WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-mutually exclusive hypotheses

  1. Effect of social exclusion on the risk of teenage pregnancy: development of hypotheses using baseline data from a randomised trial of sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, C P; Strange, V J; Stephenson, J M; Oakley, A R; Copas, A J; Forrest, S P; Johnson, A M; Black, S

    2003-11-01

    The UK government argues that "social exclusion" increases risk of teenage pregnancy and that educational factors may be dimensions of such exclusion. The evidence cited by the government is limited to reporting that socioeconomic disadvantage and educational attainment influence risk. Evidence regarding young people's attitude to school is not cited, and there is a lack of research concerning the UK. This paper develops hypotheses on the relation between socioeconomic and educational dimensions of social exclusion, and risk of teenage pregnancy, by examining whether dislike of school and socioeconomic disadvantage are associated with cognitive/behavioural risk measures among 13/14 year olds in English schools. Analysis of data from the baseline survey of a study of sex education. 13/14 year old school students from south east England. The results indicate that socioeconomic disadvantage and dislike of school are associated with various risk factors, each with a different pattern. Those disliking school, despite having comparable knowledge to those liking school, were more likely to have sexual intercourse, expect sexual intercourse by age 16, and expect to be parents by the age of 20. For most associations, the crude odds ratios (ORs) and the ORs adjusted for the other exposure were similar, suggesting that inter-confounding between exposures was limited. It is hypothesised that in determining risk of teenage pregnancy, the two exposures are independent. Those disliking school might be at greater risk of teenage pregnancy because they are more likely to see teenage pregnancy as inevitable or positive.

  2. Preschool social exclusion, aggression, and cooperation: a longitudinal evaluation of the need-to-belong and the social-reconnection hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenseng, Frode; Belsky, Jay; Skalicka, Vera; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2014-12-01

    The need-to-belong theory stipulates that social exclusion fosters aggression, whereas the social-reconnection hypothesis suggests that social exclusion promotes motivation to behave cooperatively. To date, empirical investigations of these contrasting views have focused on the immediate effects of social exclusion, yielding mixed results. Here we examine longer term effects of preschool social exclusion on children's functioning 2 years later. Social exclusion was reported by teachers, aggression and cooperation by parents. Cross-lagged analyses showed that greater social exclusion at age 4 predicted more aggression and less cooperation at age 6, providing support for the need-to-belong rather than social-reconnection hypothesis. Secondary analyses showed that social exclusion predicted more aggression only among children scoring above mean on aggression at age 4, indicating that aggressive behavior is amplified by social exclusion among children already behaving aggressively. No gender differences were found. Implications and limitations are discussed in a developmental context.

  3. ITSSOIN Hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anheier, H.K.; Krlev, G.; Preuss, S.; Mildenberger, G.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Brink Lund, A.

    2014-01-01

    This report brings together findings from the first ITSSOIN project working steps to formulate empirically testable hypotheses on the impact of the third sector and social innovation – in particular regarding the role of the third sector in generating social innovation but also with reference to fra

  4. Hypotheses and Inductive Predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROMEYN, J.-W.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT. This paper studies the use of hypotheses schemes in generating inductive predictions. After discussing Carnap–Hintikka inductive logic, hypotheses schemes are defined and illustrated with two partitions. One partition results in the Carnapian continuum of inductive methods, the other resul

  5. Hypotheses and Inductive Predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROMEYN, J.-W.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT. This paper studies the use of hypotheses schemes in generating inductive predictions. After discussing Carnap–Hintikka inductive logic, hypotheses schemes are defined and illustrated with two partitions. One partition results in the Carnapian continuum of inductive methods, the other resul

  6. Transplantation psychoneuroimmunology: building hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapheke, M M

    2000-06-01

    The research findings of psychoneuroimmunology have not yet been fully applied to the field of transplantation psychiatry. Though much study has been devoted to the impact of psychiatric disease on the immunosuppressed state and disease progression in HIV-related illness, little has yet been written on the immunology implications of psychiatric disturbances in the immunosuppressed post-transplant patient. Utilizing Medline literature searches to review relevant research data in psychoneuroimmunology and transplantation immunology, the author formulates and examines four transplantation psychoneuroimmunology hypotheses involving the potential impact of depression on post-transplant organ rejection, cancer, coronary artery disease, and infections. The author concludes that though major questions remain, it appears reasonable to include the impact of depression, and possibly other psychological states, among factors that may affect the net state of immunosuppression in transplant patients.

  7. Testing statistical hypotheses

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann, E L

    2005-01-01

    The third edition of Testing Statistical Hypotheses updates and expands upon the classic graduate text, emphasizing optimality theory for hypothesis testing and confidence sets. The principal additions include a rigorous treatment of large sample optimality, together with the requisite tools. In addition, an introduction to the theory of resampling methods such as the bootstrap is developed. The sections on multiple testing and goodness of fit testing are expanded. The text is suitable for Ph.D. students in statistics and includes over 300 new problems out of a total of more than 760. E.L. Lehmann is Professor of Statistics Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the recipient of honorary degrees from the University of Leiden, The Netherlands and the University of Chicago. He is the author of Elements of Large-Sample Theory and (with George Casella) he is also the author of Theory of Point Estimat...

  8. Exclusive Dealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, Chiara; Motta, Massimo; Rønde, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies a model whereby exclusive dealing (ED) can both promote investment and foreclose a more efficient supplier. Since ED promotes the incumbent seller's investment, the seller and the buyer realize a greater surplus from bilateral trade under exclusivity. Hence, the parties involved...

  9. Amerind taxonomy and testable hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichardo, M

    1998-06-01

    The acceptance of a 30,000 yr B.P. age for Valsequillo sets new parameters for hypotheses of Paleoindian entry into America. A review of Amerind taxonomy defines the early groups as Otamid-Sundadonts. Isolation in America led to an adaptive radiation that has implications for the origin and dispersal of Pithecanthropus.

  10. Testing statistical hypotheses of equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Wellek, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Equivalence testing has grown significantly in importance over the last two decades, especially as its relevance to a variety of applications has become understood. Yet published work on the general methodology remains scattered in specialists' journals, and for the most part, it focuses on the relatively narrow topic of bioequivalence assessment.With a far broader perspective, Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence provides the first comprehensive treatment of statistical equivalence testing. The author addresses a spectrum of specific, two-sided equivalence testing problems, from the

  11. INDIGENISM AND EXCLUSION

    OpenAIRE

    José Angel Vera Noriega

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARYThe objective of the work is to carry out an analysis of the Western vision of the indigenous towns from the four types of exclusion of which Focault speaks (1978) when he talks about madness. The Social exclusion or work exclusion, family exclusion or emotional affective exclusion, the symbolic or linguistic exclusion and the playful or images exclusion. It is a reflection and transformation of ideas that allows coexisting worlds playing the power game in where the most important thin...

  12. INDIGENISM AND EXCLUSION

    OpenAIRE

    José Angel Vera Noriega

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARYThe objective of the work is to carry out an analysis of the Western vision of the indigenous towns from the four types of exclusion of which Focault speaks (1978) when he talks about madness. The Social exclusion or work exclusion, family exclusion or emotional affective exclusion, the symbolic or linguistic exclusion and the playful or images exclusion. It is a reflection and transformation of ideas that allows coexisting worlds playing the power game in where the most important thin...

  13. Construal Level and Social Exclusion: Concrete Thinking Impedes Recovery From Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Lermer, Eva; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-01-01

    Social exclusion is a painful experience. Recent research has shown, however, that coping with exclusion can be facilitated by favorable conditions. In the current research, we investigated whether construal level affects recovery from social exclusion. We hypothesized that an abstract vs. concrete mindset would moderate coping with exclusion. Indeed, lower compared to higher concrete thinking (Study 1) and abstract compared to concrete thinking (Study 2) bolstered the basic need of belonging when excluded. Priming of abstract thinking, moreover, increased participants' sense of belonging both in response to exclusion and inclusion relative to no priming (Study 3). Our results are the first to establish a relationship between construal level and social exclusion, thereby suggesting an alleviating "abstraction discount" effect for the consequences of social exclusion.

  14. Social exclusion and pain sensitivity: why exclusion sometimes hurts and sometimes numbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Michael J; Claypool, Heather M

    2012-02-01

    Some research indicates that social exclusion leads to increased emotional- and physical-pain sensitivity, whereas other work indicates that exclusion causes emotional- and physical-pain numbing. This research sought to examine what causes these opposing outcomes. In Study 1, the paradigm used to instantiate social exclusion was found to moderate the social exclusion-physical pain relation: Future-life exclusion led to a numbing of physical pain whereas Cyberball exclusion led to hypersensitivity. Study 2 examined the underlying mechanism, which was hypothesized to be the severity of the "social injury." Participants were subjected to either the standard future-life exclusion manipulation (purported to be a highly severe social injury) or a newly created, less-severe version. Supporting our hypothesis, the standard (highly severe) future-life exclusion led to physical-pain numbing, whereas the less-severe future-life exclusion resulted in hypersensitivity. Implications of these results for understanding the exclusion-pain relation and other exclusion effects are discussed.

  15. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  16. INDIGENISM AND EXCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Angel Vera Noriega

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYThe objective of the work is to carry out an analysis of the Western vision of the indigenous towns from the four types of exclusion of which Focault speaks (1978 when he talks about madness. The Social exclusion or work exclusion, family exclusion or emotional affective exclusion, the symbolic or linguistic exclusion and the playful or images exclusion. It is a reflection and transformation of ideas that allows coexisting worlds playing the power game in where the most important thing is not the one who wins or that loses, but the imagination and the creativity to modify the order of the rules and norms for that power game. It is discussed and it is exemplified about the territory concept, medicine and religion. It is discussed in terms of fairness policies and equality in a pertinent and relevant dialog for the construction of possible alliances.

  17. Quantitative linking hypotheses for infant eye movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yurovsky

    Full Text Available The study of cognitive development hinges, largely, on the analysis of infant looking. But analyses of eye gaze data require the adoption of linking hypotheses: assumptions about the relationship between observed eye movements and underlying cognitive processes. We develop a general framework for constructing, testing, and comparing these hypotheses, and thus for producing new insights into early cognitive development. We first introduce the general framework--applicable to any infant gaze experiment--and then demonstrate its utility by analyzing data from a set of experiments investigating the role of attentional cues in infant learning. The new analysis uncovers significantly more structure in these data, finding evidence of learning that was not found in standard analyses and showing an unexpected relationship between cue use and learning rate. Finally, we discuss general implications for the construction and testing of quantitative linking hypotheses. MATLAB code for sample linking hypotheses can be found on the first author's website.

  18. DISE: directed sphere exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, Alberto; Lee, Man-Ling

    2003-01-01

    The Sphere Exclusion algorithm is a well-known algorithm used to select diverse subsets from chemical-compound libraries or collections. It can be applied with any given distance measure between two structures. It is popular because of the intuitive geometrical interpretation of the method and its good performance on large data sets. This paper describes Directed Sphere Exclusion (DISE), a modification of the Sphere Exclusion algorithm, which retains all positive properties of the Sphere Exclusion algorithm but generates a more even distribution of the selected compounds in the chemical space. In addition, the computational requirement is significantly reduced, thus it can be applied to very large data sets.

  19. Reconciling Mechanistic Hypotheses About Rhizosphere Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W.

    2016-12-01

    Rhizosphere priming on soil organic matter decomposition has emerged as a key mechanism regulating biogeochemnical cycling of carbon, nitrogen and other elements from local to global scales. The level of the rhizosphere priming effect on decomposition rates can be comparable to the levels of controls from soil temperature and moisture conditions. However, our understanding on mechanisms responsible for rhizosphere priming remains rudimentary and controversial. The following individual hypotheses have been postulated in the published literature: (1) microbial activation, (2) microbial community succession, (3) aggregate turnover, (4) nitrogen mining, (5) nutrient competition, (6) preferential substrate utilization, and (7) drying-rewetting. Meshing these hypotheses with existing empirical evidence tends to support a general conclusion: each of these 7 hypotheses represents an aspect of the overall rhizosphere priming complex while the relative contribution by each individual aspect varies depending on the actual plant-soil conditions across time and space.

  20. Bayesian evaluation of inequality constrained hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xin; Mulder, Joris; Deković, Maja; Hoijtink, Herbert

    2014-12-01

    Bayesian evaluation of inequality constrained hypotheses enables researchers to investigate their expectations with respect to the structure among model parameters. This article proposes an approximate Bayes procedure that can be used for the selection of the best of a set of inequality constrained hypotheses based on the Bayes factor in a very general class of statistical models. The software package BIG is provided such that psychologists can use the approach proposed for the analysis of their own data. To illustrate the approximate Bayes procedure and the use of BIG, we evaluate inequality constrained hypotheses in a path model and a logistic regression model. Two simulation studies on the performance of our approximate Bayes procedure show that it results in accurate Bayes factors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Explaining Social Exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers; Cok Vrooman

    2007-01-01

    Although social exclusion has become a key issue on the European policy agenda in recent years, both the social phenomena the term refers to and the best way to monitor these remain unclear. In response to this, we developed a conceptual model for social exclusion and a methodology for its empirical

  2. Validating Inductive Hypotheses by Mode Inference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志坚

    1993-01-01

    Sme criteria based on mode inference for validating inductive hypotheses are presented in this paper.Mode inference is caried out mechanically,thus such kind of validation can result in low overhead in consistency check and high efficiency in performance.

  3. Testing inequality constrained hypotheses in SEM Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Schoot, R.; Hoijtink, H.J.A.; Dekovic, M.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers often have expectations that can be expressed in the form of inequality constraints among the parameters of a structural equation model. It is currently not possible to test these so-called informative hypotheses in structural equation modeling software. We offer a solution to this probl

  4. Bayesian evaluation of inequality constrained hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, X.; Mulder, J.; Deković, M.; Hoijtink, H.

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian evaluation of inequality constrained hypotheses enables researchers to investigate their expectations with respect to the structure among model parameters. This article proposes an approximate Bayes procedure that can be used for the selection of the best of a set of inequality constrained

  5. Biological hypotheses and biomarkers of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigitova, Ekaterina; Fišar, Zdeněk; Hroudová, Jana; Cikánková, Tereza; Raboch, Jiří

    2017-02-01

    The most common mood disorders are major depressive disorders and bipolar disorders (BD). The pathophysiology of BD is complex, multifactorial, and not fully understood. Creation of new hypotheses in the field gives impetus for studies and for finding new biomarkers for BD. Conversely, new biomarkers facilitate not only diagnosis of a disorder and monitoring of biological effects of treatment, but also formulation of new hypotheses about the causes and pathophysiology of the BD. BD is characterized by multiple associations between disturbed brain development, neuroplasticity, and chronobiology, caused by: genetic and environmental factors; defects in apoptotic, immune-inflammatory, neurotransmitter, neurotrophin, and calcium-signaling pathways; oxidative and nitrosative stress; cellular bioenergetics; and membrane or vesicular transport. Current biological hypotheses of BD are summarized, including related pathophysiological processes and key biomarkers, which have been associated with changes in genetics, systems of neurotransmitter and neurotrophic factors, neuroinflammation, autoimmunity, cytokines, stress axis activity, chronobiology, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunctions. Here we also discuss the therapeutic hypotheses and mechanisms of the switch between depressive and manic state.

  6. Singularity hypotheses a scientific and philosophical assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Moor, James; Søraker, Johnny; Steinhart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment offers authoritative, jargon-free essays and critical commentaries on accelerating technological progress and the notion of technological singularity. It focuses on conjectures about the intelligence explosion, transhumanism, and whole brain emulation. Recent years have seen a plethora of forecasts about the profound, disruptive impact that is likely to result from further progress in these areas. Many commentators however doubt the scientific rigor of these forecasts, rejecting them as speculative and unfounded. We therefore invited prominent computer scientists, physicists, philosophers, biologists, economists and other thinkers to assess the singularity hypotheses. Their contributions go beyond speculation, providing deep insights into the main issues and a balanced picture of the debate.

  7. On Enthusiasm in Politics: 12 Hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Romitelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author suggests twelve hypothesis to revive enthusiasm as a political category and, finally, to restate the possibility of political action. The enthusiasm of the masses was in this perspective the essential political element of ''The Glorious Thirties'' following the Second War World, characterized by this tension to realize a greater social justice. It would have been also at the base of the ''Long Sixty- eight'' and of the processes of decolonization. Enthusiasm is thus thought in opposition both to the monopolistic pretension of political innovation forwarded by communist parties in the past and to the exclusive competence on political-economical decisions claimed today by democratic élite. Rethinking the enthusiasm that animated these historic sequences of the Twentieth century should offer the possibility to respond to «the sad passions» that dominate the era of neoliberal administration of global democracy.

  8. Etiopathogenesis of catatonia: generalizations and working hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhossche, Dirk M; Stoppelbein, Laura; Rout, Ujjwal K

    2010-12-01

    Catatonia has been rediscovered over the last 2 decades as a unique syndrome that consists of specific motor signs with a characteristic and uniform response to benzodiazepines and electroconvulsive therapy. Further inquiry into its developmental, environmental, psychological, and biological underpinnings is warranted. In this review, medical catatonia models of motor circuitry dysfunction, abnormal neurotransmitters, epilepsy, genetic risk factors, endocrine dysfunction, and immune abnormalities are discussed. Developmental, environmental, and psychological risk factors for catatonia are currently unknown. The following hypotheses need to be tested: neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a drug-induced form of malignant catatonia; Prader-Willi syndrome is a clinical GABAergic genetic-endocrine model of catatonia; Kleine-Levin syndrome represents a periodic form of adolescent catatonia; and anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune type of catatonia.

  9. Dental Hypotheses: Seeks to Publish Hypotheses from All Areas of Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward F. Rossomando

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting a new open access journal in a rapid growing scientific panorama is a severe challenge. However, the first issue of dental hypotheses is now history and the even skeptics can appreciate that dental hypotheses is a success - it is a journal of high quality that provides an outlet for publication of articles that encourage readers to question dental paradigms. But dental hypotheses readers might have noticed that the majority of the articles published in the first issue of dental hypotheses concern clinical dentistry. However, dental hypotheses editors recognize that there are many other areas in dentistry that present challenges and that our readers may offer suggestions for their solution. Some of these challenges relate to: dental education; digital dental technology; teledentistry and access to dental care; dental practice issues, such as, dental office design, dental office management, the slow rate of acceptance of innovative technology in the dental office; and issues related to innovation and dental entrepreneurship including intellectual property protection. Nevertheless, the dental profession faces many challenges - in many areas - and with the publication of dental hypotheses our profession has a venue for presentation of possible solutions. If you have developed a hypothesis that might help, please share it with your colleagues. As many have noted, the intellectual power of the global village in which we now live is formidable. The internet has provided the technology to bring us together and dental hypotheses has provided the venue. Please use it. New radical, speculative and non-mainstream scientific ideas are always welcome.

  10. Dimensions of social exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stella Hoff; Cok Vrooman

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Dimensies van sociale uitsluiting SCP has carried out research since 2004 on the occurrence and causes of social exclusion, both among the Dutch population as a whole and within certain groups (the elderly, children). The questionnaire used for this has been regularly updated

  11. Ombuds' Corner: Social exclusion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN bulletin

    2012-01-01

    In this special video edition of the Ombuds' Corner, Ombudsman Vincent Vuillemin takes a look at a social exclusion at CERN. Please note that the characters and situations appearing in this work are fictitious, and any resemblance to real persons or events is purely coincidental.

  12. Social exclusion of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annette Roest; Anne Marike Lokhorst; Cok Vrooman

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Sociale uitsluiting bij kinderen. Combating social exclusion of children is a subject that has received growing attention in Dutch government policy in recent years. To date, however, no analysis has been performed to ascertain the extent and origins of this phenomenon. This report

  13. Exclusive Production at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Marek

    2016-01-01

    I briefly introduce so-called central exclusive production. I mainly focus on the example analyses that have been performed in the CMS experiment at CERN. I conclude with ideas and perspectives for future work that will be done during Run 2 of the LHC. I pay special attention to the ultraperipheral collisions.

  14. Ombuds' Corner: Social exclusion

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this special video edition of the Ombuds' Corner, Vincent Vuillemin takes a look at a social exclusion at CERN. Please note that the characters and situations appearing in this work are fictitious, and any resemblance to real persons or events is purely coincidental.   Contact the Ombuds Early!

  15. Social Exclusion Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    Social exclusion anxiety is a term, which builds on a social-psychological concept of human beings as existentially dependent on social embeddedness. This entry unfolds the concept in relation to bullying among children, which is a widespread and serious problem in schools and institutions....

  16. Hypotheses testing for fuzzy robust regression parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, Kamile Sanli [Ahi Evran University, Department of Mathematics, 40200 Kirsehir (Turkey)], E-mail: sanli2004@hotmail.com; Apaydin, Aysen [Ankara University, Department of Statistics, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: apaydin@science.ankara.edu.tr

    2009-11-30

    The classical least squares (LS) method is widely used in regression analysis because computing its estimate is easy and traditional. However, LS estimators are very sensitive to outliers and to other deviations from basic assumptions of normal theory [Huynh H. A comparison of four approaches to robust regression. Psychol Bull 1982;92:505-12; Stephenson D. 2000. Available from: (http://folk.uib.no/ngbnk/kurs/notes/node38.html); Xu R, Li C. Multidimensional least-squares fitting with a fuzzy model. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 2001;119:215-23.]. If there exists outliers in the data set, robust methods are preferred to estimate parameters values. We proposed a fuzzy robust regression method by using fuzzy numbers when x is crisp and Y is a triangular fuzzy number and in case of outliers in the data set, a weight matrix was defined by the membership function of the residuals. In the fuzzy robust regression, fuzzy sets and fuzzy regression analysis was used in ranking of residuals and in estimation of regression parameters, respectively [Sanli K, Apaydin A. Fuzzy robust regression analysis based on the ranking of fuzzy sets. Inernat. J. Uncertainty Fuzziness and Knowledge-Based Syst 2008;16:663-81.]. In this study, standard deviation estimations are obtained for the parameters by the defined weight matrix. Moreover, we propose another point of view in hypotheses testing for parameters.

  17. NEET and Youth Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Mihai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and social exclusion represent one of the most important themes in contemporary social policy both in UE countries and the rest of the world. In order to combat this and to improve the inclusion rate among NEET youth the social policies need to be channeled in three directions: education, training and employment. This study allows us a broad view of the proposed policies based on the analysis of this indicator.

  18. The psychology of exclusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Jollimore

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Friendship and romantic love are, by their very nature, exclusive relationships. This paper suggests that we can better understand the nature of the exclusivity in question by understanding what is wrong with the view of practical reasoning I call the Comprehensive Surveyor View. The CSV claims that practical reasoning, in order to be rational, must be a process of choosing the best available alternative from a perspective that is as detached and objective as possible. But this view, while it means to be neutral between various value-bearers, in fact incorporates a bias against those value-bearers that can only be appreciated from a perspective that is not detached—that can only be appreciated, for instance, by agents who bear long-term commitments to the values in question. In the realm of personal relationships, such commitments tend to give rise to the sort of exclusivity that characterizes friendship and romantic love; they prevent the agent from being impartial between her beloved’s needs, interests, etc., and those of other persons. In such contexts, I suggest, needs and claims of other persons may be silenced in much the way that, as John McDowell has suggested, the temptations of immorality are silenced for the virtuous agent.

  19. Vertical nystagmus: clinical facts and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, C; Milea, D

    2005-06-01

    hypoactive after pontine or caudal medullary lesions, thereby eliciting UBN, and hyperactive after floccular lesions, thereby eliciting DBN. Lastly, since gravity influences UBN and DBN and may facilitate the downward vestibular system and restrain the upward vestibular system, it is hypothesized that the excitatory SVN-VTT pathway, along with its specific floccular inhibition, has developed to counteract the gravity pull. This anatomical hyperdevelopment is apparently associated with a physiological upward velocity bias, since the gain of all upward slow eye movements is greater than that of downward slow eye movements in normal human subjects and in monkeys.

  20. Individual choice and social exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Why is social exclusion a problem? What about ‘voluntary’ social exclusion – when an individual chooses to exclude him or herself from the wider society? Brain Barry has addressed these questions in a recent CASE book, arguing that social exclusion, voluntary or involuntary, offends against social justice and social solidarity. This paper contends that Barry’s arguments are weak for voluntary social exclusion and argues that, perhaps surprisingly, a better case can be made for treating volunt...

  1. Competition for nutrient and light: stable coexistence, alternative stable states, or competitive exclusion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passarge, J.; Hol, S.; Escher, M.; Huisman, J.

    2006-01-01

    Competition theory has put forward three contrasting hypotheses: Competition for nutrients and light may lead to (i) stable coexistence of species, (ii) alternative stable states, or (iii) competitive exclusion. This paper presents a detailed investigation of competition among phytoplankton species

  2. Competition for nutrients and light: Stable coexistence, alternative stable states or competitive exclusion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passarge, J.; Hol, S.; Escher, M.; Huisman, J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Competition theory has put forward three contrasting hypotheses: Competition for nutrients and light may lead to (i) stable coexistence of species, (ii) alternative stable states, or (iii) competitive exclusion. This paper presents a detailed investigation of competition among phytoplankto

  3. Social exclusion and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is a process whereby certain individuals are pushed to the edge of society and prevented from participating fully by virtue of their poverty, or lack of basic competencies and lifelong learning opportunities or as a result of discrimination. This distances them from job, income and education opportunities as well as social and community networks and activities. Quality education (conditions and access/accessibility/availability is one of the factors that significantly influence the reduced social exclusion. In other words, education has is key role key role in ensuring social inclusion (equal opportunities and active social participation. At the same time, education and lifelong learning is established as the basis for achieving the goals of sustainable economic development (economy based on knowledge and to achieve social cohesion. Quality education is a prerequisite for progress, development and well-being of the community. Conditions and accessibility to education have become priorities of national reforms in most European countries. The subject of this paper is the educational structure of population of Serbia and the accessibility of education. The analysis covers the educational structure with regard to age, gender and type of settlement (city and other/villages settlements.

  4. Social exclusion in finite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2015-04-01

    Social exclusion, keeping free riders from benefit sharing, plays an important role in sustaining cooperation in our world. Here we propose two different exclusion regimes, namely, peer exclusion and pool exclusion, to investigate the evolution of social exclusion in finite populations. In the peer exclusion regime, each excluder expels all the defectors independently, and thus bears the total cost on his own, while in the pool exclusion regime, excluders spontaneously form an institution to carry out rejection of the free riders, and each excluder shares the cost equally. In a public goods game containing only excluders and defectors, it is found that peer excluders outperform pool excluders if the exclusion costs are small, and the situation is converse once the exclusion costs exceed some critical points, which holds true for all the selection intensities and different update rules. Moreover, excluders can dominate the whole population under a suitable parameters range in the presence of second-order free riders (cooperators), showing that exclusion has prominent advantages over common costly punishment. More importantly, our finding indicates that the group exclusion mechanism helps the cooperative union to survive under unfavorable conditions. Our results may give some insights into better understanding the prevalence of such a strategy in the real world and its significance in sustaining cooperation.

  5. Researching Homelessness: Challenging Exclusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel Anderson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This themed issue of Social Inclusion provides a timely opportunity to reflect on how contemporary research is addressing the multi-dimensional issue of homelessness around the world. The papers presented here provide a wide range of new evidence on homelessness including theoretical, methodological and empirical contributions. They draw on a range of national experiences in Europe and beyond, and addressing the issue of social inclusion and social exclusion of homeless or previously homeless people from a range of perspectives and approaches. It is hoped that the contributions to this themed issue will prove influential in terms of both scholarship and potential to enhance policy making and service delivery to some of our most excluded citizens.

  6. Social exclusion anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    ’ (Barad 2007). My definition in this chapter contributed to the shorter definition of bullying in the Introduction (see page XX), but it is more fully developed here in relation to the types of mechanisms and processes involved. Barad’s term ‘intra-action’ helps draw attention to the mutually......The purpose of this chapter is to introduce a thinking technology that will foster a deeper understanding of some of the more complicated social processes that emerge in the day-to-day functioning of a school classroom, with a particular focus on the interactions that culminate in bullying...... . The concepts I work with are the need for belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults. I develop a new definition of bullying, drawing upon Judith Butler’s (1999) concept of ‘abjection’ as well as Karen Barad’s concept of ‘intra-acting forces...

  7. Whatever? The effect of social exclusion on adopting persuasive messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Aydin, Nilüfer; Frey, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    The aversive state of social exclusion can result in a broad range of cognitive deficits. Being unable or unmotivated to process relevant information, we assumed that social exclusion would also affect the success of persuasive attempts. We hypothesized that socially excluded people would adopt attitudes regardless of persuasion quality. In three studies using different manipulations of social exclusion and persuasion, we showed that participants who were socially excluded adopted persuasive messages regardless of argument quality. In contrast, this undifferentiated response was not shown by socially included participants who were more persuaded by high- compared to low-quality arguments. In Study 3, we moreover revealed that this pattern could only be replicated in reliable situations-that is, when the communicator appeared credible. These findings support the assumption that social exclusion can lead to reduced processing of information.

  8. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C

    2015-01-01

    the plausibility of the suggested etiologic hypotheses on a scale of 1 (very implausible) to 10 (very plausible). This report describes the methodology of the survey, the score distributions by individual hypotheses, hypothesis group, and the participants' major research fields, and discuss the hypotheses......Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops...

  9. Exclusion performance and learning by exclusion in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaine, Isabela; Domeniconi, Camila; de Rose, Julio C

    2016-05-01

    Responding by exclusion is a type of emergent repertoire in which an individual chooses an alternative by the apparent exclusion of other available alternatives. In this case it is possible to respond appropriately to an undefined stimulus (one that has not previously acquired discriminative functions) by excluding the defined alternatives. There is evidence of exclusion in humans and nonhuman animals, although learning as an outcome of exclusion does not always occur. This study aimed to investigate exclusion in visual simple discriminations and learning of new simple discriminations resulting from exclusion in four border collies. Subjects were trained to perform simple simultaneous discriminations between pairs of tridimensional objects, and were then tested for exclusion, novelty control and learning of new simple discriminations. All dogs successfully responded by exclusion, choosing an undefined stimulus displayed with an S-. For three dogs, it was possible to conclude that these previously undefined stimuli acquired S+ functions, documenting learning of new simple discriminations. However, this required up to four exposures to exclusion trials with each pair of stimuli.

  10. Exclusive meson production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Sznajder, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we summarize recent measurements of exclusive meson production performed by the COMPASS Collaboration. In particular, recent results on the transverse target spin asymmetries for exclusive r 0 production are presented. Some of these asymmetries are sensitive to the GPDs E , which are related to the orbital angular momentum of quarks. Other asymmetries are sensitive to the chiral-odd, transverse GPDs H T . Measurements of exclusive processes, which are a part of the COMPASS-II proposal, are also discussed

  11. Pearce element ratios: A paradigm for testing hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J. K.; Nicholls, Jim; Stanley, Clifford R.; Pearce, T. H.

    Science moves forward with the development of new ideas that are encapsulated by hypotheses whose aim is to explain the structure of data sets or to expand existing theory. These hypotheses remain conjecture until they have been tested. In fact, Karl Popper advocated that a scientist's job does not finish with the creation of an idea but, rather, begins with the testing of the related hypotheses. In Popper's [1959] advocation it is implicit that there be tools with which we can test our hypotheses. Consequently, the development of rigorous tests for conceptual models plays a major role in maintaining the integrity of scientific endeavor [e.g., Greenwood, 1989].

  12. Exclusion Statistics: a Generalized Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-Quan; WANG Yu-Peng

    2005-01-01

    @@ By constructing the fused-particle representation of the free boson gas, we propose a description of the exclusion statistics which allows us to connect the Bose-Einstein statistics and the Fermi-Dirac statistics smoothly.With an proper choice of the exclusion factors γl, Hadane-Wu's fractional statistics is retrieved in this representation.

  13. Testing hypotheses for differences between linear regression lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2009-01-01

    Five hypotheses are identified for testing differences between simple linear regression lines. The distinctions between these hypotheses are based on a priori assumptions and illustrated with full and reduced models. The contrast approach is presented as an easy and complete method for testing for overall differences between the regressions and for making pairwise...

  14. In silico generation of alternative hypotheses using causal mapping (CMAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel E Weinreb

    Full Text Available Previously, we introduced causal mapping (CMAP as an easy to use systems biology tool for studying the behavior of biological processes that occur at the cellular and molecular level. CMAP is a coarse-grained graphical modeling approach in which the system of interest is modeled as an interaction map between functional elements of the system, in a manner similar to portrayals of signaling pathways commonly used by molecular cell biologists. CMAP describes details of the interactions while maintaining the simplicity of other qualitative methods (e.g., Boolean networks.In this paper, we use the CMAP methodology as a tool for generating hypotheses about the mechanisms that regulate molecular and cellular systems. Furthermore, our approach allows competing hypotheses to be ranked according to a fitness index and suggests experimental tests to distinguish competing high fitness hypotheses. To motivate the CMAP as a hypotheses generating tool and demonstrate the methodology, we first apply this protocol to a simple test-case of a three-element signaling module. Our methods are next applied to the more complex phenomenon of cortical oscillations observed in spreading cells. This analysis produces two high fitness hypotheses for the mechanism that underlies this dynamic behavior and suggests experiments to distinguish the hypotheses. The method can be widely applied to other cellular systems to generate and compare alternative hypotheses based on experimentally observed data and using computer simulations.

  15. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C; Poole, C; Almstrup, K; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; McGlynn, K A

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term 'testicular cancer' and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail-based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate the plausibility of the suggested etiologic hypotheses on a scale of 1 (very implausible) to 10 (very plausible). This report describes the methodology of the survey, the score distributions by individual hypotheses, hypothesis group, and the participants' major research fields, and discuss the hypotheses that scored as most plausible. We also present plans for improving the survey that may be repeated at a next international meeting of experts in testicular cancer. Overall 52 of 99 (53%) registered participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop submitted the plausibility rating form. Fourteen of 27 hypotheses were related to exposures during pregnancy. Hypotheses with the highest mean plausibility ratings were either related to pre-natal exposures or exposures that might have an effect during pregnancy and in post-natal life. The results of the survey may be helpful for triggering more specific etiologic hypotheses that include factors related to endocrine disruption, DNA damage, inflammation, and nutrition during pregnancy. The survey results may stimulate a multidisciplinary discussion about new etiologic hypotheses of testicular cancer.

  16. Exclusive dimuon production with LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Shears, Tara

    2011-01-01

    We report on studies of exclusive dimuon production using LHCb experimental data. Exclusively produced muon pairs can be produced by two photon fusion (a QED process ideally suited to obtaining a precise integrated luminosity measure), or through resonances produced by pomeron-photon fusion or double pomeron exchange.We present cross-section measurements for exclusive dimuon production, and the first observations at a proton-proton collider of exclusive J/psi, psi’ and chi_c states, obtained with 37 pb-1 of data at centre of mass energy of 7 TeV. The resolution of the LHCb detectors allow the chic0, chic1 and chic2 states to be separated. We compare our results to theoretical predictions.

  17. Exclusive Rights and State Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    kinds of terms are regulated under State aid law which requires market terms. The granting of exclusive rights as compensation is analysed on the basis of the Eventech judgment, and it is found that when no financial transaction is included in the grant, it resembles a decision to organise a market......Exclusive rights are granted in order to regulate markets as one of several possible tools of public intervention. The article considers the role of State aid law in the regulation of exclusive rights. Whereas the right of Member States to organise markets as monopolies and the choice of provider...... are regulated by free movement rules and Article 106 TFEU, State aid law regulates the terms of the right to ensure that the beneficiary is not granted an economic advantage. Exclusive rights may be granted on various terms: for a payment, in combination with compensation or as compensation. The two former...

  18. Estimating the Proportion of True Null Hypotheses for Multiple Comparisons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hongmei Jiang; RW Doerge

    2008-01-01

    ...) controlling procedures are too conservative. Although false discovery rate (FDR) procedures have been suggested as having greater power, the control itself is not exact and depends on the proportion of true null hypotheses...

  19. Social Reconnection Revisited: The Effects of Social Exclusion Risk on Reciprocity, Trust, and General Risk-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derfler-Rozin, Rellie; Pillutla, Madan; Thau, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that people at risk of exclusion from groups will engage in actions that can socially reconnect them with others and test the hypothesis in four studies. We show that participants at risk of exclusion reciprocated the behavior of an unknown person (Study 1a) and a potential excluder (Study 1b) more compared to two control groups…

  20. Social Reconnection Revisited: The Effects of Social Exclusion Risk on Reciprocity, Trust, and General Risk-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derfler-Rozin, Rellie; Pillutla, Madan; Thau, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that people at risk of exclusion from groups will engage in actions that can socially reconnect them with others and test the hypothesis in four studies. We show that participants at risk of exclusion reciprocated the behavior of an unknown person (Study 1a) and a potential excluder (Study 1b) more compared to two control groups…

  1. CMS results on exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    Khakzad, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    A search for exclusive or quasi-exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma \\rightarrow W^{+}W^{-}$ production, ${\\rm pp} \\rightarrow {\\rm p}^{(*)} W^{+}W^{-} {\\rm p}^{(*)} \\rightarrow {\\rm p}^{(*)} \\mu^{\\pm} {\\rm e}^{\\mp} {\\rm p}^{(*)}$, at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV (7 TeV) are reported using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 $\\rm {fb}^{-1}$ (5.5$\\rm {fb}^{-1}$), respectively. In this study, we look for any deviations that there might be from the Standard Model, and the results are used to set limits on the Anomalous Quartic Gauge Couplings. We also report a measurement of the exclusive production of pairs of charged pions in proton-proton collisions. The differential cross sections for $\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ pairs as a function of the pion pair invariant mass is measured and compared to several phenomenological predictions.

  2. Current hypotheses regarding the pathophysiology behind the takotsubo syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfors, Björn; Shao, Yangzhen; Ali, Anwar; Omerovic, Elmir

    2014-12-20

    Takotsubo syndrome is an increasingly recognized acute cardiac affliction which is characterized by severe regional left ventricular dysfunction that cannot be explained by one or more occlusive culprit lesions of a coronary artery. A preceding somatic and/or emotional stressor can be identified in a majority of these patients and older women are overrepresented among the afflicted. Catecholamine levels are elevated in patients with takotsubo and exogenous catecholamine administration may cause or exacerbate the condition. Hence, catecholamines appear implicated in the pathogenesis. However, beyond catecholamine the pathogenesis of the takotsubo syndrome is unclear. Five distinct hypotheses have been postulated which attempt to explain why specific regions within the left ventricle are affected in takotsubo. In this manuscript we critically review these hypotheses in light of the available data. We discuss how the different hypotheses may be complementary to each other and to which extent they are contradicting one another.

  3. Illustrating Bayesian evaluation of informative hypotheses for regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouck eKluytmans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we illustrate the Bayesian evaluation of informative hypotheses for regression models. This approach allows psychologists to more directly test their theories than they would using conventional statis- tical analyses. Throughout this paper, both real-world data and simulated datasets will be introduced and evaluated to investigate the pragmatical as well as the theoretical qualities of the approach. We will pave the way from forming informative hypotheses in the context of regression models to interpreting the Bayes factors that express the support for the hypotheses being evaluated. In doing so, the present approach goes beyond p-values and uninformative null hypothesis testing, moving on to informative testing and quantification of model support in a way that is accessible to everyday psychologists.

  4. 36 CFR 907.10 - Categorical exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 907.10... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.10 Categorical exclusion. The CEQ Regulations provide for the categorical exclusion... administrative operations of the Corporation. (b) List of categorical exclusions. Categories of...

  5. 42 CFR 1002.203 - Mandatory exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mandatory exclusion. 1002.203 Section 1002.203... AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-STATE-INITIATED EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICAID Mandatory Exclusion § 1002.203 Mandatory exclusion. (a) The State agency, in order to receive Federal financial participation (FFP),...

  6. Exclusive meson production at NLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, M.; Kugler, W.

    2007-06-15

    We report on numerical studies of the NLO corrections to exclusive meson electroproduction, both in collider and fixed-target kinematics. Corrections are found to be huge at small x{sub B} and moderate at intermediate or large x{sub B}. (orig.)

  7. University Ranking as Social Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Sarah S.; Bolsmann, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore the dual role of global university rankings in the creation of a new, knowledge-identified, transnational capitalist class and in facilitating new forms of social exclusion. We examine how and why the practice of ranking universities has become widely defined by national and international organisations as an important…

  8. Social exclusion in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers

    2004-01-01

    Original title: Sociale uitsluiting. This study seeks to provide a greater insight into the situation of citizens for whom 'taking part' is a problem, in other words who are victims of social exclusion. In order to expose this problem adequately, it is first important to make clear how the

  9. Exclusive meson production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Pochodzalla, J; Moinester, M A; Piller, G; Sandacz, A; Vanderhaeghen, M; Pochodzalla, Josef; Mankiewicz, Lech; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    1999-01-01

    We explore the feasibility to study exclusive meson production (EMP) in hard muon-proton scattering at the COMPASS experiment. These measurements constrain the off-forward parton distributions (OFPD's) of the proton, which are related to the quark orbital contribution to the proton spin.

  10. Toward Valid Measurement of Stephen Pepper's World Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, John A.

    Two measures of the "world hypotheses" of Stephen Pepper were mailed to 100 sociobiologists, 87 behaviorists, 79 personality psychologists, and 45 human developmentalists. The World Hypothesis Scale (WHS) was designed to measure Pepper's four world views: (1) formism; (2) mechanism; (3) organicism; and (4) contextualism. The Organicism-Mechanism…

  11. Testing some common tennis hypotheses: Four years at Wimbledon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnus, J.R.; Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the truth (more often the untruth) of seventeen commonly heard statements about tennis. We base our analysis on point-by-point data of almost 500 singles matches played at Wimbledon, 1992-1995. The seventeen hypotheses under consideration are: 1 A player is as good as

  12. Testing some common tennis hypotheses : Four years at Wimbledon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnus, J.R.; Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the truth (more often the untruth) of seventeen commonly heard statements about tennis.We base our analysis on point-by-point data of almost 500 singles matches played at Wimbledon, 1992-1995.The seventeen hypotheses under consideration are: 1 A player is as good as

  13. Review of hypotheses for fouling during beer clarification using membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mepschen, A.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Vollebregt, H.M.; Noordman, T.R.

    2012-01-01

    Hypotheses concerning the fouling of membranes during beer clarification via crossflow microfiltration are reviewed. Beer has been classified into three groups of components, each having a different kind of fouling mechanisms – but also having interactions with other modes of fouling. The membrane f

  14. Deficiency in the Opioid Hypotheses of Self-Injurious Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bryan H.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This commentary critiques two papers by Curt Sandman, pointing out interpretive problems in models explaining self-injurious behavior in terms of opioids. Withdrawal effects are emphasized as an alternative to hypotheses asserting congenital opioid excess as a cause of sensory depression or an addiction to a relative excess of opioid activity in…

  15. Relative effects at work : Bayes factors for order hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeken, J.; Mulder, J.; Wood, S.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the relative importance of predictors has been of historical importance in a variety of disciplines including management, medicine, economics, and psychology. When approaching hypotheses on the relative ordering of the magnitude of predicted effects (e.g., the effects of discrimination fro

  16. The Female Register: An Empirical Study of Lakoff's Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Faye; Nyquist, Linda

    1977-01-01

    The data support Lakoff's hypotheses that the female register is used more by women than by men, although they do not necessarily justify her further assertion that women's speech reflects, or is caused by, the low status of women in our society. (Author/HP)

  17. Editorial: hypotheses about protein folding - the proteomic code and wonderfolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agutter Paul S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Theoretical biology journals can contribute in many ways to the progress of knowledge. They are particularly well-placed to encourage dialogue and debate about hypotheses addressing problematical areas of research. An online journal provides an especially useful forum for such debate because of the option of posting comments within days of the publication of a contentious article.

  18. The response of rodents to scent marks: four broad hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkin, Michael H

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Many terrestrial mammals must be able to distinguish between the myriad of scent marks they encounter in order for them to facilitate or deter direct interactions with their scent donors. I review studies that examine how rodents, mainly meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), respond when they encounter the scent marks of conspecifics and heterospecifics, and how context, as well as the age and condition of senders and receivers, affect their responses. The review uses four broad hypotheses to discuss the response of rodents to scent marks. The four hypotheses are as follows: 1) Scent marks convey accurate information to the receiver about the sender's state and phenotype and genotype. 2) Scent marks are individually distinct. 3) The response of receivers to scent marks is flexible and would be modulated by the cognitive abilities of receivers. 4) Receivers respond to the information contained or conveyed by the scent mark in a manner that will increase their survival and fitness. The studies cited in this review show that scent marks signal accurate information about the sender's phenotype, genotype, and condition, which receivers use to distinguish among the scent marks of different conspecifics and heterospecifics, and by doing so, receivers tailor their response accordingly to increase their survival and fitness. Thus, the four broad hypotheses may serve as guide to increase our understanding of the response of receivers to scent marks and provide a conceptual framework for future research and the development of additional hypotheses.

  19. Testing some common tennis hypotheses: Four years at Wimbledon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnus, J.R.; Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the truth (more often the untruth) of seventeen commonly heard statements about tennis. We base our analysis on point-by-point data of almost 500 singles matches played at Wimbledon, 1992-1995. The seventeen hypotheses under consideration are: 1 A player is as good as hi

  20. Testing some common tennis hypotheses : Four years at Wimbledon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnus, J.R.; Klaassen, F.J.G.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the truth (more often the untruth) of seventeen commonly heard statements about tennis.We base our analysis on point-by-point data of almost 500 singles matches played at Wimbledon, 1992-1995.The seventeen hypotheses under consideration are: 1 A player is as good as his/

  1. Global trends in exclusive breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Xiaodong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant and young child feeding is critical for child health and survival. Proportion of infants 0–5 months who are fed exclusively with breast milk is a common indicator used for monitoring and evaluating infant and young child feeding in a given country and region. Despite progress made since 1990, a previous review in 2006 of global and regional trends found improvement to be modest. The current study provides an update in global and regional trends in exclusive breastfeeding from 1995 to 2010, taking advantage of the wealth of data from recent household surveys. Methods Using the global database of infant and young child feeding maintained by the United Nations Children’s Fund, the authors examined estimates from 440 household surveys in 140 countries over the period between 1995 and 2010 and calculated global and regional averages of the rate of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0–5 months for the two time points to assess the trends. Results Trend data suggest the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among infants younger than six months in developing countries increased from 33% in 1995 to 39% in 2010. The prevalence increased in almost all regions in the developing world, with the biggest improvement seen in West and Central Africa. Conclusions In spite of the well-recognized importance of exclusive breastfeeding, the practice is not widespread in the developing world and increase on the global level is still very modest with much room for improvement. Child nutrition programmes worldwide continue to require investments and commitments to improve infant feeding practices in order to have maximum impact on children’s lives.

  2. Evaluating Common Hypotheses for Violence in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    argue that lack of education and literacy diminishes the potential for employment and social mobility in modern economies and thus acts as an indirect...unemployment and the lack of social mobility as a key driver to delinquency, especially for young adult males.5 Some attribute increasing violence in... social alienation or exclusion from citizenship—as a result of poverty and economic inequality—as the primary cause of violence.7

  3. Causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines: Hypotheses and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, P.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of industrial-scale wind turbines are being built across the world each year to meet the growing demand for sustainable energy. Bats of certain species are dying at wind turbines in unprecedented numbers. Species of bats consistently affected by turbines tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years toward better understanding the problem, the causes of bat fatalities at turbines remain unclear. In this synthesis, we review hypothesized causes of bat fatalities at turbines. Hypotheses of cause fall into 2 general categoriesproximate and ultimate. Proximate causes explain the direct means by which bats die at turbines and include collision with towers and rotating blades, and barotrauma. Ultimate causes explain why bats come close to turbines and include 3 general types: random collisions, coincidental collisions, and collisions that result from attraction of bats to turbines. The random collision hypothesis posits that interactions between bats and turbines are random events and that fatalities are representative of the bats present at a site. Coincidental hypotheses posit that certain aspects of bat distribution or behavior put them at risk of collision and include aggregation during migration and seasonal increases in flight activity associated with feeding or mating. A surprising number of attraction hypotheses suggest that bats might be attracted to turbines out of curiosity, misperception, or as potential feeding, roosting, flocking, and mating opportunities. Identifying, prioritizing, and testing hypothesized causes of bat collisions with wind turbines are vital steps toward developing practical solutions to the problem. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  4. The evolution of parental care in insects: A test of current hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, James D J; Manica, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Which sex should care for offspring is a fundamental question in evolution. Invertebrates, and insects in particular, show some of the most diverse kinds of parental care of all animals, but to date there has been no broad comparative study of the evolution of parental care in this group. Here, we test existing hypotheses of insect parental care evolution using a literature-compiled phylogeny of over 2000 species. To address substantial uncertainty in the insect phylogeny, we use a brute force approach based on multiple random resolutions of uncertain nodes. The main transitions were between no care (the probable ancestral state) and female care. Male care evolved exclusively from no care, supporting models where mating opportunity costs for caring males are reduced—for example, by caring for multiple broods—but rejecting the “enhanced fecundity” hypothesis that male care is favored because it allows females to avoid care costs. Biparental care largely arose by males joining caring females, and was more labile in Holometabola than in Hemimetabola. Insect care evolution most closely resembled amphibian care in general trajectory. Integrating these findings with the wealth of life history and ecological data in insects will allow testing of a rich vein of existing hypotheses. PMID:25825047

  5. The evolution of parental care in insects: A test of current hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, James D J; Manica, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Which sex should care for offspring is a fundamental question in evolution. Invertebrates, and insects in particular, show some of the most diverse kinds of parental care of all animals, but to date there has been no broad comparative study of the evolution of parental care in this group. Here, we test existing hypotheses of insect parental care evolution using a literature-compiled phylogeny of over 2000 species. To address substantial uncertainty in the insect phylogeny, we use a brute force approach based on multiple random resolutions of uncertain nodes. The main transitions were between no care (the probable ancestral state) and female care. Male care evolved exclusively from no care, supporting models where mating opportunity costs for caring males are reduced-for example, by caring for multiple broods-but rejecting the "enhanced fecundity" hypothesis that male care is favored because it allows females to avoid care costs. Biparental care largely arose by males joining caring females, and was more labile in Holometabola than in Hemimetabola. Insect care evolution most closely resembled amphibian care in general trajectory. Integrating these findings with the wealth of life history and ecological data in insects will allow testing of a rich vein of existing hypotheses. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Should unfolded histograms be used to test hypotheses?

    CERN Document Server

    Cousins, Robert D; Sun, Yipeng

    2016-01-01

    In many analyses in high energy physics, attempts are made to remove the effects of detector smearing in data by techniques referred to as "unfolding" histograms, thus obtaining estimates of the true values of histogram bin contents. Such unfolded histograms are then compared to theoretical predictions, either to judge the goodness of fit of a theory, or to compare the abilities of two or more theories to describe the data. When doing this, even informally, one is testing hypotheses. However, a more fundamentally sound way to test hypotheses is to smear the theoretical predictions by simulating detector response and then comparing to the data without unfolding; this is also frequently done in high energy physics, particularly in searches for new physics. One can thus ask: to what extent does hypothesis testing after unfolding data materially reproduce the results obtained from testing by smearing theoretical predictions? We argue that this "bottom-line-test" of unfolding methods should be studied more commonl...

  7. On Brown's and Newton's methods with convexity hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaszewicz, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    In the context of the monotone Newton theorem (MNT) it has been conjectured that discretised Brown iterations converge at least as fast as discretised Newton iterations, because such is the case for analytic iterations. With easily verified hypotheses, it is proved here that Brown analytic iterations converge strictly faster than Newton ones. As a consequence, the same result holds for discretised iterations with conveniently small incremental steps. However, in the general context of the MNT, it may happen that Newton's discretised method converges faster than Brown's, but this situation can be remedied in many cases by conveniently shifting the initial value, so that those hypotheses ensuring the reverse are satisfied. Thus, a fairly effective solution is given to the problem stated initially.

  8. Dissolution of hypotheses in biochemistry: three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The history of biochemistry and molecular biology is replete with examples of erroneous theories that persisted for considerable lengths of time before they were rejected. This paper examines patterns of dissolution of three such erroneous hypotheses: The idea that nucleic acids are tetrads of the four nucleobases ('the tetranucleotide hypothesis'); the notion that proteins are collinear with their encoding genes in all branches of life; and the hypothesis that proteins are synthesized by reverse action of proteolytic enzymes. Analysis of these cases indicates that amassed contradictory empirical findings did not prompt critical experimental testing of the prevailing theories nor did they elicit alternative hypotheses. Rather, the incorrect models collapsed when experiments that were not purposely designed to test their validity exposed new facts.

  9. Furious Frederich: Nietzsche's neurosyphilis diagnosis and new hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Charles; Rios, André Rangel

    2015-12-01

    The causes of Friedrich Nietzsche's mental breakdown in early 1889 and of the subsequent slow decay to end-stage dementia along ten years will possibly remain open to debate. The diagnosis of syphilitic dementia paralytica, based only on medical anamnesis and physical examination, was considered indisputable by Otto Binswanger. On the other hand, taking into account recently described diseases, selectively collected evidence lend some support to alternative hypotheses: basal forebrain meningioma, CADASIL, MELAS and frontotemporal dementia.

  10. Lake Shorelines: Earth Analogs for Hypothesized Martian Coastal Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Williams, S. H.; Johnston, A. K.; Head, James W.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of oceans on Mars has generated a lot of interest in the science community, but conclusive evidence supporting or refuting the ocean hypothesis has remained somewhat elusive. Precise topographic measurements of fresh-appearing shorelines from glacial Lake Lahontan were collected recently in an effort to obtain well-constrained data for comparison with the hypothesized Martian shorelines. This report summarizes the first results of the on-going research project.

  11. Intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Ura, Mitsuhiro; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    People have a fundamental need to belong with others. Social exclusion impairs this need and has various effects on cognition, affect, and the behavior of excluded individuals. We have previously reported that activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) could be a neurocognitive index of social exclusion (Kawamoto et al., 2012). In this article, we provide an integrative framework for understanding occurrences during and after social exclusion, by reviewing neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies of dACC and rVLPFC, within the framework of intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion. As a result, we have indicated directions for future studies to further clarify the phenomenon of social exclusion from the following perspectives: (1) constructional elements of social exclusion, (2) detection sensitivity and interpretation bias in social exclusion, (3) development of new methods to assess the reactivity to social exclusion, and (4) sources of social exclusion.

  12. Montreal exclusivity versus EU law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current air law is a showcase of multilevel regulation. The rights and obligations of airlines and their passengers are governed both by the Montreal Convention and by EU Regulation 261/2004. The EU placed itself in a difficult position by adopting Regulation 261/2004 shortly after it had signed the Montreal Convention. Both instruments provide for different standards for liability. The issue is whether or not the rules in the Convention is exclusive.

  13. Gender, Marginalisation and Social Exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin

    The paper is focused on the fact that marginalisation and social exclusion are gender-related in the EU. Even when boys and girls experience the same kinds of strain and social inheritance, they react socially different. Likewise women and men are marginalised in different ways. The differing...... access to the five ressources: cultural, financial, mental, social and powerrelated resources is highlighted. It is demonstrated how gender involves living in different realities, and requires different solutions to create equal possibilities....

  14. Nanofluidic Size-Exclusion Chromatograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Sabrina; Svehla, Danielle; Grunthaner, Frank; Feldman, Jason; Shakkottai, P.

    2004-01-01

    Efforts are under way to develop a nanofluidic size-exclusion chromatograph (SEC), which would be a compact, robust, lightweight instrument for separating molecules of interest according to their sizes and measuring their relative abundances in small samples. About as large as a deck of playing cards, the nanofluidic SEC would serve, in effect, as a laboratory on a chip that would perform the functions of a much larger, conventional, bench-top SEC and ancillary equipment, while consuming much less power and much smaller quantities of reagent and sample materials. Its compactness and low power demand would render it attractive for field applications in which, typically, it would be used to identify and quantitate a broad range of polar and nonpolar organic compounds in soil, ice, and water samples. Size-exclusion chromatography is a special case of high-performance liquid chromatography. In a conventional SEC, a sample plug is driven by pressure along a column packed with silica or polymer beads that contain uniform nanopores. The interstices between, and the pores in, the beads collectively constitute a size-exclusion network. Molecules follow different paths through the size-exclusion network, such that characteristic elution times can be related to sizes of molecules: basically, smaller molecules reach the downstream end of the column after the larger ones do because the smaller ones enter minor pores and stay there for a while, whereas the larger ones do not enter the pores. The volume accessible to molecules gradually diminishes as their size increases. All molecules bigger than a pore size elute together. For most substances, the elution times and sizes of molecules can be correlated directly with molecular weights. Hence, by measuring the flux of molecules arriving at the downstream end as a function of time, one can obtain a liquid mass spectrum for the molecules present in a sample over a broad range of molecular weights.

  15. Evaluation of seven hypotheses for metamemory performance in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Benjamin M; Schroeder, Gabriel R; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2015-02-01

    Knowing the extent to which nonhumans and humans share mechanisms for metacognition will advance our understanding of cognitive evolution and will improve selection of model systems for biomedical research. Some nonhuman species avoid difficult cognitive tests, seek information when ignorant, or otherwise behave in ways consistent with metacognition. There is agreement that some nonhuman animals "succeed" in these metacognitive tasks, but little consensus about the cognitive mechanisms underlying performance. In one paradigm, rhesus monkeys visually searched for hidden food when ignorant of the location of the food, but acted immediately when knowledgeable. This result has been interpreted as evidence that monkeys introspectively monitored their memory to adaptively control information seeking. However, convincing alternative hypotheses have been advanced that might also account for the adaptive pattern of visual searching. We evaluated seven hypotheses using a computerized task in which monkeys chose either to take memory tests immediately or to see the answer again before proceeding to the test. We found no evidence to support the hypotheses of behavioral cue association, rote response learning, expectancy violation, response competition, generalized search strategy, or postural mediation. In contrast, we repeatedly found evidence to support the memory monitoring hypothesis. Monkeys chose to see the answer when memory was poor, either from natural variation or experimental manipulation. We found limited evidence that monkeys also monitored the fluency of memory access. Overall, the evidence indicates that rhesus monkeys can use memory strength as a discriminative cue for information seeking, consistent with introspective monitoring of explicit memory.

  16. The role of observational uncertainties in testing model hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, I. K.; Birkel, C.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge about hydrological processes and the spatial and temporal distribution of water resources is needed as a basis for managing water for hydropower, agriculture and flood-protection. Conceptual hydrological models may be used to infer knowledge on catchment functioning but are affected by uncertainties in the model representation of reality as well as in the observational data used to drive the model and to evaluate model performance. Therefore, meaningful hypothesis testing of the hydrological functioning of a catchment requires such uncertainties to be carefully estimated and accounted for in model calibration and evaluation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of observational uncertainties in hypothesis testing, in particular whether it was possible to detect model-structural representations that were wrong in an important way given the uncertainties in the observational data. We studied the relatively data-scarce tropical Sarapiqui catchment in Costa Rica, Central America, where water resources play a vital part for hydropower production and livelihood. We tested several model structures of varying complexity as hypotheses about catchment functioning, but also hypotheses about the nature of the modelling errors. The tests were made within a learning framework for uncertainty estimation which enabled insights into data uncertainties, suitable model-structural representations and appropriate likelihoods. The observational uncertainty in discharge data was estimated from a rating-curve analysis and precipitation measurement errors through scenarios relating the error to, for example, canopy interception, wind-driven rain and the elevation gradient. The hypotheses were evaluated in a posterior analysis of the simulations where the performance of each simulation was analysed relative to the observational uncertainties for the entire hydrograph as well as for different aspects of the hydrograph (e.g. peak flows, recession periods, and base flow

  17. Ant Abundance along a Productivity Gradient: Addressing Two Conflicting Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Udi; Kigel, Jaime; Lubin, Yael; Tielbörger, Katja

    2015-01-01

    The number of individuals within a population or community and their body size can be associated with changes in resource supply. While these relationships may provide a key to better understand the role of abiotic vs. biotic constraints in animal communities, little is known about the way size and abundance of organisms change along resource gradients. Here, we studied this interplay in ants, addressing two hypotheses with opposite predictions regarding variation in population densities along resource gradients- the ‘productivity hypothesis’ and the ‘productivity-based thinning hypothesis’. The hypotheses were tested in two functional groups of ground-dwelling ants that are directly primary consumers feeding on seeds: specialized seed-eaters and generalist species. We examined variations in colony density and foraging activity (a size measurement of the forager caste) in six ant assemblages along a steep productivity gradient in a semi-arid region, where precipitation and plant biomass vary 6-fold over a distance of 250km. An increase in the density or foraging activity of ant colonies along productivity gradients is also likely to affect competitive interactions among colonies, and consequently clinal changes in competition intensity were also examined. Ant foraging activity increased with productivity for both functional groups. However, colony density revealed opposing patterns: it increased with productivity for the specialized seed-eaters, but decreased for the generalist species. Competition intensity, evaluated by spatial partitioning of species at food baits and distribution of colonies, was uncorrelated with productivity in the specialized seed-eaters, but decreased with increasing productivity in the generalists. Our results provide support for two contrasting hypotheses regarding the effect of resource availability on the abundance of colonial organisms- the ‘productivity hypothesis’ for specialized seed-eaters and the

  18. Radiation signature folowing the hypothesized LOCA. [BWR; PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonzon, L.L.

    1977-09-01

    The study establishes the radiation source profile following the hypothesized Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) as suggested by the applicable Regulatory Guides. The source is specified as time-dependent gamma and beta energy release rates and energy spectra with dose and dose rate values presented for a generic containment structure. The results of the study will provide a basis for a comparison of radiation simulators used in (radiation) qualification testing of Class I components and an evaluation of simulator ''adequacy'' in duplicating the LOCA radiation environments and resultant component damage.

  19. Hypothesized eye movements of neurolinguistic programming: a statistical artifact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, A; Rooney, R; Cunningham, J R

    1985-12-01

    Neurolinguistic programming's hypothesized eye-movements were measured independently from videotapes of 30 subjects, aged 15 to 76 yr., who were asked to recall visual pictures, recorded audio sounds, and textural objects. chi 2 indicated that subjects' responses were significantly different from those predicted. When chi 2 comparisons were weighted by number of eye positions assigned to each modality (3 visual, 3 auditory, 1 kinesthetic), subjects' responses did not differ significantly from the expected pattern. These data indicate that the eye-movement hypothesis may represent randomly occurring rather than sensory-modality-related positions.

  20. Chaos Versus Noisy Periodicity: Alternative Hypotheses for Childhood Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, L. F.; Schaffer, W. M.

    1990-08-01

    Whereas case rates for some childhood diseases (chickenpox) often vary according to an almost regular annual cycle, the incidence of more efficiently transmitted infections such as measles is more variable. Three hypotheses have been proposed to account for such fluctuations. (i) Irregular dynamics result from random shocks to systems with stable equilibria. (ii) The intrinsic dynamics correspond to biennial cycles that are subject to stochastic forcing. (iii) Aperiodic fluctuations are intrinsic to the epidemiology. Comparison of real world data and epidemiological models suggests that measles epidemics are inherently chaotic. Conversely, the extent to which chickenpox outbreaks approximate a yearly cycle depends inversely on the population size.

  1. Vaccines and autism: a tale of shifting hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Jeffrey S; Offit, Paul A

    2009-02-15

    Although child vaccination rates remain high, some parental concern persists that vaccines might cause autism. Three specific hypotheses have been proposed: (1) the combination measles-mumps-rubella vaccine causes autism by damaging the intestinal lining, which allows the entrance of encephalopathic proteins; (2) thimerosal, an ethylmercury-containing preservative in some vaccines, is toxic to the central nervous system; and (3) the simultaneous administration of multiple vaccines overwhelms or weakens the immune system. We will discuss the genesis of each of these theories and review the relevant epidemiological evidence.

  2. EM algorithm and its application to testing hypotheses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房祥忠; 陈家鼎

    2003-01-01

    The conventional method for testing hypotheses is to find an exact or asymptotic distributionof a test statistic. But when the model is complex and the sample size is small, difficulty often arises. Thispaper aims to present a method for finding maximum probability with the help of EM algorithm. For any fixedsample size, this method can be used not only to obtain an accurate test but also to check the real level ofa test which is build by large sample theory. Especially, while doing this, one needs neither the accurate norasymptotic distribution of the test statistic. So the method is easily performed and is especially useful for small samples.

  3. Conceptual change, crucial experiments and auxiliary hypotheses. A theoretical contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinas, Marcelo Leonardo; Carretero, Mario

    2010-12-01

    Theories about conceptual change have been generally related to historical and philosophical analysis of science. Yet, there is still much debate on how ideas coming from the history of science and their implications can be applied in this field. Our study intends to investigate the complex structure of conceptual change, by making use of some particularly representative features of the History and Philosophy of science, while considering the structure of so-called crucial experiments and the specific role of implicit hypotheses. Due to their historical importance and logical reasoning aspects, examining these issues may contribute to understand how conceptual change may take place.

  4. 5 CFR 551.214 - Statutory exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statutory exclusion. 551.214 Section 551.214 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.214 Statutory exclusion....

  5. 12 CFR 1815.110 - Categorical exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1815.110 Section 1815... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.110 Categorical exclusion. The CEQ regulations provide for the categorical exclusion of actions that do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the...

  6. 22 CFR 513.210 - Voluntary exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Voluntary exclusion. 513.210 Section 513.210... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Effect of Action § 513.210 Voluntary exclusion. Persons who accept voluntary exclusions under § 513.315 are excluded in accordance with the terms of...

  7. 40 CFR 1508.4 - Categorical exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 1508.4 Section 1508.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.4 Categorical exclusion. Categorical exclusion means a category of actions which do not individually...

  8. Multivariate refutation of aetiological hypotheses in non-experimental epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclure, M

    1990-12-01

    Extension of Karl Popper's logic of refutation from the realm of contingency tables to multivariate modelling leads to the conclusion that rigorously scientific multivariate analysis in non-experimental epidemiology differs from the traditional quasi-scientific approach. Instead of aiming for high sensitivity in detecting aetiological agents, the goal in refutation is high specificity--to give the best defence of the 'innocence' of every exposure hypothesized as being a cause. Instead of 'forward selection' or 'backward elimination', multivariate refutation uses the method of 'forward elimination'. This entails a likelihood approach (which may be complemented by, but should be demarcated from, Bayesian methods) not only for statistical inference but also, by analogy, for study design and conduct: one starts with the conclusion (the estimate or hypothesis) and works backwards to the observations (the likelihood of the data or the design of the study). Differences in practice can sometimes be large, as illustrated by a study of hypothesized triggers of myocardial infarction. Multivariate refutation should replace the concept of multivariate modelling in non-experimental epidemiology.

  9. Hypothesizing Dopaminergic Genetic Antecedents in Schizophrenia and Substance Seeking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra; Palomo, Tomas; Gold, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine system has been implicated in both substance use disorder (SUD) and schizophrenia. A recent meta- analysis suggests that A1 allele of the DRD2 gene imposes genetic risk for SUD, especially alcoholism and has been implicated in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). We hypothesize that dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene Taq1 A2 allele is associated with a subtype of non- SUD schizophrenics and as such may act as a putative protective agent against the development of addiction to alcohol or other drugs of abuse. Schizophrenics with SUD may be carriers of the DRD2 Taq1 A1 allele, and/or other RDS reward polymorphisms and have hypodopaminergic reward function. One plausible mechanism for alcohol seeking in schizophrenics with SUD, based on previous research, may be a deficiency of gamma type endorphins that has been linked to schizophrenic type psychosis.. We also propose that alcohol seeking behavior in schizophrenics, may serve as a physiological self-healing process linked to the increased function of the gamma endorphins, thereby reducing abnormal dopaminergic activity at the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These hypotheses warrant further investigation and cautious interpretation. We, therefore, encourage research involving neuroimaging, genome wide association studies (GWAS), and epigenetic investigation into the relationship between neurogenetics and systems biology to unravel the role of dopamine in psychiatric illness and SUD. PMID:24636783

  10. Attribution of detected changes in streamflow using multiple working hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, S.; Murphy, C.; Hall, J.; Wilby, R. L.; Sweeney, J.

    2014-05-01

    This paper revisits a widely cited study of the Boyne catchment in east Ireland that attributed greater streamflow from the mid-1970s to increased precipitation linked to a shift in the North Atlantic Oscillation. Using the method of multiple working hypotheses we explore a wider set of potential drivers of hydrological change. Rainfall-runoff models are used to reconstruct streamflow to isolate the effect of climate, taking account of both model structure and parameter uncertainty. The Mann-Kendall test for monotonic trend and Pettitt change point test are applied to explore signatures of change. Contrary to earlier work, arterial drainage and simultaneous onset of field drainage in the 1970s and early 1980s are now invoked as the predominant drivers of change in annual mean and high flows within the Boyne. However, a change in precipitation regime is also present in March, thereby amplifying the effect of drainage. This new explanation posits that multiple drivers acting simultaneously were responsible for the observed change, with the relative contribution of each driver dependant on the timescale investigated. This work demonstrates that valuable insights can be gained from a systematic application of the method of multiple working hypotheses in an effort to move towards more rigorous attribution, which is an important part of managing emerging impacts on hydrological systems.

  11. Experienced physicians benefit from analyzing initial diagnostic hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Adam; Geddes, Colin; Wright, Bruce; Coderre, Sylvain; Rikers, Remy; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Most incorrect diagnoses involve at least one cognitive error, of which premature closure is the most prevalent. While metacognitive strategies can mitigate premature closure in inexperienced learners, these are rarely studied in experienced physicians. Our objective here was to evaluate the effect of analytic information processing on diagnostic performance of nephrologists and nephrology residents. We asked nine nephrologists and six nephrology residents at the University of Calgary and Glasgow University to diagnose ten nephrology cases. We provided presenting features along with contextual information, after which we asked for an initial diagnosis. We then primed participants to use either hypothetico-deductive reasoning or scheme-inductive reasoning to analyze the remaining case data and generate a final diagnosis. After analyzing initial hypotheses, both nephrologists and residents improved the accuracy of final diagnoses (31.1% vs. 65.6%, p vs. 70.0%, p inductive reasoning (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 5.69 [1.59, 20.33], p = 0.07), whereas the performance of experienced nephrologists did not differ between strategies (odds ratio 0.57 [0.23, 1.39], p = 0.20). Experienced nephrologists and nephrology residents can improve their performance by analyzing initial diagnostic hypotheses. The explanation of the interaction between experience and the effect of different reasoning strategies is unclear, but may relate to preferences in reasoning strategy, or the changes in knowledge structure with experience.

  12. Ovarian aging and menopause: current theories, hypotheses, and research models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Julie M; Zelinski, Mary B; Ingram, Donald K; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2005-12-01

    Aging of the reproductive system has been studied in numerous vertebrate species. Although there are wide variations in reproductive strategies and hormone cycle components, many of the fundamental changes that occur during aging are similar. Evolutionary hypotheses attempt to explain why menopause occurs, whereas cellular hypotheses attempt to explain how it occurs. It is commonly believed that a disruption in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is responsible for the onset of menopause. Data exist to demonstrate that the first signs of menopause occur at the level of the brain or the ovary. Thus, finding an appropriate and representative animal model is especially important for the advancement of menopause research. In primates, there is a gradual decline in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis ultimately resulting in irregularities in menstrual cycles and increasingly sporadic incidence of ovulation. Rodents also exhibit a progressive deterioration in HPG axis function; however, they also experience a period of constant estrus accompanied by intermittent ovulations, reduced progesterone levels, and elevated circulating estradiol levels. It is remarkable to observe that females of other classes also demonstrate deterioration in HPG axis function and ovarian failure. Comparisons of aging in various taxa provide insight into fundamental biological mechanisms of aging that could underlie reproductive decline.

  13. Choreography of Ig allelic exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar, Howard; Bergman, Yehudit

    2008-06-01

    Allelic exclusion guarantees that each B or T cell only produces a single antigen receptor, and in this way contributes to immune diversity. This process is actually initiated in the early embryo when the immune receptor loci become asynchronously replicating in a stochastic manner with one early and one late allele in each cell. This distinct differential replication timing feature then serves an instructive mark that directs a series of allele-specific epigenetic events in the immune system, including programmed histone modification, nuclear localization and DNA demethylation that ultimately bring about preferred rearrangement on a single allele, and this decision is temporally stabilized by feedback mechanisms that inhibit recombination on the second allele. In principle, these same molecular components are also used for controlling monoallelic expression at other genomic loci, such as those carrying interleukins and olfactory receptor genes that require the choice of one gene out of a large array. Thus, allelic exclusion appears to represent a general epigenetic phenomenon that is modeled on the same basis as X chromosome inactivation.

  14. Noise Exclusion Ability in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geroldene Tsui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An important perceptual ability is to filter out background distractions from relevant information. However, prior research has not identified when this begins in humans. Our study aims to investigate whether noise exclusion ability occurs in infancy. Infants' contrast sensitivity function (CSF was measured by a Baynesian adaptive inference method. Infants' attention was directed to the middle of a monitor where an 8.72 degree static Gabor grating was presented on the left or right side of the monitor. In half the trials, the grating was presented against a gray background; in the other half, against a 16% contrast random-dot noise background. The experimenter and two independent coders judged which side the infants gazed at (force-choice preferential looking paradigm. One-hundred babies aged from 4 to 10 months satisfied the 70% interrater consistency criterion for inclusion. Four parameters defined the best-fitted CSF for each infant. Of these, peak spatial frequency, bandwidth and truncation of CSF were similar in conditions with and without noise. The peak gain estimate was most significantly impaired by external noise, but a marked 31% improvement was observed in 7- to 10-month-olds. This may be the first sign of development of human's noise exclusion ability, and is worth further study.

  15. Exclusive scattering off the deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amrath, D.

    2007-12-15

    Exclusive processes are a special class of processes giving insight into the inner structure of hadrons. In this thesis we consider two exclusive processes and compute their total cross sections as well as the beam charge and beam polarization asymmetries for different kinematical constraints. These calculations o er the opportunity to get access to the nonperturbative GPDs. Theoretically they can be described with the help of models. The rst process we investigate contains a GPD of the pion, which is basically unknown so far. We include different models and make predictions for observables that could in principle be measured at HERMES at DESY and CLAS at JLab. The second process we consider is electron-deuteron scattering in the kinematical range where the deuteron breaks up into a proton and a neutron. This can be used to investigate the neutron, which cannot be taken as a target due to its lifetime of approximately 15 minutes. For the calculation of the electron-deuteron cross section we implement models for the proton and neutron GPDs. Once there are experimental data available our calculations are ready for comparison. (orig.)

  16. Exclusive Dijet production from CDF2LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.

    2005-04-01

    Exclusive dijet production at the Tevatron can be used as a benchmark to establish predictions on exclusive diffractive Higgs production, a process with a much smaller cross section. Exclusive dijet production in Double Pomeron Exchange processes, including diffractive Higgs production with measurements at the Tevatron and predictions for the Large Hadron Collider are presented. Using new data from the Tevatron and dedicated diffractive triggers, no excess over a smooth falling distribution for exclusive dijet events could be found. Upper limits on the exclusive dijet production cross section are presented and compared to current theoretical predictions.

  17. Self-preservation relation to the Kolmogorov similarity hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenidi, Lyazid; Antonia, Robert A.; Danaila, Luminita

    2017-05-01

    The relation between self-preservation (SP) and the Kolmogorov similarity hypotheses (Kolmogorov, The local structure of turbulence in incompressible viscous fluid for very large Reynolds numbers, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 30, 301 (1941) [Proc. R. Soc. London A 434, 9 (1991), 10.1098/rspa.1991.0075]) is investigated through the transport equations for the second- and third-order moments of the longitudinal velocity increments [ δ u (r ,t )=u (x ,t )-u (x +r ,t ) , where x ,t , and r are the spatial point and the time and longitudinal separation between two points, respectively]. It is shown that the fluid viscosity ν and the mean turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate ɛ ¯ (the overbar represents an ensemble average) emerge naturally from the equations of motion as controlling parameters for the velocity increment moments when SP is assumed. Consequently, the Kolmogorov length scale η [≡(ν3/ɛ¯) 1 /4] and velocity scale vK [≡(νɛ ¯) 1 /4] also emerge as natural scaling parameters in conformity with SP, indicating that Kolmogorov's first hypothesis is subsumed under the more general hypothesis of SP. Further, the requirement for a very large Reynolds number is also relaxed, at least for the first similarity hypothesis. This requirement however is still necessary to derive the two-thirds law (or the four-fifths law) from the analysis. These analytical results are supported by experimental data in wake, jet, and grid turbulence. An expression for the fourth-order moment of the longitudinal velocity increments (δu ) 4¯ is derived from the analysis carried out in the inertial range. The expression, which involves the product of (δu ) 2 and ∂ δ p /∂ x , does not require the use the volume-averaged dissipation ɛ¯r, introduced by Oboukhov [Oboukhov, Some specific features of atmospheric turbulence, J. Fluid Mech. 13, 77 (1962), 10.1017/S0022112062000506] on a phenomenological basis and used by Kolmogorov to derive his refined similarity hypotheses

  18. Optimum testing of multiple hypotheses in quantum detection theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, H. P.; Kennedy, R. S.; Lax, M.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of specifying the optimum quantum detector in multiple hypotheses testing is considered for application to optical communications. The quantum digital detection problem is formulated as a linear programming problem on an infinite-dimensional space. A necessary and sufficient condition is derived by the application of a general duality theorem specifying the optimum detector in terms of a set of linear operator equations and inequalities. Existence of the optimum quantum detector is also established. The optimality of commuting detection operators is discussed in some examples. The structure and performance of the optimal receiver are derived for the quantum detection of narrow-band coherent orthogonal and simplex signals. It is shown that modal photon counting is asymptotically optimum in the limit of a large signaling alphabet and that the capacity goes to infinity in the absence of a bandwidth limitation.

  19. Hypotheses of the origin of natural antibodies: a glycobiologist's opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasbiullina, N R; Bovin, N V

    2015-07-01

    It is generally accepted that the generation of antibodies proceeds due to immunization of an organism by alien antigens, and the level and affinity of antibodies are directly correlated to the presence of immunogen. At the same time, vast experimental material has been obtained providing evidence of antibodies whose level remains unchanged and affinity is constant during a lifetime. In contrast to the first, adaptive immunoglobulins, the latter are named natural antibodies (nAbs). The nAbs are produced by B1 cells, whereas adaptive Abs are produced by B2. This review summarizes general data on nAbs and presents in more detail data on antigens of carbohydrate origin. Hypotheses on the origin of nAbs and their activation mechanisms are discussed. We present our thoughts on this matter supported by our experimental data on nAbs to glycans.

  20. Psychohistorical Hypotheses on Japan's History of Hostility Towards China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Rudmin, Floyd

    2016-01-01

    The accelerating tensions and military posturing between Japan and China have created a serious crisis with a danger of a catastrophic war. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the events of the current crisis, and to put it in the context of Japan's long history of hostility to China and repeated attempts at conquest. The historical record shows that Japan has attacked China at least seven times, even though China has never attacked Japan. The irrationality of Japan's behavior is demonstrated by the repetition of this hostile behavior despite the enormous human and economic costs that Japan has suffered because of it. The irrationality of Japan's militarism suggests that psychological explanations may be required to understand this phenomenon. Several hypotheses are proposed, including 1) projected paranoid aggression, 2) collective Zeigarnik compulsion, 3) perceived weakness exciting aggression, 4) national inferiority feelings, 5) cultural narcissism, and 6) Oedipal-like hatred of a parent culture.

  1. Platinum(iv) anticancer prodrugs - hypotheses and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Dan

    2016-08-16

    In this manuscript we focus on Pt(iv) anticancer prodrugs. We explore the main working hypotheses for the design of effective Pt(iv) prodrugs and note the exceptions to the common assumptions that are prevalent in the field. Special attention was devoted to the emerging class of "dual action" Pt(iv) prodrugs, where bioactive ligands are conjugated to the axial positions of platinum in order to obtain orthogonal or complementary effects that will increase the efficacy of killing the cancer cells. We discuss the rationale behind the design of the "dual action" prodrugs and the results of the pharmacological studies obtained. Simultaneous release of two bioactive moieties inside the cancer cells often triggers several processes that together determine the fate of the cell. Pt(iv) complexes provide many opportunities for applying new concepts in targeting, synergistic cell killing and exploiting novel nanodelivery systems.

  2. From themes to hypotheses: following up with quantitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David L

    2015-06-01

    One important category of mixed-methods research designs consists of quantitative studies that follow up on qualitative research. In this case, the themes that serve as the results from the qualitative methods generate hypotheses for testing through the quantitative methods. That process requires operationalization to translate the concepts from the qualitative themes into quantitative variables. This article illustrates these procedures with examples that range from simple operationalization to the evaluation of complex models. It concludes with an argument for not only following up qualitative work with quantitative studies but also the reverse, and doing so by going beyond integrating methods within single projects to include broader mutual attention from qualitative and quantitative researchers who work in the same field. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Pathogenesis of Bacterial Vaginosis: Discussion of Current Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzny, Christina A; Schwebke, Jane R

    2016-08-15

    In April 2015, the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases hosted an experts technical consultation on bacterial vaginosis (BV), where data regarding controversies over the pathogenesis of BV were discussed. The discussion on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of BV is presented here, and several hypotheses on its pathogenesis are critiqued. Rigorous hypothesis-driven studies are needed to ultimately determine the cause of BV. This information is vital for the prevention and control of this important infection and its adverse public health consequences. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Individualist and collectivist values: hypotheses suggested by Alexis de Tocqueville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P J; Morris, Ronald J

    2002-05-01

    The work of Alexis de Tocqueville, the 19th-century social theorist who coined the term individualism, supplied a conceptual foundation for hypothesizing that individualism and collectivism, as value systems, should be directly correlated. In previous research (D. K.-S. Chan, 1994), individualist and collectivist values were negatively correlated in a sample of men, and in a combined sample of men and women (P. J. Watson, J. Sherbak, & R. J. Morris, 1998) these values were positively correlated. In the present study, a positive relationship was in fact observed in both men and women. Linkages with other measures of self and social functioning uncovered a few small associations of individualist values with maladjustment. Collectivist values predicted adjustment. These data confirm that individualist and collectivist values are compatible, just as Tocqueville had suggested, and that gender differences do not explain the conflicting results previously reported in this literature.

  5. Hypotheses to explain the origin of species in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Haffer

    Full Text Available The main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on different factors, as follow: (1 Changes in the distribution of land and sea or in the landscape due to tectonic movements or sea level fluctuations (Paleogeography hypothesis, (2 the barrier effect of Amazonian rivers (River hypothesis, (3 a combination of the barrier effect of broad rivers and vegetational changes in northern and southern Amazonia (River-refuge hypothesis, (4 the isolation of humid rainforest blocks near areas of surface relief in the periphery of Amazonia separated by dry forests, savannas and other intermediate vegetation types during dry climatic periods of the Tertiary and Quaternary (Refuge hypothesis, (5 changes in canopy-density due to climatic reversals (Canopy-density hypothesis (6 the isolation and speciation of animal populations in small montane habitat pockets around Amazonia due to climatic fluctuations without major vegetational changes (Museum hypothesis, (7 competitive species interactions and local species isolations in peripheral regions of Amazonia due to invasion and counterinvasion during cold/warm periods of the Pleistocene (Disturbance-vicariance hypothesis and (8 parapatric speciation across steep environmental gradients without separation of the respective populations (Gradient hypothesis. Several of these hypotheses probably are relevant to a different degree for the speciation processes in different faunal groups or during different geological periods. The basic paleogeography model refers mainly to faunal differentiation during the Tertiary and in combination with the Refuge hypothesis. Milankovitch‡ cycles leading to global main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on

  6. Identifying And Weighting Integration Hypotheses On Open Data Platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Eberius, Julian; Thiele, Maik; Lehner, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Open data platforms such as data.gov or opendata.socrata. com provide a huge amount of valuable information. Their free-for-all nature, the lack of publishing standards and the multitude of domains and authors represented on these platforms lead to new integration and standardization problems. At the same time, crowd-based data integration techniques are emerging as new way of dealing with these problems. However, these methods still require input in form of specific questions or tasks that can be passed to the crowd. This paper discusses integration problems on Open Data Platforms, and proposes a method for identifying and ranking integration hypotheses in this context. We will evaluate our findings by conducting a comprehensive evaluation using on one of the largest Open Data platforms.

  7. Evolutionary origins of human handedness: evaluating contrasting hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochet, Hélène; Byrne, Richard W

    2013-07-01

    Variation in methods and measures, resulting in past dispute over the existence of population handedness in nonhuman great apes, has impeded progress into the origins of human right-handedness and how it relates to the human hallmark of language. Pooling evidence from behavioral studies, neuroimaging and neuroanatomy, we evaluate data on manual and cerebral laterality in humans and other apes engaged in a range of manipulative tasks and in gestural communication. A simplistic human/animal partition is no longer tenable, and we review four (nonexclusive) possible drivers for the origin of population-level right-handedness: skilled manipulative activity, as in tool use; communicative gestures; organizational complexity of action, in particular hierarchical structure; and the role of intentionality in goal-directed action. Fully testing these hypotheses will require developmental and evolutionary evidence as well as modern neuroimaging data.

  8. Hypotheses to explain the origin of species in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffer, J

    2008-11-01

    The main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on different factors, as follow: (1) Changes in the distribution of land and sea or in the landscape due to tectonic movements or sea level fluctuations (Paleogeography hypothesis), (2) the barrier effect of Amazonian rivers (River hypothesis), (3) a combination of the barrier effect of broad rivers and vegetational changes in northern and southern Amazonia (River-refuge hypothesis), (4) the isolation of humid rainforest blocks near areas of surface relief in the periphery of Amazonia separated by dry forests, savannas and other intermediate vegetation types during dry climatic periods of the Tertiary and Quaternary (Refuge hypothesis), (5) changes in canopy-density due to climatic reversals (Canopy-density hypothesis) (6) the isolation and speciation of animal populations in small montane habitat pockets around Amazonia due to climatic fluctuations without major vegetational changes (Museum hypothesis), (7) competitive species interactions and local species isolations in peripheral regions of Amazonia due to invasion and counterinvasion during cold/warm periods of the Pleistocene (Disturbance-vicariance hypothesis) and (8) parapatric speciation across steep environmental gradients without separation of the respective populations (Gradient hypothesis). Several of these hypotheses probably are relevant to a different degree for the speciation processes in different faunal groups or during different geological periods. The basic paleogeography model refers mainly to faunal differentiation during the Tertiary and in combination with the Refuge hypothesis. Milankovitch cycles leading to global main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on different

  9. Evaluating alternative stem cell hypotheses for adultcorneal epithelial maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John D West; Natalie J Dorà; Natalie J Dorà,

    2015-01-01

    In this review we evaluate evidence for three differenthypotheses that explain how the corneal epitheliumis maintained. The limbal epithelial stem cell (LESC)hypothesis is most widely accepted. This proposes thatstem cells in the basal layer of the limbal epithelium,at the periphery of the cornea, maintain themselvesand also produce transient (or transit) amplifying cells(TACs). TACs then move centripetally to the centre ofthe cornea in the basal layer of the corneal epitheliumand also replenish cells in the overlying suprabasallayers. The LESCs maintain the corneal epitheliumduring normal homeostasis and become more active torepair significant wounds. Second, the corneal epithelialstem cell (CESC) hypothesis postulates that, duringnormal homeostasis, stem cells distributed throughoutthe basal corneal epithelium, maintain the tissue.According to this hypothesis, LESCs are present in thelimbus but are only active during wound healing. We alsoconsider a third possibility, that the corneal epithelium ismaintained during normal homeostasis by proliferationof basal corneal epithelial cells without any input fromstem cells. After reviewing the published evidence,we conclude that the LESC and CESC hypotheses areconsistent with more of the evidence than the thirdhypothesis, so we do not consider this further. The LESCand CESC hypotheses each have difficulty accountingfor one main type of evidence so we evaluate the twokey lines of evidence that discriminate between them.Finally, we discuss how lineage-tracing experimentshave begun to resolve the debate in favour of theLESC hypothesis. Nevertheless, it also seems likely thatsome basal corneal epithelial cells can act as long-termprogenitors if limbal stem cell function is compromised.Thus, this aspect of the CESC hypothesis may have alasting impact on our understanding of corneal epithelialmaintenance, even if it is eventually shown that stemcells are restricted to the limbus as proposed by the

  10. Experienced physicians benefit from analyzing initial diagnostic hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bass

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most incorrect diagnoses involve at least one cognitive error, of which premature closure is the most prevalent. While metacognitive strategies can mitigate premature closure in inexperienced learners, these are rarely studied in experienced physicians. Our objective here was to evaluate the effect of analytic information processing on diagnostic performance of nephrologists and nephrology residents. Methods: We asked nine nephrologists and six nephrology residents at the University of Calgary and Glasgow University to diagnose ten nephrology cases. We provided presenting features along with contextual information, after which we asked for an initial diagnosis. We then primed participants to use either hypothetico-deductive reasoning or scheme-inductive reasoning to analyze the remaining case data and generate a final diagnosis. Results: After analyzing initial hypotheses, both nephrologists and residents improved the accuracy of final diagnoses (31.1% vs. 65.6%, p < 0.001, and 40.0% vs. 70.0%, p < 0.001, respectively. We found a significant interaction between experience and analytic processing strategy (p = 0.002: nephrology residents had significantly increased odds of diagnostic success when using scheme-inductive reasoning (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 5.69 [1.59, 20.33], p = 0.007, whereas the performance of experienced nephrologists did not differ between strategies (odds ratio 0.57 [0.23, 1.39], p = 0.2. Discussion: Experienced nephrologists and nephrology residents can improve their performance by analyzing initial diagnostic hypotheses. The explanation of the interaction between experience and the effect of different reasoning strategies is unclear, but may relate to preferences in reasoning strategy, or the changes in knowledge structure with experience.

  11. Sticky Genomes: Using NGS Evidence to Test Hybrid Speciation Hypotheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Morgan-Richards

    Full Text Available Hypotheses of hybrid origin are common. Here we use next generation sequencing to test a hybrid hypothesis for a non-model insect with a large genome. We compared a putative hybrid triploid stick insect species (Acanthoxyla geisovii with its putative paternal diploid taxon (Clitarchus hookeri, a relationship that provides clear predictions for the relative genetic diversity within each genome. The parental taxon is expected to have comparatively low allelic diversity that is nested within the diversity of the hybrid daughter genome. The scale of genome sequencing required was conveniently achieved by extracting mRNA and sequencing cDNA to examine expressed allelic diversity. This allowed us to test hybrid-progenitor relationships among non-model organisms with large genomes and different ploidy levels. Examination of thousands of independent loci avoids potential problems produced by the silencing of parts of one or other of the parental genomes, a phenomenon sometimes associated with the process of stabilisation of a hybrid genome. Transcript assembles were assessed for evidence of paralogs and/or alternative splice variants before proceeding. Comparison of transcript assemblies was not an appropriate measure of genetic variability, but by mapping reads back to clusters derived from each species we determined levels of allelic diversity. We found greater cDNA sequence diversity among alleles in the putative hybrid species (Acanthoxyla geisovii than the non-hybrid. The allelic diversity within the putative paternal species (Clitachus hookeri nested within the hybrid-daughter genome, supports the current view of a hybrid-progenitor relationship for these stick insect species. Next generation sequencing technology provides opportunities for testing evolutionary hypotheses with non-model organisms, including, as here, genomes that are large due to polyploidy.

  12. Hypotheses for Near-Surface Exchange of Methane on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Renyu; Bloom, A. Anthony; Gao, Peter; Miller, Charles E.; Yung, Yuk L.

    2016-07-01

    The Curiosity rover recently detected a background of 0.7 ppb and spikes of 7 ppb of methane on Mars. This in situ measurement reorients our understanding of the martian environment and its potential for life, as the current theories do not entail any geological source or sink of methane that varies sub-annually. In particular, the 10-fold elevation during the southern winter indicates episodic sources of methane that are yet to be discovered. Here we suggest a near-surface reservoir could explain this variability. Using the temperature and humidity measurements from the rover, we find that perchlorate salts in the regolith deliquesce to form liquid solutions, and deliquescence progresses to deeper subsurface in the season of the methane spikes. We therefore formulate the following three testable hypotheses. The first scenario is that the regolith in Gale Crater adsorbs methane when dry and releases this methane to the atmosphere upon deliquescence. The adsorption energy needs to be 36 kJ mol-1 to explain the magnitude of the methane spikes, higher than existing laboratory measurements. The second scenario is that microorganisms convert organic matter in the soil to methane when they are in liquid solutions. This scenario does not require regolith adsorption but entails extant life on Mars. The third scenario is that deep subsurface aquifers produce the bursts of methane. Continued in situ measurements of methane and water, as well as laboratory studies of adsorption and deliquescence, will test these hypotheses and inform the existence of the near-surface reservoir and its exchange with the atmosphere.

  13. Observing social exclusion leads to dehumanizing the victim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Ock ePark

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that observing social exclusion would influence observers’ judgments of the humanness of its victims and perpetrators. Specifically, we speculated that people would attribute victims and perpetrators to lower and higher mental capacities, respectively. Participants observed a simulated computer-based ball tossing game in which one of the players was either ostracized or not. They then rated the game players on traits associated with two dimensions of humanness, namely Human Nature and Human Uniqueness. Overall, participants who witnessed an exclusion game judged the victim as less human on both domains compared to one of the perpetrators as well as to a player in the control condition. The perpetrator was attributed higher Human Nature, but not significantly higher Human Uniqueness, compared to the control player. In addition, the less Human Nature attributes a target was assigned, the more she was expected to be vulnerable to exploitation. On most of the other measures of target impression, however, the victim was rated more favorably than the perpetrator. The findings imply that social exclusion victims are often subtly derogated compared to the perpetrators, even while they are also more positively evaluated otherwise.

  14. Observing Social Exclusion Leads to Dehumanizing the Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeong O; Park, Sang H

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that observing social exclusion would influence observers' judgments of the humanness of its victims and perpetrators. Specifically, we speculated that people would attribute victims and perpetrators to lower and higher mental capacities, respectively. Participants observed a simulated computer-based ball tossing game in which one of the players was either ostracized or not. They then rated the game players on traits associated with two dimensions of humanness, namely Human Nature (HN) and Human Uniqueness (HU). Overall, participants who witnessed an exclusion game judged the victim as less human on both domains compared to one of the perpetrators as well as to a player in the control condition. The perpetrator was attributed higher HN, but not significantly higher HU, compared to the control player. In addition, the less HN attributes a target was assigned, the more she was expected to be vulnerable to exploitation. On most of the other measures of target impression, however, the victim was rated more favorably than the perpetrator. The findings imply that social exclusion victims are often subtly derogated compared to the perpetrators, even while they are also more positively evaluated otherwise.

  15. Observing Social Exclusion Leads to Dehumanizing the Victim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeong O.; Park, Sang H.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that observing social exclusion would influence observers’ judgments of the humanness of its victims and perpetrators. Specifically, we speculated that people would attribute victims and perpetrators to lower and higher mental capacities, respectively. Participants observed a simulated computer-based ball tossing game in which one of the players was either ostracized or not. They then rated the game players on traits associated with two dimensions of humanness, namely Human Nature (HN) and Human Uniqueness (HU). Overall, participants who witnessed an exclusion game judged the victim as less human on both domains compared to one of the perpetrators as well as to a player in the control condition. The perpetrator was attributed higher HN, but not significantly higher HU, compared to the control player. In addition, the less HN attributes a target was assigned, the more she was expected to be vulnerable to exploitation. On most of the other measures of target impression, however, the victim was rated more favorably than the perpetrator. The findings imply that social exclusion victims are often subtly derogated compared to the perpetrators, even while they are also more positively evaluated otherwise. PMID:26635705

  16. Hard Exclusive Reactions at Jlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubarovsky, Valery P. [JLAB

    2011-09-20

    Dedicated experiments to study Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP) have been carried out at Jefferson Lab. DVCS helicity--dependent and helicity--independent cross sections and beam spin asymmetries have been measured, as well as cross sections and asymmetries for the $\\pi^0$, $\\eta$, $\\rho^0$, $\\rho^+$, $\\omega$ and $\\phi$ for exclusive electroproduction. The data were taken in a wide kinematic range in $Q^2$=1--4.5 GeV$^2$, $x_B$=0.1--0.5, and $|t|$ up to 2 GeV$^2$. The presented results offer a unique opportunity to study the structure of the nucleon at the parton level as one has access to Bjorken $x_B$ and momentum transfer to the nucleon $t$ at the same time.

  17. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    McNulty, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    Central Exclusive Production (CEP) is a unique process at hadron machines in which particles are produced via colourless propagators. LHCb have measured the cross-sections for the CEP of vector mesons, $J/\\psi,\\psi(2S),\\Upsilon(1S),\\Upsilon(2S)$ and $\\Upsilon(3S)$, which are photo-produced. In the double pomeron exchange process, preliminary measurements have been made of $\\chi_{c0},\\chi_{c1}, \\chi_{c2}$ meson production while the first observations of the CEP of pairs of charmonia, $J/\\psi J/\\psi$ and $J/\\psi \\psi(2S)$, have been made and limits obtained on the pair production of other charmonia.

  18. Exclusive processes at Jefferson Lab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haiyan Gao

    2003-11-01

    Mapping the transition from strongly interacting, non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics, where nucleon–meson degrees of freedom are effective to perturbative QCD of quark and gluon degrees of freedom, is one of the most fundamental, challenging tasks in nuclear and particle physics. Exclusive processes such as proton–proton elastic scattering, meson photoproduction, and deuteron photodisintegration have been pursued extensively at many laboratories over the years in the search for such a transition, particularly at Jefferson Lab in recent years, taking the advantage of the high luminosity capability of the CEBAF facility. In this talk, I review recent results from Jefferson Lab on deuteron photodisintegration and photopion production processes and the future 12 GeV program.

  19. On the Generalized Exclusion Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rachidi, M; Zerouaoui, J

    2001-01-01

    We review the principal steps leading to drive the wave function $\\psi _{\\{k_1,k_2,...,k_N \\}}(1,2,...,N)$ of a gaz of $N$ identical particle states with exotic statistics. For spins $s=1/M$ $mod(1)$, we show that the quasideterminant conjectured in [19], by using $2d$ conformal field theoretical methods, is indeed related to the quantum determinant of noncommutative geometry. The q-number $[N]!=\\prod_{n=1}^N(\\sum_{j=0}^{N-1} q^j)$ carrying the effect of the generalized Pauli exclusion principle, according to which no more than $(M-1)$ identical particles of spin $s=1/M$ $mod(1)$ can live altogether on the same quantum state, is rederived in rigourous from the q-antisymmetry. Other features are also given.

  20. Social exclusion and shame in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Stefan; Rief, Winfried; Euteneuer, Frank; Kohlmann, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    Weight bias often results in the social exclusion of individuals with obesity. The direct, short-term psychological effects of social exclusion in obesity have not been investigated yet. This study experimentally tests whether social exclusion elicits stronger negative emotions in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight controls. Specifically, we test whether social exclusion has a specific impact on shame. In total, N=299 individuals (n=130 with body mass index [BMI]≤30 and n=169 with BMI>30) were randomly assigned to a social exclusion condition or a control condition that was implemented with an online Cyberball paradigm. Before and after, they filled out questionnaires assessing state emotionality. Social exclusion increased negative emotionality in both groups compared to the control condition (psocial exclusion was also significant (p=0.035) and arose from a significant, specific increase of shame in the group with obesity during social exclusion (psocial exclusion, individuals with obesity do not respond with more intensive negative emotions in general compared to controls, but with a specific increase in shame. As social exclusion is frequent in individuals with obesity, psychological interventions focussing shame-related emotional distress could be crucial.

  1. Stressed out symbiotes: hypotheses for the influence of abiotic stress on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Niall S; Bennett, Alison E

    2016-11-01

    Abiotic stress is a widespread threat to both plant and soil communities. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can alleviate effects of abiotic stress by improving host plant stress tolerance, but the direct effects of abiotic stress on AM fungi are less well understood. We propose two hypotheses predicting how AM fungi will respond to abiotic stress. The stress exclusion hypothesis predicts that AM fungal abundance and diversity will decrease with persistent abiotic stress. The mycorrhizal stress adaptation hypothesis predicts that AM fungi will evolve in response to abiotic stress to maintain their fitness. We conclude that abiotic stress can have effects on AM fungi independent of the effects on the host plant. AM fungal communities will change in composition in response to abiotic stress, which may mean the loss of important individual species. This could alter feedbacks to the plant community and beyond. AM fungi will adapt to abiotic stress independent of their host plant. The adaptation of AM fungi to abiotic stress should allow the maintenance of the plant-AM fungal mutualism in the face of changing climates.

  2. An automated framework for hypotheses generation using literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedi Vida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bio-medicine, exploratory studies and hypothesis generation often begin with researching existing literature to identify a set of factors and their association with diseases, phenotypes, or biological processes. Many scientists are overwhelmed by the sheer volume of literature on a disease when they plan to generate a new hypothesis or study a biological phenomenon. The situation is even worse for junior investigators who often find it difficult to formulate new hypotheses or, more importantly, corroborate if their hypothesis is consistent with existing literature. It is a daunting task to be abreast with so much being published and also remember all combinations of direct and indirect associations. Fortunately there is a growing trend of using literature mining and knowledge discovery tools in biomedical research. However, there is still a large gap between the huge amount of effort and resources invested in disease research and the little effort in harvesting the published knowledge. The proposed hypothesis generation framework (HGF finds “crisp semantic associations” among entities of interest - that is a step towards bridging such gaps. Methodology The proposed HGF shares similar end goals like the SWAN but are more holistic in nature and was designed and implemented using scalable and efficient computational models of disease-disease interaction. The integration of mapping ontologies with latent semantic analysis is critical in capturing domain specific direct and indirect “crisp” associations, and making assertions about entities (such as disease X is associated with a set of factors Z. Results Pilot studies were performed using two diseases. A comparative analysis of the computed “associations” and “assertions” with curated expert knowledge was performed to validate the results. It was observed that the HGF is able to capture “crisp” direct and indirect associations, and provide knowledge

  3. Physiological stress reactivity and empathy following social exclusion: a test of the defensive emotional analgesia hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Ellyn Charlotte; Stednitz, Sarah Josephine; Simonson, Kevin; Shen, Tori; Gahtan, Ethan

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of social exclusion elicit social pain responses. The current study examined the ability of social exclusion to activate physiological stress responses and adaptively modulate affect and empathy consistent with "defensive emotional analgesia." Measures of affect and empathy, and saliva samples for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) analysis, were collected before and after subjects participated in a computer game ("Cyberball") designed to manipulate feelings of social exclusion. Contrary to our hypotheses, social exclusion was associated with a reduction in cortisol, and social inclusion with an increase in cortisol. Both Cyberball groups showed increases in sAA and decreases in both positive and negative affect, with the greatest drop in affect occurring after social exclusion. Empathy did not differ between the social exclusion and inclusion groups and was not correlated with cortisol or sAA levels. These results support the presence of a defensive response to social exclusion in which central stress pathways controlling cortisol release are inhibited. Cortisol and sAA were shown to have distinct patterns of responses to psychological stress, with sAA responding more rapidly. Related methodological concerns for the use of these physiological stress markers and of Cyberball in social neuroscience research are discussed.

  4. Exploration of miRNA families for hypotheses generation.

    KAUST Repository

    Kamanu, T.K.

    2013-10-15

    Technological improvements have resulted in increased discovery of new microRNAs (miRNAs) and refinement and enrichment of existing miRNA families. miRNA families are important because they suggest a common sequence or structure configuration in sets of genes that hint to a shared function. Exploratory tools to enhance investigation of characteristics of miRNA families and the functions of family-specific miRNA genes are lacking. We have developed, miRNAVISA, a user-friendly web-based tool that allows customized interrogation and comparisons of miRNA families for hypotheses generation, and comparison of per-species chromosomal distribution of miRNA genes in different families. This study illustrates hypothesis generation using miRNAVISA in seven species. Our results unveil a subclass of miRNAs that may be regulated by genomic imprinting, and also suggest that some miRNA families may be species-specific, as well as chromosome- and/or strand-specific.

  5. Plant reproduction systems in microgravity: experimental data and hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, E. L.

    Elucidation of the possibilities for higher plants to realize complete ontogenesis, from seed to seed, and to propagate by seeds in microgravity, is a fundamental task of space biology connected with the working of the CELSS program. At present, there are results of only 6 spaceflight experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana, an ephemeral plant which will flower and fruit in orbit. Morphogenesis of generative organs occurs normally in microgravity, but unlike the ground control, buds and flowers mainly contain sterile elements of the androecium and gynoecium which degenerate at different stages of development in microgravity. Cytological peculiarities of male and female sterility in microgravity are similar to those occurring naturally during sexual differentiation. Many of the seed formed in microgravity are: 1) nutritional deficiency, 2) insufficient light, 3) intensification of the influence of the above-mentioned factors by microgravity, 4) disturbances of a hormonal nature, and 5) the absence of pollination and fertilization. Possible ways for testing these hypotheses and obtaining viable seeds in microgravity are discussed.

  6. Drug-Resistant Epilepsy: Multiple Hypotheses, Few Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Tang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that affects over 70 million people worldwide. Despite the recent introduction of new antiseizure drugs (ASDs, about one-third of patients with epilepsy have seizures refractory to pharmacotherapy. Early identification of patients who will become refractory to ASDs could help direct such patients to appropriate non-pharmacological treatment, but the complexity in the temporal patterns of epilepsy could make such identification difficult. The target hypothesis and transporter hypothesis are the most cited theories trying to explain refractory epilepsy, but neither theory alone fully explains the neurobiological basis of pharmacoresistance. This review summarizes evidence for and against several major theories, including the pharmacokinetic hypothesis, neural network hypothesis, intrinsic severity hypothesis, gene variant hypothesis, target hypothesis, and transporter hypothesis. The discussion is mainly focused on the transporter hypothesis, where clinical and experimental data are discussed on multidrug transporter overexpression, substrate profiles of ASDs, mechanism of transporter upregulation, polymorphisms of transporters, and the use of transporter inhibitors. Finally, future perspectives are presented for the improvement of current hypotheses and the development of treatment strategies as guided by the current understanding of refractory epilepsy.

  7. Testing hypotheses about glacial cycles against the observational record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Juselius, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    We estimate an identified cointegrated vector autoregression model of the climate system to test hypotheses about the physical mechanisms that may drive glacial cycles during the late Pleistocene. Results indicate that a permanent doubling of CO2 generates a 11.1°C rise in Antarctic temperature. Large variations in atmospheric CO2 over glacial cycles are driven by changes in sea ice and sea surface temperature in southern oceans and marine biological activity. The latter can be represented by a two-step process in which iron dust increases biological activity and the increase in biological activity reduces CO2 concentrations. Glacial variations in ice volume, as proxied by δ18O are driven by changes in CO2 concentrations, global and high latitude solar insolation, latitudinal gradients in solar insolation, and the atmospheric concentration of CO2. The model is able to quantify the effects of ice volume and temperature on sea level, such that in the long-run, sea level rises 14 m per 0.11‰ δ18O and about 17 m/°C of sea surface temperature in southern oceans. Beyond these specific results, the multivariate model suggests omitted variables may bias bivariate analyses of these mechanisms.

  8. Hypotheses for near-surface exchange of methane on Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Renyu; Gao, Peter; Miller, Charles E; Yung, Yuk L

    2016-01-01

    The Curiosity rover recently detected a background of 0.7 ppb and spikes of 7 ppb of methane on Mars. This in situ measurement reorients our understanding of the Martian environment and its potential for life, as the current theories do not entail any geological source or sink of methane that varies sub-annually. In particular, the 10-fold elevation during the southern winter indicates episodic sources of methane that are yet to be discovered. Here we suggest a near-surface reservoir could explain this variability. Using the temperature and humidity measurements from the rover, we find that perchlorate salts in the regolith deliquesce to form liquid solutions, and deliquescence progresses to deeper subsurface in the season of the methane spikes. We therefore formulate the following three testable hypotheses. The first scenario is that the regolith in Gale Crater adsorbs methane when dry and releases this methane to the atmosphere upon deliquescence. The adsorption energy needs to be 36 kJ/mol to explain the m...

  9. A perspective on SIDS pathogenesis. The hypotheses: plausibility and evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldwater Paul N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several theories of the underlying mechanisms of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS have been proposed. These theories have born relatively narrow beach-head research programs attracting generous research funding sustained for many years at expense to the public purse. This perspective endeavors to critically examine the evidence and bases of these theories and determine their plausibility; and questions whether or not a safe and reasoned hypothesis lies at their foundation. The Opinion sets specific criteria by asking the following questions: 1. Does the hypothesis take into account the key pathological findings in SIDS? 2. Is the hypothesis congruent with the key epidemiological risk factors? 3. Does it link 1 and 2? Falling short of any one of these answers, by inference, would imply insufficient grounds for a sustainable hypothesis. Some of the hypotheses overlap, for instance, notional respiratory failure may encompass apnea, prone sleep position, and asphyxia which may be seen to be linked to co-sleeping. For the purposes of this paper, each element will be assessed on the above criteria.

  10. Hypothesized evolutionary trends in zoospore ultrastructural characters in Chytridiales (Chytridiomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Peter M; Powell, Martha J

    2014-01-01

    Chytridiales is an order of zoosporic fungi currently comprising species representing 19 genera. Although morphologically and genetically diverse, these taxa have in common a zoospore with a suite of ultrastructural characters unique among Chytridiomycota. However, multiple states have been reported for almost every character that defines the Chytridiales zoospore. Two zoospore types have been recognized, each corresponding to a family. Here we examine zoospore ultrastructure of 52 isolates in Chytridiales and assess states for six characters to hypothesize evolutionary trends, using parsimony ancestral state reconstruction for evolutionary analysis. Based on suites of character states, we describe four additional zoospore types in Chytridiales. Five of the six characters ([i] location of the nucleus, [ii] morphology of the kinetosome-associated structure, [iii] complexity of the microtubular root, [iv] microbody-lipid globule complex cisterna structure and [v] thickness of the flagellar plug) revealed ancestral and derived states. The sixth character, structure of the paracrystalline inclusion, did not resolve ancestral and derived states. In each of the lineages within Chytridiales, the evolutionary trend appears to have been from a more complex zoospore to a less complex zoospore with reduced features. As we isolate and analyze additional taxa, we discover new ultrastructural character states that assist in taxon delineation and phylogenetic interpretation. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  11. Advances in the preclinical testing of cancer therapeutic hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponigro, Giordano; Sellers, William R

    2011-03-01

    The genetic and epigenetic underpinnings of cancer are becoming increasingly clear owing to impressive and well-coordinated ventures occurring worldwide. As our understanding of the molecular alterations driving human cancer increases, there is an opportunity to direct the clinical application of cancer therapeutics with improved accuracy. The often empirical treatment of cancer--which was initially based on inhibiting DNA synthesis and cellular division--while having led to a number of remarkable successes, remains prone to a high rate of clinical failure that results partly from a lack of understanding of how best to implement drugs in the clinic. Consequently, it is vital that robust translational strategies be developed preclinically to both reduce failure rates in the clinic and shorten the time required to identify patient populations most likely to benefit from a given therapeutic. Here, we review both historical and current uses of preclinical model systems, being mindful that a combination of approaches will be needed to address all meritorious therapeutic hypotheses.

  12. Exclusive meson production at HERMES

    CERN Document Server

    Manaenkov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    The data were accumulated with the HERMES forward spectrometer using the 27.6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron or positron beam of HERA. Exclusive electroproduction of $\\omega$ mesons on unpolarized hydrogen and deuterium targets is studied in the kinematic region of $Q^2>1.0$ GeV$^2$, 3.0 GeV $< W <$ 6.3 GeV, and $-t'< 0.2 $ GeV$^{2}$, while for $\\rho^0$-meson production on a transversely polarized hydrogen target $-t'< 0.4$ GeV$^{2}$ is used. Spin-density matrix elements for $\\omega$ production are presented in projections of $Q^2$ or $-t'$, while the ratios of the helicity amplitudes for the reaction $\\gamma^*+p \\to \\rho^0+p$ are obtained in the entire kinematic region. The usage of the transversely polarized target allows for the first time the extraction of the ratios of certain nucleon-helicity-flip amplitudes to the natural-parity exchange amplitude $T_{0\\frac{1}{2}0\\frac{1}{2}}$ without the nucleon-helicity flip describing the longitudinal $\\rho^0$-meson production by the longitudinal...

  13. Inclusive education and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Bissoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is critically examining assumptions underlying the Inclusive Education concept, arguing that this can only be effectively considered when understood in a broader context of social inclusion and exclusion. Methodologically, this article relies on international documents and bibliographic references about Inclusive Education, that have been chosen by systematize and characterize different social and educational inclusive practices, encouraging the elaboration of a general overview on this topic. The results of this analysis conclude that it is essential for Inclusive Education that educational institutions review their goals and reasons of social existence. In the concluding remarks it is argued that education is better understood as the act of encouraging and welcoming the efforts of individuals in their attempts to engage in social networking, which sustains life. This includes the acceptance of other reality interpretations and understanding that educational action cannot be restricted by the walls of institutions. It requires the participation of the whole community. Action perspectives likely to promote social inclusion and inclusive education are suggested.

  14. Twelve testable hypotheses on the geobiology of weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S L; Megonigal, J P; Scatena, F N; Balogh-Brunstad, Z; Barnes, R T; Bruns, M A; Van Cappellen, P; Dontsova, K; Hartnett, H E; Hartshorn, A S; Heimsath, A; Herndon, E; Jin, L; Keller, C K; Leake, J R; McDowell, W H; Meinzer, F C; Mozdzer, T J; Petsch, S; Pett-Ridge, J; Pregitzer, K S; Raymond, P A; Riebe, C S; Shumaker, K; Sutton-Grier, A; Walter, R; Yoo, K

    2011-03-01

    Critical Zone (CZ) research investigates the chemical, physical, and biological processes that modulate the Earth's surface. Here, we advance 12 hypotheses that must be tested to improve our understanding of the CZ: (1) Solar-to-chemical conversion of energy by plants regulates flows of carbon, water, and nutrients through plant-microbe soil networks, thereby controlling the location and extent of biological weathering. (2) Biological stoichiometry drives changes in mineral stoichiometry and distribution through weathering. (3) On landscapes experiencing little erosion, biology drives weathering during initial succession, whereas weathering drives biology over the long term. (4) In eroding landscapes, weathering-front advance at depth is coupled to surface denudation via biotic processes. (5) Biology shapes the topography of the Critical Zone. (6) The impact of climate forcing on denudation rates in natural systems can be predicted from models incorporating biogeochemical reaction rates and geomorphological transport laws. (7) Rising global temperatures will increase carbon losses from the Critical Zone. (8) Rising atmospheric P(CO2) will increase rates and extents of mineral weathering in soils. (9) Riverine solute fluxes will respond to changes in climate primarily due to changes in water fluxes and secondarily through changes in biologically mediated weathering. (10) Land use change will impact Critical Zone processes and exports more than climate change. (11) In many severely altered settings, restoration of hydrological processes is possible in decades or less, whereas restoration of biodiversity and biogeochemical processes requires longer timescales. (12) Biogeochemical properties impart thresholds or tipping points beyond which rapid and irreversible losses of ecosystem health, function, and services can occur.

  15. Kidney cancer mortality in Spain: geographic patterns and possible hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Enrique

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the second half of the 1990s, kidney cancer mortality has tended to stabilize and decline in many European countries, due to the decrease in the prevalence of smokers. Nevertheless, incidence of kidney cancer is rising across the sexes in some of these countries, a trend which may possibly reflect the fact that improvements in diagnostic techniques are being outweighed by the increased prevalence of some of this tumor's risk factors. This study sought to: examine the geographic pattern of kidney cancer mortality in Spain; suggest possible hypotheses that would help explain these patterns; and enhance existing knowledge about the large proportion of kidney tumors whose cause remains unknown. Methods Smoothed municipal relative risks (RRs for kidney cancer mortality were calculated in men and women, using the conditional autoregressive model proposed by Besag, York and Molliè. Maps were plotted depicting smoothed relative risk estimates, and the distribution of the posterior probability of RR>1 by sex. Results Municipal maps displayed a marked geographic pattern, with excess mortality in both sexes, mainly in towns along the Bay of Biscay, including areas of Asturias, the Basque Country and, to a lesser extent, Cantabria. Among women, the geographic pattern was strikingly singular, not in evidence for any other tumors, and marked by excess risk in towns situated in the Salamanca area and Extremaduran Autonomous Region. This difference would lead one to postulate the existence of different exposures of environmental origin in the various regions. Conclusion The reasons for this pattern of distribution are not clear, and it would thus be of interest if the effect of industrial emissions on this disease could be studied. The excess mortality observed among women in towns situated in areas with a high degree of natural radiation could reflect the influence of exposures which derive from the geologic composition of the

  16. Endocardial tip cells in the human embryo - facts and hypotheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugurel C Rusu

    Full Text Available Experimental studies regarding coronary embryogenesis suggest that the endocardium is a source of endothelial cells for the myocardial networks. As this was not previously documented in human embryos, we aimed to study whether or not endothelial tip cells could be correlated with endocardial-dependent mechanisms of sprouting angiogenesis. Six human embryos (43-56 days were obtained and processed in accordance with ethical regulations; immunohistochemistry was performed for CD105 (endoglin, CD31, CD34, α-smooth muscle actin, desmin and vimentin antibodies. Primitive main vessels were found deriving from both the sinus venosus and aorta, and were sought to be the primordia of the venous and arterial ends of cardiac microcirculation. Subepicardial vessels were found branching into the outer ventricular myocardium, with a pattern of recruiting α-SMA+/desmin+ vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes. Endothelial sprouts were guided by CD31+/CD34+/CD105+/vimentin+ endothelial tip cells. Within the inner myocardium, we found endothelial networks rooted from endocardium, guided by filopodia-projecting CD31+/CD34+/CD105+/ vimentin+ endocardial tip cells. The myocardial microcirculatory bed in the atria was mostly originated from endocardium, as well. Nevertheless, endocardial tip cells were also found in cardiac cushions, but they were not related to cushion endothelial networks. A general anatomical pattern of cardiac microvascular embryogenesis was thus hypothesized; the arterial and venous ends being linked, respectively, to the aorta and sinus venosus. Further elongation of the vessels may be related to the epicardium and subepicardial stroma and the intramyocardial network, depending on either endothelial and endocardial filopodia-guided tip cells in ventricles, or mostly on endocardium, in atria.

  17. 27 CFR 8.51 - Exclusion, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion, in general. 8..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Exclusion § 8.51 Exclusion, in general. (a) Exclusion... a competitor's product. (b) Section 8.52 lists practices that result in exclusion. Section...

  18. Exclusively Breastfeeding and Hypernatremic Dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Çağlar

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that breast-feeding is the best and safest way of feeding infants. Physiological weight loss occurs in the first two or three days of life, and the achievement of birth weight is expected towards the end of the first week. Hypernatremic dehydration may occur in exclusively breast-fed infants if milk supply is low during these first few days. It is not because of the high sodium content in breast milk; it is because of insufficient lactation. That is, the main cause of hypernatremic dehydration is water deprivation. There are many causes for low milk intake. Since most causes are preventable or able to be improved, mothers, particularly first time mothers, should receive more reassurance and practical advice in the technique of breast-feeding. Before their discharge from the hospital, they should be educated about the associated features of unsuccessful breast-feeding, such as going to the breast infrequently or for short times, infrequent passage of urine and stool, jaundice, lethargy, irritability and fever. Late diagnosis may cause catastrophic outcomes, such as a variety of palsies, apnea, bradycardia, seizures, hypertension, disseminated intravascular coagulation, necrotising enterocolitis after establishing full oral feeds, amputation of an extremity secondary to arterial thrombus, multiple cerebral infarctions, intracranial hemorrhages, massive intra ventricular hemorrhage, multiple dural thromboses. If babies are weighed on the day of the Guthrie test, those in the early onset of a disease and those who could not achieve their birth weight can be easily identified. The latter should be closely followed.

  19. Exclusion from School and Recognition of Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Gillean; Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet; Fordyce, Mariela

    2016-01-01

    There has been an overall decrease in exclusion rates and numbers in recent years across the UK. This change has often been heralded as evidence that national inclusion policies are "working" and that schools themselves are becoming increasingly inclusive. This article examines findings from a recent study on school exclusion in Wales,…

  20. Disciplinary Exclusion: The Influence of School Ethos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Lucy Ann

    2013-01-01

    Disciplinary exclusion is a strategy used by some schools in response to challenging behaviour. While some studies have explored interventions that can be implemented to reduce the exclusion of "at risk" pupils, others have considered how the underlying school ethos influences how challenging behaviour is understood and managed. The…

  1. 32 CFR 989.13 - Categorical exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 989.13 Section 989.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.13 Categorical exclusion. (a) CATEXs define those...

  2. Social exclusion of the poor people

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    The theoretical part is devoted to the social exclusion of poor people and its requisites. The introductory chapters explain what is the social exclusion of poor people, and what is the problem with poverty. There are also analyzed the different legal standards. The practical part is aimed at socially excluded people, their social life and their comparison.

  3. How the mainstream limits the spreading of alternative hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenda, Pavel

    2014-05-01

    that prof. Djuric had tried for more than 10 years to publish this article in various peer-reviewed journals. So, prof. Djuric got into the official book (list) of "scientific dissidents" among hundreds of other professors and doctors of science (De Climont 2012). These "scientific dissidents" do not have access to established journals and may possibly publish privately or at best on the web in marginal journals whose list was published by De Climont (2012). Such a marginal journal in the field of geophysics and geology is New Concepts in Global Tectonics. This journal has been established because the current hypothesis about the movement of the continents due to convection currents in the mantle becomes under the weight of new observation quite untenable. 4) Scientific consensus History has known many hypotheses that were accepted as proven truth but later, in the light of new knowledge, they completely failed. - No one has the right to decide which scientific hypotheses will be accepted and which will not get into print. Perhaps the worst situation is in climatology (due to global effects and impacts), when the plenary session of IPCC consensually stated that the current global warming was mainly due to the human activity. References De Climont, J. (2012): The worldwide list of dissident scientists. http://astrojan.hostei.com/droa.htm. Djurič, J. (2006): Unification Of Gravitation And Electromagnetism. http://jovandjuric.tripod.com/ David H. Douglass, John R. Christy, Benjamin D. Pearson and S. Fred Singer (2007): A comparison of tropical temperature trends with model predictions. International Journal of Climatology, Volume 28, Issue 13, 15 November 2008, Pages: 1693-1701. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.1651/pdf. Einstein, A. : List of scientific publications by Albert Einstein. /wiki/List_of_scientific_publications_by_Albert_Einstein. Kolínský, P., Valenta, J. and Gaždová, R. (2012): Seismicity, groundwater level variations and earth tides in

  4. Generation of central exclusive final states

    CERN Document Server

    Lönnblad, Leif

    2016-01-01

    We present a scheme for the generation of central exclusive final states in the Pythia 8 program. The implementation allows for the investigation of higher order corrections to such exclusive processes as approximated by the initial-state parton shower in Pythia 8. To achieve this, the spin and colour decomposition of the initial-state shower has been worked out, in order to determine the probability that a partonic state generated from an inclusive sub-process followed by a series of initial-state parton splittings can be considered as an approximation of an exclusive colour- and spin-singlet process. We use our implementation to investigate effects of parton showers on some examples of central exclusive processes, and find sizeable effects on di-jet production, while the effects on e.g. central exclusive Higgs production are minor.

  5. Exclusion and Education in South Africa: An Education Law Perspective of Emerging Alternative Understandings of Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The new democratic dispensation in South Africa (1994) was accompanied by law and policy aimed at preventing unfair exclusion from educational opportunities and promoting equal access to educational opportunities. However, feelings of unfair exclusion remain and new understandings of exclusion are emerging. This paper examines the new policy and…

  6. Using asteroid families to test planetesimal differentiation hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, S.; Campins, H.; Delbo', M.; Michel, P.; Tanga, P.; Hanuš, J.; Morbidelli, A.

    2014-07-01

    consequences of the hypothesized compositional radial gradients within the planetesimal population. The circumstantial diversity (membership number, progenitor mass, and collision energy) determines how exposed the interior of the planetesimal is. Using estimates of the progenitor mass and the mass of the largest remnant (Tanga et al. 1999, Durda et al. 2007, Broz et al. 2013), we can assess the exposed nature of different asteroid families. Those with the lowest ratio of largest remnant to planetesimal mass are more exposed since more of their mass is within the asteroid family membership as opposed to being sequestered in the largest remnant. Furthermore, models of the planetesimal differentiation process are strongly size dependent since smaller bodies cool much more effectively. Therefore, progenitor mass is also a proxy for the expected degree of differentiation. Using this set of proxies, we examine a diverse array of asteroid families to test the hypothesis of differentiation or metamorphic grading.

  7. Reducing aggressive responses to social exclusion using transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Paolo; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; DeWall, C Nathan; Chester, David S; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-03-01

    A vast body of research showed that social exclusion can trigger aggression. However, the neural mechanisms involved in regulating aggressive responses to social exclusion are still largely unknown. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates the excitability of a target region. Building on studies suggesting that activity in the right ventrolateral pre-frontal cortex (rVLPFC) might aid the regulation or inhibition of social exclusion-related distress, we hypothesized that non-invasive brain polarization through tDCS over the rVLPFC would reduce behavioral aggression following social exclusion. Participants were socially excluded or included while they received tDCS or sham stimulation to the rVLPFC. Next, they received an opportunity to aggress. Excluded participants demonstrated cognitive awareness of their inclusionary status, yet tDCS (but not sham stimulation) reduced their behavioral aggression. Excluded participants who received tDCS stimulation were no more aggressive than included participants. tDCS stimulation did not influence socially included participants' aggression. Our findings provide the first causal test for the role of rVLPFC in modulating aggressive responses to social exclusion. Our findings suggest that modulating activity in a brain area (i.e. the rVLPFC) implicated in self-control and emotion regulation can break the link between social exclusion and aggression.

  8. Factors associated with latent fingerprint exclusion determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2017-02-22

    Exclusion is the determination by a latent print examiner that two friction ridge impressions did not originate from the same source. The concept and terminology of exclusion vary among agencies. Much of the literature on latent print examination focuses on individualization, and much less attention has been paid to exclusion. This experimental study assesses the associations between a variety of factors and exclusion determinations. Although erroneous exclusions are more likely to occur on some images and for some examiners, they were widely distributed among images and examiners. Measurable factors found to be associated with exclusion rates include the quality of the latent, value determinations, analysis minutia count, comparison difficulty, and the presence of cores or deltas. An understanding of these associations will help explain the circumstances under which errors are more likely to occur and when determinations are less likely to be reproduced by other examiners; the results should also lead to improved effectiveness and efficiency of training and casework quality assurance. This research is intended to assist examiners in improving the examination process and provide information to the broader community regarding the accuracy, reliability, and implications of exclusion decisions.

  9. A life-course perspective on social exclusion and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewilde, Caroline

    2003-03-01

    This article assesses whether it is possible to reconceptualize the traditional research approaches to the relationship between poverty and the life cycle on the basis of different sociological perspectives on the life course found in the literature. While the family-cycle approach, which was originally formulated by Seebohm Rowntree (1902), is criticized for being static, descriptive, normative and inflexible, dynamic poverty research is mostly confined to the quantitative analysis of income trajectories, and thus offers only a partial solution to our problem. However, the life-course perspective allows us to combine the best elements of these traditional approaches and to reconceptualize them into a general framework for the study of social exclusion and poverty. To this end, three sociological perspectives on the life course are considered: the traditional North-American life-course perspective formulated by Elder (1974), the Continental institutional approach, and a combined approach which we label the 'political economy of the life course'. Drawing from these three perspectives, we propose a general framework of analysis and formulate hypotheses regarding the phenomena of social exclusion and poverty over the life course which can subsequently be empirically validated.

  10. Mutual Exclusion Principle for Multithreaded Web Crawlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Kumar Perisetla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes mutual exclusion principle for multithreaded web crawlers. The existing web crawlers use data structures to hold frontier set in local address space. This space could be used to run more crawler threads for faster operation. All crawler threads fetch the URL to crawl from the centralized frontier. The mutual exclusion principle is used to provide access to frontier for each crawler thread in synchronized manner to avoid deadlock. The approach to utilize the waiting time on mutual exclusion lock in efficient manner has been discussed in detail.

  11. Anxious Solitude and the Middle School Transition: A Diathesis × Stress Model of Peer Exclusion and Victimization Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Madelynn D.; Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Consistent with a Diathesis × Stress model, it was hypothesized that anxious solitude (individual vulnerability) and the middle school transition (environmental stress) would jointly predict peer exclusion and victimization trajectories. Youth (N = 688) were followed from 3rd through 7th grade, with the middle school transition in 6th grade.…

  12. Anxious Solitude and the Middle School Transition: A Diathesis × Stress Model of Peer Exclusion and Victimization Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Madelynn D.; Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Consistent with a Diathesis × Stress model, it was hypothesized that anxious solitude (individual vulnerability) and the middle school transition (environmental stress) would jointly predict peer exclusion and victimization trajectories. Youth (N = 688) were followed from 3rd through 7th grade, with the middle school transition in 6th grade.…

  13. Detecting mutually exclusive interactions in protein-protein interaction maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sánchez Claros

    Full Text Available Comprehensive protein interaction maps can complement genetic and biochemical experiments and allow the formulation of new hypotheses to be tested in the system of interest. The computational analysis of the maps may help to focus on interesting cases and thereby to appropriately prioritize the validation experiments. We show here that, by automatically comparing and analyzing structurally similar regions of proteins of known structure interacting with a common partner, it is possible to identify mutually exclusive interactions present in the maps with a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity higher than 85% and that, in about three fourth of the correctly identified complexes, we also correctly recognize at least one residue (five on average belonging to the interaction interface. Given the present and continuously increasing number of proteins of known structure, the requirement of the knowledge of the structure of the interacting proteins does not substantially impact on the coverage of our strategy that can be estimated to be around 25%. We also introduce here the Estrella server that embodies this strategy, is designed for users interested in validating specific hypotheses about the functional role of a protein-protein interaction and it also allows access to pre-computed data for seven organisms.

  14. Detecting mutually exclusive interactions in protein-protein interaction maps.

    KAUST Repository

    Sánchez Claros, Carmen

    2012-06-08

    Comprehensive protein interaction maps can complement genetic and biochemical experiments and allow the formulation of new hypotheses to be tested in the system of interest. The computational analysis of the maps may help to focus on interesting cases and thereby to appropriately prioritize the validation experiments. We show here that, by automatically comparing and analyzing structurally similar regions of proteins of known structure interacting with a common partner, it is possible to identify mutually exclusive interactions present in the maps with a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity higher than 85% and that, in about three fourth of the correctly identified complexes, we also correctly recognize at least one residue (five on average) belonging to the interaction interface. Given the present and continuously increasing number of proteins of known structure, the requirement of the knowledge of the structure of the interacting proteins does not substantially impact on the coverage of our strategy that can be estimated to be around 25%. We also introduce here the Estrella server that embodies this strategy, is designed for users interested in validating specific hypotheses about the functional role of a protein-protein interaction and it also allows access to pre-computed data for seven organisms.

  15. The communicative constitution of representation and exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, van M.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the light of current debate on representation, specifically engaging with literature showing how representation is communicatively constituted, this paper empirically shows how exclusion also can be seen as communicatively constituted. The interpretive approach toward communication employed in th

  16. The communicative constitution of representation and exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, van M.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the light of current debate on representation, specifically engaging with literature showing how representation is communicatively constituted, this paper empirically shows how exclusion also can be seen as communicatively constituted. The interpretive approach toward communication employed in th

  17. Spheres of Exemption, Figures of Exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the history of ideas, social science, political science and literature studies, Spheres of Exemption, Figures of Exclusion offers thirteen investigations into the co-constitutive relationship between subjectivity and political and legal order, combining theoretical reflection with empirical and historical...

  18. Exclusive processes at high momentum transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Radyushkin, Anatoly; Stoker, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This book focuses on the physics of exclusive processes at high momentum transfer and their description in terms of generalized parton distributions, perturbative QCD, and relativistic quark models. It covers recent developments in the field, both theoretical and experimental.

  19. 27 CFR 10.51 - Exclusion, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion, in general. 10..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Exclusion § 10.51 Exclusion, in general. (a) Exclusion... in exclusion. Section 10.54 lists the criteria used for determining whether other practices can...

  20. 42 CFR 402.205 - Length of exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... maximum time limit for the period of exclusion. Social Security Actparagraph Code of Federal... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Length of exclusion. 402.205 Section 402.205 Public... PROVISIONS CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS, AND EXCLUSIONS Exclusions § 402.205 Length of exclusion....

  1. Diffractive and Exclusive Processes at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of the CMS results on diffractive and exclusive production.Measurements of inclusive single and double diffractive production are discussedas well as measurements of the diffractive production at a hard scale. Measurementsof charged particle multiplicities for single diffractive enhanced data sample and studies of central diffractive jet production were perfrmed in a collaboration with the TOTEM experiment. CMS results on cross section measurements for exclusive dilepton and WW production are also presented.

  2. Rescinding the Ground Combat Exclusion Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    military. Many opponents believe that the military is being used as an experiment to "further social change in our society without regard for military...Miller, " Feminism and the Exclusion of Army Women from Combat," in Women in the Military, ed. Rita James Simon (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction...index.php/issuepapers (accessed November 23, 2010). Miller, Laura L. " Feminism and the Exclusion of Army Women from Combat." In Women in the Military

  3. Fighting poverty and exclusion through social investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    and social exclusion by 2020. In the aftermath of the crisis welfare states are called to address multi-level social risks while securing their financial sustainability. This Review presents evidence from Framework Programme research projects with a view to address the challenges of poverty and social...... exclusion. It puts forward policy recommendations that put the emphasis on social investment and protection and pave the way for upward convergence in employment and social issues...

  4. The development of stereotyping and exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Hitti, Aline; Killen, Melanie

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews the developmental science literature on stereotyping and exclusion, with a focus on gender, race, and ethnicity. Stereotyping of others, which is defined as the attribution of traits to individuals based on group membership, is often used to justify exclusion of others in social group contexts. This review includes a focus on the links between these two constructs. Research on stereotyping and exclusion has drawn on several theoretical traditions, including social domain theory, social identity developmental theory, and subjective group dynamics theory, which are also discussed in the context of the research findings. Key findings on stereotyping include categorization and classification in relationship with decreased in-group bias, and the role of stereotypes in encoding information. Findings on exclusion include the use of available information to make judgments, preferences for in-group members who are normative and out-group members who are deviant, the increased importance, with age, of group functioning in exclusion decisions, and decreased negative evaluation of in-group members who partake in exclusionary behaviors. Though little research has explicitly studied the links between stereotyping and exclusion from groups, this review describes the current literature in both areas and suggests future directions for research. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Association between Exclusive Breastfeeding and Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaniyyatul Khudri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child development highly correlates with child’s quality. The fastest child development period is during the first three years, also called golden period. This research was aimed to discover correlation between exclussive breastfeeding and child development in Cipacing Village Jatinangor, district of Sumedang. Methods: This research was conducted using cross-sectional method in thirteen Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu Cipacing Village in Jatinangor. One hundred and two children aged 12−24 months with their caregiver were recruited as respondents by using cluster sampling method. Hist ory of exclusive breastfeeding was assessed with questionnaire while child development status was assesed with Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan (KPSP in September 2013 after informed consent was obtained. Chi-square test analysis was performed to determine correlation between exclusive breastfeeding and child development status. Results: Overall, children in Cipacing Village had non-exclusive breastfeeding history (83.3%, and only 16.7% respondents had exclusive breastfeeding history. Meanwhile, 89.2% of children had normal development status, and 10.8% had delayed development status. Statistic analysis using chi-square test in the level of 95% confidence between exclusive breastfeeding and child development showed p=0.686 and odds ratio 2.133. Conclusions: There is no significant relationship between history of exclusive breastfeeding and child development status.

  6. Model of reversible vesicular transport with exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Karamched, Bhargav R.

    2016-08-01

    A major question in neurobiology concerns the mechanics behind the motor-driven transport and delivery of vesicles to synaptic targets along the axon of a neuron. Experimental evidence suggests that the distribution of vesicles along the axon is relatively uniform and that vesicular delivery to synapses is reversible. A recent modeling study has made explicit the crucial role that reversibility in vesicular delivery to synapses plays in achieving uniformity in vesicle distribution, so called synaptic democracy (Bressloff et al 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 168101). In this paper we generalize the previous model by accounting for exclusion effects (hard-core repulsion) that may occur between molecular motor-cargo complexes (particles) moving along the same microtubule track. The resulting model takes the form of an exclusion process with four internal states, which distinguish between motile and stationary particles, and whether or not a particle is carrying vesicles. By applying a mean field approximation and an adiabatic approximation we reduce the system of ODEs describing the evolution of occupation numbers of the sites on a 1D lattice to a system of hydrodynamic equations in the continuum limit. We find that reversibility in vesicular delivery allows for synaptic democracy even in the presence of exclusion effects, although exclusion does exacerbate nonuniform distributions of vesicles in an axon when compared with a model without exclusion. We also uncover the relationship between our model and other models of exclusion processes with internal states.

  7. Bayesian Evaluation of Inequality and Equality Constrained Hypotheses for Contingency Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugkist, Irene; Laudy, Olav; Hoijtink, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    In this article, a Bayesian model selection approach is introduced that can select the best of a set of inequality and equality constrained hypotheses for contingency tables. The hypotheses are presented in terms of cell probabilities allowing researchers to test (in)equality constrained hypotheses in a format that is directly related to the data.…

  8. Support for major hypotheses in invasion biology is uneven and declining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Jeschke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Several major hypotheses have been proposed to explain and predict biological invasions, but the general applicability of these hypotheses is largely unknown, as most of them have not been evaluated using a standard approach across taxonomic groups and habitats. We offer such an evaluation for six selected leading hypotheses. Our global literature review reveals that those hypotheses that consider interactions of exotic invaders with their new environment (invasional meltdown, novel weapons, enemy release are better supported by empirical evidence than other hypotheses (biotic resistance, island susceptibility, tens rule. We also show that empirical support for the six hypotheses has declined over time, and that support differs among taxonomic groups and habitats. Our results have implications for basic and applied research, policy making, and invasive species management, as their effectiveness depends on sound hypotheses.

  9. Each normal logic program has a 2-valued Minimal Hypotheses semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Alexandre Miguel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore a unifying approach --- that of hypotheses assumption --- as a means to provide a semantics for all Normal Logic Programs (NLPs), the Minimal Hypotheses (MH) semantics. This semantics takes a positive hypotheses assumption approach as a means to guarantee the desirable properties of model existence, relevance and cumulativity, and of generalizing the Stable Models in the process. To do so we first introduce the fundamental semantic concept of minimality of assumed positive hypotheses, define the MH semantics, and analyze the semantics' properties and applicability. Indeed, abductive Logic Programming can be conceptually captured by a strategy centered on the assumption of abducibles (or hypotheses). Likewise, the Argumentation perspective of Logic Programs also lends itself to an arguments (or hypotheses) assumption approach. Previous works on Abduction have depicted the atoms of default negated literals in NLPs as abducibles, i.e., assumable hypotheses. We take a complementary and mo...

  10. Neural correlates of retaliatory and prosocial reactions to social exclusion: Associations with chronic peer rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert-Jan Will

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is a distressing experience and can lead to both retaliatory and prosocial reactions toward the sources of exclusion. The way people react to social exclusion has been hypothesized to be shaped through chronic exposure to peer rejection. This functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study examined associations between chronic peer rejection and retaliatory (i.e. punishing and prosocial (i.e. forgiving reactions to social exclusion and the neural processes underlying them. Chronically rejected (n = 19 and stably highly accepted adolescents (n = 27 distributed money between themselves and unknown others who previously included or excluded them in a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball. Decreasing the excluders’ monetary profits (i.e., punishment was associated with increased activity in the ventral striatum, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC and parietal cortex in both groups. Compared to stably highly accepted adolescents, chronically rejected adolescents exhibited higher activity in the dorsal striatum and lateral prefrontal cortex – brain regions implicated in cognitive control – when they refrained from punishment and shared their money equally with (i.e. forgave the excluders. These results provide insights into processes that might underlie the maintenance of peer rejection across development, such as difficulties controlling the urge to retaliate after exclusion.

  11. Here we go again: bullying history and cardiovascular responses to social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Matthew L

    2014-06-22

    Previous research suggests that social exclusion-both acute and chronic-may be associated with a pattern of blunted cardiovascular responding. But it is unknown to what extent acute and chronic exclusion interact. That is, what happens when victims of long-term social rejection encounter an instance of exclusion later in life? The goal of the present study was to test whether prior experience being bullied would alter cardiovascular responses to an acute experience of social exclusion. Participants took part in a short online chat, during which they were either included or excluded from the conversation. Consistent with hypotheses, all participants showed an increase in sympathetic activity in the exclusion condition, but this response was significantly blunted among those with more chronic history of bullying victimization. No differences were observed for parasympathetic activity. This pattern suggests that a history of chronic victimization magnifies the cardiovascular "blunting" shown previously among victims of ostracism. This line of work suggests that bullying victims may develop regulatory mechanisms in response to social threats, and this may ultimately provide valuable information for helping victims become more resilient.

  12. Neural correlates of retaliatory and prosocial reactions to social exclusion: Associations with chronic peer rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Geert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A; van Lier, Pol A C; Güroğlu, Berna

    2016-06-01

    Social exclusion is a distressing experience and can lead to both retaliatory and prosocial reactions toward the sources of exclusion. The way people react to social exclusion has been hypothesized to be shaped through chronic exposure to peer rejection. This functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study examined associations between chronic peer rejection and retaliatory (i.e. punishing) and prosocial (i.e. forgiving) reactions to social exclusion and the neural processes underlying them. Chronically rejected (n=19) and stably highly accepted adolescents (n=27) distributed money between themselves and unknown others who previously included or excluded them in a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball). Decreasing the excluders' monetary profits (i.e., punishment) was associated with increased activity in the ventral striatum, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and parietal cortex in both groups. Compared to stably highly accepted adolescents, chronically rejected adolescents exhibited higher activity in the dorsal striatum and lateral prefrontal cortex - brain regions implicated in cognitive control - when they refrained from punishment and shared their money equally with (i.e. forgave) the excluders. These results provide insights into processes that might underlie the maintenance of peer rejection across development, such as difficulties controlling the urge to retaliate after exclusion.

  13. Responding by exclusion in temporal discrimination tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippola, Nathália Sabaine; Domeniconi, Camila; Machado, Armando

    2014-03-01

    Responding by exclusion, one of the most robust phenomena in Experimental Psychology, describes a particular form of responding observed in symbolic, matching-to-sample tasks. Given two comparison stimuli, one experimentally defined and one experimentally undefined, the participant prefers the undefined comparison following an undefined sample. The goal of the present study was to determine whether responding by exclusion could be obtained using samples that varied along a single dimension. Using a double temporal bisection task, 10 university students learned to choose visual comparisons (colored circles) based on the duration of a tone. In tests of exclusion, sample stimuli with new durations were followed by comparison sets that included one previously trained, defined comparison (colored circle) and one previously untrained, undefined comparison (geometric shape). Participants preferred the defined comparisons following the defined samples and the undefined comparisons following the undefined samples, the choice pattern typical of responding by exclusion. The use of samples varying along a single dimension allows us to study the interaction between stimulus generalization gradients and exclusion in the control of conditional responding.

  14. Cooperation induced by random sequential exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2016-06-01

    Social exclusion is a common and powerful tool to penalize deviators in human societies, and thus to effectively elevate collaborative efforts. Current models on the evolution of exclusion behaviors mostly assume that each peer excluder independently makes the decision to expel the defectors, but has no idea what others in the group would do or how the actual punishment effect will be. Thus, a more realistic model, random sequential exclusion, is proposed. In this mechanism, each excluder has to pay an extra scheduling cost and then all the excluders are arranged in a random order to implement the exclusion actions. If one free rider has already been excluded by an excluder, the remaining excluders will not participate in expelling this defector. We find that this mechanism can help stabilize cooperation under more unfavorable conditions than the normal peer exclusion can do, either in well-mixed population or on social networks. However, too large a scheduling cost may undermine the advantage of this mechanism. Our work validates the fact that collaborative practice among punishers plays an important role in further boosting cooperation.

  15. Haunted hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albon, S

    1998-10-01

    American Pronghorn: Social Adaptations and the Ghosts of Predators Past by J.A. Byers The University of Chicago Press, 1998. $70.00/£55.95 hbk, $23.95/£19.25 pbk (xviii+300 pages) ISBN 0 226 08698 4/0 226 08699 2.

  16. Digital exclusion in higher education contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Pedersen, Mette Jun Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    underlying the concepts of “digital exclusion” and the “digital divide” in higher education. The identified factors are grouped into three categories: social exclusion (i.e., low income, ICT-avoidance as the norm, lack of motivation and commitment, and physical or mental disability), digital exclusion (i...... to ICT adoption in higher education deal with similar factors, but these are experienced differently in different contexts. While generalizing these factors into categories enables a better understanding of the nature of digital exclusion, solving and circumventing them remains complex due......The integration and adoption of digital technologies have enabled improvements in the quality of and inclusion in higher education. However, a significant proportion of the population has either remained or become digitally excluded. This systematic literature review elucidates the factors...

  17. On Ternary Inclusion-Exclusion Polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, Gennady

    2010-01-01

    Taking a combinatorial point of view on cyclotomic polynomials leads to a larger class of polynomials we shall call the inclusion-exclusion polynomials. This gives a more appropriate setting for certain types of questions about the coefficients of these polynomials. After establishing some basic properties of inclusion-exclusion polynomials we turn to a detailed study of the structure of ternary inclusion-exclusion polynomials. The latter subclass is exemplified by cyclotomic polynomials $\\Phi_{pqr}$, where $p

  18. The evolution of cooperation by social exclusion

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    The exclusion of freeriders from common privileges or public acceptance is widely found in the real world. Current models on the evolution of cooperation with incentives mostly assume peer sanctioning, whereby a punisher imposes penalties on freeriders at a cost to itself. It is well known that such costly punishment has two substantial difficulties. First, a rare punishing cooperator barely subverts the asocial society of freeriders, and second, natural selection often eliminates punishing cooperators in the presence of non-punishing cooperators (namely, "second-order" freeriders). We present a game-theoretical model of social exclusion in which a punishing cooperator can exclude freeriders from benefit sharing. We show that such social exclusion can overcome the above-mentioned difficulties even if it is costly and stochastic. The results do not require a genetic relationship, repeated interaction, reputation, or group selection. Instead, only a limited number of freeriders are required to prevent the secon...

  19. Digital exclusion in higher education contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Pedersen, Mette Jun Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    .e., lack of hardware devices and Internet services) and accessibility (which include the division between rural and urban areas, as well as disparities in ICT literacy and information literacy). These factors are multi-tiered and overlapping. Studies on the digital divide, digital exclusion, and barriers......The integration and adoption of digital technologies have enabled improvements in the quality of and inclusion in higher education. However, a significant proportion of the population has either remained or become digitally excluded. This systematic literature review elucidates the factors...... underlying the concepts of “digital exclusion” and the “digital divide” in higher education. The identified factors are grouped into three categories: social exclusion (i.e., low income, ICT-avoidance as the norm, lack of motivation and commitment, and physical or mental disability), digital exclusion (i...

  20. Decreased interoceptive accuracy following social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlik, Caroline; Tsakiris, Manos

    2015-04-01

    The need for social affiliation is one of the most important and fundamental human needs. Unsurprisingly, humans display strong negative reactions to social exclusion. In the present study, we investigated the effect of social exclusion on interoceptive accuracy - accuracy in detecting signals arising inside the body - measured with a heartbeat perception task. We manipulated exclusion using Cyberball, a widely used paradigm of a virtual ball-tossing game, with half of the participants being included during the game and the other half of participants being ostracized during the game. Our results indicated that heartbeat perception accuracy decreased in the excluded, but not in the included, participants. We discuss these results in the context of social and physical pain overlap, as well as in relation to internally versus externally oriented attention.

  1. Hard exclusive reactions and generalized parton distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrapetyan Avetik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed formalism of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs allows connecting the experimental information of hard exclusive reactions to the spin contribution and even to the angular momentum contribution of quarks in the nucleon. By selecting different quantum numbers of the final state in exclusive productions, different GPDs can be addressed separately. The HERMES experiment at the HERA ring at DESY (Hamburg made pioneering contributions and first constraints to Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs, using hard exclusive vector meson production (EVMP and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS. Using a novel recoil detector, HERMES managed to measure DVCS and EVMP free of any significant background. Selected results are highlighted and discussed in this paper.

  2. Testing the Pauli Exclusion Principle for Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, J; Bertolucci, S; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, M; Cargnelli, M; Curceanu (Petrascu), C; Di Matteo, S; Egger, J-P; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Laubenstein, M; Milotti, E; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Romero Vidal, A; Scordo, A; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Sperandio, L; Vazquez Doce, O; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental rules of nature and a pillar in the foundation of quantum theory and thus of modern physics is represented by the Pauli Exclusion Principle. We know that this principle is extremely well fulfilled due to many observations. Numerous experiments were performed to search for tiny violation of this rule in various systems. The experiment VIP at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory is searching for possible small violations of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons leading to forbidden X-ray transitions in copper atoms. VIP is aiming at a test of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons with high accuracy, down to the level of 10$^{-29}$ - 10$^{-30}$, thus improving the previous limit by 3-4 orders of magnitude. The experimental method, results obtained so far and new developments within VIP2 (follow-up experiment at Gran Sasso, in preparation) to further increase the precision by 2 orders of magnitude will be presented.

  3. Teenage pregnancy and exclusive breastfeeding rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puapompong, Pawin; Raungrongmorakot, Kasem; Manolerdtewan, Wichian; Ketsuwan, Sukwadee; Wongin, Sinutchanan

    2014-09-01

    Teenage pregnancy is an important health issue globally and in Thailand Younger age mothers decide on the breastfeeding practices ofthe first 6-month. To find the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices of teenage mothers and compare them with the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices in mothers who are 20 years of age or more. Three thousand five hundred sixty three normal, postpartum women, who delivered without complications at the HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center in the Nakhon Nayok Province between 2010 and2013 were included in this study. At the second daypostpartum, the data of latch scores and the data of the practice of exclusive breastfeeding were collected Telephone follow-ups on the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth postpartum days and at the second, fourth, and sixth month postpartum month were collected and used for exclusive breastfeeding data following discharge. Demographic data included the maternal age, parity, gestational age, marital status, occupation, religion, route ofdelivery, estimated blood loss, body mass index, nipple length, and the childs birth weight. The collected data was analyzed by the t-test, Chi-square, and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. The percentage of teenage pregnancies was at 14.8% (527 cases). On postpartum day 2, the percentage of latch scores of 8 or less was 66.4%. At the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth day and at the second, fourth, and sixth months postpartum, the exclusive breastfeeding rates were 88.5, 78.5, 57.6, 43.1, 32.9, and27.0%, respectively. Comparison of the 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rates between teenage mothers and mothers 20 years ofage or older were not statistically significant (pteenage mothers was at 27.0% and had no significant differences from the rates of mothers 20 years of age or more.

  4. Exclusive Jet Production with Forward Proton Tagging

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of measuring central exclusive jet production at ATLAS using the AFP detectors is presented. Two data-taking scenarios are considered; an average number of interactions per bunch crossing of $\\mu = 23$ with integrated luminosity of 40~fb$^{-1}$ and $\\mu = 46$ with integrated luminosity of 300 fb$^{-1}$. After the event selection, a signal-to-background ratio of 0.57 (0.16) for $\\mu = 23$ (46) was achieved. The expected precision of the central exclusive dijet cross section measurement is shown with an estimation of the dominant systematic uncertainties.

  5. ICT and Socio-Economic Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Haisken-DeNew, John P.; D'AMBROSIO, CONCHITA

    2003-01-01

    Using an innovative dataset for ICT use for five countries in Europe, we examine the impact and association of ICT on socio-economic exclusion. Using OLS regression we find significant wage premiums for PC and internet usage at the workplace. Following Dinardo/Fortin/Lemieux (1997), we examine the impact of ICT on the distribution of wages. We find that the risk of economic exclusion increases markedly for those not having ICT at the workplace, with the largest effects being found in Britain....

  6. Exclusive B decays to charmonium final states

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Bernard; Boutigny, D; De Bonis, I; Favier, Jean; Gaillard, Jean-Marc; Galeazzi, F; Jérémie, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zachariadou, K; Palano, A; Chen, G P; Chen Jia Chao; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Reinertsen, P L; Stugu, B; Abbott, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Clark, A R; Fan, Q; Gill, M S; Gowdy, S J; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kluth, S; Kral, J F; Leclerc, C; Levi, M E; Liu, T; Lynch, G; Meyer, A B; Momayezi, M; Oddone, P J; Perazzo, A; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Strother, P; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Champion, T J; Hawkes, C M; Kirk, A; O'Neale, S W; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Koch, H; Krug, J; Kunze, M; Lewandowski, B; Peters, K; Schmücker, H; Steinke, M; Andress, J C; Chevalier, N; Clark, P J; Cottingham, N; De Groot, N; Dyce, N; Foster, B; Mass, A; McFall, J D; Wallom, D; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Camanzi, B; McKemey, A K; Tinslay, J; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Bukin, D A; Buzykaev, A R; Dubrovin, M S; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Korol, A A; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Salnikov, A A; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Yushkov, A N; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Stoker, D P; Ahsan, A; Arisaka, K; Buchanan, C D; Chun, S; Branson, J G; Faccini, R; MacFarlane, D B; Rahatlou, S; Raven, G; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Hart, P A; Kuznetsova, N P; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Witherell, M; Yellin, S; Beringer, J; Dorfan, D E; Eisner, A M; Frey, A; Grillo, A A; Grothe, M; Heusch, C A; Johnson, R P; Kröger, W; Lockman, W S; Pulliam, T; Sadrozinski, H F W; Schalk, T L; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Williams, D C; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoredsky, A P; Hitlin, D G; Kolomensky, Yu G; Metzler, S; Oyang, J Y T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Weaver, M; Yang, S; Zhu, R Y; Aleksan, Roy; De Domenico, G; de Lesquen, A; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Serfass, B; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Devmal, S C; Geld, T L; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blouw, J; Harton, J L; Krishnamurthy, M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Fahey, S; Ford, W T; Gaede, F; Johnson, D R; Michael, A K; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Park, H; Rankin, P; Roy, J D; Sen, S; Smith, J G; Wagner, D L; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dahlinger, G; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Kocian, M L; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Behr, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Ferrag, S; Roussot, E; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Anjomshoaa, A; Bernet, R; Di Lodovico, F; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Bozzi, C; Dittongo, S; Folegani, M; Piemontese, L; Treadwell, E A; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Bagnasco, S; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Musenich, R; Parodi, R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F; Patrignani, C; Pia, M G; Priano, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Fischer, P A; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Rosenberg, E I; Bartoldus, R; Dignan, T; Hamilton, R; Mallik, U; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Morganti, M; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Simi, G; Triggiani, G; Benkebil, M; Grosdidier, G; Hast, C; Höcker, A; Le Peltier, V; Lutz, A M; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Valassi, Andrea; Wormser, G; Bionta, R M; Brigljevic, V; Fackler, O; Fujino, D; Lange, D J; Mugge, M; Shi, X; Wenaus, T J; Wright, D M; Wuest, C R; Carroll, M; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; George, M; Kay, M; McMahon, S; McMahon, T R; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Aspinwall, M L; Dauncey, P D; Eschrich, I; Gunawardane, N J W; Martin, R D; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Smith, D; Azzopardi, D E; Back, J J; Dixon, P; Harrison, P F; Vidal, P B; Williams, M I; Cowan, G D; Green, M G; Kurup, A; McGrath, P; Scott, I; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Li, Y; Pavlovich, J; Trunov, A G; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Boyd, J T; Fullwood, J; Khan, A; Lafferty, G D; Savvas, N; Simopoulos, E T; Thompson, R J; Weatherall, J H; Dallapiccola, C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Lillard, V; Olsen, J; Roberts, D A; Brau, B; Cowan, R; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Blaylock, G; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R R; Lin, C S; Willocq, S; Wittlin, J; Bloom, P; Britton, D I; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Trischuk, J; Lanni, F; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Booke, M; Cremaldi, L M; Kroeger, R A; Reidy, J; Sanders, D; Summers, D J; Arguin, J F; Martin, J P; Nief, J Y; Seitz, R; Taras, P; Woch, A; Zacek, V; Nicholson, H; Sutton, C S; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Falbo, M; LoSecco, J M; Alsmiller, J R G; Gabriel, T A; Handler, T; Colecchia, F; Dal Corso, F; Michelon, G; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Stroili, R; Torassa, E; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; La Vaissière, C de; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; Le Diberder, F R; Leruste, P J; Lory, J; Martínez-Vidal, F; Roos, L; Stark, J; Versille, S; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Speziali, V; Frank, E D; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J H; Haire, M J; Judd, D; Paick, K; Turnbull, L; Wagoner, D E; Albert, J; Bula, C; Kelsey, M H; Lü, C; McDonald, K T; Miftakov, V; Schaffner, S F; Smith, A J S; Tumanov, A; Varnes, E W; Cavoto, G; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Fratini, K; Lamanna, E; Leonardi, E; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Safai-Tehrani, F; Serra, M; Waldi, R; Jacques, P F; Kalelkar, M S; Plano, R J; Adye, T; Egede, U; Franek, B J; Geddes, N I; Gopal, Gian P; Copty, N K; Purohit, M V; Yumiceva, F X; Adam, I; Anthony, P L; Anulli, F; Aston, D; Baird, K G; Bloom, Elliott D; Boyarski, A M; Bulos, F; Calderini, G; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Coward, D H; Dorfan, J; Doser, Michael; Dunwoodie, W M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G L; Grosso, P; Hewett, J L; Himel, Thomas M; Huffer, M E; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kim, P; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; Manzin, G; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Moffeit, K C; Morii, M; Mount, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Paolucci, P; Petrak, S; Quinn, Helen R; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Rochester, L S; Roodman, A; Schietinger, T; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Sciolla, G; Serbo, V V; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Spanier, S M; Stahl, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Talby, M; Tanaka, H A; Vavra, J; Wagner, S R; Weinstein, A J; Wisniewski, W J; Young, C C; Burchat, Patricia R; Cheng, C H; Kirkby, D; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; De Silva, A; Henderson, R; Bugg, W; Cohn, H; Hart, E; Weidemann, A W; Benninger, T; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Turcotte, M; Bianchi, F; Bóna, M; Di Girolamo, B; Gamba, D; Smol, A V; Zanin, D; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Prest, M; Vallazza, E; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Brown, C M; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R V; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Charles, E; Dasu, S; Elmer, P; Johnson, J R; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Scott, I J; Walsh, J; Wu Sau Lan; Yu, Z; Zobernig, H

    2000-01-01

    We report on exclusive decays of B mesons into final states containing charmonium using data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage rings. The charmonium states considered here are J/psi, psi(2S), and chi_C1. Branching fractions for several exclusive final states, a measurement of the decay amplitudes for the B0 --> J/psi K* decay, and measurements of the B0 and B+ masses are presented. All of the results we present here are preliminary.

  7. Exclusive B Decays to Charmonium Final States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Barbara

    2000-10-13

    We report on exclusive decays of B mesons into final states containing charmonium using data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage rings. The charmonium states considered here are J/{psi}, {psi}(2S), and {chi}{sub c1}. Branching fractions for several exclusive final states, a measurement of the decay amplitudes for the B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi} K* decay, and measurements of the B{sup 0} and B{sup +} masses are presented. All of the results we present here are preliminary.

  8. 27 CFR 6.151 - Exclusion, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion, in general. 6.151 Section 6.151 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.151 Exclusion, in general. (a) Exclusion,...

  9. 27 CFR 8.52 - Practices which result in exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Practices which result in..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Exclusion § 8.52 Practices which result in exclusion. The practices specified in this section result in exclusion under section 105(a) of the Act. The...

  10. Exclusive Diffraction at HERA and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Fazio, S

    2010-01-01

    The exclusive diffractive production of vector mesons and real photons in ep collisions has been studied at HERA in a wide kinematic range. Here the most recent experimental results are presented together with a Regge-type model and projects for new diffractive studies at LHC.

  11. 24 CFR 58.35 - Categorical exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... impact statement or environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact under NEPA is required... significant impact. Compliance with the other applicable Federal environmental laws and authorities listed in... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Categorical exclusions....

  12. Starvation-free mutual exclusion with semaphores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.; IJbema, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The standard implementation of mutual exclusion by means of a semaphore allows starvation of processes. Between 1979 and 1986, three algorithms were proposed that preclude starvation. These algorithms use a special kind of semaphore. We model this so-called buffered semaphore rigorously and provide

  13. 40 CFR 68.126 - Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusion. 68.126 Section 68.126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Regulated Substances for Accidental Release Prevention § 68.126...

  14. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practices in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACIPH_Admin

    marital status, wealth index and age of the child were closely associated with EBF practices, nonetheless, in the ... nutrients, water etc. for an infant's need under six months of age (9). ... Exclusive breast-feeding: the mother/care giver reported ...

  15. Testing the exclusivity effect in location memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel P A; Dunn, Andrew K; Baguley, Thom

    2013-01-01

    There is growing literature exploring the possibility of parallel retrieval of location memories, although this literature focuses primarily on the speed of retrieval with little attention to the accuracy of location memory recall. Baguley, Lansdale, Lines, and Parkin (2006) found that when a person has two or more memories for an object's location, their recall accuracy suggests that only one representation can be retrieved at a time (exclusivity). This finding is counterintuitive given evidence of non-exclusive recall in the wider memory literature. The current experiment explored the exclusivity effect further and aimed to promote an alternative outcome (i.e., independence or superadditivity) by encouraging the participants to combine multiple representations of space at encoding or retrieval. This was encouraged by using anchor (points of reference) labels that could be combined to form a single strongly associated combination. It was hypothesised that the ability to combine the anchor labels would allow the two representations to be retrieved concurrently, generating higher levels of recall accuracy. The results demonstrate further support for the exclusivity hypothesis, showing no significant improvement in recall accuracy when there are multiple representations of a target object's location as compared to a single representation.

  16. Deadlocks and dihomotopy in mutual exclusion models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    spaces, the directed ($d$-spaces) of M.Grandis and the flows of P. Gaucher. All models invite to use or modify ideas from algebraic topology, notably homotopy. In specific semaphore models for mutual exclusion, we have developed methods and algorithms that can detect deadlocks and unsafe regions and give...

  17. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  18. 29 CFR 102.159 - Exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusions. 102.159 Section 102.159 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Debt-Collection Procedures... initiation of the collection action. A determination of when the debt first accrued should be made according...

  19. Encounters with Exclusion through Disability Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines disability arts and its role in identifying exclusion and barriers to participation within society. The work of selected writers, poets and musicians is presented and its value as a form of ideological critique is explored. It is suggested that disability arts has the potential to succeed where other forms of ideological…

  20. Bitcoin and Beyond: Exclusively Informational Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; de Leeuw, K.

    2013-01-01

    The famous new money Bitcoin is classified as a technical informational money (TIM). Besides introducing the idea of a TIM, a more extreme notion of informational money will be developed: exclusively informational money (EXIM). The informational coins (INCOs) of an EXIM can be in control of an agent

  1. Bitcoin and Beyond: Exclusively Informational Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; de Leeuw, K.

    2013-01-01

    The famous new money Bitcoin is classified as a technical informational money (TIM). Besides introducing the idea of a TIM, a more extreme notion of informational money will be developed: exclusively informational money (EXIM). The informational coins (INCOs) of an EXIM can be in control of an agent

  2. Role of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Preventing Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifah Rohmah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk has protective factors for infants’ digestive tract. Infants are vulnerable to diseases, one of which is diarrhea. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the relation between the proportion of diarrhea in infants and the administration of exclusive breastfeeding in Jatinangor. Methods: This study was an observational study. Data on mothers with 6 months old infants were collected from Jatinangor Primary Health Center (PHC infant records. The inclusion criteria applied were infants born in April 2012, alive, and living in Jatinangor subdistrict. One hundred and seventy one infants were recorded in April of 2012 in the PHC data. Thirty five were excluded because they were not born in April 2012. Another 45 were excluded because they were not permanent residents of Jatinangor subdistrict, while 4 infants died, and 23 had incomplete data. Therefore, only 66 infants were included as study subjects. Those infants came from 12 villages in the subdistrict of Jatinangor. Data collection was then performed using a questionnaire to the parents during the period of 21–31 October 2012. Results: From 66 infants, the proportion of diarrhea was 66.7%. Only 27.3% of all infants received exclusive breastfeeding. There was a difference in the proportion of diarrhea between infants who were exclusively breastfed and those who were not. Exclusive breastfeeding also reduced the risk of diarrhea (OR= 0.26, 95% CI 0.08–0.83. Conclusions: There is a relation between the proportion of diarrhea in infants and exclusive breastfeeding in Jatinangor. Breastfeeding has a protective effect against diarrhea in infants.

  3. Comparison of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in exclusively and non-exclusively breastfed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analysa Margaretha Bogar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for the prevention of rickets. Human milk typically contains a vitamin D concentration of 25 IU/L or less. Bbreastfed infants are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Previous studies conducted in countries with four seasons have reported that risk factors associated with vitamin D deficiency influence the vitamin D status in exclusively breastfed infants. Objective To compare the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OoHD in exclusively and non-exclusively breastfed infants. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Singkil District, Manado from February to May 2011. Of 48 Posyandu (Integrated Health Center, 4 were chosen to be the sources of subjects for this study. Subjects were collected consecutively among infants aged 6-7 months. The resulting exclusively and non-exclusively breastfed groups had 36 infants each. Results The mean 25(OHD level in the exclusively breastfed group was 61.75 nmol/L (95% CI 58.02 to 65.48 and in the non-exclusively breastfed group was 85.09 nmol/L (95% CI 79.49 to 90.68. The difference in 25(D levels in the two groups was statistically significant. However, 25(OHD levels of both groups were within the normal range. Conclusion The 25(D level was significantly lower in ex-exclusively breastfed infants compared to that in non-exclusively breastfed infants, but both levels were still in the normal range. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:157-60].

  4. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha to Evaluate Informative Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to evaluate informative hypotheses for meta-analysis of Cronbach's coefficient alpha using a Bayesian approach. The coefficient alpha is one of the most widely used reliability indices. In meta-analyses of reliability, researchers typically form specific informative hypotheses beforehand, such as "alpha of…

  5. Central exclusive production of hadrons in CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrow, M. G. [Fermilab; Lontkovskyi, D. [Unlisted, PL; Makarenko, I. [Unlisted, PL; Swiech, A. [Unlisted, PL; Zurek, M. [Unlisted, PL

    2012-01-01

    At the Fermilab Tevatron with $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 and 1960 GeV, we have studied exclusive double pomeron exchange in the Collider Detector at Fermilab, CDF. With $\\sim$300,000 events we present the mass spectrum of two hadrons, $h^+h^-$, assumed to be pions, with $|\\eta(\\pi)| <$ 1.3 and two rapidity gaps $\\Delta \\eta > 4.6$. The mass spectrum shows resonance structures, including $f_0(980),f_2(1270),$ and$ f_0(1370)$. The cross section ratio 1960 GeV/900 GeV and the mean $p_T(pair)$ show mass-dependent structures, even above $M$ = 2 GeV where there are no established $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ resonances. The data extend above $M$ = 5 GeV. We place an upper limit on exclusive $\\chi_{c0} \\rightarrow \\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $K^+K^-$.

  6. Diffractive and Exclusive Measurements at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Ruspa, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Recent measurements are discussed of inclusive and exclusive diffractive processes in pp colli- sions at √ s = 7 TeV at the LHC using the CMS detector. Results are presented of the single- and double-diffractive cross section and of the inclusive differential cross section for events with a forward rapidity gap. A study of exclusive W + W − production by two-photon exchange, where, in different kinematic regions, both con fi rmation and deviations from the Standard Model predic- tions are searched, is reported. Finally, a joint measurement with the CMS and TOTEM detectors of the pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles produced in pp collisions at √ s = 8 TeV is presented. This is the fi rst joint study between the two experiments.

  7. Mesoscopic full counting statistics and exclusion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, P.-E.; Derrida, B.; Douçot, B.

    2005-02-01

    We calculate the distribution of current fluctuations in two simple exclusion models. Although these models are classical, we recover even for small systems such as a simple or a double barrier, the same distibution of current as given by traditional formalisms for quantum mesoscopic conductors. Due to their simplicity, the full counting statistics in exclusion models can be reduced to the calculation of the largest eigenvalue of a matrix, the size of which is the number of internal configurations of the system. As examples, we derive the shot noise power and higher order statistics of current fluctuations (skewness, full counting statistics, ....) of various conductors, including multiple barriers, diffusive islands between tunnel barriers and diffusive media. A special attention is dedicated to the third cumulant, which experimental measurability has been demonstrated lately.

  8. Exclusive hadronic decays of B mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Andreas

    1991-06-01

    The recent experimental results on exclusive hadronic decays of B mesons obtained by the ARGUS collaboration are presented in the talk. The results include exclusive hadronic decays involving a b → c transition, namely B decays with a D, D ∗ plus several pions and B decays to J/ψ or ψ' mesons plus Kaons have been studied. The measurements of branching ratios for two-body B decays involving a J/ψ or ψ' meson are of wide interest in the light of proposals for the study of CP violation in future experiments. The branching ratios are compared with the predictions of the model of Bauer, Stech and Wirbel and with a model of A.V. Dobrovolskaya. Using the cleanest decay channels, the masses and mass difference of the charged and neutral B meson are obtained. This mass difference is then compared with the mass splitting in other isospinmultipletts and with theoretical models.

  9. Measurement of exclusive $\\omega$ electroproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Breitweg, J; Derrick, Malcolm; Krakauer, D A; Magill, S; Musgrave, B; Pellegrino, A; Repond, J; Stanek, R; Yoshida, R; Mattingly, M C K; Abbiendi, G; Anselmo, F; Antonioli, P; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Cara Romeo, G; Castellini, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Coppola, N; Corradi, M; De Pasquale, S; Giusti, P; Iacobucci, G; Laurenti, G; Levi, G; Margotti, A; Massam, Thomas; Nania, R; Palmonari, F; Pesci, A; Polini, A; Sartorelli, G; Zamora-Garcia, Yu E; Zichichi, A; Amelung, C; Bornheim, A; Brock, I; Coboken, K; Crittenden, James Arthur; Deffner, R; Hartmann, H; Heinloth, K; Hilger, E; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Kappes, A; Katz, U F; Kerger, R; Paul, E; Rautenberg, J; Schnurbusch, H; Stifutkin, A; Tandler, J; Voss, K C; Weber, A; Wieber, H; Bailey, D S; Barret, O; Brook, N H; Foster, B; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; McFall, J D; Rodrigues, E; Scott, J; Tapper, R J; Capua, M; Mastroberardino, A; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Jeoung, H Y; Kim, J Y; Lee, J H; Lim, I T; Ma, K J; Pac, M Y; Caldwell, A; Liu, W; Liu, X; Mellado, B; Paganis, S; Sampson, S; Schmidke, W B; Sciulli, F; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, Andrzej; Figiel, J; Klimek, K H; Olkiewicz, K; Piotrzkowski, K; Przybycien, M B; Stopa, P; Zawiejski, L; Bednarek, B; Jelen, K; Kisielewska, D; Kowal, A M; Kowalski, T; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Suszycki, L; Szuba, D; Kotanski, Andrzej; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Bienlein, J K; Borras, K; Dannheim, D; Desler, K; Drews, G; Fox-Murphy, A; Fricke, U; Göbel, F; Goers, S; Göttlicher, P; Graciani, R; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hartner, G F; Hasell, D; Hebbel, K; Kasemann, M; Koch, W; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Lindemann, L; Löhr, B; Mankel, R; Martínez, M; Milite, M; Moritz, M; Notz, D; Pelucchi, F; Petrucci, M C; Rohde, M; Savin, A A; Schneekloth, U; Selonke, F; Sievers, M; Stonjek, S; Wolf, G; Wollmer, U; Youngman, C; Zeuner, W; Coldewey, C; López-Duran-Viani, A; Meyer, A; Schlenstedt, S; Straub, P B; Barbagli, G; Gallo, E; Pelfer, P G; Maccarrone, G D; Votano, L; Bamberger, Andreas; Benen, A; Eisenhardt, S; Markun, P; Raach, H; Wölfle, S; Bussey, Peter J; Bell, M; Doyle, A T; Lee, S W; Lupi, A; MacDonald, N; McCance, G J; Saxon, D H; Sinclair, L E; Skillicorn, Ian O; Waugh, R; Bohnet, I; Gendner, N; Holm, U; Meyer-Larsen, A; Salehi, H; Wick, K; Garfagnini, A; Gialas, I; Gladilin, L K; Kcira, D; Klanner, Robert; Lohrmann, E; Poelz, G; Zetsche, F; Goncalo, R; Long, K R; Miller, D B; Tapper, A D; Walker, R; Mallik, U; Cloth, P; Filges, D; Ishii, T; Kuze, M; Nagano, K; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Ahn, S H; Lee, S B; Park, S K; Lim, H; Park, I H; Son, D; Barreiro, F; García, G; Glasman, C; González, O; Labarga, L; Del Peso, J; Redondo, I; Terron, J; Barbi, M S; Corriveau, F; Hanna, D S; Ochs, A; Padhi, S; Stairs, D G; Wing, M; Tsurugai, T; Antonov, A; Bashkirov, V; Danilov, M V; Dolgoshein, B A; Gladkov, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Suchkov, S; Dementev, R K; Ermolov, P F; Golubkov, Yu A; Katkov, I I; Khein, L A; Korotkova, N A; Korzhavina, I A; Kuzmin, V A; Lukina, O Yu; Proskuryakov, A S; Sheheglova, L M; Solomin, A N; Vlasov, N N; Zotkin, S A; Bokel, C; Botje, M; Brümmer, N; Engelen, J; Grijpink, S; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P M; Schagen, S; Van Sighem, A; Tassi, E; Tiecke, H G; Tuning, N; Velthuis, J J; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Wiggers, L; De Wolf, E; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Kim, C L; Ling, T Y; Boogert, S; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Devenish, R C E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Matsushita, T; Ruske, O; Sutton, M R; Walczak, R; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; Dosselli, U; Dusini, S; Limentani, S; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Stanco, L; Stroili, R; Turcato, M; Voci, C; Adamczyk, L; Iannotti, L; Oh, B Y; Okrasinski, J R; Saull, P R B; Toothacker, W S; Whitmore, J J; Iga, Y; D'Agostini, Giulio; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Cormack, C; Hart, J C; McCubbin, N A; Shah, T P; Epperson, D E; Heusch, C A; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Wichmann, R; Williams, D C; Pavel, N; Abramowicz, H; Dagan, S; Kananov, S; Kreisel, A; Levy, A; Abe, T; Fusayasu, T; Umemori, K; Yamashita, T; Hamatsu, R; Hirose, T; Inuzuka, M; Kitamura, S; Nishimura, T; Arneodo, M; Cartiglia, N; Cirio, R; Costa, M; Ferrero, M I; Maselli, S; Monaco, V; Peroni, C; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Dardo, M; Bailey, D C; Fagerstroem, C P; Galea, R; Koop, T; Levman, G M; Martin, J F; Orr, R S; Polenz, S; Sabetfakhri, A; Simmons, D; Butterworth, J M; Catterall, C D; Hayes, M E; Heaphy, E A; Jones, T W; Lane, J B; West, B J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Grzelak, G; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Pawlak, R; Smalska, B; Tymieniecka, T; Wróblewski, A K; Zakrzewski, J A; Zarnecki, A F; Adamus, M; Gadaj, T; Deppe, O; Eisenberg, Y; Hochman, D; Karshon, U; Badgett, W F; Chapin, D; Cross, R; Foudas, C; Mattingly, S E K; Reeder, D D; Smith, W H; Vaiciulis, A W; Wildschek, T; Wodarczyk, M; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Hughes, V W; Bhadra, S; Cole, J E; Frisken, W R; Hall-Wilton, R; Khakzad, M; Menary, S R

    2001-01-01

    The exclusive electroproduction of omega mesons, ep -> e omega p, has been studied in the kinematic range 3 pi^+pi^-pi^0. The exclusive (ep -> e omega p) cross section in the above kinematic region is 0.108 +- 0.014(stat.) +- 0.026(syst.) nb. The reaction ep -> e phi p, phi -> pi^+pi^-pi^0, has also been measured. The cross sections, as well as the cross-section ratios omega/rho and omega/phi, are presented as a function of W and Q^2. Thus, for the first time, the properties of omega electroproduction can be compared to those of rho^0, phi and J/psi electroproduction at high W.

  10. Social exclusion: the interplay of group goals and individual characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Cameron B; Hitti, Aline; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie

    2014-08-01

    Past research has shown that adolescents justify social exclusion based on concerns for group functioning, and yet, to date, no study has evaluated whether group functioning justifications shift or remain stable across different exclusion contexts. In this study, we systematically manipulated exclusion context (i.e., competitive or noncompetitive soccer groups) and individual characteristics of the target of exclusion to test the nature of the interaction between these factors during exclusion judgments. Adolescents' (N = 201; 61% Female) exclusion judgments differed across contexts only when an individual's ability was under consideration. Intergroup (i.e., gender, nationality) and interpersonal (i.e., aggression, shyness) characteristics overwhelmed contextual considerations. Results indicate the complexity of factors weighed by adolescents when making exclusion judgments, and suggest the need for extension of the present findings to understand more fully the interaction between the context of exclusion and individual characteristics in exclusion judgments.

  11. Hard Exclusive Production of Tensor Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, V M

    2001-01-01

    We point out that hard exclusive production of tensor mesons $f_2(1270)$ with helicity $\\lambda=\\pm 2$ is dominated by the gluon component in the meson wave function and can be used to determine gluon admixture in tensor mesons in a theoretically clean manner. We present a detailed analysis of the tensor meson distribution amplitudes and calculate the transition form factor $\\gamma+\\gamma^*\\to f_2(1270)$ for one real and one virtual photon.

  12. Exclusive nonleptonic B→VV decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, N.; Naimuddin, Sk.; Dash, P. C.; Kar, Susmita

    2009-07-01

    The exclusive two-body nonleptonic B→VV decays are investigated, within the factorization approximation, in the relativistic independent quark model based on a confining potential in the scalar-vector harmonic form. The branching ratios and the logitudinal polarization fraction (RL) are calculated yielding the model predictions in agreement with experiment. Our predicted CP-odd fraction (R⊥) for B→D*D(s)* decays are in general agreement with other model predictions and within the existing experimental limit.

  13. ATLAS results on diffraction and exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224260; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Various aspects of forward physics have been studied by the ATLAS collaboration using data from Run I at the LHC. In this text, main results of three published analyses are summarized, based on data from proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ or 8 TeV collected between 2010 and 2012. One analysis deals with diffractive signature with at least two jets in the final state, the other two study exclusive production of a pair of leptons or W bosons.

  14. The Asymmetric Exclusion Process and Brownian Excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, B.; Enaud, C.; Lebowitz, J. L.

    2004-04-01

    We consider the totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) in one dimension in its maximal current phase. We show, by an exact calculation, that the non-Gaussian part of the fluctuations of density can be described in terms of the statistical properties of a Brownian excursion. Numerical simulations indicate that the description in terms of a Brownian excursion remains valid for more general one dimensional driven systems in their maximal current phase.

  15. Immunoglobulin heavy chain exclusion in the shark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Malecek

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system depends on specific antigen receptors, immunoglobulins (Ig in B lymphocytes and T cell receptors (TCR in T lymphocytes. Adaptive responses to immune challenge are based on the expression of a single species of antigen receptor per cell; and in B cells, this is mediated in part by allelic exclusion at the Ig heavy (H chain locus. How allelic exclusion is regulated is unclear; we considered that sharks, the oldest vertebrates possessing the Ig/TCR-based immune system, would yield insights not previously approachable and reveal the primordial basis of the regulation of allelic exclusion. Sharks have an IgH locus organization consisting of 15-200 independently rearranging miniloci (VH-D1-D2-JH-Cmu, a gene organization that is considered ancestral to the tetrapod and bony fish IgH locus. We found that rearrangement takes place only within a minilocus, and the recombining gene segments are assembled simultaneously and randomly. Only one or few H chain genes were fully rearranged in each shark B cell, whereas the other loci retained their germline configuration. In contrast, most IgH were partially rearranged in every thymocyte (developing T cell examined, but no IgH transcripts were detected. The distinction between B and T cells in their IgH configurations and transcription reveals a heretofore unsuspected chromatin state permissive for rearrangement in precursor lymphocytes, and suggests that controlled limitation of B cell lineage-specific factors mediate regulated rearrangement and allelic exclusion. This regulation may be shared by higher vertebrates in which additional mechanistic and regulatory elements have evolved with their structurally complex IgH locus.

  16. Exclusive ω meson production at COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Wolf-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive ω meson production is studied by the COMPASS Collaboration using the CERN 160 GeV/c muon beam and a transversely polarised proton target. Single-spin and double-spin asymmetries are measured, some of which are sensitive to the Generalised Parton Distributions E that are related to quark orbital angular momenta. The results, which are sensitive also to the pion-pole contribution to the production mechanism, are compared to the predictions of a phenomenological model.

  17. Exclusive ω meson production at COMPASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Sznajder, Paweł

    2016-11-01

    Exclusive ω meson production is studied by the COMPASS Collaboration using the CERN 160 GeV/c muon beam and a transversely polarised proton target. Single-spin and double-spin asymmetries are measured, some of which are sensitive to the Generalised Parton Distributions E that are related to quark orbital angular momenta. The results, which are sensitive also to the pion-pole contribution to the production mechanism, are compared to the predictions of a phenomenological model.

  18. Exclusion testing in pregnancy for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, A; Quarrell, O W; Lazarou, L P; Meredith, A L; Harper, P S

    1990-01-01

    The results of DNA analysis are presented for a series of 90 couples, with one partner at 50% risk for Huntington's disease (HD), who were referred for exclusion testing in pregnancy over a three year period. Thirty-seven couples were studied in detail. The aims of the study were to evaluate attitudes towards prenatal testing, before pregnancy and afterwards, and the effectiveness of our counseling and methods of organising the service. Problems which could arise in relation to presymptomatic testing are documented. It is concluded that exclusion testing is a valuable form of prediction for some couples, particularly where family structure does not permit prediction for the person at risk. The need for intensive counselling was highlighted by the difficulties experienced by many couples in understanding how the test worked. Particular ethical and organisational problems may arise which require careful consideration beforehand and some recommendations are made. The proportion of couples who will continue to request exclusion testing as pre-symptomatic testing becomes more widely applicable remains unknown. PMID:2145437

  19. ATLAS results on diffraction and exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    Tasevsky, Marek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has carried out a study of diffractive dijet production at 7 TeV pp collisions at the LHC, i.e. events with a hadronic system containing at least two jets in addition to a large region of pseudorapidity devoid of hadronic activity. The data distributions are compared with Monte Carlo models and the rapidity gap survival probability has been estimated in the kinematic region with high diffractive contribution. In the absence of forward proton tagging, exclusive processes can be distinguished in the central part of the ATLAS detector exploiting the large rapidity gap in the central region and the absence of charged particles reconstructed in the inner tracking detector. This strategy has been exploited to study the exclusive production of dilepton pairs in the data taken at centreofmass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The 7 TeV study concentrates on a precision measurement of the dielectron and dimuon process, while the 8 TeV measurement explores the exclusive production of WW pairs in the elec...

  20. Evolution of exclusive paternal care in arthopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallamy, D W

    2001-01-01

    Exclusive male care of offspring is the rarest form of postzygotic parental care among animals and has arisen independently in only 13 arthropod taxa. To distinguish the effects of sexual selection from those of natural selection on the evolution of arthropod paternal care, predictions concerning several life-history and behavioral traits resulting from both forms of selection are made and tested across all known taxa with exclusive paternal care. Comparisons suggest parallels between prezygotic nuptial gifts and exclusive postzygotic male care and support the hypothesis that, in arthropods, male behaviors that enhance female reproductive success either directly, by releasing females from the fecundity constraints of maternal care (enhanced fecundity hypothesis), or indirectly, by identifying mates with superior genes (handicap principle), are traits on which sexual selection has acted. Under such conditions, males that are willing to guard young become preferred mates for gravid females and enjoy greater promiscuity than males that are unable or unwilling to guard. Females use nest construction or the act of guarding another female's eggs as honest signals of paternal intent and quality.

  1. MAJOR HEPATIC RESECTION UNDER TOTAL VASCULAR EXCLUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季加孚; 顾晋; 苏向前; 焦春雨; 王怡; 欧阳晓辉; 董培德; 杨成旺

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To eveluate major liver resections with vascular exclusion (TVE) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Sixteen consecutive, major liver resections performed with TVE in HCC patients were analyzed retrospectively. The patients' mean ages were 54 years. Ten patients had cirrhosis and eleven patients had chronic hepatitis B. Results: There was no perioperative death and the mean hospital stay was 20 days and the average amount of intraoperative blood transfusion was 400 mL (range 0-2000 mL). Forty-four percent of the patients did not receive intraoperative blood transfusion. The mean total bilirubin(T-BIL) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were 24μmol/L (range 8-56μmol/L) and 56 IU/L (range 10-204 IU/L) measured prior to discharge. Conclusion: In our experience, total vascular exclusion is invaluable in major or difficult liver resections, especially when lesions adjacent to the hepatic veins and vena cava. It is associated with a low blood transfusion requirement and a low incidence of complications. It further obviates the need for dissection of the porta hepatis thus reduces the associated risks. Total vascular exclusion time of 30min appears to be well tolerated, even in patients with cirrhosis..

  2. The evolution of cooperation by social exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Uchida, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The exclusion of freeriders from common privileges or public acceptance is widely found in the real world. Current models on the evolution of cooperation with incentives mostly assume peer sanctioning, whereby a punisher imposes penalties on freeriders at a cost to itself. It is well known that such costly punishment has two substantial difficulties. First, a rare punishing cooperator barely subverts the asocial society of freeriders, and second, natural selection often eliminates punishing cooperators in the presence of non-punishing cooperators (namely, ‘second-order’ freeriders). We present a game-theoretical model of social exclusion in which a punishing cooperator can exclude freeriders from benefit sharing. We show that such social exclusion can overcome the above-mentioned difficulties even if it is costly and stochastic. The results do not require a genetic relationship, repeated interaction, reputation or group selection. Instead, only a limited number of freeriders are required to prevent the second-order freeriders from eroding the social immune system. PMID:23222449

  3. Measurement of exclusive processes with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bylinkin, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Exclusive vector meson photoproduction is studied in ultra-peripheral pPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV. The cross sections are measured as a function of the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy, extending the energy range explored by H1 and ZEUS Experiments at HERA. In addition, the differential cross sections ($d\\sigma/dt$), where $t\\approx p^{2}_{T}$ is the squared transverse momentum of produced vector mesons, are measured and the slope parameters are obtained. The results are compared to previous measurements and to theoretical predictions. We also report a measurement of the exclusive or quasi-exclusive $W^{+}W^{-}$ production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV ($7$ TeV) using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $19.7$ fb$^{-1}$ ($5.5$fb$^{-1}$), respectively. In this study, we look for any deviations that there might be from the Standard Model, and the results are used to set limits on the Anomalous Quartic Gauge Couplings. Finally, the latest performance plots of combined...

  4. Robust Visual Tracking via Exclusive Context Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2015-02-09

    In this paper, we formulate particle filter-based object tracking as an exclusive sparse learning problem that exploits contextual information. To achieve this goal, we propose the context-aware exclusive sparse tracker (CEST) to model particle appearances as linear combinations of dictionary templates that are updated dynamically. Learning the representation of each particle is formulated as an exclusive sparse representation problem, where the overall dictionary is composed of multiple {group} dictionaries that can contain contextual information. With context, CEST is less prone to tracker drift. Interestingly, we show that the popular L₁ tracker [1] is a special case of our CEST formulation. The proposed learning problem is efficiently solved using an accelerated proximal gradient method that yields a sequence of closed form updates. To make the tracker much faster, we reduce the number of learning problems to be solved by using the dual problem to quickly and systematically rank and prune particles in each frame. We test our CEST tracker on challenging benchmark sequences that involve heavy occlusion, drastic illumination changes, and large pose variations. Experimental results show that CEST consistently outperforms state-of-the-art trackers.

  5. Increased diversity of sessile epibenthos at subtidal hydrothermal vents: seven hypotheses based on observations at Milos Island, Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Nike Bianchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on subtidal hydrothermal vent ecosystems at Milos, Hellenic Volcanic Arc (Aegean Sea, suggested that vent activity increased the species richness of sessile epibenthic assemblages. Based on 303 species found in 6 sites (3 close to vents, 3 farther away, the present paper uses correspondence analysis and species/samples curves to examine the species composition and richness of these assemblages. Differences due to vent proximity were more important than those due to bottom depth and distance from the shore. Diversity was confirmed to be higher near the vents, although none of the 266 species found at the vent sites can be considered as obligate vent-associated species. Seven different, although not mutually exclusive, hypotheses are discussed to explain the pattern of increased epibenthic species diversity at the vent sites, namely: (i vents represent an intermediate disturbance, inducing mortality by the emission of toxic fluids; (ii higher winter temperature allows for the occurrence of warm-water species, which add to the regional background; (iii venting disrupts the homogeneity of the water bottom layer, increasing bottom roughness and hence habitat heterogeneity; (iv deposition of minerals and enhanced bioconstruction by Ca enrichment increment habitat provision; (v fluid emission induces advective mechanisms that favour recruitment; (vi vents emit CO2, nutrients and trace elements that enhance primary productivity; and (vii bacterial chemosynthesis add to photosynthesis to provide a diversity of food sources for the fauna.

  6. A internalização da exclusão The internalization of exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos de Freitas

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Procura-se mostrar as formas dissimuladas que as políticas públicas neoliberais colocaram em funcionamento com a finalidade de reduzir custos econômicos, sociais e políticos das formas de exclusão objetivas (repetência e evasão, sem alterar em essência a seletividade da escola, criando um campo de exclusão subjetiva (auto-exclusão, exclusão entre ciclos, "trilhas de progressão continuada diferenciadas", no qual a responsabilidade da exclusão recai sobre o próprio excluído. São apresentadas três teses na tentativa de compreender este movimento. A primeira trata da conversão da exclusão objetiva em exclusão subjetiva; a segunda mostra como os mecanismos da avaliação informal são acionados no sentido de criar "trilhas de progressão continuada diferenciadas" nas propostas de organização por ciclos de progressão continuada; e, finalmente, a terceira aponta a desresponsabilização da escola em relação à escolarização das camadas populares ("aprender a aprender", na esteira da desresponsabilização do próprio Estado mínimo proposto pelas atuais políticas públicas. Finalmente, apresentam-se por contraste elementos para uma política alternativa voltada para as responsabilidades formativas da escola que visem a transformar a relação entre as pessoas e entre estas e a natureza.This paper aims at showing the concealed forms that the neoliberal public policies implemented in order to reduce the economical, social and political costs of the objective forms of exclusion (repetition and desertion. Without modifying the essence of school selectivity, they created a field of subjective exclusion (auto-exclusion, exclusion between cycles, "trilhas de progressão continuada differenciadas", in which the very person excluded is responsible for their exclusion. Three theses are presented in an attempt to understand this movement. The first one deals with the conversion of the objective exclusion into subjective exclusion. The

  7. A rapid algorithm and a computer program for multiple test procedures using logical structures of hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, G; Bernhard, G

    1994-06-01

    It is demonstrated how improvements of general multiple test procedures can be obtained using information about the logical structures among the hypotheses. Based on a procedure of Bergmann and Hommel (B. Bergmann and G. Hommel, Improvements of general multiple test procedures for redundant systems of hypotheses, in Multiple Hypothesenprüfung--Multiple Hypotheses Testing, Eds. P. Bauer, G. Hommel and E. Sonnemann, pp. 100-115 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988)), a computer program was written by Bernhard (G. Bernhard, Computerunterstützte Durchführung von multiplen Testprozeduren--Algorithmen und Powervergleich, Doctoral thesis (Mainz, 1992)) using this information. It is applicable for a general class of systems of hypotheses which can be expressed in a linear way. By means of a simulation study it is shown that the proposed procedure is often substantially more powerful than other usual multiple test procedures.

  8. Corrigendum to: Bayesian evaluation of informative hypotheses in SEM using Mplus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schoot, R.; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hoijtink, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper corrects: van de Schoot, R., Verhoeven, M., & Hoijtink, H. (2013). Bayesian evaluation ofinformative hypotheses in SEM using Mplus: A black bear story. EuropeanJournal of Developmental Psychology, 10, 81 –98.

  9. Corrigendum to: Bayesian evaluation of informative hypotheses in SEM using Mplus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schoot, R.; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hoijtink, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper corrects: van de Schoot, R., Verhoeven, M., & Hoijtink, H. (2013). Bayesian evaluation ofinformative hypotheses in SEM using Mplus: A black bear story. EuropeanJournal of Developmental Psychology, 10, 81 –98.

  10. Anxious Solitude and Peer Exclusion Predict Social Helplessness, Upset Affect, and Vagal Regulation in Response to Behavioral Rejection by a Friend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazelle, Heidi; Druhen, Madelynn J.

    2009-01-01

    It was hypothesized that combined individual child vulnerability (anxious solitude) and interpersonal stress (peer exclusion) would predict the strongest responses to experimentally manipulated behavioral peer rejection. Results indicated that in a sample of 3rd graders (N = 160, 59% girls), anxious solitary excluded children displayed more…

  11. Comparison for aphasic and control subjects of eye movements hypothesized in neurolinguistic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, K O; Farmer, A

    1988-08-01

    Neurolinguistic programming's hypothesized eye movements were measured independently using videotapes of 10 nonfluent aphasic and 10 control subjects matched for age and sex. Chi-squared analysis indicated that eye-position responses were significantly different for the groups. Although earlier research has not supported the hypothesized eye positions for normal subjects, the present findings support the contention that eye-position responses may differ between neurologically normal and aphasic individuals.

  12. Testing Technology Transfer Hypotheses in GIS Environments Using a Case Study Approach (93-8)

    OpenAIRE

    Onsrud, Harlan J.; Jeffrey K. Pinto; Azad, Bijan

    1993-01-01

    In late 1990 and early 1991, a methodological framework was developed for testing technology transfer hypotheses within GIS operational environments. The paper reporting this work was titled "Case Study Research Methods for Geographic Information Systems" (Onsrud, Pinto, and Azad 1992). This report gathers together (1) the original foundation paper used as the basis for the case study research project, (2) the call for participation that includes a listing of the thirty hypotheses for which "...

  13. Stereo-Based Tracking-by-Multiple Hypotheses Framework for Multiple Vehicle Detection and Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chul Lim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a tracking‐by‐multiple hypotheses framework to detect and track multiple vehicles accurately and precisely. The tracking‐by‐ multiple hypotheses framework consists of obstacle detection, vehicle recognition, visual tracking, global position tracking, data association and particle filtering. The multiple hypotheses are from obstacle detection, vehicle recognition and visual tracking. The obstacle detection detects all the obstacles on the road. The vehicle recognition classifies the detected obstacles as vehicles or non-vehicles. 3D feature‐based visual tracking estimates the current target state using the previous target state. The multiple hypotheses should be linked to corresponding tracks to update the target state. The hierarchical data association method assigns multiple tracks to the correct hypotheses with multiple similarity functions. In the particle filter framework, the target state is updated using the Gaussian motion model and the observation model with associated multiple hypotheses. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method enhances the accuracy and precision of the region of interest.

  14. The experiences of HIV-positive mothers breastfeeding exclusively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiences of HIV-positive mothers breastfeeding exclusively in Swaziland. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Seven exclusive breastfeeding, HIV-positive mothers, aged 21-41 years, married and ...

  15. 47 CFR 90.165 - Procedures for mutually exclusive applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations Special Rules Governing Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.165 Procedures for mutually exclusive applications. Mutually exclusive commercial mobile radio service applications are processed...

  16. Deeply Virtual Exclusive Reactions with CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valery Kubarovsky

    2011-11-01

    Deeply virtual exclusive reactions offer an unique opportunity to study the structure of the nucleon at the parton level as one has access to Bjorken x{sub B} and momentum transfer to the nucleon t at the same time. Such processes can reveal much more information about the structure of the nucleon than either inclusive electroproduction or elastic form factors alone. Dedicated experiments to study Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP) have been carried out in Hall B at Jefferson Lab. DVCS helicity–dependent and helicity–independent cross sections and beam spin asymmetries have been measured with CLAS, as well as cross sections and asymmetries for the {pi}{sup }0, {eta} , {rho}{sup }0, {rho}{sup +}, {omega} and {phi} for exclusive electroproduction. The data were taken in a wide kinematic range in Q{sup 2}=1–4.5 GeV{sup 2}, x{sub B}=0.1–0.5, and {absval t} up to 2 GeV{sup 2}. We will discuss the interpretation of these data in terms of traditional Regge and Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) models. The successful description of the recent CLAS pseudoscalar meson exclusive production data by GPD-based model provides a unique opportunity to access the transversity GPDs. We view the work presented in this report as leading into the program of the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV upgrade. The increased energy and luminosity will allow us to acquire data at much higher Q{sup 2} and x{sub B}, and perform Rosenbluth L/T separations of the cross sections.

  17. Social Inclusion and Exclusion: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabin Rawal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social exclusion/inclusion figured prominently in the policy discourse in France in the mid 1970s. The concept was later adopted by the European Union in the late 1980s as a key concept in social policy and in many instances replaced the concept of poverty. This concept which had first appeared in Europe as a response to the crisis of the welfare State has now gained considerable currency over the last five years in both official and development discourses in Nepal. The issue gained considerable leverage when the Nepal Government recognized inclusion as a policy issue as one of the four pillars of 2003 Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP, which is also Nepal's Tenth Plan. The debates surrounding inclusion/exclusion have ascended to conspicuous importance in the present political transition in Nepal with several groups such as Dalit, women, ethnic communities, donor communities, Madhesi communities and region voicing their demands for an inclusive state by virtue of which, the issue has now come to be a part of the popular public discourse. However, what has to be borne in mind is that the concept lacks universality in the way it has been defined and employed. While some claim that social exclusion is more illuminating and holds the promise of understanding disadvantaged groups better, others argue that this concept is so evocative, ambiguous, multidimensional and elastic that it can be defined in many different ways and owing to its ambiguity in definition it may mean all things to all people. Howsoever, the term has been used, defined, conceptualized, the article here makes an effort to review accessible literature on the topic.DOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1362Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.161-180

  18. Exclusive lower extremity mirror movements and diastematomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Smyth, Matthew D; Dure, Leon S; Oakes, W Jerry

    2004-01-01

    Mirror movements usually seen in the Klippel-Feil syndrome are most commonly appreciated in the upper extremities. Lower extremity involvement is seen rarely and when observed, is found in conjunction with upper extremity mirror movements. We report what we believe to be the first case of mirror movements found exclusively in the lower extremities in a female patient presenting with tethered cord syndrome. Our hopes are that this report will help elucidate mechanisms involved with these anomalous movements, as currently there is no commonly accepted etiology.

  19. Ds+ Exclusive Hadronic Decays Involving omega

    OpenAIRE

    The CLEO Collaboration; Ge, J. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Using data collected near the Ds*+ Ds- peak production energy Ecm=4170 MeV by the CLEO-c detector, we search for Ds+ exclusive hadronic decays involving omega. We find B(Ds+ -> pi+ omega) = (0.21 +- 0.09 +- 0.01)%, B(Ds+ -> pi+ pi0 omega) = (2.78 +- 0.65 +- 0.25)%, B(Ds+ -> pi+ pi+ pi- omega) = (1.58 +- 0.45 +- 0.09)%, B(Ds+ -> pi+ eta omega) = (0.85 +- 0.54 +- 0.06)%, B(Ds+ -> K+ omega) K+ pi0 omega) K+ pi+ pi- omega) K+ eta omega)

  20. Exclusive photoproduction of {upsilon} mesons at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2009-03-15

    The exclusive photoproduction reaction {gamma} p {yields} {upsilon} p has been studied with the ZEUS experiment in ep collisions at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 468 pb{sup -1}. The measurement covers the kinematic range 60

  1. Nonlinear Cross-Diffusion with Size Exclusion

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the mathematical properties of a continuum model for diffusion of multiple species incorporating size exclusion effects. The system for two species leads to nonlinear cross-diffusion terms with double degeneracy, which creates significant novel challenges in the analysis of the system. We prove global existence of weak solutions and well-posedness of strong solutions close to equilibrium. We further study some asymptotics of the model, and in particular we characterize the large-time behavior of solutions. 2010 © Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  2. Genetic Exclusion in Bacteriophage T4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    ofI resource acquisition, but their genetic determinants are physicall .- linked and possibly co-regiulated or, the same sect ion of DNA. Thec o-eria...7473-7481. Garen, A. (1968). Sense and Nonsense in the Genetic Lode. Science 160:149-159. ( elIer, A. I . and A. rich (1980). A LGA ferarinatio...Mutants Deficient in rni Exclusion. Science 158:1588-1589. 11saio, C. L. and L. W. Black (1977). DNA Plackaging- and the Pathway of Bacteriophage T4

  3. Death to perturbative QCD in exclusive processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckardt, R.; Hansper, J.; Gari, M.F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bochum (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    The authors discuss the question of whether perturbative QCD is applicable in calculations of exclusive processes at available momentum transfers. They show that the currently used method of determining hadronic quark distribution amplitudes from QCD sum rules yields wave functions which are completely undetermined because the polynomial expansion diverges. Because of the indeterminacy of the wave functions no statement can be made at present as to whether perturbative QCD is valid. The authors emphasize the necessity of a rigorous discussion of the subject and the importance of experimental data in the range of interest.

  4. Sport, physical activity and social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mike

    2004-08-01

    This paper is a brief review of the concept of social exclusion and its evolution. I address which individuals are excluded from sport and physical activity and how; link inclusion policies to the 'cross-cutting issues' and the idea of social capital; and outline the intervention policies being adopted in the new sport strategy 'Game Plan' (). I address the link between transport, exercise and health in a case study. Since these policies are new, research and evaluation has been short term and scattered, and outcome measurements have not yet received academic or professional consensus, it is too soon to say for sure what works or even to confirm what is best practice.

  5. Deadlocks and dihomotopy in mutual exclusion models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Parallel processes in concurrency theory can be modelled in a geometric framework. A convenient model are the Higher Dimensional Automata of V. Pratt and E. Goubault with cubical complexes as their mathematical description. More abstract models are given by (locally) partially ordered topological...... spaces, the directed ($d$-spaces) of M.Grandis and the flows of P. Gaucher. All models invite to use or modify ideas from algebraic topology, notably homotopy. In specific semaphore models for mutual exclusion, we have developed methods and algorithms that can detect deadlocks and unsafe regions and give...

  6. Abuse, exclusion and intolerance to being female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bertha Velázquez Rodríguez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of abuse, exclusion and intolerance to women is a consequence of practices of domination pervasive in contemporary societies. This problem is manifested in the systematic harassment to women's bodies, to her thoughts and personal lifestyles, which constrains her personal dignity and violates her basic human rights. The approach to this analysis is based on the documentary method and is part of an investigation of health and gender issues in the collegiate body Gender and Sustainable Development in the Autonomous University of Mexico State.

  7. Bullying and social exclusion anxiety in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I develop a new conceptual framework, a new thinking technology, for understanding the bullying that takes place between children in schools. In addition, I propose a new definition of bullying. This new thinking technology reflects a shift in focus from individual characteristics...... to the social processes that may lead to bullying. The social approach theorises bullying as one of many reactions to particular kinds of social insecurity. The concepts I develop include the necessity of belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults...... during a comprehensive five-year study of bullying....

  8. Softening the Blow of Social Exclusion: The Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Gili; Williams, Kipling D; Beer, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    Social exclusion is an interactive process between multiple people, yet previous research has focused almost solely on the negative impacts on targets. What advice is there for people on the other side (i.e., sources) who want to minimize its negative impact and preserve their own reputation? To provide an impetus for research on the interactive nature of exclusion, we propose the Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion. Our theory postulates that targets and sources' needs are better maintained if sources use clear, explicit verbal communication. We propose that sources have three options: explicit rejection (clearly stating no), ostracism (ignoring), and ambiguous rejection (being unclear). Drawing on psychology, sociology, communications, and business research, we propose that when sources use explicit rejection, targets' feelings will be less hurt, their needs will be better protected, and sources will experience less backlash and emotional toil than if sources use ambiguous rejection or ostracism. Finally, we propose how the language of rejections may impact both parties.

  9. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  10. Social Judgments and Emotion Attributions about Exclusion in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Killen, Melanie; Gasser, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' social judgments and emotion attributions about exclusion in three contexts, nationality, gender, and personality, were measured in a sample of 12- and 15-year-old Swiss and non-Swiss adolescents (N = 247). Overall, adolescents judged exclusion based on nationality as less acceptable than exclusion based on gender or personality.…

  11. 29 CFR 98.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Excluded or exclusion. 98.945 Section 98.945 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.945 Excluded or exclusion. Excluded or exclusion means— (a) That a person or commodity is prohibited from...

  12. 26 CFR 1.72-4 - Exclusion ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion ratio. 1.72-4 Section 1.72-4 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.72-4 Exclusion ratio. (a) General rule... annuities described in section 72(o) and § 1.122-1), an exclusion ratio is to be determined for...

  13. 29 CFR 18.615 - Exclusion of witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exclusion of witnesses. 18.615 Section 18.615 Labor Office... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.615 Exclusion of witnesses. At the... authorize exclusion of a party who is a natural person, or an officer or employee of a party which is not...

  14. 41 CFR 105-68.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excluded or exclusion. 105-68.945 Section 105-68.945 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... exclusion. Excluded or exclusion means— (a) That a person or commodity is prohibited from being...

  15. 7 CFR 3017.945 - Excluded or exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded or exclusion. 3017.945 Section 3017.945 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Excluded or exclusion. Excluded or exclusion means— (a) That a person or commodity is prohibited from...

  16. Social Exclusion and Career Development: A United Kingdom Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    Social exclusion can be defined in different ways, but a prominent definition--in relation to young people in particular--is exclusion from formal learning and paid employment. This ignores the role of informal learning and the informal economies. In England, career guidance services were remodelled to deal with the issue of social exclusion by…

  17. 42 CFR 402.308 - Waivers of exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... authorization to obtain information from private health insurers, peer review organizations (including, but not... of exclusion request. An excluded person must submit a request for waiver of exclusion in writing to... the submitter that the waiver of exclusion request has been received. (2) Reviews and validates...

  18. 5 CFR 919.1020 - Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded. 919.1020 Section 919.1020 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED...) Definitions § 919.1020 Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded. (a) Voluntary exclusion means a person's...

  19. 47 CFR 76.123 - Satellite syndicated program exclusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite syndicated program exclusivity. 76... Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.123 Satellite syndicated program exclusivity. (a) Upon receiving notification pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section, a satellite carrier shall not deliver, to...

  20. 46 CFR 16.109 - Public Interest Exclusion (PIE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Interest Exclusion (PIE). 16.109 Section 16.109... General § 16.109 Public Interest Exclusion (PIE). Service agents are subject to Public Interest Exclusion (PIE) actions in accordance with 49 CFR Part 40, subpart R. The PIE is an action which excludes...

  1. 49 CFR 382.117 - Public interest exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING General § 382.117 Public interest exclusion. No employer shall use the services of a service agent who is subject to public interest exclusion in accordance with 49 CFR part 40... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public interest exclusion. 382.117 Section...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1230 - Exclusion of life insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of life insurance. 416.1230 Section 416.1230 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1230 Exclusion of life insurance. (a) General....

  3. 20 CFR 416.1234 - Exclusion of Indian lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of Indian lands. 416.1234 Section 416.1234 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1234 Exclusion of Indian lands. In determining...

  4. 20 CFR 416.1212 - Exclusion of the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the home. 416.1212 Section 416.1212 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1212 Exclusion of the home. (a) Defined. A home...

  5. 20 CFR 416.1238 - Exclusion of certain housing assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of certain housing assistance. 416.1238 Section 416.1238 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1238 Exclusion of certain...

  6. Social Exclusion and Career Development: A United Kingdom Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    Social exclusion can be defined in different ways, but a prominent definition--in relation to young people in particular--is exclusion from formal learning and paid employment. This ignores the role of informal learning and the informal economies. In England, career guidance services were remodelled to deal with the issue of social exclusion by…

  7. Exclusion of Nitrate from Frozen Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, H. A.; Michelsen, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Reactions occurring at the surface of ice, sea ice, and snow in Earth's cryosphere have an impact on the composition of the overlying atmosphere. In order to elucidate reaction mechanisms and model their contributions to atmospheric processes, the morphology of frozen aqueous surfaces and amounts of reactants contained therein must be determined. To this end, the exclusion of nitrate ions to the surface of frozen aqueous solutions has been studied by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). In this technique the near-surface region of the frozen films are interrogated to a depth of a few hundred nanometers from the film-crystal interface. Aqueous solutions (0.001 to 0.01 M) of sodium nitrate (NaNO3), magnesium nitrate (Mg(NO3)2), and nitric acid (HNO3) were quickly frozen on the germanium ATR crystal and observed at a constant temperature of about -18°C. In addition to ice and the solutes, liquid water in varying amounts was observed in the spectra. The amount of nitrate in the surface liquid is three to four orders of magnitude higher than in the unfrozen solution. While all the nitrate salts exhibit exclusion to the unfrozen surface, the dynamics are different for different counter-ions. Results are compared to freezing point depression data and the predictions of equilibrium thermodynamics.

  8. Some exclusion cages do not exclude predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. C. C. Ameixa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Exclusion techniques, such as cages, are the most frequently used means of evaluating the efficiency of natural enemies in suppressing the abundance of their prey. The growth rates and peak densities of aphid populations within cages are usually larger than those in uncaged populations. However, cages change the microenvironment and prevent aphids from emigrating. Attempts were made to avoid the change in the microenvironment by using cages with a large (8 mm mesh. Here we test the hypothesis that because of the large mesh size, predators can easily penetrate into such cages during an experiment. Our results have shown that cages with a large (8 mm mesh size do not prevent predators from entering the cages and therefore cannot be used as “exclusion cages” for measuring the effect of predators on aphid numbers. Other methods of assessing the effectiveness of natural enemies in reducing the abundance of their prey, like removing the predators or direct observations, should be used instead.

  9. Recent diffractive and exclusive results from CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bylinkin, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the exclusive and semi-exclusive production of charged pion pairs in proton-proton collisions, $pp\\rightarrow p(p^{*})+ \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}+ p (p^{*})$, where the $ \\pi^+\\pi^-$ pair is emitted at central rapidities,and the scattered protons stay intact (p) or diffractively dissociate ($p^*$) without detection is presented in these proceedings.The measurement is performed with the CMS detector at the LHC, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 450$\\mu b^{-1}$ collected at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The dipion cross section, measured for single-pion transverse momentum $p_T > 0.2$ GeV and rapidity $\\mid y\\mid < 2$, is $26.5\\pm0.3(stat.)\\pm5.0(syst.)\\pm1.1\\mu b$. The differential cross sections measured as a function of the invariant mass and $p_T$ of the pion pair are compared to phenomenological predictions.

  10. Social Exclusion/Inclusion: Foucault's Analytics of Exclusion, the Political Ecology of Social Inclusion and the Legitimation of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a broad philosophical and historical background to the dyad of social exclusion/inclusion by examining the analytics and politics of exclusion first by reference to Michel Foucault who studies the modern history of exclusion and makes it central to his approach in understanding the development of modern institutions of emerging…

  11. Social Exclusion/Inclusion: Foucault's Analytics of Exclusion, the Political Ecology of Social Inclusion and the Legitimation of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a broad philosophical and historical background to the dyad of social exclusion/inclusion by examining the analytics and politics of exclusion first by reference to Michel Foucault who studies the modern history of exclusion and makes it central to his approach in understanding the development of modern institutions of emerging…

  12. Comparative Study of Mutual Exclusion Algorithms in Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijnasa Patil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutual Exclusion is an important phenomenon in distributed systems. In this paper, we analyze and compare various mutual exclusion algorithms in distributed systems. In permission based mutual exclusion process waits for permission from other processes to enter into a critical section. In token based mutual exclusion, a special message called token is passed over the system and process holding the token can enter into the critical section. We present a comparative study of quorum based, token ring token asking and multiple token algorithms for mutual exclusion in distributed systems.

  13. Competitions between prosocial exclusions and punishments in finite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linjie; Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila

    2017-04-01

    Prosocial punishment has been proved to be a powerful mean to promote cooperation. Recent studies have found that social exclusion, which indeed can be regarded as a kind of punishment, can also support cooperation. However, if prosocial punishment and exclusion are both present, it is still unclear which strategy is more advantageous to curb free-riders. Here we first study the direct competition between different types of punishment and exclusion. We find that pool (peer) exclusion can always outperform pool (peer) punishment both in the optional and in the compulsory public goods game, no matter whether second-order sanctioning is considered or not. Furthermore, peer exclusion does better than pool exclusion both in the optional and in the compulsory game, but the situation is reversed in the presence of second-order exclusion. Finally, we extend the competition among all possible sanctioning strategies and find that peer exclusion can outperform all other strategies in the absence of second-order exclusion and punishment, while pool exclusion prevails when second-order sanctioning is possible. Our results demonstrate that exclusion is a more powerful strategy than punishment for the resolution of social dilemmas.

  14. Evaluation of exclusion prenatal and exclusion preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Huntington's disease in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rij, M C; de Die-Smulders, C E M; Bijlsma, E K; de Wert, G M W R; Geraedts, J P; Roos, R A C; Tibben, A

    2013-02-01

    Individuals at 50% risk of Huntington's disease (HD) who prefer not to know their carrier status, might opt for exclusion prenatal diagnosis (ePND) or exclusion preimplantation genetic diagnosis (ePGD). This study aims to provide a better understanding of couples' motives for choosing ePND or ePND, and surveys couples' experiences in order to make recommendations for the improvement of counselling for exclusion testing. This qualitative retrospective interview study focussed on couples who underwent ePND or ePGD for HD in the period 1996-2010. Seventeen couples were included of which 13 had experienced ePND and 6 ePGD. Mean time-interval since exclusion-testing was 3.9 years. Couples' moral reservations regarding termination of pregnancy (TOP) or discarding healthy embryos were counterbalanced by the wish to protect their future child against HD. Seven couples had terminated a total of 11 pregnancies with a 50% HD risk, none showed regret. ePGD was used by couples who wanted to avoid (another) TOP. ePND and ePGD are acceptable reproductive options for a specific group of counsellees. To guarantee sound standards of care, it is imperative that candidate couples be given in-depth non-directive counselling about all possible scenarios, and adequate professional and psychological support prior to, during and after ePND/ePGD.

  15. The concept of the Economic Exclusive Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Patuzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The important and the new concept that brought the third UN Conference of the Law of the Sea was the Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ, requested by countries whose coasts are bordering on the oceans, seas, but also in harmony with the interests of countries which have extensive coastline or those with specific geographical features, which have a very narrow coastal zone. On December 10, 1982, nearly 120 countries signed the new United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, as one of the most significant international conferences. Part V of that Convention (more precisely Articles 55 to 75 provides for an “Exclusive Economic Zone” extending 200 nautical miles seaward from the coast. If all coastal states thus exercised their jurisdiction over their own EEZ, some 38 million square nautical miles would become their “economic patrimony”. It should be mentioned that the ocean represents 71% of the total surface of the earth and that 32% of that falls under the jurisdiction of coastal states. Consequently inside these economic zones would lie 90% of global fishing, 87% of oil deposits and 10 % of polymetallic nodules. The EEZ provisions have received widespread support and have become an integral part of international practice especially when the Convention of 1982 entered into force, also articles 55 and 86 of the Convention make it clear that the EEZ is not a part of the territorial sea, but it is a zone sui generis, with a statute of its own. Some countries had claimed 200-mile EEZ and other have established a 200- mile Exclusive Fishing Zone (EFZ. The countries benefiting the most from the EEZ concept are in order of the size of their zones: USA, Australia, Indonesia, New Zealand, Canada and Russia. If this concept was to be applied by all coastal Mediterranean States, the entire sea would be covered by EEZs of the littoral countries. The countries of the Mediterranean that would most benefit from the EEZ are Greece, Cyprus, Italy and Malta

  16. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odiase Justice I

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breast feeding (EBF has important protective effects on the survival of infants and decreases risk for many early-life diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors associated with EBF in Nigeria. Methods Data on 658 children less than 6 months of age were obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2003. The 2003 NDHS was a multi-stage cluster sample survey of 7864 households. EBF rates were examined against a set of individual, household and community level variables using a backward stepwise multilevel logistic regression method. Results The average EBF rate among infants younger than 6 months of age was 16.4% (95%CI: 12.6%-21.1% but was only 7.1% in infants in their fifth month of age. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariate analyses revealed that the odds of EBF were higher in rich (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR = 1.15, CI = 0.28-6.69 and middle level (AOR = 2.45, CI = 1.06-5.68 households than poor households. Increasing infant age was associated with significantly less EBF (AOR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.51-0.82. Mothers who had four or more antenatal visits were significantly more likely to engage in EBF (AOR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.04-7.01. Female infants were more likely to be exclusively breastfed than male infants (AOR = 2.13, 95%CI = 1.03-4.39. Mothers who lived in the North Central geopolitical region were significantly more likely to exclusively breastfeed their babies than those mothers who lived in other geopolitical regions. Conclusions The EBF rate in Nigeria is low and falls well short of the expected levels needed to achieve a substantial reduction in child mortality. Antenatal care was strongly associated with an increased rate of EBF. Appropriate infant feeding practises are needed if Nigeria is to reach the child survival Millennium Development Goal of reducing infant mortality from about 100 deaths per 1000 live births to a target of 35 deaths per 1000 live

  17. In-group and out-group membership mediates anterior cingulate activation to social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austen Krill

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was employed to examine sensitivity to social exclusion in three conditions: same-race, other-race, and self-resembling faces. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, specifically the dorsal ACC, has been targeted as a key substrate in the physical and social pain matrix and was hypothesized to regulate activation response to various facial conditions. We show that participants demonstrated greatest ACC activation when being excluded by self-resembling and same-race faces, relative to other-race faces. Additionally, participants expressed greater distress and showed increased ACC activation as a result of exclusion in the same-race condition relative to the other-race condition. A positive correlation between implicit racial bias and activation in the amygdala was also evident. Implicit attitude about other-race faces partly explains levels of concern about exclusion by out-group individuals. These findings suggest that individuals are more distressed and their brain (i.e. neural alarm system responds with greater activation when being excluded by individuals whom they are more likely to share group membership with.

  18. Evaluating thermal resource partitioning : By sympatric lizards Anolis cooki and A. cristatellus: a field test using null hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, P E

    1992-04-01

    The field thermal biology of sympatric Anolis cooki and A. cristatellus were evaluated in January and in August in desert scrub forest at Playa de Tamarindo near Guanica, Puerto Rico. Data on randomly positioned copper models of lizards, each equipped with a built-in thermocouple, established null hypotheses about basking frequency and operative temperatures (T e) against which the behavior and body temperatures (T b) of live lizards were evaluated. Both species exhibited non-random hourly basking rates (more marked in cristatellus than in cooki), and cristatellus was virtually inactive during the warm mid-day hours. The relationship between lizards' T b and randomly sampled T e differed between the species: cristatellus's mean T b was 2° to 3° C lower than randomly sampled mean T e in both months, whereas cooki's mean T b was slightly higher than mean T e in January and slightly lower in August. Although cooki's mean T b was higher than that of cristatellus in both months, the T b's of the two species overlapped substantially over an annual cycle. Given the similarities in their field active T b and the low thermal heterogeneity among microsites at Playa de Tamarindo, these species appear not to partition the thermal environment there in a coarse-grained way. Instead, the relatively small differences in their field active T b probably result from small differences in their use of similar microhabitats within their mutually exclusive territories. Thermal resource partitioning by territorial animals is unlikely unless thermal heterogeneity is coarse-grained in relation to territory size.

  19. Racial Exclusion in the Online World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhoomi K. Thakore

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As the internet has become an integral part of everyday life, it is understood that patterns of racial stereotyping and discrimination found in the offline world are often reproduced online. In our paper, we examine two exclusionary practices in an online environment for adult toy collectors: First, the exclusion of non-white individuals who are expected to form immediate friendships with other non-white members; and second, the essentializing of racial issues when concerns over the lack of racial diversity in the toys are discussed. This dismissal is often directly connected to non-white members’ decisions to no longer participate, resulting in a new form of segregation within virtual space.

  20. Exclusive rare radiative decays of B mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N. [Physics Department, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar-751004 (India); Kar, S.; Dash, P.C. [Physics Department, Prananath College, Khurda-752057 (India)

    1998-01-01

    The exclusive rare radiative B decays are studied in the relativistic independent quark model based on the confining potential in the scalar-vector harmonic form. The relevant form factors as well as the branching ratios for the processes B{sup 0}{r_arrow}K{sup {asterisk}0}{gamma} and B{sup {plus_minus}}{r_arrow}K{sup {asterisk}{plus_minus}}{gamma} have been estimated in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. The result compares well with several other model predictions. The calculation has been extended to the CKM-favored process B{sub s}{r_arrow}{phi}{gamma} and CKM-suppressed processes B{sub u,d}{r_arrow}{rho}{gamma} and B{sub s}{r_arrow}K{sup {asterisk}}{gamma}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Diffractive and exclusive measurements at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.

    2006-06-01

    Experimental results from the CDF experiment at the Tevatron in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV are presented on the diffractive structure function at different values of the exchanged momentum transfer squared in the range 0 < Q{sup 2} < 10,000 GeV{sup 2}, on the four-momentum transfer |t| distribution in the region 0 < |t| < 1 GeV{sup 2} for both soft and hard diffractive events up to Q{sup 2} {approx} 4,500 GeV{sup 2}, and on the first experimental evidence of exclusive production in both dijet and diphoton events. A novel technique to align the Roman Pot detectors is also presented.

  2. Exclusive Photoproduction of the Cascade (Xi) Hyperons

    CERN Document Server

    Price, J W; Berman, B L; Laget, J M; Strauch, S; Adams, G; Afanasiev, A V; Ambrozewicz, P; Anghinolfi, M; Annand, J R M; Armstrong, C; Asavapibhop, B; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Ball, J P; Barrow, S; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bonner, B E; Bouchigny, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Chen, S; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J P; De Sanctis, E; De Vita, R; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Ent, R; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Fedotov, G; Feldman, G; Feuerbach, R J; Ficenec, J; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Gavalian, G; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Golovatch, E; Gordon, C I O; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K; Guidal, M; Guillo, M R; Guler, N; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Heimberg, P; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hleiqawi, K; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Huertas, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ilieva, Y Y; Ireland, D; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Jüngst, H G; Kellie, J; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kuang, Y; Kuhn, S E; Kühn, J; Lachniet, J; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Ji Li; Lima, A C S; Livingston, K; Lukashin, K; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; McAleer, S; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R C; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Morand, L; Morrow, S A; Muccifora, V; Müller, J; Murphy, L Y; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Brien, J T; O'Rielly, G V; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Park, K; Pasyuk, E A; Philips, S A; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O I; Polli, E; Popa, I; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatie, F; Salgado, C; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Shafi, A; Sharabyan, Yu G; Shaw, J; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Stavinsky, A V; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Tkabladze, R; Todor, L; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Whisnant, C S; Williams, M; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zana, L

    2004-01-01

    We report on the first measurement of exclusive Xi-(1321) hyperon photoproduction in gamma p --> K+ K+ Xi- for 3.2 < E(gamma) < 3.9 GeV. The final state is identified by the missing mass in p(gamma,K+ K+)X measured with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. We have detected a significant number of the ground-state Xi-(1321)1/2+, and have estimated the total cross section for its production. We have also observed the first excited state Xi-(1530)3/2+. Photoproduction provides a copious source of Xi's. We discuss the possibilities of a search for the recently proposed Xi5-- and Xi5+ pentaquarks.

  3. Exclusive electroproduction of $\\phi$ mesons at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Chekanov, S; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Adler, V; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Allfrey, P D; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Behrens, U; Bell, M A; Bellagamba, L; Bellan, P M; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bloch, I; Bold, T; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Büttner, C; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Cassel, D G; Catterall, C D; Abramowicz, H; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Costa, M; Cottrell, A; Cui, Y; D'Agostini, G; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dobur, D; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Everett, A; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fry, C; Gabareen, A; Galas, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Göbel, F; Goers, S; Goncalo, R; González, O; Gosau, T; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Graciani-Díaz, R; Grigorescu, G; Grijpink, S; Groys, M; Grzelak, G; Gutsche, O; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hamilton, J; Hanlon, S; Hart, C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Helbich, M; Hilger, E; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Horn, C; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Jiménez, M; Jones, T W; Kagawa, S; Kahle, B; Kaji, H; Kananov, S; Karshon, U; Karstens, F; Kasemann, M; Kataoka, M; Katkov, I I; Kcira, D; Keramidas, A; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowalski, H; Kramberger, G; Kreisel, A; Krumnack, N; Kulinski, P; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Lammers, S; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Li, L; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, C; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lukasik, J; Lukina, O Yu; Luzniak, P; Ma, K J; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Malka, J; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Martínez, M; Mastroberardino, A; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, U; Miglioranzi, S; Milite, M; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Namsoo, T; Nania, R; Nguyen, C N; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Noor, U; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Ota, O; Padhi, S; Palmonari, F; Patel, S; Paul, E; Pavel, Usan; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Pesci, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Plamondon, M; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Ren, Z; Renner, R; Repond, J; Ri, Y D; Rinaldi, L; Robins, S; Rosin, M; Ruspa, M; Ryan, P; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Santamarta, R; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schleper, P; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Sciulli, F; Shcheglova, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Stösslein, U; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutiak, J; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tapper, A D; Targett-Adams, C; Tassi, E; Tawara, T; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Tyszkiewicz, A; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Vázquez, M; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Walsh, R; Wang, M; Whitmore, J J; Whyte, J; Wichmann, K; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wills, H H; Wing, M; Wlasenko, M; Wolf, G; Yagues-Molina, A G; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zambrana, M; Zawiejski, L; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zhou, C; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, D S; Zotkin, S A; De Favereau, J; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J

    2005-01-01

    Exclusive electroproduction of $\\phi$ mesons has been studied in $e^\\pm p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=318 \\gev$ with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 65.1 pb$^{-1}$. The $\\gamma^*p$ cross section is presented in the kinematic range $2

  4. Competitive exclusion and coexistence of universal grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchener, W Garrett; Nowak, Martin A

    2003-01-01

    Universal grammar (UG) is a list of innate constraints that specify the set of grammars that can be learned by the child during primary language acquisition. UG of the human brain has been shaped by evolution. Evolution requires variation. Hence, we have to postulate and study variation of UG. We investigate evolutionary dynamics and language acquisition in the context of multiple UGs. We provide examples for competitive exclusion and stable coexistence of different UGs. More specific UGs admit fewer candidate grammars, and less specific UGs admit more candidate grammars. We will analyze conditions for more specific UGs to outcompete less specific UGs and vice versa. An interesting finding is that less specific UGs can resist invasion by more specific UGs if learning is more accurate. In other words, accurate learning stabilizes UGs that admit large numbers of candidate grammars.

  5. Comment on "Generalized exclusion processes: Transport coefficients"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, T.; Nelissen, K.; Cleuren, B.; Partoens, B.; Van den Broeck, C.

    2016-04-01

    In a recent paper, Arita et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 052108 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.052108] consider the transport properties of a class of generalized exclusion processes. Analytical expressions for the transport-diffusion coefficient are derived by ignoring correlations. It is claimed that these expressions become exact in the hydrodynamic limit. In this Comment, we point out that (i) the influence of correlations upon the diffusion does not vanish in the hydrodynamic limit, and (ii) the expressions for the self- and transport diffusion derived by Arita et al. are special cases of results derived in Becker et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110601 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.110601].

  6. Challenging gender stereotypes: resistance and exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    The likelihood of resisting gender-stereotypic peer group norms, along with expectations about personal resistance, was investigated in 9- to 10-year-olds and 13- to 14-year-olds (N = 292). Participants were told about a stereotype conforming group (boys playing football; girls doing ballet) and a stereotype nonconforming group (boys doing ballet; girls playing football). Contrary to expectations from gender-stereotyping research, participants stated that they would personally resist gender-stereotypic norms, and more so than they would expect their peers to resist. However, expecting peers to resist declined with age. Participants expected that exclusion from the group was a consequence for challenging the peer group, and understood the asymmetrical status of gender stereotypes with an expectation that it would be more difficult for boys to challenge stereotypes than for girls.

  7. Gompertz law and aging as exclusion effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallén, Anund

    2007-10-01

    The exponential increase with age in mortality rate, the Gompertz law, indicates that the decrease in vitality and viability linked to aging depends on phenomena with exponential or logarithmic dynamics. Gompertz slope (alpha) is assumed to be a measure of aging rate, provided the studied cohort is homogeneous and in a supporting environment. The law provides no clue about the cause of aging, but may be formally correlated with various physical or mathematical functions. A possible correlation between the Ogston-Laurent exclusion equation and human aging is examined. An increase with age of an inert cross-linked insoluble protein network is assumed to result in a logarithmic decrease in water volume available to colloidal macromolecules. In this model, alpha is assumed to be a measure of the rate of accumulation of the polypeptide network.

  8. Exclusion from the Health Insurance Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A CERN pensioner, member of the Organization's Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), recently provided fake documents in support of claims for medical expenses, in order to receive unjustified reimbursement from the CHIS. The Administrator of the CHIS, UNIQA, suspected a case of fraud: Accordingly, an investigation and interview of the person concerned was carried out and brought the Organization to the conclusion that fraud had actually taken place. Consequently and in accordance with Article VIII 3.12 of the CHIS Rules, it was decided to exclude this member permanently from the CHIS. The Organization takes the opportunity to remind Scheme members that any fraud or attempt to fraud established within the framework of the CHIS exposes them to: - disciplinary action, according to the Staff Rules and Regulations, for CERN members of the personnel; - definitive exclusion from the CHIS for members affiliated on a voluntary basis. Human Resources Division Tel. 73635

  9. Exclusive photoproduction of the cascade (Ξ) hyperons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. W.; Nefkens, B. M.; Ducote, J. L.; Goetz, J. T.; Adams, G.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Anciant, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Audit, G.; Auger, T.; Avakian, H.; Bagdasaryan, H.; Ball, J. P.; Barrow, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Bektasoglu, M.; Bellis, M.; Benmouna, N.; Berman, B. L.; Bianchi, N.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bouchigny, S.; Bradford, R.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Butuceanu, C.; Calarco, J. R.; Carman, D. S.; Carnahan, B.; Cetina, C.; Chen, S.; Cole, P. L.; Coleman, A.; Connelly, J.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crannell, H.; Cummings, J. P.; Sanctis, E. De; Devita, R.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Denizli, H.; Dennis, L.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dragovitsch, P.; Dugger, M.; Dytman, S.; Dzyubak, O. P.; Eckhause, M.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K. S.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Empl, A.; Eugenio, P.; Farhi, L.; Fatemi, R.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Forest, T. A.; Frolov, V.; Funsten, H.; Gaff, S. J.; Gavalian, G.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Gordon, C. I.; Gothe, R.; Griffioen, K.; Guidal, M.; Guillo, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hakobyan, R. S.; Hancock, D.; Hardie, J.; Heddle, D.; Hersman, F. W.; Hicks, K.; Hleiqawi, I.; Holtrop, M.; Hu, J.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D.; Ito, M. M.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Juengst, H. G.; Kelley, J. H.; Kellie, J.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Klimenko, A. V.; Klusman, M.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L. H.; Kuang, Y.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuhn, J.; Lachniet, J.; Laget, J. M.; Langheinrich, J.; Lawrence, D.; Li, Ji; Livingston, K.; Lukashin, K.; Major, W.; Manak, J. J.; Marchand, C.; McAleer, S.; McNabb, J. W.; Mecking, B. A.; Melone, J. J.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mikhailov, K.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Morand, L.; Morrow, S. A.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, J.; Mutchler, G. S.; Napolitano, J.; Nasseripour, R.; Nelson, S. O.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Niyazov, R. A.; Nozar, M.; O'Brien, J. T.; O'Rielly, G. V.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peterson, G.; Philips, S. A.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pocanic, D.; Pogorelko, O.; Polli, E.; Pozdniakov, S.; Preedom, B. M.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Qin, L. M.; Raue, B. A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Rowntree, D.; Rubin, P. D.; Sabatié, F.; Sabourov, K.; Salgado, C.; Santoro, J. P.; Sanzone-Arenhovel, M.; Sapunenko, V.; Schumacher, R. A.; Serov, V. S.; Shafi, A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Shaw, J.; Simionatto, S.; Skabelin, A. V.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, T.; Smith, L. C.; Sober, D. I.; Spraker, M.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S.; Stokes, B.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Thoma, U.; Thompson, R.; Tkabladze, A.; Todor, L.; Tur, C.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A. V.; Wang, K.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weller, H.; Weygand, D. P.; Williams, M.; Witkowski, M.; Wolin, E.; Wood, M. H.; Yegneswaran, A.; Yun, J.

    2005-05-01

    We report on the first measurement of exclusive Ξ-(1321) hyperon photoproduction in γp→K+K+Ξ- for 3.2

  10. Generalized parton distributions and exclusive processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzey, Vadim [Hampton U.

    2013-10-01

    In last fifteen years, GPDs have emerged as a powerful tool to reveal such aspects of the QCD structure of the nucleon as: - 3D parton correlations and distributions; - spin content of the nucleon. Further advances in the field of GPDs and hard exclusive processes rely on: - developments in theory and new methods in phenomenology such as new flexible parameterizations, neural networks, global QCD fits - new high-precision data covering unexplored kinematics: JLab at 6 and 12 GeV, Hermes with recoil detector, Compass, EIC. This slide-show presents: Nucleon structure in QCD, particularly hard processes, factorization and parton distributions; and a brief overview of GPD phenomenology, including basic properties of GPDs, GPDs and QCD structure of the nucleon, and constraining GPDs from experiments.

  11. The scientific role of hypotheses and the reasoning of college students in physics problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenaro Guisasola

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to explore how freshmen college students in engineering state hypoteses to build their own problem solving structure when dealing with physics problems. From the constructivist perspective of the teaching and learning process hypotheses stating plays a fundamental role to check the coherence of students' ideas against the theoretical framework. The main instruments to accede to students' reasoning were their written solutions to four problematic situations in which they were asked to state hypotheses. The protocols were analysed according to a standard methodology. In this paper two of such problematic situations and the corresponding cathegorization schemes are presented in addition to reseach findings and conclusions.

  12. Poverty, social exclusion and health in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Paula

    2002-07-01

    People in Portugal have never been so healthy. Nevertheless, there are great differences in health status between social groups and regions. In 1994, Portugal was the country with the second worst level of inequality in terms of income distribution and with the highest level of poverty in the European Union (EU). Poverty in Portugal affects mainly the elderly and women (especially in single parent families). Beyond these groups, there are the children, the ethnic minorities and the homeless. Substance abusers, the unemployed, and ex-prisoners are also strongly affected by situations of social exclusion and poverty. Although poverty has been an important issue on the political agenda in Portugal, it shows a worrying tendency to resist traditional Social Security interventions. In the late 1990s, however, welfare coverage rates appear to have risen. To what extent can poverty cause a worsening of health status? Is there any sustainable positive association between welfare and improved health status? How, to whom and when should actions to improve the health status of the disadvantaged be addressed, without subverting the health status of the rest of the population. It is also necessary to reveal the consequences of poor health to individuals, families and communities in terms of income, social empowerment and the ability to fulfil other needs. Finally, reflection on the role and effectiveness of traditional social security models is necessary, in order to improve the impact and adequacy of its interventions. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge about disadvantage, the current health situation of the most vulnerable groups in Portuguese society-those affected by poverty, deprivation and social exclusion-and to detect the constraints on access to health and health care.

  13. Assortative mating after divorce : a test of two competing hypotheses using marginal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelissen, J.P.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze data from 927 remarried men and women to examine the association between spouses' educational attainment, social class, and age in their first and current union. Applying marginal homogeneity models, we test two competing hypotheses: current unions of remarried people are more homogamous

  14. Ecosystem functioning and maximum entropy production: a quantitative test of hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysman, Filip J R; Bruers, Stijn

    2010-05-12

    The idea that entropy production puts a constraint on ecosystem functioning is quite popular in ecological thermodynamics. Yet, until now, such claims have received little quantitative verification. Here, we examine three 'entropy production' hypotheses that have been forwarded in the past. The first states that increased entropy production serves as a fingerprint of living systems. The other two hypotheses invoke stronger constraints. The state selection hypothesis states that when a system can attain multiple steady states, the stable state will show the highest entropy production rate. The gradient response principle requires that when the thermodynamic gradient increases, the system's new stable state should always be accompanied by a higher entropy production rate. We test these three hypotheses by applying them to a set of conventional food web models. Each time, we calculate the entropy production rate associated with the stable state of the ecosystem. This analysis shows that the first hypothesis holds for all the food webs tested: the living state shows always an increased entropy production over the abiotic state. In contrast, the state selection and gradient response hypotheses break down when the food web incorporates more than one trophic level, indicating that they are not generally valid.

  15. Delinquency and Peer Acceptance in Adolescence: A Within-Person Test of Moffitt's Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Kelly L.; Kreager, Derek A.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    We tested 2 hypotheses derived from Moffitt's (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. We tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from delinquent…

  16. INFLUENCES ON AND FROM THE SEGMENTATION OF NETWORKS - HYPOTHESES AND TESTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BAERVELDT, C; SNIJDERS, T

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses (a) the influence of network structure on the diffusion of (new) cultural behavior within the network and (b) the influence of external events, especially of social programs, on the diffusion of (new) cultural behavior, and on the network structure. Hypotheses are formulated a

  17. HYPERACTIVE TISSUE RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEMS IN CARDIOVASCULAR DYSFUNCTION - EXPERIMENTAL-EVIDENCE AND CLINICAL HYPOTHESES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PINTO, YM; BUIKEMA, H; VANGILST, WH

    1995-01-01

    In this review, hypotheses are discussed with regard to the role of local, tissue renin-angiotensin systems in the progression of cardiovascular dysfunction. After local renin-anglotensin systems had been described as functionally distinct systems, recent experimental studies have suggested an assoc

  18. Use of hypotheses for analysis of variance models: challenging the current practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wesel, F.; Boeije, H.R.; Hoijtink, H.

    2013-01-01

    In social science research, hypotheses about group means are commonly tested using analysis of variance. While deemed to be formulated as specifically as possible to test social science theory, they are often defined in general terms. In this article we use two studies to explore the current practic

  19. Delinquency and Peer Acceptance in Adolescence: A Within-Person Test of Moffitt's Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Kelly L.; Kreager, Derek A.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    We tested 2 hypotheses derived from Moffitt's (1993) taxonomic theory of antisocial behavior, both of which are central to her explanation for the rise in delinquency during adolescence. We tested whether persistently delinquent individuals become more accepted by their peers during adolescence and whether individuals who abstain from delinquent…

  20. Why Consumers Choose Managed Mutual Funds over Index Funds: Hypotheses from Consumer Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Donald R.; Kaufmann, Patrick J.; Bhagat, Sanjai

    1999-01-01

    Using the literature of psychology, consumer behavior, and behavioral finance, a series of hypotheses is presented that account for consumer choices of managed over index mutual funds. Results indicate a need for consumer education to increase awareness of the benefits of index investing. (SK)

  1. Lee Smolin Five Great Problems and Their Solution without Ontological Hypotheses

    CERN Document Server

    Quznetsov, Gunn

    2011-01-01

    Solutions of Lee Smolin Five Great Problems from his book {\\it The Trouble with Physics: the Rise of String Theory, the Fall of a Science, and What Comes Next} are described. This solutions is obtained only from the properties of probability without any ontological hypotheses.

  2. What Constrains the Accuracy of Metacomprehension Judgments? Testing the Transfer-Appropriate-Monitoring and Accessibility Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlosky, J.; Rawson, K.A.; Middleton, E.L.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated two hypotheses-transfer appropriate monitoring (TAM) and the accessibility hypothesis-that explain why the accuracy of metacomprehension judgments is commonly low. In 2 experiments, participants read six expository texts, made global judgments about how well they would perform on a test over each text, and made term-specific judgments…

  3. Gender Relations and Economic Development: Hypotheses about the Reversal of Fortune in EurAsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Pleijt, A.M.; van Zanden, J.L.; Carmichael, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops an interrelated set of hypotheses about the links between gender relations, family systems and economic development in EurAsia. Firstly, we briefly discuss a number of ideas from the recent literature about the links between gender relations and economic development. Secondly, we

  4. Aggression among Children with ADHD, Anxiety, or Co-Occurring Symptoms: Competing Exacerbation and Attenuation Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P.; Luebbe, Aaron M.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Fite, Paula J.

    2012-01-01

    Competing hypotheses for explaining the role of anxiety in the relation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and childhood aggression were evaluated. Two studies tested whether anxiety exacerbated, attenuated, or had no effect on the relation between ADHD and aggression subtypes among psychiatrically hospitalized…

  5. Bullying Victimization and Adolescent Self-Harm: Testing Hypotheses from General Strain Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Carter; Meldrum, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology. Drawing from Agnew's (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate…

  6. Coping with the Stigma of Mental Illness: Empirically-Grounded Hypotheses from Computer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Har, Sarah K.

    2011-01-01

    This research demonstrates how affect control theory and its computer program, "Interact", can be used to develop empirically-grounded hypotheses regarding the connection between cultural labels and behaviors. Our demonstration focuses on propositions in the modified labeling theory of mental illness. According to the MLT, negative societal…

  7. Williams Syndrome Hypersociability: A Neuropsychological Study of the Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitao, Liliana; Sampaio, Adriana; Fernandez, Montse; Sousa, Nuno; Pinheiro, Ana; Goncalves, Oscar F.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome display indiscriminate approach towards strangers. Neuroimaging studies conducted so far have linked this social profile to structural and/or functional abnormalities in WS amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In this study, the neuropsychological hypotheses of amygdala and prefrontal cortex involvement in WS…

  8. Bullying Victimization and Adolescent Self-Harm: Testing Hypotheses from General Strain Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Carter; Meldrum, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Self-harm is widely recognized as a significant adolescent social problem, and recent research has begun to explore its etiology. Drawing from Agnew's (1992) social psychological strain theory of deviance, this study considers this issue by testing three hypotheses about the effects of traditional and cyber bullying victimization on deliberate…

  9. Vestigial Biological Structures: A Classroom-Applicable Test of Creationist Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Phil; Ambrocio, Zenis; Andrade, Julia B.; Foust, Katanya K.; Gaston, Jasmine E.; Lewis, Ryshonda P.; Liniewski, Rachel M.; Ragin, Bobby A.; Robinson, Khanna L.; Stanley, Shane G.

    2015-01-01

    Lists of vestigial biological structures in biology textbooks are so short that some young-Earth creationist authors claim that scientists have lost confidence in the existence of vestigial structures and can no longer identify any verifiable ones. We tested these hypotheses with a method that is easily adapted to biology classes. We used online…

  10. Examining Preservice Science Teachers' Skills of Formulating Hypotheses and Identifying Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine preservice science teachers' skills of formulating hypotheses and identifying variables. The research has a phenomenological research design. The data was gathered qualitatively. In this study, preservice science teachers were first given two scenarios (Scenario-1 & Scenario-2) containing two different…

  11. Coping with the Stigma of Mental Illness: Empirically-Grounded Hypotheses from Computer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Har, Sarah K.

    2011-01-01

    This research demonstrates how affect control theory and its computer program, "Interact", can be used to develop empirically-grounded hypotheses regarding the connection between cultural labels and behaviors. Our demonstration focuses on propositions in the modified labeling theory of mental illness. According to the MLT, negative societal…

  12. ADOPTING SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN PROFILING GREEN CONSUMERS: A REVIEW OF HYPOTHESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hartono

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades worldwide environmental consciousness has increased dramatically as well as profiling green consumers have gained tremendous attention in the past. Segmenting and targeting markets base on pro-environmental purchase behavior are essential when companies positioning their green products. Socio-demographic characteristics have gained a lot of attention as the key profiling variables. Such characteristics have been employed by many scholars more frequently for the bases of segmenting and profiling green consumers. However, most existing studies of green consumers’ socio-demographic were US based. The present article attempts to review the common hypotheses of socio-demographic characteristics in profiling green consumers. The present article reviews five general hypotheses relating to socio-demographics and environmental consciousness of green consumers, namely the gender, age, education level, income, and occupation hypotheses, as well as the theoretical explanation for each hypothesis. Most previous studies tend to have the same conclusion in the gender, age, education level, and  income characteristics. Critics to socio-demographic characteristics and a need to conduct green marketing research in Indonesia was also reviewed.Key words: profiling, socio-demographic, green consumer, hypotheses.

  13. Vestigial Biological Structures: A Classroom-Applicable Test of Creationist Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Phil; Ambrocio, Zenis; Andrade, Julia B.; Foust, Katanya K.; Gaston, Jasmine E.; Lewis, Ryshonda P.; Liniewski, Rachel M.; Ragin, Bobby A.; Robinson, Khanna L.; Stanley, Shane G.

    2015-01-01

    Lists of vestigial biological structures in biology textbooks are so short that some young-Earth creationist authors claim that scientists have lost confidence in the existence of vestigial structures and can no longer identify any verifiable ones. We tested these hypotheses with a method that is easily adapted to biology classes. We used online…

  14. Factors that Affect the Physical Science Career Interest of Female Students: Testing Five Common Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Lock, Robynne M.; Lung, Florin; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    There are many hypotheses regarding factors that may encourage female students to pursue careers in the physical sciences. Using multivariate matching methods on national data drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project ("n" = 7505), we test the following five commonly held beliefs regarding what…

  15. Editorial: hypotheses about protein folding--the proteomic code and wonderfolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, Paul S

    2009-12-24

    Theoretical biology journals can contribute in many ways to the progress of knowledge. They are particularly well-placed to encourage dialogue and debate about hypotheses addressing problematical areas of research. An online journal provides an especially useful forum for such debate because of the option of posting comments within days of the publication of a contentious article.

  16. Testing Social Cognitive Interest and Choice Hypotheses across Holland Types in Italian High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Brown, Steven D.; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore

    2003-01-01

    Italian high school students (n=796) completed measures related to Social Cognitive Career Theory and Holland's personality types. Findings supported hypotheses that self-efficacy and outcome expectations predict interests. Whether the mediation effect of interests was full or partial varied across types. Social supports/barriers related to career…

  17. Why Consumers Choose Managed Mutual Funds over Index Funds: Hypotheses from Consumer Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Donald R.; Kaufmann, Patrick J.; Bhagat, Sanjai

    1999-01-01

    Using the literature of psychology, consumer behavior, and behavioral finance, a series of hypotheses is presented that account for consumer choices of managed over index mutual funds. Results indicate a need for consumer education to increase awareness of the benefits of index investing. (SK)

  18. Utility of Krashen's Five Hypotheses in the Saudi Context of Foreign Language Acquisition/Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Malik Ajmal; Gulnaz, Fahmeeda; Ijaz, Attiya

    2014-01-01

    In the last twenty years, the paradigm that has dominated the discipline of language teaching is the SLA theory and Krashen's five hypotheses which are still proving flexible to accommodate earlier reforms. This paper reviews second language acquisition (SLA) theory to establish an understanding of its role in the EFL/ESL classrooms. Other areas…

  19. THE EXCLUSION OF ILEGALLY ADMINISTERED EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Emanuela IONIŢĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Both judicial practice and specialized texts have brought up the problem of what the punishment for breaking the legal provisions in the activity of evidence administration is, if a matter of fact had been presented by means that are not legally specified or if a piece of evidence was administered by means that are legally specified, but with the violation of legal provisions. Romania has adhered to the most important international juridical instruments adopted in the sphere of human rights by the adoption, modification or completion of internal legislation. As such, for the first time in Romanian criminal procedural legislation, a sanction for the exclusion of evidence has been introduced, as a corollary for the principle of legality and of loyalty in administering evidence. The New Criminal Procedure Code provides the sanction of exclusion as well, but this time the legislator didn’t resume his or herself to a mere conceptual regulation of the sanction, providing both a specific invalidation procedure as well as procedural solutions. In the New Criminal Procedure Code it is shown that in the sphere of evidence-showing a set of rules has been introduced that establishes the principle of loyalty in the obtainment of evidence. These rules, that provide the sanction of excluding evidence obtained through illegal or unloyal means, will determined the growth of professionalism in the ranks of the judiciary bodies on the subject of obtaining evidence and, on the other hand, will guarantee the firm upholding of the parties rights to a fair trial. “Truth, like all other good things, may be loved unwisely – may be pursued too keenly – may cost too much…” Lord Justice Sir James Lewis Knight-Bruce ”It is a deeply ingrained value in our democratic system that the ends do not justify the means. In particular, evidence or convictions may, at times, be obtained at too high a price”. – Antonio Lamer Former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

  20. Exclusive breastfeeding duration in Cali, Colombia, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera Gustavo Alonso

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exclusive breast-feeding (EB is the nutritional gold standard of children in their 0-6 months of life and its practice is recommended in the current national plans of health, feeding and nutrition. Objective: To describe the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EB in a cohort of women who breastfed, from Cali, Colombia, in 2003. Methods: A cohort of 438 urban women was established, with first singleton live birth in immediate postpartum, whose childbirth was cared without complications, in one of the six institutions (4 public and 2 private that concentrate 80% of all deliveries from the city, approximately. With the previous consent of each woman and through structured questionnaires, these women were interviewed in the first hours after postpartum; then, they were visited and a face to face interview was applied at home, at days 8, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 since the birth, until abandon of EB was identified or woman could not be found. Results: At recruitment, 15 out of 453 puerperal women captured in postpartum rooms refused to participate in the study; 38 (8.5% women were lost during the following. At the end of the months 1°, 2°, 3°, 4°, 5° and 6°, respectively, only 28%, 15%, 9%, 5%, 2% and 1.6% of the women included to the study kept EB practice, according to the adopted criteria. Conclusion: High participation in the prenatal and delivery care of the institutions selected for this study, low lost of women during the following and broad socio-economic distribution of recruited women, allow to suggest that observations from this cohort characterise the duration of EB in 1, 2, 3 and 4 socio-economic strata of urban area of Cali, Colombia, in 2003. The duration of EB in the studied cohort is very short regarding to national and international recommendations. This fact indicates the scarce effects of both, national packages of National Security System in Health and national and local initiatives addressed to

  1. Softening the Blow of Social Exclusion: The Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Freedman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is an interactive process between multiple people, yet previous research has focused almost solely on the negative impacts on targets. What advice is there for people on the other side (i.e., sources who want to minimize its negative impact and preserve their own reputation? To provide an impetus for research on the interactive nature of exclusion, we propose the Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion. Our theory postulates that targets and sources’ needs are better maintained if sources use clear, explicit verbal communication. We propose that sources have three options: explicit rejection (clearly stating no, ostracism (ignoring, and ambiguous rejection (being unclear. Drawing on psychology, sociology, communications, and business research, we propose that when sources use explicit rejection, targets’ feelings will be less hurt, their needs will be better protected, and sources will experience less backlash and emotional toil than if sources use ambiguous rejection or ostracism. Finally, we propose how the language of rejections may impact both parties.

  2. Social exclusion and stereotyping: why and when exclusion fosters individuation of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claypool, Heather M; Bernstein, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    Exclusion triggers a desire to re-capture connections with others. To facilitate this goal, excluded individuals typically process social information especially carefully. One implication of this is that exclusion may foster judgments of others that are reliant on a careful consideration of their idiosyncratic behaviors rather than on more superficial features. We predicted, therefore, that excluded individuals should individuate more and stereotype less than non-excluded individuals and that such effects should be in service of identifying appropriate re-affiliation candidates. In 3 replications of Experiment 1, excluded (compared to non-excluded) individuals rendered less stereotypic judgments of occupational and racial group members described with mildly or ambiguously counter-stereotypic information. Confirming such processes aid with re-affiliation, Experiments 2 and 3 showed that these effects occurred for social targets that represented reasonable sources of re-affiliation, but not for offensive social targets (i.e., Skinheads) or non-social agents. Experiment 4 underscored that excluded participants process presented social information more carefully (individuate), showing greater differentiation in judgments of highly stereotype-consistent and stereotype-inconsistent targets. Implications for the social exclusion literature are discussed.

  3. Baby-Friendly hospital practices and meeting exclusive breastfeeding intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S; Li, Ruowei; Odom, Erika; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2012-07-01

    To describe mothers' exclusive breastfeeding intentions and whether Baby-Friendly hospital practices are associated with achieving these intentions. In the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II, women completed a prenatal questionnaire and approximately monthly questionnaires through 12 months. Mothers met their prenatal exclusive breastfeeding intention if their duration after the hospital stay (excluding hospital supplementation) equaled or exceeded their intention. Primary predictor variables included 6 Baby-Friendly hospital practices: breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth, giving only breast milk, rooming in, breastfeeding on demand, no pacifiers, and information on breastfeeding support. Among women who prenatally intended to exclusively breastfeed (n = 1457), more than 85% intended to do so for 3 months or more; however, only 32.4% of mothers achieved their intended exclusive breastfeeding duration. Mothers who were married and multiparous were more likely to achieve their exclusive breastfeeding intention, whereas mothers who were obese, smoked, or had longer intended exclusive breastfeeding duration were less likely to meet their intention. Beginning breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth and not being given supplemental feedings or pacifiers were associated with achieving exclusive breastfeeding intention. After adjustment for all other hospital practices, only not receiving supplemental feedings remained significant (adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.8, 3.1). Two-thirds of mothers who intend to exclusively breastfeed are not meeting their intended duration. Increased Baby-Friendly hospital practices, particularly giving only breast milk in the hospital, may help more mothers achieve their exclusive breastfeeding intentions.

  4. Abnormal neural responses to social exclusion in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradin, Victoria B; Waiter, Gordon; Kumar, Poornima; Stickle, Catriona; Milders, Maarten; Matthews, Keith; Reid, Ian; Hall, Jeremy; Steele, J Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Social exclusion is an influential concept in politics, mental health and social psychology. Studies on healthy subjects have implicated the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a region involved in emotional and social information processing, in neural responses to social exclusion. Impairments in social interactions are common in schizophrenia and are associated with reduced quality of life. Core symptoms such as delusions usually have a social content. However little is known about the neural underpinnings of social abnormalities. The aim of this study was to investigate the neural substrates of social exclusion in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls underwent fMRI while participating in a popular social exclusion paradigm. This task involves passing a 'ball' between the participant and two cartoon representations of other subjects. The extent of social exclusion (ball not being passed to the participant) was parametrically varied throughout the task. Replicating previous findings, increasing social exclusion activated the mPFC in controls. In contrast, patients with schizophrenia failed to modulate mPFC responses with increasing exclusion. Furthermore, the blunted response to exclusion correlated with increased severity of positive symptoms. These data support the hypothesis that the neural response to social exclusion differs in schizophrenia, highlighting the mPFC as a potential substrate of impaired social interactions.

  5. [Poverty, social exclusion, social capital and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rey Calero, Juan

    2004-01-01

    Social capital is the social structure which facilitates the actions of individuals, stimulates production and allows for success. Poverty maintains basic needs unmet (food, health, autonomy) over time and unvoluntarily. Social exclusion does not allow individuals to participate in society. The following dimensions are assessed: financial poverty, social inclusion, employment, health and education. Social participation, work integration, empowerment, self-esteem, and personal achievement should be promoted. In Europe 15% of people is exposed to poverty; in Spain corresponding figures are 13.4%, while for the elderly reached 21%. Extreme poverty affects 6.2% population and severe poverty 14.2%. Women and those living in Andalusia, Canary Islands and Extremadura are particularly affected, health inequality are for elderly, immigration, gender, social class, and should be reduced 10% for 2010. The Gini indez measures the income distribution; in the European Union (EU) it is 0.29 while in Spain is 0.33. Poverty and health are inversely correlated, health care expenditure in Spain is 7.5% og GDP. Life expectancy in U.E. is 75.5 years for men and 81.6 years for women, while in Spain it is 78 and 83.1 respectively. Infant mortality in EU is 4.5/1000, 4.1 per thousand in Spain. Lastly, the number of children per women in EU is 1.47 and in Spain 1.3.

  6. Exclusive φ meson production in HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golembiovskaya, Mayya

    2014-03-15

    In the present work exclusive φ meson leptoproduction at HERMES experiment in DESY was studied using the data collected at HERA accelerator in the period from 1998 till 2000 and from 2006 till 2007 years. In the analysis unpolarized and longitudinally polarized hydrogen and deuteron targets were used, the beam consisted of longitudinally polarized leptons. Via measurement of the angular and momentum distribution of the φ meson decay products 23 spin density matrix elements (SDMEs) for the φ meson were obtained. The number of SDMEs was defined by the experiment conditions, e.g. by the beam and target polarization directions. For the mentioned time period φ meson SDMEs were defined at HERMES for the first time. The quantities U{sub 1}, U{sub 2} and U{sub 3} which can be used to check presence of unnatural parity exchange (UPE) mechanism in phi meson production were calculated from SDMEs. All the results were obtained in 3 kinematic bins of Q{sup 2}, 4 kinematic bins of t' and for the integrated kinematics. No statistically significant difference between the results for hydrogen and deuteron targets was observed. The UPE quantities were found to be zero within 2 σ for the integrated kinematics, indicating negligible contribution of UPE for the φ meson production which is in agreement with theory predictions. The test of s-channel helicity conservation hypothesis via comparison of corresponding SDME values showed helicity conservation for the φ meson production.

  7. Exclusion of identification by negative superposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takač Šandor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the first report of negative superposition in our country. Photo of randomly selected young, living woman was superimposed on the previously discovered female skull. Computer program Adobe Photoshop 7.0 was used in work. Digitilized photographs of the skull and face, after uploaded to computer, were superimposed on each other and displayed on the monitor in order to assess their possible similarities or differences. Special attention was payed to matching the same anthropometrical points of the skull and face, as well as following their contours. The process of fitting the skull and the photograph is usually started by setting eyes in correct position relative to the orbits. In this case, lower jaw gonions go beyond the face contour and gnathion is highly placed. By positioning the chin, mouth and nose their correct anatomical position cannot be achieved. All the difficulties associated with the superposition were recorded, with special emphasis on critical evaluation of work results in a negative superposition. Negative superposition has greater probative value (exclusion of identification than positive (possible identification. 100% negative superposition is easily achieved, but 100% positive - almost never. 'Each skull is unique and viewed from different perspectives is always a new challenge'. From this point of view, identification can be negative or of high probability.

  8. Exclusives, equatives and prosodic phrases in Samoan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Calhoun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the functions of prosodic phrasing in the Austronesian VSO language Samoan. Two types of sentences are investigated, exclusives (involving the particle 'na’o' ‘only’ and equatives. Two complementary methodologies were used, a production study and an acceptability judgment study, to examine the prosodic realisation and relative naturalness of different word orderings of the two sentence types. The particle 'na’o' has an unusual distribution: preceding the initial constituent, be it the verb or a fronted noun phrase; or following the verb, but only modifying the absolutive (object. It was found that post-verbal absolutives modified by 'na’o' are usually not preceded by a phrase boundary, unlike unmodified absolutives which are consistently preceded by a high phrase tone (H- (cf. Yu 2009. Equatives in Samoan involve clauses which are the juxtaposition of two noun phrases, one the rheme (focus and the other the theme (topic. It was found that rhemes are usually followed by a phrase break, while for themes this is optional. Rheme-theme order was strongly preferred to theme-rheme order. These findings are argued to show a close relationship between information structure, constituent ordering and prosodic phrasing in Samoan. The preferred order of constituents in Samoan is rheme-theme, with a high phrase tone marking the end of the rheme. The absolutive argument is strongly preferred to be at the start of the theme. This article is part of theSpecial Collection: Prosody and constituent structure

  9. kT factorization of exclusive processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Makiko; Li, Hsiang-Nan

    2003-02-01

    We prove the kT factorization theorem in perturbative QCD (PQCD) for exclusive processes by considering πγ*→γ(π) and B→γ(π)lν¯. The relevant form factors are expressed as the convolution of hard amplitudes with two-parton meson wave functions in the impact parameter b space, b being conjugate to the parton transverse momenta kT. The point is that on-shell valence partons carry longitudinal momenta initially, and acquire kT through collinear gluon exchanges. The b-dependent two-parton wave functions with an appropriate path for the Wilson links are gauge-invariant. The hard amplitudes, defined as the difference between the parton-level diagrams of on-shell external particles and their collinear approximation, are also gauge-invariant. We compare the predictions for two-body nonleptonic B meson decays derived from kT factorization (the PQCD approach) and from collinear factorization (the QCD factorization approach).

  10. Exclusive production of W pairs in CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Da

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the results on the search for exclusive production of W pairs in the LHC with data collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid detector in proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV. The analysis comprises the two-photon production of a W pairs, pp → pW+ W− p → p νe± νµ∓ p. Two events are observed in data for pT(ℓ > 4 GeV, |η(ℓ| 20 GeV, in agreement with the standard model prediction of 2.2 ± 0.4 signal events with 0.84 ± 0.15 background events. Moreover, a study of the tail of the lepton pair transverse momentum distribution is performed to search for an evidence of anomalous quartic gauge couplings in the γγ → W+ W− vertex. As no events are observed in data, it results in a model-independent upper limits for the anomalous W quartic gauge couplings aW0,C/Λ2, which are of the order of 10−4.

  11. Exclusive electroproduction of two pions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2011-11-15

    The exclusive electroproduction of two pions in the mass range 0.4< M{sub {pi}}{sub {pi}} <2.5 GeV has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 82 pb{sup -1}. The analysis was carried out in the kinematic range of 2< Q{sup 2}<80 GeV{sup 2}, 32

  12. Radiation danger of exclusion zone objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholosha, V.I.; Proskura, N.I.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.; Arkhipov, A.N. [Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chornobyl Catastrophe (Ukraine)

    2001-03-01

    The analysis of radiation danger of the Exclusion Zone objects was made. Here, the Zone is defined as the territory from which the population has been evacuated in 1986 owing to the Chernobyl accident and possible outflow of the contaminated substances out of the borders is potentially dangerous to the Ukraine. In the present work were analyzed such problems as sources of radiation danger in the Zone, ways of radionuclide migration out of the borders of the Zone in normal and emergency situations, the non-radiation (ecological) danger factors of the Zone objects, doses (individual and collective) from various sources and on separate ways of their formation, and the characteristics of radiation danger of the Zone objects. The conclusions are: (1) Radionuclide flows both from technologic and natural sources exceed those from Shelter objects, (2) Under emergency conditions, radionuclide flows and doze loading remain comparable with those from emergency sources, (3) To solve some management tasks in radiation situation, the basic works on the Shelter objects should be oriented to decrease probability of emergency occurrence and to reduce radiation influence (prevention wash-outs during high waters, fire-prevention measures in forests and strengthening of the control behind non-authorized use of objects in the Zone). (S. Ohno)

  13. Exclusive electroproduction of two pions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H

    2012-01-01

    The exclusive electroproduction of two pions in the mass range 0.4 < M{\\pi}{\\pi} < 2.5 GeV has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 82 pb-1. The analysis was carried out in the kinematic range of 2 < Q2 < 80 GeV2, 32 < W < 180 GeV and |t| < 0.6 GeV2, where Q2 is the photon virtuality, W is the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy and t is the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex. The two-pion invariant-mass distribution is interpreted in terms of the pion electromagnetic form factor, |F(M{\\pi}{\\pi})|, assuming that the studied mass range includes the contributions of the {\\rho}, {\\rho}' and {\\rho}" vector-meson states. The masses and widths of the resonances were obtained and the Q2 dependence of the cross-section ratios {\\sigma}({\\rho}' \\rightarrow {\\pi}{\\pi})/{\\sigma}({\\rho}) and {\\sigma}({\\rho}" \\rightarrow {\\pi}{\\pi})/{\\sigma}({\\rho}) was extracted. The pion form factor obtained in the present analysis is compared to that obtained...

  14. A modular modelling framework for hypotheses testing in the simulation of urbanisation

    CERN Document Server

    Cottineau, Clementine; Chapron, Paul; Coyrehourcq, Sebastien Rey; Pumain, Denise

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a modelling experiment developed to study systems of cities and processes of urbanisation in large territories over long time spans. Building on geographical theories of urban evolution, we rely on agent-based models to 1/ formalise complementary and alternative hypotheses of urbanisation and 2/ explore their ability to simulate observed patterns in a virtual laboratory. The paper is therefore divided into two sections : an overview of the mechanisms implemented to represent competing hypotheses used to simulate urban evolution; and an evaluation of the resulting model structures in their ability to simulate - efficiently and parsimoniously - a system of cities (the Former Soviet Union) over several periods of time (before and after the crash of the USSR). We do so using a modular framework of model-building and evolutionary algorithms for the calibration of several model structures. This project aims at tackling equifinality in systems dynamics by confronting different mechanisms wi...

  15. How doctors generate diagnostic hypotheses: a study of radiological diagnosis with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Melo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In medical practice, diagnostic hypotheses are often made by physicians in the first moments of contact with patients; sometimes even before they report their symptoms. We propose that generation of diagnostic hypotheses in this context is the result of cognitive processes subserved by brain mechanisms that are similar to those involved in naming objects or concepts in everyday life. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this proposal we developed an experimental paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI using radiological diagnosis as a model. Twenty-five radiologists diagnosed lesions in chest X-ray images and named non-medical targets (animals embedded in chest X-ray images while being scanned in a fMRI session. Images were presented for 1.5 seconds; response times (RTs and the ensuing cortical activations were assessed. The mean response time for diagnosing lesions was 1.33 (SD ±0.14 seconds and 1.23 (SD ±0.13 seconds for naming animals. 72% of the radiologists reported cogitating differential diagnoses during trials (3.5 seconds. The overall pattern of cortical activations was remarkably similar for both types of targets. However, within the neural systems shared by both stimuli, activation was significantly greater in left inferior frontal sulcus and posterior cingulate cortex for lesions relative to animals. CONCLUSIONS: Generation of diagnostic hypotheses and differential diagnoses made through the immediate visual recognition of clinical signs can be a fast and automatic process. The co-localization of significant brain activation for lesions and animals suggests that generating diagnostic hypotheses for lesions and naming animals are served by the same neuronal systems. Nevertheless, diagnosing lesions was cognitively more demanding and associated with more activation in higher order cortical areas. These results support the hypothesis that medical diagnoses based on prompt visual recognition of

  16. Economic and evolutionary hypotheses for cross-population variation in parochialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Henrich, Joseph

    2013-09-11

    Human populations differ reliably in the degree to which people favor family, friends, and community members over strangers and outsiders. In the last decade, researchers have begun to propose several economic and evolutionary hypotheses for these cross-population differences in parochialism. In this paper, we outline major current theories and review recent attempts to test them. We also discuss the key methodological challenges in assessing these diverse economic and evolutionary theories for cross-population differences in parochialism.

  17. Mechanistic Mathematical Modeling Tests Hypotheses of the Neurovascular Coupling in fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lundengård

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI measures brain activity by detecting the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD response to neural activity. The BOLD response depends on the neurovascular coupling, which connects cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and deoxyhemoglobin level to neuronal activity. The exact mechanisms behind this neurovascular coupling are not yet fully investigated. There are at least three different ways in which these mechanisms are being discussed. Firstly, mathematical models involving the so-called Balloon model describes the relation between oxygen metabolism, cerebral blood volume, and cerebral blood flow. However, the Balloon model does not describe cellular and biochemical mechanisms. Secondly, the metabolic feedback hypothesis, which is based on experimental findings on metabolism associated with brain activation, and thirdly, the neurotransmitter feed-forward hypothesis which describes intracellular pathways leading to vasoactive substance release. Both the metabolic feedback and the neurotransmitter feed-forward hypotheses have been extensively studied, but only experimentally. These two hypotheses have never been implemented as mathematical models. Here we investigate these two hypotheses by mechanistic mathematical modeling using a systems biology approach; these methods have been used in biological research for many years but never been applied to the BOLD response in fMRI. In the current work, model structures describing the metabolic feedback and the neurotransmitter feed-forward hypotheses were applied to measured BOLD responses in the visual cortex of 12 healthy volunteers. Evaluating each hypothesis separately shows that neither hypothesis alone can describe the data in a biologically plausible way. However, by adding metabolism to the neurotransmitter feed-forward model structure, we obtained a new model structure which is able to fit the estimation data and successfully predict new

  18. Social support for schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanauskiene V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is a wider concept than poverty and includes not only material conditions but also inability to participate in economic, social, political and cultural life. The essence of social exclusion is social relationships (more exactly breaking off relationships, which may mean not only pushing away some members of the society, but also breaking off relationships with the society from the side of a person himself/herself. The reasons of origin of social exclusion may be legal, political, economical, social and cultural. Nowadays social exclusion is predetermined by social-economic factors. According to Poviliūnas (2001, the problems of children’s social exclusion may be solved ensuring proper education, care of public health, safety and minimal life standard. Growing aggression and violence of schoolchildren and their social exclusion are nowadays an important issue of political debate and media reports. Often schoolchildren face the risk of social exclusion at school during the period of adolescence. The risk also depends on the social status of their family in the society and the relationship of the family members. The aim of the article is to identify characteristic features of schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion and analyze social support provided for them. A quantitative research was carried out to achieve the aim. The method of data collection is a questionnaire. 105 teachers working in 3 secondary schools in Lithuania participated in the research. The research results revealed that most often schoolchildren face the risk of social exclusion at school during adolescence period. They are characterized as incommunicative, unsociable, passive, and shy, do not trust others, are vulnerable, have learning problems and avoid collaborative activities. These schoolchildren usually come from families of social risk or single parent families. The support provided at school by teachers to schoolchildren at risk of social exclusion

  19. Dissociable brain mechanisms for processing social exclusion and rule violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pitskel, Naomi B; Deen, Ben; Crowley, Michael J; McPartland, James C; Mayes, Linda C; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2011-02-01

    Social exclusion inherently involves an element of expectancy violation, in that we expect other people to follow the unwritten rule to include us in social interactions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we employed a unique modification of an interactive virtual ball-tossing game called "Cyberball" (Williams et al., 2000) and a novel paradigm called "Cybershape," in which rules are broken in the absence of social exclusion, to dissociate brain regions that process social exclusion from rule violations more generally. Our Cyberball game employed an alternating block design and removed evoked responses to events when the participant was throwing the ball in inclusion to make this condition comparable to exclusion, where participants did not throw. With these modifications, we replicated prior findings of ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), insula, and posterior cingulate cortex activity evoked by social exclusion relative to inclusion. We also identified exclusion-evoked activity in the hippocampi, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and left middle temporal gyrus. Comparing social exclusion and rule violation revealed a functional dissociation in the active neural systems as well as differential functional connectivity with vACC. Some overlap was observed in regions differentially modulated by social exclusion and rule violation, including the vACC and lateral parietal cortex. These overlapping brain regions showed different activation during social exclusion compared to rule violation, each relative to fair play. Comparing activation patterns to social exclusion and rule violation allowed for the dissociation of brain regions involved in the experience of exclusion versus expectancy violation.

  20. Replication Requires Psychological Rather than Statistical Hypotheses: The Case of Eye Movements Enhancing Word Recollection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaf, R. Hans

    2016-01-01

    Can an experiment be replicated in a mechanical fashion without considering the processes underlying the initial results? Here I will consider a non-replication of Saccade Induced Retrieval Enhancement (SIRE) and argue that it results from focusing on statistical instead of on substantive process hypotheses. Particularly the theoretical integration of SIRE with Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, provides clues about when the memory enhancement should occur. A relatively large memory enhancement effect in participants with a consistent (i.e., extreme right or left) handedness should be observed, (a) when explicitly instructed to retrieve and imagine the memories during the eye manipulation, and (b) for emotionally negative material. A finer theoretical analysis may thus well explain the contrast between the original SIRE studies and the non-replication. Also the findings from preregistered confirmatory research (i.e., focusing solely on statistical hypotheses) should be considered preliminary, representing shifts on a gradual scale of evidence, and awaiting interpretation in terms of theoretical hypotheses. Stronger, but still not definitive, conclusions can better be postponed until after multi-study meta-analyses with theoretically motivated moderator variables have been performed. PMID:28082942

  1. Healthy migrant and salmon bias hypotheses: a study of health and internal migration in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Qin, Lijian

    2014-02-01

    The existing literature has often underscored the "healthy migrant" effect and the "salmon bias" in understanding the health of migrants. Nevertheless, direct evidence for these two hypotheses, particularly the "salmon bias," is limited. Using data from a national longitudinal survey conducted between 2003 and 2007 in China, we provide tests of these hypotheses in the case of internal migration in China. To examine the healthy migrant effect, we study how pre-migration self-reported health is associated with an individual's decision to migrate and the distance of migration. To test the salmon bias hypothesis, we compare the self-reported health of migrants who stay in destinations and who return or move closer to home villages. The results provide support for both hypotheses. Specifically, healthier individuals are more likely to migrate and to move further away from home. Among migrants, those with poorer health are more likely to return or to move closer to their origin communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Using computational fluid dynamics to test functional and ecological hypotheses in fossil taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Imran

    2016-04-01

    Reconstructing how ancient organisms moved and fed is a major focus of study in palaeontology. Traditionally, this has been hampered by a lack of objective data on the functional morphology of extinct species, especially those without a clear modern analogue. However, cutting-edge techniques for characterizing specimens digitally and in three dimensions, coupled with state-of-the-art computer models, now provide a robust framework for testing functional and ecological hypotheses even in problematic fossil taxa. One such approach is computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a method for simulating fluid flows around objects that has primarily been applied to complex engineering-design problems. Here, I will present three case studies of CFD applied to fossil taxa, spanning a range of specimen sizes, taxonomic groups and geological ages. First, I will show how CFD enabled a rigorous test of hypothesized feeding modes in an enigmatic Ediacaran organism with three-fold symmetry, revealing previously unappreciated complexity of pre-Cambrian ecosystems. Second, I will show how CFD was used to evaluate hydrodynamic performance and feeding in Cambrian stem-group echinoderms, shedding light on the probable feeding strategy of the latest common ancestor of all deuterostomes. Third, I will show how CFD allowed us to explore the link between form and function in Mesozoic ichthyosaurs. These case studies serve to demonstrate the enormous potential of CFD for addressing long-standing hypotheses for a variety of fossil taxa, opening up an exciting new avenue in palaeontological studies of functional morphology.

  3. Partial migration in birds: tests of three hypotheses in a tropical lekking frugivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, W Alice

    2008-11-01

    1. Partially migratory species provide opportunities to understand which ecological factors cause some animals to migrate when others remain resident year round. Partial migration in birds has been explained by the dominance, arrival-time, and body-size hypotheses. 2. Testing these hypotheses has proven difficult due to the similarities of the predictions they make in temperate-breeding long-distance migrants. In tropical altitudinal migrants, however, these hypotheses make different predictions regarding the sex, age, and condition of migrants and residents. 3. Among white-ruffed manakins in Costa Rica, young birds were not more likely to migrate (as predicted by the dominance hypothesis), nor were females more likely to migrate (as predicted by the arrival-time hypothesis). All condition-related variables interacted with sex, together explaining much of the variation in migratory behaviour. 4. I re-articulate the body-size hypothesis in the context of tropical altitudinal bird migration, focusing explicitly on how limited foraging opportunities and differences in individual condition affect fasting ability during torrential rains. Despite ample food, the smallest birds or those stressed by parasites or moult may risk starvation at breeding elevations due to a reduction in foraging time. These results highlight how intrinsic and extrinsic factors may interact to produce observed patterns of within- and among-species variation in migratory behaviour.

  4. Testing vs. Believing Hypotheses: Magical Ideation in the Judgement of Contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, P; Graves, R E

    1997-11-01

    This paper examines the idea that an important dimension of human cognition is the amount of objective evidence required for perception of meaningful patterns. At the clinical extreme of this dimension are patients with hallucinations and delusions who experience perception with no external evidence and see connections between objectively unrelated events. Also, normal individuals exhibit considerable variation along this continuum. The theory proposed here predicts that normal subjects with low evidential criteria will be more likely to accept causal explanations, not only for everyday ''paranormal'' coincidences, but also for random contingencies in a laboratory experiment. This prediction was confirmed when 40 students completed a differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) task designed to induce superstitious behaviour and were then questioned about their hypotheses concerning the contingencies for successful performance. Participants scoring high on the Magical Ideation scale (indicating greater belief in paranormal phenomena) tested fewer hypotheses during the task, and they ended up believing in more hypotheses regarding illusory contingencies than did their low-scoring peers. We proposed that a continuum of hypothesis-testing behaviour underlies the schizotypy continuum, with ''positive'' schizotypal traits reflecting a Type I error bias and ''negative'' traits a Type II error bias. Differential activation patterns within frontal-limbic networks are tentatively suggested as a physiological correlate of the behavioural continuum.

  5. Using climate, energy, and spatial-based hypotheses to interpret macroecological patterns of North America chelonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Agha, Mickey; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Hazzard, Sarah C.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    Our study investigates how factors, such as latitude, productivity, and several environmental variables, influence contemporary patterns of the species richness in North American turtles. In particular, we test several hypotheses explaining broad-scale species richness patterns on several species richness data sets: (i) total turtles, (ii) freshwater turtles only, (iii) aquatic turtles, (iv) terrestrial turtles only, (v) Emydidae, and (vi) Kinosternidae. In addition to spatial data, we used a combination of 25 abiotic variables in spatial regression models to predict species richness patterns. Our results provide support for multiple hypotheses related to broad-scale patterns of species richness, and in particular, hypotheses related to climate, productivity, water availability, topography, and latitude. In general, species richness patterns were positively associated with temperature, precipitation, diversity of streams, coefficient of variation of elevation, and net primary productivity. We also found that North America turtles follow the general latitudinal diversity gradient pattern (i.e., increasing species richness towards equator) by exhibiting a negative association with latitude. Because of the incongruent results among our six data sets, our study highlights the importance of considering phylogenetic constraints and guilds when interpreting species richness patterns, especially for taxonomic groups that occupy a myriad of habitats.

  6. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fernanda R; Buccini, Gabriela Dos S; Venâncio, Sônia I; da Costa, Teresa H M

    To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among working women. This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Tarlov Cyst: A diagnostic of exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieux, Cyril; Poglia, Pietro; Laudato, Pietro

    2017-07-25

    Tarlov cysts were first described in 1938 as an incidental finding at autopsy. The cysts are usually diagnosed on MRI, which reveals the lesion arising from the sacral nerve root near the dorsal root ganglion. Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon and it is recommended to consider Tarlov cyst as a diagnostic of exclusion. We report a case of a patient with voluminous bilateral L5 and S1 Tarlov cyst, and right hip osteonecrosis to increase the awareness in the orthopaedic community. A 57-year-old female, in good health, with chronic low back pain since 20 years, presented suddenly right buttock pain, right inguinal fold pain and low back pain for two months, with inability to walk and to sit down. X-ray of the lumbo-sacral spine revealed asymmetric discopathy L5-S1 and L3-L4. X-ray of the right hip did not reveal anything. We asked for an MRI of the spine and it revealed a voluminous fluid-filled cystic lesion, arising from the first sacral nerve root on both side and measuring 3,3cm in diameter. The MRI also show a part of the hip and incidentally we discovered an osteonecrosis Ficat 3 of the right femoral head. The patient was taken for a total hip arthroplasty, by anterior approach. Patient appreciated relief of pain immediately after the surgery. The current case show that even if we find a voluminous cyst we always have to eliminate other diagnosis (especially the frequent like osteonecrosis of the femoral head) and mostly in the case of unclear neurological perturbation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. 45 CFR 147.108 - Prohibition of preexisting condition exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... additional examples illustrating the definition of a preexisting condition exclusion, see § 146.111(a)(1)(ii... issuer denies the application for coverage on March 1, 2011 because G's 13-year-old child has autism. (ii... individual market is a preexisting condition exclusion because the denial was based on the child's...

  9. Income and economic exclusion: do they measure the same concept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renahy Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In this paper, we create an index of economic exclusion based on validated questionnaires of economic hardship and material deprivation, and examine its association with health in Canada. The main study objective is to determine the extent to which income and this index of economic exclusion index are overlapping measurements of the same concept. Methods We used the Canadian Household Panel Survey Pilot and performed multilevel analysis using a sample of 1588 individuals aged 25 to 64, nested within 975 households. Results While economic exclusion is inversely correlated with both individual and household income, these are not perfectly overlapping constructs. Indeed, not only these indicators weakly correlated, but they also point to slightly different sociodemographic groups at risk of low income and economic exclusion. Furthermore, the respective associations with health are of comparable magnitude, but when these income and economic exclusion indicators are included together in the same model, they point to independent and cumulative, not redundant effects. Conclusions We explicitly distinguish, both conceptually and empirically, between income and economic exclusion, one of the main dimensions of social exclusion. Our results suggest that the economic exclusion index we use measures additional aspects of material deprivation that are not captured by income, such as the effective hardship or level of economic 'well-being'.

  10. Contrasting Stories of Inclusion/Exclusion in the Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Maria de Fatima Cardoso; Mortimer, Eduardo F.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the construction process of inclusion/exclusion for high school chemistry students in two schools in Belo Horizonte, the capital of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. We examined the interactional accomplishment of inclusion/exclusion of four students, two from a private school and two from a public school. The aim of this article…

  11. 77 FR 55465 - US Air Force Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Department of the Air Force US Air Force Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: Air Force Research Laboratory... an Exclusive Patent License. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of part 404 of Title 37, Code of... interest the United States Air Force has in: U.S. Patent No. 8,051,475, filed on March 27, 2007 and...

  12. 76 FR 57720 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions... exclusive license in any right, title and interest the United States Air Force has in: U.S. Patent... license for the invention described in this patent application will be granted unless a written...

  13. 77 FR 38771 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... of exclusive patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e) and 37 CFR... territories, possessions and commonwealths, to NIST's interest in the invention embodied in U.S....

  14. Tests of quantum chromodynamics in exclusive and inclusive electroproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1989-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: overview of electroproduction phenomenology; hadronization of the quark and spectator systems; hadronization in nuclei; shadowing and anti- shadowing; color transparency; exclusive channels in electroproduction; hadronic wavefunction phenomenology; diffractive electroproduction; exclusive nuclear processes in QCD; and relation of electroproduction to QCD wavefunctions. 58 refs., 22 figs. (LSP)

  15. 34 CFR 101.13 - Exclusion from hearing for misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusion from hearing for misconduct. 101.13 Section 101.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS... Practice § 101.13 Exclusion from hearing for misconduct. Disrespectful, disorderly, or...

  16. 45 CFR 1386.106 - Exclusion from hearing for misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exclusion from hearing for misconduct. 1386.106 Section 1386.106 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... Requirements Hearing Procedures § 1386.106 Exclusion from hearing for misconduct. Disrespectful, disorderly,...

  17. 38 CFR 18b.15 - Exclusion from hearing for misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusion from hearing for misconduct. 18b.15 Section 18b.15 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... THIS CHAPTER Appearance and Practice § 18b.15 Exclusion from hearing for misconduct....

  18. 45 CFR 213.26 - Exclusion from hearing for misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exclusion from hearing for misconduct. 213.26 Section 213.26 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE... REQUIREMENTS Hearing Procedures § 213.26 Exclusion from hearing for misconduct. Disrespectful, disorderly,...

  19. Social Exclusion in Childhood: A Developmental Intergroup Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Hitti, Aline

    2013-01-01

    "Interpersonal" rejection and "intergroup" exclusion in childhood reflect different, but complementary, aspects of child development. Interpersonal rejection focuses on individual differences in personality traits, such as wariness and being fearful, to explain bully-victim relationships. In contrast, intergroup exclusion focuses on how in-group…

  20. Verifying Mutual Exclusion and Liveness Properties with Split Preconditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Awadhesh Kumar Singh; Anup Kumar Bandyopadhyay

    2004-01-01

    This work is focused on presenting a split precondition approach for the modeling and proving the correctness of distributed algorithms. Formal specification and precise analysis of Peterson's distributed mutual exclusion algorithm for two process has been considered. The proof of properties like, mutual exclusion, liveness, and lockout-freedom have also been presented.

  1. 46 CFR 4.01-3 - Reporting exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting exclusion. 4.01-3 Section 4.01-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Authority and Scope of Regulations § 4.01-3 Reporting exclusion. (a) Vessels subject to 33 CFR...

  2. 36 CFR 1150.74 - Exclusion of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusion of evidence. 1150.74 Section 1150.74 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD PRACTICE AND PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE HEARINGS Hearing Procedures § 1150.74 Exclusion...

  3. The practice of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers attending a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-08

    Aug 8, 2012 ... the World Health Organization (WHO) revised its infant. Abstract ... exclusively and had received infant feeding counselling (n = 258 vs. n = 65, p-value < 0.05). Exposure to infant ... by the health services to HIV-positive mothers.2 Exclusive ... qualitative study, Doherty et al identified key barriers faced by.

  4. 5 CFR 630.211 - Exclusion of Presidential appointees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusion of Presidential appointees. 630.211 Section 630.211 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Definitions and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.211 Exclusion of...

  5. Invitation to algorithmic uses of inclusion–exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husfeldt, Thore

    2011-01-01

    I give an introduction to algorithmic uses of the principle of inclusion-exclusion. The presentation is intended to be be concrete and accessible, at the expense of generality and comprehensiveness.......I give an introduction to algorithmic uses of the principle of inclusion-exclusion. The presentation is intended to be be concrete and accessible, at the expense of generality and comprehensiveness....

  6. Search for exclusive or semi-exclusive γγ production and observation of exclusive and semi-exclusive e+e- production in pp collisions at √{s}=7 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Wagner, P.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Maes, T.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Vanelderen, L.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, S.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Azzolini, V.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tosi, S.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.

    2012-11-01

    A search for exclusive or semi-exclusive γγ production, pp → p(*) + γγ + p(*) (where p* stands for a diffractively-dissociated proton), and the observation of exclusive and semi-exclusive e+e- production, pp → p(*) + e+e- + p(*), in proton-proton collisions at √{s}=7 TeV, are presented. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb-1 recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC at low instantaneous luminosities. Candidate γγ or e+e- events are selected by requiring the presence of two photons or a positron and an electron, each with transverse energy E T > 5 .5 GeV and pseudorapidity | η| < 2 .5, and no other particles in the region | η| < 5 .2. No exclusive or semi-exclusive diphoton candidates are found in the data. An upper limit on the cross section for the reaction pp → p(*) + γγ + p(*), within the above kinematic selections, is set at 1.18 pb at 95% confidence level. Seventeen exclusive or semi-exclusive dielectron candidates are observed, with an estimated background of 0 .85 ± 0 .28 (stat.) events, in agreement with the QED-based prediction of 16 .3 ± 1 .3 (syst.) events.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. 28 CFR 0.56 - Exclusive or concurrent jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusive or concurrent jurisdiction. 0.56 Section 0.56 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.56 Exclusive or concurrent jurisdiction. The Assistant Attorney General...

  8. 77 FR 27097 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... Technologies, Incorporated having its principal place of business in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. The patent... National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The prospective exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7. DATES: The prospective exclusive license may be...

  9. 75 FR 21045 - Notice of intent to grant exclusive license

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Corporation, having its principal place of business in Huntsville, AL. The patent rights in this invention... Aeronautics and Space Administration. The prospective exclusive license will comply with the terms and.... DATES: The prospective exclusive license may be granted unless, within fifteen (15) days from the date...

  10. 78 FR 47009 - Notice of Intent to Grant Exclusive License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... having its principal place of business in Huntsville, AL. The patent rights in these inventions as... National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The prospective partially exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7. DATES: The prospective exclusive license...

  11. 75 FR 36696 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... of business in Pasadena, California. The patent rights in these inventions have been assigned to the... Administration. The prospective exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7. DATES: The prospective exclusive license may be granted unless, within fifteen (15...

  12. 78 FR 36793 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... Non-Vacuum Applications,'' to XTherm LP, having its principal place of business at 1325 White Drive... prospective exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7. DATES: The prospective exclusive license may be granted unless, within fifteen (15) days from the date...

  13. 76 FR 58047 - Notice of Intent to Grant Exclusive License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... business in Los Angeles, California. The patent rights in this invention have been assigned to the United... Administration. The prospective partially exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7. DATES: The prospective partially exclusive license may be granted unless within...

  14. 76 FR 67763 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ...., having its principal place of business at 843 Saint Kitts Court, San Jose CA 95127. The patent rights in... of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The prospective exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7. DATES: The prospective exclusive...

  15. 77 FR 31399 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ..., having its principal place of business at 142 Route 35, Red Bank, NJ 07701. The patent rights in this... National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The prospective exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7. DATES: The prospective exclusive license may be...

  16. 78 FR 29390 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Group Inc., having its principal place of business at 5326 Tattinger Lane, Oviedo, FL 32765. The patent... Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The prospective exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7. DATES: The prospective exclusive...

  17. 77 FR 20437 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... business at 12201 Research Parkway, Suite 501, Orlando, FL 32826-3246. The patent rights in this invention... Aeronautics and Space Administration. The prospective exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7. DATES: The prospective exclusive license may be granted unless...

  18. 78 FR 19744 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... Corporation, having its principal place of business in Irvine, CA. The patent rights in these inventions as... National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The prospective partially exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7. DATES: The prospective exclusive license...

  19. 75 FR 54656 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Templates for Pseudo- Cellulosomes'' to Conderos, Inc., having its principal place of business at 830... Administration. The prospective exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7. DATES: The prospective exclusive license may be granted unless, within fifteen (15...

  20. 77 FR 19739 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ...,'' to Ultora, Inc., having its principal place of business at 238 E. Caribbean Drive Sunnyvale, CA 94089... by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The prospective exclusive... prospective exclusive license may be granted unless, within fifteen (15) days from the date of this published...

  1. 77 FR 45696 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Conditions,'' to Medcare Holdings, LTD, having its principal place of business at P.O. Box 3483, Road Town... Administration. The prospective exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7. DATES: The prospective exclusive license may be granted unless, within fifteen (15...

  2. 78 FR 44163 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Squared Decisions Inc., having its principal place of business at 830 Kuhn Drive, Suite 212463, Chula.... The prospective exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7. DATES: The prospective exclusive license may be granted unless, within fifteen (15) days...

  3. 78 FR 29389 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Juntura Group Inc., having its principal place of business at 5326 Tattinger Lane, Oviedo, FL 32765. The... Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The prospective exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7. DATES: The prospective exclusive...

  4. 77 FR 43866 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... System,'' to Aviation Technology, Inc., having its principal place of business at 288 Dolphin Cove Court... prospective exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7. DATES: The prospective exclusive license may be granted unless, within fifteen (15) days from the date...

  5. 78 FR 61398 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... AeroPlastic LP, having its principal place of business at 1325 White Drive, Titusville, FL 32780. The... Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The prospective exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7. DATES: The prospective exclusive...

  6. 76 FR 35480 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Business Solutions, Inc., having its principal place of business in San Diego, California. The patent... prospective exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7. ] DATES: The prospective exclusive license may be granted unless, within fifteen (15) days from the date...

  7. 76 FR 65751 - Notice of intent to grant exclusive license

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... ``Greener Electro-Mechanical Slide Valve'' to QM Power, Inc, having its principal place of business in Lee's... prospective exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7... even if no objections are submitted within the comment period. DATES: The prospective exclusive license...

  8. 78 FR 57663 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... place of business in Houston, Texas. The patent rights in these inventions have been assigned to the... Administration. The prospective exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7. DATES: The prospective exclusive license may be granted unless within fifteen (15) days...

  9. 78 FR 36792 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... and Acoustic Insulation and Cryogen Storage,'' to XTherm LP, having its principal place of business at... Administration. The prospective exclusive license will comply with the terms and conditions of 35 U.S.C. 209 and 37 CFR 404.7. DATES: The prospective exclusive license may be granted unless, within fifteen (15...

  10. Current Large Deviations for Asymmetric Exclusion Processes with Open Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.

    2006-04-01

    We study the large deviation functional of the current for the Weakly Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process in contact with two reservoirs. We compare this functional in the large drift limit to the one of the Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process, in particular to the Jensen-Varadhan functional. Conjectures for generalizing the Jensen-Varadhan functional to open systems are also stated.

  11. 48 CFR 1328.203-7 - Exclusion of individual sureties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exclusion of individual sureties. 1328.203-7 Section 1328.203-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Exclusion of individual sureties. The designee authorized to exclude an individual from acting as a...

  12. 48 CFR 828.203-7 - Exclusion of individual sureties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exclusion of individual... Exclusion of individual sureties. The DSPE may make the determinations referenced in FAR 28.203-7: (a) To exclude individuals from acting as surety on bonds; and (b) To accept bonds from individuals named on...

  13. 48 CFR 28.203-7 - Exclusion of individual sureties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exclusion of individual... Exclusion of individual sureties. (a) An individual may be excluded from acting as a surety on bonds... of protecting the Government. (b) An individual may be excluded for any of the following causes:...

  14. 21 CFR 529.469 - Competitive exclusion culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competitive exclusion culture. 529.469 Section 529... Competitive exclusion culture. (a) Specifications. Each packet of lyophilized culture contains either 2,000 or... contents of one 2,000-dose packet of lyophilized culture. Mix thoroughly. (2) For 5,000-dose packet, add...

  15. 29 CFR 793.20 - Exclusive engagement in exempt work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusive engagement in exempt work. 793.20 Section 793.20... AND TELEVISION STATION EMPLOYEES FROM OVERTIME PAY REQUIREMENTS UNDER SECTION 13(b)(9) OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Workweek Application of Exemption § 793.20 Exclusive engagement in exempt work. An...

  16. 21 CFR 314.108 - New drug product exclusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New drug product exclusivity. 314.108 Section 314...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE APPLICATIONS FOR FDA APPROVAL TO MARKET A NEW DRUG FDA Action on Applications and Abbreviated Applications § 314.108 New drug product exclusivity. (a) Definitions. The following definitions...

  17. 5 CFR 9701.513 - Exclusive recognition of labor organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management Relations § 9701.513 Exclusive... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusive recognition of labor organizations. 9701.513 Section 9701.513 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  18. Strategies for Preventing Disproportionate Exclusions of African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Tary J.; Vincent, Claudia G.

    2011-01-01

    The authors studied changes in disproportionate exclusion of African American students, compared with their White peers, in relation to implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support using data from 46 schools. They measured (a) exclusion through suspension and expulsion data collected with the Schoolwide Information System; (b) Schoolwide…

  19. Schools as Agents of Social Exclusion and Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razer, Michal; Friedman, Victor J.; Warshofsky, Boaz

    2013-01-01

    Although schools are usually regarded as important agents for social inclusion, research has shown that they may also function as agents of exclusion itself. The goal of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how schools function as agents of exclusion and how they can become more effective agents of inclusion. It is based on action research…

  20. Young People on the Margins: Australian Studies of Social Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelsberg, Harry Joseph; Martin-Giles, Bonnie Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    Drawing upon empirical data from four research projects undertaken in Adelaide, South Australia, we examine the cumulative effects of deprivation on the lives of young people. Utilising a social exclusion framework for analysis we demonstrate the dynamic interplay between the various dimensions of social exclusion. We present the experiences and…

  1. The Effect of Reappraising Social Exclusion on Emotional Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, Michael B.; Gohm, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether reappraisal, which is a strategy where the personal meaning of an event is reevaluated, would influence participants' emotional reactions to social exclusion feedback. It was expected that reappraising this event would reduce the emotional distress that accompanies social exclusion, but…

  2. 42 CFR 438.808 - Exclusion of entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exclusion of entities. 438.808 Section 438.808... Exclusion of entities. (a) General rule. FFP is available in payments under MCO contracts only if the State..., directly or indirectly, for the furnishing of health care, utilization review, medical social work,...

  3. Career Guidance and Social Exclusion: A Cautionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship of career guidance to public-policy interventions designed to address social exclusion. Analyzes the nature and origin of the concept of social exclusion and reviews the roles of career guidance in response to it, particularly in relation to young people who have dropped out of formal education or are at high risk of…

  4. 49 CFR 236.1027 - PTC system exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false PTC system exclusions. 236.1027 Section 236.1027... Systems § 236.1027 PTC system exclusions. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply to each office... PTC system. For purposes of this section, “office automation system” means any centralized or...

  5. Naked exclusion in the lab : The case of sequential contracting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Müller, W.; Suetens, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the naked exclusion model of Rasmusen, Ramseyer and Wiley [1991] and Segal and Whinston [2000b], we examine whether sequential contracting is more conducive to exclusion in the lab, and whether it is cheaper for the incumbent than simultaneous contracting. We find that an incumbent

  6. 31 CFR 547.503 - Exclusion from licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusion from licenses. 547.503 Section 547.503 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 547.503 Exclusion from licenses...

  7. Gains and losses of exclusivity in grocery retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekimpe, M.G.; Gielens, K.J.P.; Gijsbrechts, E.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional wisdom dictates that convenience goods should be distributed as intensively as possible. Still, exclusivity arrangements are rapidly gaining way in grocery retailing. We discuss the possible performance outcomes of exclusivity deals, and propose a unified framework (i) to quantify the g

  8. The profile of digital exclusion in Brazilian society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Genestra

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The digital exclusion comes gaining prominence in the last years. The attentions are convergingto this subject that is already seen as a cause and consequence of exclusion in our society. Brazilhas a lot of inequalities that creates a request for politics of transference and income generation.However, it is not enough become the ways available, it is important show to people how thetechnologies can contribute for their tasks and activities, bringing knowledge and opportunities.This work, based on bibliographical, reflexive and qualitative researches, approaches the aspectsthat are usually associated with digital exclusion, as the social exclusion, the knowledge society,the e-gov and contemporary economy, among others, and the factors that need to be taken inconsideration to prepare combat politics for digital exclusion. As a result of this reflection, its

  9. An “Other” Social Mobility, Viewed from the Standpoint of Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cuenca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how social mobility and social inclusion are perceived by a group of professionals from modest backgrounds, who graduated from public universities and whose personal histories reflect levels of exclusion. This qualitative study, which is organized in six dimensions of analysis—migration and territorial mobility, education, occupation and income, social capital, vulnerability, and expectations—shows four main findings, which inevitably also raise new working hypotheses. The findings are the following: that social mobility and social inclusion are heterogeneous processes that education remains a means of both mobility and inclusion, that social mobility coexists with inequality, and that mobility and social inclusion require broader means of conceptualization because of the difficulty of understanding this process in people with particular characteristics and from particular backgrounds.

  10. Reversing the negative psychological sequelae of exclusion: inclusion is ameliorative but not protective against the aversive consequences of exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Helen H Y; Richardson, Rick

    2013-02-01

    Social exclusion can have devastating personal, social, and clinical consequences, but several recent studies have identified factors that can reduce its aversive impact (e.g., distraction from rumination, control over a noise). In this study, we continued to explore possible strategies for reducing the aversive experiences of being excluded. Three experiments investigated whether an experience of inclusion reduced the impact of exclusion. Specifically, participants engaged in two rounds of a computer ball toss game (Cyberball) in which they were either included or excluded. Participants were told either that they played the two games with the same two sources (Experiment 1), with a different pair of sources (Experiment 2), or with people and then computer controlled sources (Experiment 3). We measured the impact of exclusion and inclusion on the psychological states of belonging, control, self esteem, meaningful existence, hurt feelings, anger, and affect. Across all three experiments, if inclusion occurred after exclusion then it was found to have an ameliorative benefit. However, if inclusion occurred before exclusion there was no protective benefit. Finally, we compared the ratings following one versus two experiences of exclusion, with no additive impact found. Taken together, the results indicate that inclusion can reduce the impact of exclusion, but only if it occurs after exclusion. Further, inclusion is ameliorative even when it is by a different group or a computer program.

  11. 76 FR 2889 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive and Co-Exclusive Patent License; NanoDynamics Life Sciences...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive and Co-Exclusive Patent License; NanoDynamics Life Sciences, Inc. AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DOD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to NanoDynamics Life Sciences, Inc. a revocable, nonassignable...

  12. Basing the treatment of stereotypic and self-injurious behaviors on hypotheses of their causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, A C; Felce, D; Barton, L E

    1988-01-01

    Stereotypic and self-injurious behaviors are common forms of maladaptive responding demonstrated by severely handicapped persons. Various review papers suggest that no single treatment procedure is universally effective. Although there may be many reasons for this finding, one could be that people engage in these behaviors for various reasons, and that procedures that are incompatible with the cause of the behavior are unlikely to be effective. These studies also suggest many hypotheses for the development and maintenance of these behaviors, three of which are the self-stimulation, positive reinforcement, and negative reinforcement hypotheses. The purpose of this paper was to determine whether one of these hypotheses could be matched to the cause of the behavior and used as an effective treatment procedure. We therefore compared one hypothesis with one other for 3 subjects in a three-phase study. During baseline, data were taken in two classrooms for each subject, and a judgement was made about the hypothesis most likely to be related to the cause of the behavior. During the second phase, a treatment based on that hypothesis was used in one classroom, and a treatment based on another hypothesis was used in the second classroom. During the third phase, the treatment that was most effective in the second phase was used in both classrooms. Results showed that a successful treatment program can be developed on an hypothesis of why the behavior occurred during baseline. Results are discussed in terms of supporting the argument that treatment programs should be based on a functional analysis of the behavior in its environmental context.

  13. Pickles and Ice Cream! Food Cravings in Pregnancy: Hypotheses, Preliminary Evidence, and Directions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia C. Orloff

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, 1 perimenstrually and 2 prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of 1 hormonal changes, 2 nutritional deficits, 3 pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and 4 cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: 1 validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, 2 use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, 3 implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and gestational weight gain, and 4 development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess

  14. Gene function hypotheses for the Campylobacter jejuni glycome generated by a logic-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Michael J E; Tamaddoni-Nezhad, Alireza; Lesk, Victor I; Kay, Emily; Hitchen, Paul G; Cootes, Adrian; van Alphen, Lieke B; Lamoureux, Marc P; Jarrell, Harold C; Rawlings, Christopher J; Soo, Evelyn C; Szymanski, Christine M; Dell, Anne; Wren, Brendan W; Muggleton, Stephen H

    2013-01-09

    Increasingly, experimental data on biological systems are obtained from several sources and computational approaches are required to integrate this information and derive models for the function of the system. Here, we demonstrate the power of a logic-based machine learning approach to propose hypotheses for gene function integrating information from two diverse experimental approaches. Specifically, we use inductive logic programming that automatically proposes hypotheses explaining the empirical data with respect to logically encoded background knowledge. We study the capsular polysaccharide biosynthetic pathway of the major human gastrointestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. We consider several key steps in the formation of capsular polysaccharide consisting of 15 genes of which 8 have assigned function, and we explore the extent to which functions can be hypothesised for the remaining 7. Two sources of experimental data provide the information for learning-the results of knockout experiments on the genes involved in capsule formation and the absence/presence of capsule genes in a multitude of strains of different serotypes. The machine learning uses the pathway structure as background knowledge. We propose assignments of specific genes to five previously unassigned reaction steps. For four of these steps, there was an unambiguous optimal assignment of gene to reaction, and to the fifth, there were three candidate genes. Several of these assignments were consistent with additional experimental results. We therefore show that the logic-based methodology provides a robust strategy to integrate results from different experimental approaches and propose hypotheses for the behaviour of a biological system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. "On Clocks and Clouds:" Confirming and Interpreting Climate Models as Scientific Hypotheses (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, L.

    2009-12-01

    The certainty of climate change projected under various scenarios of emissions using general circulation models is an issue of vast societal importance. Unlike numerical weather prediction, a problem to which general circulation models are also applied, projected climate changes usually lie outside of the range of external forcings for which the models generating these changes have been directly evaluated. This presentation views climate models as complex scientific hypotheses and thereby frames these models within a well-defined process of both advancing scientific knowledge and recognizing its limitations. Karl Popper's Logik der Forschung (The Logic of Scientific Discovery, 1934) and 1965 essay “On Clocks and Clouds” capture well the methodologies and challenges associated with constructing climate models. Indeed, the process of a problem situation generating tentative theories, refined by error elimination, characterizes aptly the routine of general circulation model development. Limitations on certainty arise from the distinction Popper perceived in types of natural processes, which he exemplified by clocks, capable of exact measurement, and clouds, subject only to statistical approximation. Remarkably, the representation of clouds in general circulation models remains the key uncertainty in understanding atmospheric aspects of climate change. The asymmetry of hypothesis falsification by negation and much vaguer development of confidence in hypotheses consistent with some of their implications is an important practical challenge to confirming climate models. The presentation will discuss the ways in which predictions made by climate models for observable aspects of the present and past climate can be regarded as falsifiable hypotheses. The presentation will also include reasons why “passing” these tests does not provide complete confidence in predictions about the future by climate models. Finally, I will suggest that a “reductionist” view, in

  16. Evaluating Hypotheses of Plant Species Invasions on Mediterranean Islands: Inverse Patterns between Alien and Endemic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bjarnason

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species cause major changes to ecosystem functioning and patterns of biodiversity, and the main factors involved in invasion success remain contested. Using the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece as a case study, we suggest a framework for analyzing spatial data of alien species distributions, based on environmental predictors, aiming to gain an understanding of their spatial patterns and spread. Mediterranean islands are under strong ecological pressure from invading species due to their restricted size and increased human impact. Four hypotheses of invasibility, the “propagule pressure hypothesis” (H1, “biotic resistance hypothesis vs. acceptance hypothesis” (H2, “disturbance-mediated hypothesis” (H3, and “environmental heterogeneity hypothesis” (H4 were tested. Using data from alien, native, and endemic vascular plant species, the propagule pressure, biotic resistance vs. acceptance, disturbance-mediated, and environmental heterogeneity hypotheses were tested with Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM of 39 models. Based on model selection, the optimal model includes the positive covariates of native species richness, the negative covariates of endemic species richness, and land area. Variance partitioning between the four hypotheses indicated that the biotic resistance vs. acceptance hypothesis explained the vast majority of the total variance. These results show that areas of high species richness have greater invasibility and support the acceptance hypothesis and “rich-get-richer” distribution of alien species. The negative correlation between alien and endemic species appears to be predominantly driven by altitude, with fewer alien and more endemic species at greater altitudes, and habitat richness. The negative relationship between alien and endemic species richness provides potential for understanding patterns of endemic and alien species on islands, contributing to more effective conservation

  17. Pickles and ice cream! Food cravings in pregnancy: hypotheses, preliminary evidence, and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orloff, Natalia C; Hormes, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, (1) perimenstrually and (2) prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of (1) hormonal changes, (2) nutritional deficits, (3) pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and (4) cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: (1) validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, (2) use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, (3) implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and GWG, and (4) development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess GWG.

  18. Spatial overlap in a solitary carnivore: support for the land tenure, kinship or resource dispersion hypotheses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbroch, L Mark; Lendrum, Patrick E; Quigley, Howard; Caragiulo, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    There are several alternative hypotheses about the effects of territoriality, kinship and prey availability on individual carnivore distributions within populations. The first is the land-tenure hypothesis, which predicts that carnivores regulate their density through territoriality and temporal avoidance. The second is the kinship hypothesis, which predicts related individuals will be clumped within populations, and the third is the resource dispersion hypothesis, which suggests that resource richness may explain variable sociality, spatial overlap or temporary aggregations of conspecifics. Research on the socio-spatial organization of animals is essential in understanding territoriality, intra- and interspecific competition, and contact rates that influence diverse ecology, including disease transmission between conspecifics and courtship behaviours. We explored these hypotheses with data collected on a solitary carnivore, the cougar (Puma concolor), from 2005 to 2012 in the Southern Yellowstone Ecosystem, Wyoming, USA. We employed 27 annual home ranges for 13 cougars to test whether home range overlap was better explained by land tenure, kinship, resource dispersion or some combination of the three. We found support for both the land tenure and resource dispersion hypotheses, but not for kinship. Cougar sex was the primary driver explaining variation in home range overlap. Males overlapped significantly with females, whereas the remaining dyads (F-F, M-M) overlapped significantly less. In support for the resource dispersion hypothesis, hunting opportunity (the probability of a cougar killing prey in a given location) was often higher in overlapping than in non-overlapping portions of cougar home ranges. In particular, winter hunt opportunity rather than summer hunt opportunity was higher in overlapping portions of female-female and male-female home ranges. Our results may indicate that solitary carnivores are more tolerant of sharing key resources with unrelated

  19. Pain Processing after Social Exclusion and Its Relation to Rejection Sensitivity in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Bungert

    Full Text Available There is a general agreement that physical pain serves as an alarm signal for the prevention of and reaction to physical harm. It has recently been hypothesized that "social pain," as induced by social rejection or abandonment, may rely on comparable, phylogenetically old brain structures. As plausible as this theory may sound, scientific evidence for this idea is sparse. This study therefore attempts to link both types of pain directly. We studied patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD because BPD is characterized by opposing alterations in physical and social pain; hyposensitivity to physical pain is associated with hypersensitivity to social pain, as indicated by an enhanced rejection sensitivity.Twenty unmedicated female BPD patients and 20 healthy participants (HC, matched for age and education played a virtual ball-tossing game (cyberball, with the conditions for exclusion, inclusion, and a control condition with predefined game rules. Each cyberball block was followed by a temperature stimulus (with a subjective pain intensity of 60% in half the cases. The cerebral responses were measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. The Adult Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire was used to assess rejection sensitivity.Higher temperature heat stimuli had to be applied to BPD patients relative to HCs to reach a comparable subjective experience of painfulness in both groups, which suggested a general hyposensitivity to pain in BPD patients. Social exclusion led to a subjectively reported hypersensitivity to physical pain in both groups that was accompanied by an enhanced activation in the anterior insula and the thalamus. In BPD, physical pain processing after exclusion was additionally linked to enhanced posterior insula activation. After inclusion, BPD patients showed reduced amygdala activation during pain in comparison with HC. In BPD patients, higher rejection sensitivity was associated with lower activation differences during

  20. Pain Processing after Social Exclusion and Its Relation to Rejection Sensitivity in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungert, Melanie; Koppe, Georgia; Niedtfeld, Inga; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Schmahl, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is a general agreement that physical pain serves as an alarm signal for the prevention of and reaction to physical harm. It has recently been hypothesized that “social pain,” as induced by social rejection or abandonment, may rely on comparable, phylogenetically old brain structures. As plausible as this theory may sound, scientific evidence for this idea is sparse. This study therefore attempts to link both types of pain directly. We studied patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) because BPD is characterized by opposing alterations in physical and social pain; hyposensitivity to physical pain is associated with hypersensitivity to social pain, as indicated by an enhanced rejection sensitivity. Method Twenty unmedicated female BPD patients and 20 healthy participants (HC, matched for age and education) played a virtual ball-tossing game (cyberball), with the conditions for exclusion, inclusion, and a control condition with predefined game rules. Each cyberball block was followed by a temperature stimulus (with a subjective pain intensity of 60% in half the cases). The cerebral responses were measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. The Adult Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire was used to assess rejection sensitivity. Results Higher temperature heat stimuli had to be applied to BPD patients relative to HCs to reach a comparable subjective experience of painfulness in both groups, which suggested a general hyposensitivity to pain in BPD patients. Social exclusion led to a subjectively reported hypersensitivity to physical pain in both groups that was accompanied by an enhanced activation in the anterior insula and the thalamus. In BPD, physical pain processing after exclusion was additionally linked to enhanced posterior insula activation. After inclusion, BPD patients showed reduced amygdala activation during pain in comparison with HC. In BPD patients, higher rejection sensitivity was associated with lower activation

  1. Hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of ayahuasca in the treatment of addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liester, Mitchell B; Prickett, James I

    2012-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a medicinal plant mixture utilized by indigenous peoples throughout the Amazon River basin for healing purposes. The "vine of the soul" or "vine of death," as it is known in South America, contains a combination of monoamine oxidase inhibitors and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). When ingested together, these medicines produce profound alterations in consciousness. Increasingly, ayahuasca is being utilized to treat addictions. However, the mechanism of action by which ayahuasca treats addictions remains unclear. We offer four hypotheses to explain possible biochemical, physiological, psychological, and transcendent mechanisms by which ayahuasca may exert its anti-addiction effects.

  2. Political market orientation and strategic party postures: Some hypotheses regarding profiles and relationship strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C. M.

    2007-01-01

    in the development of political strategies and offerings with which to achieve their organizational goals. In this paper, we introduce two complementary sets of concepts, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) (Henneberg 2006a) and Political Market Orientation (PMO) (Ormrod 2005, 2007). Based on these, we develop......, a static level, where hypotheses regarding specific PMO profiles are related to each of the four postures. Secondly, on a dynamic level the relationship strengths between different attitudinal and behavioural constructs of PMO are hypothesised, again for each of the four SPP. Finally, we outline approaches...

  3. Change detection in INAR(p) processes against various alternative hypotheses

    CERN Document Server

    Pap, Gyula

    2011-01-01

    Change in the coefficients or in the mean of the innovation distribution of an INAR(p) process is a sign of disturbance that is important to detect. The methods of this paper can test for change in any one of these quantities separately, or in any collection of them. They are available in forms that make one-sided tests possible, furthermore, they can be used to test for a temporary change. The tests are based on a CUSUM process using conditional least squares estimators of the parameters. Under alternative hypotheses consistency of the tests is proved and the large sample properties of the change-point estimator are also explored.

  4. Molecular Data are Transforming Hypotheses on the Origin and Diversification of Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekle, Yonas I; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Katz, Laura A

    2009-06-01

    The explosion of molecular data has transformed hypotheses on both the origin of eukaryotes and the structure of the eukaryotic tree of life. Early ideas about the evolution of eukaryotes arose through analyses of morphology by light microscopy and later electron microscopy. Though such studies have proven powerful at resolving more recent events, theories on origins and diversification of eukaryotic life have been substantially revised in light of analyses of molecular data including gene and, increasingly, whole genome sequences. By combining these approaches, progress has been made in elucidating both the origin and diversification of eukaryotes. Yet many aspects of the evolution of eukaryotic life remain to be illuminated.

  5. Advances in the phylogenesis of Agaricales and its higher ranks and strategies for establishing phylogenetic hypotheses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-lin ZHAO; Dennis E. DESJARDIN; Kasem SOYTONG; Kevin D. HYDE

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of previous research results on the molecular phylogenetic analyses in Agaricales and its higher ranks (Agaricomycetes/Agaricomycotina/Basidiomycota) along with the most recent treatments of taxonomic systems in these taxa. Establishing phylogenetic hypotheses using DNA sequences, from which an understanding of the natural evolutionary relationships amongst clades may be derived, requires a robust dataset. It has been recognized that single-gene phylogenies may not truly represent organismal phylogenies, but the concordant phylogenetic genealogies from multiple-gene datasets can resolve this problem. The genes commonly used in mushroom phylogenetic research are summarized.

  6. Soy-Based Therapeutic Baby Formulas: Testable Hypotheses Regarding the Pros and Cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmark, Cara J.

    2017-01-01

    Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and cons of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition. PMID:28149839

  7. Soy-Based Therapeutic Baby Formulas: Testable Hypotheses Regarding the Pros and Cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmark, Cara J

    2016-01-01

    Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and cons of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition.

  8. Cancer stem cell hypotheses: Impact on modern molecular physiology and pharmacology research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Igor Pantic

    2011-12-01

    Although questioned on several occasions, the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been confirmed by a number of studies on experimental animal models. Nevertheless, it was shown that CSC hypotheses have several limitations and inconsistencies regarding the explanation of CSC origin, CSC identification and isolation, possible heterogeneity within CSC population, as well as methodology issues in some studies that were carried out in order to prove CSC existence. The aim of this article is to give a short and comprehensive review of recent advances concerning CSC hypothesis and to describe its impact on modern molecular physiology and pharmacology research.

  9. THE PROFILE OF DIGITAL EXCLUSION IN BRAZILIAN SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lília Bilati de Almeida

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The digital exclusion comes gaining prominence in the last years. The attentions are converging to this subject that is already seen as a cause and consequence of exclusion in our society. Brazil has a lot of inequalities that creates a request for politics of transference and income generation. However, it is not enough become the ways available, it is important show to people how the technologies can contribute for their tasks and activities, bringing knowledge and opportunities.This work, based on bibliographical, reflexive and qualitative researches, approaches the aspects that are usually associated with digital exclusion, as the social exclusion, the knowledge society, the e-gov and contemporary economy, among others, and the factors that need to be taken in consideration to prepare combat politics for digital exclusion. As a result of this reflection, its possible to identify some of the real consequences and the meaning of the digital exclusion in the Brazilian society. The motal of this work was the observation of impacts that information technology over work and the Brazilian citizens' life. With this study, it intends to emphasize real consequences and meaning of digital exclusion in Brazilian society.

  10. Children's judgements and emotions about social exclusion based on weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Christine; Malti, Tina

    2014-09-01

    This study examined children's judgements and emotions associated with weight-based social exclusion using an ethnically diverse sample of one hundred and seventeen 9- and 13-year-old children. Children were interviewed about three scenarios depicting weight-based exclusion in athletic, academic, and social contexts. Children's judgements of exclusion, emotions attributed to the excluder and excluded targets, and justifications for judgements and emotions were examined. Overall, children judged weight-based exclusion to be wrong for moral reasons. However, they viewed weight-based exclusion in athletic contexts as less wrong compared with academic contexts, and they used more social-conventional reasoning to justify judgements and emotions attributed to excluders in athletic contexts compared with academic and social contexts. Children also expected excluded targets to feel negative emotions, whereas a range of positive and negative emotions was attributed to excluders. In addition, older children were more accepting of weight-based exclusion in athletic contexts than in academic and social contexts. We discuss the results in relation to the development of children's understanding of, and emotions associated with, exclusion based on weight.

  11. Exclusion of long heterologous insertions and deletions from the pairing synapsis in pneumococcal transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, F; Sicard, M A

    1996-03-01

    We have studied the mode of recombination of six insertions during genetic transformation of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The six heterologous insertions are located at the same site in the ami locus of the pneumococcal chromosome; insertion sizes range from 4 to 1374 bp. With respect to single-point markers we found that the number of transformants in one-point crosses is reduced, while the number of wild-type transformants in two-point crosses is drastically increased, what we call hyper-recombination. The magnitude of the shift is correlated with the size of the insert. This effect could result either from a special repair pathway of multibase heteroduplexes or from the exclusion of multibase heterologous insertions out of the pairing synapsis. To test these hypotheses we have used insertions in two kinds of three-point crosses. The repair model predicts that the excess of wild-type transformants remains in one set of crosses but is suppressed in the second set. The results we obtained are reversed, ruling out the hypothesis of a repair process, but in agreement with predictions based on the exclusion model. Moreover, we have re-examined the situation of deletions, our previous results suggesting that deletions were likely to be converted at the heteroduplex step. Genetic evidence we obtained in this work no longer supports this hypothesis. Thus, long heterologous insertions are partly excluded at the pairing step.

  12. New Vehicle Detection Method with Aspect Ratio Estimation for Hypothesized Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisu Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All kinds of vehicles have different ratios of width to height, which are called the aspect ratios. Most previous works, however, use a fixed aspect ratio for vehicle detection (VD. The use of a fixed vehicle aspect ratio for VD degrades the performance. Thus, the estimation of a vehicle aspect ratio is an important part of robust VD. Taking this idea into account, a new on-road vehicle detection system is proposed in this paper. The proposed method estimates the aspect ratio of the hypothesized windows to improve the VD performance. Our proposed method uses an Aggregate Channel Feature (ACF and a support vector machine (SVM to verify the hypothesized windows with the estimated aspect ratio. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, the estimation of vehicle aspect ratio is inserted between the HG (hypothesis generation and the HV (hypothesis verification. Second, a simple HG method named a signed horizontal edge map is proposed to speed up VD. Third, a new measure is proposed to represent the overlapping ratio between the ground truth and the detection results. This new measure is used to show that the proposed method is better than previous works in terms of robust VD. Finally, the Pittsburgh dataset is used to verify the performance of the proposed method.

  13. One year after the Zika virus outbreak in Brazil: from hypotheses to evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de; Cordeiro, Marli Tenorio

    2016-01-01

    Zika virusis an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family with two major strains, an Asian and an African strain. The main vectors involved in the transmission of Zika virus are the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Despite its identification, discovered in 1947 in the Zika forest in Uganda, only isolated and sporadic occurrences of human infection were reported within a largely asymptomatic proportion of individuals. The first reported outbreak occurred in 2007 in the Yap Island, which belongs to the Federated States of Micronesia in the Pacific Ocean, and in French Polynesia, where high attack rates occurred and the first cases of associated Guillain-Barré syndrome were reported. From November 2014 to early 2015, the Northeast states of Brazil reported the first outbreaks of Zika virus infection, with laboratory confirmation of Zika virus circulation in April 2015. In the second quarter of 2015, the association between Zika virus infection and neurological symptoms was confirmed in adults. Moreover, in October 2015 a novel suspicion was raised based on clinical and epidemiological observations: that an association between Zika virus infection and neonatal microcephaly may exist. A year after the first reports on Zika virus in Brazil, many hypotheses and much evidence on the patterns of involvement of the disease and its complications have been produced, both in this country and others; other hypotheses still need to be clarified. This review is a synthesis of a new chapter in the history of medicine; it outlines the main results produced.

  14. Habitat structure mediates predation risk for sedentary prey: Experimental tests of alternative hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, A.D.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    Predation is an important and ubiquitous selective force that can shape habitat preferences of prey species, but tests of alternative mechanistic hypotheses of habitat influences on predation risk are lacking. 2. We studied predation risk at nest sites of a passerine bird and tested two hypotheses based on theories of predator foraging behaviour. The total-foliage hypothesis predicts that predation will decline in areas of greater overall vegetation density by impeding cues for detection by predators. The potential-prey-site hypothesis predicts that predation decreases where predators must search more unoccupied potential nest sites. 3. Both observational data and results from a habitat manipulation provided clear support for the potential-prey-site hypothesis and rejection of the total-foliage hypothesis. Birds chose nest patches containing both greater total foliage and potential nest site density (which were correlated in their abundance) than at random sites, yet only potential nest site density significantly influenced nest predation risk. 4. Our results therefore provided a clear and rare example of adaptive nest site selection that would have been missed had structural complexity or total vegetation density been considered alone. 5. Our results also demonstrated that interactions between predator foraging success and habitat structure can be more complex than simple impedance or occlusion by vegetation. ?? 2008 British Ecological Society.

  15. One year after the Zika virus outbreak in Brazil: from hypotheses to evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito

    Full Text Available Abstract Zika virusis an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family with two major strains, an Asian and an African strain. The main vectors involved in the transmission of Zika virus are the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Despite its identification, discovered in 1947 in the Zika forest in Uganda, only isolated and sporadic occurrences of human infection were reported within a largely asymptomatic proportion of individuals. The first reported outbreak occurred in 2007 in the Yap Island, which belongs to the Federated States of Micronesia in the Pacific Ocean, and in French Polynesia, where high attack rates occurred and the first cases of associated Guillain-Barré syndrome were reported. From November 2014 to early 2015, the Northeast states of Brazil reported the first outbreaks of Zika virus infection, with laboratory confirmation of Zika virus circulation in April 2015. In the second quarter of 2015, the association between Zika virus infection and neurological symptoms was confirmed in adults. Moreover, in October 2015 a novel suspicion was raised based on clinical and epidemiological observations: that an association between Zika virus infection and neonatal microcephaly may exist. A year after the first reports on Zika virus in Brazil, many hypotheses and much evidence on the patterns of involvement of the disease and its complications have been produced, both in this country and others; other hypotheses still need to be clarified. This review is a synthesis of a new chapter in the history of medicine; it outlines the main results produced.

  16. Ethnic density effects on psychological distress among Latino ethnic groups: an examination of hypothesized pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia

    2014-11-01

    Studies among US Latinos provide the most consistent evidence of ethnic density effects. However, most studies conducted to date have focused on Mexican Americans, and it is not clear whether ethnic density effects differ across Latino sub-groups, generational status, or measures of ethnic density. In addition, the mechanisms behind ethnic density are not well understood. This study uses a multi-group structural equation modeling approach to analyze the Latino sample from the National Latino and Asian-American Study (n=1940) and examine ethnic density effects on psychological distress among Latino sub-groups, and explore two hypothesized mechanisms: increased neighborhood cohesion and reduced exposure to interpersonal racism. Results of the main effects between ethnic density and health, and of the hypothesized mechanisms, show clear differences across Latino ethnic groups, generational categories and measures of ethnic density. Findings highlight that ethnic density effects and their mechanisms depend on the current and historical context of Latino sub-groups, including reasons for migration and rights upon arrival.

  17. A test of Spielberger's state-trait theory of anger with adolescents: five hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Colleen A; Rollock, David; Vrana, Scott R

    2014-02-01

    Spielberger's state-trait theory of anger was investigated in adolescents (n = 201, ages 10-18, 53% African American, 47% European American, 48% female) using Deffenbacher's five hypotheses formulated to test the theory in adults. Self-reported experience, heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) responses to anger provoking imagery scripts found strong support for the application of this theory to adolescents. Compared with the low trait anger (LTA) group, adolescents with high trait anger (HTA) produced increased HR, SBP, and DBP, and greater self-report of anger to anger imagery (intensity hypothesis) but not greater self-report or cardiovascular reactivity to fear or joy imagery (discrimination hypothesis). The HTA group also reported greater frequency and duration of anger episodes and had longer recovery of SBP response to anger (elicitation hypothesis). The HTA group was more likely to report negative health, social, and academic outcomes (consequence hypothesis). Adolescents with high hostility reported more maladaptive coping with anger, with higher anger-in and anger-out than adolescents with low hostility (negative expression hypothesis). The data on all five hypotheses supported the notion that trait anger is firmly entrenched by the period of adolescence, with few developmental differences noted from the adult literature.

  18. Testing yawning hypotheses in wild populations of two strepsirrhine species: Propithecus verreauxi and Lemur catta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannella, Alessandra; Norscia, Ivan; Stanyon, Roscoe; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2015-11-01

    Yawning, although easily recognized, is difficult to explain. Traditional explanations stressed physiological mechanisms, but more recently, behavioral processes have received increasing attention. This is the first study to test a range of hypotheses on yawning in wild primate populations. We studied two sympatric strepsirrhine species, Lemur catta, and Propithecus verreauxi, of the Ankoba forest (24.99°S, 46.29°E, Berenty reserve) in southern Madagascar. Sexual dimorphism is lacking in both species. However, their differences in ecological and behavioral characteristics facilitate comparative tests of hypotheses on yawning. Our results show that within each species males and females yawned with similar frequencies supporting the Dimorphism Hypothesis, which predicts that low sexual dimorphism leads to little inter-sexual differences in yawning. In support of the State Changing Hypothesis yawning frequencies was linked to the sleep-wake cycle and punctuated transitions from one behavior to another. Accordingly, yawning frequencies were significantly higher in L. catta than in P. verreauxi, because L. catta has a higher basal level of activity and consequently a higher number of behavioral transitions. In agreement with the Anxiety Hypothesis, yawning increased significantly in the 10 min following predatory attacks or aggression. Our findings provide the first empirical evidence of a direct connection between anxiety and yawning in lemurs. Our results show that yawning in these two strepsirrhines occurs in different contexts, but more research will be necessary to determine if yawns are a single, unitary behavior. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Ever since Klekowski: testing a set of radical hypotheses revives the genetics of ferns and lycophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufler, Christopher H

    2014-12-01

    There have been three periods of significant discovery in the exploration of fern and lycophyte genetics. First, during the 1930s, Andersson-Kottö conducted crossing studies on ferns. The publication of Manton's magnum opus on fern chromosomes in 1950 stimulated the second. The third emerged from Klekowski's 1973 American Journal of Botany publication that posed hypotheses linking breeding system dynamics and polyploid genetic architecture. Although Klekowski's assertions (predominant inbreeding and active polyploid genomes) were not supported, his hypotheses served as the impetus for improving our knowledge of the evolutionary mechanisms of ferns and lycophytes. It is now understood that (1) homosporous vascular plants are genetically diploid at high chromosome numbers and (2) both heterosporous and homosporous plants store and release genetic variation through a similar range of breeding systems. However, the seeming paradox of diploid genetic expression in homosporous vascular plants with high chromosome numbers remains unresolved. Ongoing and future research should include (1) more studies of gametophyte biology to elucidate the range and frequency of different breeding systems; (2) genomic analyses and new research on the mechanisms controlling bivalent formation to help discover how and why homosporous plant chromosomes appear so structurally stable; (3) considering whether the frequency of allopolyploidy in lineages can help explain why some are highly polyploid; and (4) chromosome painting studies to identify the dynamics of chromosome behavior in homosporous vascular plants. These open questions and continuing investigations demonstrate the longstanding impact of Klekowski's stimulating contribution.

  20. Confidence Intervals: From tests of statistical significance to confidence intervals, range hypotheses and substantial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Beaulieu-Prévost

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available For the last 50 years of research in quantitative social sciences, the empirical evaluation of scientific hypotheses has been based on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis. However, more than 300 articles demonstrated that this method was problematic. In summary, null hypothesis testing (NHT is unfalsifiable, its results depend directly on sample size and the null hypothesis is both improbable and not plausible. Consequently, alternatives to NHT such as confidence intervals (CI and measures of effect size are starting to be used in scientific publications. The purpose of this article is, first, to provide the conceptual tools necessary to implement an approach based on confidence intervals, and second, to briefly demonstrate why such an approach is an interesting alternative to an approach based on NHT. As demonstrated in the article, the proposed CI approach avoids most problems related to a NHT approach and can often improve the scientific and contextual relevance of the statistical interpretations by testing range hypotheses instead of a point hypothesis and by defining the minimal value of a substantial effect. The main advantage of such a CI approach is that it replaces the notion of statistical power by an easily interpretable three-value logic (probable presence of a substantial effect, probable absence of a substantial effect and probabilistic undetermination. The demonstration includes a complete example.

  1. Student's tutorial on bloom hypotheses in the context of phytoplankton annual cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrenfeld, Michael J; Boss, Emmanuel S

    2017-08-08

    Phytoplankton blooms are elements in repeating annual cycles of phytoplankton biomass and they have significant ecological and biogeochemical consequences. Temporal changes in phytoplankton biomass are governed by complex predator-prey interactions and physically-driven variations in upper water-column the growth conditions (light, nutrient, temperature). Understanding these dependencies is fundamental to assessing future change in bloom frequency, duration, and magnitude and thus represents a quintessential challenge in global change biology. A variety of contrasting hypotheses have emerged in the literature to explain phytoplankton blooms, but over time the basic tenets of these hypotheses have become unclear. Here, we provide a 'tutorial' on the development of these concepts and the fundamental elements distinguishing each hypothesis. The intent of this tutorial is to provide a useful background and set of tools for reading the bloom literature and to give some suggestions for future studies. Our tutorial is written for 'students' at all stages of their career. We hope it is equally useful and interesting to those with only a cursory interest in blooms as those deeply immersed in the challenge of understanding the temporal dynamics of phytoplankton biomass and predicting its future change. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Testing hypotheses of bird extinctions at Rio Palenque, Ecuador, with informal species lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David L; Anderson, Corey Devin; Mitchell, Brian R; Rosenberg, Michael S; Navarrete, Ronald; Coopmans, Paul

    2010-04-01

    Informally gathered species lists are a potential source of data for conservation biology, but most remain unused because of questions of reliability and statistical issues. We applied two alternative analytical methods (contingency tests and occupancy modeling) to a 35-year data set (1973-2007) to test hypotheses about local bird extinction. We compiled data from bird lists collected by expert amateurs and professional scientists in a 2-km(2) fragment of lowland tropical forest in coastal Ecuador. We tested the effects of the following on local extinction: trophic level, sociality, foraging specialization, light tolerance, geographical range area, and biogeographic source. First we assessed extinction on the basis of the number of years in which a species was not detected on the site and used contingency tests with each factor to compare the frequency of expected and observed extinction events among different species categories. Then we defined four multiyear periods that reflected different stages of deforestation and isolation of the study site and used occupancy modeling to test extinction hypotheses singly and in combination. Both types of analyses supported the biogeographic source hypothesis and the species-range hypothesis as causes of extinction; however, occupancy modeling indicated the model incorporating all factors except foraging specialization best fit the data.

  3. Genomic rearrangements in trypanosomatids: an alternative to the "one gene" evolutionary hypotheses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Dujardin

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Most molecular trees of trypanosomatids are based on point mutations within DNA sequences. In contrast, there are very few evolutionary studies considering DNA (re arrangement as genetic characters. Waiting for the completion of the various parasite genome projects, first information may already be obtained from chromosome size-polymorphism, using the appropriate algorithms for data processing. Three illustrative models are presented here. First, the case of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis/L. (V. peruviana is described. Thanks to a fast evolution rate (due essentially to amplification/deletion of tandemly repeated genes, molecular karyotyping seems particularly appropriate for studying recent evolutionary divergence, including eco-geographical diversification. Secondly, karyotype evolution is considered at the level of whole genus Leishmania. Despite the fast chromosome evolution rate, there is qualitative congruence with MLEE- and RAPD-based evolutionary hypotheses. Significant differences may be observed between major lineages, likely corresponding to major and less frequent rearrangements (fusion/fission, translocation. Thirdly, comparison is made with Trypanosoma cruzi. Again congruence is observed with other hypotheses and major lineages are delineated by significant chromosome rearrangements. The level of karyotype polymorphism within that "species" is similar to the one observed in "genus" Leishmania. The relativity of the species concept among these two groups of parasites is discussed.

  4. No evidence for bilingual cognitive advantages: A test of four hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bastian, Claudia C; Souza, Alessandra S; Gade, Miriam

    2016-02-01

    The question whether being bilingual yields cognitive benefits is highly controversial with prior studies providing inconsistent results. Failures to replicate the bilingual advantage have been attributed to methodological factors such as comparing dichotomous groups and measuring cognitive abilities separately with single tasks. Therefore, the authors evaluated the 4 most prominent hypotheses of bilingual advantages for inhibitory control, conflict monitoring, shifting, and general cognitive performance by assessing bilingualism on 3 continuous dimensions (age of acquisition, proficiency, and usage) in a sample of 118 young adults and relating it to 9 cognitive abilities each measured by multiple tasks. Linear mixed-effects models accounting for multiple sources of variance simultaneously and controlling for parents' education as an index of socioeconomic status revealed no evidence for any of the 4 hypotheses. Hence, the authors' results suggest that bilingual benefits are not as broad and as robust as has been previously claimed. Instead, earlier effects were possibly due to task-specific effects in selective and often small samples.

  5. Mini review of Central Exclusive Production at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Brona, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    The LHC experiments provide an unprecedented coverage in pseudo-rapidity. This advantage and high LHC luminosity allow for broad studies of central exclusive production (CEP) processes such as exclusive production of ¡, di-leptons, di-photons and di-jets. Finally, with the proposed near beam detectors (FP420 and FP220) the exclusive Higgs and SUSY states will be also accesible. The discussion is focused on the CMS programme, as both CMS and ATLAS have similar kinematical coverage and may perform similar studies.

  6. Mini review of Central Exclusive Production at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Brona, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    The LHC experiments provide an unprecedented coverage in pseudo-rapidity. This advantage and the high LHC luminosity allow for broad studies of central exclusive production (CEP) \\mbox{processes} such as exclusive production of $\\Upsilon$, di-leptons, di-photons and di-jets. With the proposed near beam detectors (FP420 and FP220) exclusive Higgs and SUSY states will be also \\mbox{accesible}. The \\mbox{discussion} is focused on the CMS programme, but both CMS and ATLAS have similar \\mbox{kinematical} coverage and may perform similar studies.

  7. Exclusive enteral nutrition in children with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Andrew S; Lopez, Robert N

    2015-06-14

    Exclusive enteral nutrition involves the use of a complete liquid diet, with the exclusion of normal dietary components for a defined period of time, as a therapeutic measure to induce remission in active Crohn's disease (CD). This very efficacious approach leads to high rates of remission, especially in children and adolescents newly diagnosed with CD. This intervention also results in mucosal healing, nutritional improvements and enhanced bone health. Whilst several recent studies have provided further elaboration of the roles of exclusive enteral nutrition in the management of CD, other reports have provided new understanding of the mechanisms by which this intervention acts.

  8. Environmental governance as inclusion and exclusion of actors and issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2016-01-01

    The chapter analyses recent governance in Denmark of the interaction between climate, energy and land use. Governance is seen as inclusion and exclusion of actors and their perspectives in decisions about problems and solutions. Inclusion and exclusion are discussed as decisions about members...... and focus of public commissions. Furthermore, inclusion and exclusion are discussed as an aspect of NGOs’ development of climate plans and the societal role of such plans. The chapter concludes that governance of this field is balancing the interests of established and polluting sectors and the interest...

  9. Environmental governance as inclusion and exclusion of actors and issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2016-01-01

    The chapter analyses recent governance in Denmark of the interaction between climate, energy and land use. Governance is seen as inclusion and exclusion of actors and their perspectives in decisions about problems and solutions. Inclusion and exclusion are discussed as decisions about members...... and focus of public commissions. Furthermore, inclusion and exclusion are discussed as an aspect of NGOs’ development of climate plans and the societal role of such plans. The chapter concludes that governance of this field is balancing the interests of established and polluting sectors and the interest...

  10. MAOA genotype, social exclusion and aggression: an experimental test of a gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Pujol, D; Andrés-Pueyo, A; Maydeu-Olivares, A

    2013-02-01

    In 2002, Caspi and colleagues provided the first epidemiological evidence that genotype may moderate individuals' responses to environmental determinants. However, in a correlational study great care must be taken to ensure the proper estimation of the causal relationship. Here, a randomized experiment was performed to test the hypothesis that the MAOA gene promoter polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) interacts with environmental adversity in determining aggressive behavior using laboratory analogs of real-life conditions. A sample of 57 Caucasian male students of Catalan and Spanish origin was recruited at the University of Barcelona. Ostracism, or social exclusion, was induced as environmental adversity using the Cyberball software. Laboratory aggression was assessed with the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP), which was used as an analog of antisocial behavior. We also measured aggressiveness by means of the reduced version of the Aggression Questionnaire. The MAOA-LPR polymorphism showed a significant effect on the number of aggressive responses in the PSAP (F(1,53) = 4.63, P = 0.03, partial η(2) = 0.08), as well as social exclusion (F(1,53) = 8.03, P = 0.01, partial η(2) = 0.13). Most notably, however, we found that the MAOA-LPR polymorphism interacts significantly with social exclusion in order to provoke aggressive behavior (F(1,53) = 4.42, P = 0.04, partial η(2) = 0.08), remarkably, the low-activity allele of the MAOA-LPR polymorphism carriers in the ostracized group show significantly higher aggression scores than the rest. Our results support the notion that gene-environment interactions can be successfully reproduced within a laboratory using analogs and an appropriate design. We provide guidelines to test gene-environment interactions hypotheses under controlled, experimental settings.

  11. Periodontal bone height of exclusive narghile smokers compared with exclusive cigarette smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khemiss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the periodontal bone height (PBH of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS with that of exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS. Methods: Tunisian males aged 20–35 years who have been ENS for more than five narghile-years or ECS for more than five pack-years were recruited to participate in this comparative cross-sectional study. Information about oral health habits and tobacco consumption were gathered using a predetermined questionnaire. Plaque levels were recorded in four sites using the plaque index of Loe and Silness. The PBH was measured mesially and distally from digital panoramic radiographs of each tooth and expressed as a percentage of the root length. A PBH level ≤0.70 was applied as a cutoff reference value signifying bone loss. Student t-test and Chi2 test were used to compare quantitative and qualitative data of both groups. Results: There were no significant differences between the ENS (n=60 and ECS (n=60 groups regarding age and the consumed quantities of tobacco (28±4 vs. 27±5 years, 7±3 narghile-years vs. 8±3 pack-years, respectively. Compared with the ECS group, the ENS group had a significantly higher plaque index (mean±SD values were 1.54±0.70 vs. 1.84±0.73, respectively. However, the two groups had similar means of PBH (0.85±0.03 vs. 0.86±0.04 and tooth brushing frequencies (1.1±0.8 vs. 0.9±0.6 a day, respectively and had similar bone loss frequencies (15% vs. 12%, respectively. Conclusions: Both ENS and ECS exhibited the same PBH reduction, which means that both types of tobacco smoking are associated with periodontal bone loss.

  12. Development of working hypotheses linking management of the Missouri River to population dynamics of Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Parsley, Michael J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Welker, Timothy L.; James, Daniel A.

    2016-01-20

    This report documents a process of filtering of hypotheses that relate Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) population dynamics to management actions including flow alterations, channel reconfigurations, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation. The filtering process was a partnership among U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to contribute to the Missouri River Recovery Management Plan process. The objective of the filtering process was to produce a set of hypotheses with high relevance to pallid sturgeon population dynamics and decision making on the Missouri River. The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis team filtered hundreds of potential hypotheses implicit in conceptual ecological models to develop a set of 40 candidate dominant hypotheses that were identified by experts as being important in pallid sturgeon population dynamics. Using a modified Delphi process and additional expert opinion, the team reduced this set of hypotheses to 23 working dominant hypotheses. We then matched the 23 hypotheses with management actions that could influence the biotic outcomes, resulting in as many as 176 potential effects between management actions and pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River. This number was consolidated to a candidate set of 53 working management hypotheses because some management actions applied to multiple life stages of the pallid sturgeon. We used an additional round of expert surveys to identify a set of 30 working management hypotheses. Finally, the set of working management hypotheses was filtered by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery Program for actions that were within the agency’s authority and jurisdiction. This round resulted in a set of 21 hypotheses for initial modeling of linkages from management to pallid sturgeon population responses.

  13. Attribution of hydrological change using the Method of Multiple Working Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Shaun

    2017-04-01

    The methods we have developed for managing our long-term water supply and protection from extreme hydrological events such as droughts and floods have been founded on the assumption that the hydrological cycle operates under natural conditions. However, it increasingly recognised that humans have the potential to induce significant change in almost every component of the hydrological cycle, for example, climate change, land-use change, and river engineering. Statistical detection of change in streamflow, outside that of natural variability, is an important scientific endeavour, but it does not tell us anything about the drivers of change. Attribution is the process of establishing the most likely cause(s) of a detected change - the why. Attribution is complex due to the integrated nature of streamflow and the proliferation of multiple possible drivers. It is perhaps this complexity, combined with few proven theoretical approaches to this problem in hydrology that has led to others to call for "more efforts and scientific rigour" (Merz et al., 2012). It is easier to limit the cause of a detected change to a single driver, or use simple correlation analysis alone as evidence of causation. It is convenient when the direction of a change in streamflow is consistent with what is expected from a well-known driver such as climate change. Over a century ago, Thomas Chamberlin argued these types of issues were common in many disciplines given how the scientific method is approached in general. His 1890 article introduces the Method of Multiple Working Hypotheses (MMWH) in an attempt to limit our confirmation bias and strives for increased objectivity. This presentation will argue that the MMWH offers an attractive theoretical approach to the attribution of hydrological change in modern hydrology as demonstrated through a case study of a well-documented change point in streamflow within the Boyne Catchment in Ireland. Further Reading Chamberlin, T. C.: The Method of Multiple

  14. The Development of Functionally Similar and Dissimilar Operations of Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura

    1986-01-01

    Assesses three sets of Piagetian exclusion operations (of varying the independent variables, of holding the independent variable constant, and tautology) and of levels of thought (concrete through formal) in 33 fifth graders, 27 sixth graders, and 31 seventh graders. (HOD)

  15. System for Award Management (SAM) Public Extract - Exclusions

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This dataset contains a daily snapshot of active exclusion records entered by the U.S. Federal government identifying those parties excluded from receiving Federal...

  16. Multibeam mapping of the exclusive economic zone of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Rao, P.S.; Kodagali, V.N.

    The seabed in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of India is covered with a variety of minerals of economic interest. High resolution bathymetric maps are needed for effective utilisation and management of these resources. To assess the general...

  17. Does social exclusion motivate interpersonal reconnection? Resolving the "porcupine problem".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maner, Jon K; DeWall, C Nathan; Baumeister, Roy F; Schaller, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Evidence from 6 experiments supports the social reconnection hypothesis, which posits that the experience of social exclusion increases the motivation to forge social bonds with new sources of potential affiliation. Threat of social exclusion led participants to express greater interest in making new friends, to increase their desire to work with others, to form more positive impressions of novel social targets, and to assign greater rewards to new interaction partners. Findings also suggest potential boundary conditions to the social reconnection hypothesis. Excluded individuals did not seem to seek reconnection with the specific perpetrators of exclusion or with novel partners with whom no face-to-face interaction was anticipated. Furthermore, fear of negative evaluation moderated responses to exclusion such that participants low in fear of negative evaluation responded to new interaction partners in an affiliative fashion, whereas participants high in fear of negative evaluation did not.

  18. The Processes of Inclusion and Exclusion in Physical Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Munk; Agergaard, Sine

    2015-01-01

    Existing research on inclusion and exclusion processes in physical education (PE) has particularly focused on exclusion from PE as something being done to students and attributed to specific social categories such as (female) gender, (low) physical skills or (minority) ethnic background. This art......Existing research on inclusion and exclusion processes in physical education (PE) has particularly focused on exclusion from PE as something being done to students and attributed to specific social categories such as (female) gender, (low) physical skills or (minority) ethnic background....... Some students were excluded from PE because they did not have the physical skills and social relations necessary to gain legitimacy from other students. Others chose not to participate because PE was not meaningful to them. This latter type of non-participation from students who experienced lacking...

  19. |V$_{ub}$| from exclusive B and D decays

    CERN Document Server

    Ligeti, Z; Ligeti, Zoltan; Wise, Mark B

    1996-01-01

    We propose a model-independent method to determine the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element |V_{ub}| from exclusive B and D decays. Combining information obtainable from B\\to \\rho\\ell\\bar\

  20. Testing Time Reversal Invariance in Exclusive Semileptonic B Meson Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, G H; Ng, J N; Wu, Guo-Hong; Kiers, Ken; Ng, John N.

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrate that polarization measurements in exclusive semileptonic B decays are powerful tools for unraveling non-standard model sources of T-violation. Measurements of the transverse polarization of the \\tau lepton in the $B \\rightarrow D \\tau \\overline{\

  1. Allelic exclusion of immunoglobulin genes: models and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettermann, Christian; Schlissel, Mark S

    2010-09-01

    The allelic exclusion of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes is one of the most evolutionarily conserved features of the adaptive immune system and underlies the monospecificity of B cells. While much has been learned about how Ig allelic exclusion is established during B-cell development, the relevance of monospecificity to B-cell function remains enigmatic. Here, we review the theoretical models that have been proposed to explain the establishment of Ig allelic exclusion and focus on the molecular mechanisms utilized by developing B cells to ensure the monoallelic expression of Ig kappa and Ig lambda light chain genes. We also discuss the physiological consequences of Ig allelic exclusion and speculate on the importance of monospecificity of B cells for immune recognition.

  2. Latest Results in Central Exclusive Production: A Summary

    CERN Document Server

    Harland-Lang, L A; Ryskin, M G; Stirling, W J

    2013-01-01

    Selected new results in central exclusive production (CEP) processes within the pQCD-based Durham model are discussed. Topics covered include the CEP of SM and BSM Higgs-like particles, meson pair CEP and the gap survival probability.

  3. Static large deviations of boundary driven exclusion processes

    CERN Document Server

    Farfan, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    We prove that the stationary measure associated to a boundary driven exclusion process in any dimension satisfies a large deviation principle with rate function given by the quasi potential of the Freidlin and Wentzell theory.

  4. The importance of volume exclusion in modelling cellular migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Louise; Baker, Ruth E

    2015-09-01

    The modelling of collective migration has traditionally been undertaken in a continuous framework, with little reference to the individual-level mechanisms that give rise to such a concerted movement. One factor whose importance is now coming to light is that the individuals themselves occupy space in the domain, thus obstructing others from moving past them (volume exclusion). In this work, we systematically derive continuous descriptions of cellular migration with volume exclusion for a wide range of individual-based mechanisms and in one, two and three dimensions. We also consider subpopulations of migrating individuals, which may have different characteristics, such as differing sizes and speeds of migration. We demonstrate that volume exclusion is of particular importance when biased movement is included, and thus conclude that volume exclusion may have its greatest effect when considering directed migratory mechanisms such as chemotaxis.

  5. Manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mauritius

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; ShyamPrasad, M.

    The distribution of manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the island nation Mauritius was delineated during cruise SK-35 of ORV Sagar Kanya in 1987. The areas surveyed included Saya de Malha and Nazareth Banks, the Cargados Carajos...

  6. On the determination of the mutual exclusion statistics parameter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saptarshi Mandal

    2013-09-01

    Following the generalized definition of exclusion statistics to infinite-dimensional Hilbert space [Murthy and Shankar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3629 (1994)] for a single-component anyonic system, we derive a simple relation between second mixed virial coefficient and the mutual exclusion statistics parameters using high-temperature expansion method for multicomponent anyonic system. The above result is derived without working in a specific model and is valid in any spatial dimensions.

  7. Non-linear QCD dynamics and exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, M V T; Meneses, A R

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution we analyse the cross sections for the exclusive vector meson production as well as the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) relying on the color dipole approach and considering the numerical solution of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation including running coupling corrections. Comparisons to DESY-HERA data on exclusive processes and predictions to the Large Hadron Electron Collider, LHeC, are presented.

  8. Improved entropic uncertainty relations and information exclusion relations

    OpenAIRE

    Coles, Patrick J.; Piani, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty principle can be expressed in entropic terms, also taking into account the role of entanglement in reducing uncertainty. The information exclusion principle bounds instead the correlations that can exist between the outcomes of incompatible measurements on one physical system, and a second reference system. We provide a more stringent formulation of both the uncertainty principle and the information exclusion principle, with direct applications for, e.g., the security analysis...

  9. CERN Summer Student Project: Central Exclusive Diffraction and Glueball Searches

    CERN Document Server

    van Beest, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    CERN Summer Student work project report on work conducted in the Diffraction group at the ALICE experiment as well as the obtained results. These include a kinematical calculation with respect to a generic central exclusive process, the selection rules for a centrally produced system with respect to a specific central exclusive diffraction process, and finally a case study of one of the first contributions to the search for glueballs at CERN.

  10. The public library, exclusion and empathy: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the literature within the fields of public librarianship, social exclusion and empathy. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – The cross-disciplinary review involved the consultation of material from disciplines including library and information management, politics, social policy and social sciences, cultural studies, psychology, management and organizational theory. It was structured according to the following themes: exclusion, i...

  11. Measurements of Protein-Protein Interactions by Size Exclusion Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Bloustine, J.; Berejnov, V.; Fraden, S

    2003-01-01

    A method is presented for determining second virial coefficients (B2) of protein solutions from retention time measurements in size exclusion chromatography. We determine B2 by analyzing the concentration dependence of the chromatographic partition coefficient. We show the ability of this method to track the evolution of B2 from positive to negative values in lysozyme and bovine serum albumin solutions. Our size exclusion chromatography results agree quantitatively with data obtained by light...

  12. Exclusion from school and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fintan O’Regan

    2010-01-01

    The exclusion of children from school, either on a fixed-term or a permanent basis, is a disciplinary tool used in primary and secondary schools throughout the United Kingdom. Students with special educational needs (SEN) are more likely to be permanently excluded than pupils without SEN (Department for Children, Schools and Families 2009). In this review paper, I will examine the role of underlying behavioural difficulties in school exclusion and specifically explore the potential role of AD...

  13. Foreign Investors Able to Establish Foreign- exclusively Exhibition Corporations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Foreign Investors Able to Establish Foreign-exclusively Exhibition Corporations In Feb, Ministry of Commerce issued its 1st decree on temporary regulation for foreign-investing corporations; the regulation allows foreign investors to set up foreign-investing convention & exhibition corporations exclusively or through cooperation with other Chinese corporations, enterprises or organizations. With legal protection on their regulatory management and legal rights, these foreign-investing corporations are in the charge of Department of Foreign Investment Administration, Ministry of Commerce.

  14. Social Deprivation and Exclusion of Immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at providing empirical evidence on social exclusion of immigrants in Germany. We demonstrate that when using a conventional definition of the social inclusion index typically applied in the literature, immigrants appear to experience a significant degree of social deprivation and exclusion, confirming much of the economic literature examining the economic assimilation of immigrants in Germany. We propose a weighting scheme that weights components of social inclusion by their s...

  15. Mutual Exclusion in a Token Ring in CC++

    OpenAIRE

    Binau, Ulla

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a first attempt at using UNITY to verify reactive Compositional C++ (CC++) programs. We propose a distributed solution to the mutual exclusion problem using partially synchronous communication channels. The solution is described as a CC++ program, from which a small set of "basic" properties is derived. Using UNITY, we proof mutual exclusion and progress of the solution based on the set of properties derived from the code.

  16. Figthing Social Exclusion: Between Economic Development and Social Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Social exclusion is the product of the interaction of a wide range of socio-economic, cultural and institutional problems. In order to be successful, these programs should aim to combine - in the real contexts in which they operate - interventions for economic growth that increase the opportunities for the excluded to benefit from them. This paper describes what social exclusion is, the factors causing it and the effects these have on excluded groups as a whole (economic, cultural, political)...

  17. Visual hallucinations in PD and Lewy body dementias: old and new hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofrj, M; Taylor, J P; Monaco, D; Franciotti, R; Anzellotti, F; Bonanni, L; Onofrj, V; Thomas, A

    2013-01-01

    Visual Hallucinations (VH) are a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's Disease (PD) and the Lewy body dementias (LBD) of Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The origin of VH in PD and LBD is debated: earlier studies considered a number of different possible mechanisms underlying VH including visual disorders, Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep Intrusions, dysfunctions of top down or bottom up visual pathways, and neurotransmitter imbalance. More recently newer hypotheses introduce, among the possible mechanisms of VH, the role of attention networks (ventral and dorsal) and of the Default Mode Network (DMN) a network that is inhibited during attentional tasks and becomes active during rest and self referential imagery. Persistent DMN activity during active tasks with dysfunctional imbalance of dorsal and ventral attentional networks represents a new hypothesis on the mechanism of VH. We review the different methods used to classify VH and discuss reports supporting or challenging the different hypothetical mechanisms of VH.

  18. On the particular vulnerability of face recognition to aging: A review of three hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eBoutet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Age-related face recognition deficits are characterized by high false alarms to unfamiliar faces, are not as pronounced for other complex stimuli, and are only partially related to general age-related impairments in cognition. This paper reviews some of the underlying processes likely to be implicated in theses deficits by focusing on areas where contradictions abound as a means to highlight avenues for future research. Research pertaining to three following hypotheses is presented: (i perceptual deterioration, (ii encoding of configural information, and (iii difficulties in recollecting contextual information. The evidence surveyed provides support for the idea that all three factors are likely to contribute, under certain conditions, to the deficits in face recognition seen in older adults. We discuss how these different factors might interact in the context of a generic framework of the different stages implicated in face recognition. Several suggestions for future investigations are outlined.

  19. An exploration into the home field, global advantage and liability of unfamiliarness hypotheses in multinational banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzlan Sufian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to expand the efficiency paradigm of the eclectic theory in multinational banking within the context of a developing country banking sector. We employ the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method to examine the efficiency of multinational banks operating in the Malaysian banking sector from 1995 to 2007. We then employ the panel regression analysis to examine the impact of origins on bank efficiency. We find foreign banks from North America to be the most efficient banking group, providing support to the ‘limited form’ of the global advantage hypothesis. On the other hand, we do not find evidence on both the liability of unfamiliarness and home field advantage hypotheses.

  20. A dynamic procedure based on the scale-similarity hypotheses for large-eddy simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bing; CUI Guixiang; CHEN Naixiang

    2007-01-01

    Current dynamic procedures in large-eddy simulation treat the two subgrid-scale stresses in the Germano identity with the same subgrid base model.Thus to get the base model coefficient,the coefficient must be assumed to be constant for test filter operation.However,since the coefficient has sharp fluctuations,this assumption causes some inconsistence.A new dynamic procedure was developed in which these two stresses are modeled by the base model and the scale-similarity hypotheses respectively.Thus the need for the assumption is removed and consistence is restored.The new procedure is tested in the large-eddy simulation of a lid-driven cavity flow at Reynolds number of 10,000.The results show that the new procedure can both improve the prediction of statistics of the flow and effectively relieve the singularity of subgrid-scale (SGS) model coefficient.