpose, lettuce plants were put into AeroFlo installations and exposed to hydroponic (HP, aquaponic (AP, or complemented aquaponic (CAP solutions. The principal finding of this research was that AP and HP treatments exhibited similar (p > 0.05 plant growth, whereas the shoot weight of the CAP treatment showed a significant (p < 0.05 growth rate increase of 39% on average compared to the HP and AP treatments. Additionally, the root weight was similar (p > 0.05 in AP and CAP treatments, and both were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that observed in the HP treatment. The results highlight the beneficial effect of recirculating aquaculture system (RAS water on plant growth. The findings represent a further step toward developing decoupled aquaponic systems (i.e., two- or multi-loops that have the potential to establish a more productive alternative to hydroponic systems. Microorganisms and dissolved organic matter are suspected to play an important role in RAS water for promoting plant roots and shoots growth.

  8. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Sucrine) growth performance in complemented aquaponic solution outperforms hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Delaide, Boris; Goddek, Simon; Gott, James; Soyeurt, Hélène; Jijakli, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth performance is optimized under hydroponic conditions. The comparison between aquaponics and hydroponics has attracted considerable attention recently, particularly regarding plant yield. However, previous research has not focused on the potential of using aquaponic solution complemented with mineral elements to commercial hydroponic levels in order to increase yield. For this purpose, lettuce plants were put into AeroFlo installations and exposed to hydroponic (HP), aquaponic (AP...

  9. Effect of Salt Stress on Morphological Traits of Lettuce Genotypes (Lactuca Sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam zare

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The recognition of salt tolerant plants is important as a result ofincreasing saline lands in Iran and world. Cultivation of plants in hydroponic environment is a reliable and economical method in order to select the salt tolerant plant. Salt stress can effect on plant growth and development by ion toxicity, ionic disturb the balance and osmotic potential. Lettuce is one of the most important vegetable crops. This plant is one of the most important leafy vegetables which is used for salad and fresh marketing, also some types of this vegetable is used in baked type. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of lettuce genotypes undersalt stress in the hydroponic system. Materials and Methods: To assess response of lettuce seedlings to salt stress, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications at Biotechnology Research Institute for hydroponic cultivation of Zabol. In this experiment, the effects of three salinity levels (0, 2 and 4 dS/m on morphological characteristics of 15 lettuce genotypes were evaluated. The seeds were sterilized for ten seconds in ethanol 96% and then 15% sodium hypochlorite solution for 50 seconds, then rinsed several times with distilled water, then disinfected seeds were cultured in plastic pots containing coco peat and perlite. After …days plants were transferred to hydroponic system containing Hoagland solution. Collected data were analyzed and means comparisons were made using LSD by SAS software. Results and Discussion: The results showed that salinity has a significant effect on seedling growth of lettuce genotypes (p≤0.01. significant difference between salinity levels and genotype were observed for all traits. Interaction of genotype and salinity for all the traits except root length, plant length and leaf were significant at 1%. Based on the results, the greatest root length was belong to Esfahan Varzaneh leafy lettuce and Romaine lettuce long green Teresa genotype, respectivly. Increasing salinity led to significant reduction (p≤0.01 in the plant length lettuce in all genotypes. Root and plant fresh weight lettuce genotypes were significantly (p≤0.01 influenced by different levels of salinity. The greatest amount in root and plant fresh weight lettuce genotypes were obtained in the control treatment and the lowest amount at the level of 4 dS/m. Root and plant dry weight lettuce genotypes were significantly (p≤0.01 influenced by the salinity. Root and plant dry weight decreased with increasing salinity. So that the greatest amount of root and plant dry weight lettuce genotypes were obtained in control treatment and the lowest amount at the level of 4 dS/m.. The results showed that root and plant length ,root fresh and dry weight, plant fresh and dry weight and leaf length and width reduced with increasing salinity. The clustering pattern the genotypes were grouped into 3 clusters based on their charachters at 4 dS/m salinity. The first cluster were placed in salt tolerant groups, while the other genotypes were clustered into moderately tolerant cluster. Romaine lettuce long green Teresa genotype was placed in salt-tolerant group and Lettuce Everest, Lettuce May Queen, Curly endive hair angel, Cabbage Milan Aubervilliers and Romaine lettuce long blonde Galaica were placed in salt-sensitive group.

  10. Effects of environmental factors on the morphometric characteristics of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio D Ojeda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the phenotypic response of three varieties of lettuce Batavia Colwart, Lisa Elisa and Crespa Verde Cassabella in three growing environments: plastic greenhouse, glass greenhouse and open field on the Bogota Plateau (Chia, Cundinamarca, in order to generate useful information to improve the quality of plants grown by farmers, ensuring a healthy product with characteristics that meet market demands. The three agroecosystems were constantly monitored for the environmental variables of temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation; which showed a significant variation between the three agroecosystems. To assess the phenotypic response, we examined the effect of the environmental variables mentioned on seven morphometric variables of agronomic interest. The study showed that, for the variables germination percentage and fresh weight, the environmental effect reached a variance percentage of 79 and 44%, respectively. On the contrary, it was established that the average phenotypic response of the variables clean weight and percentage of dry mass corresponds especially to the effect of genetic varieties with a variance percentage of 35 and 45%, respectively. Similarly, for the variables specific leaf area and total leaf area, it was established that both the effects of environmental and genetic variables explain 87% (50 genetic, 37 environmental and 56% (31 genetic, 25 environmental, respectively, of the total variability observed

  11. Effect of laser-diode light on growth of Lactuca sativa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, A.; Tsuchiya, H.; Miyajima, H.; Honma, T.; Kan, H.

    2000-01-01

    Development of an effective, high-power, low-cost, artificial light source for use in plant-growing facilities would be very beneficial for plant production. Recently, the laser-diode lamp was proposed as a new type of light source for plant production. The advantages of the laser-diode lamp over conventional light sources are its high electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiency, low thermal radiation, easy set-up for high power and pulse irradiation, small weight and small volume for mounting, and selectivity for proper wavelength. Because laser light itself differs from the light sources presently used in plant growing, we confirmed the possibility of growing plants under the laser-diode light using lettuces. Lettuce seedlings with 5-6 leaves were grown under a laser-diode lamp panel with 30 pieces of high-power and high-efficiency AlGaInP laser-diodes. The power of each laser-diode lamp was 500 mW, and the wavelength was 680 nm, which was efficient for photosynthesis. The lettuce plants were able to grow under the laser-diode light. However, plants were lighter and had thinner leaves than those grown under high-pressure sodium lamps. (author)

  12. Cadmium uptake in above-ground parts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiwang; Pang, Yan; Ji, Puhui; Gao, Pengcheng; Nguyen, Thanh Hung; Tong, Yan'an

    2016-03-01

    Because of its high Cd uptake and translocation, lettuce is often used in Cd contamination studies. However, there is a lack of information on Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of lettuce during the entire growing season. In this study, a field experiment was carried out in a Cd-contaminated area. Above-ground lettuce parts were sampled, and the Cd content was measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that the Cd concentration in the above-ground parts of lettuce increased from 2.70 to 3.62mgkg(-1) during the seedling stage, but decreased from 3.62 to 2.40mgkg(-1) during organogenesis and from 2.40 to 1.64mgkg(-1) during bolting. The mean Cd concentration during the seedling stage was significantly higher than that during organogenesis (a=0.05) and bolting (a=0.01). The Cd accumulation in the above-ground parts of an individual lettuce plant could be described by a sigmoidal curve. Cadmium uptake during organogenesis was highest (80% of the total), whereas that during bolting was only 4.34%. This research further reveals that for Rome lettuce: (1) the highest Cd content of above-ground parts occurred at the end of the seedling phase; (2) the best harvest time with respect to Cd phytoaccumulation is at the end of the organogenesis stage; and (3) the organogenesis stage is the most suitable time to enhance phytoaccumulation efficiency by adjusting the root:shoot ratio. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizers on the Growth and Nitrate Content of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Wei; Sung, Yu; Chen, Bo-Ching; Lai, Hung-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth and development; however, due to environmental pollution, high nitrate concentrations accumulate in the edible parts of these leafy vegetables, particularly if excessive nitrogen fertilizer has been applied. Consuming these crops can harm human health; thus, developing a suitable strategy for the agricultural application of nitrogen fertilizer is important. Organic, inorganic, and liquid fertilizers were utilized in this study to investigate their effect on nitrate concentrations and lettuce growth. The results of this pot experiment show that the total nitrogen concentration in soil and the nitrate concentration in lettuce increased as the amount of nitrogen fertilizer increased. If the recommended amount of inorganic fertilizer (200 kg·N·ha−1) is used as a standard of comparison, lettuce augmented with organic fertilizers (200 kg·N·ha−1) have significantly longer and wider leaves, higher shoot, and lower concentrations of nitrate. PMID:24758896

  14. Alkylperoxyl radical scavenging activity of red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Charles R

    2003-07-30

    Although lettuce may provide relatively low levels of antioxidative phytochemicals which may contribute to human health, lettuce leaf extracts in fact contained compounds with high specific peroxyl radical scavenging activities. After determining the extraction conditions that minimized phenolic oxidation and produced the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values, the phenolic compounds from red leaf lettuce were separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The primary phenolic compounds in the leaf tissue extracts were mono- and dicaffeoyltartaric acid (CTA and DCTA), mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acid (CQA and DCQA), quercetin 3-malonylglucoside (QMG), quercetin 3-glucoside (QG), cyanidin 3-malonylglucoside (CMG), and an unknown phenolic ester (UPE). Significant levels of DCQA were only found after wounding. Using the new fluorescein-based ORAC assay procedures, fractions from the HPLC analyses were assayed for peroxyl radical absorbance capacity. Using absorbance to estimate concentration, the decreasing order of contribution to the total ORAC value of an extract from wounded tissue was QMG > DCQA > CMG > DCTA > UPE > QG > CTA. The decreasing order of the specific peroxyl radical scavenging activities was CMG > QG > DCTA > DCQA > QMG > UPE > CQA > CTA. Since the concentrations of plant flavonoid and phenolic acid esters are sensitive to environmental factors, this information may be used to develop pre- and postharvest conditions which increase the dietary benefits of leaf lettuce.

  15. Cadmium Toxicity Affects Phytochemicals and Nutrient Elements Composition of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani Ahmad Jibril

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce varieties Bombilasta BBL and Italian 167 were treated with different concentrations of cadmium (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 mg/L in a nutrient film technique (NFT system to study its toxicity on phytochemicals and nutrient elements. Antioxidants analysis which employed DPPH and FRAP, flavonoids, phenolic, vitamin C, malondialdehyde (MDA, and proline indicated significant effects of Cd treatment on the varieties tested. Different concentration levels of Cd lead to positive interactions in FRAP, phenolic, and MDA but no significant effect in flavonoids, vitamin C, and proline. Contents of macro- and microelements in the varieties were significantly affected with increase in the toxicity levels of Cd in all nutrient elements tested with interactions exhibited for iron, manganese, and zinc.

  16. Cadmium Toxicity Affects Phytochemicals and Nutrient Elements Composition of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jibril, Sani Ahmad; Hassan, Siti Aishah; Ishak, Che Fauziah; Megat Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati

    2017-01-01

    Lettuce varieties Bombilasta BBL and Italian 167 were treated with different concentrations of cadmium (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 mg/L) in a nutrient film technique (NFT) system to study its toxicity on phytochemicals and nutrient elements. Antioxidants analysis which employed DPPH and FRAP, flavonoids, phenolic, vitamin C, malondialdehyde (MDA), and proline indicated significant effects of Cd treatment on the varieties tested. Different concentration levels of Cd lead to positive interactions in FR...

  17. Elucidating the genetic basis of antioxidant status in lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Damerum, Annabelle; Selmes, Stacey L; Biggi, Gaia F; Clarkson, Graham JJ; Rothwell, Steve D; Truco, Maria Jos?; Michelmore, Richard W; Hancock, Robert D; Shellcock, Connie; Chapman, Mark A; Taylor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    A diet rich in phytonutrients from fruit and vegetables has been acknowledged to afford protection against a range of human diseases, but many of the most popular vegetables are low in phytonutrients. Wild relatives of crops may contain allelic variation for genes determining the concentrations of these beneficial phytonutrients, and therefore understanding the genetic basis of this variation is important for breeding efforts to enhance nutritional quality. In this study, lettuce recombinant ...

  18. Use human urine as fertilizer in producing lettuce Waldmann green (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani-Mamani Virginia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the response of growing lettuce, variety Waldmann Green, to the application of fermented human urine (HUF at different times. Urine was obtained from ecological toilets in the 7th district of El Alto municipal- ity. These exudates, fermentation took during different times: 3, 6 and 12 months, in order to eliminate the possible presence of pathogens. The treatments were T-1, with no urine, T-2, three months of fermentation, T-3 six months of fermentations and T-4 twelve months of fermentation. The highest value obtained was 14.75 cm plant height, which corresponds to T-3 treatment and the control (T-1 reached 17.71 cm, plant height. The T-3 applied with six months of obtained a performance of 5.52 kg m-2. This result could be due to the high concentration of nitrogen that has human urine and the witness presented a performance of 3.04 kg m-2. Likewise, we realize product compositional analysis to evaluate the presence of potential pathogens and according to the results did not present infestation of pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. It is therefore suitable for human consumption without presenting health risk.

  19. Quantitative detection of Salmonella enterica and the specific interaction with Lactuca sativa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerks, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella is among the most commonly known bacterial pathogens to cause human illness. Often Salmonellosis is associated with the consumption of contaminated foods like meat, eggs or egg products. However, during the last decades an increase of outbreaks is recognized to be caused by human

  20. Quantitative detection of Salmonella enterica and the specific interaction with Lactuca sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Klerks, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella is among the most commonly known bacterial pathogens to cause human illness. Often Salmonellosis is associated with the consumption of contaminated foods like meat, eggs or egg products. However, during the last decades an increase of outbreaks is recognized to be caused by human pathogenic bacteria in association with fresh produce. The use of manure for production of vegetables, e.g. lettuce, contributes significantly to the risk of contamination of fresh produce. Enteric pathoge...

  1. Characterization and biocontrol properties of Lactuca sativa rhizosphere microbiota in an aquaponic system

    OpenAIRE

    Stouvenakers, Gilles; Massart, Sébastien; Jijakli, Haissam

    2016-01-01

    Aquaponics is an integrated recirculated system that combines aquaculture and hydroponic plant production. The dissolved nutrients generated by the fish rearing after bacterial activities are used by the plants for their growth. This uptake reduces the accumulation of some molecules which allow a longer water recirculation. When comparing growth conditions between aquaponics and hydroponics, we observed much lower concentration of several key nutrients in aquaponics. Nevertheless, several exp...

  2. PERIGOS ASSOCIADOS AO CONSUMO DA ALFACE, (Lactuca sativa, IN NATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. I. MOGHARBEL

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A prevenção de riscos de contaminação por agentes patogênicos em folhas de alface passa pelas boas práticas agrícolas que vai desde a semeadura até a colheita além de outros importantes aspectos, ainda no processo do cultivar, como qualidade da água usada para irrigação, emprego de práticas sanitárias adequadas pelos produtores na manipulação das plantas e higiene do agricultor no campo. Manter a segurança de contaminação bacteriana de frutas e de vegetais frescos requer um conhecimento de sistemas que abranja todos os aspectos da produção, do processamento, da distribuição e do uso. A orientação aos consumidores quanto aos cuidados no armazenamento e na manipulação apropriados do produto fresco, deve ser incentivada pelas autoridades sanitárias, como forma de se evitar doenças veiculadas pelos alimentos. Desta forma, a proteção de contaminantes patológicos em vegetais frescos, visando a proteção tanto do produtor como do consumidor, vão de encontro a algumas práticas similares do sistema APPCC, onde se projetam atributos de limitação, controle, e monitoramento das fontes de contato na produção dos vegetais.

  3. Absorcion de nutrientes en cuatro materiales de lechuga, Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archila Julio Agapito

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En el Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, ICA, Tibaitata, en el municipio de Mosquera (Cundinamarca, en el aña de 1991, se realizo un estudio de campo con cuatro materiales de lechuga procedentes de semillas importadas y nacionales producidas en condiciones de la Sabana de Bogotá, de las variedades Great Lakes 118 y Climax . En el estudio se utilizo un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con tres replicaciones y cuatro tratamientos (origen de la semilla. Se toma información sobre los contenidos de oligoelementos y microelementos a intervalos de ocho días después del transplante y hasta la cosecha. En el ultimo muestreo (cosecha final, se les realizo un análisis bromatológico a los cuatro materiales de lechuga con el fin de comparar su valor nutritivo. Los resultados obtenidos no presentaron diferencias estadísticas entre los cuatro materiales de lechuga en lo pertinente a contenido de nutrientes y calidad de los productos. También, se encontró que el promedio de la producción fue de 22 toneladas de lechuga, con 90% de humedad y el cultivo extrajo 60,5 Kg. de nitrógeno, 48,4 Kg de fosforo y 136,4 Kg de potasio.

    Palabras Claves: Nutrición, bromatología.

  4. Diversité et dynamique des Salmonella Lactuca sativa L.) dans les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif: Au Niger, l'agriculture maraîchère réalisée dans les zones urbaines et péri-urbaines utilise les eaux usées souvent très souillées par la matière fécale humaine et animale pour l'irrigation. Cette étude a évalué la prévalence et la diversité des Salmonella isolées de la laitue dans différents sites maraichers du Niger.

  5. Combined toxicity of microcystin-LR and copper on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Steinman, Alan D; Wan, Xiang; Xie, Liqiang

    2018-05-10

    Microcystins and copper commonly co-exist in the natural environment, but their combined toxicity remains unclear, especially in terrestrial plants. The present study investigated the toxicity effects of microcystin-LR (0, 5, 50, 500, 1000 μg L -1 ) and copper (0, 50, 500, 1000, 2000 μg L -1 ), both individually and in mixture, on the germination, growth and oxidative response of lettuce. The bioaccumulation of microcystin-LR and copper was also evaluated. Results showed that the decrease in lettuce germination induced by copper alone was not significantly different from that induced by the mixture, and the combined toxicity assessment showed a simple additive effect. Lettuce growth was not significantly reduced by microcystin-LR alone, whereas it was significantly reduced by copper alone and the mixture when copper concentration was higher than 500 μg L -1 . High concentrations of microcystin-LR (1000 μg L -1 ) and copper (≥50 μg L -1 ),as well as their mixture (≥50 + 500 μg L -1 ), induced oxidative stress in lettuce. A synergistic effect on the growth and antioxidative system of lettuce was observed when exposed to low concentrations of the mixture (≤50 + 500 μg L -1 ), whereas an antagonistic effect was observed at high concentrations (≥1000 + 2000 μg L -1 ). Moreover, the interaction of microcystin-LR and copper can increase their accumulation in lettuce. Our results suggest that the toxicity effects of microcystin-LR and copper are exacerbated when they co-exist in the natural environment at low concentrations, which not only negatively affects plant growth but also poses a potential risk to human health via the food chain. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Non-destructive monitoring of agricultural product (lettuce [Lactuca sativa]) based on laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizawa, H.; Saito, Y.; Amemiya, T.; Komatu, K.

    2002-01-01

    Quality control of agricultural products in process of cultivation and distribution has become an important problem. This paper describes a field measuring method of lettuce based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy for growth monitoring. Intensity at 460nm of LIF spectra showed characteristic variations of near harvest time. The results of chemical analysis confirmed that sucrose and chlorogenic acid are origins of the 460nm fluorescence. The prediction of harvest time and the possibility of quality monitoring are discussed based on the experimental data

  7. Foliar fertilizations with boron and growth regulators on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cv floresta culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, S.I.; Chueire, F.B.; Teixeira, N.T.

    1989-01-01

    The experiment was realized to verify the possibility of applying Boron as foliar fertilization with growth regulators: indol acetic acid, giberellic acid, ethephon and cycocel. The other objective was to compare the foliar and soil fertilization, with Boron, on the lettuce culture. The results showed that there wasn't difference of production between the treatments. Meanwhile the application of growth regulator modified the Boron grade in the leaves. (author) [pt

  8. The Protective Role of Lettuce oil (Lactuca sativa) against Radiation induced Biological Hazards in Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Magied, N.; Ahmed, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the potential role of lettuce oil against damages induced in rats due to exposure to gamma radiation. Adult male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into 4 groups each of 12 animals. The first group was considered control animals. The second group received, via gavages, lettuce oil (200 mg/Kg body weight) for 3 weeks. The third group was subjected to a single dose of 6.5Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The fourth group received lettuce oil for 3 weeks then was exposed to radiation. Blood samples were collected 1 and 7 days post irradiation. Exposure of rats to gamma irradiation caused a significant increase in the level of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) while a significant decrease was recorded in glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit percentage (Hct%), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelets (PLT), leutinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone hormone . In rats treated with lettuce oil then exposed to radiation, the results showed an improvement in all previous parameters. It could be concluded that lettuce oil might reduce the biological hazards in rats induced by gamma irradiation

  9. Photoprotection vs. Photoinhibition of Photosystem II in Transplastomic Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Dominantly Accumulating Astaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Ritsuko; Yamano, Nami; Hashimoto, Hideki; Misawa, Norihiko; Ifuku, Kentaro

    2016-07-01

    Transplastomic (chloroplast genome-modified; CGM) lettuce that dominantly accumulates astaxanthin grows similarly to a non-transgenic control with almost no accumulation of naturally occurring photosynthetic carotenoids. In this study, we evaluated the activity and assembly of PSII in CGM lettuce. The maximum quantum yield of PSII in CGM lettuce was <0.6; however, the quantum yield of PSII was comparable with that in control leaves under higher light intensity. CGM lettuce showed a lower ability to induce non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) than the control under various light intensities. The fraction of slowly recovering NPQ in CGM lettuce, which is considered to be photoinhibitory quenching (qI), was less than half that of the control. In fact, 1 O 2 generation was lower in CGM than in control leaves under high light intensity. CGM lettuce contained less PSII, accumulated mostly as a monomer in thylakoid membranes. The PSII monomers purified from the CGM thylakoids bound echinenone and canthaxanthin in addition to β-carotene, suggesting that a shortage of β-carotene and/or the binding of carbonyl carotenoids would interfere with the photophysical function as well as normal assembly of PSII. In contrast, high accumulation of astaxanthin and other carbonyl carotenoids was found within the thylakoid membranes. This finding would be associated with the suppression of photo-oxidative stress in the thylakoid membranes. Our observation suggests the importance of a specific balance between photoprotection and photoinhibition that can support normal photosynthesis in CGM lettuce producing astaxanthin. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. RNAi-mediated resistance to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in genetically engineered lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdulrazak B; Monteiro, Tatiane R; Cabral, Glaucia B; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2017-10-01

    RNA interference (RNAi)-based transgenic technologies have evolved as potent biochemical tools for silencing specific genes of plant pathogens and pests. The approach has been demonstrated to be useful in silencing genes in insect species. Here, we report on the successful construction of RNAi-based plasmid containing an interfering cassette designed to generate dsRNAs that target a novel v-ATPase transcript in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), an important agricultural pest in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The presence of the transgene was confirmed in T 0 and T 1 generations of transgenic lettuce lines, segregating in a Mendelian fashion. Seven lines were infested with whiteflies and monitored over a period of 32 days. Analysis of mortality showed that within five days of feeding, insects on transgenic plants showed a mortality rate of 83.8-98.1%. In addition, a reduced number of eggs (95 fold less) was observed in flies feeding on transgenic lettuce plants than insects on control lines. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR showed decreased expression level of endogenous v-ATPase gene in whiteflies feeding on transgenic plants. This technology is a foundation for the production of whitefly-resistant commercial crops, improving agricultural sustainability and food security, reducing the use of more environmentally aggressive methods of pest control.

  11. Expression of VGRNb-PE immunotoxin in transplastomic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaee, Malihe; Jalali-Javaran, Mokhtar; Moieni, Ahmad; Zeinali, Sirous; Behdani, Mahdi

    2018-05-01

    This research has shown, for the first time, that plant chloroplasts are a suitable compartment for synthesizing recombinant immunotoxins and the transgenic immunotoxin efficiently causes the inhibition of VEGFR2 overexpression, cell growth and proliferation. Angiogenesis refers to the formation of new blood vessels, which resulted in the growth, invasion and metastasis of cancer. The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) plays a major role in angiogenesis and blocking of its signaling inhibits neovascularization and tumor metastasis. Immunotoxins are promising therapeutics for targeted cancer therapy. They consist of an antibody linked to a protein toxin and are designed to specifically kill the tumor cells. In our previous study, VGRNb-PE immunotoxin protein containing anti-VEGFR2 nanobody fused to the truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A has been established. Here, we expressed this immunotoxin in lettuce chloroplasts. Chloroplast genetic engineering offers several advantages, including high levels of transgene expression, multigene engineering in a single transformation event and maternal inheritance of the transgenes. Site specific integration of transgene into chloroplast genomes, and homoplasmy were confirmed. Immunotoxin levels reached up to 1.1% of total soluble protein or 33.7 µg per 100 mg of leaf tissue (fresh weight). We demonstrated that transgenic immunotoxin efficiently causes the inhibition of VEGFR2 overexpression, cell growth and proliferation. These results indicate that plant chloroplasts are a suitable compartment for synthesizing recombinant immunotoxins.

  12. Improving Water Use Efficiency of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Using Phosphorous Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhader, Asad M F; Abu Rayyan, Azmi M

    2013-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of phosphorous (P) fertilizers application to an alkaline calcareous soil on the water use efficiency (WUE) of lettuce cultivar "robinson" of iceberg type. Head fresh and dry weights, total water applied and WUE were affected significantly by the P fertilizer type and rate. P fertilizers addition induced a significant enhancement in the WUE and fresh and dry weights of the crop. A local phosphate rock (PR) applied directly was found to be inferior to the other types of P fertilizers (Mono ammonium phosphate (MAP), Single superphosphate (SSP), and Di ammonium phosphate ((DAP)). MAP fertilizer at 375 and 500 kg P2O5/ha application rates recorded the highest significant values of head fresh weight and WUE, respectively.

  13. Nutritional value, bioactive compounds, and health benefits of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce is one of the most popularly consumed vegetables worldwide but its nutritional value has been underestimated. Lettuce is low in calories and fat but high in fiber. Moreover, lettuce is high in potassium but low in sodium. Lettuce is also a good source of health-beneficial bioactive compounds...

  14. Characterization of volatile production during storage of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Sara; González-Benito, M Elena; Hill, Lisa M; Walters, Christina

    2010-09-01

    The duration that seeds stay vigorous during storage is difficult to predict but critical to seed industry and conservation communities. Production of volatile compounds from lettuce seeds during storage was investigated as a non-invasive and early detection method of seed ageing rates. Over 30 volatile compounds were detected from lettuce seeds during storage at 35 degrees C at water contents ranging from 0.03 to 0.09 g H(2)O g(-1) dw. Both qualitative and quantitative differences in volatile composition were noted as a function of water content, and these differences were apparent before signs of deterioration were visible. Seeds stored at high water content (L >or=0.06 g H(2)O g(-1) dw) emitted molecular species indicative of glycolysis (methanol+ethanol), and evidence of peroxidation was apparent subsequent to viability loss. Seeds containing less water (0.03-0.05 g H(2)O g(-1) dw) produced volatiles indicative of peroxidation and survived longer compared with seeds stored under more humid conditions. Production of glycolysis-related by-products correlated strongly with deterioration rate when measured as a function of water content. This correlation may provide a valuable non-invasive means to predict the duration of the early, asymptomatic stage of seed deterioration.

  15. Phloem sap collection from lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.): Methodology and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, M; Tjallingii, W F; van Beek, T A

    1994-12-01

    Three methods to collect phloem sap on different lettuce lines were optimized and are described in detail. The success ratio for stylectomy of aphids was over 80% through the combination of a specially designed setup and electrical penetration graphs to monitor phloem sap ingestion. For unknown reasons on some lettuce lines stylets never showed sustained exudation. There were clear differences in stylet exudation between two aphid species on the same lettuce line. Honeydew collection in hexadecane made accurate quantitative analysis possible; samples were large and clean, but biotransformed. The EDTA chelation method produced large samples, but dilution, oxidation, and impurities from the wound surface reduced the reliability.

  16. Changes in the physico-chemical properties of four lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varieties during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vargas-Arcila

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce, a popularly consumed leafy vegetable, is well known for its health and nutritional value. Thus, the current study focused on the qualitative changes of four lettuce varieties, namely Alpha, Parris Island, Graziella and Lollo Rossa, stored at 5.5 ºC and 90 % RH for 12 days. The analyzed parameters were water content, total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity (TA, vitamin C, total phenols, polyphenoloxidase (PPO, color and texture. Under storage conditions, the studied varieties exhibited different rates of water loss. TSS was found to increase until day 8 of storage, which is also when TA differences were observed. The Graziella variety showed the highest vitamin C levels. Total phenol content decreased significantly during the 12 days of storage. No significant PPO activity changes were found, except for those of the Lollo Rossa variety. Biplot analysis allowed observing not only positive and negative correlations between coordinates L*, a* and b*, but also the separavtion of the green lettuce varieties from the red one, together with color variations depending on leaf position. Although textural changes were recorded at the end of the study, foliage quality was not altered. In short, the studied parameters, which contribute to lettu-ce direct consumption properties, can be said to be variety-dependent and better preserved under refrigeration.

  17. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  18. Changes in Microtubular Alignment in Lactuca spp. (Asteraceae) Epidermal Cells during Early Stages of Infection by Bremia lactucae (Peronosporaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedlářová, M.; Binarová, Pavla; Lebeda, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2001), s. 21-34 ISSN 0079-2047 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020803; GA MŠk ME 397 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Bremia lactuca e * Peronosporaceae * resistance Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2001

  19. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

    2015-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection medium were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines, and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using PCR and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23% ± 0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1-55.3%.

  20. Lactuca spp. seeds as a bioindicator for the toxicity of Gezira Tannery Corporation wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Ammar M S; Bashir, Nabil H H; Assad, Yousif O H

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to establish the potential of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. buttercrunch) seeds as a bioindicator (BI), or a biological tool for detecting the presence of some toxic materials used in tanning industry and determining their concentrations using the germination percentage as a parameter (indicator). Samples of Gezira Tannery Corporation (GTC) wastewater (WW) were collected from both the mouth and the tail of the drainage stream. Lettuce seeds (10/Petri dish, replicated 3x and each experiment was repeated 3x) were treated by GTC WW and other important tanning agents (chromium oxide, sodium sulfide, Preventol WB) in solution using different concentrations of each and their mixture. The bioassay experiment revealed that the seeds were intoxicated (i.e. reduced the germination percentage), when exposed to the WW. On exposure to several concentrations from each input, the concentrations that can be measured by this BI (i.e. sensitivity and reliability) are: chromium oxide from 0.1 to 3.25%, sodium sulfide from 0.19 to 1.5% and Preventol WB from 18.75 to 150 ppm. Lower concentrations cannot be measured, and higher concentrations resulted in 100% inhibition. The IC50 was determined by probit analysis for the WW, mixture of the three inputs, chromium oxide alone, sodium sulfide alone and Preventol WB alone were: 35.5, 14.5, 0.44, 0.45 and 0.005%, respectively. The slopes of the log-dose probability lines (Ld-P) showed that this BI response to all treatments was homogeneous (> 2) (tabulated X2 (df = n - 2) at 5% = 0.172, 0.11, 0.064, 0.05 and 0.05). It is concluded that lettuce seeds satisfy almost all the required properties of the ideal BI.

  1. Characterization of Cannabis sativa allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ajay P; Green, Brett J; Sussman, Gordon; Berlin, Noam; Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Hettick, Justin M; Beezhold, Donald H

    2013-07-01

    Allergic sensitization to Cannabis sativa is rarely reported, but the increasing consumption of marijuana has resulted in an increase in the number of individuals who become sensitized. To date, little is known about the causal allergens associated with C sativa. To characterize marijuana allergens in different components of the C sativa plant using serum IgE from marijuana sensitized patients. Serum samples from 23 patients with a positive skin prick test result to a crude C sativa extract were evaluated. IgE reactivity was variable between patients and C sativa extracts. IgE reactivity to C sativa proteins in Western blots was heterogeneous and ranged from 10 to 70 kDa. Putative allergens derived from 2-dimensional gels were identified. Prominent IgE reactive bands included a 23-kDa oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 and a 50-kDa protein identified to be the photosynthetic enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Additional proteins were identified in the proteomic analysis, including those from adenosine triphosphate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, and luminal binding protein (heat shock protein 70), suggesting these proteins are potential allergens. Deglycosylation studies helped refine protein allergen identification and demonstrated significant IgE antibodies against plant oligosaccharides that could help explain cross-reactivity. Identification and characterization of allergens from C sativa may be helpful in further understanding allergic sensitization to this plant species. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cadmium effects on growth and physiology of Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, J.W.; Kremer, B.P.; Sperling, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    The chlorophycean Ulva lactuca L. was grown in the laboratory in unialgal culture to sufficient size so that up to 70 discs, 24 mm in diameter, could be punched out of a single plant. Using such discs, U. lactuca was then tested with various concentrations of Cd under continuous-flow conditions. A concentration of 4.5 ppm Cd was lethal to U. lactuca within 6 days. Control discs in unpolluted water increased in diameter at a rate of 8 to 13% day/sup -1/ over a 6-day period. At sublethal concentration of Cd a sharp reduction in growth rate was observed at increasing concentrations up to approximately 0.3 ppm Cd, whereas from 0.3 ppm Cd to the lethal concentrations the reduction of the growth rate was significantly less. Reduction in photosynthetic performance corresponded closely to the recuction in growth rate. At ambient concentrations of 0.8 ppm Cd, the plants concentrated Cd by a factor of approximately 50 in 6 days. Much higher concentration factors were attained in lower ambient concentrations. After removal from Cd-polluted water into flow-through culture in unpolluted water, a subsequent loss of Cd was indicated and the plants recovered rapidly. Plants exposed up to 3 d to 0.7 ppm Cd recovered sufficiently to produce viable gametes 7 days after removal from Cd. Because it has a relatively short life span and apparently loses Cd subsequent to exposure to Cd-polluted water, Ulva lactuca is not recommended as an alga for monitoring in-situ environmental pollution.

  3. Co-biosorption of copper and glyphosate by Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinelli, María Alcira; Areco, María Mar; Afonso, María dos Santos

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the adsorption of glyphosate (PMG) onto the green algae Ulva lactuca. PMG was not adsorbed by U. lactuca but PMG was adsorbed when the process was mediated by Cu(II) with molar ratios Cu(II):PMG≥1.5:1. U. lactuca was characterized by water adsorption surface area, FTIR, SEM and EDS. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied. Results showed that the biosorption processes for copper and PMG in the presence of copper were described described by the Langmuir model (qmax=0.85±0.09 mmol g(-1), KL=0.55±0.14 l mmol(-1) and qmax=3.65±0.46 mmol g(-1), KL=0.103±0.03 l mmol(-1), respectively). Copper adsorption was greater in the presence of PMG than in the absence of the pesticide and the adsorption can only be represented by the Freundlich model (KF=0.08±0.01, 1/n=1.86±0.07). In all cases studied, the maximum metal uptake (qmax) increased with increasing pH. Surface complexes with a stoichiometry ranging from ≡Cu-PMG-Cu to ≡Cu-PMG-Cu3 are suggested as reaction products of the process. Due to the increasing amounts of PMG applied in Argentina, natural reservoirs present considerable amounts of this herbicide. The value of this work resides in using U. lactuca, a marine seaweed commonly found along coastlines all over the world, as a biosorbent for PMG. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effector-mediated discovery of a novel resistance gene against Bremia Lactucae in a nonhost lettuce species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, A.K.J.; Pelgrom, Alexandra; Visser, R.G.F.; Niks, R.E.; Ackerveken, Van Den Guido; Jeuken, M.J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Candidate effectors from lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) enable high-throughput germplasm screening for the presence of resistance (R) genes. The nonhost species Lactuca saligna comprises a source of B. lactucae R genes that has hardly been exploited in lettuce breeding. Its

  5. Effector-mediated discovery of a novel resistance gene against Bremia lactucae in a nonhost lettuce species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, Anne K J; Pelgrom, Alexandra J E; Visser, Richard G F; Niks, Rients E; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Jeuken, Marieke J W

    2017-01-01

    Candidate effectors from lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) enable high-throughput germplasm screening for the presence of resistance (R) genes. The nonhost species Lactuca saligna comprises a source of B. lactucae R genes that has hardly been exploited in lettuce breeding. Its

  6. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  7. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating...... in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production...

  8. Botanical files on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) - on the chance for gene flow between wild and cultivated Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., including L. serriola L., Compositae) and the generalized implications for risk-assessments on genetically modified plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frietema, de F.T.; Meijden, van der R.; Brandenburg, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    In Botanical Files, a study of the real chances for gene flow from cultivated plants to the wild a system of dispersal codes (Dpdf) was introduced (see text box Dpdf).³7 They are indications of already occurring gene flow from cultivated plants to the wild flora, as can be deduced from herbarium

  9. DESEMPENHO DE CULTURAS DE ALFACE (LACTUCA SATIVA L NO PERIODO DE VERAO EM CASAS DE VEGETAÇÃO COM DIFERENTES COBERTURAS PERFORMANCE OF THE LETTUCE (LACTUCA SATIVA L ON SUMMER CONDITIONS IN GREENHOUSES WITH DIFFERENT COVERINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando da Costa Baêta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as condições térmicas ambientais no interior de quatro protótipos, iguais em concepção e geometria arquitetônicas e diferentes nas soluções dos componentes de fechamento da cobertura, e avaliar o desempenho deles na produção de alface em períodos de verão. Para fins de avaliação de desempenho ambiental, foram considerados quatro tratamentos de cobertura: (T testemunha, somente com lona plástica; (L lona plástica e componente de ventilação (lanternim; (LS lona plástica sob tela de sombreamento, associado a componente de ventilação (lanternim; e, (S lona plástica sob tela de sombreamento. Como pressupostamente esperado, pode-se afirmar que as casas de vegetação sombreadas apresentaram melhor desempenho ambiental, comparativamente às não-sombreadas, e proporcionaram um ambiente mais confortável ao desenvolvimento da cultura da alface no verão.The aim of this work had concentrated in the study of solutions for the closing of the covering for greenhouses under summer conditions, experimented with the lettuce. Four covering treatments were considerate for the evaluation of the environmental performance: (T testifier, with only plastic canvas; (C plastic canvas and ventilation compound (an overture on the roof; (CS plastic canvas under shading screen, with a ventilation compound(an overture on the roof associated; and (S plastic canvas under shading screen. It can be declared, as expected, that shaded greenhouses presented a best environment performance than the unshaded greenhouses, and provided a more comfortable environment for the growth of lettuce culture on Summer.

  10. Avaliação parasitológica em alfaces (Lactuca sativa L. comercializadas em Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brasil / Parasitological evaluation in lettuces (Lactuca sativa L. marketed in Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência de parasitoses intestinais cresce de forma expansiva no Brasil e em muitos países. A ocorrência de enteroparasitoses advém de várias maneiras, inclusive por con-sumo de vegetais contaminados, representando um grande problema em nível mundial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a contaminação por parasitas intestinais em horta-liças comercializadas em Serra Talhada-PE. As amostras das hortaliças foram coletadas nas unidades de produção (hortas, na unidade de recepção do Programa de Aquisição de Alimentos (PAA e em diversos estabelecimentos comerciais localizadas no município. As amostras foram colocadas em sacos plásticos e mantidas em caixa isotérmica; em seguida, foram encaminhadas ao laboratório de Biologia da Unidade Acadêmica de Serra Talhada-UFRPE. Para a identificação dos parasitas foi utilizado o método de sedimenta-ção espontânea. Observou-se que das 80 amostras de alface analisadas 97,5% estavam positivas para formas parasitárias e outros organismos microscópicos, incluindo ovos e larvas de nematoides, cistos de protozoários, ovos de cestódeos e alguns artrópodes (insetos e ácaros. É de suma importância o conhecimento dos produtores e manipu-ladores em geral a respeito da contaminação, bem como o conhecimento das técnicas sanitizantes desenvolvidas para hortaliças, com intuito de diminuir a contaminação em todas as etapas ocorrentes desde o cultivo até ao consumo. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Prevalence of intestinal parasites growing in Brazil and in many countries so expansive. The intestinal parasites comes in several ways, including by consumption of contami-nated vegetables, which represents a significant worldwide problem. The objective of this study is to assess the contamination by intestinal parasites in vegetables commer-cialized in Serra Talhada, in Pernambuco state. Samples of vegetables were collected at the production units (vegetable gardens and the receiving unit of the Food Acquisition Program (FAP and several commercial establishments in the municipality. Samples were placed in plastic bags and kept in an isothermal box, then sent to the laboratory of Biology Academic Unit of Serra Talhada — UAST/UFRPE. For the identification of para-sites was performed the spontaneous sedimentation. It was observed that the lettuce samples analyzed 97.5% were positive for parasitic forms and other microscopic organis-ms, including eggs and larvae of nematodes, protozoan cysts, cestodes eggs and some arthropods (insects and mites. Is extremely important to know the producers and han-dlers in general with respect to contamination, as well as the knowledge of the techni-ques developed for sanitizing vegetables crops, aiming at diminishing the contamination occurred in all steps occurring from cultivation to consumption.

  11. Sensitivity of salad greens (Lactuca sativa L. and Eruca sativa Mill. exposed to crude extracts of toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC. Bittencourt-Oliveira

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of crude extracts of the microcystin-producing (MC+ cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa on seed germination and initial development of lettuce and arugula, at concentrations between 0.5 μg.L–1 and 100 μg.L–1 of MC-LR equivalent, and compared it to crude extracts of the same species without the toxin (MC–. Crude extracts of the cyanobacteria with MC (+ and without MC (– caused different effects on seed germination and initial development of the salad green seedlings, lettuce being more sensitive to both extracts when compared to arugula. Crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC+ caused more evident effects on seed germination and initial development of both species of salad greens than MC–. Concentrations of 75 μg.L–1 and 100 μg.L–1 of MC–LR equivalent induced a greater occurrence of abnormal seedlings in lettuce, due to necrosis of the radicle and shortening of this organ in normal seedlings, as well as the reduction in total chlorophyll content and increase in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POD. The MC– extract caused no harmful effects to seed germination and initial development of seedlings of arugula. However, in lettuce, it caused elevation of POD enzyme activity, decrease in seed germination at concentrations of 75 μg.L–1 (MC-75 and 100 μg.L–1 (MC-100, and shortening of the radicle length, suggesting that other compounds present in the cyanobacteria extracts contributed to this result. Crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC– may contain other compounds, besides the cyanotoxins, capable of causing inhibitory or stimulatory effects on seed germination and initial development of salad green seedlings. Arugula was more sensitive to the crude extracts of M. aeruginosa (MC+ and (MC– and to other possible compounds produced by the cyanobacteria.

  12. Differential growth response of Ulva lactuca to ammonium and nitrate assimilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Meyer, Anne S

    2011-01-01

    and fluctuating levels of nitrogen sources. Our understanding of the influences of this varying condition on the uptake and growth responses of U. lactuca is limited. In this present work, we examined the growth response of U. lactuca exposed to different sources of nitrogen (NH4+; NO3−; and the combination NH4NO...... as the nitrogen source. The NH4Cl and NaNO3 rich media (50 μM of N) accelerated U. lactuca growth to a maximum specific growth rate of 16.4 ± 0.18% day−1 and 9.4 ± 0.72% day−1, respectively. The highest biomass production rate obtained was 22.5 ± 0.24 mg DW m−2·day−1. The presence of ammonium apparently...... discriminated the nitrate uptake by U. lactuca when exposed to NH4NO3. Apart from showing the significant differential growth response of U. lactuca to different nitrogen sources, the work exhibits the applicability of a photo-scanning approach for acquiring precise quantitative growth data for U. lactuca...

  13. Evaluation of sanitary quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L. irrigated with reused water in comparison with commercialized lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Fonseca Souza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate use of water resources reduces their availability and therefore, research focused on their reutilization is required. This work evaluated the sanitary quality of lettuce irrigated with reused water in comparison with samples of lettuce commercialized in Taubaté (SP market. An experiment was developed in a greenhouse with three beds of lettuce irrigated with reused water and three beds of lettuce irrigated with urban water supply. After lettuce biological cycle had been completed, lettuce samples were collected from the beds (irrigated and non-irrigated with reused water and from samples of lettuce commercialized in the city market that were analyzed in the laboratory. The analyses were done using the multiple tubes methodology. The results showed that the samples from lettuce irrigated with urban water supply were not contaminated by either total or thermotolerant coliforms while samples of irrigated lettuce with reused water were contaminated by total coliforms. Samples from commercialized lettuce were contaminated by both kinds of coliforms. Results indicated that the application of reused water for agricultural purposes should occur only after carefully treatment to allow a safe use and to contribute to the water use sustainability.

  14. Growth and Tissue Elemental Composition Response of Butterhead Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, cv. Flandria to Hydroponic and Aquaponic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler S. Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research was to compare lettuce performance under conventional hydroponics at pH 5.8 (referred to as H5, hydroponics at pH 7.0 (referred to as H7, and recirculated aquaponic water at pH 7.0 (referred to as A7. Aquaponic nutrients were supplied by continuously recirculating water between a fish rearing system (recirculating aquaculture system or RAS and the lettuce growing system (with the sole addition being chelated iron. This paper builds upon our previous research where we found that H7 produced 26% less shoot fresh weight (FW growth than H5 and an 18% reduction in dry weight (DW. In this research, we also evaluated the inorganic hydroponics nutrient solution at pH 7.0 (H7 to provide continuity between experiments and to isolate the pH effect. The A7 plant biomass responses were not different from H5 in all biomass response categories. H7 was different from H5 in shoot FW, DW, and DW/FW, as well as root FW and DW. H7 was different from the A7 in shoot FW, DW/FW, and root DW. There were no tissue elemental differences between H5 and H7 except Cu. The Ca and Na contents differed between H5 and A7, while the microelements Mn, Mo, and Zn differed. Generally, the elemental tissue differences between treatments were proportional to the differences for the same elements in the nutrient solutions. Aquaponic systems are often viewed to be more complicated and more risky because two complex systems are being joined (hydroponics plus RAS. However, the aquaponics system proved to be surprisingly simple to manage in daily operations. Our data suggested that the aquaponics system (A7, which was operated at a higher pH 7.0, was able to offset any negative biomass and elemental effects that occurred in the inorganic hydroponic pH 7.0 treatment (H7 from its increased pH and less optimized nutrient solution elemental concentrations.

  15. Liquid humus and microorganisms to promote the production of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Crespa in hydroponic crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco José

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In an initial phase, a trial with growing hydroponic lettuce was installed, considering all the macro and micronutrients necessary and sufficient for growth, where treatments were applied with and without liquid humus, combining separately with inoculation of mycorrhiza and bacteria Bacillus type, observing that the significant effect by the individual use of the liquid humus is up to 50%. Subsequently, in a Phase II, different doses of only liquid humus with only mycorrhizae were evaluated, where applying of 8 L of pure liquid humus per 36 L of stock solution of hydroponics crop, the plants had the highest weight (40.7%, the highest altitude (39% and the longest (42% compared to the witness. Instead, the combination of liquid humus plus mycorrhizal is 6 L per 36 L of stock solution, which stimulated a further growth and weight of growing lettuce in hydroponics conditions. In general, the use of liquid humus decreased the production time from 60 to 52 days.

  16. Experiencia de producción de lechuga americana (Lactuca sativa hidropónica, tipo NFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Brenes-Peralta

    2014-06-01

    En el Centro de Prácticas Docentes e Investigación Agropecuaria de la Escuela de Agronegocios del Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica (TEC se cuenta, actualmente, con un sistema de este tipo NFT donde estableció una actividad de fortalecimiento que ha resultado en la observación de ciertas características a partir de la experiencia generada, de la cual se espera fomentar el uso de la hidroponía, así como divulgar información técnica y de buenas prácticas en este tipo de cultivo entre usuarios interesados.

  17. Filth fly transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica to lettuce, Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filth flies have been implicated in the dispersal of human disease pathogens; however, fly transmission parameters of human pathogens to plants are largely undescribed. The capacity of the black blow fly, Phormia regina, to acquire and subsequently release bacteria onto baby lettuce leaves was comp...

  18. Control age - and irradiation-induced seed deterioration in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) by hydration-dehydration treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, Bina; Basu, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    Hydration-dehydration treatment of stored lettuce seed (1-year-old, medium-vigour), greatly slowed down their deterioration during subsequent storage under accelerated and natural ageing conditions. Hydration-dehydration of seeds, before or soon after X- and γ-irradiation, considerably minimized the adverse effect of irradiation on the development of biological after-effects responsible for the fall in germinibility, especially the large reduction of root growth of seedlings. Pre- and post-irradiation treatments gave broadly similar effects. The results have been discussed in terms of a possible involvement of a cellular (biochemical) repair mechanism in the hydration phase and also on the basis of a physico-chemical control of free radical pathology in the aged and irradiated seed. (author)

  19. Expression analysis of polyphenol oxidase isozymes by active staining method and tissue browning of head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takahiro; Iimure, Kazuhiko; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Saito, Akira

    2017-08-01

    Browning of plant tissue is generally considered attributable to enzymatic oxidation by polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Electrophoresis followed by activity staining has been used as an effective procedure to visually detect and isolate isozymes; however, it has not been applied for examination of various PPO isozymes in lettuce. Our study demonstrated that different lettuce PPO isozymes could be detected at different pH in active staining, and multiple isozymes were detected only under alkaline conditions. As a result, we concluded that activity staining with approximately pH 8 enabled to detect various PPO isozymes in lettuce. By expression analysis of the PPO isozymes after wounding, PPO isozymes that correlated with time-course of tissue browning were detected. The wound-induced PPO may play a key role in enzymatic browning.

  20. Effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) pretreatment on UV-B stress tolerance in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esringu, Aslıhan; Aksakal, Ozkan; Tabay, Dilruba; Kara, Ayse Aydan

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is one of the most important abiotic stress factors that could influence plant growth, development, and productivity. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important plant growth regulator involved in a wide variety of physiological processes. In the present study, the possibility of enhancing UV-B stress tolerance of lettuce seedlings by the exogenous application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was investigated. UV-B radiation increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD) and total phenolic concentrations, antioxidant capacity, and expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene in seedlings, but the combination of SNP pretreatment and UV-B enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities, total phenolic concentrations, antioxidant capacity, and PAL gene expression even more. Moreover, UV-B radiation significantly inhibited chlorophylls, carotenoid, gibberellic acid (GA), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents and increased the contents of abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide radical (O2•(-)) in lettuce seedlings. When SNP pretreatment was combined with the UV-B radiation, we observed alleviated chlorophylls, carotenoid, GA, and IAA inhibition and decreased content of ABA, SA, MDA, H2O2, and O2•(-) in comparison to non-pretreated stressed seedlings.

  1. A genetic analysis of the introgression process from cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) to wild prickly lettuce (L. serriola L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Uwimana, B.

    2011-01-01

    Many plant species can hybridise and produce fertile offspring. Hybridization between cultivated species and their wild relatives has raised concerns with regard to GM crops, as it constitutes a possible route along which the transgene could disperse from crops into related wild species, establish itself in the natural population, and persist under natural conditions. This may cause unintended ecological consequences such as the formation of more invasive weeds and genetic erosion. After cro...

  2. Effect of Ni and Urea on Growth, Nitrate and Nutrients Concentration in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Grown in Hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Hosein Nazari Mamaqani; Seyed Jalal Tabatabaei

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The N source used in commercial hydroponic culture of vegetables is mainly NO3-N. The rate of NO3- uptake is usually high, particularly in leafy vegetables and it can be markedly increased when the NO3- supply in the environment is high. An abundant N supply leads to a high NO3-N absorption and accumulation in plants. When NO3- rich vegetables are consumed, various harmful effects on human health may occur such as met-hemoglobinemia (Blue Baby Syndrome) and cancer. Keeping level...

  3. Storage of intact heads prior to processing limits the shelf-life of fresh-cut Lactuca sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Harvested lettuce heads are usually transported and stored for some period of time under a variety of conditions prior to processing. During storage, especially under suboptimal conditions, nutritional composition of the harvested produce continues to change. The possible impact of prior storage of

  4. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of Duranta repens on the germination and early growth of Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Borella

    2010-04-01

    effect by one plant on another through production of chemical compounds released into the environment. In this work, the effects of aqueous extracts of Duranta repens fresh, dried leaves and fruit on the germination and early growth of lettuce and tomato were investigated. Aqueous extracts at concentrations of 1%, 2% and 4% (w/v were prepared and characterized as to pH and osmotic potential. Phytochemical analysis of leaves and fruits was also carried out. Germination parameters consisted of the percentage of germination (PG, speed of germination (VG and speed of germination index (IVG. Initial growth was evaluated through length (root and shoot and mass (fresh, dried and water content. Extracts of fresh and dry leaves altered the tomato PG and lettuce and tomato VG and IVG. All extracts affected the root length of the lettuce and tomato, as well as the length of the shoots and mass (dry and fresh of the lettuce. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins and flavonoids. The action of the extracts was disassociated from any effect of osmotic potential and pH, indicating allelopathic activity.

  5. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of Duranta repens on the germination and early growth of Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Maria Tur

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy can be efined as any stimulatory or inhibitory effect by one plant on another through production of chemical compounds released into the environment. In this work, the effects of aqueous extracts of Duranta repens fresh, dried leaves and fruit on the germination and early growth of lettuce and tomato were investigated. Aqueous extracts at concentrations of 1%, 2% and 4% (w/v were prepared and characterized as to pH and osmotic potential. Phytochemical analysis of leaves and fruits was also carried out. Germination parameters consisted of the percentage of germination (PG, speed of germination (VG and speed of germination index (IVG. Initial growth was evaluated through length (root and shoot and mass (fresh, dried and water content. Extracts of fresh and dry leaves altered the tomato PG and leaf lettuce and tomato VG and IVG. All extracts affected the root length of the lettuce and tomato, as well as the length of the shoots and mass (dry and fresh of the lettuce. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins and flavonoids. The action of the extracts was disassociated from any effect of osmotic potential and pH, indicating allelopathic activity.

  6. Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) as affected by different soils

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, G.; Bott, S.; Ohler, M. A.; Mock, H.-P.; Lippmann, R.; Grosch, R.; Smalla, K.

    2014-01-01

    Development and activity of plant roots exhibits high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types...

  7. Transcriptome Profiling of Caco-2 Cancer Cell Line following Treatment with Extracts from Iodine-Biofortified Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta A Koronowicz

    Full Text Available Although iodization of salt is the most common method used to obtain iodine-enriched food, iodine deficiency disorders are still a global health problem and profoundly affect the quality of human life. Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulators of human metabolism, cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and have been reported to be involved in carcinogenesis. In this study, for the first time, we evaluated the effect of iodine-biofortified lettuce on transcriptomic profile of Caco-2 cancer cell line by applying the Whole Human Genome Microarray assay. We showed 1326 differentially expressed Caco-2 transcripts after treatment with iodine-biofortified (BFL and non-fortified (NFL lettuce extracts. We analysed pathways, molecular functions, biological processes and protein classes based on comparison between BFL and NFL specific genes. Iodine, which was expected to act as a free ion (KI-NFL or at least in part to be incorporated into lettuce macromolecules (BFL, differently regulated pathways of numerous transcription factors leading to different cellular effects. In this study we showed the inhibition of Caco-2 cells proliferation after treatment with BFL, but not potassium iodide (KI, and BFL-mediated induction of mitochondrial apoptosis and/or cell differentiation. Our results showed that iodine-biofortified plants can be effectively used by cells as an alternative source of this trace element. Moreover, the observed differences in action of both iodine sources may suggest a potential of BFL in cancer treatment.

  8. A genetic analysis of the introgression process from cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) to wild prickly lettuce (L. serriola L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uwimana, B.

    2011-01-01

    Many plant species can hybridise and produce fertile offspring. Hybridization between cultivated species and their wild relatives has raised concerns with regard to GM crops, as it constitutes a possible route along which the transgene could disperse from crops into related wild species,

  9. Control age - and irradiation-induced seed deterioration in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. ) by hydration-dehydration treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punjabi, B; Basu, R N [University Coll. of Agriculture, Calcutta (India)

    1982-04-01

    Hydration-dehydration treatment of stored lettuce seed (1-year-old, medium-vigour), greatly slowed down their deterioration during subsequent storage under accelerated and natural ageing conditions. Hydration-dehydration of seeds, before or soon after X- and ..gamma..-irradiation, considerably minimized the adverse effect of irradiation on the development of biological after-effects responsible for the fall in germinibility, especially the large reduction of root growth of seedlings. Pre- and post-irradiation treatments gave broadly similar effects. The results have been discussed in terms of a possible involvement of a cellular (biochemical) repair mechanism in the hydration phase and also on the basis of a physico-chemical control of free radical pathology in the aged and irradiated seed.

  10. Growth and Tissue Elemental Composition Response of Butterhead Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, cv. Flandria) to Hydroponic and Aquaponic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler S. Anderson; David de Villiers; Michael B. Timmons

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to compare lettuce performance under conventional hydroponics at pH 5.8 (referred to as H5), hydroponics at pH 7.0 (referred to as H7), and recirculated aquaponic water at pH 7.0 (referred to as A7). Aquaponic nutrients were supplied by continuously recirculating water between a fish rearing system (recirculating aquaculture system or RAS) and the lettuce growing system (with the sole addition being chelated iron). This paper builds upon our previous...

  11. Effect of vanadium on germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. C. V. salad bowl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepp, N.W.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of vanadium, applied as VOSO/sub 4/, on germination and subsequent seedling growth of Lettuce has been studied. No differences in germination were observed at any of the applied vanadium concentrations, when compared to a vanadium-free control. Subsequent seedling growth, however, was significantly inhibited by all vanadium treatments. Reductions in shoot growth, root growth and fresh weight were apparent. Similar, but less dramatic effects were observed when 3 day old seedlings were transferred to vanadium enriched media. 13 references, 2 tables.

  12. Effects of glucose and ethylene on root hair initiation and elongation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigaya, Wakana; Takahashi, Hidenori

    2018-05-01

    Root hair formation occurs in lettuce seedlings after transfer to an acidic medium (pH 4.0). This process requires cortical microtubule (CMT) randomization in root epidermal cells and the plant hormone ethylene. We investigated the interaction between ethylene and glucose, a new signaling molecule in plants, in lettuce root development, with an emphasis on root hair formation. Dark-grown seedlings were used to exclude the effect of photosynthetically produced glucose. In the dark, neither root hair formation nor the CMT randomization preceding it occurred, even after transfer to the acidic medium (pH 4.0). Adding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC) to the medium rescued the induction, while adding glucose did not. Although CMT randomization occurred when glucose was applied together with ACC, it was somewhat suppressed compared to that in ACC-treated seedlings. This was not due to a decrease in the speed of randomization, but due to lowering of the maximum degree of randomization. Despite the negative effect of glucose on ACC-induced CMT randomization, the density and length of ACC-induced root hairs increased when glucose was also added. The hair-cell length of the ACC-treated seedlings was comparable to that in the combined-treatment seedlings, indicating that the increase in hair density caused by glucose results from an increase in the root hair number. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that glucose suppressed ethylene signaling. These results suggest that glucose has a negative and positive effect on the earlier and later stages of root hair formation, respectively, and that the promotion of the initiation and elongation of root hairs by glucose may be mediated in an ethylene-independent manner.

  13. Combination of peracetic acid and ultrasound reduces Salmonella Typhimurium on fresh lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Luiza Oliveira; do Rosário, Denes Kaic Alves; Giori, Ana Carolina Garcia; Oliveira, Syllas Borburema Silva; da Silva Mutz, Yhan; Marques, Clara Suprani; Coelho, Jussara Moreira; Bernardes, Patrícia Campos

    2018-04-01

    Salmonella outbreaks related to fruits and vegetables have been reported being lettuce one of the most contaminated. Peracetic acid (PA) at 50 mg/L, sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SD) at 100 mg/L, and the combination of SD at 100 mg/L and babaçu coconut ( Attalea speciosa ) oil detergent at 100 mg/L were applied to fresh lettuce. Natural contaminant microbiota, physicochemical characteristics, and sensory attributes were evaluated. PA and SD reduced mesophilic aerobic counts by 2.1 and 1.5 log cfu/g, respectively. The most efficient treatment in reducing natural microbiota (i.e., PA) was applied alone and in combination with ultrasound (US). It reduced Salmonella enterica Typhimurium counts to undetectable levels (< 1 log cfu/g). US further reduced S. Typhimurium counts by 0.6 log cfu/g in relation to PA, treatment which lessened the pH but increased the titratable acidity of lettuce, but did not cause total color difference. Therefore, the combination of PA and US holds a potential industrial application for sanitization purposes.

  14. Action spectra for the depression of photosynthesis by UV irradiation in Lactuca sativa L. and Rumex alpinus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogenrieder, A.

    1982-01-01

    In previous investigations it was shown that effects of UV on photosynthesis, growth and development of higher plants are mainly inhibitory, although over a long period stimulation may also be seen. These short term effects can often, depending on wavelength and fluence rate, to be found after only a few minutes. Further investigations showed that even by the highest available UB fluence rates, a linear relationship between total fluence and depression of photosynthesis occurred, at least for an irradiation period of 6 hours (Bogenrieder and Klein 1982). An action spectrum for this relatively short term effect is presented. (orig./AJ)

  15. MANEJO DA IRRIGAÇÃO DA CULTURA DA ALFACE (Lactuca sativa L. ATRAVÉS DO TANQUE CLASSE A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRADE JÚNIOR A.S. de

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de irrigação, baseados em frações da evaporação do Tanque Classe A (ECA (0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,00 sobre o comportamento produtivo da cultura da alface, variedade "Mesa 659" (tipo americana, cultivada em uma estufa plástica e irrigada por gotejamento, foi conduzido um experimento durante o período de julho a setembro de 1993. O comportamento produtivo foi avaliado através da determinação da matéria fresca (MFP, produtividade (PROD e eficiência do uso de água (EUA. Os resultados de MFP e PROD mostraram resposta quadrática, indicando acréscimo em ambos à medida que aumentaram as lâminas de irrigação aplicadas até o nível 0,75 da ECA, apresentando valores máximos de 818,72 g e 90,97 t.ha-1, respectivamente. Os dados relativos à EUA revelaram resposta linear decrescente, significando que à medida que os níveis de irrigação aumentam ocorre uma diminuição na EUA.

  16. Rapid Transient Production of a Monoclonal Antibody Neutralizing the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) in Nicotiana benthamiana and Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanapisit, Kaewta; Srijangwad, Anchalee; Chuanasa, Taksina; Sukrong, Suchada; Tantituvanont, Angkana; Mason, Hugh S; Nilubol, Dachrit; Phoolcharoen, Waranyoo

    2017-12-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, weight loss, and high mortality rate in neonatal piglets. Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has been reported in Europe, America, and Asia including Thailand. The disease causes substantial losses to the swine industry in many countries. Presently, there is no effective PEDV vaccine available. In this study, we developed a plant-produced monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2C10 as a prophylactic candidate to prevent the PEDV infection. Recently, plant expression systems have gained interest as an alternative for the production of antibodies because of many advantages, such as low production cost, lack of human and animal pathogen, large scalability, etc. The 2C10 mAb was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and lettuce using geminiviral vector. After purification by protein A affinity chromatography, the antibody was tested for the binding and neutralizing activity against PEDV. Our result showed that the plant produced 2C10 mAb can bind to the virus and also inhibit PEDV infection in vitro . These results show excellent potential for a plant-expressed 2C10 as a PEDV prophylaxis and a diagnostic for PEDV infection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Treated wastewater phytotoxicity assessment using Lactuca sativa: Focus on germination and root elongation test parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priac, Anne; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Crini, Grégorio

    2017-03-01

    Sensitive and simple ecotoxicological bioassays like seed germination and root elongation tests are commonly used to evaluate the phytotoxicity of waste and industrial discharge waters. Although the tests are performed following national and international standards, various parameters such as the number of seeds per dish, the test duration or the type of support used remain variable. To be able to make a correct comparison of results from different studies, it is crucial to know which parameter(s) could affect ecotoxicological diagnosis. We tested four different control waters and three seed densities. No significant differences on either germination rate or root elongation endpoints were shown. Nevertheless, we found that the four lettuce cultivars (Appia, batavia dorée de printemps, grosse blonde paresseuse, and Kinemontepas) showed significantly different responses when watered with the same and different metal-loaded industrial discharge water. From the comparison, it is clear that a differential sensitivity scale occurs among not just species but cultivars. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of the impact of Aluminum on germination, early growth and free proline content in Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia; Matos, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major problem in crop production on acid soils. The use of industrial or municipal wastewaters, which may be contaminated with metals, for irrigation in agriculture is common over the world. This action can increase the concentration of these agents in the soil and decrease crops yields. In order to evaluate the toxicological effects of recommended Al levels in irrigation water, under acidic conditions, on lettuce, seeds of two cultivars ("cv Reine de Mai" and "cv White Boston") were exposed to five different Al concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5 and 20mg/L) and germination percentage, root and shoot lengths were measured. Also, the germination rate and the vigor index were calculated, and the proline content was estimated for all concentrations. Results showed that seed germination was not negatively affected by Al, but the germination rate decreased in both cultivars. For the other factors analyzed, with the exception of 20mg/L concentration for "cv White Boston", Al induced, in general, negative effects including the content of proline that increased in the seeds that were exposed to this metal. The "cv Reine de Mai" was more sensitive for the analyzed concentrations than the other cultivar.. The results indicated that even recommended Al concentrations for irrigation, under acidic conditions, can interfere negatively in seed germination and seedling establishment and possibly with crop production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of supplemental ultraviolet radiation on the concentration of phytonutrients in green and red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, Steven; Caldwell, Charles; Mirecki, Roman; Slusser, James; Gao, Wei

    2005-08-01

    Eight cultivars each of red and green leaf lettuce were raised in a greenhouse with supplemental UV radiation, either UV-A (wavelengths greater than ca. 315 nm) or UV-A+UV-B (wavelengths greater than ca. 290 nm; 6.4 kJ m-2 daily biologically effective UV-B), or no supplemental UV (controls). Several phytonutrients were analyzed in leaf flours to identify lines with large differences in composition and response to UV-B. Red leaf lettuce had higher levels of phenolic acid esters, flavonols and anthocyanins than green lines. Both green and red lines exposed to UV-B for 9 days showed 2-3-fold increases in flavonoids compared to controls, but only 45% increases in phenolic acid esters, suggesting these compounds may be regulated by different mechanisms. There were large differences between cultivars in levels of phenolic compounds under control conditions and also large differences in UV-B effects. Among red varieties, cv. Galactic was notable for high levels of phenolics and a large response to UV-B. Among green varieties, cvs. Black-Seeded Simpson and Simpson Elite had large increases in phenolics with UV-B exposure. Photosynthetic pigments were also analyzed. Green leaf lettuce had high levels of pheophytin, a chlorophyll degradation product. Total chlorophylls (including pheophytin) were much lower in green compared to red varieties. Lutein, a carotenoid, was similar for green and red lines. Total chlorophylls and lutein increased 2-fold under supplemental UV-B in green lines but decreased slightly under UV-B in red lines. Lettuce appears to be a valuable crop to use to study phytochemical-environment interactions.

  20. Biodegradable films of starch/PVOH/alginate in packaging systems for minimally processed lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Paula Herrera Brandelero

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biodegradable packaging may replace non-biodegradable materials when the shelf life of the packaged product is relatively short, as in minimally processed foods. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of biodegradable films comprising starch/polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH/alginate with the addition of 0 or 0.5% of essential oil of copaiba (EOCP or lemongrass (EOLM compared to poly-vinyl chloride (PVC films in the storage of minimally processed lettuce. Lettuce samples cut into 1-cm strips were placed in polypropylene trays wrapped with biodegradable films and stored at 6 ± 2 °C for 8 days. PVC films were used as controls. The biofilms presented 11.43-8.11 MPa resistance and 11.3-13.22% elongation, with water vapor permeability (WVP of 0.5-4.04 x 10-12 g. s-1.Pa-1.m-1; thus, the films' properties were considered suitable for the application. The lettuce stored in PVC presented minor total soluble solids (TSS, less luminosity (L, higher intensity of yellow color (b, and eight times less mass loss than that stored in biodegradable films. Multivariate analysis showed that the lettuce lost quality after 2 days of storage in PVC films, representing a different result from the other treatments. Lettuce stored in biodegradable films for 2 and 4 days showed a greater similarity with newly harvested lettuce (time zero. The films with or without the addition of essential oil showed similar characteristics. Biodegradable films were considered viable for the storage of minimally processed lettuce.

  1. A gene encoding an abscisic acid biosynthetic enzyme (LsNCED4) collocates with the high temperature germination locus Htg6.1 in lettuce (Lactuca sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyris, Jason; Truco, María José; Ochoa, Oswaldo; McHale, Leah; Dahal, Peetambar; Van Deynze, Allen; Michelmore, Richard W; Bradford, Kent J

    2011-01-01

    Thermoinhibition, or failure of seeds to germinate when imbibed at warm temperatures, can be a significant problem in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production. The reliability of stand establishment would be improved by increasing the ability of lettuce seeds to germinate at high temperatures. Genes encoding germination- or dormancy-related proteins were mapped in a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between L. sativa cv. Salinas and L. serriola accession UC96US23. This revealed several candidate genes that are located in the genomic regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with temperature and light requirements for germination. In particular, LsNCED4, a temperature-regulated gene in the biosynthetic pathway for abscisic acid (ABA), a germination inhibitor, mapped to the center of a previously detected QTL for high temperature germination (Htg6.1) from UC96US23. Three sets of sister BC(3)S(2) near-isogenic lines (NILs) that were homozygous for the UC96US23 allele of LsNCED4 at Htg6.1 were developed by backcrossing to cv. Salinas and marker-assisted selection followed by selfing. The maximum temperature for germination of NIL seed lots with the UC96US23 allele at LsNCED4 was increased by 2-3°C when compared with sister NIL seed lots lacking the introgression. In addition, the expression of LsNCED4 was two- to threefold lower in the former NIL lines as compared to expression in the latter. Together, these data strongly implicate LsNCED4 as the candidate gene responsible for the Htg6.1 phenotype and indicate that decreased ABA biosynthesis at high imbibition temperatures is a major factor responsible for the increased germination thermotolerance of UC96US23 seeds.

  2. Ulva lactuca hydroethanolic extract suppresses experimental arthritis via its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Ulva lactuca hydroethanolic extract on rheumatoid arthritis in male Wistar rats. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of 200 µl Freund’s complete adjuvant into a footpad of the right hind leg of male rats at two consecutive days. Arthritic rats were orally treated with Ulva lactuca hydroethanolic extract at dose level of 100 mg/kg b.wt /day for 1, 2 and 3 weeks and were compared with corresponding arthritic control at the same periods. The increased right hind paw circumference at tarsal pad, deleteriously affected ankle joint histological architecture, articular inflammatory cell infiltration and focal necrosis in arthritic rats were counteracted by hydroethanolic extract treatment at the three tested periods. Elevated leukocytes count in arthritic rats connected with changes of spleen and thymus histological architecture, extramedullary megakaryocytes, lymphoblasts activation and mitotic figures were significantly improved by Ulva lactuca hydroethanolic extract treatment at the three tested peroids. The elevated rheumatoid factor (RF, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-17 (IL-17 and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β levels and the lowered interleukin-4 (IL-4 level in arthritic rats were markedly ameliorated as a result of Ulva lactuca administration. The lowered glutathione level and glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities as well as the elevated lipid peroxides level in serum of arthritic rats were potentially alleviated as a result of Ulva lactuca treatment. In conclusion, Ulva lactuca could have anti-arthritic efficacies which may be mediated via its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant potentials. Keywords: Ulva lactuca, Joints, Spleen, Thymus, Rheumatoid arthritis, Inflammation, Oxidative stress

  3. Bioactive spirans and other constituents from the leaves of Cannabis sativa f. sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Hai; Liu, Qing-Chao; Zhao, Yong; Hou, Yu-Fei; Bai, Lu; Zhang, Li; Liu, Xue-Qiang; Liu, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Sheng-Yong; Bai, Nai-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, 17 compounds (1-17) were isolated from the leaves of Hemp (Cannabis sativa f. sativa). Among the isolates, two were determined to be new spirans: cannabispirketal (1), and α-cannabispiranol 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranose (2) by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, LC-MS, and HRESIMS. The known compounds 7, 8, 10, 13, 15, and 16 were isolated from Hemp (C. sativa f. sativa) for the first time. Furthermore, compounds 8 and 13 were isolated from the nature for the first time. All isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity on different tissue-derived passage cancer cell lines through cell viability and apoptosis assay. Among these compounds, compounds 5, 9 and 16 exhibited a broad-spectrum antitumor effect via inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. These results obtained have provided valuable clues to the understanding of the cytotoxic profile for these isolated compounds from Hemp (C. sativa f. sativa).

  4. Investigation on the effects of guava (Psidium guajava L. infusions on germination, root tips and meristematic cells of Latuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaquelini Luber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Guava (Psidium guajava L. is a plant often employed in popular medicine. Recently several studies have alerted about the toxicity of substances present in medicinal plants, which can pose risks to the human health. In this sense, the present work aimed to investigate the phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic action of three guava varieties - Paluma, Pedro Sato and Roxa ("purple" - on the plant test system Lactuca sativa L. Thus, macro- and microscopic evaluations were carried out for five infusion concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 g.L-1 prepared from each variety. Distilled water was used as negative control. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis by HPLC-PAD indicated that the chemical composition of the infusion of Roxa is different than that of the infusions of the varieties Paluma and Pedro Sato. It was observed that seed germination and root growth in L. sativa exposed to infusions decreased with increasing infusion concentration, regardless of the tested cultivar. For the mitotic index, no statistical differences were observed. On the other hand, a significant increase in the frequency of cell cycle alterations was verified, especially for the highest concentrations tested. The cytogenotoxic effect was significant. Therefore, guava should not be used indiscriminately in popular medicine.

  5. Investigation on the effects of guava (Psidium guajava L.) infusions on germination, root tips and meristematic cells of Latuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luber, Jaquelini; Palmieri, Marcel J; Botelho, Carolina M; Rinaldo, Daniel; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa F

    2015-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a plant often employed in popular medicine. Recently several studies have alerted about the toxicity of substances present in medicinal plants, which can pose risks to the human health. In this sense, the present work aimed to investigate the phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic action of three guava varieties - Paluma, Pedro Sato and Roxa ("purple") - on the plant test system Lactuca sativa L. Thus, macro- and microscopic evaluations were carried out for five infusion concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 g.L(-1)) prepared from each variety. Distilled water was used as negative control. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis by HPLC-PAD indicated that the chemical composition of the infusion of Roxa is different than that of the infusions of the varieties Paluma and Pedro Sato. It was observed that seed germination and root growth in L. sativa exposed to infusions decreased with increasing infusion concentration, regardless of the tested cultivar. For the mitotic index, no statistical differences were observed. On the other hand, a significant increase in the frequency of cell cycle alterations was verified, especially for the highest concentrations tested. The cytogenotoxic effect was significant. Therefore, guava should not be used indiscriminately in popular medicine.

  6. Nitrous oxide emission from Ulva lactuca incubated in batch cultures is stimulated by nitrite, nitrate and light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Bruhn, Annette; Ambus, Per

    2013-01-01

    oxide (N2O) may be produced by green algae. We investigated the N2O emissions in the green alga Ulva lactuca. Significant N2O emissions, along with CO2 uptake, were demonstrated from vital U. lactuca material from different natural populations incubated in the laboratory with nitrite (NO2−) and nitrate...

  7. Effect of solution temperature, light intensity and light in combination with sunlight using mirror duct on growth of leaf lettuce (Lactuca savtiva L. cv. 'Greenwave')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, H.; Kushida, M.; Fujinuma, W.; Sekine, M.; Kaiho, K.; Arai, H.; Shibusawa, S.

    2004-01-01

    Leaf lettuce crops (Lactuca sativa L. cv. 'Greenwave') were grown in a plant production system using a Mirror Duct which intensified sunlight and transferred it to the inside of buildings. This system was expected to reduce the operational energy and lighting cost. The experiments were conducted under four photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPF) of 140,160, 180, and 200 micro mol mE-2 sE-1, in two light conditions, fluorescent light only and fluorescent light plus sunlight transferred with the Mirror Duct, and were repeated five times in total from August 2002 to July 2003. Five different solution temperatures were finally obtained through all the experiments due to temperature changes inside the experiment facility. Variance was analyzed to estimate the effect of these environmental factors on the growth of leaf lettuce. It was found that the fresh weight of leaf lettuce increased as PPF increased and the rate of increase of weight was 0.6 to 1.0 g per unit PPF in both 17.4 deg C and 23.5 deg C solution temperatures; the solution temperature had a significant effect upon the fresh weight; and a difference in fresh weight at harvest of between 40 and 60 g was observed between 17.4 deg C and 23.5 deg C solution temperatures. The light containing 10% sunlight was not effective for increasing fresh weight at harvest compared to the fluorescent lamp

  8. Marine biomass research in Florida. [Gracilaria tikvahiae, Ulva Lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry weight/sq. m/day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs when the plants are grown in suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet weight/sq.m, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two week's growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing of CO/sub 2/ eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can be grown at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce through selective breeding, a high-temperature tolerant strain of Ulva. 21 references.

  9. [Therapeutic potential of Cannabis sativa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avello L, Marcia; Pastene N, Edgar; Fernández R, Pola; Córdova M, Pia

    2017-03-01

    Cannabis sativa (marihuana) is considered an illicit drug due to its psychoactive properties. Recently, the Chilean government opened to the use cannabis in the symptomatic treatment of some patients. The biological effects of cannabis render it useful for the complementary treatment of specific clinical situations such as chronic pain. We retrieved scientific information about the analgesic properties of cannabis, using it as a safe drug. The drug may block or inhibit the transmission of nervous impulses at different levels, an effect associated with pain control. Within this context and using adequate doses, forms and administration pathways, it can be used for chronic pain management, considering its effectiveness and low cost. It could also be considered as an alternative in patients receiving prolonged analgesic therapies with multiple adverse effects.

  10. Neuropharmacological effects of Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farimah Beheshti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (NS (Ranunculaceae family is generally utilized as a therapeutic plant all over the world. The seeds of the plant have a long history of use in different frameworks of medicines and food. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of therapeutics. It has been widely used to treat nervous system diseases such as memory impairment, epilepsy, neurotoxicity, pain, etc. Additionally, this is uncovered that the majority of therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone (TQ which is a major bioactive component of the essential oil. Pharmacological studies have been done to evaluate the effects of NS on the central nervous system (CNS. The present review is an effort to provide a detailed scientific literature survey about pharmacological activities of the plant on nervous system. Our literature review showed that NS and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders.

  11. Subsequent influences of feeding intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca to growing lambs on the seminal and testicular characteristics in rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, E M; Okab, A B; Abdoun, K A; El-Waziry, A M; Al-Haidary, A A

    2013-12-01

    The present experiment was designed to investigate the subsequent influences of supplementing different levels of intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca (0%, 3%, and 5% DM) to growing sexually immature lambs during the growth period (74 d) on the seminal and testicular characteristics of sexually mature rams. Ulva lactuca was manually collected, adequately prepared, and then incorporated into lambs' diets. Eighteen male 3-mo-old lambs of the Awassi breed with a mean BW of 22.57 kg (SD = 1.08) were randomly assigned into treatments. The obtained results indicate that offering Ulva lactuca at the level of 3% or 5% DM to lambs during the growth period had no subsequent impacts (P > 0.05) on liver and kidney functions as well as blood water balance in rams, thereby suggesting that Ulva lactuca can be safely supplemented to lambs during growing. However, our findings point out that feeding a lamb diet supplemented with intact Ulva lactuca failed to demonstrate any subsequent benefit (P > 0.05) on the growth performance, thermoregulatory responses, and plasma oxidative status in rams. Above all, it was clearly evident that supplementing intact Ulva lactuca to lambs had demonstrated subsequent negative influences (P Ulva lactuca during the growth period compared to control rams. The deleterious impacts of feeding intact Ulva lactuca on spermatogenesis and germ cell loss were proven to be attributed to the dysfunction of Sertoli cells. Collectively, these results provide novel insights on the subsequent influences of dietary supplementation of intact Ulva lactuca to lambs. The consistent evidence of profound negative impacts on seminal and testicular characteristics as well as the resulting data of no improvement of subsequent growth, thermoregulation, and plasma oxidative status in rams prompts us to tentatively recommend the avoidance of feeding intact Ulva lactuca to lambs.

  12. Accumulation of Cu and Zn from antifouling paint particles by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Andrew; Pollock, Heather; Brown, Murray T.

    2009-01-01

    The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed to different concentrations of antifouling paint particles (4-200 mg L -1 ) in the presence of a fixed quantity of clean estuarine sediment and its photosynthetic response and accumulation of Cu and Zn monitored over a period of 2 days. An immediate (<2 h) toxic effect was elicited under all experimental conditions that was quantitatively related to the concentration of contaminated particles present. Likewise, the rate of leaching of both Cu and Zn was correlated with the concentration of paint particles added. Copper accumulation by the alga increased linearly with aqueous Cu concentration, largely through adsorption to the cell surface, but significant accumulation of Zn was not observed. Thus, in coastal environments where boat maintenance is practiced, discarded antifouling paint particles are an important source of Cu, but not Zn, to U. lactuca. - The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, is able to accumulate Cu but not Zn from discarded antifouling paint particles.

  13. A taxonomic revision of the genus lactuca L. (cicihorieae- asteraceae) from Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiser, M.; Bano, R.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Lactuca L. of the tribe Cichorieae-Asteraceae is taxonomically revised from Pakistan and Kashmir. The revision is based on study of large number of herbarium specimens. In few cases plants have also been studied in their natural habitat. A total of 13 species are recognized from Pakistan and Kashmir including 1 new species i.e. Lactuca erostrata Roohi Bano and Qaiser. A new combination Lactuca orientalis subsp. nuristanica (Podlech) Roohi Bano and Qaiser is also proposed. All the taxa valid or synonyms have been typified with the help of type specimens and literature. Key to the species along with detailed morphological description and ecological notes of each taxon are also given. (author)

  14. Accumulation of Cu and Zn from antifouling paint particles by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Pollock, Heather [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed to different concentrations of antifouling paint particles (4-200 mg L{sup -1}) in the presence of a fixed quantity of clean estuarine sediment and its photosynthetic response and accumulation of Cu and Zn monitored over a period of 2 days. An immediate (<2 h) toxic effect was elicited under all experimental conditions that was quantitatively related to the concentration of contaminated particles present. Likewise, the rate of leaching of both Cu and Zn was correlated with the concentration of paint particles added. Copper accumulation by the alga increased linearly with aqueous Cu concentration, largely through adsorption to the cell surface, but significant accumulation of Zn was not observed. Thus, in coastal environments where boat maintenance is practiced, discarded antifouling paint particles are an important source of Cu, but not Zn, to U. lactuca. - The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, is able to accumulate Cu but not Zn from discarded antifouling paint particles.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from macroalgae Ulva lactuca against clinically important Staphylococci is impacted by lunar phase of macroalgae harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveau, A M; Miller-Hope, Z; Lloyd, E; Williams, B S; Bolduc, C; Meader, J M; Weiss, F; Burkholder, K M

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common human bacterial pathogen that causes skin and soft tissue infections. Methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA) are increasingly drug-resistant, and thus there is great need for new therapeutics to treat Staph. aureus infections. Attention has focused on potential utility of natural products, such as extracts of marine macroalgae, as a source of novel antimicrobial compounds. The green macroalgae Ulva lactuca produces compounds inhibitory to human pathogens, although the effectiveness of U. lactuca extracts against clinically relevant strains of Staph. aureus is poorly understood. In addition, macroalgae produce secondary metabolites that may be influenced by exogenous factors including lunar phase, but whether lunar phase affects U. lactuca antimicrobial capacity is unknown. We sought to evaluate the antibacterial properties of U. lactuca extracts against medically important Staphylococci, and to determine the effect of lunar phase on antimicrobial activity. We report that U. lactuca methanolic extracts inhibit a range of Staphylococci, and that lunar phase of macrolagae harvest significantly impacts antimicrobial activity, suggesting that antimicrobial properties can be maximized by manipulating time of algal harvest. These findings provide useful parameters for future studies aimed at isolating and characterizing U. lactuca anti-Staphylococcal agents. The growing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant human pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has intensified efforts towards discovery and development of novel therapeutics. Marine macroalgae like Ulva lactuca are increasingly recognized as potential sources of antimicrobials, but the efficacy of U. lactuca extracts against common, virulent strains of Staph. aureus is poorly understood. We demonstrate that U. lactuca methanolic extracts inhibit a variety of clinically relevant Staphylococcus strains, and that the antimicrobial activity can

  16. Cardiovascular benefits of black cumin (Nigella sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Adel; El-Menyar, Ayman; Asim, Mohammad; Al-Azzeh, Hiba; Al Thani, Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Black Cumin (Nigella sativa), which belongs to the botanical family of Ranunculaceae, commonly grows in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Western Asia. Its ripe fruit contains tiny black seeds, known as "Al-Habba Al-Sauda" and "Al-Habba Al-Barakah" in Arabic and black seed or black cumin in English. Seeds of Nigella sativa are frequently used in folk medicine in the Middle East and some Asian countries for the promotion of good health and the treatment of many ailments. However, data for the cardiovascular benefits of black cumin are not well-established. We reviewed the literature from 1960 to March 2012 by using the following key words: "Nigella sativa," "black seeds," and "thymoquinone." Herein, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of Nigella sativa in the cardiovascular diseases spectrum especially when there is a paucity of information and need of further studies in human to establish the utility of Nigella sativa in cardiovascular system protection.

  17. Phytochemistry of Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Radwan, Mohamed M; Gul, Waseem; Chandra, Suman; Galal, Ahmed

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa, or hemp) and its constituents-in particular the cannabinoids-have been the focus of extensive chemical and biological research for almost half a century since the discovery of the chemical structure of its major active constituent, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC). The plant's behavioral and psychotropic effects are attributed to its content of this class of compounds, the cannabinoids, primarily Δ 9 -THC, which is produced mainly in the leaves and flower buds of the plant. Besides Δ 9 -THC, there are also non-psychoactive cannabinoids with several medicinal functions, such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabigerol (CBG), along with other non-cannabinoid constituents belonging to diverse classes of natural products. Today, more than 560 constituents have been identified in cannabis. The recent discoveries of the medicinal properties of cannabis and the cannabinoids in addition to their potential applications in the treatment of a number of serious illnesses, such as glaucoma, depression, neuralgia, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, and alleviation of symptoms of HIV/AIDS and cancer, have given momentum to the quest for further understanding the chemistry, biology, and medicinal properties of this plant.This contribution presents an overview of the botany, cultivation aspects, and the phytochemistry of cannabis and its chemical constituents. Particular emphasis is placed on the newly-identified/isolated compounds. In addition, techniques for isolation of cannabis constituents and analytical methods used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of cannabis and its products are also reviewed.

  18. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith K Booth

    Full Text Available Cannabis (Cannabis sativa plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E-β-ocimene, (--limonene, (+-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  19. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Judith K; Page, Jonathan E; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  20. Growing different Lactuca genotypes aeroponically within a tropical greenhouse – Cool rootzone temperatures decreased rootzone ethylene concentrations and increased shoot growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsui Wei CHOONG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperate crops cannot grow well in the tropics without rootzone cooling. As cooling increased production costs, this experiment aimed to study the growth of various Lactuca genotypes and propose possible ways of reducing these costs, without compromising productivity. A recombinant inbred line (RIL of lettuce and its parental lines (L. serriola and L. sativa ‘Salinas’ were grown aeroponically in a tropical greenhouse under 24 C cool (C or warm fluctuating 30-36 C ambient (A rootzone temperature (RZT. Their roots were misted with Netherlands standard nutrient solution for 1 min, at intervals of either 5 min (A5, C5 or 10 min (A10, C10 in attempting to reduce electricity consumption and production costs. Lower mortality and higher productivity were observed in all genotypes when grown in C-RZT. Higher shoot fresh weight was observed under C5 than C10, for the RIL and L. serriola. Since ‘Salinas’ had similar shoot fresh weight at both C-RZ treatments, this may indicate it is more sensitive to RZT than water availability. Under A-RZ treatments, higher carotenoid content, with correspondingly higher nonphotochemical quenching, was observed in A10 for the RIL and ‘Salinas’. Further, total chlorophyll content was also highest at this RZ treatment for the RIL though photochemical quenching was contrastingly the lowest. Cumulatively, productivity was compromised at A10 as the RIL seemed to prioritize photoprotection over efficiency in photosynthesis, under conditions of higher RZT and lower water availability. Generally, higher RZ ethylene concentrations accumulated in A10 and C10 than A5 and C5, respectively – probably due to spray frequency exerting a greater effect on RZ ethylene accumulation than RZT. In the C5 RZ treatment, lowest RZ ethylene concentration corresponded with highest shoot fresh weight. As such, further research on ethylene (insensitivity and water use efficiency could be conducted to identify Lactuca cultivars

  1. Sporulation of Bremia lactucae affected by temperature, relative humidity, and wind in controlled conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, H.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Subbarao, K.V.; Scherm, H.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of temperature (5 to 25degreesC), relative humidity (81 to 100%), wind speed (0 to 1.0 in s(-1)), and their interactions on sporulation of Bremia lactucae on lettuce cotyledons were investigated in controlled conditions. Sporulation was affected significantly (P <0.0001) by

  2. Species relationships in Lactuca S.L. (Lactuceae, Asteraceae) inferred from AFLP fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, W.J.M.; Zevenbergen, M.J.; Berg, van den R.G.

    2001-01-01

    An AFLP data set comprising 95 accessions from 20 species of Lactuca s.l. (sensu lato) and related genera was generated using the primer combinations E35/M48 and E35/M49. In phenetic analyses of a data subset, clustering with UPGMA based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient resulted in the highest

  3. Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der H.; Sperber, B.L.H.M.; Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Lopez Contreras, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A

  4. Removal of cadmium from aqueous solution using marine green algae, Ulva lactuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Ghoneim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of marine algae for removal of metals from the aqueous solution. The green alga, Ulva lactuca, collected from the intertidal zone of the Suez Bay, northern part of the Red Sea was used to reduce cadmium levels from the aqueous solutions. The biosorption mechanisms of Cd2+ ions onto the algal tissues were examined using various analytical techniques: Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results indicated that at the optimum pH value of 5.5; about 0.1 g of U. lactuca was enough to remove 99.2% of 10 mg L−1 Cd2+ at 30 °C in the aqueous solutions. The equilibrium data were well fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The monolayer adsorption capacity was 29.1 mg g−1. The calculated RL and ‘n’ values have proved the favorability of cadmium adsorption onto U. lactuca. The desorption test revealed that HCl was the best for the elution of metals from the tested alga. In conclusion, the seaweed U. lactuca was the favorable alternative of cadmium removal from water.

  5. USE OF ULVA LACTUCA TO DISTINGUISH PH DEPENDENT TOXICANTS IN MARINE WATERS AND SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulva lactuca (sea lettuce) is a cosmopolitan marine attached green seaweed capable of sequestering high environmental levels of ammonia. Ammonia can be acutely toxic to marine organisms and is often found in dredged sediments from highly industrial areas or from areas with high c...

  6. Evaluation of Nutritional Composition of The Dried Seaweed Ulva lactuca from Pameungpeuk Waters, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyid, Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    The nutritional composition of the dried seaweed Ulva lactuca from Pameungpeuk waters, including proximate, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and heavy metal has been carried out. The objective of this present study is to know the nutritional composition of the dried seaweed U. lactuca for utilisation in human nutrition in the future. Results show that carbohydrate was the major component in the proximate analysis of U. lactuca in the present study. The carbohydrate content was 58.1%. Moisture, ash, protein and fat content were 16.9%, 11.2%, 13.6% and 0.19% respectively, while dietary fibre was 28.4%. The vitamin A content was examined in this study less than 0.5 IU/100 mg while vitamin B1 (thiamine) and vitamin B2 (riboflavin) were 4.87 mg/kg and 0.86 mg/kg respectively. The calcium content was 1828 mg/100 g higher than other minerals. The heavy metal content examined in this study were lower than the limit of the quality criteria applied to edible seaweeds sold in Indonesia. Based on the results of this study show that U. lactuca has potential to be developed as an alternative source of a healthy food for human in the future.

  7. Biorefinery of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca to produce animal feed, chemicals and biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, Paul; van Krimpen, Marinus M; van Wikselaar, Piet; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Scaccia, Nazareno; van Hal, Jaap W; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Cone, John W; López-Contreras, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    The growing world population demands an increase in animal protein production. Seaweed may be a valuable source of protein for animal feed. However, a biorefinery approach aimed at cascading valorisation of both protein and non-protein seaweed constituents is required to realise an economically feasible value chain. In this study, such a biorefinery approach is presented for the green seaweed Ulva lactuca containing 225 g protein ( N  × 4.6) kg -1 dry matter (DM). The sugars in the biomass were solubilised by hot water treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and centrifugation resulting in a sugar-rich hydrolysate (38.8 g L -1 sugars) containing glucose, rhamnose and xylose, and a protein-enriched (343 g kg -1 in DM) extracted fraction. This extracted fraction was characterised for use in animal feed, as compared to U. lactuca biomass. Based on the content of essential amino acids and the in vitro N (85 %) and organic matter (90 %) digestibility, the extracted fraction seems a promising protein source in diets for monogastric animals with improved characteristics as compared to the intact U. lactuca . The gas production test indicated a moderate rumen fermentation of U. lactuca and the extracted fraction, about similar to that of alfalfa. Reduction of the high content of minerals and trace elements may be required to allow a high inclusion level of U. lactuca products in animal diets. The hydrolysate was used successfully for the production of acetone, butanol, ethanol and 1,2-propanediol by clostridial fermentation, and the rhamnose fermentation pattern was studied.

  8. Root constituents of Lactuca sibirica and a comparison of metabolite profiles of L. sibirica and L. tatarica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Kisiel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine known sesquiterpene lactones, including four lactucin-type guaianolides, four costuslactone-type guaianolides and one germacranolide, were isolated from roots of Lactuca sibirica (Asteraceae, six of which were glycoside derivatives. The chemosystematic significance of the compounds is discussed in the context of sesquiterpenoids present in roots of the closely related species Lactuca tatarica. A comparison of sesquiterpene lactone profiles indicate that the species can be differentiated on the basis of their germacranolide glycoside compositions.

  9. Use of seaweed Ulva lactuca for water bioremediation and as feed additive for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Elizondo-González

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experimental feeding trials were conducted during four weeks to evaluate the use of Ulva lactuca in shrimp culture: (1 for wastewater bioremediation, and (2 using different inclusion levels of U. lactuca meal in shrimp feed. In feeding trial 1, shrimp reared under seaweed U. lactuca water exchange in a re-circulation system (SWE resulted in similar growth and feed utilization as shrimp reared with clean water exchange (CWE. Shrimp under no water exchange (NWE resulted in significant lower growth and higher feed conversion rate (FCR compared to the other treatments (p  0.05. In feeding trial 2, U. lactuca biomass produced by wastewater bioremediation in SWE treatment were dried and ground to formulate diets containing 0, 1, 2, and 3% U. lactuca meal (0UL, 1UL, 2UL, and 3UL. Shrimp fed the 3 UL diet resulted in a significant (p < 0.05 improvement of growth and FCR, and enhanced whole shrimp lipid and carotenoid content by 30 and 60%, respectively, compared to control diet. Seaweed U. lactuca is suggested as a desirable species for wastewater bioremediation in integrated aquaculture systems, and its meal as a good feed additive for farmed shrimp.

  10. Use of seaweed Ulva lactuca for water bioremediation and as feed additive for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-González, Regina; Quiroz-Guzmán, Eduardo; Escobedo-Fregoso, Cristina; Magallón-Servín, Paola; Peña-Rodríguez, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Two experimental feeding trials were conducted during four weeks to evaluate the use of Ulva lactuca in shrimp culture: (1) for wastewater bioremediation, and (2) using different inclusion levels of U. lactuca meal in shrimp feed. In feeding trial 1, shrimp reared under seaweed U. lactuca water exchange in a re-circulation system (SWE) resulted in similar growth and feed utilization as shrimp reared with clean water exchange (CWE). Shrimp under no water exchange (NWE) resulted in significant lower growth and higher feed conversion rate (FCR) compared to the other treatments ( p   0.05). In feeding trial 2, U. lactuca biomass produced by wastewater bioremediation in SWE treatment were dried and ground to formulate diets containing 0, 1, 2, and 3% U. lactuca meal (0UL, 1UL, 2UL, and 3UL). Shrimp fed the 3 UL diet resulted in a significant ( p  shrimp lipid and carotenoid content by 30 and 60%, respectively, compared to control diet. Seaweed U. lactuca is suggested as a desirable species for wastewater bioremediation in integrated aquaculture systems, and its meal as a good feed additive for farmed shrimp.

  11. Cannabis sativa allergy: looking through the fog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, I I; Van Gasse, A L; Cop, N; Sabato, V; Faber, M A; Mertens, C; Bridts, C H; Hagendorens, M M; De Clerck, L; Rihs, H P; Ebo, D G

    2017-02-01

    IgE-mediated Cannabis (C. sativa, marihuana) allergy seems to be on the rise. Both active and passive exposure to cannabis allergens may trigger a C. sativa sensitization and/or allergy. The clinical presentation of a C. sativa allergy varies from mild to life-threatening reactions and often seems to depend on the route of exposure. In addition, sensitization to cannabis allergens can result in various cross-allergies, mostly for plant foods. This clinical entity, designated as the 'cannabis-fruit/vegetable syndrome', might also imply cross-reactivity with tobacco, natural latex and plant-food-derived alcoholic beverages. Hitherto, these cross-allergies are predominantly reported in Europe and appear mainly to rely upon cross-reactivity between nonspecific lipid transfer proteins or thaumatin-like proteins present in C. sativa and their homologues, ubiquitously distributed throughout plant kingdom. At present, diagnosis of cannabis-related allergies predominantly rests upon a thorough history completed with skin testing using native extracts from crushed buds and leaves. However, quantification of specific IgE antibodies and basophil activation tests can also be helpful to establish correct diagnosis. In the absence of a cure, treatment comprises absolute avoidance measures. Whether avoidance of further use will halt the extension of related cross-allergies remains uncertain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Polyketide synthases in Cannabis sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Sanchez, Isvett Josefina

    2008-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, which have been grouped in cannabinoids, flavonoids, stilbenoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and lignans; the cannabinoids are the best known group of natural products from this plant. The pharmacological aspects of this

  13. Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Hetty; Sperber, Bram L H M; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Bakker, Robert R C; Brandenburg, Willem; López-Contreras, Ana M

    2013-01-01

    Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A hydrolysate was used for the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Hydrolysate-based media were fermentable without nutrient supplementation. C. beijerinckii utilized all sugars in the hydrolysate and produced ABE at high yields (0.35 g ABE/g sugar consumed), while C. acetobutylicum produced mostly organic acids (acetic and butyric acids). These results demonstrate the great potential of U. lactuca as feedstock for fermentation. Interestingly, in control cultures of C. beijerinckii on rhamnose and glucose, 1,2 propanediol was the main fermentation product (9.7 g/L). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro exposure of Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta) to gasoline - Biochemical and morphological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatti, Fernanda Kokowicz; Ramlov, Fernanda; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Débora Tomazi; Costa, Christopher; de Oliveira, Eva Regina; Bauer, Cláudia M; Rocha, Miguel; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-08-01

    Refined fuels have considerable share of pollution of marine ecosystems. Gasoline is one of the most consumed fuel worldwide, but its effects on marine benthic primary producers are poorly investigated. In this study, Ulva lactuca was chosen as a biological model due to its cosmopolitan nature and tolerance to high levels and wide range of xenobiotics and our goal was to evaluate the effects of gasoline on ultrastructure and metabolism of that seaweed. The experimental design consisted of in vitro exposure of U. lactuca to four concentrations of gasoline (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0%, v/v) over 30 min, 1 h, 12 h, and 24 h, followed by cytochemical, SEM, and biochemical analysis. Increase in the number of cytoplasmic granules, loss of cell turgor, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and alterations in the mucilage were some of the ultrastructural alterations observed in thalli exposed to gasoline. Decrease in carotenoid and polyphenol contents, as well as increase of soluble sugars and starch contents were associated with the time of exposure to the xenobiotic. In combination, the results revealed important morphological and biochemical alterations in the phenotype of U. lactuca upon acute exposure to gasoline. This seaweed contain certain metabolites assigned as candidates to biomarkers of the environmental stress investigated and it is thought to be a promise species for usage in coastal ecosystems perturbation monitoring system. In addition, the findings suggest that U. lactuca is able to metabolize gasoline hydrocarbons and use them as energy source, acting as bioremediator of marine waters contaminated by petroleum derivatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The complete chloroplast genomes of Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Daniela; White, Kristin H; Keepers, Kyle G; Kane, Nolan C

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis and Humulus are sister genera comprising the entirety of the Cannabaceae sensu stricto, including C. sativa L. (marijuana, hemp), and H. lupulus L. (hops) as two economically important crops. These two plants have been used by humans for many purposes including as a fiber, food, medicine, or inebriant in the case of C. sativa, and as a flavoring component in beer brewing in the case of H. lupulus. In this study, we report the complete chloroplast genomes for two distinct hemp varieties of C. sativa, Italian "Carmagnola" and Russian "Dagestani", and one Czech variety of H. lupulus "Saazer". Both C. sativa genomes are 153 871 bp in length, while the H. lupulus genome is 153 751 bp. The genomes from the two C. sativa varieties differ in 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), while the H. lupulus genome differs in 1722 SNPs from both C. sativa cultivars.

  16. Toxicity of tire wear particle leachate to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Rice, Lynsey [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Tire wear particles filed from the treads of end-of-life vehicle tires have been added to sea water to examine the release of Zn and the toxicity of the resulting leachate and dilutions thereof to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. Zinc release appeared to be diffusion-controlled, with a conditional rate constant of 5.4 {mu}g[L(h){sup 1/2}]{sup -1}, and about 1.6% of total Zn was released after 120 h incubation. Exposure to increasing concentrations of leachate resulted in a non-linear reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion of U. lactuca and, with the exception of the undiluted leachate, increasing accumulation of Zn. Phototoxicity was significantly lower on exposure to equivalent concentrations of Zn added as Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, suggesting that organic components of leachate are largely responsible for the overall toxicity to the alga. Given the ubiquity and abundance of TWP in urban coastal sediments, the generation, biogeochemistry and toxicity of tire leachate in the marine setting merit further attention. - Tire wear leachate is toxic to Ulva lactuca and zinc is a potential bioindicator of leachate contamination in urban marine systems.

  17. Metabolic regulatory oscillations in intertidal green seaweed Ulva lactuca against tidal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Kushwaha, Hemant R

    2017-11-27

    The survival of wetland plant species largely relies on physiological adaptations essential for submergence and desiccation. Intertidal seaweeds, unlike terrestrial plants, have unique adaptations to submergence and can also sustain desiccation arising from tidal rhythms. This study determined the differential metabolic regulations in the inter-tidal seaweed species Ulva lactuca against the submergence and desiccation. During desiccation, the relative water content of the algal thalli declined with concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, the trends reversed during recovery on re-submergence and attained homeostasis. Metabolite profiling of U. lactuca revealed desiccation induced balance in energy reserve utilization by adjusting carbohydrate metabolism and switch over to ammonia metabolism. Upon re-submergence, thalli showed an increase in fermentative metabolites, pyruvate-alanine conversion, and the GABA shunt. Prolonged submergence induced substrate level phosphorylation mediated sugar biosynthesis while continuing the alternative carbon flux through fermentative metabolism, an increase in osmoprotectants glycine and betaine, sulfur bearing compounds cysteine and hypotaurine, and phenolic compound coniferaldehyde. The determined metabolic regulations in U. lactuca for submergence tolerance provide insights into potential evolutionarily conserved protective mechanisms across the green lineage and also highlights the possible role of sulfur oxoforms as strong free radical scavengers.

  18. Two new mountainous species of Lactuca (Cichorieae, Asteraceae) from Iran, one presenting a new, possibly myrmecochorous achene variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Norbert; Djavadi, Seyyedeh Bahereh; Eskandari, Majid

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the concept of the Iranian endemic Lactuca polyclada in the sense of both its original author Boissier and its current use actually admixes two entirely different species, as was first noted by Beauverd a hundred years ago but has been neglected by later workers. One is a putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, the other was recognised by Beauverd as a member of the genus Cicerbita. The name Lactuca polyclada Boiss. is lectotypified here, maintaining its use as established by Beauverd for the Cicerbita species. Both species are morphologically delimited and mature achenes of Cicerbita polyclada are illustrated for the first time. The putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, a rare local endemic of the summit area of Kuh e-Dena, which has remained without a valid name by now, is described as a new species, Lactuca denaensis N. Kilian & Djavadi, and illustrated. A third member of the Lactuca rosularis group, Lactuca hazaranensis Djavadi & N. Kilian, discovered among a recent collection and apparently being a rare chasmophyte of the Hazaran mountain massif in the province of Kerman, Iran, is described as a species new to science, illustrated and delimited from the other two species. This new species has peculiar achenes representing a hitherto unknown variant: the body of the beaked achenes is divided into two segments by a transversal constriction in the distal third. The proximal segment contains the embryo, the distal segment is solid with a lipid-containing yellow tissue. The easily detachable pappus and the equally easily detachable beak potentially obstruct dispersal by wind. Since detachment of the beak also exposes the lipid-containing tissue of the distal segment, its potential as an elaiosome and myrmecochory as a possible mode of dispersal are discussed.

  19. Effect of lead on nucleic acid and protein contents of rice (Oryza sativa L. ) seedlings and its interaction with IAA and GA/sub 3/ in different plant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitra, P.; Mukherh, S.

    1979-09-01

    Activity of lead acetate, (CH/sub 3/COO)/sub 2/Pb, 3 H/sub 2/O, was studied in germinating rice seedlings with respect to RNA, DNA and alkali soluble protein contents. RNA, DNA and protein contents greatly reduced both in embryo and endosperm with increasing concentrations of lead and with concomitant increase in amino acid content in embryo. When IAA was supplied in combination with lead acetate, variable amounts of relief of elongation inhibition of wheat coleoptile sections were noticed. With GA/sub 3/, however, lead-induced inhibition of either lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) hypocotyl elongation or ..cap alpha..-amylase production in rice half seeds was largely overcome.

  20. Evaluation of Oryza sativa x O. glaberrima derived progenies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... The genus Oryza has two cultivated species, Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) and African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) and 22 wild species. O. glaberrima is low yielding but has useful genes for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Introgression lines derived from backcrossing of O. sativa x O. glaberrima,.

  1. Assessment of genomic relationship between Oryza sativa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hybrid was produced between these two species at the International Rice Research Institute using embryo rescue technique. The chromosome pairing was examined in pollen mother cells of O. australinesis, O. sativa and the hybrid between O. sativa and O. australinesis. The hybrid was highly sterile with pollen stain ...

  2. The effect of soil environment on germination and emergence of prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kapeluszny

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 mature achenes of prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L. were collected from a winter wheat crop growing on loess-derived brown earth soil, from the side of a dirt road, and from a hybrid alfalfa crop growing on heavy rendzina soil. In March 2008 the germination ability of achenes and the length of roots and above-ground parts of L. serriola seedlings were determined. The experiment was set up as a completely randomized design in 6 replicates and it was done in dishes. The dishes were filled with loess-derived brown soil and podzolic soil derived from light loamy sand with different pH values of 4.5, 5.5 and 7.0 obtained using laboratory methods. The second experiment evaluated the effect of medium type and light conditions on the germination of Lactuca serriola achenes. The experimental design was the same as in the above described experiment. The study found that there were significantly more germinating seeds from the plants growing in the alfalfa crop and on the dirt roadside compared to the plants from the wheat crop. Emerging plants showed higher germination ability on loess-derived soil with a pH of 5.5 and 7.0 than on podzolic soil derived from sand with the same pH. Lactuca serriola prefers soils rich in calcium compounds, and developing segetal cenopopulations produce diaspores capable of germination, thereby the numbers of individuals can increase and the continuity of this species in crop fields can be maintained. Seeds germinated significantly better in the dark than under the conditions of 12-hour illumination.

  3. Lead (Pb heavy metal impacts in the green Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae marine algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saleh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity of different lead (Pb (0, 2, 4 and 8 mg/L concentrations in the green Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta marine algae at physiological level has been investigated 48 h after Pb treatment under laboratory conditions. Thalus algae damages followed Pb treatment as revealed by microscopy test showed that the 4 and 8 mg/L Pb caused morphological changes in cells viability; whereas, no effect observed at the lowest Pb applied concentration (2 mg/L. Data revealed that Pb stress caused reduction in most investigated physiological parameters i.e. Pigments content, osmotic potential and membrane stability index values. This decline in osmotic potential was significantly (p ≤ 0.001 different. Whereas, estimated electric conductivity (EC values increased significantly (p ≤ 0.001 as applied Pb concentration increased. The current study allowed somewhat to highlight and better understanding Pb impacts in U. lactuca algae. Thereby, the studied algae could be used as a useful bioindicator in Pb polluted ecosystems.

  4. Highly abundant and stage-specific mRNAs in the obligate pathogen Bremia lactucae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judelson, H S; Michelmore, R W

    1990-01-01

    Germinating spores of the obligate pathogen Bremia lactucae (lettuce downy mildew) contain several unusually abundant species of mRNA. Thirty-nine cDNA clones corresponding to prevalent transcripts were isolated from a library synthesized using poly(A)+ RNA from germinating spores; these clones represented only five distinct classes. Each corresponding mRNA accounted for from 0.4 to 9 percent by mass of poly(A)+ RNA from germinating spores and together represented greater than 20 percent of the mRNA. The expression of the corresponding genes, and a gene encoding Hsp70, was analyzed in spores during germination and during growth in planta. The Hsp70 mRNA and mRNA from one abundant cDNA clone (ham34) were expressed constitutively. Two clones (ham9 and ham12) hybridized only to mRNA from spores and germinating spores. Two clones (ham37 and ham27) showed hybridization specific to germinating spores. Quantification of the number of genes homologous to each cDNA clone indicated that four clones corresponded to one or two copies per haploid genome, and one hybridized to an approximately 11-member family of genes. A sequence of the gene corresponding to ham34 was obtained to investigate its function and to identify sequences conferring high levels of gene expression for use in constructing vectors for the transformation of B. lactucae.

  5. Detection of Genetic Variations in Marine Algae Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta Induced by Heavy Metal Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Saleh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta green macroalgae has been successfully used as bioindicator for heavy metals pollution in ecosystems. Random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMP marker was employed to investigate genetic DNA pattern variability in green U. lactuca 5 days after exposure to Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn heavy metals stress. Genomic template stability (GTS% value was employed as a qualitative DNA changes measurement based on RAMP technique. In this respect, estimated GTS% value was recorded to be 65.215, 64.630, 59.835 and 59.250% for Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn treatment, respectively. Moreover, genetic similarity (GS induced by the above heavy metals was also evaluated to measure genetic distance between algae treated plants and their respective control. In this respect, estimated GS values generated by RAMP marker ranged between 0.576 (between control and Zn treatment - 0.969 (for both case; between Pb and Cu and between Cd and Zn treatment with an average of 0.842. Based upon data presented herein based on variant bands number (VB, GTS% and GS values; the present study could be suggested that Pb and Cu followed similar tendency at genomic DNA changes. Similar finding was also observed with Cd and Zn ions. Thereby, RAMP marker successfully highlighted DNA change patterns induced by heavy metals stress.

  6. Genetic Transformation and Hairy Root Induction Enhance the Antioxidant Potential of Lactuca serriola L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Esawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactuca serriola L. is a herbaceous species, used for human nutrition and medicinal purposes. The high antioxidant capacity of L. serriola indicates the possibility of enhancing its edible and health potential by increasing the flavonoid and phenolic contents. The present study aimed at enhancing the production of phenolics and flavonoids by hairy root cultures in Lactuca serriola transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain AR15834 harbouring the rolB gene. The genetic transformation of rolB in transformed roots was validated, and rolB expression level was evaluated using real-time qPCR analysis. Expression levels of flavonoid biosynthesis genes (CHI, PAL, FLS, and CHS were assessed in the hairy and nontransformed roots. Results showed higher expression levels in the transgenic roots than in the nontransformed ones (p<0.01. Transgenic hairy roots exhibited a 54.8–96.7% increase in the total phenolic content, 38.1–76.2% increase in the total flavonoid content, and 56.7–96.7% increase in the total reducing power when compared with the nontransgenic roots (p<0.01. DPPH results also revealed that the transgenic hairy roots exhibited a 31.6–50% increase in antioxidant potential, when compared to normal roots. This study addressed the enhancement of secondary metabolite biosynthesis by hairy root induction in L. serriola.

  7. Distribution of genetic diversity in wild European populations of prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola): implications for plant genetic resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Sretenovic Rajicic, T.; Treuren, van R.; Dehmer, K.J.; Linden, van der C.G.; Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variation in Lactuca serriola, the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce, was studied across Europe from the Czech Republic to the United Kingdom, using three molecular marker systems, simple sequence repeat (SSR, microsatellites), AFLP and nucleotide-binding site (NBS) profiling. The

  8. Evaluación del lixiviado agroecológico como acondicionador del suelo en cultivo de lechuga (Lactuca sativa variedad crespa verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Granada Torres

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La producción limpia en los últimos años ha alcanzado gran interés a nivel mundial, cada día los consumidores se preocupan más por la salud y han optado por el consumo de hortalizas que estén libres de agroquímicos y que no hayan sido regadas con aguas servidas. Los productores colombianos con el fin de lograr altos rendimientos y minimización de problemas fitosanitarios se han dedicado a realizar aplicaciones e incorporación de fertilizantes de síntesis química, alterando las dosis y utilizando aguas que no son aptas para riego, obteniendo como producto final cultivos con altas trazas de agroquímicos, metales pesados y microorganismos perjudiciales para la salud humana. Metodológicamente, se evaluó en campo el lixiviado agroecológico del cultivo de lechuga tomando en cuenta las variables: peso y tamaño de la cabeza de lechuga. Se encontró que el tratamiento con microorganismos eficientes presenta mayor peso y diámetro de cabeza de lechuga. Se concluye que el cultivo presenta mejores condiciones fitosanitarias y vigorosidad

  9. Influence of Green, Red and Blue Light Emitting Diodes on Multiprotein Complex Proteins and Photosynthetic Activity under Different Light Intensities in Lettuce Leaves (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the response of light emitting diodes (LEDs at different light intensities (70 and 80 for green LEDs, 88 and 238 for red LEDs and 80 and 238 μmol m−2 s−1 for blue LEDs at three wavelengths in lettuce leaves. Lettuce leaves were exposed to (522 nm, red (639 nm and blue (470 nm LEDs of different light intensities. Thylakoid multiprotein complex proteins and photosynthetic metabolism were then investigated. Biomass and photosynthetic parameters increased with an increasing light intensity under blue LED illumination and decreased when illuminated with red and green LEDs with decreased light intensity. The expression of multiprotein complex proteins including PSII-core dimer and PSII-core monomer using blue LEDs illumination was higher at higher light intensity (238 μmol m−2 s−1 and was lowered with decreased light intensity (70–80 μmol m−2 s−1. The responses of chloroplast sub-compartment proteins, including those active in stomatal opening and closing, and leaf physiological responses at different light intensities, indicated induced growth enhancement upon illumination with blue LEDs. High intensity blue LEDs promote plant growth by controlling the integrity of chloroplast proteins that optimize photosynthetic performance in the natural environment.

  10. PRODUÇÃO E DESENVOLVIMENTO DE TRÊS CULTIVARES DE ALFACE (Lactuca sativa L. SUBMETIDAS A ADUBAÇÃO ORGÂNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Pechara Jaeggi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar doses de adubos orgânica no desevolvimento de três cultivares de alface na região Alegre-ES. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x3, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram três doses de adubação orgânica composto por esterco bovino mais resíduos de gramíneas (1,5; 3,5 e 4,5 kg m-2 e três cultivares de alface (Lucy brow; Regina e Vanda apresentando mesmo tempo fenologico . As análises foram realizadas aos 40 dias após transplantio, sendo mensurados as variáveis biométricas diâmetro do caule; comprimento de raiz; massa fresca da parte aérea e massa fresca total. Pelos resultados obtidos a dose de 4,5 kg m-2 do composto orgânico proporcionou maior ganho em diâmetro do caule, comprimento de raiz, massa fresca da parte aérea e massa fresca da raiz nas três cultivares de alface utilizadas (Lucy brow, Regina e Vanda.

  11. The Effects of Biochar and Its Combination with Compost on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. Growth, Soil Properties, and Soil Microbial Activity and Abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Trupiano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of biochar application in combination with organic fertilizer, such as compost, are not fully understood. In this study, we tested the effects of biochar amendment, compost addition, and their combination on lettuce plants grown in a soil poor in nutrients; soil microbiological, chemical, and physical characteristics were analyzed, together with plant growth and physiology. An initial screening was also done to evaluate the effect of biochar and compost toxicity, using cress plants and earthworms. Results showed that compost amendment had clear and positive effects on plant growth and yield and on soil chemical characteristics. However, we demonstrated that also the biochar alone stimulated lettuce leaves number and total biomass, improving soil total nitrogen and phosphorus contents, as well as total carbon, and enhancing related microbial communities. Nevertheless, combining biochar and compost, no positive synergic and summative effects were observed. Our results thus demonstrate that in a soil poor in nutrients the biochar alone could be effectively used to enhance soil fertility and plant growth and biomass yield. However, we can speculate that the combination of compost and biochar may enhance and sustain soil biophysical and chemical characteristics and improve crop productivity over time.

  12. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI PUPUK HAYATI MAJEMUK DAN BATUAN FOSFAT ALAM TERHADAP SERAPAN P OLEH TANAMAN SELADA (Lactuca sativa L. DI TANAH ANDISOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Maryanto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the experiment were to study the effect of Compound Biofertilizer (CB and Rock Phosphate (RP on the several soil chemistry properties of Andisols as well as the P-uptake by lettuce. The research had been conducted in the greenhouse of Agriculture Faculty, Unsoed at Karangreja, Purbalingga, since May up to August, 2009. The experiment was arranged in factorial 4 x 4 based on Completely Block Randomyzed Design with three replications. The firsrt factor was the concentration of CB consists of 4 levels, i.e. 0, 1, 2 and 3 %; and the second factor was the dosage of RP consists of 4 levels, i.e. 0; 25, 50 and 75 kg P2O5 per hectare.  The variables observed were the soil pH, exchangeable aluminium, the availability of P, P-uptake by plant, plant height, number of leaf, fresh weight of plant and dry weight of plant. The data collected was analyzed using Fisher and DMR-test. The results indicated that the application of 75 kg P2O5 of RP could increase soil pH, reduce exchangeable-Al, increase the availability of P in the soil, P-uptake by plant, the fresh weight and dry weight of plant. The application of 2% concentration of CB could reduce exchangeable-Al, increase the availability of P in the soil, P-uptake by plant, the fresh weight and dry weight of plant.

  13. Iodine and Selenium Biofortification with Additional Application of Salicylic Acid Affects Yield, Selected Molecular Parameters and Chemical Composition of Lettuce Plants (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoleń, Sylwester; Kowalska, Iwona; Czernicka, Małgorzata; Halka, Mariya; Kęska, Kinga; Sady, Włodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    Iodine (I) and selenium (Se) are included in the group of beneficial elements. They both play important roles in humans and other animals, particularly in the regulation of thyroid functioning. A substantial percentage of people around the world suffer from health disorders related to the deficiency of these elements in the diet. Salicylic acid (SA) is a compound similar to phytohormones and is known to improve the efficiency of I biofortification of plants. The influence of SA on Se enrichment of plants has not, however, been recognized together with its effect on simultaneous application of I and Se to plants. Two-year studies (2014–2015) were conducted in a greenhouse with hydroponic cultivation of lettuce in an NFT (nutrient film technique) system. They included the application of I (as KIO3), Se (as Na2SeO3) and SA into the nutrient solution. KIO3 was used at a dose of 5 mg I⋅dm-3 (i.e., 39.4 μM I), while Na2SeO3 was 0.5 mg Se⋅dm-3 (i.e., 6.3 μM Se). SA was introduced at three doses: 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 mg⋅dm-3 nutrient solutions, equivalent to 0.724, 7.24, and 72.4 μM SA, respectively. The tested combinations were as follows: (1) control, (2) I + Se, (3) I + Se + 0.1 mg SA⋅dm-3, (4) I + Se + 1.0 mg SA⋅dm-3 and (5) I + Se + 10.0 mg SA⋅dm-3. The applied treatments had no significant impact on lettuce biomass (leaves and roots). Depending on the dose, a diverse influence of SA was noted with respect to the efficiency of I and Se biofortification; chemical composition of leaves; and mineral nutrition of lettuce plants, including the content of macro- and microelements and selenocysteine methyltransferase (SMT) gene expression. SA application at all tested doses comparably increased the level of selenomethionine (SeMet) and decreased the content of SA in leaves. PMID:27803709

  14. Assessing the effect of sodium dichloroisocyanurate concentration on transfer of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in wash water for production of minimally processed iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, D F; Sant'Ana, A S; Monteiro, G; Schaffner, D W; Franco, B D G M

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the impact of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 250 mg l(-1) ) in wash water on transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium from contaminated lettuce to wash water and then to other noncontaminated lettuces washed sequentially in the same water. Experiments were designed mimicking the conditions commonly seen in minimally processed vegetable (MPV) processing plants in Brazil. The scenarios were as follows: (1) Washing one inoculated lettuce portion in nonchlorinated water, followed by washing 10 noninoculated portions sequentially. (2) Washing one inoculated lettuce portion in chlorinated water followed by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially. (3) Washing five inoculated lettuce portions in chlorinated water sequentially, followed by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially. (4) Washing five noninoculated lettuce portions in chlorinated water sequentially, followed by washing five inoculated portions sequentially and then by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially in the same water. Salm. Typhimurium transfer from inoculated lettuce to wash water and further dissemination to noninoculated lettuces occurred when nonchlorinated water was used (scenario 1). When chlorinated water was used (scenarios 2, 3 and 4), no measurable Salm. Typhimurium transfer occurred if the sanitizer was ≥10 mg l(-1) . Use of sanitizers in correct concentrations is important to minimize the risk of microbial transfer during MPV washing. In this study, the impact of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in the wash water on transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium from inoculated lettuce to wash water and then to other noninoculated lettuces washed sequentially in the same water was evaluated. The use of chlorinated water, at concentration above 10 mg l(-1) , effectively prevented Salm. Typhimurium transfer under several different washing scenarios. Conversely, when nonchlorinated water was used, Salm. Typhimurium transfer occurred in up to at least 10 noninoculated batches of lettuce washed sequentially in the same water. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Effects of biochar and alkaline amendments on cadmium immobilization, selected nutrient and cadmium concentrations of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in two contrasting soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldetsadik, Desta; Drechsel, Pay; Keraita, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    To assess the efficiency of seven treatments including biochars produced from dried faecal matter and manures as stabilizing agents of cadmium (Cd)-spiked soils, lettuce was grown in glasshouse on two contrasting soils. The soils used were moderately fertile silty loam and less fertile sandy loam...... and the applied treatments were 7 % w/w. The reduction of bioavailable Cd (ammonium nitrate extractable) and its phytoavailability for lettuce were used as assessment criteria in the evaluation of stabilization performance of each treatment. Moreover, the agronomic values of the treatments were also investigated...... extracts. The immobilization potential of faecal matter biochar and lime were superior than the other treatments. However, lime and egg shell promoted statistically lower yield and P, K and Zn concentrations response of lettuce plants compared to the biochar treatments. The lowest Cd and highest P tissue...

  16. Transcriptomic analysis reveals the roles of gibberellin-regulated genes and transcription factors in regulating bolting in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueying; Lv, Shanshan; Liu, Ran; Fan, Shuangxi; Liu, Chaojie; Liu, Renyi; Han, Yingyan

    2018-01-01

    A cool temperature is preferred for lettuce cultivation, as high temperatures cause premature bolting. Accordingly, exploring the mechanism of bolting and preventing premature bolting is important for agriculture. To explore this relationship in depth, morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic analyses of the bolting-sensitive line S39 at the five-leaf stage grown at 37°C were performed in the present study. Based on paraffin section results, we observed that S39 began bolting on the seventh day at 37°C. During bolting in the heat-treated plants, GA3 and GA4 levels in leaves and the indoleacetic acid (IAA) level in the stem reached a maximum on the sixth day, and these high contents were maintained. Additionally, bolting begins in the fifth day after GA3 treatment in S39 plants, GA3 and GA4 increased and then decreased, reaching a maximum on the fourth day in leaves. Similarly, IAA contents reached a maximum in the stem on the fifth day. No bolting was observed in the control group grown at 25°C, and significant changes were not observed in GA3 and GA4 levels in the controls during the observation period. RNA-sequencing data implicated transcription factors (TFs) in regulating bolting in lettuce, suggesting that the high GA contents in the leaves and IAA in the stem promote bolting. TFs possibly modulate the expression of related genes, such as those encoding hormones, potentially regulating bolting in lettuce. Compared to the control group, 258 TFs were identified in the stem of the treatment group, among which 98 and 156 were differentially up- and down-regulated, respectively; in leaves, 202 and 115 TFs were differentially up- and down-regulated, respectively. Significant changes in the treated group were observed for C2H2 zinc finger, AP2-EREBP, and WRKY families, indicating that these TFs may play important roles in regulating bolting.

  17. Elicitation effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract on main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Złotek, Urszula; Świeca, Michał

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a study on changes in the main phytochemical levels and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of lettuce caused by different doses and times of application of yeast extracts. Elicitation with yeast extract caused an increase in the total phenolic compounds and chlorophyll content, which varied according to the dose and time of spraying, but it did not have a positive impact on vitamin C, flavonoid and carotenoid content in lettuce. The best effect was achieved by double spraying with 1% yeast extract and by single spraying with 0.1% yeast extract. The increase in phytochemical content was positively correlated with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of the studied lettuce leaves. Chicoric acid seems to be the major contributor to these antioxidant activities. Yeast extract may be used as a natural, environmentally friendly and safe elicitor for improving the health-promoting qualities of lettuce. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Effect of nitrogen nutrition on growth and nitrate accumulation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), under various conditions of radiation and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapoigny, L.; Tourdonnet, S. de; Roger-Estrade, G.; Jeuffroy, M.H.; Fleury, A.

    2000-01-01

    A better understanding of the effect of environmental factors on growth and nitrate accumulation in plants is necessary to develop cultivation practices, and in particular for providing lettuces with a low nitrate content. This study was conducted to analyse the effect of nitrogen supply on the interception and conversion of the PAR in dry matter, and on the nitrate and water accumulations in fresh tissues of the lettuce, for various conditions of temperature and radiation. The growth, and water and nitrate concentrations of two soilless cultures of lettuce (summer and autumn) were measured for two levels of radiation and two levels of nitrogen supply. RUE ranged from 2.12 to 3.50 gMJ -1 , being higher for a low radiation level and for a high nitrogen supply. There was a positive correlation between the lettuce nitrate and water contents. The slope of this relationship was not affected by environmental conditions, indicating a strong interdependance between nitrate and water accumulation in lettuce. (author) [fr

  19. Study on Development of Non-Destructive Measurement Technique for Viability of Lettuce Seed (Lactuca sativa L) Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Chi Kook; Cho, Byoung Kwan [College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Mo, Chang Yeon [National Acadamy of Agricultural Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moon S. [Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington (United States)

    2012-10-15

    In this study, the feasibility of hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique was investigated for the discrimination of viable and non-viable lettuce seeds. The spectral data of hyperspectral reflectance images with the spectral range between 750 nm and 1000 nm were used to develop PLS-DA model for the classification of viable and non-viable lettuce seeds. The discrimination accuracy of the calibration set was 81.6% and that of the test set was 81.2%. The image analysis method was developed to construct the discriminant images of non-viable seeds with the developed PLS-DA model. The discrimination accuracy obtained from the resultant image were 91%, which showed the feasibility of hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the mass discrimination of non-viable lettuce seeds from viable ones.

  20. The effect of light and ancymidol on the metabolism of 14C-ent-Kaurene in photoblastic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grand Rapids) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazebroek, J.P.; Coolbaugh, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of light ancymidol on the metabolism of 14 C-kaurene in light-requiring lettuce seeds was investigated. Seeds were soaked in a solution of 14 C-kaurene in CH 2 Cl 2 with 0.1% Tween-20 for 24 h. The treatment did not reduce viability nor alter the light requirement. The solvent was removed and the seeds were incubated at 25 degree C in continuous light or dark in 20% (w/v) PEG or 10 mM anycymidol. Labeled metabolites were extracted and analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. 14 C-Kaurenol and 14 C-kaurenal were identified in seed incubated in 20% PeG in the light, while no acid EtOAc-soluble metabolites were found in seeds incubated in the dark. In the presence of ancymidol, 14 C-karuenol, 14 C-kaurenal, and a polar metabolite were found in seeds exposed to light, while only a trace of 14 C-kaurenol was detected in seeds incubated in the dark. These results indicate that the oxidation of kaurene is a light sensitive step in the biosynthesis of gibberellins in photoblastic lettuce seeds. Under these conditions ancymidol inhibits germination at a site different than the light sensitive kaurene oxidation step

  1. Effect of Different Elicitors and Preharvest Day Application on the Content of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Butterhead Lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) Produced under Hydroponic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Escamilla, Jesús Omar; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; de la Rosa, Laura A; Núñez-Gastélum, José Alberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Rodrigo-García, Joaquín

    2017-07-05

    The effect of four elicitors on phytochemical content in two varieties of lettuce was evaluated. The best preharvest day for application of each elicitor was chosen. Solutions of arachidonic acid (AA), salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MJ), and Harpin protein (HP) were applied by foliar aspersion on lettuce leaves while cultivating under hydroponic conditions. Application of elicitors was done at 15, 7, 5, 3, or 1 day before harvest. Green lettuce showed the highest increase in phytochemical content when elicitors (AA, SA, and HP) were applied on day 7 before harvest. Similarly, antioxidant activity rose in all treatments on day 7. In red lettuce, the highest content of bioactive molecules occurred in samples treated on day 15. AA, SA, and HP were the elicitors with the highest effect on phytochemical content for both varieties, mainly on polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity also increased in response to elicitation. HPLC-MS showed an increase in the content of phenolic acids in green and red lettuce, especially after elicitation with SA, suggesting activation of the caffeic acid pathway due to elicitation.

  2. The effect of three liquid bio-fertilizers in the production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criollo Escobar Hernando Artemio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In modern agriculture, the use of agrochemicals has grown considerably, increasing production costs and causing serious problems for the environment. The use of bio-fertilizers is a viable alternative to improve the profitability of crops, particularly for agriculture on medium and small-sized farms with intensive production systems, such as vegetables. Given that bio-fertilizers can be produced on the farm and used successfully in crop production, this research focused on the effect of three bio-fertilizers on the production of lettuce and cabbage, biweekly applications were made with liquid fertilizers produced from the manure of cows (BFC, guinea pigs (BFGp and pigs (BFPi and compared to a commercial foliar fertilizer (CFF and a control without an application. We observed the presence of Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces in the BFC and BFGp fertilizers and Bacillus in the BFPi fertilizer. The weight and head diameter and yield of lettuce and cabbage favored the bio-fertilizer applications compared to the control, but no statistical differences were found compared to the commercial foliar fertilizer (CFF. This behavior is attributed not only to the mineral content, but also to the presence of metabolite regulators of plant physiology, produced by the microbial action of the bio-fertilizers.

  3. The effect of three liquid bio-fertilizers in the production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata)

    OpenAIRE

    Criollo, Hernando; Lagos, Tulio; Piarpuezan, Edwin; Pérez, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    In modern agriculture, the use of agrochemicals has grown considerably, increasing production costs and causing serious problems for the environment. The use of bio-fertilizers is a viable alternative to improve the profitability of crops, particularly for agriculture on medium and small-sized farms with intensive production systems, such as vegetables. Given that bio-fertilizers can be produced on the farm and used successfully in crop production, this research focused on the effect of three...

  4. Shoot growth, root growth and resource capture under limiting water and N supply for two cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbiriou, P.J.; Stomph, T.J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims - To improve vegetable crops adapted to low input and variable resource availability, better understanding is needed of root system functioning, including nitrogen and water capture. Methods - This study quantified shoot and root development and patterns of water and nitrate

  5. The effect of three liquid bio-fertilizers in the production of lettuce (lactuca sativa l.) and cabbage (brassica oleracea l. var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    Criollo Escobar, Hernando Artemio; Lagos Burbano, Tulio Cesar; Piarpuezan, Edwin; Perez, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In modern agriculture, the use of agrochemicals has grown considerably, increasing production costs and causing serious problems for the environment. The use of bio-fertilizers is a viable alternative to improve the profitability of crops, particularly for agriculture on medium and small-sized farms with intensive production systems, such as vegetables. Given that bio-fertilizers can be produced on the farm and used successfully in crop production, this research focused on the effect of three...

  6. The effect of three liquid bio-fertilizers in the production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    Criollo Escobar Hernando Artemio; Lagos Burbano Tulio Cesar; Piarpuezan Edwin; Perez Ruth

    2011-01-01

    In modern agriculture, the use of agrochemicals has grown considerably, increasing production costs and causing serious problems for the environment. The use of bio-fertilizers is a viable alternative to improve the profitability of crops, part...

  7. Effect of abiotic elicitation on main health-promoting compounds, antioxidant activity and commercial quality of butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Złotek, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Jakubczyk, Anna

    2014-04-01

    The study presents changes in the phytochemical levels, antiradical activity and quality of lettuce caused by different chemical elicitors: arachidonic acid (AA), jasmonic acid (JA), and abscisic acid (ABA). The application of 1 μM and 100 μM JA induced an increase in the concentration of phenolic compounds, including flavonoids and phenolic acids. Flavonoid levels were also increased after treatment with 100 μM AA and ABA. Some of the elicitor concentrations used also caused an increase in the levels of other phytochemicals, such as chlorophyll a (1 μM and 100 μM AA, 50 μM ABA); chlorophyll b (100 μM AA); carotenoids (100 μM AA, 1 μM JA and 100 μM ABA) and vitamin C (100 μM AA, 100 μM JA). The highest antiradical activity was noted after treatment with 100 μM AA, 100 μM JA. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging ability was positively and significantly correlated with flavonoid, chlorophyll and carotenoid levels. These results may suggest that the antiradical activity of lettuce was determined not only by phenolics, but also by other bioactive compounds. Elicitation did not change the sensory quality of lettuce. Therefore, treatment with elicitors could be a useful tool for improving the health-promoting qualities of lettuce without the loss of sensory quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth and Tissue Elemental Composition Response of Butterhead Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, cv. Flandria to Hydroponic Conditions at Different pH and Alkalinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler S. Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomass and tissue elemental differences were quantified for lettuce grown in deep-water conventional hydroponic conditions at two pH and alkalinity conditions. Nutrient solutions were created using inorganic salts and either reverse osmosis (RO water or municipal water with high alkalinity. Three treatments were evaluated: (a nutrient solution created with reverse osmosis (RO water and maintained at pH 5.8 (H5; (b same as H5 but maintained at pH 7.0 (H7; and (c nutrient solution created using municipal water and maintained at pH 7.0, referred to as HA7. Averaged across three trials, the HA7 and H7 treatments produced 26% less shoot fresh weight (FW than the H5 treatment with an 18% reduction in dry weight (DW. The H5 treatment had the least biomass in root FW and DW. In tissue elemental analyses, both the pH 7.0 treatments showed lower concentrations than H5 in Cu, N, Mo, and Sr, and increased concentrations in Ba, Mg, Na, and Zn. There were no differences in Al, C, Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, P, S, and Si concentrations among treatments (p = 0.05. The results from this experiment can be used to isolate the effects of pH and alkalinity in aquaponic conditions where pH and alkalinity will mimic HA7 conditions.

  9. Light exposure during storage preserving soluble sugar and l-ascorbic acid content of minimally processed romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.var. longifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lijuan; Hu, Jinqiang; Ai, Zhilu; Pang, Lingyun; Li, Yu; Zhu, Meiyun

    2013-01-01

    Minimally processed romaine lettuce (MPRL) leaves were stored in light condition (2500lux) or darkness at 4°C for 7d. Light exposure significantly delayed the degradation of chlorophyll and decrease of glucose, reducing sugar, and sucrose content, and thus preserved more total soluble solid (TSS) content at the end of storage in comparison with darkness. While, it did not influenced starch content that progressively decreased over time. The l-ascorbic acid (AA) accumulated in light-stored leaves, but deteriorated in dark-stored leaves during storage. The dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) increased in all leaves stored in both light and dark condition, of which light condition resulted in less DHA than darkness. In addition, the fresh weight loss and dry matter significantly increased and these increases were accelerated by light exposure. Conclusively, light exposure in applied intensity effectively alleviated MPRL quality deterioration by delaying the decreases of pigments, soluble sugar, TSS content and accumulating AA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of microbiological contamination of fresh, minimally processed, and ready-to-eat lettuces (Lactuca sativa), Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Marcelo L L; Almeida, Davi O; Bispo, Fernanda C P; Bricio, Silvia M L; Marin, Victor A; Miagostovich, Marize P

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the microbiological contamination of lettuces commercialized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in order to investigate detection of norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII), Salmonella spp., total and fecal coliforms, such as Escherichia coli. For NoV detection samples were processed using the adsorption-elution concentration method associated to real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A total of 90 samples of lettuce including 30 whole fresh lettuces, 30 minimally processed (MP) lettuces, and 30 raw ready-to-eat (RTE) lettuce salads were randomly collected from different supermarkets (fresh and MP lettuce samples), food services, and self-service restaurants (RTE lettuce salads), all located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from October 2010 to December 2011. NoV GII was not detected and PP7 bacteriophage used as internal control process (ICP) was recovered in 40.0%, 86.7%, and 76.7% of those samples, respectively. Salmonella spp. was not detected although fecal contamination has been observed by fecal coliform concentrations higher than 10(2) most probable number/g. E. coli was detected in 70.0%, 6.7%, and 30.0% of fresh, MP, and RTE samples, respectively. This study highlights the need to improve hygiene procedures at all stages of vegetable production and to show PP7 bacteriophage as an ICP for recovering RNA viruses' methods from MP and RTE lettuce samples, encouraging the evaluation of new protocols that facilitate the establishment of methodologies for NoV detection in a greater number of food microbiology laboratories. The PP7 bacteriophage can be used as an internal control process in methods for recovering RNA viruses from minimally processed and ready-to-eat lettuce samples. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Study on Development of Non-Destructive Measurement Technique for Viability of Lettuce Seed (Lactuca sativa L) Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Chi Kook; Cho, Byoung Kwan; Mo, Chang Yeon; Kim, Moon S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique was investigated for the discrimination of viable and non-viable lettuce seeds. The spectral data of hyperspectral reflectance images with the spectral range between 750 nm and 1000 nm were used to develop PLS-DA model for the classification of viable and non-viable lettuce seeds. The discrimination accuracy of the calibration set was 81.6% and that of the test set was 81.2%. The image analysis method was developed to construct the discriminant images of non-viable seeds with the developed PLS-DA model. The discrimination accuracy obtained from the resultant image were 91%, which showed the feasibility of hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the mass discrimination of non-viable lettuce seeds from viable ones.

  12. Selection for resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by race 2 isolates of Verticillium dahliae in accessions of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt of lettuce caused by Verticillium dahliae can cause severe economic damage to lettuce producers. The pathogen exists as two races (races 1 and 2) in lettuce, and complete resistance to race 1 is known. Resistance to race 2 isolates has not been reported, and production of race 1 re...

  13. A dose-response relationship for marketable yield reduction of two lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars exposed to tropospheric ozone in Southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuoli, Riccardo; Finco, Angelo; Chiesa, Maria; Gerosa, Giacomo

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigated the response to ozone (O 3 ) of two cultivars (cv.'Romana' and cv. 'Canasta') of irrigated lettuce grown in an open-top chamber (OTC) experiment in Mediterranean conditions. Two different levels of O 3 were applied, ambient O 3 in non-filtered OTCs (NF-OTCs) and -40% of ambient O 3 in charcoal-filtered OTCs (CF-OTCs), during four consecutive growing cycles. At the end of each growing cycle, the marketable yield (fresh biomass) was assessed while during the growing periods, measurements of the stomatal conductance at leaf level were performed and used to define a stomatal conductance model for calculation of the phytotoxic ozone dose (POD) absorbed by the plants.Results showed that O 3 caused statistically significant yield reductions in the first and in the last growing cycle. In general, the marketable yield of the NF-OTC plants was always lower than the CF-OTC plants for both cultivars, with mean reductions of -18.5 and -14.5% for 'Romana' and 'Canasta', respectively. On the contrary, there was no statistically significant difference in marketable yield due to the cultivar factor or to the interaction between O 3 and cultivar in any of the growing cycle performed.Dose-response relationships for the marketable relative yield based on the POD values were calculated according to different flux threshold values (Y). The best regression fit was obtained using an instantaneous flux threshold of 6 nmol O 3 m -2  s -1 (POD 6 ); the same value was obtained also for other crops. According to the generic lettuce dose-response relationship, an O 3 critical level of 1 mmol O 3 m -2 of POD 6 for a 15% of marketable yield loss was found.

  14. Genotypic variation and mechanism in uptake and translocation of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars grown in PFOA-polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lei; Chen, Lei; Yu, Le-Yi; Yu, Peng-Fei; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Mo, Ce-Hui; Li, Yan-Wen; Li, Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2018-05-02

    The cultivation of crop cultivars with low pollutant accumulation is an important strategy to reduce the potential health risks of food produced from polluted soils. In this study, we identified three loose-leaf lettuce cultivars with low accumulation of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a highly toxic and persistent organic pollutant. PFOA concentrations in the shoots of low-PFOA cultivars were 3.7-5.5-fold lower than those of high-PFOA cultivars. The identification of low-PFOA cultivars could contribute to ensuring food safety despite cultivation in highly polluted soils (1 mg/kg) based on the tolerable daily PFOA intake (1.5 μg/kg/d). We detected lower desorbing fractions of PFOA in rhizosphere soil, lower bioconcentration factors, and higher distribution in the cell walls and organelles of roots in low-PFOA cultivars, all of which are key factors in limiting PFOA uptake and translocation from soil to shoots, than in high-PFOA cultivars. This study reveals the mechanism of PFOA uptake from soil to crop and lays a foundation for establishing a cost-effective strategy to plant crops in polluted soil and reduce exposure risk due to persistent organic pollutants in crops. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Association analysis of bacterial leaf spot resistance and SNP markers derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial leaf spot of lettuce, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians, is a devastating disease of lettuce worldwide. Since there are no chemicals available for effective control of the disease, host-plant resistance is highly desirable to protect lettuce production. A total of 179 lettuce ge...

  16. Influence of the temporal and spatial variation of nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and soil composition in the N species content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Edgar; Fidalgo, Fernanda; Teixeira, Jorge; Aguiar, Ana A; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2014-04-01

    The variation of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and N content in lettuce was evaluated at 5 stages of lettuce growth. Soil physicochemical properties and its N content were also assessed to elucidate the soil-to-plant transfer of inorganic N and potential leaching to groundwater. A decrease of NR activity and an increase of NO3(-) and N-Kjeldahl content in lettuces were observed during plant growth, whereas GS activity and NH4(+) increased during the first few weeks of lettuce growth and then decreased. Although the temporal variation was similar in lettuces grown in different soils, quantitative differences were observed, indicating that high NO3(-) content in soil caused a higher NO3(-) accumulation in lettuce despite the higher NR activity during the initial stage of plant growth. Higher levels of NO3(-) and NH4(+) were correlated with higher levels of N-Kjeldahl in lettuce suggesting a positive effect of these N species in the biosynthesis of organic forms of N. Soil physicochemical properties influenced the mobility of inorganic N within the groundwater-soil-plant system. Sandy soils with low OM content allowed NO3(-) leaching, which was confirmed by higher NO3(-) levels in groundwater. Therefore, lettuces grown in those soils presented lower N content and the inputs of N to the environment were higher. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of co-cropping Bidens pilosa (L.) and Tagetes minuta (L.) on bioaccumulation of Pb in Lactuca sativa (L.) growing in polluted agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Carolina Vergara; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Salazar, María Julieta; Blanco, Andrés; Pignata, María Luisa

    2016-09-01

    Polluted agricultural soils are a serious problem for food safety, with phytoremediation being the most favorable alternative from the environmental perspective. However, this methodology is generally time-consuming and requires the cessation of agriculture. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate two potential phytoextractor plants (the native species Bidens pilosa and Tagetes minuta) co-cropped with lettuce growing on agricultural lead-polluted soils. The concentrations of Pb, as well as of other metals, were investigated in the phytoextractors, crop species, and in soils, with the potential risk to the health of consumers being estimated. The soil parameters pH, EC, organic matter percentage and bioavailable lead showed a direct relationship with the accumulation of Pb in roots. In addition, the concentration of Pb in roots of native species was closely related to Fe (B. pilosa, r = 0.81; T. minuta r = 0.75), Cu (T. minuta, r = 0.93), Mn (B. pilosa, r = 0.89) and Zn (B. pilosa, r = 0.91; T. minuta, r = 0.91). Our results indicate that the interaction between rhizospheres increased the phytoextraction of lead, which was accompanied by an increase in the biomass of the phytoextractor species. However, the consumption of lettuce still revealed a toxicological risk from Pb in all treatments.

  18. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) leaf-proteome profiles after exposure to cylindrospermopsin and a microcystin-LR/cylindrospermopsin mixture: a concentration-dependent response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Marisa; Campos, Alexandre; Azevedo, Joana; Barreiro, Aldo; Planchon, Sébastien; Renaut, Jenny; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-02-01

    The intensification of agricultural productivity is an important challenge worldwide. However, environmental stressors can provide challenges to this intensification. The progressive occurrence of the cyanotoxins cylindrospermopsin (CYN) and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) as a potential consequence of eutrophication and climate change is of increasing concern in the agricultural sector because it has been reported that these cyanotoxins exert harmful effects in crop plants. A proteomic-based approach has been shown to be a suitable tool for the detection and identification of the primary responses of organisms exposed to cyanotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare the leaf-proteome profiles of lettuce plants exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of CYN and a MC-LR/CYN mixture. Lettuce plants were exposed to 1, 10, and 100 μg/l CYN and a MC-LR/CYN mixture for five days. The proteins of lettuce leaves were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), and those that were differentially abundant were then identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). The biological functions of the proteins that were most represented in both experiments were photosynthesis and carbon metabolism and stress/defense response. Proteins involved in protein synthesis and signal transduction were also highly observed in the MC-LR/CYN experiment. Although distinct protein abundance patterns were observed in both experiments, the effects appear to be concentration-dependent, and the effects of the mixture were clearly stronger than those of CYN alone. The obtained results highlight the putative tolerance of lettuce to CYN at concentrations up to 100 μg/l. Furthermore, the combination of CYN with MC-LR at low concentrations (1 μg/l) stimulated a significant increase in the fresh weight (fr. wt) of lettuce leaves and at the proteomic level resulted in the increase in abundance of a high number of proteins. In contrast, many proteins exhibited a decrease in abundance or were absent in the gels of the simultaneous exposure to 10 and 100 μg/l MC-LR/CYN. In the latter, also a significant decrease in the fr. wt of lettuce leaves was obtained. These findings provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms of the lettuce response to CYN and MC-LR/CYN and may contribute to the identification of potential protein markers of exposure and proteins that may confer tolerance to CYN and MC-LR/CYN. Furthermore, because lettuce is an important crop worldwide, this study may improve our understanding of the potential impact of these cyanotoxins on its quality traits (e.g., presence of allergenic proteins). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Interactions between cadmium and other heavy metals in affecting the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. c. v. Webbs Wonderful) seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepp, N.W.

    1977-01-01

    Changes in root and shoot extension of lettuce seedlings in relation to single or dual applications of heavy metal ions have been studied. When cadmium, copper, lead or nickel are applied singly, at concentrations of 10 ..mu..g/litre, significant reductions in root and shoot growth of the seedlings are apparent. Dual ion applications of 10 ..mu..g/litre cadmium with 10 ..mu..g/litre of any of the other elements produce no significant synergistic reduction in seedling growth. The responses observed are either additive or antagonistic, depending upon the metal treatment. The results are discussed in terms of their possible significance to heavy metal effects on plant growth. 14 references, 1 figure.

  20. A new Em-like protein from Lactuca sativa, LsEm1, enhances drought and salt stress tolerance in Escherichia coli and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dian-Jun; Man, Li-Li; Zhang, Chun-Lan; Peng-Liu; Li, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Gen-Chang

    2018-02-07

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are closely related to abiotic stress tolerance of plants. In the present study, we identified a novel Em-like gene from lettuce, termed LsEm1, which could be classified into group 1 LEA proteins, and shared high homology with Cynara cardunculus Em protein. The LsEm1 protein contained three different 20-mer conserved elements (C-element, N-element, and M-element) in the C-termini, N-termini, and middle-region, respectively. The LsEm1 mRNAs were accumulated in all examined tissues during the flowering and mature stages, with a little accumulation in the roots and leaves during the seedling stage. Furthermore, the LsEm1 gene was also expressed in response to salt, dehydration, abscisic acid (ABA), and cold stresses in young seedlings. The LsEm1 protein could effectively reduce damage to the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and protect LDH activity under desiccation and salt treatments. The Escherichia coli cells overexpressing the LsEm1 gene showed a growth advantage over the control under drought and salt stresses. Moreover, LsEm1-overexpressing rice seeds were relatively sensitive to exogenously applied ABA, suggesting that the LsEm1 gene might depend on an ABA signaling pathway in response to environmental stresses. The transgenic rice plants overexpressing the LsEm1 gene showed higher tolerance to drought and salt stresses than did wild-type (WT) plants on the basis of the germination performances, higher survival rates, higher chlorophyll content, more accumulation of soluble sugar, lower relative electrolyte leakage, and higher superoxide dismutase activity under stress conditions. The LsEm1-overexpressing rice lines also showed less yield loss compared with WT rice under stress conditions. Furthermore, the LsEm1 gene had a positive effect on the expression of the OsCDPK9, OsCDPK13, OsCDPK15, OsCDPK25, and rab21 (rab16a) genes in transgenic rice under drought and salt stress conditions, implying that overexpression of these genes may be involved in the enhanced drought and salt tolerance of transgenic rice. Thus, this work paves the way for improvement in tolerance of crops by genetic engineering breeding.

  1. Manipulation of Contents of Nitrate, Phenolic Acids, Chlorophylls, and Carotenoids in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) via Contrasting Responses to Nitrogen Fertilizer When Grown in a Controlled Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Othman; Siervo, Mario; Seal, Chris J; Brandt, Kirsten

    2017-11-22

    This study aimed to use different nitrogen fertilizer regimes to produce Butterhead lettuce with such large differences in nitrate content that they could be used as treatment and placebo to study the effect of inorganic nitrate on human health. Plants were grown under controlled conditions at 27/23 °C day/night with a relatively low photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of 150 μmol m -2 s -1 for 14 h day -1 and nitrogen supplies ranging from 26 to 154 ppm of N as ammonium nitrate in the fertigation solution. This resulted in contrasting high (∼1078 mg nitrate 100 g -1 FW) or low (∼6 mg 100 g -1 ) nitrate contents in the leaves. Contents of carotenoids and chlorophylls in fresh weight did not differ significantly between the highest and the lowest N-supply levels. However, increased nitrogen supply reduced contents of phenolic compounds from 154 to 22 mg 100 g -1 FW, dry matter content from 8.9% to 4.6%, and fresh weight per plant from 108.52 to 47.57 g/plant FW (all P < 0.001). Thus, while fertilizer treatments can provide lettuce with substantially different nitrate contents, maintaining similar pigment contents (color), they also strongly influence the contents of phenolic acids and flavones.

  2. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is involved in methyl jasmonate-induced root hair formation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changhua; Yang, Na; Ma, Xiaoling; Li, Guijun; Qian, Meng; Ng, Denny; Xia, Kai; Gan, Lijun

    2015-06-01

    Our results show that methyl jasmonate induces plasma membrane H (+) -ATPase activity and subsequently influences the apoplastic pH of trichoblasts to maintain a cell wall pH environment appropriate for root hair development. Root hairs, which arise from root epidermal cells, are tubular structures that increase the efficiency of water absorption and nutrient uptake. Plant hormones are critical regulators of root hair development. In this study, we investigated the regulatory role of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced root hair formation. We found that MeJA had a pronounced effect on the promotion of root hair formation in lettuce seedlings, but that this effect was blocked by the PM H(+)-ATPase inhibitor vanadate. Furthermore, MeJA treatment increased PM H(+)-ATPase activity in parallel with H(+) efflux from the root tips of lettuce seedlings and rhizosphere acidification. Our results also showed that MeJA-induced root hair formation was accompanied by hydrogen peroxide accumulation. The apoplastic acidification acted in concert with reactive oxygen species to modulate root hair formation. Our results suggest that the effect of MeJA on root hair formation is mediated by modulation of PM H(+)-ATPase activity.

  3. Distribusi Frekuensi Soil Transmitted Helminth pada Sayuran Selada (Lactuca sativa yang Dijual di Pasar Tradisional dan Pasar Modern di Kota Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdira Asihka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenyakit kecacingan sampai saat ini masih merupakan masalah kesehatan di daerah tropis, termasuk Indonesia. Banyak faktor yang menyebabkan tingginya angka kejadian penyakit ini, salah satunya yaitu memakan sayuran mentah yang tidak dicuci bersih seperti selada atau kol yang sering dijadikan lalapan. Daun selada berposisi duduk sehingga dapat kontak langsung dengan tanah. Keadaan ini memungkinkan STH (Soil Transmitted Helminth yang berada ditanah akan mudah menempel pada daun selada. Tujuan peneliti melakukan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui ada atau tidaknya STH pada selada yang dijual di pasar tradisional dan modern di Kota Padang. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Laboratorium Parasitologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas sejak Bulan September-Desember 2013. Penelitian ini berjenis deskriptif menggunakan metode sedimentasi. Hasil yang peneliti dapatkan dari penelitian ini adalah ditemukan STH positif pada 32 dari 44 sayuran selada dari pasar tradisional di Kota Padang dengan persentase 73%. Tiga dari 5 sayuran selada dari pasar modern di Kota Padang dinyatakan positif dengan persentase 40%. Jenis STH terbanyak yang peneliti temukan pada penelitian ini adalah telur Ascaris sp (79%, larva Trichostrongylus orientalis (16% dan telur cacing tambang (5%. Jadi, Terdapat kontaminasi STH pada selada yang dijual di pasar tradisional maupun pasar modern di Kota Padang.Kata kunci: Soil Transmitted Helminth, sayuran selada, pasar tradisional, pasar modernAbstractWorm disease is still a health problem in the tropics, including Indonesia. Many factors contribute to the high incidence of this disease, one of which is eating unwashed raw vegetables such as lettuce or cabbage cleaner is often used as vegetables. Lettuce sitting position so that it can direct contact with the ground. This situation allows STH ( Soil Transmitted Helminths that are ground will easily stick to the leaves selada. Purposes of researchers conducted this study was to determine the presence or absence of STH on lettuce sold in traditional markets and modern in the city of Padang. This research was conducted in the Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Andalas since Month from September to December 2013. This study was descriptive using sedimentation method. Researchers get results of this study were found positive on STH 32 of 44 lettuce from traditional markets in the city of Padang with a percentage of 73%. Three of 5 lettuce of the modern market in Padang tested positive with a percentage of 40%. Most types of STH that researchers have found in this study are the eggs of Ascaris sp (79%, Trichostrongylus orientalis larvae (16% and hookworm eggs (5%. So, There STH contamination on lettuce sold in traditional markets and modern markets in Padang.Keywords: Soil Transmitted helminths, lettuce, traditional markets, modern market

  4. Composted slaughterhouse sludge as a substitute for chemical fertilizers in the cultures of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juscelino de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract Flotation sludge (FS is produced in huge amounts at slaughterhouses in western Santa Catarina, Brazil. This waste is rich in plant nutrients and a valuable resource for soil amendments. Five FS composts were tested as a replacement for chemical fertilizers (QF, namely T1 (75% poultry manure (PM and 25% sawdust (SD; T2 (50% PM and 50% SD; T3 (25% PM and 75% SD; T4 (100% PM and 0% SD; and T5 (0% PM x 100% SD. For lettuce plants, treatments containing composted FS resulted in an increased number of leaves, leaf area and leaf fresh weight (LFW. T1 presented the best results with increases of 1.4 fold in LFW compared to plants supplemented with QF. T2 was the most effective treatment for radish with the best results of root fresh weight and root diameter. Although T4 had the highest nitrogen content, it did not present the best results in growth performance for lettuce or radish. The presence of higher proportions of SD in composts (25% for lettuce and 50% for radish improved the physical characteristics of the soil and proved to be a more balanced compost.

  5. Development and application of a 6.5 million feature Affymetrix Genechip® for massively parallel discovery of single position polymorphisms in lettuce (Lactuca spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoffel Kevin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-resolution genetic maps are needed in many crops to help characterize the genetic diversity that determines agriculturally important traits. Hybridization to microarrays to detect single feature polymorphisms is a powerful technique for marker discovery and genotyping because of its highly parallel nature. However, microarrays designed for gene expression analysis rarely provide sufficient gene coverage for optimal detection of nucleotide polymorphisms, which limits utility in species with low rates of polymorphism such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa. Results We developed a 6.5 million feature Affymetrix GeneChip® for efficient polymorphism discovery and genotyping, as well as for analysis of gene expression in lettuce. Probes on the microarray were designed from 26,809 unigenes from cultivated lettuce and an additional 8,819 unigenes from four related species (L. serriola, L. saligna, L. virosa and L. perennis. Where possible, probes were tiled with a 2 bp stagger, alternating on each DNA strand; providing an average of 187 probes covering approximately 600 bp for each of over 35,000 unigenes; resulting in up to 13 fold redundancy in coverage per nucleotide. We developed protocols for hybridization of genomic DNA to the GeneChip® and refined custom algorithms that utilized coverage from multiple, high quality probes to detect single position polymorphisms in 2 bp sliding windows across each unigene. This allowed us to detect greater than 18,000 polymorphisms between the parental lines of our core mapping population, as well as numerous polymorphisms between cultivated lettuce and wild species in the lettuce genepool. Using marker data from our diversity panel comprised of 52 accessions from the five species listed above, we were able to separate accessions by species using both phylogenetic and principal component analyses. Additionally, we estimated the diversity between different types of cultivated lettuce and

  6. Development and application of a 6.5 million feature Affymetrix Genechip® for massively parallel discovery of single position polymorphisms in lettuce (Lactuca spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Kevin; van Leeuwen, Hans; Kozik, Alexander; Caldwell, David; Ashrafi, Hamid; Cui, Xinping; Tan, Xiaoping; Hill, Theresa; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Truco, Maria-Jose; Michelmore, Richard W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2012-05-14

    High-resolution genetic maps are needed in many crops to help characterize the genetic diversity that determines agriculturally important traits. Hybridization to microarrays to detect single feature polymorphisms is a powerful technique for marker discovery and genotyping because of its highly parallel nature. However, microarrays designed for gene expression analysis rarely provide sufficient gene coverage for optimal detection of nucleotide polymorphisms, which limits utility in species with low rates of polymorphism such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa). We developed a 6.5 million feature Affymetrix GeneChip® for efficient polymorphism discovery and genotyping, as well as for analysis of gene expression in lettuce. Probes on the microarray were designed from 26,809 unigenes from cultivated lettuce and an additional 8,819 unigenes from four related species (L. serriola, L. saligna, L. virosa and L. perennis). Where possible, probes were tiled with a 2 bp stagger, alternating on each DNA strand; providing an average of 187 probes covering approximately 600 bp for each of over 35,000 unigenes; resulting in up to 13 fold redundancy in coverage per nucleotide. We developed protocols for hybridization of genomic DNA to the GeneChip® and refined custom algorithms that utilized coverage from multiple, high quality probes to detect single position polymorphisms in 2 bp sliding windows across each unigene. This allowed us to detect greater than 18,000 polymorphisms between the parental lines of our core mapping population, as well as numerous polymorphisms between cultivated lettuce and wild species in the lettuce genepool. Using marker data from our diversity panel comprised of 52 accessions from the five species listed above, we were able to separate accessions by species using both phylogenetic and principal component analyses. Additionally, we estimated the diversity between different types of cultivated lettuce and distinguished morphological types. By hybridizing

  7. Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Macchiavello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2 and water exchange rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1. The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

  8. Molecular diversity study of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vostro 2520

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... Nigella sativa L. (commonly known as black cumin) belonging to family Rannunculaceae is an ...... landraces under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Afr. J. ... distances among DNA haplotypes: Application to human.

  9. A genome browser database for rice (Oryza sativa) and Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... sativa) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) genomes. The genome ... tant staple food for a large part of the world's human population. .... some banding region for selection and the overview panel shows the location of ...

  10. Dietary Supplementation of Seaweed (Ulva lactuca to alleviate the Impact of Heat Stress in Growing Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kkalid A. Abdoun, Aly B. Okab, Ahmed M. El-Waziry, Emad M. Samara and Ahmed A. Al-Haidary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental and nutritional management approaches have been used to mitigate heat stress and improve performance of farm animals in semi-arid and arid regions. The present study was designed with the intention to alleviate the negative effects of heat stress and to promote the performance of growing lambs reared under hot environmental conditions. The study was conducted on 18 male Naimey lambs with average body weight of 22.78±0.49 kg, and 4-5 months old. The animals were randomly divided into 3 equal groups (A, B and C, and fed diets containing different concentrations of seaweed (Ulva lactuca for 90 days. Group A served as control and was offered diet containing 0.0% seaweed. Groups B and C served as treated groups and were offered diets containing 3.0 and 5.0% seaweed, respectively. Dietary inclusion of seaweed to the diet of growing lambs exposed to heat stress (max Ta 43.9oC, max RH 81.1%, max THI 84.6 neither influenced (P>0.05 the thermo-physiological parameters (rectal and skin temperatures, nor affected (P>0.05 the performance parameters (feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency. Furthermore, dietary seaweed supplementation did not alter (P>0.05 blood constituents or blood antioxidant capacity. However, dietary seaweed supplementation significantly (P<0.05 reduced respiratory rate, and increased serum potassium concentration. Based on the data of the present study, seaweed (Ulva lactuca supplementation to the diets of growing lambs reared under heat stress conditions did not show any indication of promoting their production performance or heat tolerance.

  11. The survival successes of mycorrhizal and non- mycorrhizal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... irrigation and organic material application is needed in order not to let the plant ... Soil + river sand + organic matter (3:6:1) + sterilization (SSOs). ... first area in the city center of Trabzon is at 40° 59' north latitude and. 039° 46' ...

  12. Determination of essential elements in milk and urine of camel and in nigella sativa Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Attas, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies on milk and urine of camel and Nigella sativa seeds, either with respect to concentration or bioavailability of major and trace essential elements of these materials are limited and warrant further investigation. The objective of this study was to analyze urine, milk of camel and Nigella sativa for some element using neutron activation analysis. Camel milk and urine have higher concentration of Na than Nigella sativa seeds but K concentration in camel urine and Nigella sativa is higher than that of milk. The Ca and Mg concentration in Nigella sativa seeds are higher than that in milk and urine. The concentration of iron and Zn in Nigella sativa is high. The concentration of Co and Cr in urine is higher than in Nigella sativa and camel milk Se is detected only in urine's camel. Nigella sativa seeds contain more trace elements as Sr, Al, Rb, Ba and La.

  13. Ulva Lactuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Peri Rossi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available She looked loathingly at the spoon. It was a metal spoon, dark, with a small engraving on its handle – a sharp taste. “Open your mouth, slowly, eaaaasy, like a little birdie in its nest,” he said, bringing the spoon to her mouth. He hated spoons; they had seemed despicable little things since he was small. Why did he now find himself having to wield it, full of soup, having to usher it now into this young child’s mouth, as his parents had done to him, as surely as his parents’ parents had also done? If they even had spoons then, if some fool had already invented them. He had to find himself an encyclopedia and figure out when the first spoon had been forged; he had to get his hands on an encyclopedia, a source of infinite knowledge by which he might survive. Spoon: A piece of silverware with a concave scoop at its end; typically used for carrying liquids to the mouth.

  14. Biosorption of bovine serum albumin by Ulva lactuca biomass from industrial wastewater: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathinam, Aravindhan [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India); Zou, Linda, E-mail: linda.zou@unisa.edu.au [SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    Batch biosorption experiments have been carried out for the removal of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from simulated industrial wastewater onto Ulva lactuca seaweed. Various vital parameters influencing the biosorption process such as initial concentration of BSA, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and temperature have been determined. The biosorption kinetics follows a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium isotherm studies demonstrate that the biosorption followed the Freundlich isotherm model, which implies a heterogeneous sorption phenomenon. Various thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, free energy and entropy have been calculated. The positive value of {Delta}H{sup o} and the negative value of {Delta}G{sup o} show that the sorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. The positive value of change in entropy {Delta}S{sup o} shows increased randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the biosorption of BSA onto U. lactuca seaweed.

  15. Biosorption of bovine serum albumin by Ulva lactuca biomass from industrial wastewater: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathinam, Aravindhan; Zou, Linda

    2010-12-15

    Batch biosorption experiments have been carried out for the removal of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from simulated industrial wastewater onto Ulva lactuca seaweed. Various vital parameters influencing the biosorption process such as initial concentration of BSA, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and temperature have been determined. The biosorption kinetics follows a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium isotherm studies demonstrate that the biosorption followed the Freundlich isotherm model, which implies a heterogeneous sorption phenomenon. Various thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, free energy and entropy have been calculated. The positive value of ΔH° and the negative value of ΔG° show that the sorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. The positive value of change in entropy ΔS° shows increased randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the biosorption of BSA onto U. lactuca seaweed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biosorption of bovine serum albumin by Ulva lactuca biomass from industrial wastewater: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathinam, Aravindhan; Zou, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Batch biosorption experiments have been carried out for the removal of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from simulated industrial wastewater onto Ulva lactuca seaweed. Various vital parameters influencing the biosorption process such as initial concentration of BSA, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and temperature have been determined. The biosorption kinetics follows a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium isotherm studies demonstrate that the biosorption followed the Freundlich isotherm model, which implies a heterogeneous sorption phenomenon. Various thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, free energy and entropy have been calculated. The positive value of ΔH o and the negative value of ΔG o show that the sorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. The positive value of change in entropy ΔS o shows increased randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the biosorption of BSA onto U. lactuca seaweed.

  17. Two new mountainous species of Lactuca (Cichorieae, Asteraceae from Iran, one presenting a new, possibly myrmecochorous achene variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Kilian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the concept of the Iranian endemic Lactuca polyclada in the sense of both its original author Boissier and its current use actually admixes two entirely different species, as was first noted by Beauverd a hundred years ago but has been neglected by later workers. One is a putative relative of L. rosularis, the other was recognised by Beauverd as a member of the genus Cicerbita. The name L. polyclada Boiss. is lectotypified here, maintaining its use as established by Beauverd for the Cicerbita species. Both species are morphologically delimited and mature achenes of Cicerbita polyclada are illustrated for the first time. The putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, a rare local endemic of the summit area of Kuh e-Dena, which has remained without a valid name by now, is described as a new species, Lactuca denaensis N. Kilian & Djavadi, and illustrated. A third member of the Lactuca rosularis group, L. hazaranensis Djavadi & N. Kilian, discovered among a recent collection and apparently being a rare chasmophyte of the Hazaran mountain massif in the province of Kerman, Iran, is described as a species new to science, illustrated and delimited from the other two species. This new species has peculiar achenes representing a hitherto unknown variant: the body of the beaked achenes is divided into two segments by a transversal constriction in the distal third. The proximal segment contains the embryo, the distal segment is solid with a lipid-containing yellow tissue. The easily detachable pappus and the equally easily detachable beak potentially obstruct dispersal by wind. Since detachment of the beak also exposes the lipid-containing tissue of the distal segment, its potential as an elaiosome and myrmecochory as a possible mode of dispersal are discussed.

  18. [Ttextual research of Cannabis sativa varieties and medicinal part].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yingfang; Wang, Huadong; Guo, Shanshan; Yan, Jie; Long, Fei

    2010-07-01

    To determine the medicinal part and varieties of Cannabis Sativa through herbal textual research to Provide bibliographic reference for clinical application. Herbal textual research of C. Sativa from ancient herbal works and modern data analysis. Through the herbal textual research, the plant of the C. sativa, for Fructus Cannabis used now is identical with that described in ancient herbal literatures. People did not make a sharp distinction on medicinal part of C. sativa in the early stage literatures, female inflorescence and unripe fruit, fruit and kernel of seed were all used. Since Taohongjing realized the toxicity ofpericarp, all the herbal and prescription works indicate that the pericarp shall be removed before usage and only the kernel can be used. However, in modem literatures, both fruit and kernel can be used as medicinal part. The plants for Fructus Cannabis described in modern and ancient literatures are identical. The base of the original plant is the same either in ancient or modern. And the toxicity of the fruit is more than that of the kernel. The kernel is the exact medicinal part of C. Sativa.

  19. Two complete chloroplast genome sequences of Cannabis sativa varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyehyun; Seo, Boyoung; Lee, Seunghwan; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Jo, Euna; Park, Jin-Kyoung; Min, Gi-Sik

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we determined the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes from two varieties of Cannabis sativa. The genome sizes were 153,848 bp (the Korean non-drug variety, Cheungsam) and 153,854 bp (the African variety, Yoruba Nigeria). The genome structures were identical with 131 individual genes [86 protein-coding genes (PCGs), eight rRNA, and 37 tRNA genes]. Further, except for the presence of an intron in the rps3 genes of two C. sativa varieties, the cp genomes of C. sativa had conservative features similar to that of all known species in the order Rosales. To verify the position of C. sativa within the order Rosales, we conducted phylogenetic analysis by using concatenated sequences of all PCGs from 17 complete cp genomes. The resulting tree strongly supported monophyly of Rosales. Further, the family Cannabaceae, represented by C. sativa, showed close relationship with the family Moraceae. The phylogenetic relationship outlined in our study is well congruent with those previously shown for the order Rosales.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa Mill. (Garden rocket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankun Wang

    Full Text Available Eruca sativa (Cruciferae family is an ancient crop of great economic and agronomic importance. Here, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa was sequenced and annotated. The circular molecule is 247,696 bp long, with a G+C content of 45.07%, containing 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes, and 18 tRNA genes. The Eruca sativa mitochondrial genome may be divided into six master circles and four subgenomic molecules via three pairwise large repeats, resulting in a more dynamic structure of the Eruca sativa mtDNA compared with other cruciferous mitotypes. Comparison with the Brassica napus MtDNA revealed that most of the genes with known function are conserved between these two mitotypes except for the ccmFN2 and rrn18 genes, and 27 point mutations were scattered in the 14 protein-coding genes. Evolutionary relationships analysis suggested that Eruca sativa is more closely related to the Brassica species and to Raphanus sativus than to Arabidopsis thaliana.

  1. Proteomic characterization of hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Gilda; Fasoli, Elisa; Boschin, Giovanna; Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Citterio, Attilio; Arnoldi, Anna

    2016-09-16

    This paper presents an investigation on hempseed proteome. The experimental approach, based on combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs), SDS-PAGE separation, nLC-ESI-MS/MS identification, and database search, permitted identifying in total 181 expressed proteins. This very large number of identifications was achieved by searching in two databases: Cannabis sativa L. (56 gene products identified) and Arabidopsis thaliana (125 gene products identified). By performing a protein-protein association network analysis using the STRING software, it was possible to build the first interactomic map of all detected proteins, characterized by 137 nodes and 410 interactions. Finally, a Gene Ontology analysis of the identified species permitted to classify their molecular functions: the great majority is involved in the seed metabolic processes (41%), responses to stimulus (8%), and biological process (7%). Hempseed is an underexploited non-legume protein-rich seed. Although its protein is well known for its digestibility, essential amino acid composition, and useful techno-functional properties, a comprehensive proteome characterization is still lacking. The objective of this work was to fill this knowledge gap and provide information useful for a better exploitation of this seed in different food products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessmann, H.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R.A.; Geno, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with [ 14 C]phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, [ 14 C]phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of 14 C-labeled, elicited cells with L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures

  3. Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honório Káthia Maria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.

  4. Comparison between two genera, species and cultivars in Lactuceae, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, M.Z.; Godward, M.B.E.

    1986-01-01

    Estimation of DNA amounts (in arbitrary units) in two genera, two species, and three cultivars of one species, permits comparison between them and indicates that the biggest difference is between the two genera, Lactuca and Cichorium; but that the difference between the cultivars of Lactuca sativa is greater than the difference between Lactuca serriola and the mean for Lactuca sativa. Lactuca serriola is a presumed ancestor of Lactuca sativa. The most radiosensitive species, L. serriola, has slightly less DNA and smaller nuclear volume than the next most sensitive, L. sativa cult. Cos. This is discussed. (author)

  5. Atividade alelopática de extratos aquosos de Aristolochia esperanzae O. Kuntze na germinação e no crescimento de Lactuca sativa L. e Raphanus sativus L. Allelopathic activity of aqueous extracts of Aristolochia esperanzae O. Kuntze in the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa L. and Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Gatti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os efeitos de extratos aquosos de diferentes órgãos de Aristolochia esperanzae na germinação e no crescimento de alface e rabanete. Todos os extratos preparados obedeceram à proporção de 100g de material vegetal fresco para 300mL de água destilada, que produziu o extrato considerado 100% concentrado. A partir deste, foram feitas diluições com água destilada para 75, 50 e 25%. Nos testes de germinação foram avaliados os efeitos dos extratos obtidos de folha, caule, raiz, fruto e flor a 100, 75, 50 e 25%. Para o teste de crescimento foram utilizados extratos de folha, caule e raiz na concentração de 100 e 50%. Nos testes de germinação foram utilizadas quatro repetições de 30 sementes distribuídas em placas de Petri forradas com duas folhas de papel de filtro umedecidas com 5 mL dos referidos extratos, secas durante 12h e reumedecidas com 4,5mL de água destilada. No primeiro teste avaliou-se a percentagem e a velocidade de germinação das sementes. No teste de crescimento, as sementes foram previamente germinadas (2-4mm de radícula e depois transferidas para caixas plásticas contendo os substratos de papel de filtro e fibra de coco umedecidos com os respectivos extratos. Avaliou-se a altura da parte aérea, o comprimento radicular, a massa seca das plântulas e a presença de anormalidades nas plântulas. Os testes foram mantidos à temperatura constante de 27ºC. Através dos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que os extratos de folha foram os que mais afetaram a percentagem de germinação e que todos os extratos e as diferentes concentrações retardaram a germinação de sementes de alface e de rabanete. Quanto ao teste de crescimento, pode-se verificar que os extratos de caule e de raiz causaram anormalidades nas plântulas. As plântulas crescidas no substrato papel de filtro apresentaram maior inibição do crescimento, em relação àquelas crescidas no substrato fibra de coco. A concentração dos extratos foi a principal responsável pelo estímulo ou inibição causada no crescimento das plântulas de alface e rabanete.This work analyzed the effects of aqueous extractsof Aristolochia esperanzae organs in the germination and initial growth of lettuce and radish. All the extracts were prepared using 100g of plant fresh material + 300mL of distilled water to produce the extract 100% concentrated. This extract was diluted with distilled water to produce a final concentrations of 75, 50 and 25%. The germination was evaluated by tests using the extracts of leaf, stem, root, fruit and flower, with concentration of 100, 75, 50, and 25%. In the seedlings growth, the extracts of leaf, stem, and root were used in the concentration of 100 and 50%. In the germination tests, four replicates of 30 seeds were distributed in Petri dishes with two filter paper moistened with 5mL of the extracts, dried during 12 hours and moistened again with 4,5mL of distilled water. In the first test, the rate and germination percentage were evaluated. In the growth test, the seeds were previously germinated (2-4mm radicle length and transferred for plastic boxes containing the filter paper or coconut fiber, moistened with the extracts. The shoot height, radicle length, dry mass and the presence of abnormalities in the seedlings were evaluated. Both tests were maintained at constant temperature (27ºC. The results showed that the leaf extracts affected strongly the germination percentage and all the extract, in different concentrations, delayed the germination of lettuce and radish seeds. In the growth tests could be verified that the stem and root extracts caused abnormality in the seedlings. The seedlings grown in filter paper presented bigger growth inhibition in relation to seedlings from coconut fiber. The extract concentration was the main responsible for the promotion or inhibition caused on lettuce and radish seedlings growth.

  6. Efeito alelopático de Andira humilis Mart. ex Benth na germinação e no crescimento de Lactuca sativa L. e Raphanus sativus L. Allelopathic effect of Andira humilis Mart. ex Benth in the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa L. and Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Periotto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito alelopático de caules e folhas de Andira humilis na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de plântulas de rabanete e alface. Para os experimentos de germinação foram preparados extratos aquosos de caules e folhas de A. humilis nas concentrações de 0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% (p/v. Foram realizadas quatro réplicas de trinta sementes de alface ou de rabanete, distribuídas em placas de Petri forradas com papel-filtro umedecido com 5mL dos extratos, mantidas a 27 ºC e na ausência de luz. As contagens das sementes germinadas foram realizadas a cada 12h, calculando-se a percentagem e a velocidade de germinação. Extratos de caules e folhas reduziram significativamente a velocidade e a percentagem de germinação, em relação ao grupo controle. Os experimentos de crescimento foram realizados com quatro réplicas de oito sementes germinadas de alface ou de rabanete, a 27 ºC, na ausência de luz e em papel-filtro como substrato, sendo avaliadas as concentrações 0, 4 e 12% (p/v. Plântulas de alface e rabanete sofreram inibição significativa em seus comprimentos, pelos extratos de folhas. Extratos de caules a 4 e 12% (p/v não causaram inibição do crescimento em rabanete. A interferência dos extratos na germinação e no crescimento em alface e rabanete foi desassociada de qualquer efeito do potencial osmótico e do pH, indicando, portanto, atividade alelopática.The objective of this study was to evaluate allelopathic effects of stems and leaves of Andira humilis in the germination and growth of radish and lettuce. For the germination's experiments, aqueous extracts of stems and leaves of A. humilis in the concentrations of 0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% (w/v were done. Were employed four replicates of thirty seeds of lettuce and radish. The seeds were distributed in Petri dishes with filter paper moistened with 5mL of the extracts. The experiments were conducted at 27 ºC in light absence. The counting of germinated seeds was done each 12h, calculating the percentage and germination rate. The extracts at 8, 12 and 16% (w/v reduced lettuce and radish germination rate, extracts of stems at 100% reduced the percentage of germination. Four replicates of eight germinated seeds of lettuce or radish were employed in the growth experiments conducted at 27 ºC in the absence of light and having filter paper as substracts moistened with concentrations of 0, 4 e 12% (w/v.Lettuce and radish seedlings suffered significant inhibition in length, when using leaves extracts. Only 4 e 12% (w/v stems extracts didn't caused growth inhibition in radish. The interference of extracts in germination and growth of lettuce and radish was disassociated of any pH and osmotic potential, indicating allelopathic activity.

  7. Pharmacological and phytochemical screening of Palestinian traditional medicinal plants Erodium laciniatum and Lactuca orientalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Nidal; AlMasri, Motasem; Zaid, Abdel Naser; Othman, Dua'a Ghazi

    2017-09-01

    Various epidemiological studies showed that herbal remedies containing polyphenols may protect against various diseases such as cancers, vascular diseases and inflammatory pathologies. Currently, such groups of bioactive compounds have become a subject of many antimicrobials and antioxidant investigations. Accordingly, the current study aimed to conduct biological and phytochemical screening for two Palestinian traditional medicinal plants, Erodium laciniatum and Lactuca orientalis. Current plants phytoconstituents and their antioxidant activities were evaluated by using standard phytochemical methods; meanwhile, antimicrobial activities were estimated by using several types of American Type Culture Collection and multidrug resistant clinical isolates by using agar diffusion well-variant, agar diffusion disc-variant and broth microdilution methods. Phytochemical screenings showed that L. orientalis and E. laciniatum contain mixtures of secondary and primary metabolites Moreover, total flavonoid, tannins and phenols content in E. laciniatum extract were higher than the L. orientalis extracts with almost the same antioxidant potentials. Additionally, both plants organic and aqueous extracts showed various potentials of antimicrobial activity Conclusions: Overall, the studied species have a mixture of phytochemicals, flavonoids, phenols and tannins also have antioxidant and antimicrobial activities which approved their folk uses in treatments of infectious and Alzheimer diseases and simultaneously can be used as therapeutic agents in the pharmaceutical industries.

  8. Biorefinery of the macroalgae Ulva lactuca: extraction of proteins and carbohydrates by mild disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, P R; Cerezo-Chinarro, O; Akkerman, R J; Olivieri, G; Wijffels, R H; Brandenburg, W A; Eppink, M H M

    2018-01-01

    The effect of osmotic shock, enzymatic incubation, pulsed electric field, and high shear homogenization on the release of water-soluble proteins and carbohydrates from the green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated in this screening study. For osmotic shock, both temperature and incubation time had a significant influence on the release with an optimum at 30 °C for 24 h of incubation. For enzymatic incubation, pectinase demonstrated being the most promising enzyme for both protein and carbohydrate release. Pulsed electric field treatment was most optimal at an electric field strength of 7.5 kV cm -1 with 0.05 ms pulses and a specific energy input relative to the released protein as low as 6.6 kWh kg prot -1 . Regarding literature, this study reported the highest protein (~ 39%) and carbohydrate (~ 51%) yields of the four technologies using high shear homogenization. Additionally, an energy reduction up to 86% was achieved by applying a novel two-phase (macrostructure size reduction and cell disintegration) technique.

  9. Bioremediation of reject water from anaerobically digested waste water sludge with macroalgae (Ulva lactuca, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sode, Sidsel; Bruhn, Annette; Balsby, Thorsten J S; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Gotfredsen, Annemarie; Rasmussen, Michael Bo

    2013-10-01

    Phosphorus and biologically active nitrogen are valuable nutrient resources. Bioremediation with macroalgae is a potential means for recovering nutrients from waste streams. In this study, reject water from anaerobically digested sewage sludge was successfully tested as nutrient source for cultivation of the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Maximal growth rates of 54.57±2.16% FW d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 50 μM NH4(+). Based on the results, the growth and nutrient removal was parameterised as function of NH4(+) concentration a tool for optimisation of any similar phycoremediation system. Maximal nutrient removal rates of 22.7 mg N g DW(-1) d(-1) and 2.7 mg P g DW(-1) d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 80 and 89 μM NH4(+), respectively. A combined and integrated use of the produced biomass in a biorefinery is thought to improve the feasibility of using Ulva for bioremediation of reject water. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure and cytotoxic activity of ulvan extracted from green seaweed Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Thi Thu Thuy; Quach, Thi Minh Thu; Nguyen, Thi Nu; Vu Luong, Dang; Bui, Minh Ly; Tran, Thi Thanh Van

    2016-12-01

    The structure of an ulvan obtained by water extraction from green seaweed Ulva lactuca was elucidated by using IR, NMR, SEC-MALL and ESIMS methods. The ulvan was also evaluated for its cytotoxic effects on three human cancer cell lines. The results showed that the ulvan was composed of rhamnose, galactose, xylose, manose, glucose (with a mole ratio of Rha: Gal: Xyl: Man: Glu equal to 1: 0.03: 0.07: 0.01: 0.06), uronic acid (21.5%) and sulfate content (18.9%) with a molecular weight of 347000. This ulvan mainly consists of disaccharide [→4)-β-d-GlcA-(1→4)-α-l-Rha3S-(1→] and other minor disaccharide β-GlcA-(1→2)-α-Xyl and β-GlcA-(→2)-α-Rha. The ulvan showed a significant cytotoxic activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (IC 50 29.67±2.87μg/ml), human breast cancer (IC 50 25.09±1.36μg/ml), and cervical cancer (IC 50 36.33±3.84μg/ml). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Variation of photosynthetic tolerance of rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... (Oryza sativa L.) to chilling temperature in the light. Xia Li*, Kun Cao, Chao .... 2 mol) formed red-brown trimethine that can be detected quantitatively with spectrophoto- ..... ses through the generation of appropriate signals (H2O2) and the balance ..... was under weak light intensity (Murata, 1989). Light.

  12. Sample preparation of Medicago sativa L. hay for chemical analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the grinding procedure on the moisture and crude protein concentration of a ground Medicago sativa L. hay sample for quality grading. An additional aim was to investigate the accuracy of electronic moisture testers (EMT). Variance of analyses revealed significant ...

  13. Prediction of chemical composition of South African Medicago sativa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict chemical and digestibility parameters was investigated. Samples (n = 168) representing the spectral characteristics of the South African. Medicago sativa L. hay population were chemically analysed for the development of calibration equations. Values for r² and ...

  14. Estimation of larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to develop sequential sampling plans to estimate larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) at three precision levels in cucumber greenhouse. The within- greenhouse spatial patterns of larvae were aggregated. The slopes and intercepts of both Iwao's patchiness ...

  15. Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ziegler, A.; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Steger, G.; Schubert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 2 (2012), s. 383-385 ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP501/10/J018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Cannabis sativa * Partitivirus * cryptic virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.030, year: 2012

  16. Nigella sativa: reduces the risk of various maladies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2010-08-01

    Coinage of terms like nutraceuticals, functional, and pharma foods has diverted the attention of human beings to where they are seeking more natural cures. Though pharmaceutical drugs have been beneficial for human health and have cured various diseases but they also impart some side effects. Numerous plants have been tested for their therapeutic potential; Nigella sativa, commonly known as black cumin, is one of them. It possesses a nutritional dense profile as its fixed oil (lipid fraction), is rich in unsaturated fatty acids while essential oil contains thymoquinone and carvacrol as antioxidants. N. sativa seeds also contain proteins, alkaloids (nigellicines and nigelledine), and saponins (alpha-hederin) in substantial amounts. Recent pharmacological investigations suggested its potential role, especially for the amelioration of oxidative stress through free radical scavenging activity, the induction of apoptosis to cure various cancer lines, the reduction of blood glucose, and the prevention of complications from diabetes. It regulates hematological and serological aspects and can be effective in dyslipidemia and respiratory disorders. Moreover, its immunopotentiating and immunomodulating role brings balance in the immune system. Evidence is available supporting the utilization of Nigella sativa and its bioactive components in a daily diet for health improvement. This review is intended to focus on the composition of Nigella sativa and to elaborate its possible therapeutic roles as a functional food to prevent an array of maladies.

  17. Nigella sativa (black seed) extract improves spatial learning abilityin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the memory enhancing effect of Nigella sativa Extract on mice using Morris Water Maze. The study was conducted on 30 Albino mice of both sexes randomly divided into 5 groups with 6 animals each. Group 1 served as control and was treated with oral distilled water, Groups 2, 3 and 4 ...

  18. The effects of Nigella sativa powder (black seed) and Echinacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... was supplemented with EP at the rate of 0.25 ml/kg body weight (BW). Body ..... values in laying hen with references to fertility in cockerels. Proc of 7th ... under high temperature conditions 2- black cumin (Nigella Sativa) or.

  19. Nigella Sativa Concoction induced sustained seroreversion in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... Abstract. Nigella sativa had been documented to possess many therapeutic functions in medicine but the least expected is sero-reversion in HIV infection which is very rare despite extensive therapy with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).

  20. Crop physiology of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der H.

    1994-01-01

    Fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) may be an alternative to wood as a raw material for the production of paper pulp. The effects of enviromnental factors and cultural measures on the functioning, yield and quality of fibre hemp crops in the

  1. New developments in fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Zhang, Qingying; Amaducci, Stefano; Yang, Ming; Trindade, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a sustainable and high yielding industrial crop that can help to meet the high global demand for fibers. Hemp can be grown for fiber, seeds, and/or for dual purpose in a wide range of geographic zones and climates. Currently the main hemp producing regions in

  2. Agronomy and photosynthesis physiology of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Kailei

    2018-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a sustainable high-yielding crop that delivers valuable fibres, seeds and psychoactive substances. However, there is a lack of field experimental data on the cultivation of hemp because its production was largely abandoned in the last century. Hemp is now

  3. A model for assessing Medicago Sativa L. hay quality | Scholtz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to identify chemical parameters and/or models for assessing. Medicago sativa L. (L) hay quality, using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis and Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) milk prediction as a criterion of accuracy. Milk yield (MY) derived from the ...

  4. Molecular and genetic characterization of OSH6 ( Oryza sativa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic studies of dissociation (Ds) insertion mutant rice plants indicated that ectopic expression of truncated OSH6 (Oryza sativa Homeobox 6) mRNA may be responsible for the mutant phenotype of knotted leaf formation at the peduncle. Additionally, ectopic expression of truncated OSH6 mRNA in the OSH6-Ds mutant ...

  5. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutic uses of black seed (Nigella sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooti, Wesam; Hasanzadeh-Noohi, Zahra; Sharafi-Ahvazi, Naim; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon

    2016-10-01

    Black seed (Nigella sativa) is an annual flowering plant from Ranunculaceae family, native to southwest Asia. This plant has many food and medicinal uses. The use of its seeds and oil is common for treatment of many diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, inflammatory diseases, diabetes and digestive diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive review on the scientific reports that have been published about N. sativa. The facts and statistics presented in this review article were gathered from the journals accessible in creditable databases such as Science Direct, Medline, PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO, EMBASE, SID and IranMedex. The keywords searched in Persian and English books on medicinal plants and traditional medicine, as well as the above reputable databases were "Black seed", "Nigella sativa", "therapeutic effect", and "medicinal plant". The results showed that N. sativa has many biological effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, and wound healing activities. It also has effects on reproductive, digestive, immune and central nervous systems, such as anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. In summary, it can be used as a valuable plant for production of new drugs for treatment of many diseases. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of cisplatin in the marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easton, Cecilia; Turner, Andrew; Sewell, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin (cis-PtCl 2 (NH 3 ) 2 ), has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, under various experimental conditions. Both accumulation and internalisation over a 48 h period was greater when cisplatin was added to coastal sea water (salinity = 33) from a distilled water solution than when added to either sea water or estuarine water (salinity = 16.5) from a saline solution. This effect is attributed to the greater abundance of the more reactive monoaqua complex (cis-PtCl(OH 2 )(NH 3 ) 2 + ) in the distilled water solution and kinetic constraints on its conversion back to cis-PtCl 2 (NH 3 ) 2 in sea water. Despite its mode of action at the cellular level, cisplatin added up to concentrations of 150 nM did not incur a measurable reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion under any of experimental conditions tested. - Highlights: → This study is the first to examine the biogeochemistry and toxicity of a cytotoxic drug in the marine environment. → Cisplatin is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. → Accumulation is greater when the drug is administered from a distilled water solution than from a saline solution. → Results are consistent with the greater abundance of the more reactive aquated complexes in pure water. → Cisplatin is not phytotoxic to the alga over the concentration range (<150 nM) studied. - The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin, is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, but is not phytotoxic up to concentrations of 150 nM

  7. An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of cisplatin in the marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easton, Cecilia [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Sewell, Graham [School of Health Professions, University of Plymouth, Peninsula Allied Health Centre, Plymouth PL6 8BH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin (cis-PtCl{sub 2}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}), has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, under various experimental conditions. Both accumulation and internalisation over a 48 h period was greater when cisplatin was added to coastal sea water (salinity = 33) from a distilled water solution than when added to either sea water or estuarine water (salinity = 16.5) from a saline solution. This effect is attributed to the greater abundance of the more reactive monoaqua complex (cis-PtCl(OH{sub 2})(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +}) in the distilled water solution and kinetic constraints on its conversion back to cis-PtCl{sub 2}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2} in sea water. Despite its mode of action at the cellular level, cisplatin added up to concentrations of 150 nM did not incur a measurable reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion under any of experimental conditions tested. - Highlights: > This study is the first to examine the biogeochemistry and toxicity of a cytotoxic drug in the marine environment. > Cisplatin is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. > Accumulation is greater when the drug is administered from a distilled water solution than from a saline solution. > Results are consistent with the greater abundance of the more reactive aquated complexes in pure water. > Cisplatin is not phytotoxic to the alga over the concentration range (<150 nM) studied. - The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin, is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, but is not phytotoxic up to concentrations of 150 nM

  8. Chemical compositions of the marine algae Gracilaria salicornia (Rhodophyta) and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) as a potential food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarsa, Mehdi; Rezaei, Masoud; Ramezanpour, Zohreh; Waaland, Joseph Robert

    2012-09-01

    The nutritional compositions of two edible red (Gracilaria salicornia) and green (Ulva lactuca) seaweeds were determined to evaluate their possible uses as potential food ingredients. In general, these species contained limited amounts of lipids ranging between 0.99 and 2.00 g 100 g(-1) dry weight) and considerably high amount of minerals, especially in G. salicornia (38.91 g 100 g(-1) d.w.). The crude protein values varied between 9.58 and 10.69 g 100 g(-1) d.w. Amounts for total amino acids were 889.78 ± 22.64 mg g(-1) protein d.w. in G. salicornia and 543.3 ± 15.14 mg g(-1) protein d.w. in U. lactuca. The most abundant fatty acids were C12:0, C16:0, C20:4 ω6 and C22:5 ω3, in addition to C18:1 in G. salicornia. Both seaweed species were balanced sources of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids with a ratio of ω6/ω3 that varied between 1.2 and 1.17. Between the seaweeds investigated, high levels of K (2414.02-11 380.06 mg 100 g(-1) d.w.) were observed and the amounts of Ca, Na and Fe were higher than those reported for land plants. Thus, G. salicornia and U. lactuca may be utilised as value-added products for human nutrition purposes. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. A macroalgae-based biotechnology for water remediation: Simultaneous removal of Cd, Pb and Hg by living Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Bruno; Rocha, Luciana S; Lopes, Cláudia B; Figueira, Paula; Duarte, A C; Vale, Carlos; Pardal, M A; Pereira, E

    2017-04-15

    Metal uptake from contaminated waters by living Ulva lactuca was studied during 6 days, under different relevant contamination scenarios. In mono-metallic solutions, with concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 μg L -1 for Hg, 10-200 μg L -1 for Cd, and 50-1000 μg L -1 for Pb, macroalgae (500 mg L -1 , d.w.) were able to remove, in most cases 93-99% of metal, allowing to achieve water quality criteria regarding both surface and drinking waters. In multi-metallic solutions, comprising simultaneously the three metals, living macroalgae still performed well, with Hg removal (c.a. 99%) not being significantly affected by the presence of Cd and Pb, even when those metals were in higher concentrations. Removal efficiencies for Cd and Pb varied between 57 and 96%, and 34-97%, respectively, revealing an affinity of U. lactuca toward metals: Hg > Cd > Pb. Chemical quantification in macroalgae, after bioaccumulation assays demonstrated that all Cd and Hg removed from solution was really bound in macroalgae biomass, while only half of Pb showed to be sorbed on the biomass. Overall, U. lactuca accumulated up to 209 μg g -1 of Hg, up to 347 μg g -1 of Cd and up to 1641 μg g -1 of Pb, which correspond to bioconcentration factors ranging from 500 to 2200, in a dose-dependent accumulation. Pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Elovich models showed a good performance in describing the kinetics of bioaccumulation, in the whole period of time. In the range of experimental conditions used, no mortality was observed and U. lactuca relative growth rate was not significantly affected by the presence of metals. Results represent an important contribution for developing a macroalgae-based biotechnology, applied for contaminated saline water remediation, more "green" and cost-effective than conventional treatment methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep and on in vitro gas production kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    EL-WAZIRY, Ahmed; AL-HAIDARY, Ahmed; OKAB, Aly; SAMARA, Emad; ABDOUN, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep, in vitro gas production, estimated energy, and microbial protein synthesis. A total of 18 Naimey male sheep with average live weight of 22.78 ± 0.24 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups. Sheep in group 1 were fed a diet containing commercial feed without seaweed as a control diet, sheep in group 2 were fed the control diet with 3% seaweed, and sheep in group 3...

  11. Isolation, structure, and surfactant properties of polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca L. from South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Yin, Xueqiong; Zeng, Qinghuan; Zhu, Li; Chen, Junhua

    2015-08-01

    Two polysaccharides (ULP1 and ULP2) were isolated through ultrasonic-assisted extraction from green seaweed Ulva lactuca L. which was collected from the South China Sea. The highest yield of 17.57% was obtained under the conditions of 2% NaOH, 90 °C, material/water mass ratio 1:80, liquid extraction 5h and subsequent ultrasound-assisted extraction 1h. The structure of ULPs were characterized with periodate oxidation followed by Smith degradation, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectroscopy, FTIR, and GPC. The molecular weights of ULP1 and ULP2 were 189 kDa and 230 kDa, respectively. The structural characteristics of ULP1 and ULP2 were quite similar. They were composed of rhamnose, xylose, glucose, and glucuronic acid. The content of rhamnose, xylose, glucose, glucuronic acid, sulfate was 51.2%, 12.3%, 20.1%, 16.4%, 12.0% for ULP1, respectively, and 60.8%, 14.2%, 8.2%, 16.8%, 26.8%, respectively, for ULP2. Both ULP1 and ULP2 showed good surface activity. 5 mg/mL ULP1 (2.62×10(-2) mmol/L) decreased the water surface tension to 51.63 mN/m. The critical micellar concentration of ULP1 and ULP2 was 1.01 mg/mL (5.3×10(-3) mmol/L) and 1.14 mg/mL (5.0×10(-3) mmol/L), respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Protective effect of Ulva lactuca extract during hepatic cold preservation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchichi, Henda; Bacha, Sarra; Kourda, Nadia; Melaouhia, Salma; Gaies, Emna; Lakhal, Mohamed; Klouz, Anis; Trabelsi, S; Salouage, Issam

    2016-04-01

    from the green seaweed Ulva lactuca to improve the conservation solution of organs against the hepatic effects of ischemia.

  13. Tracking alien chromosome in sativa background by genomic in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, F.M.; Iqbal, M.; Salim, M.

    2004-01-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to look into the genomic constitution of monosomic alien -addition line derived from O. sativa x O. brachyantha. Biotin label genomic DNA from O. brachyantha was used as probe. The probe hybridized to the brachyantha chromosome. No detectable hybridization signal was observed on sativa chromosomes. This differential painting of chromosome enables us to unequivocally discriminate brachyantha chromosome from those of sativa. Results showed the usefulness of GISH in the identification of a single alien chromosome in the sativa background. (author)

  14. Nutraceutical potential of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds and sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, Stefania; Moccia, Eleonora; Caltavuturo, Leonardo; Gabriele, Morena; Longo, Vincenzo; Bellani, Lorenza; Giorgi, Gianluca; Giorgetti, Lucia

    2018-10-01

    In this study the antioxidant effect of Cannabis sativa L. seeds and sprouts (3 and 5 days of germination) was evaluated. Total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content, when expressed on dry weight basis, were highest in sprouts; ORAC and DPPH (in vitro assays), CAA-RBC (cellular antioxidant activity in red blood cells) and hemolysis test (ex vivo assays) evidenced a good antioxidant activity higher in sprouts than in seeds. Untargeted analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry in negative ion mode allowed the identification of main polyphenols (caffeoyltyramine, cannabisin A, B, C) in seeds and of ω-6 (linoleic acid) in sprouts. Antimutagenic effect of seeds and sprouts extracts evidenced a significant decrease of mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain. In conclusion our results show that C. sativa seeds and sprouts exert beneficial effects on yeast and human cells and should be further investigated as a potential functional food. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Influence of synthetic surfactants on the uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masakorala, Kanaji; Turner, Andrew; Brown, Murray T.

    2008-01-01

    Uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been studied in the presence of an anionic (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS), cationic (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide; HDTMA) and non-ionic (Triton X-100; TX) surfactant. Compared with the surfactant-free system, metal sorption was reduced in the presence of SDS or TX. Neither surfactant, however, had any measurable impact on cell membrane permeability, determined by leakage of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA), or on metal internalisation. We attribute these observations to the stabilisation of aqueous Cd and Pb by SDS and the shielding of otherwise amenable sorption sites by TX. Presence of HDTMA resulted in a reduction in the extent of both sorption and internalisation of all metals and a significant increase in the leakage of DFAA. Thus, by enhancing membrane permeability, HDTMA exerts the greatest influence on metal behaviour in the presence of U. lactuca. - Synthetic surfactants exert a significant impact on the uptake and internalisation of metals by a marine macroalga

  16. Influence of synthetic surfactants on the uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masakorala, Kanaji [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk; Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been studied in the presence of an anionic (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS), cationic (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide; HDTMA) and non-ionic (Triton X-100; TX) surfactant. Compared with the surfactant-free system, metal sorption was reduced in the presence of SDS or TX. Neither surfactant, however, had any measurable impact on cell membrane permeability, determined by leakage of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA), or on metal internalisation. We attribute these observations to the stabilisation of aqueous Cd and Pb by SDS and the shielding of otherwise amenable sorption sites by TX. Presence of HDTMA resulted in a reduction in the extent of both sorption and internalisation of all metals and a significant increase in the leakage of DFAA. Thus, by enhancing membrane permeability, HDTMA exerts the greatest influence on metal behaviour in the presence of U. lactuca. - Synthetic surfactants exert a significant impact on the uptake and internalisation of metals by a marine macroalga.

  17. An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of thallium in the coastal marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Furniss, Oliver

    2012-12-01

    Thallium(I) has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, for a period of 48 h and the accumulation of the metal and its effects on the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PS II) measured. Thallium elicited a measurable toxic response above concentrations of 10 μg L⁻¹ in both coastal seawater (salinity 33) and estuarine water (salinity 20). The accumulation of Tl was defined by a linear relationship with aqueous Tl and accumulation factors of about 900 mL g⁻¹ in both media. Thallium accumulated by U. lactuca that was resistant to an EDTA extraction and, by operational definition, internalised, exceeded 90% in both cases. Accumulation and toxicity of Tl in the presence of a ∼10⁵-fold excess of its biogeochemical analogue, potassium, suggests that Tl has a high intrinsic phytotoxicity and that its mode of action involves permeation of the cell membrane as Tl⁺ through NaCl-KCl co-transporter sites rather than (or in addition to) transport through K⁺ ion channels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of different drying conditions on the rehydration ratio and water holding capacity properties in three different species of algae Ulva lactuca, Codium vermilara and Codium tomentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marques Nunes

    2014-06-01

    In this work, it was concluded that higher drying temperature conditions originate lower rehydration ratio and consequent lower water holding capacity possibly due to a higher physical damage in the algae tissues. It was also observed that both Codium species have higher values for these two parameters than Ulva lactuca, under the same rehydration conditions.

  19. EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF CONDENSED TANNINS IN CASTANEA SATIVA MILL.

    OpenAIRE

    J Živković; I Mujić; G Nikolić; S Vidović; A Mujić

    2010-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins are widespread in woody plants, but are also found in certain forages. Castanea sativa Mill. are exploited for various purposes, but a little is known about potential of this species and possible application in diet and therapy. The parts of chestnut such as: seed, peeled seed, brown seed shell, red internal seed shell, leaves, catkin, spiny bur, as well as the new and old chestnut bark were extracted with 50% ethanol as an extragents. Conten...

  20. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Avena sativa L. Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Amini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nowadays, nanoparticles bio production, considering their performance in medicine and biological science, is increasing. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles The objectives of this study were the production of silver nanoparticles using Avena sativa L. extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of substrate (silver nitrate (AgNo3 and temperature on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. Methods: In this work, silver nanoparticles were synthesized from an extract of Avena sativa L. at different temperatures (30° C, 60° C, 90° C  and AgNo3 concentrations( 1 mM, 2mM, 4mM . The morphology and size of the nanoparticles were determined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS. Results: SEM images showed that by increasing temperature nanoparticles size were decreased and by increasing concentrations of AgNo3 the number of nanoparticles was increased. Conclusions: The results indicated that by increasing the reaction temperature, the size of the nanoparticles would decrease. Also by increasing the concentrations of AgNo3, the amount of produced nanoparticles would be increased, but won't have a significant effect on its size. The preparation of nano- structured silver particles using Avena sativa L. extract provides an environmentally friendly option as compared to currently available chemical/ physical methods.