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Sample records for non-motile non-sporulating catalase-positive

  1. Radiation damage and its repair in non-sporulating bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moseley, B.E.B.

    1984-01-01

    A review is given of radiation damage and its repair in non-sporulating bacteria. The identification and measurement of radiation damage in the DNA of the bacteria after exposure to ultraviolet radiation and ionizing radiation is described. Measuring the extent of DNA repair and ways of isolating repair mutants are also described. The DNA repair mechanisms for UV-induced damage are discussed including photoreactivation repair, excision repair, post-replication recombination repair and induced error-prone repair. The DNA repair mechanisms for ionizing radiation damage are also discussed including the repair of both single and double-strand breaks. Other aspects discussed include the effects of growth, irradiation medium and recovery medium on survival, DNA repair in humans, the commercial use of UV and ionizing radiations and the future of ionizing irradiation as a food treatment process. (U.K.)

  2. Buoyant plumes from solute gradients generated by non-motile Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, M R; Brown, R B; Todd, P; Klaus, D M; Nelson, E S

    2008-01-01

    The effect of hydrodynamic mixing in bacterial populations due to bacterial chemotaxis is a well-described phenomenon known as bioconvection. Here we report the observation of buoyant plumes that result in hydrodynamic mixing, but in contrast to bioconvection the plumes form in the absence of bacterial motility. We propose that the buoyant flow originates from solute gradients created by bacterial metabolism, similar to solute-induced buoyant flow around growing protein crystals. In our experiments, metabolically-active non-motile Escherichia coli were layered along the bottom of flat-bottomed containers. The E. coli consumed glucose in the medium creating a lighter fluid beneath a heavier fluid. The situation is an example of Rayleigh–Taylor instability, in which a lighter fluid pushes on a heavier one. We developed a numerical model to study the effect of E. coli nutrient consumption and by-product excretion on extracellular solute gradients. The model solutions showed reduced-density fluid along the bottom of the fluid domain leading to buoyant plumes, which were qualitatively similar to the experimental plumes. We also used scaling analyses to study the dependence of plume formation on container size and cell size, and to investigate the effect of reduced gravity, such as the microgravity conditions encountered during spaceflight

  3. The effect of loss of O-antigen ligase on phagocytic susceptibility of motile and non-motile Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdjian, Sally; Schutz, Kristin; Wargo, Matthew J; Lam, Joseph S; Berwin, Brent

    2017-12-01

    The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa undergoes adaptation and selection over the course of chronic respiratory tract infections which results in repeatedly-observed phenotypic changes that are proposed to enable its persistence. Two of the clinically significant P. aeruginosa phenotypic changes are loss of flagellar motility and modifications to LPS structure, including loss of O-antigen expression. The effect of loss of O-antigen, frequently described as conversion from smooth to rough LPS, and the combined effect of loss of motility and O-antigen on phagocytic susceptibility by immune cells remain unknown. To address this, we generated genetic deletion mutants of waaL, which encodes the O-antigen ligase responsible for linking O-antigen to lipid A-core oligosaccharide, in both motile and non-motile P. aeruginosa strains. With the use of these bacterial strains we provide the first demonstration that, despite a progressive selection for P. aeruginosa with rough LPS during chronic pulmonary infections, loss of the LPS O-antigen does not confer phagocytic resistance in vitro. However, use of the waaLmotABmotCD mutant revealed that loss of motility confers resistance to phagocytosis regardless of the smooth or rough LPS phenotype. These findings reveal how the O-antigen of P. aeruginosa can influence bacterial clearance during infection and expand our current knowledge about the impact of bacterial phenotypic changes during chronic infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In-situ determination of the mechanical properties of gliding or non-motile bacteria by atomic force microscopy under physiological conditions without immobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Dhahri

    Full Text Available We present a study about AFM imaging of living, moving or self-immobilized bacteria in their genuine physiological liquid medium. No external immobilization protocol, neither chemical nor mechanical, was needed. For the first time, the native gliding movements of Gram-negative Nostoc cyanobacteria upon the surface, at speeds up to 900 µm/h, were studied by AFM. This was possible thanks to an improved combination of a gentle sample preparation process and an AFM procedure based on fast and complete force-distance curves made at every pixel, drastically reducing lateral forces. No limitation in spatial resolution or imaging rate was detected. Gram-positive and non-motile Rhodococcus wratislaviensis bacteria were studied as well. From the approach curves, Young modulus and turgor pressure were measured for both strains at different gliding speeds and are ranging from 20±3 to 105±5 MPa and 40±5 to 310±30 kPa depending on the bacterium and the gliding speed. For Nostoc, spatially limited zones with higher values of stiffness were observed. The related spatial period is much higher than the mean length of Nostoc nodules. This was explained by an inhomogeneous mechanical activation of nodules in the cyanobacterium. We also observed the presence of a soft extra cellular matrix (ECM around the Nostoc bacterium. Both strains left a track of polymeric slime with variable thicknesses. For Rhodococcus, it is equal to few hundreds of nanometers, likely to promote its adhesion to the sample. While gliding, the Nostoc secretes a slime layer the thickness of which is in the nanometer range and increases with the gliding speed. This result reinforces the hypothesis of a propulsion mechanism based, for Nostoc cyanobacteria, on ejection of slime. These results open a large window on new studies of both dynamical phenomena of practical and fundamental interests such as the formation of biofilms and dynamic properties of bacteria in real physiological conditions.

  5. In-Situ Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Gliding or Non-Motile Bacteria by Atomic Force Microscopy under Physiological Conditions without Immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhahri, Samia; Ramonda, Michel; Marlière, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We present a study about AFM imaging of living, moving or self-immobilized bacteria in their genuine physiological liquid medium. No external immobilization protocol, neither chemical nor mechanical, was needed. For the first time, the native gliding movements of Gram-negative Nostoc cyanobacteria upon the surface, at speeds up to 900 µm/h, were studied by AFM. This was possible thanks to an improved combination of a gentle sample preparation process and an AFM procedure based on fast and complete force-distance curves made at every pixel, drastically reducing lateral forces. No limitation in spatial resolution or imaging rate was detected. Gram-positive and non-motile Rhodococcus wratislaviensis bacteria were studied as well. From the approach curves, Young modulus and turgor pressure were measured for both strains at different gliding speeds and are ranging from 20±3 to 105±5 MPa and 40±5 to 310±30 kPa depending on the bacterium and the gliding speed. For Nostoc, spatially limited zones with higher values of stiffness were observed. The related spatial period is much higher than the mean length of Nostoc nodules. This was explained by an inhomogeneous mechanical activation of nodules in the cyanobacterium. We also observed the presence of a soft extra cellular matrix (ECM) around the Nostoc bacterium. Both strains left a track of polymeric slime with variable thicknesses. For Rhodococcus, it is equal to few hundreds of nanometers, likely to promote its adhesion to the sample. While gliding, the Nostoc secretes a slime layer the thickness of which is in the nanometer range and increases with the gliding speed. This result reinforces the hypothesis of a propulsion mechanism based, for Nostoc cyanobacteria, on ejection of slime. These results open a large window on new studies of both dynamical phenomena of practical and fundamental interests such as the formation of biofilms and dynamic properties of bacteria in real physiological conditions. PMID:23593493

  6. Catalase-positive microbial detection by using different ultrasonic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S K; Durán, C; Elvira, L

    2012-01-01

    A method for rapid detection of catalase enzyme activity using ultrasonic parameters is presented in this work. It is based on the detection of the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide molecule into water and oxygen induced by the enzyme catalase. A special medium was made to amplify changes produced by catalase enzyme during the hydrolysis process. Enzymatic process can be monitored by means of ultrasonic parameters such as wave amplitude, time of flight (TOF), and backscattering measurements which are sensitive to oxygen bubble production. It is shown that catalase activity of the order of 10 −3 unit/ml can be detected using different ultrasonic parameters. The sensitivity provided by them is discussed.

  7. Acceleration of the sliding movement of actin filaments with the use of a non-motile mutant myosin in in vitro motility assays driven by skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Iwase

    Full Text Available We examined the movement of an actin filament sliding on a mixture of normal and genetically modified myosin molecules that were attached to a glass surface. For this purpose, we used a Dictyostelium G680V mutant myosin II whose release rates of Pi and ADP were highly suppressed relative to normal myosin, leading to a significantly extended life-time of the strongly bound state with actin and virtually no motility. When the mixing ratio of G680V mutant myosin II to skeletal muscle HMM (heavy myosin was 0.01%, the actin filaments moved intermittently. When they moved, their sliding velocities were about two-fold faster than the velocity of skeletal HMM alone. Furthermore, sliding movements were also faster when the actin filaments were allowed to slide on skeletal muscle HMM-coated glass surfaces in the motility buffer solution containing G680V HMM. In this case no intermittent movement was observed. When the actin filaments used were copolymerized with a fusion protein consisting of Dictyostelium actin and Dictyostelium G680V myosin II motor domain, similar faster sliding movements were observed on skeletal muscle HMM-coated surfaces. The filament sliding velocities were about two-fold greater than the velocities of normal actin filaments. We found that the velocity of actin filaments sliding on skeletal muscle myosin molecules increased in the presence of a non-motile G680V mutant myosin motor.

  8. Imtechella halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from estuarine water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Surendra, V.; Bhawana, P.; Suresh, K.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; AnilKumar, P.

    A novel Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-sporulating bacterium, designated strain K1 sup(T), was isolated from an estuarine water sample collected from Kochi, Kerala, India. Colonies on marine agar were circular, 2.0-2.5 mm in diameter...

  9. Xanthomarina gelatinilytica gen nov., sp nov., isolated from seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhumika, V.; Ravinder, K.; Sharma, G.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; AnilKumar, P.

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, yellow-pigmented, non-sporulating, non-motile bacterium, designated strain AK20T, was isolated from seawater collected from Kochi city, Kerala state, India Colonies on marine agar were circular...

  10. Catalase-positive microperoxisomes in rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscle fiber types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Danny A.; Bain, James L. W.; Ellis, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    The size, distribution, and content of catalase-reactive microperoxisomes were investigated cytochemically in three types of muscle fibers from the soleus and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of male rats. Muscle fibers were classified on the basis of the mitochondrial content and distribution, the Z-band widths, and the size and shape of myofibrils as the slow-twitch oxidative (SO), the fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (FOG), and the fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) fibers. It was found that both the EDL and soleus SO fibers possessed the largest microperoxisomes. A comparison of microperoxisome number per muscle fiber area or the microperoxisome area per fiber area revealed following ranking, starting from the largest number and the area-ratio values: soleus SO, EDL SO, EDL FOG, and EDL FG.

  11. Implantation phaeohyphomycosis caused by a non-sporulating Chaetomium species. Phaeohyphomycose d’inoculation causée par une espèce non sporulante de Chaetomium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Najafzadeh, M.J.; Fata, A.; Naseri, A.; Saradeghi Keisarid, M.; Farahyarf, S.; Gangbakhsh, M.; Ziaee, M.; Dolatabadi, S.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 66-year-old Iranian woman with a phaeohyphomycotic cyst (approximately 3 × 2.5 cm in size) on the right lateral side of the neck. She had dysphagia and hoarseness, without any pain. She complained about discharge of black liquid on the skin and irritation. Histological

  12. Complete genome sequence of Leptotrichia buccalis type strain (C-1013-bT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Natalia; Gronow, Sabine; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Saunders, Liz; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff; Pitluck, Sam; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jefferies, Cynthia C.; Chain, Patrick; Rohde, Christine; Goker, Markus; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Leptotrichia buccalis (Robin 1853) Trevisan 1879 is the type species of the genus, and is of phylogenetic interest because of its isolated location in the sparsely populated and neither taxonomically nor genomically adequately accessed family 'Leptotrichiaceae' within the phylum 'Fusobacteria'. Species of Leptotrichia are large fusiform non-motile, non-sporulating rods, which often populate the human oral flora. L. buccalis is anaerobic to aerotolerant, and saccharolytic. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the order 'Fusobacteriales' and no more than the second sequence from the phylum 'Fusobacteria'. The 2,465,610 bp long single replicon genome with its 2306 protein-coding and 61 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  13. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Collinsella massiliensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Roshan; Dubourg, Gregory; Nguyen, Thi-Thien; Couderc, Carine; Rossi-Tamisier, Morgane; Caputo, Aurelia; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2014-06-15

    Collinsella massiliensis strain GD3(T) is the type strain of Collinsella massiliensis sp. nov., a new species within the genus Collinsella. This strain, whose genome is described here, was isolated from the fecal flora of a 53-year-old French Caucasoid woman who had been admitted to intensive care unit for Guillain-Barré syndrome. Collinsella massiliensis is a Gram-positive, obligate anaerobic, non motile and non sporulating bacillus. Here, we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The genome is 2,319,586 bp long (1 chromosome, no plasmid), exhibits a G+C content of 65.8% and contains 2,003 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes, including 1 rRNA operon.

  14. Complete genome sequence of Olsenella uli type strain (VPI D76D-27CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Yasawong, Montri [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Pukall, Rudiger [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

    2010-01-01

    Olsenella uli (Olsen et al. 1991) Dewhirst et al. 2001 is the type species of the genus Olsenella, which belongs to the actinobacterial family Coriobacteriaceae. The species is of interest because it is frequently isolated from dental plaque in periodontitis patients and can cause primary endodontic infection. The species is a Gram-positive, non-motile and non-sporulating bacterium. The strain described in this study has been isolated from human gingival crevices in 1982. This is the first completed sequence of the genus Olsenella and the fifth sequence from the family Coriobacteriaceae. The 2,051,896 bp long genome with its 1,795 protein-coding and 55 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  15. Protein modification in the post-mating spermatophore of the signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus: insight into the tyrosine phosphorylation in a non-motile spermatozoon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niksirat, H.; Vancová, Marie; Andersson, L.; James, P.; Kouba, A.; Kozák, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 172, SEP (2016), s. 123-130 ISSN 0378-4320 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microtubular radial arm * spermatozoon capacitation * tyrosine-phosphorylation * ultrastructural localization Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2016

  16. Complete genome sequence of Dyadobacter fermentans type strain (NS114T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Elke; Lapidus, Alla; Chertkov, Olga; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Nolan, Matt; Chen, Feng; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Chain, Patrick; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Goker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Dyadobacter fermentans (Chelius MK and Triplett EW, 2000) is the type species of the genus Dyadobacter. It is of phylogenetic interest because of its location in the Cytophagaceae, a very diverse family within the order 'Sphingobacteriales'. D. fermentans has a mainly respiratory metabolism, stains Gram-negative, is non-motile and oxidase and catalase positive. It is characterized by the production of cell filaments in ageing cultures, a flexirubin-like pigment and its ability to ferment glucose, which is almost unique in the aerobically living members of this taxonomically difficult family. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the 'sphingobacterial' genus Dyadobacter, and this 6,967,790 bp long single replicon genome with its 5804 protein-coding and 50 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  17. Thermus arciformis sp. nov., a thermophilic species from a geothermal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Qi; Ying, Yi; Ye, Ying; Xu, Xue-Wei; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2010-04-01

    Two aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-sporulating, yellow-pigmented bacteria, strains TH92(T) and TH91, were isolated from a hot spring located in Laibin, Guangxi, in the south-eastern geothermal area of China. The isolates grew at 40-77 degrees C (optimally at 70 degrees C) and at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimally at pH 7.5-8.0). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness together indicated that the new isolates represented a novel species of the genus Thermus with closest affinity to Thermus aquaticus, Thermus igniterrae and Thermus thermophilus. Compared with their closest relatives, strains TH92( T) and TH91 were able to assimilate a wider range of carbohydrates, amino acids and organic acids as sole carbon sources for growth, such as lactose and melibiose. The new isolates had lower combined levels of C(16 : 0 ) and iso-C(16 : 0) compared with their closest relatives. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic characterization, strains TH92(T) and TH91 are considered to represent a single novel species of the genus Thermus, for which the name Thermus arciformis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TH92(T) (=CGMCC 1.6992(T) =JCM 15153(T)).

  18. Olsenella scatoligenes sp. nov., a 3-methylindole- (skatole) and 4-methylphenol- (p-cresol) producing bacterium isolated from pig faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Jensen, Rikke Lassen; Højberg, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Strain SK9K4T, which is a strictly anaerobic, non-motile, non-sporulating, Gram-stain-positive, saccharolytic coccobacillus, was isolated from pig faeces. SK9K4T metabolized indol-3-acetic acid to 3-methylindole (skatole), which is the main contributor to boar taint; it also produced 4-methylphenol......+C content was 62.1 mol% and the major cellular fatty acids (constituting .10% of the total) were C14 : 0 and C18 : 1v9c. The major end product of glucose fermentation was lactic acid, with minor amounts of acetic acid and formic acid; no H2 was produced. Discrepancies in the fatty acid profiles, the MALDI...... (p-cresol) from p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. Phylogenetic analyses, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that the isolate represented a new lineage within the genus Olsenella of the family Atopobiaceae. Strain SK9K4T was most closely related to the type strains of the three species of the genus...

  19. Mycobacterium hippocampi sp. nov., a rapidly growing scotochromogenic species isolated from a seahorse with tail rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcázar, José Luis; Planas, Miquel; Pintado, José

    2014-09-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile, non-sporulating, acid-fast, and rod-shaped bacterium (BFLP-6(T)), previously isolated from a seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) with tail rot, was studied using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Growth occurred at 15-35 °C (optimum 25 °C), at pH 5.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and at NaCl concentrations between 0 and 6 % (w/v). The G+C content of DNA was 66.7 mol%. The predominant fatty acids were C(18:1) ω9c, C(16:0) and C(16:1) ω6c. A mycolic acid pattern of alpha-mycolates and keto-mycolates was detected. Analysis of concatenated sequences (16S rRNA, rpoB, ssrA and tuf genes), and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features indicated that strain BFLP-6(T) represents a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium hippocampi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BFLP-6(T) (=DSM 45391(T) =LMG 25372(T)).

  20. Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov., a rapidly growing bacterium isolated from groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2017-10-01

    A strain representing a rapidly growing, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-sporulating and non-pigmented species of the genus Mycobacterium, designated strain S-I-6 T , was isolated from groundwater at Daejeon in Korea. The strain grew at temperatures between 10 and 37 °C (optimal growth at 25 °C), between pH 4.0 and 9.0 (optimal growth at pH 7.0) and at salinities of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNAgene, hsp65, rpoB and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer indicated that strain S-I-6 T belonged to the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium sphagni. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic analysis, the bacterial strain was distinguished from its phylogenetic neighbours by chemotaxonomic properties and other biochemical characteristics. DNA-DNA relatedness among strain S-I-6 T and the closest phylogenetic neighbour strongly support the proposal that this strain represents a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S-I-6 T (=KACC 17600 T =NBRC 109805 T =NCAIM B 02535 T ).

  1. Epidemiological characterization of resistance and PCR typing of Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei strains isolated from bacillary dysentery cases in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.A. Penatti

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Shigella spp are Gram-negative, anaerobic facultative, non-motile, and non-sporulated bacilli of the Enterobacteriaceae family responsible for "Shigellosis" or bacillary dysentery, an important cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. However, despite this, there are very few epidemiological studies about this bacterium in Brazil. We studied the antibiotic resistance profiles and the clonal structure of 60 Shigella strains (30 S. flexneri and 30 S. sonnei isolated from shigellosis cases in different cities within the metropolitan area of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. We used the following well-characterized molecular techniques: enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus, repetitive extragenic palindromic, and double-repetitive element-polymerase chain reaction to characterize the bacteria. Also, the antibiotic resistance of the strains was determined by the diffusion disk method. Many strains of S. flexneri and S. sonnei were found to be multi-resistant. S. flexneri strains were resistant to ampicillin in 83.3% of cases, chloramphenicol in 70.0%, streptomycin in 86.7%, sulfamethoxazole in 80.0%, and tetracycline in 80.0%, while a smaller number of strains were resistant to cephalothin (3.3% and sulfazotrim (10.0%. S. sonnei strains were mainly resistant to sulfamethoxazole (100.0% and tetracycline (96.7% and, to a lesser extent, to ampicillin (6.7% and streptomycin (26.7%. Polymerase chain reaction-based typing supported the existence of specific clones responsible for the shigellosis cases in the different cities and there was evidence of transmission between cities. This clonal structure would probably be the result of selection for virulence and resistance phenotypes. These data indicate that the human sanitary conditions of the cities investigated should be improved.

  2. Erythrobacter pelagi sp. nov., a member of the family Erythrobacteraceae isolated from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, H.-x.

    2011-08-05

    A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-sporulating, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain UST081027-248(T), was isolated from seawater of the Red Sea. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain UST081027-248(T) fell within the genus Erythrobacter. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the novel strain and the type strains of Erythrobacter species ranged from 95.3% (with Erythrobacter gangjinensis) to 98.2% (with Erythrobacter citreus). However, levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain UST081027-248(T) and the type strains of closely related species were below 70%. Optimal growth of the isolate occurred in the presence of 2.0% NaCl, at pH 8.0-9.0 and at 28-36 degrees C. The isolate did not produce bacteriochlorophyll a. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C-17:1 omega 6c, summed feature 8 (C-18:1 omega 6c and/or C-18:1 omega 7c) and C-15:0 2-OH. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain UST081027-248(T) was 60.4 mol%. Phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness clearly indicated that strain UST081027-248(T) represents a novel species of the genus Erythrobacter, for which the name Erythrobacter pelagi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is UST081027-248(T) (=JCM 17468(T)=NRRL 59511(T)).

  3. Microbacterium horti sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from Cucurbita maxima cultivating soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Shahina; Park, Jae Hee; Yin, Chang Shik

    2016-04-01

    A novel bacterial strain THG-SL1(T) was isolated from a soil sample of Cucurbita maxima garden and was characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Cells were Gram-reaction-positive, non-motile and rod-shaped. The strain was aerobic, catalase positive and weakly positive for oxidase. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis but it shared highest similarity with Microbacterium ginsengisoli KCTC 19189(T) (96.6 %), indicating that strain THG-SL1(T) belongs to the genus Microbacterium. The DNA G + C content of the isolate was 68.9 mol %. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15: 0 (39.7 %), anteiso-C17: 0 (24.4 %) and iso-C16: 0 (18.5 %). The major polar lipids of strain THG-SL1(T) were phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and an unidentified glycolipid (GL). The predominant respiratory isoprenoid quinones were menaquinone-11 and menaquinone-12. The diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was ornithine. Based on the results of polyphasic characterization, strain THG-SL1(T) represented a novel species within the genus Microbacterium, for which the name Microbacterium horti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-SL1(T) (=KACC 18286(T)=CCTCC AB 2015117(T)).

  4. Kocuria koreensis sp. nov., isolated from fermented seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jin; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Min-Soo; Jung, Mi-Ja; Shin, Kee-Sun; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2010-01-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile and coccoid actinobacterium, designated P31(T), was isolated from a traditional, fermented seafood. The strain was catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Cells grew in the presence of 0-15.0 % (w/v) NaCl, and at pH 5-10 and 15-37 degrees C. Major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(17 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0). Strain P31(T) contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain P31(T) was 65.2 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain P31(T) was most closely related to Kocuria kristinae DSM 20032(T), with 96.9 % similarity, and these two strains clustered together in constructed phylogenetic trees. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain P31(T) and K. kristinae DSM 20032(T) was 21.1 %. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it is suggested that strain P31(T) represents a novel species of the genus Kocuria, for which the name Kocuria koreensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P31(T) (=KCTC 19595(T)=JCM 15915(T)).

  5. Chryseobacterium salipaludis sp. nov., isolated at a wild ass sanctuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divyasree, B; Suresh, G; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2018-02-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, aerobic bacterium was isolated from a sediment sample obtained from a wild ass sanctuary in Gujarat, India. The strain designated JC490 T was oxidase- and catalase-positive. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and sequence comparison data indicated that strain JC490 T was a member of the genus Chryseobacterium and was closely related to Chryseobacterium jeonii AT1047 T (96.4 %) and with other members of the genus Chryseobacterium (<96.3 %). The DNA G+C content of strain JC490 T was 34 mol%. Strain JC490 T had phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids, two unidentified phospholipids and five unidentified polar lipids. Menaquinone-6 was the only respiratory quinone found. Iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH were the major fatty acids of strain JC490 T . On the basis of physiological, genotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic analyses, it is concluded that strain JC490 T constitutes a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name Chryseobacterium salipaludis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC490 T (=KCTC 52835 T =LMG 30048 T ).

  6. Roseimarinus sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic bacterium isolated from coastal sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Jie; Liu, Qian-Qian; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2015-07-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile and pink-pigmented bacterium, designated strain HF08(T), was isolated from marine sediment of the coast of Weihai, China. Cells were rod-shaped, and oxidase- and catalase-positive. The isolate grew optimally at 33 °C, at pH 7.5-8.0 and with 2-3% (w/v) NaCl. The dominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C14 : 0. Menaquinone 7 (MK-7) was the major respiratory quinone and the DNA G+C content was 44.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolate was a member of the class Bacteroidia, and shared 88-90% sequence similarity with the closest genera Sunxiuqinia, Prolixibacter, Draconibacterium, Mariniphaga and Meniscus. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence presented, a novel species in a new genus of the family Prolixibacteraceae is proposed, with the name Roseimarinus sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Roseimarinus sediminis is HF08(T) ( = KCTC 42261(T) = CICC 10901(T)).

  7. Isolation and characterization of two novel ethanol-tolerant facultative-anaerobic thermophilic bacteria strains from waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jiunn C N; Svenson, Charles J; Nakasugi, Kenlee; Leong, Caine T C; Bowman, John P; Chen, Betty; Glenn, Dianne R; Neilan, Brett A; Rogers, Peter L

    2006-10-01

    In a search for potential ethanologens, waste compost was screened for ethanol-tolerant thermophilic microorganisms. Two thermophilic bacterial strains, M5EXG and M10EXG, with tolerance of 5 and 10% (v/v) ethanol, respectively, were isolated. Both isolates are facultative anaerobic, non-spore forming, non-motile, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, Gram-negative rods that are capable of utilizing a range of carbon sources including arabinose, galactose, mannose, glucose and xylose and produce low amounts of ethanol, acetate and lactate. Growth of both isolates was observed in fully defined minimal media within the temperature range 50-80 degrees C and pH 6.0-8.0. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences revealed that both isolates clustered with members of subgroup 5 of the genus Bacillus. G+C contents and DNA-DNA relatedness of M5EXG and M10EXG revealed that they are strains belonging to Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius. However, physiological and biochemical differences were evident when isolates M5EXG and M10EXG were compared with G. thermoglucosidasius type strain (DSM 2542(T)). The new thermophilic, ethanol-tolerant strains of G. thermoglucosidasius may be candidates for ethanol production at elevated temperatures.

  8. Taxonomic study of aromatic-degrading bacteria from deep-terrestrial-subsurface sediments and description of Sphingomonas aromaticivorans sp. nov., Sphingomonas subterranea sp. nov., and Sphingomonas stygia sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkwill, D L; Drake, G R; Reeves, R H; Fredrickson, J K; White, D C; Ringelberg, D B; Chandler, D P; Romine, M F; Kennedy, D W; Spadoni, C M

    1997-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences by distance matrix and parsimony methods indicated that six strains of bacteria isolated from deep saturated Atlantic coastal plain sediments were closely related to the genus Sphingomonas. Five of the strains clustered with, but were distinct from, Sphingomonas capsulata, whereas the sixth strain was most closely related to Blastobacter natatorius. The five strains that clustered with S. capsulata, all of which could degrade aromatic compounds, were gram-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped organisms that produced small, yellow colonies on complex media. Their G + C contents ranged from 60.0 to 65.4 mol%, and the predominant isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone Q-10. All of the strains were aerobic and catalase positive. Indole, urease, and arginine dihydrolase were not produced. Gelatin was not liquified, and glucose was not fermented. Sphingolipids were present in all strains; 2OH14:0 was the major hydroxy fatty acid, and 18:1 was a major constituent of cellular lipids. Acid was produced oxidatively from pentoses, hexoses, and disaccharides, but not from polyalcohols and indole. All of these characteristics indicate that the five aromatic-degrading strains should be placed in the genus Sphingomonas as currently defined. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, DNA-DNA reassociation values, BOX-PCR genomic fingerprinting, differences in cellular lipid composition, and differences in physiological traits all indicated that the five strains represent three previously undescribed Sphingomonas species. Therefore, we propose the following new species: Sphingomonas aromaticivorans (type strain, SMCC F199), Sphingomonas subterranea (type strain, SMCC B0478), and Sphingomonas stygia (type strain, SMCC B0712).

  9. Microbacterium faecale sp. nov., isolated from the faeces of Columba livia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu; Li, Gui-Ding; Li, Qin-Yuan; Xu, Fang-Ji; Jiang, Cheng-Lin; Han, Li; Huang, Xue-Shi; Jiang, Yi

    2016-11-01

    A novel, yellow, aerobic strain, YIM 101168T, isolated from the faeces of a dove (Columba livia), was studied to determine its taxonomic position. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, short rod-shaped, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive and non-motile. The strain could grow at 7-37 °C, at pH 6-10 and in the presence of 0-13 % (w/v) NaCl. The strain had a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness value with Microbacteriumgubbeenense NCIMB 30129T of 97.8 % and 41.5±8.7 %, respectively. Ornithine was detected as the diagnostic amino acid in the hydrolysate of the cell wall. Whole-cell sugars were found to be galactose, glucose, rhamnose, mannose and ribose. Major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. Major menaquinones were identified as MK-10, MK-11 and MK-12. The polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycolipids and four unidentified lipids. The phylogenetic analyses as well as the chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics indicate that strain YIM 101168T represents a novel species of the genus Microbacterium; the name Microbacterium faecale sp. nov. is proposed for the novel species and the type strain is YIM 101168T (=DSM 27232T=KCTC 39554T=CGMCC 1.15152T).

  10. Identification of Serratia marcescens SE1 and determination of its Herbicide 2,2-dichloropropionate (2,2-DCP Degradation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel, E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The goal of the study is to isolate species of bacteria that capable of utilizing 2,2-dichloropropionic acid (2,2-DCP as sole carbon source from soil sample collected from surrounding lake water located in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor. Methodology and Results: Genomic DNA from bacterium SE1 was extracted and PCR amplification was carried out using universal primers, Fd1 (5’ - AGA GTT TGA TCC TGGCTC AG - 3’ and rP1 (5’- ACG GTC ATA CCT TGT TAC GAC TT - 3’ before sending for sequencing. The 16S rDNA nucleotide sequences were compared with Basic Local Alignment Search Tool nucleotide (BLASTn and further analyzed using phylogenetic tree of Neighbour-Joining method (MEGA 5. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SE1 strain clearly shared 97% homology to the genus of Serratia marcescens and therefore designated as Serratia marcescens sp. SE1. SE1 exhibited the ability to utilize 2,2-DCP as sole carbon source at 20 mM concentration with cell doubling time of 5 h and maximum chloride ion release of 38 μmolCl-/mL. This result suggests that the dehalogenase enzyme present in the bacteria has high affinity towards the substrate. Based on morphological and partial biochemical characteristics, strain SE1 was a non-motile Gram negative bacterium with red colonies, that gave a catalase positive reaction. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: A better understanding of dehalogenases enzyme produce by this S. marcescens sp. SE1 in general will be useful to be used as bioremediation tools for environmental management. This is the first reported case that Serratia sp. has the ability to degrade halogenated compound.

  11. Description of Tessaracoccus profundi sp.nov., a deep-subsurface actinobacterium isolated from a Chesapeake impact crater drill core (940 m depth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, K.W.; Cockell, C.S.; Voytek, M.A.; Gronstal, A.L.; Kjeldsen, K.U.

    2009-01-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated CB31T, was isolated from a 940 m depth sample of a drilling core obtained from the Chesapeake meteor impact crater. The strain was isolated aerobically on R2A medium agar plates supplemented with NaCl (20 g l-1) and MgCl2???6H 2O (3 g l-1). The colonies were circular, convex, smooth and orange. Cells were slightly curved, rod-shaped in young cultures and often appeared in pairs. In older cultures cells were coccoid. Cells stained Gram-positive, were non-motile and did not form endospores. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was ll-diaminopimelic acid. The polar lipids included phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidglycerol, four different glycolipids, two further phospholipids and one unidentified lipid. The dominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4) (70%). The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso C15:0 (83%). The DNA G + C content was 68 mol%. The strain grew anaerobically by reducing nitrate to nitrite or by fermenting glucose. It was catalase positive and oxidase negative. It grew between 10 and 45??C, with an optimum between 35 and 40??C. The pH range for growth was 5.7-9.3, with an optimum at pH 7.5. The closest phylogenetic neighbors based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identity were members of the genus Tessaracoccus (95-96% identity). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain CB31T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Tessaracoccus, for which we propose the name Tessaracoccus profundi sp. nov.. It is the first member of this genus that has been isolated from a deep subsurface environment. The type strain is CB31T (=NCIMB 14440T = DSM 21240T). ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Roseomonas aerofrigidensis sp. nov., isolated from an air conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeon, Jong Woo; Jeon, Che Ok

    2017-10-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated HC1 T , was isolated from an air conditioner in South Korea. Cells were orange, non-motile cocci with oxidase- and catalase-positive activities and did not contain bacteriochlorophyll a. Growth of strain HC1 T was observed at 10-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C), pH 4.5-9.5 (optimum, pH 7.0) and 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0 %). Strain HC1 T contained summed feature 8 (comprising C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0 and cyclo-C19 : 0ω8c as the major fatty acids and ubiquinone-10 as the sole isoprenoid quinone. Phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and an unknown aminolipid were detected as the major polar lipids. The major carotenoid was hydroxyspirilloxanthin. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 70.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, showed that strain HC1 T formed a phylogenetic lineage within the genus Roseomonas. Strain HC1 T was most closely related to the type strains of Roseomonas oryzae, Roseomonas rubra, Roseomonas aestuarii and Roseomonas rhizosphaerae with 98.1, 97.9, 97.6 and 96.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively, but the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain HC1 T and closely related type strains were less than 70 %. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular properties, strain HC1 T represents a novel species of the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas aerofrigidensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HC1 T (=KACC 19097 T =JCM 31878 T ).

  13. Staphylococcus massiliensis sp. nov., isolated from a human brain abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Masalma, Mouhamad; Raoult, Didier; Roux, Véronique

    2010-05-01

    Gram-positive, catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, non-motile, non-fermentative and novobiocin-susceptible cocci were isolated from a human brain abscess sample (strain 5402776(T)). This novel strain was analysed by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The respiratory quinones detected were MK-7 (93 %) and MK-6 (7 %) and the major fatty acids were C(15 : 0) iso (60.5 %), C(17 : 0) iso (8.96 %) C(15 : 0) anteiso (7.93 %) and C(19 : 0) iso (6.78 %). The peptidoglycan type was A3alpha l-Lys-Gly(2-3)-l-Ser-Gly. Based on cellular morphology and biochemical criteria, the new isolate was assigned to the genus Staphylococcus, although it did not correspond to any recognized species. The G+C content of the DNA was 36.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that the new isolate was most closely related to Staphylococcus piscifermentans, Staphylococcus condimenti, Staphylococcus carnosus subsp. carnosus, S. carnosus subsp. utilis and Staphylococcus simulans (97.7 %, 97.6 %, 97.6 %, 97.6 % and 96.5 % sequence similarity, respectively). Comparison of tuf, hsp60, rpoB, dnaJ and sodA gene sequences was also performed. In phylogenetic analysis inferred from tuf, dnaJ and rpoB gene sequence comparisons, strain 5402776(T) clustered with Staphylococcus pettenkoferi (93.7 %, 82.5 % and 89 % sequence similarity, respectively) and on phylogenetic analysis inferred from sodA gene sequence comparisons, it clustered with Staphylococcus chromogenes (82.8 %). On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, this isolate represents a novel species for which the name Staphylococcus massiliensis sp. nov. is proposed (type strain 5402776(T)=CCUG 55927(T)=CSUR P23(T)).

  14. Nesterenkonia pannonica sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic and moderately halophilic actinobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsodi, Andrea K; Szili-Kovács, Tibor; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Márialigeti, Károly; Tóth, Erika

    2017-10-01

    An alkaliphilic and moderately halophilic bacterial strain characterized by optimal growth at pH 9.0-10.0 and with 5-7 % (w/v) NaCl, designated BV-35 T , was isolated from water of a soda pan located in Kiskunság National Park, Hungary. Cells of the orange-pigmented colony were Gram-stain-positive, non-motile and non-endospore-forming coccoid rods. The isolate was strictly aerobic, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Strain BV-35 T displayed a peptidoglycan similar to type A4α, l-Lys-l-Glu (A11.54 according to www.peptidoglycan-types.info) but containing additionally 4-aminobutyric acid. Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) was the predominant isoprenoid quinone, and anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 were its major cellular fatty acids. The DNA G+C content of strain BV-35 T was 65.4 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the novel isolate showed the closest relationship to Nesterenkonia populi GP 10-3 T (97.9 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness between BV-35 T and N. populi was 46.7 %. The distinguishing phenotypic and genetic results of this polyphasic study revealed that strain BV-35 T represents a novel member of the genus Nesterenkonia, for which the name Nesterenkonia pannonica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BV-35 T (=DSM 29786 T =NCAIM B 02606 T ).

  15. Paenibacillus aceris sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of Acer okamotoanum, a plant native to Ulleungdo Island, Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ye-Ji; Ghim, Sa-Youl

    2017-04-01

    Strain KUDC4121 T was isolated from the rhizosphere of Acer okamotoanum, a plant native to the Korean island of Ulleungdo. The strain was a Gram-stain-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium that can grow at 18-37 °C and pH 6.0-7.5, with optimum growth at 30 °C and pH 7.0. It grew on tryptic soy agar containing less than 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl and in R2A broth. Cell length ranged from 2.0 to 2.5 µm. Strain KUDC4121 T was oxidase- and catalase-positive and did not hydrolyse starch or casein. The genomic G+C content was 48.8 mol%. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain KUDC4121 T belongs to the genus Paenibacillus. The closest type strain was Paenibacillus chondroitinus DSM 5051 T , with 97.8 % similarity, followed by Paenibacillus alginolyticus DSM 5050 T (97.6 %), Paenibacillus ferrarius CY1 T (97.5 %), Paenibacillus pocheonensis Gsoil 1138 T (97.5 %), Paenibacillus frigoriresistens YIM 016 T (97.5 %), Paenibacillus pectinilyticus RCB-08 T (97.2 %) and Paenibacillus aestuarii CJ25 T (96.9 %). Based on its phenotypic properties and phylogenetic and genetic data, strain KUDC4121 T should be considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus aceris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KUDC4121 T (=KCTC 13870 T =DSM 24950 T ).

  16. Psychromicrobium silvestre gen. nov., sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from alpine forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Peter; Zhang, De-Chao; França, Luís; Albuquerque, Luciana; da Costa, Milton S; Margesin, Rosa

    2017-03-01

    Two Gram-stain-variable, non-motile, catalase-positive and cytochrome c oxidase-negative bacteria, designated AK20-18 T and AM20-54, were isolated from forest soil samples collected in the Italian Alps. Growth occurred at a temperature range of 5-30 °C, at pH 6-9 and in the presence of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains AK20-18 T and AM20-54 was 100 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain AK20-18 T had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strain of Arthrobacter psychrochitiniphilus (96.9 %). The cell-wall peptidoglycan structure of strain AK20-18 T was of the type A3alpha l-Lys-l-Thr-l-Ala2 (A11.27). The whole-cell sugars were galactose, ribose and lesser amounts of mannose. The major respiratory quinone of the two strains was menaquinone 9(H2) [MK-9(H2)], whereas MK-10(H2) was a minor component. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and unknown glycolipids. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. The genomic DNA G+C content was 59.9 mol%. Combined data of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses demonstrated that strains AK20-18 T and AM20-54 represent a novel genus and species, for which the name Psychromicrobium silvestre gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Psychromicrobium silvestregen. nov., sp. nov. is AK20-18 T (=DSM 102047 T =LMG 29369 T ).

  17. Streptomyces caldifontis sp. nov., isolated from a hot water spring of Tatta Pani, Kotli, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Arshia; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Khalid, Nauman; Osman, Ghenijan; Khan, Inam Ullah; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    A Gram-staining positive, non-motile, rod-shaped, catalase positive and oxidase negative bacterium, designated NCCP-1331 T , was isolated from a hot water spring soil collected from Tatta Pani, Kotli, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. The isolate grew at a temperature range of 18-40 °C (optimum 30 °C), pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum 7.0) and with 0-6 % NaCl (optimum 2 % NaCl (w/v)). The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain NCCP-1331 T belonged to the genus Streptomyces and is closely related to Streptomyces brevispora BK160 T with 97.9 % nucleotide similarity, followed by Streptomyces drosdowiczii NRRL B-24297 T with 97.8 % nucleotide similarity. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain NCCP-1331 T with S. brevispora KACC 21093 T and S. drosdowiczii CBMAI 0498 T were 42.7 and 34.7 %, respectively. LL-DAP was detected as diagnostic amino acid along with alanine, glycine, leucine and glutamic acid. The isolate contained MK-9(H 8 ) as the predominant menaquinone. Major polar lipids detected in NCCP-1331 T were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and unidentified phospholipids. Major fatty acids were iso-C 16: 0 , summed feature 8 (18:1 ω7c/18:1 ω6c), anteiso-C 15:0 and C 16:0 . The genomic DNA G + C content was 69.8 mol %. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analysis, it is concluded that strain NCCP-1331 T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces caldifontis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NCCP-1331 T (=KCTC 39537 T  = CPCC 204147 T ).

  18. Pedobacter humicola sp. nov., a member of the genus Pedobacter isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Ram Hari; Kim, Jaisoo

    2016-06-01

    An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, light pink-pigmented bacterium, designated strain R135T, was isolated from soil in Hwaseong, South Korea. Flexirubin-type pigments were absent. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain R135T formed a lineage within the family Sphingobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes. It was distinct from various species of the genus Pedobacter, including P. terrae DS-57T (98.13 % sequence similarity), P. alluvionis NWER-II11T (97.76 %), P. suwonensis 15-52T (97.71 %), P. kyungheensis KACC 16221T (97.37 %), P. roseus CG-GP80T (97.24 %), P. soli 15-51T (97.23 %) and P. sandarakinus DS-27T (97.09 %). The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7), and the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and C16 : 0. The DNA G+C content of strain R135T was 40.4 mol%. Levels of DNA-DNA hybridization similarities between strain R135Tand other members of the genus Pedobacter ranged from 25 % to 43 %. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic analysis, strain R135T represents a novel species of the genus Pedobacter, for which the name Pedobacter humicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is R135T (=KEMB 9005-332T=KACC 18452T=JCM 31010T).

  19. Rhabdobacter roseus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Ram Hari; Kim, Jaisoo

    2016-01-01

    An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, pink-pigmented bacterium, designated strain R49T, was isolated from soil. Flexirubin-type pigments were absent. Phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain R49T formed a lineage within the family Cytophagaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes that was distinct from the most closely related genera Dyadobacter (91.98-93.85 % sequence similarity), Persicitalea (88.69 %) and Runella (84.79-85.81 %). The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7) and the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω5c, C16 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The DNA G+C content of strain R49T was 53.9 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic analysis, strain R49T represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Cytophagaceae, for which the name Rhabdobacter roseus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Rhabdobacter roseus is R49T ( = KEMB 9005-318T = KACC 18395T = JCM 30685T).

  20. Microvirga soli sp. nov., an alphaproteobacterium isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Ram Hari; Kim, Jaisoo

    2017-01-01

    An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, pink-pigmented bacterium designated strain R491T was isolated from soil. Flexirubin-type pigments were absent. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain R491T formed a lineage within the family Methylobacteriaceae of the phylum Proteobacteria that was distinct from various species of the genus Microvirga, including Microvirgaaerilata 5420S-16T (97.83 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Microvirga zambiensis WSM3693T (97.76 %), Microvirga flocculans ATCC BAA-817T (97.41 %), and Microvirga lupini Lut6T, Microvirga subterranea DSM 14364T, Microvirga vignae BR3299T, and Microvirga guangxiensis 25BT (96.99 %). The major polar lipids of strain R491T were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c; 71.2 %), C16 : 0 (12.0 %), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c; 4.7 %), and C18 : 0 (4.2 %). The DNA G+C content of strain R491T was 61.8 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain R491T and other members of the genus Microvirga ranged from 27 to 57 %. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, strain R491T represents a novel species of the genus Microvirga, for which the name Microvirga soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is R491T (=KEMB 9005-408T=KACC 18969T=NBRC 112417T).

  1. Antagonistic Activity of Nocardia brasiliensis PTCC 1422 Against Isolated Enterobacteriaceae from Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Hossnieh Kafshdar; Salamatzadeh, Abdolreza; Jalali, Arezou Kafshdar; Kashani, Hamed Haddad; Asbchin, Salman Ahmadi; Issazadeh, Khosro

    2016-03-01

    The main drawback of current antibiotic therapies is the emergence and rapid increase in antibiotic resistance. Nocardiae are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile actinomycetes. Nocardia brasiliensis was reported as antibiotic producer. The purpose of the study was to determine antibacterial activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 against isolated Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections (UTIs). The common bacteria from UTIs were isolated from hospital samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Antagonistic activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 was examined with well diffusion methods. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 by submerged culture was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isolated strains included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis. The most common pathogen isolated was E. coli (72.5%). Bacterial isolates revealed the presence of high levels of antimicrobial resistances to ceftriaxone and low levels of resistance to cephalexin. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 showed antibacterial activity against all of the isolated microorganisms in well diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance among the uropathogens is an evolving process, so a routine surveillance to monitor the etiologic agents of UTI and the resistance pattern should be carried out timely to choose the most effective empirical treatment by the physicians. Our present investigation indicates that the substances present in the N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 could be used to inhibit the growth of human pathogen. Antibacterial resistance among bacterial uropathogen is an evolving process. Therefore, in the field on the need of re-evaluation of empirical treatment of UTIs, our present. The study has demonstrated that N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 has a high potential

  2. Description of Tessaracoccus profundi sp.nov., a deep-subsurface actinobacterium isolated from a Chesapeake impact crater drill core (940 m depth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, K W; Cockell, C S; Voytek, M A; Gronstal, A L; Kjeldsen, K U

    2009-11-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated CB31(T), was isolated from a 940 m depth sample of a drilling core obtained from the Chesapeake meteor impact crater. The strain was isolated aerobically on R2A medium agar plates supplemented with NaCl (20 g l(-1)) and MgCl2 x 6 H2O (3 g l(-1)). The colonies were circular, convex, smooth and orange. Cells were slightly curved, rod-shaped in young cultures and often appeared in pairs. In older cultures cells were coccoid. Cells stained Gram-positive, were non-motile and did not form endospores. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was LL: -diaminopimelic acid. The polar lipids included phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidglycerol, four different glycolipids, two further phospholipids and one unidentified lipid. The dominant menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)) (70%). The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso C15:0 (83%). The DNA G + C content was 68 mol%. The strain grew anaerobically by reducing nitrate to nitrite or by fermenting glucose. It was catalase positive and oxidase negative. It grew between 10 and 45 degrees C, with an optimum between 35 and 40 degrees C. The pH range for growth was 5.7-9.3, with an optimum at pH 7.5. The closest phylogenetic neighbors based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identity were members of the genus Tessaracoccus (95-96% identity). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain CB31(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Tessaracoccus, for which we propose the name Tessaracoccus profundi sp. nov.. It is the first member of this genus that has been isolated from a deep subsurface environment. The type strain is CB31(T) (=NCIMB 14440(T) = DSM 21240(T)).

  3. Sphingomonas rhizophila sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere of Hibiscus syriacus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng-Fei; Lin, Pei; Won, Kyung-Hwa; Li, Chang-Tian; Park, GyungSoo; Chin, ByungSun; Kook, MooChang; Wang, Qi-Jun; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2018-02-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped, catalase-positive and oxidase-positive bacteria (THG-T61 T ), was isolated from rhizosphere of Hibiscus syriacus. Growth occurred at 10-37 °C (optimum 25-30 °C), at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum 7.0) and in the presence of 0-2.0 % NaCl (optimum without NaCl supplement). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the nearest phylogenetic neighbours of strain THG-T61 T were identified as Sphingomonas ginsengisoli KCTC 12630 T (97.9 %), Sphingomonas jaspsi DSM 18422 T (97.8 %), Sphingomonas astaxanthinifaciens NBRC 102146 T (97.4 %), Sphingomonassediminicola KCTC 12629 T (97.2 %), 'Sphingomonas swuensis' KCTC 12336 (97.1 %) and Sphingomonas daechungensis KCTC 23718 T (96.9 %). The isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-10 (Q-10). The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C17 : 1ω6c, summed feature 4 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c) and summed feature 7 (C18 : 1ω7c, C18 : 1ω9t and/or C18 : 1ω12t). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, sphingoglycolipid, one unidentified lipid, one unidentified phospholipid, one unidentified glycolipid and one unidentified phosphoglycolipid. The polyamine was homospermidine. The DNA G+C content of strain THG-T61 T was 65.6 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain THG-T61 T and its closest reference strains were less than 49.2 %, which is lower than the threshold value of 70 %. Therefore, strain THG-T61 T represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas rhizophila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-T61 T (=KACC 19189 T =CCTCC AB 2016245 T ).

  4. Sphingomonas antarctica sp. nov., isolated from Antarctic tundra soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao; Wei, Ziyan; Danzeng, Wangmu; Kim, Myong Chol; Zhu, Guoxin; Zhang, Yumin; Liu, Zuobing; Peng, Fang

    2017-10-01

    Strain 200 T , isolated from a soil sample taken from Antarctic tundra soil around Zhongshan Station, was found to be a Gram-stain-negative, yellow-pigmented, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped and aerobic bacterium. Strain 200 T grew optimally at pH 7.0 and in the absence of NaCl on R2A. Its optimum growth temperature was 20 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 200 T belonged to the genus Sphingomonas. Strain 200 T showed the highest sequence similarities to Sphingomonas kyeonggiense THG-DT81 T (95.1 %) and Sphingomonas molluscorum KMM 3882 T (95.1 %). Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that strain 200 T had characteristics typical of members of the genus Sphingomonas. Ubiquinone 10 was the predominant respiratory quinone and sym-homospermidine was the polyamine. The major polar lipids were sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 60.9 mol%. Strain 200 T contained C16 : 0 (31.6 %), summed feature 8 (comprising C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c, 22.7 %), summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c, 11.2 %), C18 : 0 (7.8 %) and C14 : 0 2OH (6.7 %) as the major cellular fatty acids. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, and physiological and biochemical characterization, strain 200 T should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonasantarctica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 200 T (=CCTCC AB 2016064 T =KCTC 52488 T ).

  5. Cell cycles and proliferation patterns in Haematococcus pluvialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Litao

    2017-09-01

    Most studies on Haematococcus pluvialis have been focused on cell growth and astaxanthin accumulation; far less attention has been paid to cell cycles and proliferation patterns. The purpose of this study was to clarify cell cycles and proliferation patterns in H. pluvialis microscopically using a camera and video recorder system. The complicated life history of H. pluvialis can be divided into two stages: the motile stage and the non-motile stage. All the cells can be classified into forms as follows: motile cell, nonmotile cell, zoospore and aplanospore. The main cell proliferation, both in the motile phase and non-motile phase in H. pluvialis, is by asexual reproduction. Under normal growth conditions, a motile cell usually produces two, sometimes four, and exceptionally eight zoospores. Under unfavorable conditions, the motile cell loses its flagella and transforms into a non-motile cell, and the non-motile cell usually produces 2, 4 or 8 aplanospores, and occasionally 20-32 aplanospores, which further develop into non-motile cells. Under suitable conditions, the non-motile cell is also able to release zoospores. The larger non-motile cells produce more than 16 zoospores, and the smaller ones produce 4 or 8 zoospores. Vegetative reproduction is by direct cell division in the motile phase and by occasional cell budding in the non-motile phase. There is, as yet, no convincing direct evidence for sexual reproduction.

  6. Prey detection in a cruising copepod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Sanne; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    . Yet, direct interception has been proposed to explain how rapidly cruising, blind copepods feed on non-motile phytoplankton prey. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism for prey detection in a cruising copepod, and describe how motile and non-motile prey are discovered by hydromechanical and tactile...

  7. Production of extracellular protease and glucose uptake in Bacillus clausii in steady-state and transient continuous cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Torben; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    The production of the extracellular alkaline protease Savinase(R) (EC 3.4.21.62) and glucose uptake in a non-sporulating strain of Bacillus clausii were investigated by analysing steady-state and transients during continuous cultivations. The specific production rate was found to have an optimum...

  8. Echinicola shivajiensis sp. nov., a novel bacterium of the family "Cyclobacteriaceae" isolated from brackish water pond

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, T.N.R.; Tryambak, B.K.; AnilKumar, P.

    Strain AK12 sup(T), an orange pigmented Gramnegative, rod shaped, non-motile bacterium, was isolated fromamud sample collected froma brackishwater pond at Rampur of West Bengal, India. The strain was positive for oxidase, catalase and phosphatase...

  9. Molecular characterisation of fungal endophytic morphospecies associated with the indigenous forest tree, Theobroma gileri, in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sarah E; Crozier, Jayne; Catherine Aime, M; Evans, Harry C; Holmes, Keith A

    2008-07-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from healthy stems and pods of Theobroma gileri, an alternative host of the frosty pod rot pathogen of cacao. Non-sporulating isolates were grouped into 46 different morphological species according to their colony morphology. Many of these morphospecies were assumed to be basidiomycetes and, therefore, were of particular interest. Basidiomycetous endophytes have received far less attention than ascomycetes and also have potential as biological control agents of the basidiomycetous pathogens of T. cacao: Moniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot pathogen) and M. perniciosa (witches' broom disease). The morphospecies were further characterised by molecular analyses. Amplification of the nuLSU was undertaken for phylogenetic placement of these non-sporulating cultures and revealed a total of 31 different taxa of which 15 were basidiomycetes belonging to the class Agaricomycetes, and 16 ascomycetes primarily belonging to the Sordariomycetes.

  10. Endophytic fungi from leaves of Centella asiatica: occurrence and potential interactions within leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoniriana, E F; Munaut, F; Decock, C; Randriamampionona, D; Andriambololoniaina, M; Rakotomalala, T; Rakotonirina, E J; Rabemanantsoa, C; Cheuk, K; Ratsimamanga, S U; Mahillon, J; El-Jaziri, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J; Corbisier, A M

    2008-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from leaves of Centella asiatica (Apiaceae) collected at Mangoro (middle eastern region of Madagascar, 200 km from Antananarivo). Forty- five different taxa were recovered. The overall foliar colonization rate was 78%. The most common endophytes were the non-sporulating species 1 (isolation frequency IF 19.2%) followed by Colletotrichum sp.1 (IF 13.2%), Guignardia sp. (IF 8.5%), Glomerella sp. (IF 7.7%), an unidentified ascomycete (IF 7.2%), the non-sporulating species 2 (IF 3.7%) and Phialophora sp. (IF 3.5%). Using sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, major endophytes (IF > 7%) were identified as xylariaceous taxa or as Colletotrichum higginsianum, Guignardia mangiferae and Glomerella cingulata. Results from in vitro fungal disk experiments showed a strong inhibitory activity of the xylariaceous non-sporulating species 1 against G. mangiferae and C. higginsianum and of C. higginsianum against G. mangiferae. This can be explained by antagonism between dominant taxa.

  11. Mariniradius saccharolyticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Cyclobacteriaceae isolated from marine aquaculture pond water, and emended descriptions of the genus Aquiflexum and Aquiflexum balticum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhumika, V.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; Ravinder, K.; AnilKumar, P.

    A novel marine, Gram-stain-negative, oxidase- and catalase- positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain AK6 sup(T), was isolated from marine aquaculture pond water collected in Andhra Pradesh, India. The fatty acids were dominated by iso-C sub...

  12. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic resistant organisms are most common in locations where antibiotics are in great use. This accounts for the fact that ... identify factors responsible for poor clinical outcome in Klebsiella infections due to antibiotic resistance, and to detect the type of ... to facultatively anaerobic bacilli which are catalase positive and ...

  13. Physiological characteristics and pathogenicity of Xanthomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strains were Gram-negative, KOH and catalase positive, suppressed on asparagine medium and negative for nitrate reduction; most isolates (84.2%) were insensitive to 2% NaCl while few strains (15.8%) were retarded by 1% NaCl concentration. All the strains were positive to hypersensitivity test with reaction varying ...

  14. Wenzhouxiangella sediminis sp. nov. isolated from coastal sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, no flagellum, facultatively anaerobic, oxidase-negative, catalase- positive, rod-shaped strain, designated XDB06**T, was isolated from coastal sediment of Xiaoshi Island, Weihai, China. Optimal growth occurred at 37 °C, pH 7.5 and with 4.0% (w/v) NaCl....

  15. Characterization of Francisella sp., GM2212, the first Francisella isolate from marine fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottem, Karl F; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil

    2007-01-01

    from F. tularensis and F. philomiragia. GM2212(T) is catalase-positive, indole positive, oxidase-negative, do not produce H(2)S in Triple Sugar Iron agar, and does not hydrolyze gelatin, is resistant to erythromycin and susceptible to ceftazidime, the latter five characteristics separating it from F...

  16. Genome Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni strain 327, a strain isolated from a turkey slaughterhouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takamiya, Monica; Özen, Asli Ismihan; Rasmussen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    , catalase positive bacterium obtains energy from the metabolism of amino acids and Krebs cycle intermediates. Strain 327 was isolated from a turkey slaughter production line and is considered environmentally sensitive to food processing (cold, heat, drying) and storage conditions. The 327 whole genome...

  17. Involvement of bacterial migration in the development of complex multicellular structures in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Mikkel; Aaes-Jorgensen, A.; Molin, Søren

    2003-01-01

    development, we have performed an investigation with time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy of biofilms formed by various combinations of colour-coded P. aeruginosa wild type and motility mutants. We show that mushroom-shaped multicellular structures in P. aeruginosa biofilms can form in a sequential...... process involving a non-motile bacterial subpopulation and a migrating bacterial subpopulation. The non-motile bacteria form the mushroom stalks by growth in certain foci of the biofilm. The migrating bacteria form the mushroom caps by climbing the stalks and aggregating on the tops in a process which...

  18. Global iTRAQ-based proteomic profiling of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts during sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chun-Xue; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Elsheikha, Hany M; He, Shuai; Li, Qian; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Suo, Xun

    2016-10-04

    Toxoplasma gondii is a medically and economically important protozoan parasite. However, the molecular mechanisms of its sporulation remain largely unknown. Here, we applied iTRAQ coupled with 2D LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis to investigate the proteomic expression profile of T. gondii oocysts during sporulation. Of the 2095 non-redundant proteins identified, 587 were identified as differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Based on Gene Ontology enrichment and KEGG pathway analyses the majority of these DEPs were found related to the metabolism of amino acids, carbon and energy. Protein interaction network analysis generated by STRING identified ATP-citrate lyase (ACL), GMP synthase, IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH), poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), and bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) as the top five hubs. We also identified 25 parasite virulence factors that were expressed at relatively high levels in sporulated oocysts compared to non-sporulated oocysts, which might contribute to the infectivity of mature oocysts. Considering the importance of oocysts in the dissemination of toxoplasmosis these findings may help in the search of protein targets with a key role in infectiousness and ecological success of oocysts, creating new opportunities for the development of better means for disease prevention. The development of new preventative interventions against T. gondii infection relies on an improved understanding of the proteome and chemical pathways of this parasite. To identify proteins required for the development of environmentally resistant and infective T. gondii oocysts, we compared the proteome of non-sporulated (immature) oocysts with the proteome of sporulated (mature, infective) oocysts. iTRAQ 2D-LC-MS/MS analysis revealed proteomic changes that distinguish non-sporulated from sporulated oocysts. Many of the differentially expressed proteins were involved in metabolic pathways and 25 virulence factors were identified

  19. Simultaneous isolation of anaerobic bacteria from udder abscesses and mastitic milk in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, A S; du Preez, J H

    1985-12-01

    A variety of non-sporulating anaerobic bacterial species were isolated from udder abscesses in 10 lactating dairy cows. Fifty percent of the abscesses yielded multiple anaerobic species and the other 50% only 1 species. The anaerobic bacteria, however, were always accompanied by classical facultative anaerobic mastitogenic bacteria. In four of the five cows also afflicted with mastitis in the quarters with abscesses, the anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria were identical. Peptococcus indolicus was the most commonly isolated organism followed by Eubacterium and Bacteroides spp. Bacteroides fragilis was resistant to penicillin, ampicillin and tetracycline.

  20. Gordonia polyisoprenivorans from groundwater contaminated with landfill leachate in a subtropical area: characterization of the isolate and exopolysaccharide production Gordonia polyisoprenivorans de águas subterrâneas contaminadas por chorume, em região subtropical: caracterização da linhagem e produção de exopolissacarídeos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fusconi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Gordonia sp. (strain Lc, from landfill leachate-contaminated groundwater was characterized by polyphasic taxonomy and studied for exopolysaccharide (EPS production. The cells were Gram-positive, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative and non-motile. The organism grew both aerobically and, in anoxic environment, in the presence of NaNO3. Rods occured singly, in pairs or in a typical coryneform V-shaped. The organism had morphological, physiological and chemical properties consistent with its assignment to the genus Gordonia and mycolic and fatty acid pattern that corresponded to those of G. polyisoprenivorans DSM 44302T. The comparison of the sequence of the first 500 bases of the 16S rDNA of strain Lc gave 100% similarity with the type strain of Gordonia polyisoprenivorans DSM 44302T. Experiments conducted in anaerobic conditions in liquid E medium with either glucose or sucrose as the main carbon source showed that sucrose did not support the growth of Lc strain and that on glucose the maximum specific growth rate was 0.17h-1, representing a generation time of approximately 4 hours. On glucose, a maximum of total EPS was produced during the exponential phase (126.17 ± 15.63 g l-1. The production of free EPS exceeded that of capsular and the free/capsular EPS ratio increased from 1.9 during the exponential phase to 7.8 during the stationary phase. At present, six strains of G. polyisoprenivorans have been isolated from various environments. Lc is the sixth strain of G. polyisoprenivorans described, the second strain detected in the landfill leachate-contaminated groundwater and the first that is being studied for EPS production.Uma linahgem de Gordonia sp. (linhagem Lc, proveniente de águas subterrâneas contaminadas por chorume, foi caracterizada por taxonomia polifásica e estudada quanto à produção de exopolissacarídeos (EPS. As células, bastonetes agregados, isolados ou aos pares em formato de V, típico de bact

  1. Intestinimonas butyriciproducens gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel butyrate-producing bacterium from the mouse intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kläring, K.; Hanske, L.; Bui, T.P.N.; Charrier, C.; Blaut, M.; Haller, D.; Plugge, C.M.; Clavel, T.

    2013-01-01

    Whilst creating a bacterial collection of strains from the mouse intestine, we isolated a Gram-negative, spore-forming, non-motile and strictly anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium from the caecal content of a TNFdeltaARE mouse. The isolate, referred to as strain SRB-521-5-IT, was originally cultured on a

  2. Isolation and characterization of Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus sp. nov., an extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic, anaerobic bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana; Mathrani, Indra M.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    An anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain 6A, was isolated from an alkaline hot spring in Hverageroi, Iceland. The bacterium was non-motile, rod-shaped (1.5-3.5 x 0.7 mu m) and occurred singly, in pairs or in chains and stained gram-negative. The growth...

  3. Arthrobacter enclensis sp. nov., isolated from sediment sample

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dastager, S.G.; Qin, L.; Tang, S.K.; Krishnamurthi, S.; Lee, J.C.; Li, W.J.

    A novel bacterial strain designated as NIO-1008(T) was isolated from marine sediments sample in Chorao Island India. Cells of the strains were gram positive and non-motile, displayed a rod-coccus life cycle and formed cream to light grey colonies...

  4. Citreicella manganoxidans sp. nov., a novel manganese oxidizing bacterium isolated from a shallow water hydrothermal vent in Espalamaca (Azores)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajasabapathy, R.; Mohandass, C; Dastager, S.G.; Liu, Q.; Li, W.-J; Colaco, A.

    A Gram-stain negative, non-motile, non-spore forming, aerobic and rod or narrow lemon-shaped bacterial strain, VSW210T, was isolated from surface seawater in a shallow water hydrothermal vent region in Espalamaca (Azores). Strain VSW210...

  5. Rhodovulum mangrovi sp. nov., a phototrophic alphaproteobacterium isolated from a mangrove forest sediment sample

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nupur, P.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; Takaichi, S.; AnilKumar, P.

    after enrichment with 2% NaCl and 0.3% pyruvate under 2000 lx illumination. Individual cells were ovoid–rod-shaped and non-motile. Bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of the spheroidene series were present as photosynthetic pigments. Strain AK41T...

  6. Agromyces indicus sp. nov., isolated from mangroves sediment in Chorao Island, Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dastager, S.G.; Qiang, Z-L.; Damare, S.R.; Tang, S-K.; Li, W-J

    A Gram-positive, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium strain NIO-1018 sup(T) isolated from a mangrove sediment sample of the Chorao Island, Goa, India, was subjected to a detailed polyphasic taxonomic study. The strain designated as NIO-1018 sup...

  7. Flavobacterium nitratireducens sp. nov., an amylolytic bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from coastal surface seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nupur; Bhumika, V.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; AnilKumar, P.

    A novel Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, designated strain N1 sup(T), was isolated from a marine water sample collected from the sea shore, Bay of Bengal, Visakhapatnam, India. The strain was positive for starch hydrolysis, nitrate...

  8. Lunatimonas lonarensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a haloalkaline bacterium of the family Cyclobacteriaceae with nitrate reducing activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, T.N.R.; Aditya, S.; Bhumika, V.; AnilKumar, P.

    Novel pinkish-orange pigmented, Gram-negative staining, half-moon shaped, non-motile, strictly aerobic strains designated AK24T and AK26 were isolated from water and sediment samples of Lonar Lake, Buldhana district, Maharahstra, India...

  9. Algoriphagus shivajiensis sp. nov., isolated from Cochin back water, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, P.; Bhumika, V.; Ritika, C; VijayaBhaskar, Y.; Priyashanth, P.; Aravind, R.; Bindu, E.; Srinivas, T.N.R.

    Novel orange-pigmented, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile bacteria, designated strains NIO-S3 sup(T) and NIO-S4, were isolated from a water sample collected from Cochin back waters, Thanneermukkom and Arookutty, Kerala, India. Both strains were...

  10. Vitellibacter nionensis sp. nov., isolated from shallow water hydrothermal vent of Espalamaca, Azores.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajasabapathy, R.; Mohandass, C; Yoon, J; Dastager, S.G.; Liu, Q.; Khieu, T.-N.; Son, C; Li, W.-J; Colaco, A.

    A novel, Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped yellow pigmented bacterium, designated VBW088T was isolated from shallow water hydrothermal vent of Espalamaca, Azores. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain VBW088...

  11. Microbacter margulisiae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel propionigenic bacterium isolated from sediments of an acid rock drainage pond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Andrea, I.; Luis Sanz, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    A novel anaerobic propionigenic bacterium, strain ADRIT, was isolated from sediment of an acid rock drainage environment (Tinto River, Spain). Cells were small (0.4-0.6 x 1-1.7 µm), non-motile and non-spore forming rods. Cells possessed a Gram-negative cell wall structure and were vancomycin

  12. Mercury and lead tolerance in hypersaline sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harithsa, S.; Kerkar, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    -sporulating, non-motile rods lacking in desulfoviridin and cytochromes. Examination of these isolates for heavy metal tolerance and response studies in terms of growth and sulfate-reducing activity (SRA) were carried out using HgCl sub(2) and Pb(NO sub(3)) sub(2...

  13. Demequina lutea sp. nov., isolated from a high Arctic permafrost soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai; Herbert, Rodney Andrew; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup

    2009-01-01

    Two Gram-stain-positive, pigmented, non-motile, non-spore-forming, pleomorphic, rod-shaped bacteria (strains SV45T and SV47), isolated from a permafrost soil collected from the Adventdalen valley, Spitsbergen, northern Norway, have been characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach...

  14. Characterization of the Lactobacillus isolated from different curd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactic acid bacteria are commonly found in the fermented dairy products. Lactobacillus is a genus of lactic acid bacteria and described as heterogeneous group of regular, non-spore forming, gram-positive, rod shaped, non-motile bacteria and absence of catalase enzyme. The aim of this study was to isolate Lactobacillus ...

  15. Marinicella sediminis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel heterotrophic, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, pale yellow, non-motile and non-spore-forming bacterium, designated as strain F2**T, was isolated from the marine sediment collected from Weihai coastal, Shandong Province, PR China. Optimal growth occurred at 33 °C (range 10–37 °C), w...

  16. Seasonal succession in zooplankton feeding traits reveals trophic trait coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenitz, Kasia; Visser, Andre; Mariani, Patrizio

    2017-01-01

    non-motile cells flourishing in spring and motile community dominating during summer. The zooplankton community is dominated by active feeding-current feeders with peak biomass in the late spring declining during summer. The model reveals how zooplankton grazing reinforces protist plankton seasonal...

  17. Methanomethylovorans thermophila sp. nov., a thermophilic, methylotrophic methanogen form an anaerobic reactor fed with methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, B.; Parshina, S.N.; Doesburg, van W.C.J.; Lomans, B.P.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    A novel thermophilic, obligately methylotrophic, methanogenic archaeon, strain L2FAWT, was isolated from a thermophilic laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor fed with methanol as the carbon and energy source. Cells of strain L2FAWT were non-motile, irregular cocci, 0·7¿1·5 µm in

  18. Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov., subdivision 1 Acidobacteria from Sphagnum peat and decaying wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulichevskaya, I.S.; Kostina, L.A.; Valášková, V.; Rijpstra, I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; De Boer, W.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Two strains of subdivision 1 Acidobacteria, namely the pink-pigmented bacterium KA1T and the colorless isolate WH120T, were obtained from acidic Sphagnum peat and wood under decay by the white-rot fungus Hyploma fasciculare, respectively. Cells of these isolates are Gram-negative, non-motile, short

  19. Paludisphaera borealis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulichevskaya, I.S.; Ivanova, A.; Suzina, N.E.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    Two isolates of aerobic, budding, pink-pigmented bacteria, designated strains PX4T and PT1, were isolated from a boreal Sphagnum peat bog and a forested tundra wetland. Cells of these strains were non-motile spheres that occurred singly or in short chains. Novel isolates were capable of growth at pH

  20. Singulisphaera rosea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulichevskaya, I.S.; Detkova, E.N.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    An aerobic, pink-pigmented, budding bacterium, designated strain S26(T), was isolated from an acidic Sphagnum peat bog of north-western Russia. Cells were non-motile and spherical, occurring singly, in pairs or in short chains, and were able to attach to surfaces by means of a holdfast material.

  1. Singulisphaera rosea sp. nov., a planctomycete from acidic Sphagnum peat, and emended description of the genus Singulisphaera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulichevskaya, I.S.; Detkova, E.N.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    A novel species, Singulisphaera rosea sp. nov., is proposed for aerobic, pink-pigmented, budding bacterium isolated from an acidic Sphagnum peat bog of northwestern Russia. This bacterium, designated strain S26T, has non-motile, spherical cells that occur singly, in pairs or in short chains and

  2. Methylomonas paludis sp. nov., the first acid-tolerant member of the genus Methylomoas, from an acidic wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danilova, O.V.; Kulichevskaya, I.S.; Rozova, O.N.; Detkova, E.N.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Trotsenko, Y.A.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    An aerobic methanotrophic bacterium was isolated from an acidic (pH 3.9) Sphagnum peat bog in north-eastern Russia and designated strain MG30T. Cells of this strain are Gram-negative, pale-pink-pigmented, non-motile, thick rods that are covered by large polysaccharide capsules and contain an

  3. Acidicapsa borealis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulichevskaya, I.S.; Kostina, L.A.; Valáškova, V.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; de Boer, W.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Two strains of subdivision 1 Acidobacteria, a pink-pigmented bacterium KA1(T) and a colourless isolate WH120(T), were obtained from acidic Sphagnum peat and wood under decay by the white-rot fungus Hyploma fasciculare, respectively. Cells of these isolates were Gram-negative-staining, non-motile,

  4. Bryocella elongata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dedysh, S.N.; Kulichevskaya, I.S.; Serkebaeva, Y.M.; Mityaeva, M.A.; Sorokin, V.V.; Suzina, N.E.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    An aerobic, pink-pigmented, chemo-organotrophic bacterium, designated strain SN10(T), was isolated from a methanotrophic enrichment culture obtained from an acidic Sphagnum peat. This isolate was represented by Gram-negative, non-motile rods that multiply by normal cell division and form rosettes.

  5. Tundrisphaera lichenicola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulichevskaya, I.S.; Ivanova, A.A.; Detkova, E.N.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    Two strains of aerobic, budding, pink-pigmented bacteria, P12T and P515, were isolated from a lichen-dominated peatland and a forested tundra soil of north-western Siberia, respectively. Cells of these isolates were represented by non-motile spheres that occurred singly or were arranged in short

  6. Antibiosis plays a role in the context of direct interaction during antagonism of Paenibacillus polymyxa towards Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, J; Sanders, M; Gorris, L G; Smid, E J

    Interaction of Fusarium oxysporum and Paenibacillus polymyxa starts with polar attachment of bacteria to the fungal hyphae followed by the formation of a large cluster of non-motile cells embedded in an extracellular matrix in which the bacteria develop endospores. Enumeration of fungal viable

  7. Spirosoma spitsbergense sp. nov. and Spirosoma luteum sp. nov., isolated from a high Arctic permafrost soil, and emended description of the genus Spirosoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai; Herbert, Rodney Andrew; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard

    2009-01-01

    Two pigmented, Gram-negative, non-motile, pleomorphic rod-shaped bacteria (strains SPM-9T and SPM-10T) were isolated from a permafrost soil collected from the Adventdalen valley, Spitsbergen, northern Norway. A third isolate (strain M5-H2) was recovered from the same soil sample after the sample ...

  8. Polyphasic taxonomic approach in the description of Alishewanella fetalis gen. nov., sp nov., isolated from a human foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Venkateswaran, K.; Christensen, H.

    2000-01-01

    A taxonomically unique bacterium is described on the basis of a physiological and biochemical characterization, fatty acid profiling and sequence analyses of 16S rRNA and gyrase B (gyrB) genes. This non-motile, non-fermentative bacterium was isolated from a human foetus in Uppsala, Sweden...

  9. In vivo labelling of proteins associated with folded chromosomes of yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litske Petersen, J.G.; Pinon, R.

    1980-01-01

    Proteins associated with the pre-replicative (g 1 ) and post-replicative (g 2 ) folded chromosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be labelled in vivo by growing cells in acetate vegetative medium containing [ 35 S]methionine. In both sporulating (MATa/MATα) and non-sporulating (MATa/MATa, MATα/MATα) diploids proteins associated with the resting stage genome (g 0 ) can be labelled with [ 35 S]methionine during nitrogen starvation and in sporulation medium. In addition, in MATa/MATα diploids proteins associated with the meiotic replication form (r) can also be labelled. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of the labelled proteins from the various folded genome forms showed that the g 1 and g 2 patterns are, with the exception of one polypeptide band, essentially identical. Several differences distinguished the r and g 0 patterns from those of the g 1 and g 2 structures. At least four polypeptide bands distinguish the r and g 0 patterns. No significant differences were observed between the g 0 proteins of sporulating and non-sporulating diploids. (author)

  10. Central Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection with Kocuria kristinae in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Masato; Kawai, Eichiro; Yaoita, Hisao; Ichinoi, Natsuko; Sakamoto, Osamu; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to K. kristinae in a young adult with propionic acidemia undergoing periodic hemodialysis. The patient had a central venous catheter implanted for total parenteral nutrition approximately 6 mont...

  11. Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a Previously Healthy 13-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H. Rayment

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a rare, polygenic primary immunodeficiency. In this case report, we describe a previously healthy 13-year-old boy who presented with multifocal pulmonary aspergillosis and was subsequently diagnosed with an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease. CGD has a variable natural history and age of presentation and should be considered when investigating a patient with recurrent or severe infections with catalase-positive organisms.

  12. Description of Tessaracoccus profundi sp.nov., a deep-subsurface actinobacterium isolated from a Chesapeake impact crater drill core (940 m depth)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai; Cockell, C.S.; Voytek, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    grew anaerobically by reducing nitrate to nitrite or by fermenting glucose. It was catalase positive and oxidase negative. It grew between 10 and 45°C, with an optimum between 35 and 40°C. The pH range for growth was 5.7-9.3, with an optimum at pH 7.5. The closest phylogenetic neighbors based on 16S r...

  13. Post-ERCP bacteremia caused by Alcaligenes xylosoxidans in a patient with pancreas cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akcay Korhan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alcaligenes xylosoxidans is an aerobic, motile, oxidase and catalase positive, nonfermentative Gram negative bacillus. This bacterium has been isolated from intestine of humans and from various hospital or environmental water sources. A.xylosoxidans is both waterborne and results from the poor-hygienic conditions healthcare workers are in. In this case report, the bacteremia which appeared in a patient with pancreas cancer after ERCP was described.

  14. Geobacter anodireducens sp. nov., an exoelectrogenic microbe in bioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, D.; Wang, A.; Cheng, S.; Yates, M.; Logan, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    -spore-forming, non-fermentative and non-motile. Cells were short, curved rods (0.8-1.3 µm long and 0.3 µm in diameter). Growth of strain SD-1(T) was observed at 15-42 °C and pH 6.0-8.5, with optimal growth at 30-35 °C and pH 7. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences

  15. Sperm motility and morphology as changing parameters linked to sperm count variations.

    OpenAIRE

    Dua A; Vaidya S

    1996-01-01

    Variations in semen analyses of 177 males over a 1 year period were assessed. The average means of total counts, motility, morphology, total motile count and non-motile % were determined for 5 classes of patients ranging from azoospermic to normospermic. Positive relationships between a falling sperm count, a decrease in motility and total motile counts were seen. Also, increasingly, abnormal forms were found with lower sperm counts.

  16. Sperm motility and morphology as changing parameters linked to sperm count variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua A

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Variations in semen analyses of 177 males over a 1 year period were assessed. The average means of total counts, motility, morphology, total motile count and non-motile % were determined for 5 classes of patients ranging from azoospermic to normospermic. Positive relationships between a falling sperm count, a decrease in motility and total motile counts were seen. Also, increasingly, abnormal forms were found with lower sperm counts.

  17. Volunteer Challenge With Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli That Express Intestinal Colonization Factor Fimbriae CS17 and CS19

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Serotype was determined by classic serological methods at the Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico [UNAMl. H- indrcates non-motility. b CF...Levine MM, Merson MM. Serologic differentiation between antitoxin responses to infection with Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli...prototype cholera B subunit-colonization factor antigen cnterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine. Vaccine 1993; 1[:929-34. 15. Levine MM, Nalin DR

  18. Parasitological surveillance in a rat (Rattus norvegicus) colony in São Paulo Zoo animal house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes; Gonzalez, Irys Hany Lima; Favoretto, Samantha Mesquita; Ramos, Patrícia Locosque

    Rattus norvegicus (Mammalia: Rodentia) is a widespread and synanthropic rodent, broadly used in medical experiments. It can also be used for feeding captive animals in zoos. Parasitological surveys are important to guarantee the health of both the animals and the staff responsible for their management. The aim of this study was to identify intestinal parasites of Rattus norvegicus offered as food to captive animals from São Paulo Zoo, and demonstrate the importance of sanitary hurdling, disease control and biosecurity. The identified protozoan parasites were Eimeria sp., Entamoeba sp., Spironucleus sp., Giardia sp., Tritrichomonas sp., Chilomastix sp., unidentified cysts and non-sporulated coccidians oocysts (Isospora/Eimeria). The following helminths were found: Syphacia muris, Rodentolepis nana and Aspiculuris tetraptera.

  19. Comparative structural and functional analysis of genes encoding pectin methylesterases in Phytophthora spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingora, Christina; Ewer, Jason; Ospina-Giraldo, Manuel

    2014-03-15

    We have scanned the Phytophthora infestans, P. ramorum, and P. sojae genomes for the presence of putative pectin methylesterase genes and conducted a sequence analysis of all gene models found. We also searched for potential regulatory motifs in the promoter region of the proposed P. infestans models, and investigated the gene expression levels throughout the course of P. infestans infection on potato plants, using in planta and detached leaf assays. We found that genes located on contiguous chromosomal regions contain similar motifs in the promoter region, indicating the possibility of a shared regulatory mechanism. Results of our investigations also suggest that, during the pathogenicity process, the expression levels of some of the analyzed genes vary considerably when compared to basal expression observed in in vitro cultures of non-sporulating mycelium. These results were observed both in planta and in detached leaf assays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Skin ulcers caused by Serratia marcescens: three cases and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraldi, Stefano; Nazzaro, Gianluca

    2016-08-01

    Serratia marcescens is a Gram-negative, encapsulated, motile, anaerobic, non-sporulating bacillus that belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is found in water, soil, plants, food, and garbage. S. marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen. It usually causes nosocomial infections, such as lung and genitourinary infections, sinusitis, otitis, endocarditis, and sepsis. Skin infections caused by S. marcescens are rare. To describe three new cases of skin ulcers of the leg caused by S. marcescens and review the relevant literature. We investigated three patients admitted for ulcers on the leg. In two patients, post-traumatic aetiology was concluded. The modality of infection was not identified for the other patient. One patient was diabetic. All patients recovered with specific antibiotic therapy (ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and levofloxacin, respectively). Skin ulcers due to S. marcescens are very rare. The three cases presented here add to the limited literature of skin infections caused by S. marcescens.

  1. Conformational changes induced by Mg2+ on the multiple forms of glutamine synthetase from Bacillus brevis Bb G1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suja Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conformational changes play an important role in the function of proteins. Glutamine synthetase, an important enzyme of nitrogen metabolism, was purified under sporulating (GSala and non-sporulating (GSpyr conditions and the effect of Mg2+ on these multiple forms was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy to detect possible conformational changes that occur in the presenceof Mg2+. The substantial changes in the fluorescence emission maximum, fluorescence intensity and lifetime that occur in the presence of different concentrations of Mg2+, indicated major changes in molecular conformations in both forms of this enzyme. The fluorescent changes produced by the effect of Mg2+ in GSala was much more prominent than in GSpyr. These observations strongly support the possibility that GSala and GSpyr undergoes a conformational change on binding with Mg2+.

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06875-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . 44 3.6 1 ( DW405755 ) EST000176 Trichophyton rubrum cDNA library Tricho... 44 3.6 1 ( AU269367 ) Dictyostelium discoideum vegetati...5aa06.g2 hhd Oryza coarctata genomic clone ... 46 0.91 1 ( EV115075 ) 0120387 Brassica napus Root library Brassic...ES Homo sapiens cDNA 5', mRNA ... 46 0.91 1 ( CF872366 ) tric002xo14.b11 T.reesei mycelial culture...4 3.6 1 ( ES282448 ) PQ037G01.XT7 non-sporulating culture of P. brassi... 44 3.6 1 ( EL772758 ) Plate_11b_G10 Hibernati...ng 13-lined squirrel brain... 44 3.6 1 ( EC618786 ) S_F11_a1_093.ab1 Rabbit heart cDNA library Or

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06890-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 ) CLLX1301.b1_J13.ab1 CLL(XYZ) lettuce saligna Lact... 38 0.056 2 ( CX084866 ) EHABX22TR E. histolytica Normalized cDNA library...4-storage roo... 50 0.071 1 ( CX089593 ) EHAE127TR E. histolytica Normalized cDNA library...09.T7.185889.ab1 non-sporulating culture o... 54 0.005 1 ( EL926280 ) NY4ThAmp1_1...EST2947 Zea mays sperm cell cDNA library Zea mays... 38 0.21 2 ( BG320461 ) Zm03_10d10_A Zm03_AAFC_ECORC_cold_stre... ( AI438501 ) 486006A05.x4 486 - leaf primordia cDNA library fr... 38 0.21 2 ( AI861145 ) 603012G11.x1 603 - stressed root cDNA libra

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04925-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RT0512 Chinese cabbage root library Brassica rapa... 46 2.3 1 ( CT736909 ) Danio rerio EST, clone ZF_mu...S30TF EI_10_12_KB Entamoeba invadens genomic ... 44 8.9 1 ( ES277776 ) PQ028A01.XT7 non-sporulating culture ...202 ) 1095462295981 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-31-01-01-1... 48 0.57 1 ( CV871352 ) PDUts1090D04 Porcine testis cDNA library...clone:VS... 46 2.3 1 ( CX056831 ) PDUts2007A02 Porcine testis cDNA library II Sus s... 46 2.3 1 ( CV432331 )...a tectiformis cDNA, cleaving embryo clone:m... 40 5.1 2 ( CV874903 ) PDUts1132F08 Porcine testis cDNA library

  5. Validation of a quantitative Eimeria spp. PCR for fresh droppings of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, H W; Ter Veen, C; Dijkman, R; Landman, W J M

    2017-12-01

    A quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) for the seven chicken Eimeria spp. was modified and validated for direct use on fresh droppings. The analytical specificity of the qPCR on droppings was 100%. Its analytical sensitivity (non-sporulated oocysts/g droppings) was 41 for E. acervulina, ≤2900 for E. brunetti, 710 for E. praecox, 1500 for E. necatrix, 190 for E. tenella, 640 for E. maxima, and 1100 for E. mitis. Field validation of the qPCR was done using droppings with non-sporulated oocysts from 19 broiler flocks. To reduce the number of qPCR tests five grams of each pooled sample (consisting of ten fresh droppings) per time point were blended into one mixed sample. Comparison of the oocysts per gram (OPG)-counting method with the qPCR using pooled samples (n = 1180) yielded a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.76-0.80) and a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.70-0.81) using mixed samples (n = 236). Comparison of the average of the OPG-counts of the five pooled samples with the mixed sample per time point (n = 236) showed a Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) of 0.94 (95% CI: 0.92-0.95) for the OPG-counting method and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.84-0.90) for the qPCR. This indicates that mixed samples are practically equivalent to the mean of five pooled samples. The good correlation between the OPG-counting method and the qPCR was further confirmed by the visual agreement between the total oocyst/g shedding patterns measured with both techniques in the 19 broiler flocks using the mixed samples.

  6. Emended description of Campylobacter sputorum and revision of its infrasubspecific (biovar) divisions, including C-sputorum biovar paraureolyticus, a urease-producing variant from cattle and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, S.L.W.; Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.

    1998-01-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study of 15 bovine and human strains assigned to the catalase-negative, urease-positive campylobacter (CNUPC) group identified these bacteria as a novel, ureolytic biovar of Campylobacter sputorum for which we propose the name C. sputorum bv. paraureolyticus: suitable...... should be revised to include by. sputorum for catalase-negative strains; by. fecalis for catalase-positive strains; and by. paraureolyticus for urease-positive strains. Strains classified previously as by. bubulus should be reclassified as by. sputorum. The species description of C. sputorum is revised...

  7. Isolation of an unidentified pink-pigmented bacterium in a clinical specimen.

    OpenAIRE

    Odugbemi, T; Nwofor, C; Joiner, K T

    1988-01-01

    An unidentified pink-pigmented bacterium isolated from a clinical specimen is reported. The organism was oxidase, urease, and catalase positive; it grew on Thayer-Martin and MacConkey media. The isolate is possibly similar to an unnamed taxon (G.L. Gilardi and Y.C. Faur, J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:626-629, 1984); however, it had unique characteristics of nonmotility with no flagellum detectable and was a gram-negative coccoid with a few rods in pairs and negative for starch hydrolysis.

  8. Isolation of an unidentified pink-pigmented bacterium in a clinical specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odugbemi, T; Nwofor, C; Joiner, K T

    1988-05-01

    An unidentified pink-pigmented bacterium isolated from a clinical specimen is reported. The organism was oxidase, urease, and catalase positive; it grew on Thayer-Martin and MacConkey media. The isolate is possibly similar to an unnamed taxon (G.L. Gilardi and Y.C. Faur, J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:626-629, 1984); however, it had unique characteristics of nonmotility with no flagellum detectable and was a gram-negative coccoid with a few rods in pairs and negative for starch hydrolysis.

  9. Multicellular oxidant defense in unicellular organisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, M; Eaton, J W

    1992-01-01

    Although catalase is thought to be a major defense against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the catalase activity within individual Escherichia coli fails to protect against exogenous H2O2. Contrary to earlier reports, we find that dilute suspensions of wild-type and catalase-deficient E. coli are identical in their sensitivity to H2O2, perhaps because even wild-type, catalase-positive E. coli cannot maintain an internal/external concentration gradient of this highly diffusible oxidant. However, con...

  10. Acute Peritonitis Caused by Staphylococcus capitis in a Peritoneal Dialysis Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic-Jukic, Nikolina

    Acute peritonitis remains the most common complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD), with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) reported to account for more than 25% of peritonitis episodes (1). Staphylococcus capitis is a gram-positive, catalase-positive CoNS that was originally identified as a commensal on the skin of the human scalp (2). Advancement of microbiological technologies for bacterial identification enables diagnosis of previously unknown causes of acute peritonitis. This is the first reported case of acute peritonitis in a PD patient caused by S. capitis. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  11. A new ultrasonic signal amplification method for detection of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant Shukla, Shiva; Resa López, Pablo; Sierra Sánchez, Carlos; Urréjola, José; Segura, Luis Elvira

    2012-10-01

    A new method is presented that increases the sensitivity of ultrasound-based techniques for detection of bacteria. The technique was developed for the detection of catalase-positive microorganisms. It uses a bubble trapping medium containing hydrogen peroxide that is mixed with the sample for microbiological evaluation. The enzyme catalase is present in catalase-positive bacteria, which induces a rapid hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide, forming bubbles which remain in the medium. This reaction results in the amplification of the mechanical changes that the microorganisms produce in the medium. The effect can be detected by means of ultrasonic wave amplitude continuous measurement since the bubbles increase the ultrasonic attenuation significantly. It is shown that microorganism concentrations of the order of 105 cells ml-1 can be detected using this method. This allows an improvement of three orders of magnitude in the ultrasonic detection threshold of microorganisms in conventional culture media, and is competitive with modern rapid microbiological methods. It can also be used for the characterization of the enzymatic activity.

  12. Subchronic exposure to high-dose ACE-inhibitor moexipril induces catalase activity in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeghate, E; Hasan, M Y; Ponery, A S; Nurulain, S M; Petroianu, G A

    2005-12-01

    The long-term clinical effects of ACE-inhibitors have similarities with those of both fibrates and glitazones, activators of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor (PPAR) alpha and gamma, respectively. The antioxidant enzyme catalase, a heme protein that degrades hydrogen peroxide, is found at high concentrations in peroxisomes. Catalase activity is one of the recognized surrogate markers indicative of PPAR activation in the rat liver. The purpose of the study was to establish the effect of moexipril on catalase activity and to compare it with the effect of both saline controls and that of the known PPAR agonist clofibrate (positive control). Three groups of seven rats were used. All substances were applied i.p. daily for 5 days, followed by a 2-day break. The cycle was repeated eight times. After the final cycle (day 56) the animals were sacrificed and liver tissue collected. The number of catalase positive cells in both moexipril group (95% CI 57-61) and clofibrate group (95% CI 72-80) is higher than in controls (95% CI 3-16) (p catalase positive cells in the clofibrate group is higher than in the moexipril group (p inhibitor moexipril induces catalase activity in the rat liver to an extent comparable to fibrates. We suggest that some of the long-term advantages of ACE inhibitor use - beyond mere BP lowering - might be due to a PPAR mediated effect.

  13. A new ultrasonic signal amplification method for detection of bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Shiva Kant; López, Pablo Resa; Sánchez, Carlos Sierra; Segura, Luis Elvira; Urréjola, José

    2012-01-01

    A new method is presented that increases the sensitivity of ultrasound-based techniques for detection of bacteria. The technique was developed for the detection of catalase-positive microorganisms. It uses a bubble trapping medium containing hydrogen peroxide that is mixed with the sample for microbiological evaluation. The enzyme catalase is present in catalase-positive bacteria, which induces a rapid hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide, forming bubbles which remain in the medium. This reaction results in the amplification of the mechanical changes that the microorganisms produce in the medium. The effect can be detected by means of ultrasonic wave amplitude continuous measurement since the bubbles increase the ultrasonic attenuation significantly. It is shown that microorganism concentrations of the order of 10 5 cells ml −1 can be detected using this method. This allows an improvement of three orders of magnitude in the ultrasonic detection threshold of microorganisms in conventional culture media, and is competitive with modern rapid microbiological methods. It can also be used for the characterization of the enzymatic activity. (paper)

  14. Persistent enhancement of bacterial motility increases tumor penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornlow, Dana N; Brackett, Emily L; Gigas, Jonathan M; Van Dessel, Nele; Forbes, Neil S

    2015-11-01

    Motile bacteria can overcome the transport limitations that hinder many cancer therapies. Active bacteria can penetrate through tissue to deliver treatment to resistant tumor regions. Bacterial therapy has had limited success, however, because this motility is heterogeneous, and within a population many individuals are non-motile. In human trials, heterogeneity led to poor dispersion and incomplete tumor colonization. To address these problems, a swarm-plate selection method was developed to increase swimming velocity. Video microscopy was used to measure the velocity distribution of selected bacteria and a microfluidic tumor-on-a-chip device was used to measure penetration through tumor cell masses. Selection on swarm plates increased average velocity fourfold, from 4.9 to 18.7 μm/s (P < 0.05) and decreased the number of non-motile individuals from 51% to 3% (P < 0.05). The selected phenotype was both robust and stable. Repeating the selection process consistently increased velocity and eliminated non-motile individuals. When selected strains were cryopreserved and subcultured for 30.1 doublings, the high-motility phenotype was preserved. In the microfluidic device, selected Salmonella penetrated deeper into cell masses than unselected controls. By 10 h after inoculation, control bacteria accumulated in the front 30% of cell masses, closest to the flow channel. In contrast, selected Salmonella accumulated in the back 30% of cell masses, farthest from the channel. Selection increased the average penetration distance from 150 to 400 μm (P < 0.05). This technique provides a simple and rapid method to generate high-motility Salmonella that has increased penetration and potential for greater tumor dispersion and clinical efficacy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Dark field differential dynamic microscopy enables accurate characterization of the roto-translational dynamics of bacteria and colloidal clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbino, Roberto; Piotti, Davide; Buscaglia, Marco; Giavazzi, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    Micro- and nanoscale objects with anisotropic shape are key components of a variety of biological systems and inert complex materials, and represent fundamental building blocks of novel self-assembly strategies. The time scale of their thermal motion is set by their translational and rotational diffusion coefficients, whose measurement may become difficult for relatively large particles with small optical contrast. Here we show that dark field differential dynamic microscopy is the ideal tool for probing the roto-translational Brownian motion of anisotropic shaped particles. We demonstrate our approach by successful application to aqueous dispersions of non-motile bacteria and of colloidal aggregates of spherical particles.

  16. Isolasi dan karakterisasi bakteri berpotensi probiotik pada ikan kembung (Rastrelliger sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Dewi Safrida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics bacteria are beneficial microbes to improve microbial balance in the digestive tract. The objective of the research was to isolate and characterize of potential probiotic bacteria in mackerel fish (Rastrelliger sp.. The research was done from April to August 2012 at Laboratory of Microbiology Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh. Isolation and characterization used dilution and scratches quadrant methods. The result showed that there were five potential isolates of probiotic bacteria varied morphological colony and cell. The isolate have circular form (100%, entire margin (80%, flat (60%, cream color (40%, gram positive bacteria (80%, coccus shape (100% and non motile (60%. Keywords: Probiotics,

  17. Myroides Species in a Paediatric Burn Patient

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    Sevda Soydan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Myroides are non-motile, Gram negative bacteria that are mostly found in environmental sources such as soil and water. They are not a part of human flora. For a long time they were evaluated as low grade opportunistic pathogens causing infections in immunocompromised patients whereas a few life-threatening infections were reported in immunocompetent individuals due to Myroides species. The child having a 64% of total body surface area burn was admitted to the burn unit. Myroides spp. was isolated first in urine culture then in blood culture. This is the first time Myroides spp. is reported in a paediatric patient with serious burn.

  18. Bacteria transport through porous media. Annual report, December 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1986-09-01

    The following five chapters in this report have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base: (1) theoretical model of convective diffusion of motile and non-motile bacteria toward solid surfaces; (2) interfacial electrochemistry of oxide surfaces in oil-bearing sands and sandstones; (3) effects of sodium pyrophosphate additive on the ''huff and puff''/nutrient flooding MEOR process; (4) interaction of Escherichia coli B, B/4, and bacteriophage T4D with Berea sandstone rock in relation to enhanced oil recovery; and (5) transport of bacteria in porous media and its significance in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

  19. Motile hepatocellular carcinoma cells preferentially secret sugar metabolism regulatory proteins via exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Lu, Shaohua; Zhou, Ye; Meng, Kun; Chen, Zhipeng; Cui, Yizhi; Shi, Yunfeng; Wang, Tong; He, Qing-Yu

    2017-07-01

    Exosomes are deliverers of critically functional proteins, capable of transforming target cells in numerous cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We hypothesize that the motility of HCC cells can be featured by comparative proteome of exosomes. Hence, we performed the super-SILAC-based MS analysis on the exosomes secreted by three human HCC cell lines, including the non-motile Hep3B cell, and the motile 97H and LM3 cells. More than 1400 exosomal proteins were confidently quantified in each MS analysis with highly biological reproducibility. We justified that 469 and 443 exosomal proteins represented differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the 97H/Hep3B and LM3/Hep3B comparisons, respectively. These DEPs focused on sugar metabolism-centric canonical pathways per ingenuity pathway analysis, which was consistent with the gene ontology analysis on biological process enrichment. These pathways included glycolysis I, gluconeogenesis I and pentose phosphate pathways; and the DEPs enriched in these pathways could form a tightly connected network. By analyzing the relative abundance of proteins and translating mRNAs, we found significantly positive correlation between exosomes and cells. The involved exosomal proteins were again focusing on sugar metabolism. In conclusion, motile HCC cells tend to preferentially export more sugar metabolism-associated proteins via exosomes that differentiate them from non-motile HCC cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Taxonomic identity and physiological ecology of Chlamydomonas hedleyi sp. nov. , algal flagellate symbiont from the foraminifer Archaias angulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J J; Crockett, L J; Hagen, J; Stone, R J

    1975-12-31

    The fine structure of the symbiotic alga isolated from the foraminiferan Archaias angulatus (Fichtel et Moll) DeMontfort is typical of the Chlorophyceae of the volvocalean and chlorococcalean lines. Spherical non-motile cells, 10--14 ..mu..m in diameter, characterize the dominant life cycle phase. Long oval motile forms with truncated apices are present 3--5 days after transfer to fresh medium. The pyrenoids are embedded anteriorly in the singly bilobed chloroplast and are surrounded by a sheath of starch platelets. In spite of the non-motile state of cells in older cultures (which is perhaps a reflection of its normally symbiotic condition), the alga is identified as a species of the volvocalean genus Chlamydomonas and is named C. hedleyi sp. nov. The symbiont has no vitamin or organic requirements but growth is increased threefold in the presence of thiamine, and twofold in the presence of 1 ..mu..m glutamic acid, histidine and methionine. Urea was the best nitrogen source tested. Purines and pyrimidines did not serve as nitrogen sources. Chlamydomonas hedleyi grows well in a salinity range of 6- greater than 52 per thousand and a pH range of 6--8.5. 7.04 x 10/sup -7/ M carbon h/sup -1/ g/sup -1/ was fixed by the symbiont, 57 percent being released into the medium as a chromatographically homogeneous organic molecule provisionally identified as mannitol.

  1. Milk microbiological profile of four dairy farms from São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adna Crisleia Rodrigues Monção

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern in milk quality, milk production, and in animals’ welfare is in constant increase. Mastitis is recognized as the main disease affecting dairy animals because of changing in milk composition and reduction in milk production. In Brazil, the highest incidence of mastitis is related to infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk produced by 60 cows from four dairy farms (15 cows/farm located at Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Milk samples from each teat were collected fortnight in sterile tubes, previously identified, during two months. In each herd 240 samples were obtained, except on the farm A, where an extra collection was done, in a total amount of 300 samples. On the farm A, the sampling was done in a period of transition between the dry and rainy season. On the farm B, samples were collected mostly in the season of high temperatures. On the farm C the collections were made over a period of heat and humidity. On the farm D, on a period of warmer temperatures and reduced rainfall. The isolation and identification of microorganisms were conducted at Laboratory of Milk Quality from Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, São Paulo, Brazil. Aliquots of 100 mL of milk were grown on plates with 5% sheep blood agar. After incubation, they were used for the production of catalase and Gram stain. Gram positive and catalase positive samples were classified as Corynebacterium spp. (Coryne.. Gram positive cocci and catalase negative samples were classified as Streptococcus spp. (Strepto.. Milk were then proceeded to coagulase test in rabbit plasma. Gram-positive cocci, catalase positive and coagulase-negative were classified as Staphylococcus coagulase-negative (SCN. Gram positive, catalase positive and coagulase positive samples were subsequently subjected to biochemical tests: mannitol salt agar, maltose, trehalose, and acetoin production. Strains that were positive for these tests were

  2. Sporulation genes associated with sporulation efficiency in natural isolates of yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Parul; Bhatia, Aatish; Ramdas, Shweta; Diao, Liyang; Bhanot, Gyan; Sinha, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    Yeast sporulation efficiency is a quantitative trait and is known to vary among experimental populations and natural isolates. Some studies have uncovered the genetic basis of this variation and have identified the role of sporulation genes (IME1, RME1) and sporulation-associated genes (FKH2, PMS1, RAS2, RSF1, SWS2), as well as non-sporulation pathway genes (MKT1, TAO3) in maintaining this variation. However, these studies have been done mostly in experimental populations. Sporulation is a response to nutrient deprivation. Unlike laboratory strains, natural isolates have likely undergone multiple selections for quick adaptation to varying nutrient conditions. As a result, sporulation efficiency in natural isolates may have different genetic factors contributing to phenotypic variation. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the genetically and environmentally diverse SGRP collection, we have identified genetic loci associated with sporulation efficiency variation in a set of sporulation and sporulation-associated genes. Using two independent methods for association mapping and correcting for population structure biases, our analysis identified two linked clusters containing 4 non-synonymous mutations in genes - HOS4, MCK1, SET3, and SPO74. Five regulatory polymorphisms in five genes such as MLS1 and CDC10 were also identified as putative candidates. Our results provide candidate genes contributing to phenotypic variation in the sporulation efficiency of natural isolates of yeast.

  3. Life in Hot Carbon Monoxide: The Complete Genome Sequence of Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901. This species is a model for studies of hydrogenogens, which are diverse bacteria and archaea that grow anaerobically utilizing carbon monoxide (CO as their sole carbon source and water as an electron acceptor, producing carbon dioxide and hydrogen as waste products. Organisms that make use of CO do so through carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes. Remarkably, analysis of the genome of C. hydrogenoformans reveals the presence of at least five highly differentiated anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes, which may in part explain how this species is able to grow so much more rapidly on CO than many other species. Analysis of the genome also has provided many general insights into the metabolism of this organism which should make it easier to use it as a source of biologically produced hydrogen gas. One surprising finding is the presence of many genes previously found only in sporulating species in the Firmicutes Phylum. Although this species is also a Firmicutes, it was not known to sporulate previously. Here we show that it does sporulate and because it is missing many of the genes involved in sporulation in other species, this organism may serve as a "minimal" model for sporulation studies. In addition, using phylogenetic profile analysis, we have identified many uncharacterized gene families found in all known sporulating Firmicutes, but not in any non-sporulating bacteria, including a sigma factor not known to be involved in sporulation previously.

  4. Life in hot carbon monoxide: the complete genome sequence of Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901. This species is a model for studies of hydrogenogens, which are diverse bacteria and archaea that grow anaerobically utilizing carbon monoxide (CO as their sole carbon source and water as an electron acceptor, producing carbon dioxide and hydrogen as waste products. Organisms that make use of CO do so through carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes. Remarkably, analysis of the genome of C. hydrogenoformans reveals the presence of at least five highly differentiated anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes, which may in part explain how this species is able to grow so much more rapidly on CO than many other species. Analysis of the genome also has provided many general insights into the metabolism of this organism which should make it easier to use it as a source of biologically produced hydrogen gas. One surprising finding is the presence of many genes previously found only in sporulating species in the Firmicutes Phylum. Although this species is also a Firmicutes, it was not known to sporulate previously. Here we show that it does sporulate and because it is missing many of the genes involved in sporulation in other species, this organism may serve as a "minimal" model for sporulation studies. In addition, using phylogenetic profile analysis, we have identified many uncharacterized gene families found in all known sporulating Firmicutes, but not in any non-sporulating bacteria, including a sigma factor not known to be involved in sporulation previously.

  5. Monitoring of fungal spores in the indoor air of preschool institution facilities in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Milana S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal spores can cause a range of health problems in humans such as respiratory diseases and mycotoxicoses. Since children are the most vulnerable, the presence of fungal spores in the facilities of preschool and school institutions should be investigated readily. In order to estimate air contamination by fungal spores, air sampling was conducted in eight facilities of the preschool institution in Novi Sad during February and March, 2007. Sedimentation plate method was used for the detection of viable fungal spores, mostly being members of subdv. Deuteromycota (Fungi imperfecti. In 32 samples a total of 148 colonies were developed, among which five genera were identified: Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Acremonium while non-sporulating fungal colonies were labeled as sterile mycelia. Most frequently recorded genera were Penicillium with 46 colonies and Cladosporium with 44 colonies. The genera Aspergillus and Alternaria were represented with 3 colonies each and Acremonium with only 1 colony. The greatest number of colonies emerged in the samples from the day care facilities “Vendi” (58 colonies and “Panda” (49 colonies. Most diverse samples were obtained from the day care center “Zvončica”, with presence of all identified genera. These results showed notable presence of fungal spores in the indoor air of Preschool institution facilities and indicated the need for further, more complete seasonal research. Obtained information is considered useful for the evaluation of potential mycofactors that endanger health of children. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43002

  6. Gamarada debralockiae gen. nov. sp. nov.-the genome of the most widespread Australian ericoid mycorrhizal fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, David J; Sutcliffe, Brodie; Greenfield, Paul; Tran-Dinh, Nai

    2018-05-01

    This study describes a novel ericoid mycorrhizal fungus (ErMF), Gamarada debralockiae Midgley and Tran-Dinh gen. nov. sp. nov. Additionally, catabolism was explored from a genomic perspective. The nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of G. debralockiae were sequenced. Morphological characteristics were assessed on various media. Catabolic genes of G. debralockiae were explored using SignalP and dbCAN. Phylogenetic comparisons were undertaken using Phylogeny.fr. The 58.5-Mbp draft genome of G. debralockiae contained 17,075 putative genes. The complete mitochondrial genome was 28,168 bp in length. In culture, G. debralockiae produces slow-growing non-sporulating colonies. Gamarada debralockiae has many putative secreted catabolic enzymes. Phylogeny indicated G. debralockiae was distinct from known ascomycetous ErMF: Pezoloma ericae, Meliniomyces spp., Oidiodendron spp., and Cairneyella variabilis. It is closely related to many undescribed plant root-associated fungi and its nearest described relative is Hyphodiscus brevicollaris. Gamarada debralockiae has been recovered from virtually all Australian ericoid mycorrhizal studies and biogeographic data suggests the taxon is widespread in Australia. Gamarada debralockiae has similar catabolic potential to C. variabilis and co-occurs with C. variabilis at Australian sites. Plants that host multiple ErMF may benefit from subtle differences in catabolism that improve access to nitrogen and phosphorus from within recalcitrant organic matter.

  7. Filamentous fungal population and species diversity from the continental slope of Bay of Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Surajit; Lyla, Parameswari Somasundharan; Khan, Syed Ajmal

    2009-03-01

    Filamentous fungal diversity from the sediments of the continental slope of Bay of Bengal was studied. Sediment samples were collected during two voyages in 2004 and 2005. Filamentous fungal population from both the cruises showed a range of 5.17-59.51 CFU/g and 3.47-29.68 CFU/g, respectively. Totally 16 fungal genera were recorded from both the cruises. Aspergillus was found to be the dominant genus and the overall percentage occurrence was as follows: Deuteromycotina 74%, Ascomycotina 17%, Basidiomycotina 4% and non-sporulating 5%. Diversity indices were calculated and during both the cruises species richness ( d) varied from 0.912 to 3.622 and 1.443 to 4.588; evenness ( J') varied from 0.9183 to 1.000 and 0.8322 to 1.000 and Shannon-Wiener index ( H' log 2) varied from 0.9183 to 1.000 and 1.000 to 3.690. The higher diversity was found in Divipoint transect (northern Bay of Bengal). 95% confidence interval and ellipse showed that the stations were well lying within the funnel. Cluster analysis and MDS grouped the northern transects which showed higher diversity. BVSTEP resulted in isolation of 23 species which were most influential in the marine filamentous fungal diversity of the continental slope of Bay of Bengal. Thus, a lower population range and higher diversity of marine filamentous marine fungi in the sediments of the continental slope of Bay of Bengal was recorded.

  8. Analysis of Spo0M function in Bacillus subtilis.

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    Luz Adriana Vega-Cabrera

    Full Text Available Spo0M has been previously reported as a regulator of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis; however, little is known about the mechanisms through which it participates in sporulation, and there is no information to date that relates this protein to other processes in the bacterium. In this work we present evidence from proteomic, protein-protein interaction, morphological, subcellular localization microscopy and bioinformatics studies which indicate that Spo0M function is not necessarily restricted to sporulation, and point towards its involvement in other stages of the vegetative life cycle. In the current study, we provide evidence that Spo0M interacts with cytoskeletal proteins involved in cell division, which suggest a function additional to that previously described in sporulation. Spo0M expression is not restricted to the transition phase or sporulation; rather, its expression begins during the early stages of growth and Spo0M localization in B. subtilis depends on the bacterial life cycle and could be related to an additional proposed function. This is supported by our discovery of homologs in a broad distribution of bacterial genera, even in non-sporulating species. Our work paves the way for re-evaluation of the role of Spo0M in bacterial cell.

  9. Protein patterns of yeast during sporulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litske Petersen, J.G.; Kielland-Brandt, M.C.; Nilsson-Tillgren, T.

    1979-01-01

    High resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to study protein synthesis during synchronous meiosis and ascospore formation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The stained protein patterns of samples harvested at any stage between meiotic prophase and the four-spore stage in two sporulating strains showed the same approximately 250 polypeptides. Of these only a few seemed to increase or decrease in concentration during sporulation. The characteristic pattern of sporulating yeast was identical to the pattern of glucose-grown staitonary yeast cells adapted to respiration. The latter type of cells readily initiates meiosis when transferred to sporulation medium. This pattern differed from the protein patterns of exponentially growing cells in glucose or acetate presporulation medium. Five major proteins in stationary and sporulating yeast cells were not detected in either type of exponential culture. Two-dimensional autoradiograms of [ 35 S]methionine-labelled yeast proteins revealed that some proteins were preferentially labelled during sporulation, while other proteins were labelled at later stages. These patterns differed from the auroradiograms of exponentially growing yeast cells in glucose presporulation medium in a number of spots. No differences were observed when stained gels or autoradiograms of sporulating cultures and non-sporulating strains in sporulation medium were compared. (author)

  10. The Heat Resistance of Microbial Cells Represented by D Values Can be Estimated by the Transition Temperature and the Coefficient of Linear Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Koichi; Kogure, Akinori; Deuchi, Keiji; Kuwana, Ritsuko; Takamatsu, Hiromu; Ito, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    We previously developed a method for evaluating the heat resistance of microorganisms by measuring the transition temperature at which the coefficient of linear expansion of a cell changes. Here, we performed heat resistance measurements using a scanning probe microscope with a nano thermal analysis system. The microorganisms studied included six strains of the genus Bacillus or related genera, one strain each of the thermophilic obligate anaerobic bacterial genera Thermoanaerobacter and Moorella, two strains of heat-resistant mold, two strains of non-sporulating bacteria, and one strain of yeast. Both vegetative cells and spores were evaluated. The transition temperature at which the coefficient of linear expansion due to heating changed from a positive value to a negative value correlated strongly with the heat resistance of the microorganism as estimated from the D value. The microorganisms with greater heat resistance exhibited higher transition temperatures. There was also a strong negative correlation between the coefficient of linear expansion and heat resistance in bacteria and yeast, such that microorganisms with greater heat resistance showed lower coefficients of linear expansion. These findings suggest that our method could be useful for evaluating the heat resistance of microorganisms.

  11. TECHNOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: THE IMPORTANCE OF THESE MICROORGANISMS FOR FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Souza Motta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eacters of coccus or rods Gram-positive, catalase negative, non-sporulating, which produce lactic acid as the major end product during the fermentation of carbohydrates. When applied on food, provides beneficial effects to consumers through its functional and technological properties. With this the present review article, explore the potential application of lactic acid bacteria in food. The following genera are considered the principal lactic acid bacteria: Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus and Weissella. These cultures have been used as starter or adjunct cultures for the fermentation of foods and beverages due to their contributions to the sensorial characteristics of these products and by microbiological stability. Their probiotic properties have also been investigated. More recent studies by indigenous cultures have received increased attention in light of the search for isolated cultures of a given raw material and a certain region. These microorganisms are being investigated for its functional and technological potential that may be applied in product development with its own characteristics and designation of origin. Those properties will be discussed in the present review in order to highlight the performance of these bacteria and the high degree of control over the fermentation process and standardization of the final product. The use of autochthonous cultures will be considered due the increase of studies of new cultures of lactic acid bacteria isolated of milk and meat of distinct products.

  12. Life in hot carbon monoxide: the complete genome sequence of Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Martin; Ren, Qinghu; Durkin, A Scott; Daugherty, Sean C; Brinkac, Lauren M; Dodson, Robert J; Madupu, Ramana; Sullivan, Steven A; Kolonay, James F; Haft, Daniel H; Nelson, William C; Tallon, Luke J; Jones, Kristine M; Ulrich, Luke E; Gonzalez, Juan M; Zhulin, Igor B; Robb, Frank T; Eisen, Jonathan A

    2005-11-01

    We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901. This species is a model for studies of hydrogenogens, which are diverse bacteria and archaea that grow anaerobically utilizing carbon monoxide (CO) as their sole carbon source and water as an electron acceptor, producing carbon dioxide and hydrogen as waste products. Organisms that make use of CO do so through carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes. Remarkably, analysis of the genome of C. hydrogenoformans reveals the presence of at least five highly differentiated anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes, which may in part explain how this species is able to grow so much more rapidly on CO than many other species. Analysis of the genome also has provided many general insights into the metabolism of this organism which should make it easier to use it as a source of biologically produced hydrogen gas. One surprising finding is the presence of many genes previously found only in sporulating species in the Firmicutes Phylum. Although this species is also a Firmicutes, it was not known to sporulate previously. Here we show that it does sporulate and because it is missing many of the genes involved in sporulation in other species, this organism may serve as a "minimal" model for sporulation studies. In addition, using phylogenetic profile analysis, we have identified many uncharacterized gene families found in all known sporulating Firmicutes, but not in any non-sporulating bacteria, including a sigma factor not known to be involved in sporulation previously.

  13. Evaluation of Coagulase-Positive Staphylococcus Aureus Contamination in Lighvan Cheese on Retail Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salehi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, non-sporulated, lack of capsule, immovable, aerobic and anaerobic and able to tolerate high levels of salt (up to 15 percent. Therefore, foods containing salt provides an ideal environment for bacterial growth. It is also one of the most important bacterial born of spoilable food products, especially in dairy products. Lighvan traditional cheese is consumed in many regions of Iran, especially consumption of these cheeses is very high in Tehran which in the manufacture of such cheeses, the unpasteurized and raw milk is used and the sanitary conditions during processing and subsequent storage are low. So, considering the importance of this issue in the release of poisoning, the coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus contamination in Lighvan cheese on Retail Stores was evaluated. Materials and Methods: In order to perform this study, 22 samples of traditional Lighvan cheese were collected randomly from Tehran stores and according to Iran national standards and by using of bird-parker, Cook Meat cultures and coagulase test were evaluated. Results: Total of 22 samples, 14 samples (63/6% were contaminated by S. aureus over standard and 5 (22/7% were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus coagulase positive. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that sanitary conditions should be observed during the production and Use of pasteurized milk in cheese production.

  14. Mycoflora and aflatoxigenic species in derivatives of milled rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIMA Carlos A. P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty samples of rough rice stored for 6, 12 and 24 months in government authorized warehouses of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were simultaneously collected. After milling of the product, 90 samples (30 of polished rice, 30 of rice bran and 30 of rice hull were evaluated for their mycoflora, aflatoxigenic species and aflatoxin contamination. The following fungi, listed in decreasing order of frequency, were isolated on Potato-Dextrose Agar: Aspergillus spp., Nigrospora spp., Penicillium spp.; Fusarium spp.; Mucor spp.; Cladosporium spp.; Trichosporon spp. and non-sporulated fungi. The degree of fungal contamination (colony forming units per gram of product was lowest in polished rice, increasing progressively in samples of rice bran and rice hull. Among the Aspergillus species, A. flavus and A. candidus were isolated most frequently. Of the A. flavus isolates, 52.6% strains were found to be toxigenic and produced only Group B aflatoxins. Analysis of the 90 samples did not reveal the presence of aflatoxins in the rice derivatives.

  15. High-level intracellular expression of heterologous proteins in Brevibacillus choshinensis SP3 under the control of a xylose inducible promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Urzo Nunzia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In past years research has focused on the development of alternative Gram positive bacterial expression systems to produce industrially relevant proteins. Brevibacillus choshinensis is an easy to handle non-sporulating bacterium, lacking extracellular proteases, that has been already shown to provide a high level of recombinant protein expression. One major drawback, limiting the applicability of the Brevibacillus expression system, is the absence of expression vectors based on inducible promoters. Here we used the PxylA inducible promoter, commonly employed in other Bacillae expression systems, in Brevibacillus. Results Using GFP, α-amylase and TcdA-GT as model proteins, high level of intracellular protein expression (up to 250 mg/L for the GFP was achieved in Brevibacillus, using the pHis1522 vector carrying the B. megaterium xylose-inducible promoter (PxylA. The GFP expression yields were more than 25 fold higher than those reported for B. megaterium carrying the same vector. All the tested proteins show significant increment in their expression levels (2-10 folds than those obtained using the available plasmids based on the P2 constitutive promoter. Conclusion Combining the components of two different commercially available Gram positive expression systems, such as Brevibacillus (from Takara Bio and B. megaterium (from Mobitec, we demonstrate that vectors based on the B. megaterium PxylA xylose inducible promoter can be successfully used to induce high level of intracellular expression of heterologous proteins in Brevibacillus.

  16. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum – the Causal Agent of Calla Soft Rot in Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ivanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial strains were isolated from above- and underground parts of diseased calla plants originating from different localities in Serbia and one locality in Montenegro. They were characterized by studying their pathogenic, cultural, biochemical and physiologicalcharacteristics. All investigated strains caused soft rot of calla leaf stalks, potato slices and aloe leaves, and induced hypersensitive reaction on tobacco. Bacteriological properties of the strains indicated that symptoms on calla plants were caused by Gram-negative, nonfluorescent, oxidase negative, catalase positive and facultatively anaerobic bacterium belonging to the genus Pectobacterium. The investigated strains grew at 37ºC and in 5% NaCl, utilised lactose and trechalose, and produced neither indol nor lecitinase. These results, as well as the characteristic growth on Logan’s differential medium indicated that soft rot of tuber and stem base of calla plants was caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. This is the first report of this pathogen affecting calla plants in Serbia.

  17. Micrococcus species-related peritonitis in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chih-Chin; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Peritonitis is a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and remains the most common cause of PD failure. Micrococci are catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, and gram-positive cocci that are spherical, often found in tetrad, and belong to the family Micrococcaceae. Micrococcus species are commonly found in the environment, and it is now recognized that Micrococcus species can be opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients. The only consistent predisposing factor for Micrococcus infection is an immunocompromised state. We report three cases of Micrococcus PD peritonitis. Improper practice of PD may have been the causative factor. Although Micrococcus species are low-virulence pathogens, infection could result in refractory peritonitis and subsequent PD failure. Intraperitoneal administration of vancomycin for at least 2 weeks is recommended for Micrococcus peritonitis.

  18. Preliminary Studies on Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Aloe Vera Leaf, Citrus Hystrix Leaf, Zingiber Officinale and Sabah Snake Grass Against Bacillus Subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uda M.N.A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal plants have several potential antimicrobial activities either as antifungal or antibacterial to fight against the disease and pathogen that attack the plants. The extractions of the Aloe vera leaf, Citrus hystrix leaf, Zingiber officinale rhizome and Sabah snake grass were selected in this study to fight against Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis is a Gram-positive bacterium, rodshaped and catalase-positive that lives on decayed organic material. It is known as Gram-positive bacteria because of its thick peptidoglycan and would appear purple when subjected to Gram test. This species is commonly found in the upper layers of the soil, in meat or vegetables, in pastry, cooked meat, in bread or poultry products. The extracts of Sabah Snake Grass found to be most effective than A.vera leaf, Z. officinale, and C. hystrix against the B. subtilis.

  19. Central Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection with Kocuria kristinae in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masato; Kawai, Eichiro; Yaoita, Hisao; Ichinoi, Natsuko; Sakamoto, Osamu; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to K. kristinae in a young adult with propionic acidemia undergoing periodic hemodialysis. The patient had a central venous catheter implanted for total parenteral nutrition approximately 6 months prior to the onset of symptoms because of repeated acute pancreatitis. K. kristinae was isolated from two sets of blood cultures collected from the catheter. Vancomycin followed by cefazolin for 16 days and 5-day ethanol lock therapy successfully eradicated the K. kristinae bacteremia. Although human infections with this organism appear to be rare and are sometimes considered to result from contamination, physicians should not underestimate its significance when it is isolated in clinical specimens.

  20. Central Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection with Kocuria kristinae in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Kimura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to K. kristinae in a young adult with propionic acidemia undergoing periodic hemodialysis. The patient had a central venous catheter implanted for total parenteral nutrition approximately 6 months prior to the onset of symptoms because of repeated acute pancreatitis. K. kristinae was isolated from two sets of blood cultures collected from the catheter. Vancomycin followed by cefazolin for 16 days and 5-day ethanol lock therapy successfully eradicated the K. kristinae bacteremia. Although human infections with this organism appear to be rare and are sometimes considered to result from contamination, physicians should not underestimate its significance when it is isolated in clinical specimens.

  1. Effect of radiation-induced xerostomia on the human oral microflora. Report no. 12 (final), 1 Jul 1971-30 Jun 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreizen, S.; Brown, L.R.

    1976-06-30

    The caries-conducive impact of xerostomia was studied in 42 irradiated cancer patients. The radiation-induced xerostomia was paralleled by changes in the physical, microbial, biochemical, immunologic and dietary parameters of cariogenicity that collectively comprised an overwhelming caries challenge. Microbiologically, significant xerostomia-related increases in Strep. mutans, lactobacilli, staphylococci, yeasts and catalase-positive diphtheroids were accompanied by decreases in Strep. sanguis, bacteroides and fusobacteria in each of the 5 microenvironments tested. The scanty xerostomic saliva contained greater amounts of Na(+), Cl(-), Ca(++), Mg(++), Prot(-), lysozyme, IgA and IgG and considerably less HCO3(-). The increased concentrations of caries protective electrolytes and immunoproteins were negated by huge reductions in total daily saliva output. The xerostomia created caries challenge was almost completely neutralized by a preventive program of daily topical NaF applications and strict oral hygiene. (GRA)

  2. Selective biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus using chitosan quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2018-01-01

    Selective biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using chitosan modified quantum dots (CTS@CdS QDs) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide is reported. The method is based on the intrinsic positive catalase activity of S. aureus. CTS@CdS quantum dots provide high dispersion in aqueous media with high fluorescence emission. Staphylococcus aureus causes a selective quenching of the fluorescence emission of CTS@CdS QDs in the presence of H2O2 compared to other pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The intrinsic enzymatic character of S. aureus (catalase positive) offers selective and fast biosensing. The present method is highly selective for positive catalase species and requires no expensive reagents such as antibodies, aptamers or microbeads. It could be extended for other species that are positive catalase.

  3. Freezing of meat raw materials affects tyramine and diamine accumulation in spontaneously fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover-Cid, Sara; Miguelez-Arrizado, M Jesús; Luz Latorre Moratalla, L; Vidal Carou, M Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Biogenic amine accumulation was studied in spontaneously fermented sausages (Fuet) manufactured from unfrozen-fresh meat (U-sausages) and frozen-thawed meat (F-sausages). The aim was to investigate whether the frozen storage of raw materials affects the microbial composition and its aminogenic activity during sausage fermentation. Tyramine was the major amine in all sausages. Although the final levels were similar, tyramine accumulated more rapidly in F-sausages, which contained putrescine as the second amine. By contrast, U-sausages accumulated much more cadaverine than putrescine. F-sausages showed a slightly lower pH and free amino acid content as well as higher counts of technological flora (lactic acid and gram positive catalase positive bacteria) and lower counts of enterobacteria. Therefore, to freeze the meat raw materials for few days before sausage manufacture could be a useful practice, especially for the artisan fermented sausages (without starter), because it helps to reduce enterobacteria development and cadaverine production.

  4. Desulfovibrio oceani subsp. oceani sp. nov., subsp. nov and Desulfovibrio oceani subsp. galateae subsp. nov., novel sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from the oxygen minimum zone off the coast of Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup

    2010-01-01

    Two deltaproteobacterial sulfate reducers, designated strain I.8.1T and I.9.1T, were isolated from the oxygen minimum zone water column off the coast of Peru at 400 and 500 m water depth. The strains were Gram-negative, vibrio-shaped and motile. Both strains were psychrotolerant, grew optimally...... growth as electron acceptors. Both strains were catalase-positive and highly oxygen-tolerant, surviving 24 days of exposure to atmospheric concentrations. MK6 was the only respiratory quinone. The most prominent cellular fatty acid was iso-17:1-ω9c (18%) for strain I.8.1T and iso-17:0-ω9c (14...

  5. Description of Citricoccus nitrophenolicus sp. nov., a para-nitrophenol degrading actinobacterium isolated from a wasterwater treatment plant and emended description of the genus Citricoccus Altenburger et al. 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Bank; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    to nitrite which accumulated in cultures during aerobic growth. Cells were coccoid and stained Gram-positive, were non-motile and did not form endospores. Colonies of strain PNP1T on agar medium were bright yellow, circular and smooth. The dominant menaquinone was MK-8(H2) (54%) and the major cellular fatty...... acid was anteiso C15:0 (75%). Strain PNP1T grew optimally at 27C, at pH 8-8.5, at salinities 3% (w/v) NaCl, yet exhibited a substantial halotolerance with growth occurring at salinities up to 17% (w/v) NaCl. In addition to para-nitrophenol, a range of sugars, short chain fatty acids and alcohols served...

  6. Complete genome sequence of Beutenbergia cavernae type strain (HKI 0122T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, Miriam; Pukall, Rudiger; Abt, Birte; Goker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Tice, Hope; Copeland, Alex; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Nolan, Matt; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jefferies, Cynthia C.; Saunders, Elizabeth; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff; Chain, Patrick; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Lapidus, Alla

    2009-05-20

    Beutenbergia cavernae (Groth et al. 1999) is the type species of the genus and is of phylogenetic interest because of its isolated location in the actinobacterial suborder Micrococcineae. B. cavernae HKI 0122T is a Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterium isolated from a cave in Guangxi (China). B. cavernae grows best under aerobic conditions and shows a rod-coccus growth cycle. Its cell wall peptidoglycan contains the diagnostic L-lysine - L-glutamate interpeptide bridge. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence from the poorly populated micrococcineal family Beutenbergiaceae, and this 4,669,183 bp long single replicon genome with its 4225 protein-coding and 53 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  7. Adhesion to sand and ability to mineralise low pesticide concentrations are required for efficient bioaugmentation of flow-through sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Elin Djurhuus; Badawi, Nora; Nybroe, Ole

    2017-01-01

    (Sphingomonas sp. PM2, Sphingomonas sp. ERG5, Burkholderia sp. TFD34, Cupriavidus sp. TFD38) were characterised with regard to their motility, cell surface hydrophobicity, biofilm formation, adhesion behaviour and ability to mineralise MCPA. Strains PM2 and ERG5 were non-motile and hydrophobic, whilst strains...... TFD34 and TFD38 were motile and less hydrophobic. All the strains except ERG5 showed low biofilm formation on polystyrene, although it was significantly higher on glass. PM2 was the most efficient MCPA degrader as it displayed no lag phase and reached >50 % mineralisation at all concentrations (0.......0016-25 mg L(-1)). PM2 adhered significantly better to sand than the other strains. No link was found between motility, biofilm formation and the ability to adhere to sand. PM2 completely removed MCPA for 14 days when inoculated in sand columns with a constant inlet of 1 mg L(-1) MCPA. These results...

  8. Coupling of kinesin ATP turnover to translocation and microtubule regulation: one engine, many machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Claire T; Howard, Jonathon

    2012-12-01

    The cycle of ATP turnover is integral to the action of motor proteins. Here we discuss how variation in this cycle leads to variation of function observed amongst members of the kinesin superfamily of microtubule associated motor proteins. Variation in the ATP turnover cycle among superfamily members can tune the characteristic kinesin motor to one of the range of microtubule-based functions performed by kinesins. The speed at which ATP is hydrolysed affects the speed of translocation. The ratio of rate constants of ATP turnover in relation to association and dissociation from the microtubule influence the processivity of translocation. Variation in the rate-limiting step of the cycle can reverse the way in which the motor domain interacts with the microtubule producing non-motile kinesins. Because the ATP turnover cycle is not fully understood for the majority of kinesins, much work remains to show how the kinesin engine functions in such a wide variety of molecular machines.

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation on Bacillus pumilus E601, a biological indicator for irradiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, A.N.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental studies frequently rely on the use of substerilization treatment doses of irradiation to produce irradiated survivors. Eighteen substrains produced by single substerilization process treatments, visibly altered (nonmotile, no pellicle) at the time of isolation, were characterized. Of these, eight regained normal pellicle forming and motility ability. Three strains were asporogenous. Minimal alterations in enzymic functions were noted. Radiation resistance of sporulating strains varied in D 10 values of 0.30 +- 0.06 Mrad. Sporogenous and asporogenous strains needed amino acids not required by the parent. Of eight cultures isolated from production 60 Co sterilization (2.5 Mrad) biological indicator sterility tests, five showed no variation from the parent and three were non-motile and had altered colonial morphology and an increase in nutritional requirements from complete competence to synthesize all its amino acids (parent) to requiring six amino acids. Radiation resistance was not transferred from vegetative cells to their spores.(U.S.)

  10. Novel method reveals a narrow phylogenetic distribution of bacterial dispersers in environmental communities exposed to low hydration conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, U. S.; Bak, F.; Aamand, J.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we developed a method that provides community-level surface dispersal profiles under controlled hydration conditions from environmental samples and enables us to isolate and uncover the diversity of the fastest bacterial dispersers. The method expands on the Porous Surface Model (PSM...... Pseudomonas putida and Flavobacterium johnsoniae strains from their non-motile mutants. Applying the method to soil and lake water bacterial communities showed that community-scale dispersal declined as conditions became drier. However, for both communities, dispersal was detected even under low hydration...... dispersers were substantially less diverse than the total communities. The dispersing fraction of the soil microbial community was dominated by Pseudomonas which increased in abundance at low hydration conditions, while the dispersing fraction of the lake community was dominated by Aeromonas and, under wet...

  11. Effect of Conway Medium and f/2 Medium on the growth of six genera of South China Sea marine microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lananan, Fathurrahman; Jusoh, Ahmad; Ali, Nora'aini; Lam, Su Shiung; Endut, Azizah

    2013-08-01

    A study was performed to determine the effect of Conway and f/2 media on the growth of microalgae genera. Genera of Chlorella sp., Dunaliella sp., Isochrysis sp., Chaetoceros sp., Pavlova sp. and Tetraselmis sp. were isolated from the South China Sea. During the cultivation period, the density of cells were determined using Syringe Liquid Sampler Particle Measuring System (SLS-PMS) that also generated the population distribution curve based on the size of the cells. The population of the microalgae genera is thought to consist of mother and daughter generations since these microalgae genera reproduce by releasing small non-motile reproductive cells (autospores). It was found that the reproduction of Tetraselmis sp., Dunaliella sp. and Pavlova sp. could be sustained longer in f/2 Medium. Higher cell density was achieved by genus Dunaliella, Chlorella and Isochrysis in Conway Medium. Different genera of microalgae had a preference for different types of cultivation media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Complete genome sequence of Catenulispora acidiphila type strain (ID 139908T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Rio, Tijana GlavinaDel; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Chain, Patrick; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jefferies, Cynthia C.; Chertkov, Olga; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff; Ali, Zahid; Tindall, Brian J.; Goker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Catenulispora acidiphila Busti et al. 2006 is the type species of the genus Catenulispora, and is of interest because of the rather isolated phylogenetic location of the genomically little studied suborder Catenulisporineae within the order Actinomycetales. C. acidiphilia is known for its acidophilic, aerobic lifestyle, but can also grow scantly under anaerobic conditions. Under regular conditions C. acidiphilia grows in long filaments of relatively short aerial hyphae with marked septation. It is a free living, non motile, Gram-positive bacterium isolated from a forest soil sample taken from a wooded area in Gerenzano, Italy. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the actinobacterial family Catenulisporaceae, and the 10,467,782 bp long single replicon genome with its 9056 protein-coding and 69 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  13. Bifidobacterium aquikefiri sp. nov., isolated from water kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, David; Cnockaert, Margo; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-03-01

    A novel Bifidobacterium , strain LMG 28769 T , was isolated from a household water kefir fermentation process. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, catalase-negative, oxidase-negative and facultatively anaerobic short rods. Analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed Bifidobacterium crudilactis and Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum (97.4 and 97.1 % similarity towards the respective type strain sequences) as nearest phylogenetic neighbours. Its assignment to the genus Bifidobacterium was confirmed by the presence of fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Analysis of the hsp60 gene sequence revealed very low similarity with nucleotide sequences in the NCBI nucleotide database. The genotypic and phenotypic analyses allowed the differentiation of strain LMG 28769 T from all recognized Bifidobacterium species. Strain LMG 28769 T ( = CCUG 67145 T  = R 54638 T ) therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Bifidobacterium aquikefiri sp. nov. is proposed.

  14. Cellulitis and Bacteremia Caused by Bergeyella zoohelcum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ru Lin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bergeyella zoohelcum is a rod-shaped, aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile and non-saccharolytic bacterium. It is frequently isolated from the upper respiratory tract of dogs, cats and other mammals. Clinically, B. zoohelcum has been known to cause cellulitis, leg abscess, tenosynovitis, septicemia, pneumonia and meningitis, and is associated with animal bites. In addition, food-borne transmission was considered in a recent case report. We report a 73-year-old man with liver cirrhosis who had no history of dog bite but had dog exposure, who developed cellulitis of the left lower leg and B. zoohelcum was isolated from blood culture. This patient, without evidence of polymicrobial infection, was treated with cefazolin and gentamicin with a good outcome. B. zoohelcum is a zoonotic pathogen that may cause bacteremia in patients with underlying disease such as liver cirrhosis; it can be treated with a beta-lactam or quinolone.

  15. Leishmania hijacking of the macrophage intracellular compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Loiseau, Philippe M

    2016-02-01

    Leishmania spp., transmitted to humans by the bite of the sandfly vector, are responsible for the three major forms of leishmaniasis, cutaneous, diffuse mucocutaneous and visceral. Leishmania spp. interact with membrane receptors of neutrophils and macrophages. In macrophages, the parasite is internalized within a parasitophorous vacuole and engages in a particular intracellular lifestyle in which the flagellated, motile Leishmania promastigote metacyclic form differentiates into non-motile, metacyclic amastigote form. This phenomenon is induced by Leishmania-triggered events leading to the fusion of the parasitophorous vacuole with vesicular members of the host cell endocytic pathway including recycling endosomes, late endosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum. Maturation of the parasitophorous vacuole leads to the intracellular proliferation of the Leishmania amastigote forms by acquisition of host cell nutrients while escaping host defense responses. © 2015 FEBS.

  16. In utero and transgeneration effects and biological defence mechanism in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normura, T.

    1992-01-01

    Multicellular animals are composed of 2 types of cells; cells of the germ line, from which next generation of gametes will be derived, and the somatic cells, which form the rest of the body and leave no progeny. In a sense, somatic cells exist only to help the germ line cells survive and propagate. During development of mammals, 2 haploid cells (gametes), one large and non-motile (ovum) and the other small and motile (sperm) fuse and then diploid cells proliferate and diversify to form a complex multicellular organism in utero. During the long course of germ line and embryonic development, there are extraordinary radiation (also chemicals)-sensitive phases, some of which must be very important for animals to defense their species from radiation and chemical hazards in the environment by replacing damaged cells with un-damaged or normal totipotent reserve cells. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs

  17. Characterization of Francisella species isolated from the cooling water of an air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Quan; Li, Xunde; Qu, Pinghua; Hou, Shuiping; Li, Juntao; Atwill, Edward R; Chen, Shouyi

    2015-01-01

    Strains of Francisella spp. were isolated from cooling water from an air conditioning system in Guangzhou, China. These strains are Gram negative, coccobacilli, non-motile, oxidase negative, catalase negative, esterase and lipid esterase positive. In addition, these bacteria grow on cysteine-supplemented media at 20 °C to 40 °C with an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the genus Francisella. Biochemical tests and phylogenetic and BLAST analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB and sdhA genes indicated that one strain was very similar to Francisella philomiragia and that the other strains were identical or highly similar to the Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov. strain 08HL01032 we previously described. Biochemical and molecular characteristics of these strains demonstrated that multiple Francisella species exist in air conditioning systems.

  18. Pricia antarctica gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, isolated from Antarctic intertidal sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; Zeng, Yin-Xin; Sun, Kun; Chen, Bo

    2012-09-01

    A yellow-coloured, rod-shaped, Gram-reaction- and Gram-staining-negative, non-motile and aerobic bacterium, designated strain ZS1-8(T), was isolated from a sample of sandy intertidal sediment collected from the Antarctic coast. Flexirubin-type pigments were absent. In phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain ZS1-8(T) formed a distinct phyletic line and the results indicated that the novel strain should be placed in a new genus within the family Flavobacteriaceae. In pairwise comparisons between strain ZS1-8(T) and recognized species, the levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were all antarctica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is ZS1-8(T) (= JCM 17291(T) = DSM 23421(T)).

  19. Multimodal microfluidic platform for controlled culture and analysis of unicellular organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Tao; Smallwood, Chuck R.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Pomraning, Kyle R.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Baker, Scott E.; Evans, James E.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2017-09-01

    Modern live-cell imaging approaches permit real-time visualization of biological processes, yet limitations exist for unicellular organism isolation, culturing and long-term imaging that preclude fully understanding how cells sense and respond to environmental perturbations and the link between single-cell variability and whole-population dynamics. Here we present a microfluidic platform that provides fine control over the local environment with the capacity to replace media components at any experimental time point, and provides both perfused and compartmentalized cultivation conditions depending on the valve configuration. The functionality and flexibility of the platform were validated using both bacteria and yeast having different sizes, motility and growth media. The demonstrated ability to track the growth and dynamics of both motile and non-motile prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms emphasizes the versatility of the devices, which with further scale-up should enable studies in bioenergy and environmental research.

  20. Sedimentation and gravitational instability of Escherichia coli Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salin, Dominique; Douarche, Carine

    2017-11-01

    The successive runs and tumbles of Escherichia coli bacteria provide an active matter suspension of rod-like particles with a large swimming, Brownian like, diffusion. As opposed to inactive elongated particles, this diffusion prevents clustering of the particles and hence instability in the gravity field. We measure the time dependent E . coli concentration profile during their sedimentation. After some hours, due to the dioxygen consumption, a motile / non-motile front forms leading to a Rayleigh-Taylor type gravitational instability. Analysing both sedimentation and instability in the framework of active particle suspensions, we can measure the relevant bacteria hydrodynamic characteristics such as its single particle sedimentation velocity and its hindrance volume. Comparing these quantities to the ones of equivalent passive particles (ellipsoid, rod) we tentatively infer the effective shape and size of the bacteria involved in its buoyancy induced advection and diffusion. Laboratoire FAST University Paris Saclay France.

  1. Genome sequence of the pink-pigmented marine bacterium Loktanella hongkongensis type strain (UST950701-009P(T)), a representative of the Roseobacter group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Stanley Ck; Riedel, Thomas; Fiebig, Anne; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Petersen, Jörn; Ivanova, Natalia N; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Göker, Markus; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Loktanella hongkongensis UST950701-009P(T) is a Gram-negative, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium isolated from a marine biofilm in the subtropical seawater of Hong Kong. When growing as a monospecies biofilm on polystyrene surfaces, this bacterium is able to induce larval settlement and metamorphosis of a ubiquitous polychaete tubeworm Hydroides elegans. The inductive cues are low-molecular weight compounds bound to the exopolymeric matrix of the bacterial cells. In the present study we describe the features of L. hongkongensis strain DSM 17492(T) together with its genome sequence and annotation and novel aspects of its phenotype. The 3,198,444 bp long genome sequence encodes 3104 protein-coding genes and 57 RNA genes. The two unambiguously identified extrachromosomal replicons contain replication modules of the RepB and the Rhodobacteraceae-specific DnaA-like type, respectively.

  2. Haemophilus influenzae type B genital infection and septicemia in pregnant woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosuru Subramanya Supram

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae type B a non-motile, aerobic, gram negative cocobacillus is a commensal of upper respiratory tract. Genitourinary infection due to H. influenzae has been reported but bacteremia associated with such infection appears to be rare. We report a case of 19 years young primigravida with complaints of amenorrhea of 32 weeks and 5 days, pyrexia, abdominal pain and blood stained discharge per vaginum. H. influenzae type B was recovered from the genital tract as well as blood of the mother indicating maternal septicemia. Septicemia caused by H. influenzae type B in pregnant women following vaginal colonization and infection is rare. It has been reported in many parts of world over the years; to the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case from Nepal. H. influenzae should be considered as a potential maternal, fetal, and neonatal pathogen.

  3. Complete genome sequence of the termite hindgut bacterium Spirochaeta coccoides type strain (SPN1T), reclassification in the genus Sphaerochaeta as Sphaerochaeta coccoides comb. nov. and emendations of the family Spirochaetaceae and the genus Sphaerochaeta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abt, Birte; Han, Cliff; Scheuner, Carmen; Lu, Megan; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxane; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Gronow, Sabine; Goker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Detter, John C.

    2012-05-25

    Spirochaeta coccoides Dröge et al. 2006 is a member of the genus Spirochaeta Ehrenberg 1835, one of the oldest named genera within the Bacteria. S. coccoides is an obligately anaerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, spherical bacterium that was isolated from the hindgut contents of the termite Neotermes castaneus. The species is of interest because it may play an important role in the digestion of breakdown products from cellulose and hemicellulose in the termite gut. Here we provide a taxonomic re-evaluation for strain SPN1T, and based on physiological and genomic characteristics, we propose its reclassification as a novel species in the genus Sphaerochaeta, a recently published sister group of the Spirochaeta. The 2,227,296 bp long genome of strain SPN1T with its 1,866 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the GenomicEncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  4. Complete genome sequence of Coraliomargarita akajimensis type strain (04OKA010-24T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Abt, Birte; Brambilla, Evelyne; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Desphande, Shweta; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Woyke, Tanja; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Held, Brittany; Brettin, Thomas; Tapia, Roxanne; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Liolios, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia D.; Rohde, Manfred; G& #246; ker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2010-06-25

    Coraliomargarita akajimensis Yoon et al. 2007 the type species of the genus Coraliomargarita. C. akajimensis is an obligately aerobic, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile, spherical bacterium which was isolated from seawater surrounding the hard coral Galaxea fascicularis. C. akajimensis organism is of special interest because of its phylogenetic position in a genomically purely studied area in the bacterial diversity. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Puniceicoccaceae. The 3,750,771 bp long genome with its 3,137 protein-coding and 55 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  5. Characterization of membrane protein trafficking and cellular signaling at the primary cilium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Johanne Bay

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based, non-motile, sensory organelles emerging in a single copy from the surface of most quiescent cells in vertebrates. They emanate from the centrosomal mother centriole and are assembled and maintained by a bidirectional transport process termed intraflagellar...... transport. Specific receptors, ion channels and downstream signaling components are localized along the cilium-centrosome axis, enabling the cilium to function as a hot spot for the balanced coordination of multiple signaling pathways to control cell cycle entry, differentiation and migration during...... differentiation of mouse stem cells into cardiomyocytes. These results support the conclusion that Tab2 functions at the primary cilium to coordinate specified signaling events, which when defective may lead to congenital heart disease Collectively, the results presented in this PhD thesis provide new insights...

  6. Lactobacillus hammesii sp. nov., isolated from French sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcheva, Rosica; Korakli, Maher; Onno, Bernard; Prévost, Hervé; Ivanova, Iskra; Ehrmann, Matthias A; Dousset, Xavier; Gänzle, Michael G; Vogel, Rudi F

    2005-03-01

    Twenty morphologically different strains were chosen from French wheat sourdough isolates. Cells were Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile rods. The isolates were identified using amplified-fragment length polymorphism, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. All isolates were members of the genus Lactobacillus. They were identified as representing Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus spicheri and Lactobacillus sakei. However, two isolates (LP38(T) and LP39) could be clearly discriminated from recognized Lactobacillus species on the basis of genotyping methods. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA relatedness data indicate that the two strains belong to a novel Lactobacillus species, for which the name Lactobacillus hammesii is proposed. The type strain is LP38(T) (=DSM 16381(T)=CIP 108387(T)=TMW 1.1236(T)).

  7. Light enhanced the accumulation of total fatty acids (TFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in a newly isolated heterotrophic microalga Crypthecodinium sp. SUN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongzhe; Zhang, Zhao; Mao, Xuemei; Wu, Tao; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, light illumination was found to be efficient in elevating the total fatty acid content in a newly isolated heterotrophic microalga, Crypthecodinium sp. SUN. Under light illumination, the highest total fatty acid and DHA contents were achieved at 96h as 24.9% of dry weight and 82.8mgg -1 dry weight, respectively, which were equivalent to 1.46-fold and 1.68-fold of those under the dark conditions. The elevation of total fatty acid content was mainly contributed by an increase of neutral lipids at the expense of starches. Moreover, light was found to alter the cell metabolism and led to a higher specific growth rate, higher glucose consumption rate and lower non-motile cell percentage. This is the first report that light can promote the total fatty acids accumulation in Crypthecodinium without growth inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of the nano-micro structure of the surface on bacterial adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Díaz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials failures are frequently associated to the formation of bacterial biofilms on the surface. The aim of this work is to study the adhesion of non motile bacteria streptococci consortium and motile Pseudomonas fluorescens. Substrates with micro and nanopatterned topography were used. The influence of surface characteristics on bacterial adhesion was investigated using optical and epifluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Results showed an important influence of the substratum nature. On microrough surfaces, initial bacterial adhesion was less significant than on smooth surfaces. In contrast, nanopatterned samples showed more bacterial attachment than the smooth control. It was also noted a remarkable difference in morphology, orientation and distribution of bacteria between the smooth and the nanostructured substrate. The results show the important effect of substratum nature and topography on bacterial adhesion which depended on the relation between roughness characteristics dimensions and bacterial size.

  9. Multimodal microfluidic platform for controlled culture and analysis of unicellular organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tao; Smallwood, Chuck R; Bredeweg, Erin L; Pomraning, Kyle R; Plymale, Andrew E; Baker, Scott E; Evans, James E; Kelly, Ryan T

    2017-09-01

    Modern live-cell imaging approaches permit real-time visualization of biological processes, yet limitations exist for unicellular organism isolation, culturing, and long-term imaging that preclude fully understanding how cells sense and respond to environmental perturbations and the link between single-cell variability and whole-population dynamics. Here, we present a microfluidic platform that provides fine control over the local environment with the capacity to replace media components at any experimental time point, and provides both perfused and compartmentalized cultivation conditions depending on the valve configuration. The functionality and flexibility of the platform were validated using both bacteria and yeast having different sizes, motility, and growth media. The demonstrated ability to track the growth and dynamics of both motile and non-motile prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms emphasizes the versatility of the devices, which should enable studies in bioenergy and environmental research.

  10. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Streptococcus varani sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bakour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Strain FF10T (= CSUR P1489 = DSM 100884 was isolated from the oral cavity of a lizard (Varanus niloticus in Dakar, Senegal. Here we used a polyphasic study including phenotypic and genomic analyses to describe the strain FF10T. Results support strain FF10T being a Gram-positive coccus, facultative anaerobic bacterium, catalase-negative, non-motile and non-spore forming. The sequenced genome counts 2.46 Mb with one chromosome but no plasmid. It exhibits a G+C content of 40.4% and contains 2471 protein-coding and 45 RNA genes. On the basis of these data, we propose the creation of Streptococcus varani sp. nov.

  11. Raoultella spp.-clinical significance, infections and susceptibility to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sękowska, Alicja

    2017-05-01

    The genus Raoultella belongs to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. Raoultella spp. are Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile rods. This genus can be distinguished from the genus Klebsiella, in that genus use histamine as the only source of carbon in the medium. Also, Raoultella grow at 4 °C and do not produce gas from lactose at 44.5 °C. Raoultella sp. is known to inhabit natural environments (water, soil, plants). The reservoir of Raoultella is the gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory tract. Raoultella spp. are opportunistic bacteria, which usually cause infections of the biliary tract, pneumonia and bacteraemia in oncologic and with lower immunity patients. Raoultella planticola and Raoultella ornithinolytica are the most frequently encountered human pathogens among the genus Raoultella. In this review, the current knowledge on Raoultella infections is summarized.

  12. Bacterial cell motility of Burkholderia gut symbiont is required to colonize the insect gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Beom; Byeon, Jin Hee; Jang, Ho Am; Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Yoo, Jin Wook; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Lee, Bok Luel

    2015-09-14

    We generated a Burkholderia mutant, which is deficient of an N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidase, AmiC, involved in peptidoglycan degradation. When non-motile ΔamiC mutant Burkholderia cells harboring chain form were orally administered to Riptortus insects, ΔamiC mutant cells were unable to establish symbiotic association. But, ΔamiC mutant complemented with amiC gene restored in vivo symbiotic association. ΔamiC mutant cultured in minimal medium restored their motility with single-celled morphology. When ΔamiC mutant cells harboring single-celled morphology were administered to the host insect, this mutant established normal symbiotic association, suggesting that bacterial motility is essential for the successful symbiosis between host insect and Burkholderia symbiont. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mutation of Growth Arrest Specific 8 Reveals a Role in Motile Cilia Function and Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Wesley R; Malarkey, Erik B; Tritschler, Douglas; Bower, Raqual; Pasek, Raymond C; Porath, Jonathan D; Birket, Susan E; Saunier, Sophie; Antignac, Corinne; Knowles, Michael R; Leigh, Margaret W; Zariwala, Maimoona A; Challa, Anil K; Kesterson, Robert A; Rowe, Steven M; Drummond, Iain A; Parant, John M; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Porter, Mary E; Yoder, Bradley K; Berbari, Nicolas F

    2016-07-01

    Ciliopathies are genetic disorders arising from dysfunction of microtubule-based cellular appendages called cilia. Different cilia types possess distinct stereotypic microtubule doublet arrangements with non-motile or 'primary' cilia having a 9+0 and motile cilia have a 9+2 array of microtubule doublets. Primary cilia are critical sensory and signaling centers needed for normal mammalian development. Defects in their structure/function result in a spectrum of clinical and developmental pathologies including abnormal neural tube and limb patterning. Altered patterning phenotypes in the limb and neural tube are due to perturbations in the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. Motile cilia are important in fluid movement and defects in motility result in chronic respiratory infections, altered left-right asymmetry, and infertility. These features are the hallmarks of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, OMIM 244400). While mutations in several genes are associated with PCD in patients and animal models, the genetic lesion in many cases is unknown. We assessed the in vivo functions of Growth Arrest Specific 8 (GAS8). GAS8 shares strong sequence similarity with the Chlamydomonas Nexin-Dynein Regulatory Complex (NDRC) protein 4 (DRC4) where it is needed for proper flagella motility. In mammalian cells, the GAS8 protein localizes not only to the microtubule axoneme of motile cilia, but also to the base of non-motile cilia. Gas8 was recently implicated in the Hh signaling pathway as a regulator of Smoothened trafficking into the cilium. Here, we generate the first mouse with a Gas8 mutation and show that it causes severe PCD phenotypes; however, there were no overt Hh pathway phenotypes. In addition, we identified two human patients with missense variants in Gas8. Rescue experiments in Chlamydomonas revealed a subtle defect in swim velocity compared to controls. Further experiments using CRISPR/Cas9 homology driven repair (HDR) to generate one of these human missense variants in

  14. Characterization of pro-inflammatory flagellin proteins produced by Lactobacillus ruminis and related motile Lactobacilli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Anne Neville

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus ruminis is one of at least twelve motile but poorly characterized species found in the genus Lactobacillus. Of these, only L. ruminis has been isolated from mammals, and this species may be considered as an autochthonous member of the gastrointestinal microbiota of humans, pigs and cows. Nine L. ruminis strains were investigated here to elucidate the biochemistry and genetics of Lactobacillus motility. Six strains isolated from humans were non-motile while three bovine isolates were motile. A complete set of flagellum biogenesis genes was annotated in the sequenced genomes of two strains, ATCC25644 (human isolate and ATCC27782 (bovine isolate, but only the latter strain produced flagella. Comparison of the L. ruminis and L. mali DSM20444(T motility loci showed that their genetic content and gene-order were broadly similar, although the L. mali motility locus was interrupted by an 11.8 Kb region encoding rhamnose utilization genes that is absent from the L. ruminis motility locus. Phylogenetic analysis of 39 motile bacteria indicated that Lactobacillus motility genes were most closely related to those of motile carnobacteria and enterococci. Transcriptome analysis revealed that motility genes were transcribed at a significantly higher level in motile L. ruminis ATCC27782 than in non-motile ATCC25644. Flagellin proteins were isolated from L. ruminis ATCC27782 and from three other Lactobacillus species, while recombinant flagellin of aflagellate L. ruminis ATCC25644 was expressed and purified from E. coli. These native and recombinant Lactobacillus flagellins, and also flagellate L. ruminis cells, triggered interleukin-8 production in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells in a manner suppressed by short interfering RNA directed against Toll-Like Receptor 5. This study provides genetic, transcriptomic, phylogenetic and immunological insights into the trait of flagellum-mediated motility in the lactobacilli.

  15. Phytoplankton can actively diversify their migration strategy in response to turbulent cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anupam; Carrara, Francesco; Stocker, Roman

    2017-03-23

    Marine phytoplankton inhabit a dynamic environment where turbulence, together with nutrient and light availability, shapes species fitness, succession and selection. Many species of phytoplankton are motile and undertake diel vertical migrations to gain access to nutrient-rich deeper layers at night and well-lit surface waters during the day. Disruption of this migratory strategy by turbulence is considered to be an important cause of the succession between motile and non-motile species when conditions turn turbulent. However, this classical view neglects the possibility that motile species may actively respond to turbulent cues to avoid layers of strong turbulence. Here we report that phytoplankton, including raphidophytes and dinoflagellates, can actively diversify their migratory strategy in response to hydrodynamic cues characteristic of overturning by Kolmogorov-scale eddies. Upon experiencing repeated overturning with timescales and statistics representative of ocean turbulence, an upward-swimming population rapidly (5-60 min) splits into two subpopulations, one swimming upward and one swimming downward. Quantitative morphological analysis of the harmful-algal-bloom-forming raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo together with a model of cell mechanics revealed that this behaviour was accompanied by a modulation of the cells' fore-aft asymmetry. The minute magnitude of the required modulation, sufficient to invert the preferential swimming direction of the cells, highlights the advanced level of control that phytoplankton can exert on their migratory behaviour. Together with observations of enhanced cellular stress after overturning and the typically deleterious effects of strong turbulence on motile phytoplankton, these results point to an active adaptation of H. akashiwo to increase the chance of evading turbulent layers by diversifying the direction of migration within the population, in a manner suggestive of evolutionary bet-hedging. This migratory behaviour

  16. Mutation of Growth Arrest Specific 8 Reveals a Role in Motile Cilia Function and Human Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley R Lewis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ciliopathies are genetic disorders arising from dysfunction of microtubule-based cellular appendages called cilia. Different cilia types possess distinct stereotypic microtubule doublet arrangements with non-motile or 'primary' cilia having a 9+0 and motile cilia have a 9+2 array of microtubule doublets. Primary cilia are critical sensory and signaling centers needed for normal mammalian development. Defects in their structure/function result in a spectrum of clinical and developmental pathologies including abnormal neural tube and limb patterning. Altered patterning phenotypes in the limb and neural tube are due to perturbations in the hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway. Motile cilia are important in fluid movement and defects in motility result in chronic respiratory infections, altered left-right asymmetry, and infertility. These features are the hallmarks of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, OMIM 244400. While mutations in several genes are associated with PCD in patients and animal models, the genetic lesion in many cases is unknown. We assessed the in vivo functions of Growth Arrest Specific 8 (GAS8. GAS8 shares strong sequence similarity with the Chlamydomonas Nexin-Dynein Regulatory Complex (NDRC protein 4 (DRC4 where it is needed for proper flagella motility. In mammalian cells, the GAS8 protein localizes not only to the microtubule axoneme of motile cilia, but also to the base of non-motile cilia. Gas8 was recently implicated in the Hh signaling pathway as a regulator of Smoothened trafficking into the cilium. Here, we generate the first mouse with a Gas8 mutation and show that it causes severe PCD phenotypes; however, there were no overt Hh pathway phenotypes. In addition, we identified two human patients with missense variants in Gas8. Rescue experiments in Chlamydomonas revealed a subtle defect in swim velocity compared to controls. Further experiments using CRISPR/Cas9 homology driven repair (HDR to generate one of these human missense

  17. In vitro and comparative study on the extracellular enzyme activity of molds isolated from keratomycosis and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Mythili

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To isolate and identify the molds involved in mycotic keratitis; to isolate corresponding species from soil samples; to compare the extracellular enzyme activity indices of the molds isolated from keratitis cases and the corresponding soil isolates.METHODS:The specimens were collected from the target patients attending the microbiology laboratory of tertiary eye hospital in Coimbatore, Tamilnadu state, India. The isolates were subjected for identification based on the growth on solid media, direct microscopy and lacto phenol cotton blue wet mount preparation. Extracellular enzymes such as lipase, deoxyribonuclease (DNase, α-amylase, protease, cellulase and pectinase produced by the fungalisolates were screened on solid media supplemented with the corresponding substrates. Based on growth and zone diameter, the enzyme activity indices were calculated and were compared with that of the soil fungalisolates.RESULTS:A total of 108 clinical samples were collected from a tertiary eye care hospital and out of which 60 fungal isolates were obtained. Among these, Fusarium spp. (n=30, non sporulating molds (n=9, Aspergillus flavus (n=6, Bipolaris spp. (n=6, Exserohilum spp. (n=4, Curvularia spp. (n=3, Alternaria spp. (n=1 and Exophiala spp. (n=1were identified and designated as FS1-30, NSM1-9, AF1-6, BS1-6, ES1-4, CS1-3, AS1 and EX1, respectively. For comparative analysis, soil samples were also collected from which, one isolate of each Fusarium spp., Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris spp., Exserohilum spp., and Curvularia spp., respectively were selected. Highest lipase activity was seen in corneal isolate NSM2 (EAI= 2.14. The DNase activity was higher in NSM9 (EAI=1.88. In case of protease, Fusarium spp. (FS9 had prominent enzyme activity index of 1.38; α-amylase activity was also superior in corneal isolate FS13 with EAI of 1.63 when compared to other isolates. The enzyme activity index for cellulase was also noted to be higher in corneal isolates i

  18. Tolerance Induction of Temperature and Starvation with Tricalcium Phosphate on Preservation and Sporulation in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Detected by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokh Esfahani, Samaneh; Emtiazi, Giti; Shafiei, Rasoul; Ghorbani, Najmeh; Zarkesh Esfahani, Seyed Hamid

    2016-09-01

    The Bacillus species have many applications in the preparation of various enzymes, probiotic, biofertilizer, and biomarkers for which the survival of resting cells and spore formation under different conditions are important. In this study, water and saline along with different mineral substances such as calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, and silica were used for the detection of survival and preservation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The results showed intensive death of resting cells at 8 °C, but significant survival at 28 °C after one month. However, preservation by minerals significantly decreased the rate of death and induced sporulation at both the temperatures. The resting cells were maintained at room temperature (about 60 % of the initial population survived after a month) in the presence of tricalcium phosphate. The results showed that temperature has more effect on sporulation compare with starvation. The sporulation in normal saline at 28 °C was 70 times more than that at 8 °C; meanwhile, addition of tricalcium phosphate increases sporulation by 90 times. Also, the FTIR data showed the interaction of tricalcium phosphate with spores and resting cells. The discrimination of sporulation from non-sporulation state was performed by nucleic acid staining with thiazole orange and detected by flow cytometry. The flow cytometric studies confirmed that the rates of sporulation in pure water were significantly more at 28 °C. This is the first report on the detection of bacterial spore with thiazole orange by flow cytometry and also on the interaction of tricalcium phosphate with spores by FTIR analyses.

  19. Comparison of expression of key sporulation, solventogenic and acetogenic genes in C. beijerinckii NRRL B-598 and its mutant strain overexpressing spo0A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolek, J; Diallo, M; Vasylkivska, M; Branska, B; Sedlar, K; López-Contreras, A M; Patakova, P

    2017-11-01

    The production of acetone, butanol and ethanol by fermentation of renewable biomass has potential to become a valuable industrial process. Mechanisms of solvent production and sporulation involve some common regulators in some ABE-producing clostridia, although details of the links between the pathways are not clear. In this study, we compare a wild-type (WT) Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B-598 with its mutant strain OESpo0A, in which the gene encoding Spo0A, an important regulator of both sporulation and solventogenesis, is overexpressed in terms of solvent and acid production. We also compare morphologies during growth on two different media: TYA broth, where the WT culture sporulates, and RCM, where the WT culture does not. In addition, RT-qPCR-based analysis of expression profiles of spo0A, spoIIE, sigG, spoVD, ald and buk1 genes involved in sporulation or solvent production in these strains, were compared. The OESpo0A mutant did not produce spores and butanol titre was lower compared to the WT, but increased amounts of butyric acid and ethanol were produced. The gene spo0A had high levels of expression in the WT under non-sporulating culture conditions while other selected genes for sporulation factors were downregulated significantly. Similar observations were obtained for OESpo0A where spo0A overexpression and downregulation of other sporulation genes were demonstrated. Higher expression of spo0A led to higher expression of buk1 and ald, which could confirm the role of spo0A in activation of the solventogenic pathway, although solvent production was not affected significantly in the WT and was weakened in the OESpo0A mutant.

  20. Honey characteristics after extraction and half-year storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2015-12-01

    the nectar of plants, but non-sporulating microorganisms die in the ripe honey.

  1. Marinobacter xestospongiae sp. nov., isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, O. O.

    2011-10-14

    A Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-sporulating, rod-shaped and slightly halophilic bacterial strain, designated UST090418-1611(T), was isolated from the marina sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain UST090418-1611(T) in the family Alteromonadaceae with the closest relationship to the genus Marinobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the strain and the type strains of recognized Marinobacter species ranged from 92.9 to 98.3%. Although strain UST090418-1611(T) shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Marinobacter mobilis CN46(T), M. zhejiangensis CN74(T) and M. sediminum R65(T) (98.3, 97.4 and 97.3%, respectively), the relatedness of the strain to these three strains in DNA DNA hybridization was only 58, 56 and 33%, respectively, supporting the novelty of the strain. In contrast to most strains in the genus Marinobacter, strain UST090418-1611(T) tolerated only 6% (w/v) NaCl, and optimal growth occurred at 2.0% (w/v) NaCl, pH 7.0-8.0 and 28-36 degrees C. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C-12:0 3-OH, C-16:0, C-12:0 and summed feature 3 (C-16.1 omega 6c and/or C-16:1 omega 7c) The genomic DNA G+C content was 57.1 mol%. Based on the physiological, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics presented in this study, we suggest that the strain represents a novel species in the genus Marinobacter, for which the name Marinobacter xestospongiae sp. nov. is proposed, with UST090418-1611(T) (=JCM 17469(T) =NRRL B-59512(T)) as the type strain.

  2. Maribacter thermophilus sp. nov., isolated from an algal bloom in an intertidal zone, and emended description of the genus Maribacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Yang, Qi-Qi; Ren, Yi; Zhang, Wen-Wu; Zheng, Gang; Sun, Cong; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Wu, Min

    2015-01-01

    A novel facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative bacterium, designated strain HT7-2(T), was isolated from Ulva prolifera collected from the intertidal zone of Qingdao sea area, China, during its bloom. Cells were rod-shaped (1.9-3.5×0.4-0.6 µm), non-sporulating and motile by gliding. Strain HT7-2(T) was able to grow at 4-50 °C (optimum 40-42 °C), pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-3 %) and 0.5-10 % (w/v) sea salts (optimum 2.5 %). The genomic DNA G+C content was 38.8 mol%. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain HT7-2(T) belonged to the genus Maribacter with sequence similarity values of 94.5-96.6 %, and was most closely related to Maribacter aestuarii GY20(T) (96.6%). Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that the main isoprenoid quinone was MK-6 and the major fatty acids were iso-C15:0 and unknown equivalent chain-length 13.565. The polar lipids of strain HT7-2(T) consisted of one phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified lipids and one unidentified aminolipid. On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain HT7-2(T) ( =CGMCC 1.12207(T) =JCM 18466(T)) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Maribacter, for which the name Maribacter thermophilus sp. nov. is proposed. An emended description of the genus Maribacter is also proposed. © 2015 IUMS.

  3. Parvularcula flava sp. nov., an alphaproteobacterium isolated from surface seawater of the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Qi; Wu, Yue-Hong; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Xin; Xu, Xue-Wei; Wu, Min

    2016-09-01

    An aerobic, coccoid to short rod, yellow-pigmented, non-sporulating and Gram-staining-negative bacterium, designated NH6-79T, was isolated from surface seawater of the South China Sea. The isolate was motile with a polar flagellum. Growth was observed at 4-42 °C (optimum 37 °C), at pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), and with 0.5-11 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 4.5 %) and 1.5-17 % (w/v) sea salt (optimum 3.5-5 %). Strain NH6-79T could decompose peptone to produce H2S, but could not hydrolyse skimmed milk. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain NH6-79T had the closest affinity to the genus Parvularcula, sharing the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with 'Parvularcula oceanus' JLT2013 (94.1 %), Parvularcula lutaonensis CC-MMS-1T (93.4 %), Parvularcula dongshanensis SH25T (92.9 %) and Parvularcula bermudensis HTCC2503T (92.7 %), and lower sequence similarities (<90 %) with all other genera. The dominant fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0. The polar lipid profile was mainly composed of three unidentified glycolipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-10. The DNA G+C content was 60.7 mol%. Based on the polyphasic taxonomic characterization, strain NH6-79T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Parvularcula, for which the name Parvularcula flava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NH6-79T (=CGMCC 1.14984T=JCM 30557T=MCCC 1K00277T).

  4. Distribution and prevalence of crown rot pathogens affecting wheat crops in southern Chile

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    Ernesto Moya-Elizondo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot pathogens are associated with higher losses for wheat crop farmers, but information about the distribution and prevalence of these pathogens in Chile is inadequate. Distribution and prevalence of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crown rot pathogens were examined in a survey of 48 commercial fields from December 2011 to February 2012 in southern Chile. These fields were located between Collipulli (37°56'00" S; 72°26'39" W and Purranque (40°50'30" S; 73°22'03" W. Severity of crown rot disease was determined through visual assessment of the first internode of 20 tillers obtained from each field. Incidence of crown rot pathogens per field was determined by plating the 20 tillers on Petri plates with 20% potato dextrose agar amended with lactic acid (aPDA medium. Resulting fungal colonies from monoxenic culture were identified by morphological or molecular-assisted identification. Severity of crown rot varied between 11.3% and 80% for individual fields. Culture plate analysis showed 72.2% of stems were infected with some fungus. Fusarium avenaceum, F. graminearum, and F. culmorum, pathogens associated with Fusarium crown rot disease were isolated from 13.5% of tillers. Gaeumannomyces graminis, causal agent of take-all disease in cereals, was isolated from 11.1% of culms. Phaeosphaeria sp., an endophyte and possibly a non-pathogenic fungus, was isolated from 13.9% of tillers. Pathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia spp. and Microdochium nivale, other saprophyte, and several unidentified non-sporulating fungi were isolated at frequencies lower than 3% of the total. Fusarium crown rot and take-all were the most prevalent and distributed crown rot diseases present in wheat crops in southern Chile.

  5. Pigmentiphaga aceris sp. nov., isolated from tree sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Dong

    2017-09-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative bacterial strains, SAP-32T and SAP-36, were isolated from sap drawn from the Acer pictum from Mount Halla in Jeju, Republic of Korea. The organisms were strictly aerobic, non-sporulating, motile rods and showed growth at 10-30 °C, pH 7-8 and with 0-2 % NaCl. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The predominant fatty acids were C16 : 0, cyclo-C17 : 0, summed feature 3 and C18 : 0. The polar lipids contained phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophosphoglycolipid, an unknown glycolipid, an unknown phospholipid and two unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 64.4 mol%. The results of phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that SAP-32T and SAP-36 formed a distinct cluster with members of the genus Pigmentiphaga within the family Alcaligenaceae. Both strains showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 100 % to each other. The closest relatives of the isolates were Pigmentiphaga daeguensis (97.08 % sequence similarity), Pigmentiphaga kullae (97.01 %) and Pigmentiphaga litoralis (96.73 %). On the basis of data from phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, SAP-32T (=KCTC 52619T=DSM 104039T) and SAP-36 (=KCTC 52620=DSM 104072) represent members of a novel species of the genus Pigmentiphaga, for which the name Pigmentiphaga aceris sp. nov. is proposed.

  6. The metabolic network of Clostridium acetobutylicum: Comparison of the approximate Bayesian computation via sequential Monte Carlo (ABC-SMC) and profile likelihood estimation (PLE) methods for determinability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Graeme J; King, John R

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum is an anaerobic endospore-forming species which produces acetone, butanol and ethanol via the acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation process, leading to biofuels including butanol. In previous work we looked to estimate the parameters in an ordinary differential equation model of the glucose metabolism network using data from pH-controlled continuous culture experiments. Here we combine two approaches, namely the approximate Bayesian computation via an existing sequential Monte Carlo (ABC-SMC) method (to compute credible intervals for the parameters), and the profile likelihood estimation (PLE) (to improve the calculation of confidence intervals for the same parameters), the parameters in both cases being derived from experimental data from forward shift experiments. We also apply the ABC-SMC method to investigate which of the models introduced previously (one non-sporulation and four sporulation models) have the greatest strength of evidence. We find that the joint approximate posterior distribution of the parameters determines the same parameters as previously, including all of the basal and increased enzyme production rates and enzyme reaction activity parameters, as well as the Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters for glucose ingestion, while other parameters are not as well-determined, particularly those connected with the internal metabolites acetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA. We also find that the approximate posterior is strongly non-Gaussian, indicating that our previous assumption of elliptical contours of the distribution is not valid, which has the effect of reducing the numbers of pairs of parameters that are (linearly) correlated with each other. Calculations of confidence intervals using the PLE method back this up. Finally, we find that all five of our models are equally likely, given the data available at present. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intraabdominal abscess caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: A case report

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    Toyomitsu Sawai

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia usually causes nosocomial infections, but intraabdominal abscesses or organ/space surgical site infection (SSI secondary to this organism has been rarely reported. Here, we reported a rare case of SSI that presented as intraabdominal abscess caused by S. maltophilia. Presentation of case: A 68-year-old woman presented to our hospital with transverse colon cancer. Further work up with abdominal computed tomography (CT revealed left renal cell carcinoma. Transverse colon resection and left kidney partial resection were performed. On post-operative day 10, she started to have fever at 38 °C and repeat abdominal CT showed intraabdominal abscess. Empiric treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam (TAZ/PIPC was initiated. However, fever persisted and the abscess size did not change despite 10 days of antibiotic. On post-operative day 20, drainage of intraabdominal abscess was performed. TAZ/PIPC was then shifted to meropenem (MEPM. After two days, S. maltophilia was identified in the culture of the abscess, and MEPM was shifted to minocycline (MINO. Fever disappeared after 7 days of treatment and abdominal CT after 14 days showed almost complete resolution of the abscess. Discussion: S. maltophilia is a multi-drug resistant, aerobic, non-glucose fermenting, non-sporulating, Gram-negative bacillus. S. maltophilia may cause a variety of infections, but intraabdominal abscesses as a manifestation of SSI due to this organism is relative rare. Conclusion: Although usually a non-pathogenic organism or colonizer, S. maltophilia can cause organ/space SSI in an immunocompromised host. Therefore, clinicians should be aware of the possibility that S. maltophilia may cause organ/space SSI. Keywords: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Intraabdominal abscess, Surgical site infections

  8. Development of Storage Methods for Saccharomyces Strains to be Utilized for In situ Nutrient Production in Long-Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Natalie; Kagawa, Hiromi; Hindupur, Aditya; Hogan, John

    2017-01-01

    Long-duration space missions will benefit from closed-loop life support technologies that minimize mass, volume, and power as well as decrease reliance on Earth-based resupply. A system for In situ production of essential vitamins and nutrients can address the documented problem of degradation of stored food and supplements. Research has shown that the edible yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be used as an on-demand system for the production of various compounds that are beneficial to human health. A critical objective in the development of this approach for long-duration space missions is the effective storage of the selected microorganisms. This research investigates the effects of different storage methods on survival rates of the non-sporulating probiotic S. boulardii, and S. cerevisiae spores and vegetative cells. Dehydration has been shown to increase long-term yeast viability, which also allows increased shelf-life and reduction in mass and volume. The process of dehydration causes detrimental effects on vegetative cells, including oxidative damage and membrane disruption. To maximize cell viability, various dehydration methods are tested here, including lyophilization (freeze-drying), air drying, and dehydration by vacuum. As a potential solution to damage caused by lyophilization, the efficacy of various cryoprotectants was tested. Furthermore, in an attempt to maintain higher survival rates, the effect of temperature during long-term storage was investigated. Data show spores of the wild-type strain to be more resilient to dehydration-related stressors than vegetative cells of either strain, and maintain high viability rates even after one year at room temperature. In the event that engineering the organism to produce targeted nutrient compounds interferes with effective sporulation of S. cerevisiae, a more robust method for improving vegetative cell storage is being sought. Therefore, anhydrobiotic engineering of S. cerevisiae and S. boulardii is being

  9. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analysis revealed genetic characteristics related to solvent formation and xylose utilization in Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018

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    Wang Shengyue

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium acetobutylicum, a gram-positive and spore-forming anaerobe, is a major strain for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol. But a previously isolated hyper-butanol producing strain C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 does not produce spores and has greater capability of solvent production, especially for butanol, than the type strain C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Results Complete genome of C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing. Genomic comparison with ATCC 824 identified many variations which may contribute to the hyper-butanol producing characteristics in the EA 2018 strain, including a total of 46 deletion sites and 26 insertion sites. In addition, transcriptomic profiling of gene expression in EA 2018 relative to that of ATCC824 revealed expression-level changes of several key genes related to solvent formation. For example, spo0A and adhEII have higher expression level, and most of the acid formation related genes have lower expression level in EA 2018. Interestingly, the results also showed that the variation in CEA_G2622 (CAC2613 in ATCC 824, a putative transcriptional regulator involved in xylose utilization, might accelerate utilization of substrate xylose. Conclusions Comparative analysis of C. acetobutylicum hyper-butanol producing strain EA 2018 and type strain ATCC 824 at both genomic and transcriptomic levels, for the first time, provides molecular-level understanding of non-sporulation, higher solvent production and enhanced xylose utilization in the mutant EA 2018. The information could be valuable for further genetic modification of C. acetobutylicum for more effective butanol production.

  10. Airborne fungi in the region of Cubatão, São Paulo State, Brazil Fungos anemófilos da região de Cubatão, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Iracema H. Schoenlein-Crusius

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available From March/1993 to March/1995, airborne fungi were isolated from the "Vale do Rio Moji" (highly affected by the air pollution caused by fertilizer industries, steel works, cement factories and chemical products industries, among others and from the "Vale do Rio Pilões" (less affected by the air pollution, both in the municipality of Cubatão, São Paulo State, Brazil, by exposing Petri dishes with potato dextrose agar medium, placed one meter from the ground, during 5 min. After 5 days of incubation at 20ºC, the colonies of the fungi were purified and identified, resulting in the identification of 39 taxa, three unidentified strains of Fusarium and non-sporulating cultures. A total of 28 taxa, one unidentified strain of Fusarium and non-sporulating fungi (71 records were isolated in the "Vale do Rio Moji" and 29 taxa, two unidentified strains of Fusarium and non-sporulating fungi (72 records in the "Vale do Rio Pilões. The airborne mycota of the higher polluted site presented 17 common, 12 rare and only one constant fungal species. In the other site, the airborne mycota was composed by 19 common, 10 rare and two constant fungal species. Among the obtained fungi, at least 12 taxa were reported as opportunistic fungi, 26 have been mentioned related to plant diseases and eight have been associated to allergy problems. The similarity Index of Sörensen between the mycotas, corresponding to 58%, may be considered low, and is probably justified by the air pollution, that mainly distinguish the two studied areas.De março/1993 a março/1995, foram isolados fungos anemófilos no Vale do Rio Moji (afetada pela poluição aérea causada por indústrias de fertilizantes, metalúrgicas, fábricas de cimento e indústrias de produtos químicos, entre outras e no Vale do Rio Pilões (área menos afetada pela poluição aérea, no município de Cubatão, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, expondo placas-de-Petri, contendo meio de batata-dextrose-ágar, durante

  11. [Micrococcus sp.--the pathogen of leaf necrosis of horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.) in Kiev].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, L M; Makhinia, L V; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2013-01-01

    A group of phytopathogenic bacteria was isolated from patterns of drying horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.), which grow in Kyiv. The properties of slowly growing, highly aggressive microorganisms have been described in the paper. They grow up on the 8-10th day after sowing. The investigated microorganisms form very small (0.5-1 mm in diameter) colonies on the potato agar. Bacteria are protuberant, shining, smooth with flat edges, they are pale yellow, yellow, or pink. The bacteria are Gram-positive, spherical, are disposed in smears singly, in pairs, as accumulations, or netting. They are aerobes, do not form spores, are not mobile. They are inert in respect of different sources of carbon. They reduce nitrates, do not dilute gelatin, do not hydrolyze starch, do not release hydrogen sulphide and indole. The bacteria are catalase-positive, oxidase-negative. They do not cause potato and carrot rot. They lose quickly their viability under the laboratory conditions. The saturated acids C 14:0; C 15:0; C16:0; C18:0 have been revealed in the composition of cellular fatty acids. Microorganisms are identified as Micrococcus sp. Under artificial inoculation this highly aggressive pathogen causes drying of the horse-chestnut buds and necrosis, which occupies 1/3-1/2 of the leaf plate. A wide zone of chlorosis, surrounding necrosis, may occupy the whole leaf surface. The infected leaves use to twist up from the top (apex) or along a midrib and to dry.

  12. Mariniradius saccharolyticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Cyclobacteriaceae isolated from marine aquaculture pond water, and emended descriptions of the genus Aquiflexum and Aquiflexum balticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhumika, V; Srinivas, T N R; Ravinder, K; Kumar, P Anil

    2013-06-01

    A novel marine, Gram-stain-negative, oxidase- and catalase- positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain AK6(T), was isolated from marine aquaculture pond water collected in Andhra Pradesh, India. The fatty acids were dominated by iso-C15:0, iso-C17:1ω9c, iso-C15:1 G, iso-C17:0 3-OH and anteiso-C15:0. Strain AK6(T) contained MK-7 as the sole respiratory quinone and phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminophospholipid, one unidentified phospholipid and seven unidentified lipids as polar lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain AK6(T) was 45.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain AK6(T) formed a distinct branch within the family Cyclobacteriaceae and clustered with Aquiflexum balticum DSM 16537(T) and other members of the family Cyclobacteriaceae. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis confirmed that Aquiflexum balticum DSM 16537(T) was the nearest neighbour, with pairwise sequence similarity of 90.1%, while sequence similarity with the other members of the family was balticum are also proposed.

  13. Streptococcus didelphis sp. nov., a streptococcus with marked catalase activity isolated from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) with suppurative dermatitis and liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurangirwa, F R; Teitzel, C A; Cui, J; French, D M; McDonough, P L; Besser, T

    2000-03-01

    beta-Haemolytic, catalase-positive, Gram-positive cocci that formed chains in broth media but did not react with Lancefield group antisera were isolated from skin lesions, spleen, liver and lungs of nine opossums, including eight from a research colony and one from a wildlife rehabilitation organization. The isolates had vigorous catalase activity that was retained on initial passage on non-blood-containing media, but this activity was lost in subsequent passages. The use of standard phenotypic tests did not lead to satisfactory identification of these organisms beyond the genus level, even if the aberrant catalase reaction was not considered. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolates was most similar (96%) to Streptococcus dysgalactiae, but distinct from that species as 16S rRNA gene similarity of different strains of S. dysgalactiae was > 99%. Characterization of biochemical reactions and cell-wall fatty acid profiles also revealed significant differences between the opossum isolates and all other known Streptococcus spp., thus it is proposed as a new species with the name Streptococcus didelphis, sp. nov. The type strain is ATCC 700828T.

  14. Detection of bacterial soft-rot of crown imperial caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum using specific PCR primers

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    E. Mahmoudi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Pectobacterium is one of the major destructive causal agent in most crop plants throughout the world. During a survey in spring of 2005 in the rangeland of Kermanshah and Isfahan, provinces of Iran, samples of bulbs and stems of crown imperial with brown spot and soft rot were collected. Eight strains of pectolytic Erwinia were isolated and purified from these samples. Phenotypic tests indicated that the strains were gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped, motile with peritrichous flagella. They were oxidase negative, catalase positive and also able to macerate potato slices. Pathogenicity of all the strains were confirmed on corn, philodendron and crown imperial by inoculation of these crops with a bacterial suspension and reisolation of the strain from symptomatic tissues. A pair of specific PCR primers was used to detect these bacterial strains. The primer set (EXPCCF/EXPCCR amplified a single fragment of the expected size (0.55 kb from genomic DNA of all strains used in this study. In nested PCR, the primer set (INPCCR/INPCCF amplified the expected single fragment (0.4 kb from the PCR product of first PCR amplification. On the basis of the biochemical and phenotypic characteristics and PCR amplification by the specific PCR primers, these strains were identified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. This is the first report of occurrence of crown imperial bacterial soft-rot in Iran.

  15. [Advenella kashmirensis subsp. methylica PK1, a facultative methylotroph from carex rhizosphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poroshina, M N; Doronina, N V; Kaparullina, E N; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2015-01-01

    A strain (PK1) of facultative methylobacteria growing on methanol as a carbon and energy source was isolated from carex rhizosphere (Pamukkale National Park, Turkey). The cells were nonmotile gram-negative rods propagating by binary fission. The organism was a strict anaerobe, oxidase- and catalase-positive. Optimal growth occurred at 29°C, pH 8.0-8.5, and 0.5% NaCl; no growth occurred at 2% NaCl. The organism used the ribulose bisphosphate pathway of C1 assimilation. Predominant fatty acids were 11-octodecenoic (18:1ω7) and cis-hexadecenoic (16:1ω7c). Phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol were the dominant phospholipids. Q8 was the main ubiquinone. DNA G+C content was 55.4 mol % (mp). Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that strain PK1 belonged to the genus Advenella with 98.8 and 99.2% similarity to the type strains A. incenata CCUG 45225T and A. kashmirensis WT001T, respectively. DNA-DNA homology of strain PK1 and A. kashmirensis WT001T was 70%. While MALDI analysis confirmed their close clusterization, RAPD analysis revealed the differences between strain PKI and other Advenella strains. Based on its geno- and phenotypic properties, the isolate PK1 was classified as A. kashmirensis subsp. methylica PK1 (VKM-B 2850 = DSM 27514), the first known methylotroph of the genus Advenella.

  16. Pseudomonas aestus sp. nov., a plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated from mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Rafael L F; Santos, Suikinai Nobre; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Silva, Fábio Sérgio Paulino; Souza, Danilo Tosta; Melo, Itamar Soares

    2017-10-01

    Strain CMAA 1215 T , a Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, catalase positive, polarly flagellated, motile, rod-shaped (0.5-0.8 × 1.3-1.9 µm) bacterium, was isolated from mangrove sediments, Cananéia Island, Brazil. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain CMAA 1215 T forms a distinct phyletic line within the Pseudomonas putida subclade, being closely related to P. plecoglossicida ATCC 700383 T , P. monteilii NBRC 103158 T , and P. taiwanensis BCRC 17751 T of sequence similarity of 98.86, 98.73, and 98.71%, respectively. Genomic comparisons of the strain CMAA 1215 T with its closest phylogenetic type strains using average nucleotide index (ANI) and DNA:DNA relatedness approaches revealed 84.3-85.3% and 56.0-63.0%, respectively. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) performed concatenating 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB gene sequences from the novel species was related with Pseudomonas putida subcluster and formed a new phylogenetic lineage. The phenotypic, physiological, biochemical, and genetic characteristics support the assignment of CMAA 1215 T to the genus Pseudomonas, representing a novel species. The name Pseudomonas aestus sp.nov. is proposed, with CMAA 1215 T (=NRRL B-653100 T  = CBMAI 1962 T ) as the type strain.

  17. Bioremediation of PAHs for the Persian Gulf Water by RBCp and MBBR Contactors

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    Parvin Nahid

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil and heavy metals pollution was investigated in the Persian Gulf coastal waters near Booshehr Province. The most polluted areas were found to be Imam Hassan and Assalluyeh, showing PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons levels of 9.83 and 1.29 ppm, respectively. PAHs such as naphthalene and phenanthrene (pollutants with petroleum, coke, and industrial origins find their way into the environment. Soil samples were taken from these polluted areas to isolate species of bacteria with the highest biodegradation capability. Eight species were recognized, most of which belonged to the pseudomonas, gram negative, and catalase positive organisms. The species were tested for their biological removal capability and the best four were used in a RBCp bioreactor to study their pollutant removal capability. Under steady conditions, a COD removal of 73% and a PAHs removal of 66% were recorded. A moving bed bioreactor (MBBR was also used to investigate TPH biological removal using the same bacteria. The experiments were performed under three acclimatization periods of 48, 36, and 18 hours within a COD range of 800-2000 mg/l. The results showed that maximum COD and TOC removal efficiencies of 81% and 79%, respectively, can be achieved in mixed growths of the isolated bacteria.

  18. Emerging infections: Shewanella - A series of five cases

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    Krishna Kanchan Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Shewanella spp. are unusual cause of disease in humans; however, reports of Shewanella infections have been increasing. Shewanella is a ubiquitous organism that has been isolated from many foods, sewage, and both from fresh and salt water. Earlier it was named as Pseudomonas putrefaciens or Shewanella putrefaciens. There are several reports describing this organism causing human infections such as cellulitis, abscesses, bacteremia, wound infection, etc. It is oxidase and catalase-positive non-fermenter gram-negative rod that produces hydrogen sulfide. Aims : The study was conducted to identify Shewanella spp., which was wrongly reported as Pseudomonas spp. Materials and Methods : Clinical samples were cultured as per standard clinical laboratory procedure. We tested the non-lactose-fermenting colonies for oxidase positivity. Oxidase-positive colony was inoculated in triple sugar iron slant (TSI to know the hydrogen sulfide production. Hydrogen sulfide positive colonies were further tested for citrate, urease, indole, and amino acid decarboxylation and acid and gas production from sugars. Results : Five isolates identified as Pseudomonas spp. during preliminary testing were proved to be Shewanella spp. on further testing. Conclusions : It will help in better understanding the epidemiology, pathogenesis and risk factors associated with these and prevention of the rare pathogenic organisms.

  19. Biosurfactant production by halotolerant Rhodococcus fascians from Casey Station, Wilkes Land, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesheva, Victoria; Stackebrandt, Erko; Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia

    2010-08-01

    Isolate A-3 from Antarctic soil in Casey Station, Wilkes Land, was characterized for growth on hydrocarbons. Use of glucose or kerosene as a sole carbon source in the culture medium favoured biosynthesis of surfactant which, by thin-layer chromatography, indicated the formation of a rhamnose-containing glycolipid. This compound lowered the surface tension at the air/water interface to 27 mN/m as well as inhibited the growth of B. subtilis ATCC 6633 and exhibited hemolytic activity. A highly hydrophobic surface of the cells suggests that uptake occurs via a direct cell-hydrocarbon substrate contact. Strain A-3 is Gram-positive, halotolerant, catalase positive, urease negative and has rod-coccus shape. Its cell walls contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. Phylogenetic analysis based on comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain A-3 is closely related to Rhodococcus fascians with which it shares 100% sequence similarity. This is the first report on rhamnose-containing biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus fascians isolated from Antarctic soil.

  20. PENENTUAN PATOTIPE DAN KERAGAMAN GENETIK Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PADA TANAMAN PADI DI WILAYAH KARESIDENAN BANYUMAS

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    Heru Adi Djatmiko

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the major diseases of rice paddy fields in Indonesia and the Asian countries is bacterial leaf blight or kresek caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo. Losses caused by the disease in Indonesia reached 70–80%, in India reached 74–81%, and Japan reached 20–50%, thus causing great losses in the economy. The objectives of that research were: 1 Characterize Xoo from Karesidenan Banyumas; 2 To study of the amount of damage and AUDPC (the area under disease progress curve of bacterial leaf blight disease at Karesidenan Banyumas; 3 To obtain of Xoo pathotype by using the test varieties; 4 To obtaining genetic diversity of Xoo that found in Banjarnegara, Purbalingga, Banyumas, Cilacap dan Kebumen region. Research was carried out in several stages: isolation and characterization of Xoo from Barlingmascakeb region, testing of Xoo with five varieties testing, assesment of disease intensity of bacterial leaf blight and AUDPC in the field, and testing the genetic diversity of Xoo. The results showed that pathogen of bacterial blight on rice is Xoo characterized yellow colour of colonies on SPA medium, negative gram reaction, catalase positive, oxidase negative, negative growth at 0.1% TZC, negative starch hydrolisis , and resistance to 0.001% Cu(NO32 positive. Xoo pathotype isolats found in Banjarnegara was pathotype X, Cilacap were pathotype I and II and Purbalingga was pathotype II. Eighteen of Xoo from Karesidenan Banyumas (Banjarnegara, Purbalingga, Banyumas, Cilacap and Kebumen of RAPD differ one from the others.

  1. Lysinibacillus louembei sp. nov., a spore-forming bacterium isolated from Ntoba Mbodi, alkaline fermented leaves of cassava from the Republic of the Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouoba, Labia Irène I.; Mbozo, Alain B. Vouidibio; Thorsen, Line

    2015-01-01

    . xylanilyticus DSM 23493T and L. odysseyi DSM 18869T was 41%, 16% and 15%, respectively. The internal transcribed spacer-PCR profile of the isolate was different from those of closely related bacteria. The cellwall peptidoglycan type was A4α, L-Lys-D-Asp and the major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15......Investigation of the microbial diversity of Ntoba Mbodi, an African food made from the alkaline fermentation of cassava leaves, revealed the presence of a Gram-positive, catalase-positive, aerobic, motile and rod-shaped endospore-forming bacterium (NM73) with unusual phenotypic and genotypic......:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C17:0 and iso-C17:1ω10c. The polar lipids included phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid, aminolipid, two phospholipids and two unknown lipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-7 and MK-6.Ribose was the only whole-cell sugar...

  2. Isolation and identification of Bacillus spp. from compost material, compost and mushroom casing soil active against Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Olja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of bacteria was carried out from samples of straw and chicken manure, compost at various stages of the composting process and casing soil used for growing button mushrooms. A preliminary screening of 108 bacterial isolates for antagonistic activity against Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum showed that 23 tested isolates inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungus. Further screening with four indicator isolates of fungi revealed that all 23 bacterial isolates inhibited the growth of T. aggressivum f. europaeum, T. harzianum and T. koningii, while only 13 isolates inhibited the growth of T. atroviride. T. aggressivum f. europaeum proved to be the most sensitive, with many bacterial isolates generating a high percentage of growth inhibition. Only two bacterial isolates (B-129 and B-268 were successful in inhibiting the growth of all 4 tested pathogens. All 23 bacterial isolates were characterized as Gram-positive and catalase-positive and were subjected to molecular identification based on the partial sequence, the hypervariant region of the 16S rDNA. It was shown that the obtained bacterial strains belong to Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis and B. pumilus species. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31043 i br. 173026

  3. Characterization of Candidate probionts isolated from human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalkhali, S; Mojgani, N

    2017-05-20

    This study was designed to isolate and identify the potential probionts present in 32 healthy mothers' breast milk. Microbial culture media and 16SrRNA sequencing were used to isolate and identify the bacteria and all isolates were analyzed for their antagonistic potential, resistance to acidic pH, bile salts and survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. The colonization potential was further assessed based on adherence to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cell lines. The breast milk samples harbored significant numbers of Gram positive and catalase negative (85%) bacteria. Based on 16SrRNA sequencing, these isolates were identified as Lactobacillus casei, L.gasseri, L.fermentum, L.plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Enterococcus facieum. Among the isolates, P. acidilactici was the most frequent species (71%) present in these samples. Few Gram and catalase positive isolates, Staphylococcus aureus and S.hominiis were also observed. The isolates were viable and unviable in pH 3 and 1.5, respectively, while all isolates survived in 1.0% bile salt. As putative probionts, P.acidilactici 1C showed a significantly higher percentage of adhesion to Caco-2 cells (p< 0.05)than the other two isolates L.plantarum 7A and E.facieum 2C. Bacterial strains isolated from human breast milk were shown to have probiotic properties including anti-infective protection and may be considered as future therapeutics for infants.

  4. Partial Purification and Characterisation of Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Acetobacter aceti Isolated from Palm Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatus Chimaobi ONAH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm wine is a very important alcoholic beverage whose consumption is limited because it spoils easily. The study was designed to isolate Acetobacter aceti from palm wine, then extract, purify and characterize alcohol dehydrogenase (AD from the A. aceti. Muller Hilton agar was used as medium for the growth of A. aceti for 48 h. The cells were harvested and subjected to ultrasonication using 500 watt ultrasonicator. Enzyme assay was carried out in both the supernatant and pellet. The enzyme was precipitated by polyethelene glycol 6000 while gel filtration was used for purifying the enzyme. The effects of pH, temperature and substrate concentration on AD were evaluated. The isolated A. aceti was gram negative, rod shaped, catalase positive, oxidase negative and was able to oxidize acetic acid to CO2 and H2O. Triton X-100 (0.3% was the most effective concentration in solubilizing the protein (AD, while 15% polyethelene glycol 6000 was the most effective concentration for the precipitation of AD. An optimal pH of 5 was obtained with an optimal temperature of 50 °C. The most appropriate to solubilize and precipitate AD were 0.3% triton X-100 and 15% polyethelene glycol 6000 respectively, while AD activity was reduced under acidic pH, as well as for low and high temperatures.

  5. Reactions of Ferrous Coproheme Decarboxylase (HemQ) with O2 and H2O2 Yield Ferric Heme b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Bennett R; Celis, Arianna I; Shisler, Krista; Rodgers, Kenton R; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S; DuBois, Jennifer L

    2017-01-10

    A recently discovered pathway for the biosynthesis of heme b ends in an unusual reaction catalyzed by coproheme decarboxylase (HemQ), where the Fe(II)-containing coproheme acts as both substrate and cofactor. Because both O 2 and H 2 O 2 are available as cellular oxidants, pathways for the reaction involving either can be proposed. Analysis of reaction kinetics and products showed that, under aerobic conditions, the ferrous coproheme-decarboxylase complex is rapidly and selectively oxidized by O 2 to the ferric state. The subsequent second-order reaction between the ferric complex and H 2 O 2 is slow, pH-dependent, and further decelerated by D 2 O 2 (average kinetic isotope effect of 2.2). The observation of rapid reactivity with peracetic acid suggested the possible involvement of Compound I (ferryl porphyrin cation radical), consistent with coproheme and harderoheme reduction potentials in the range of heme proteins that heterolytically cleave H 2 O 2 . Resonance Raman spectroscopy nonetheless indicated a remarkably weak Fe-His interaction; how the active site structure may support heterolytic H 2 O 2 cleavage is therefore unclear. From a cellular perspective, the use of H 2 O 2 as an oxidant in a catalase-positive organism is intriguing, as is the unusual generation of heme b in the Fe(III) rather than Fe(II) state as the end product of heme synthesis.

  6. Biochemical characterization of a catalase from Vibrio vulnificus, a pathogen that causes gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jihua; Wang, Haijun; Wu, Limin; Xia, Shenglong; Xu, Changlong; Zheng, Bo; Li, Tianya; Jiang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a virulent human pathogen causing gastroenteritis and possibly life threatening septicemia in patients. Most V. vulnificus are catalase positive and can deactivate peroxides, thus allowing them to survive within the host. In the study presented here, a catalase from V. vulnificus (CAT-Vv) was purified to homogeneity after expression in Escherichia coli. The kinetics and function of CAT-Vv were examined. CAT-Vv catalyzed the reduction of H 2 O 2 at an optimal pH of 7.5 and temperature of 35°C. The V max and K m values were 65.8±1.2 U/mg and 10.5±0.7 mM for H 2 O 2 , respectively. Mutational analysis suggests that amino acids involved in heme binding play a key role in the catalysis. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR revealed that in V. vulnificus, transcription of CAT-Vv was upregulated by low salinity, heat, and oxidative stresses. This research gives new clues to help inhibit the growth of, and infection by V. vulnificus.

  7. Epidemiology and antibiotic sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in children in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Krisztina; Tóthpál, Adrienn; Kardos, Szilvia; Dobay, Orsolya

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage rate in healthy children all over Hungary and to specify some risk factors, the antibiotic resistance patterns of the bacteria, and their genetic relatedness. In total, 878 children (aged 3-6 years) were screened at 21 day-care centers in 16 different cities in Hungary, between February 2009 and December 2011. Samples taken from both nostrils were cultured on blood agar, and suspected S. aureus isolates were identified by β-hemolysis, catalase positivity, clump test, and nucA PCR. Methicillin-resistant strains were screened by mecA and mecC PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by agar dilution or gradient test strips. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used for genotyping. S. aureus carriage rate was found to be 21.3%, which correlates well with international data. We found no statistically significant correlation between the gender or the sibling status and S. aureus carriage. All isolates were sensitive to oxacillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and mupirocin. The resistance rates for erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline were 7.5%, 0.5%, 1.1%, 3.7%, and 4.3%, respectively. The isolates showed very high genetic diversity. In summary, carried S. aureus isolates are more sensitive to antibiotics compared with clinical isolates in Hungary, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage rate is very low yet.

  8. Characterisation of a detergent-stable alkaline protease from a novel thermophilic strain Paenibacillus tezpurensis sp. nov. AS-S24-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sudhir K; Roy, Jetendra K; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2010-02-01

    An alkaline-protease-producing bacterial strain (AS-S24-II) isolated from a soil sample in Assam is a Gram-stain-positive, catalase-positive, endospore-forming rod and grows at temperatures ranging from 30 degrees C to 60 degrees C and salinity ranging from 0% to 7% (w/v) NaCl. Phenotypic characterisation, chemotaxonomic properties, presence of Paenibacillus-specific signature sequences, and ribotyping data suggested that the strain AS-S24-II represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus tezpurensis sp. nov. (MTCC 8959) is proposed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that P. lentimorbus strain DNG-14 and P. lentimorbus strain DNG-16 represent the closest phylogenetic neighbour of this novel strain. Alkaline protease production (598 x 10(3) U l(-1)) by P. tezpurensis sp. nov. in SmF was optimised by response surface method. A laundry-detergent-stable, Ca(2+)-independent, 43-kDa molecular weight alkaline serine protease from this strain was purified with a 1.7-fold increase in specific activity. The purified protease displayed optimum activity at pH 9.5 and 45-50 degrees C temperature range and exhibited a significant stability and compatibility with surfactants and most of the tested commercial laundry detergents at room temperature. Further, the protease improved the wash performance of detergents, thus demonstrating its feasibility for inclusion in laundry detergent formulations.

  9. Sequence Variations in the Flagellar Antigen Genes fliC H25 and fliC H28 of Escherichia coli and Their Use in Identification and Characterization of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O145:H25 and O145:H28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutin, Lothar; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serogroup O145 is regarded as one of the major EHEC serogroups involved in severe infections in humans. EHEC O145 encompasses motile and non-motile strains of serotypes O145:H25 and O145:H28. Sequencing the fliC-genes associated with the flagellar antigens H25 and H28 revealed the genetic diversity of the fliC H25 and fliC H28 gene sequences in E. coli. Based on allele discrimination of these fliC-genes real-time PCR tests were designed for identification of EHEC O145:H25 and O145:H28. The fliC H25 genes present in O145:H25 were found to be very similar to those present in E. coli serogroups O2, O100, O165, O172 and O177 pointing to their common evolution but were different from fliC H25 genes of a multiple number of other E. coli serotypes. In a similar way, EHEC O145:H28 harbor a characteristic fliC H28 allele which, apart from EHEC O145:H28, was only found in enteropathogenic (EPEC) O28:H28 strains that shared some common traits with EHEC O145:H28. The real time PCR-assays targeting these fliC H25[O145] and fliC H28[O145] alleles allow better characterization of EHEC O145:H25 and EHEC O145:H28. Evaluation of these PCR assays in spiked ready-to eat salad samples resulted in specific detection of both types of EHEC O145 strains even when low spiking levels of 1–10 cfu/g were used. Furthermore these PCR assays allowed identification of non-motile E. coli strains which are serologically not typable for their H-antigens. The combined use of O-antigen genotyping (O145wzy) and detection of the respective fliC H25[O145] and fliC H28[O145] allele types contributes to improve identification and molecular serotyping of E. coli O145 isolates. PMID:26000885

  10. Sequence Variations in the Flagellar Antigen Genes fliCH25 and fliCH28 of Escherichia coli and Their Use in Identification and Characterization of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC O145:H25 and O145:H28.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Beutin

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC serogroup O145 is regarded as one of the major EHEC serogroups involved in severe infections in humans. EHEC O145 encompasses motile and non-motile strains of serotypes O145:H25 and O145:H28. Sequencing the fliC-genes associated with the flagellar antigens H25 and H28 revealed the genetic diversity of the fliCH25 and fliCH28 gene sequences in E. coli. Based on allele discrimination of these fliC-genes real-time PCR tests were designed for identification of EHEC O145:H25 and O145:H28. The fliCH25 genes present in O145:H25 were found to be very similar to those present in E. coli serogroups O2, O100, O165, O172 and O177 pointing to their common evolution but were different from fliCH25 genes of a multiple number of other E. coli serotypes. In a similar way, EHEC O145:H28 harbor a characteristic fliCH28 allele which, apart from EHEC O145:H28, was only found in enteropathogenic (EPEC O28:H28 strains that shared some common traits with EHEC O145:H28. The real time PCR-assays targeting these fliCH25[O145] and fliCH28[O145] alleles allow better characterization of EHEC O145:H25 and EHEC O145:H28. Evaluation of these PCR assays in spiked ready-to eat salad samples resulted in specific detection of both types of EHEC O145 strains even when low spiking levels of 1-10 cfu/g were used. Furthermore these PCR assays allowed identification of non-motile E. coli strains which are serologically not typable for their H-antigens. The combined use of O-antigen genotyping (O145wzy and detection of the respective fliCH25[O145] and fliCH28[O145] allele types contributes to improve identification and molecular serotyping of E. coli O145 isolates.

  11. Spontaneous mutations in the flhD operon generate motility heterogeneity in Escherichia coli biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Shelley M; Sayler, Joseph; Scarberry, Nicholas; Schroeder, Meredith; Lynnes, Ty; Prüß, Birgit M

    2016-11-08

    Heterogeneity and niche adaptation in bacterial biofilm involve changes to the genetic makeup of the bacteria and gene expression control. We hypothesized that i) spontaneous mutations in the flhD operon can either increase or decrease motility and that ii) the resulting motility heterogeneity in the biofilm might lead to a long-term increase in biofilm biomass. We allowed the highly motile E. coli K-12 strain MC1000 to form seven- and fourteen-day old biofilm, from which we recovered reduced motility isolates at a substantially greater frequency (5.4 %) than from a similar experiment with planktonic bacteria (0.1 %). Biofilms formed exclusively by MC1000 degraded after 2 weeks. In contrast, biofilms initiated with a 1:1 ratio of MC1000 and its isogenic flhD::kn mutant remained intact at 4 weeks and the two strains remained in equilibrium for at least two weeks. These data imply that an 'optimal' biofilm may contain a mixture of motile and non-motile bacteria. Twenty-eight of the non-motile MC1000 isolates contained an IS1 element in proximity to the translational start of FlhD or within the open reading frames for FlhD or FlhC. Two isolates had an IS2 and one isolate had an IS5 in the open reading frame for FlhD. An additional three isolates contained deletions that included the RNA polymerase binding site, five isolates contained point mutations and small deletions in the open reading frame for FlhC. The locations of all these mutations are consistent with the lack of motility and further downstream within the flhD operon than previously published IS elements that increased motility. We believe that the location of the mutation within the flhD operon determines whether the effect on motility is positive or negative. To test the second part of our hypothesis where motility heterogeneity in a biofilm may lead to a long-term increase in biofilm biomass, we quantified biofilm biomass by MC1000, MC1000 flhD::kn, and mixtures of the two strains at ratios of 1:1, 10

  12. A novel cost-effective approach to post-vasectomy semen analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Eshan; Pacey, Allan A; Maddireddy, Vinod; Shariff, Umar; Hastie, Ken; Rosario, Derek J

    2011-05-01

    • To examine compliance, clearance rates and cost-effectiveness of a novel approach to managing men following vasectomy based on the testing of sperm viability. • Between January 2003 and March 2005, 832 men undergoing vasectomy were followed prospectively for a minimum of 12 months. • Post-vasectomy semen analysis (PVSA) was carried out at 16 weeks with repeat at 20 weeks only if sperm were detected on initial PVSA i.e. a single clear PVSA on simple microscopy was deemed sufficient for declaring vasectomy successful. • In men with persistent non-motile sperm (PNMS) in the second specimen, comprehensive analysis of number and viability of sperm using a fluorescent probe was carried out on a fresh semen specimen taken in accordance with British Andrology Society (BAS) guidelines. • Overall compliance with the PVSA protocol was 81.3% (95% CI 78.5 to 83.8). No sperm were seen in 540 (78.8%) and 70 (10.3%) at the initial and 2(nd) PVSA respectively. • Persistent spermatozoa at 20 weeks were present in 66 (9.8%, 7.8 to 12.2) cases with 58 (8.6%, 6.7 to 11.0) having PNMS and 8 (1.2%, 0.6 to 2.3) having motile sperm. • Fluorescent viability testing in 53 of the 58 with PNMS showed viable sperm in 2 (3.8%, 1.0 to 12.8). The failure rate of vasectomy defined by PVSA (8 with motile sperm on 2(nd) PVSA and 2 with viable non-motile sperm on fluorescent testing) was 1.2% (0.7 to 2.2). • Average cost per vasectomy of PVSA using this protocol was £10.77 (US$ 16.67) compared with a minimum likely average cost using BAS guidelines of £18.10 (US$ 28). • Demonstrating absence of sperm on simple light microscopy in a single specimen of semen at 16 or 20 weeks post-vasectomy and reserving comprehensive testing of sperm viability for only the higher risk group with PNMS improves compliance and represents a cost-effective strategy for declaring surgical success. This reduces the costs of PVSA by least 40% compared with adherence with BAS guidelines without

  13. Cupriavidus malaysiensis sp. nov., a novel poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) accumulating bacterium isolated from the Malaysian environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Hema; Shafie, Nur Asilla Hani; Sudesh, Kumar; Azizan, Mohamad Noor; Majid, Mohamad Isa Abdul; Amirul, Al-Ashraf Abdullah

    2018-03-01

    Bacterial classification on the basis of a polyphasic approach was conducted on three poly(3 hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] accumulating bacterial strains that were isolated from samples collected from Malaysian environments; Kulim Lake, Sg. Pinang river and Sg. Manik paddy field. The Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, non-sporulating and non-fermenting bacteria were shown to belong to the genus Cupriavidus of the Betaproteobacteria on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The sequence similarity value with their near phylogenetic neighbour, Cupriavidus pauculus LMG3413 T , was 98.5%. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values (8-58%) and ribotyping analysis both enabled these strains to be differentiated from related Cupriavidus species with validly published names. The RiboPrint patterns of the three strains also revealed that the strains were genetically related even though they displayed a clonal diversity. The major cellular fatty acids detected in these strains included C15:0 ISO 2OH/C16:1 ω7c, hexadecanoic (16:0) and cis-11-octadecenoic (C18:1 ω7c). Their G+C contents ranged from 68.0  to 68.6 mol%, and their major isoprenoid quinone was Ubiquinone Q-8. Of these three strains, only strain USMAHM13 (= DSM 25816 = KCTC 32390) was discovered to exhibit yellow pigmentation that is characteristic of the carotenoid family. Their assembled genomes also showed that the three strains were not identical in terms of their genome sizes that were 7.82, 7.95 and 8.70 Mb for strains USMAHM13, USMAA1020 and USMAA2-4, respectively, which are slightly larger than that of Cupriavidus necator H16 (7.42 Mb). The average nucleotide identity (ANI) results indicated that the strains were genetically related and the genome pairs belong to the same species. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, the three strains are considered to represent a novel species for which the name Cupriavidus malaysiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The

  14. Discrimination of Spore-Forming Bacilli Using spoIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; LaDuc, Myron; Stuecker, Tara

    2009-01-01

    A method of discriminating between spore-forming and non-spore-forming bacteria is based on a combination of simultaneous sporulation-specific and non-sporulation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reactions (Q-PCRs). The method was invented partly in response to the observation that for the purposes of preventing or reducing biological contamination affecting many human endeavors, ultimately, only the spore-forming portions of bacterial populations are the ones that are problematic (or, at least, more problematic than are the non-spore-forming portions). In some environments, spore-forming bacteria constitute small fractions of the total bacterial populations. The use of sporulation-specific primers in Q-PCR affords the ability to assess the spore-forming fraction of a bacterial population present in an environment of interest. This assessment can provide a more thorough and accurate understanding of the bacterial contamination in the environment, thereby making it possible to focus contamination- testing, contamination-prevention, sterilization, and decontamination resources more economically and efficiently. The method includes the use of sporulation-specific primers in the form of designed, optimized deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oligonucleotides specific for the bacterial spoIVA gene (see table). [In "spoIVA," "IV" signifies Roman numeral four and the entire quoted name refers to gene A for the fourth stage of sporulation.] These primers are mixed into a PCR cocktail with a given sample of bacterial cells. A control PCR cocktail into which are mixed universal 16S rRNA primers is also prepared. ["16S rRNA" denotes a ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence that is common to all organisms.] Following several cycles of heating and cooling according to the PCR protocol to amplify amounts of DNA molecules, the amplification products can be analyzed to determine the types of bacterial cells present within the samples. If the amplification product is strong

  15. Profundibacterium mesophilum gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member in the family Rhodobacteraceae isolated from deep-sea sediment in the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, PokYui

    2012-06-08

    A slow-growing, strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, coccus bacterial strain, designated KAUST100406-0324T, was isolated from sea-floor sediment collected from the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. The catalase- and oxidase-positive strain was non-sporulating and only slightly halophilic. Optimum growth occurred at 20-25 °C and at pH values ranging from 7.0 to 8.0. The major cellular fatty acids of the strain were unsaturated C18: 1ω6c and/or C18:1ω7c, C18:1ω7c 11-methyl and C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified phospholipids. Ubiquinone 10 was the predominant lipoquinone. The DNA G+C content of strain KAUST100406-0324T was 64.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the novel strain belonged to the family Rhodobacteraceae of the class Alphaproteobacteria but formed a distinct evolutionary lineage from other bacterial species with validly published names. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the novel strain was distantly related, but formed a monophyletic cluster with, those of bacteria from two moderately halophilic genera, Hwanghaeicola and Maribius. The similarity of the sequence between the novel strain KAUST100406-0324T and the type strains Hwanghaeicola aestuarii Y26T (accession number FJ230842), Maribius pelagius B5-6T (DQ514326) and Maribius salinus CL-SP27T (AY906863) were 94.5 %, 95.2 % and 95.3 %, respectively. Based on the physiological, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics presented in this study, we propose that this strain represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name of Profundibacterium mesophilum gen. nov., sp. nov. was proposed, with KAUST100406-0324T (= JCM 17872T = NRRL B-59665T) as the type strain. © 2013 IUMS.

  16. Characterization and Testing the Efficiency of Acinetobacter baumannii Phage vB-GEC_Ab-M-G7 as an Antibacterial Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ia Kusradze

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is a gram-negative, non-motile bacterium that, due to its multidrug resistance, has become a major nosocomial pathogen .The increasing number of multidrug resistant (MDR strains has renewed interest in phage therapy. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of phage administration in Acinetobacter baumannii wound infections in an animal model to demonstrate phage therapy as non-toxic, safe and alternative antibacterial remedy. Using classical methods for the study of bacteriophage properties, we characterized phage vB-GEC_Ab-M-G7 as a dsDNA myovirus with a 90kb genome size. Important characteristics of vB-GEC_Ab-M-G7include a short latent period and large burst size, wide host range, resistance to chloroform and thermal and pH stability. In a rat wound model, phage application effectively decreased the number of bacteria isolated from the wounds of successfully treated animals. This study highlights the effectiveness of the phage therapy and provides further insight into treating infections caused by MDR strains using phage administration.

  17. Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens gen. nov., sp. nov., a reductively dehalogenating bacterium isolated from chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, William M; Yan, Jun; Nobre, M Fernanda; da Costa, Milton S; Rainey, Fred A

    2009-11-01

    Two recently reported bacterial strains that are able to reductively dehalogenate polychlorinated aliphatic alkanes, including 1,2,3-trichloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane and 1,2-dichloroethane, were further characterized to clarify their taxonomic position. The two strains, designated BL-DC-8 and BL-DC-9(T), were mesophilic, non-spore-forming, non-motile, Gram-negative staining and strictly anaerobic. Cells were irregular cocci, 0.3-0.6 mum in diameter. The two strains were resistant to ampicillin and vancomycin. Hydrogen was utilized as an electron donor. The genomic DNA G+C content of strains BL-DC-8 and BL-DC-9(T) was 54.0 and 53.8 mol%, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega9c, C(16 : 1)omega9c, C(16 : 0) and C(14 : 0). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strains cluster within the phylum Chloroflexi, but are related only distantly to all recognized taxa in the phylum. Morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic traits as well as phylogenetic analysis support the conclusion that these two strains represent a novel species of a new genus in the phylum Chloroflexi, for which the name Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens is BL-DC-9(T) (=ATCC BAA-1523(T) =JCM 15061(T)).

  18. C-NAP1 and rootletin restrain DNA damage-induced centriole splitting and facilitate ciliogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Pauline C; Saladino, Chiara; Dantas, Tiago J; Lalor, Pierce; Dockery, Peter; Morrison, Ciaran G

    2012-10-15

    Cilia are found on most human cells and exist as motile cilia or non-motile primary cilia. Primary cilia play sensory roles in transducing various extracellular signals, and defective ciliary functions are involved in a wide range of human diseases. Centrosomes are the principal microtubule-organizing centers of animal cells and contain two centrioles. We observed that DNA damage causes centriole splitting in non-transformed human cells, with isolated centrioles carrying the mother centriole markers CEP170 and ninein but not kizuna or cenexin. Loss of centriole cohesion through siRNA depletion of C-NAP1 or rootletin increased radiation-induced centriole splitting, with C-NAP1-depleted isolated centrioles losing mother markers. As the mother centriole forms the basal body in primary cilia, we tested whether centriole splitting affected ciliogenesis. While irradiated cells formed apparently normal primary cilia, most cilia arose from centriolar clusters, not from isolated centrioles. Furthermore, C-NAP1 or rootletin knockdown reduced primary cilium formation. Therefore, the centriole cohesion apparatus at the proximal end of centrioles may provide a target that can affect primary cilium formation as part of the DNA damage response.

  19. Primary cilium - antenna-like structure on the surface of most mammalian cell types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, J; Kasaova, L; Filip, S; Petera, J; Sitorova, V; Nikolov, D Hadzi; Ryska, A; Mokry, J; Richter, I

    2011-01-01

    The primary cilium is a sensory solitary non-motile microtubule-based organelle protruding in the quiescent phase of the cell cycle from the surface of the majority of human cells, including embryonic cells, stem cells and stromal cells of malignant tumors. The presence of a primary cilium on the surface of a cell is transient, limited to the quiescent G 1 (G 0 ) phase and the beginning of the S phase of the cell cycle. The primary cilium is formed from the mother centriole. Primary cilia are key coordinators of signaling pathways during development and tissue homeostasis and, when deffective, they are a major cause of human diseases and developmental disorders, now commonly referred to as ciliopathies. Most cancer cells do not possess a primary cilium. The loss of the primary cilium is a regular feature of neoplastic transformation in the majority of solid tumors. The primary cilium could serve as a tumor suppressor organelle. The aim of this paper was to provide a review of the current knowledge of the primary cilium.

  20. Multiscale Characterization of Bacterial Swarming Illuminates Principles Governing Directed Surface Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Ben; Hoeger, Kentaro; Ursell, Tristan

    In many systems, individual characteristics interact, leading to the spontaneous emergence of order and complexity. In biological settings like microbes, such collective behaviors can imbue a variety of benefits to constituent individuals, including increased spatial range, improved access to nutrients, and enhanced resistance to antibiotic threats. To untangle the biophysical underpinnings of collective motility, we use passive tracers and a curated genetic library of Bacillus subtilis, including motile, non-motile, biofilm-deficient, and non-chemotactic mutants. We characterize and connect individual behavior on the microscopic scale to macroscopic colony morphology and motility of dendritic swarming. We analyze the persistence and dynamics of coordinated movement on length scales up to 4 orders of magnitude larger than that of individual cells, revealing rapid and directed responses of microbial groups to external stimuli, such as avoidance dynamics across chemical gradients. Our observations uncover the biophysical interplay between individual motility, surface wetness, phenotypic diversity, and external physical forces that robustly precipitate coordinated group behavior in microbes, and suggest general principles that govern the transition from individual to group behavior.

  1. Male-female crosstalk during pollen germination, tube growth and guidance, and double fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Franklin-Tong, Noni

    2013-07-01

    Sperm cells of flowering plants are non-motile and thus require transportation to the egg apparatus via the pollen tube to execute double fertilization. During its journey, the pollen tube interacts with various sporophytic cell types that support its growth and guide it towards the surface of the ovule. The final steps of tube guidance and sperm delivery are controlled by the cells of the female gametophyte. During fertilization, cell-cell communication events take place to achieve and maximize reproductive success. Additional layers of crosstalk exist, including self-recognition and specialized processes to prevent self-fertilization and consequent inbreeding. In this review, we focus on intercellular communication between the pollen grain/pollen tube including the sperm cells with the various sporophytic maternal tissues and the cells of the female gametophyte. Polymorphic-secreted peptides and small proteins, especially those belonging to various subclasses of small cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs), reactive oxygen species (ROS)/NO signaling, and the second messenger Ca(2+), play center stage in most of these processes.

  2. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and contextual data of the filamentous soil bacterium Ktedonobacter racemifer type strain (SOSP1-21T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Fiebig, Anne [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Abt, Birte [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2011-01-01

    Ktedonobacter racemifer corrig. Cavaletti et al. 2007 is the type species of the genus Ktedo- nobacter, which in turn is the type genus of the family Ktedonobacteraceae, the type family of the order Ktedonobacterales within the class Ktedonobacteria in the phylum Chloroflexi . Although K. racemifer shares some morphological features with the actinobacteria, it is of special interest because it was the first cultivated representative of a deep branching unclassi- fied lineage of otherwise uncultivated environmental phylotypes tentatively located within the phylum Chloroflexi . The aerobic, filamentous, non-motile, spore-forming Gram-positive heterotroph was isolated from soil in Italy. The 13,661,586 bp long non-contiguous finished genome consists of ten contigs and is the first reported genome sequence from a member of the class Ktedonobacteria. With its 11,453 protein-coding and 87 RNA genes, it is the largest prokaryotic genome reported so far. It comprises a large number of over-represented COGs, particularly genes associated with transposons, causing the genetic redundancy within the genome being considerably larger than expected by chance. This work is a part of the Ge- nomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  3. Methanolobus psychrotolerans sp. nov., a psychrotolerant methanoarchaeon isolated from a saline meromictic lake in Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Chung; Huang, Hsing-Hua; Lai, Mei-Chin; Weng, Chieh-Yin; Chiu, Hsiu-Hui; Tang, Sen-Lin; Rogozin, Denis Yu; Degermendzhy, Andrey G

    2018-04-01

    A psychrotolerant, methylotrophic methanogen, strain YSF-03 T , was isolated from the saline meromictic Lake Shira in Siberia. Cells of strain YSF-03 T were non-motile, irregular cocci and 0.8-1.2 µm in diameter. The methanogenic substrates utilized by strain YSF-03 T were methanol and trimethylamine. The temperature range of growth for strain YSF-03 T was from 0 to 37 °C. The optimum growth conditions were 30-37 °C, pH 7.0-7.4 and 0.17 M NaCl. The G+C content of the genome of strain YSF-03 T was 41.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain YSF-03 T was most closely related to Methanolobus profundi MobM T (98.15 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequence). Genome relatedness between strain YSF-03 T and MobM T was computed using the Genome-to-Genome Distance Calculator and average nucleotide identity, which gave values of 23.5 and 79.3 %, respectively. Based on the morphological, phenotypic, phylogenetic and genomic relatedness data presented here, it is evident that strain YSF-03 T represents a novel species of the genus Methanolobus, for which the name Methanolobus psychrotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YSF-03 T (=BCRC AR10049 T =DSM 104044 T =NBRC 112514 T ).

  4. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and contextual data of the filamentous soil bacterium Ktedonobacter racemifer type strain (SOSP1-21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yun-Juan; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chertkov, Olga; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Nolan, Matt; Copeland, Alex; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Lucas, Susan; Han, Cliff; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Ivanova, Natalia; Ovchinikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Liolios, Konstantinos; Brettin, Thomas; Fiebig, Anne; Rohde, Manfred; Abt, Birte; Göker, Markus; Detter, John C; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Lapidus, Alla

    2011-10-15

    Ktedonobacter racemifer corrig. Cavaletti et al. 2007 is the type species of the genus Ktedonobacter, which in turn is the type genus of the family Ktedonobacteraceae, the type family of the order Ktedonobacterales within the class Ktedonobacteria in the phylum 'Chloroflexi'. Although K. racemifer shares some morphological features with the actinobacteria, it is of special interest because it was the first cultivated representative of a deep branching unclassified lineage of otherwise uncultivated environmental phylotypes tentatively located within the phylum 'Chloroflexi'. The aerobic, filamentous, non-motile, spore-forming Gram-positive heterotroph was isolated from soil in Italy. The 13,661,586 bp long non-contiguous finished genome consists of ten contigs and is the first reported genome sequence from a member of the class Ktedonobacteria. With its 11,453 protein-coding and 87 RNA genes, it is the largest prokaryotic genome reported so far. It comprises a large number of over-represented COGs, particularly genes associated with transposons, causing the genetic redundancy within the genome being considerably larger than expected by chance. This work is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  5. Natronolimnobius baerhuensis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Natronolimnobius innermongolicus sp. nov., novel haloalkaliphilic archaea isolated from soda lakes in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Zhou, Peijin; Takashina, Tomonori

    2005-04-01

    Three novel isolates of haloalkaliphilic archaea, strains IHC-005T, IHC-010, and N-1311T, from soda lakes in Inner Mongolia, China, were characterized to elucidate their taxonomic positions. The three strains were aerobic, Gram-negative chemoorganotrophs growing optimally at 37-45 degrees C, pH 9.0-9.5, and 15-20% NaCl. Cells of strains IHC-005T/IHC-010 were motile rods, while those of strain N-1311T were non-motile pleomorphic flats or cocci. The three strains contained diphytanyl and phytanyl-sesterterpanyl diether derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerophosphate methyl ester. No glycolipids were detected. On phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, they formed an independent cluster in the Natro group of the family Halobacteriaceae. Comparison of their morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties, DNA G + C content and 16S rRNA gene sequences, and DNA-DNA hybridization study support the view that strains IHC-005T/IHC-010 and strain N-1311T represent separate species. Therefore, we propose Natronolimnobius baerhuensis gen. nov., sp. nov. for strains IHC-005T (=CGMCC 1.3597T =JCM 12253T)/IHC-010 (=CGMCC 1.3598 = JCM 12254) and Natronolimnobius innermongolicus sp. nov. for N-1311T (=CGMCC 1.2124T =JCM 12255T).

  6. Natronorubrum sediminis sp. nov., an archaeon isolated from a saline lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, M C; Castillo, A M; Corral, P; Minegishi, H; Ventosa, A

    2010-08-01

    Two novel haloalkaliphilic archaea, strains CG-6T and CG-4, were isolated from sediment of the hypersaline Lake Chagannor in Inner Mongolia, China. Cells of the two strains were pleomorphic, non-motile and strictly aerobic. They required at least 2.5 M NaCl for growth, with optimum growth at 3.4 M NaCl. They grew at pH 8.0-11.0, with optimum growth at pH 9.0. Hypotonic treatment with less than 1.5 M NaCl caused cell lysis. The two strains had similar polar lipid compositions, possessing C20C20 and C20C25 derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester. No glycolipids were detected. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences and morphological features placed them in the genus Natronorubrum. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to strains of recognized species of the genus Natronorubrum were 96.2-93.8%. Detailed phenotypic characterization and DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed that the two strains belong to a novel species in the genus Natronorubrum, for which the name Natronorubrum sediminis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is CG-6T (=CECT 7487T =CGMCC 1.8981T =JCM 15982T).

  7. Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IP da Costa

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 (78.9% were in larval form and 22 (21.1% were nymphs; the only adult (0.8% was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.

  8. Modeling cooperating micro-organisms in antibiotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Gilad; Ingham, Colin; Ariel, Gil

    2017-01-01

    Recent experiments with the bacteria Paenibacillus vortex reveal a remarkable strategy enabling it to cope with antibiotics by cooperating with a different bacterium-Escherichia coli. While P. vortex is a highly effective swarmer, it is sensitive to the antibiotic ampicillin. On the other hand, E. coli can degrade ampicillin but is non-motile when grown on high agar percentages. The two bacterial species form a shared colony in which E. coli is transported by P. vortex and E. coli detoxifies the ampicillin. The paper presents a simplified model, consisting of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, describing the development of ring patterns in the shared colony. Our results demonstrate some of the possible cooperative movement strategies bacteria utilize in order to survive harsh conditions. In addition, we explore the behavior of mixed colonies under new conditions such as antibiotic gradients, synchronization between colonies and possible dynamics of a 3-species system including P. vortex, E. coli and a carbon producing algae that provides nutrients under illuminated, nutrient poor conditions. The derived model was able to simulate an asymmetric relationship between two or three micro-organisms where cooperation is required for survival. Computationally, in order to avoid numerical artifacts due to symmetries within the discretizing grid, the model was solved using a second order Vectorizable Random Lattices method, which is developed as a finite volume scheme on a random grid.

  9. Modeling cooperating micro-organisms in antibiotic environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Book

    Full Text Available Recent experiments with the bacteria Paenibacillus vortex reveal a remarkable strategy enabling it to cope with antibiotics by cooperating with a different bacterium-Escherichia coli. While P. vortex is a highly effective swarmer, it is sensitive to the antibiotic ampicillin. On the other hand, E. coli can degrade ampicillin but is non-motile when grown on high agar percentages. The two bacterial species form a shared colony in which E. coli is transported by P. vortex and E. coli detoxifies the ampicillin. The paper presents a simplified model, consisting of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, describing the development of ring patterns in the shared colony. Our results demonstrate some of the possible cooperative movement strategies bacteria utilize in order to survive harsh conditions. In addition, we explore the behavior of mixed colonies under new conditions such as antibiotic gradients, synchronization between colonies and possible dynamics of a 3-species system including P. vortex, E. coli and a carbon producing algae that provides nutrients under illuminated, nutrient poor conditions. The derived model was able to simulate an asymmetric relationship between two or three micro-organisms where cooperation is required for survival. Computationally, in order to avoid numerical artifacts due to symmetries within the discretizing grid, the model was solved using a second order Vectorizable Random Lattices method, which is developed as a finite volume scheme on a random grid.

  10. [Yersinia pestis and plague - an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2014-12-01

    The plague of man is a severe, systemic bacterial infectious disease. Without antibacterial therapy, the disease is associated with a high case fatality rate, ranging from 40% (bubonic plague) to nearly 100% (septicemic and pneumonic plague). The disease is caused by Yersinia pestis, a non-motile, gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. In nature, Y. pestis has been found in several rodent species and some other small animals such as shrews. Within its reservoir host, Y. pestis circulates via flea bites. Transmission of Y. pestis to humans occurs by the bite of rat fleas, other flea vectors or by non vectorial routes, e. g., handling infected animals or consumption of contaminated food. Human-to-human transmission of the pathogen occurs primarily through aerosol droplets. Compared to the days when plague was a pandemic scourge, the disease is now relatively rare and limited to some rural areas of Africa. During the last ten years, however, plague outbreaks have been registered repea- tedly in some African regions. For treatment of plague, streptomycin is still considered the drug of choice. Chloramphenicol, doxycycline, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin are also promising drugs. Recombinant vaccines against plague are in clinical development.

  11. Draft genome sequence of Lampropedia cohaerens strain CT6(T) isolated from arsenic rich microbial mats of a Himalayan hot water spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Charu; Mahato, Nitish K; Rani, Pooja; Singh, Yogendra; Kamra, Komal; Lal, Rup

    2016-01-01

    Lampropedia cohaerens strain CT6(T), a non-motile, aerobic and coccoid strain was isolated from arsenic rich microbial mats (temperature ~45 °C) of a hot water spring located atop the Himalayan ranges at Manikaran, India. The present study reports the first genome sequence of type strain CT6(T) of genus Lampropedia cohaerens. Sequencing data was generated using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and assembled with ABySS v 1.3.5. The 3,158,922 bp genome was assembled into 41 contigs with a mean GC content of 63.5 % and 2823 coding sequences. Strain CT6(T) was found to harbour genes involved in both the Entner-Duodoroff pathway and non-phosphorylated ED pathway. Strain CT6(T) also contained genes responsible for imparting resistance to arsenic, copper, cobalt, zinc, cadmium and magnesium, providing survival advantages at a thermal location. Additionally, the presence of genes associated with biofilm formation, pyrroloquinoline-quinone production, isoquinoline degradation and mineral phosphate solubilisation in the genome demonstrate the diverse genetic potential for survival at stressed niches.

  12. The effect of visible light stress on chemical signaling in two life stages of Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin-Alvarado, L.; Cooney, E.; Bright, K.; Strom, S.

    2016-02-01

    The cosmopolitan marine phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi presents a digenetic heteromorphic life cycle, with the non-motile diploid phase bearing coccoliths and the flagellated haploid phase being non-calcified. E. huxleyi contains high concentrations of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), the precursor of dimethylsulphide (DMS). DMSP is a multifactorial compound; it acts as a compatible solute in cell metabolism and as a chemical signal influencing bacterial and protist behavior. In the atmosphere DMS enhances cloud formation influencing climate. However, little has been documented on E. huxleyi chemical signal responses to high light stress, and how this relates to the heteromorphic life cycle. To this end, low light acclimated cultures of both haploid and diploid E. huxleyi were exposed to high light for 2 hr and allowed to recover in low light for 2 hr. During and after these treatments, growth, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), DMSP (intracellular and released) and cell chlorophyll content were measured. Our preliminary results suggest that presence of high light decreased Fv/Fm to a greater extent in haploid than in diploid (calcified) cells, while recovery of Fv/Fm was rapid in both life stages. The chlorophyll content and intracellular DMSP was not different in both life stages. However, the dissolved DMSP increased after light stress in diploid cells suggesting a possible advantage as antioxidant protection or another cellular function, such as grazing protection in this life stage.

  13. Schrödinger’s Cheshire Cat: Are Haploid Emiliania huxleyi Cells Resistant to Viral Infection or Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon J. Mordecai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Emiliania huxleyi is the main calcite producer on Earth and is routinely infected by a virus (EhV; a double stranded DNA (dsDNA virus belonging to the family Phycodnaviridae. E. huxleyi exhibits a haplodiploid life cycle; the calcified diploid stage is non-motile and forms extensive blooms. The haploid phase is a non-calcified biflagellated cell bearing organic scales. Haploid cells are thought to resist infection, through a process deemed the “Cheshire Cat” escape strategy; however, a recent study detected the presence of viral lipids in the same haploid strain. Here we report on the application of an E. huxleyi CCMP1516 EhV-86 combined tiling array (TA that further confirms an EhV infection in the RCC1217 haploid strain, which grew without any signs of cell lysis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and PCR verified the presence of viral RNA in the haploid cells, yet indicated an absence of viral DNA, respectively. These infected cells are an alternative stage of the virus life cycle deemed the haplococcolithovirocell. In this instance, the host is both resistant to and infected by EhV, i.e., the viral transcriptome is present in haploid cells whilst there is no evidence of viral lysis. This superimposed state is reminiscent of Schrödinger’s cat; of being simultaneously both dead and alive.

  14. Schrödinger's Cheshire Cat: Are Haploid Emiliania huxleyi Cells Resistant to Viral Infection or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Gideon J; Verret, Frederic; Highfield, Andrea; Schroeder, Declan C

    2017-03-18

    Emiliania huxleyi is the main calcite producer on Earth and is routinely infected by a virus (EhV); a double stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus belonging to the family Phycodnaviridae . E. huxleyi exhibits a haplodiploid life cycle; the calcified diploid stage is non-motile and forms extensive blooms. The haploid phase is a non-calcified biflagellated cell bearing organic scales. Haploid cells are thought to resist infection, through a process deemed the "Cheshire Cat" escape strategy; however, a recent study detected the presence of viral lipids in the same haploid strain. Here we report on the application of an E. huxleyi CCMP1516 EhV-86 combined tiling array (TA) that further confirms an EhV infection in the RCC1217 haploid strain, which grew without any signs of cell lysis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR verified the presence of viral RNA in the haploid cells, yet indicated an absence of viral DNA, respectively. These infected cells are an alternative stage of the virus life cycle deemed the haplococcolithovirocell. In this instance, the host is both resistant to and infected by EhV, i.e., the viral transcriptome is present in haploid cells whilst there is no evidence of viral lysis. This superimposed state is reminiscent of Schrödinger's cat; of being simultaneously both dead and alive.

  15. Schrödinger’s Cheshire Cat: Are Haploid Emiliania huxleyi Cells Resistant to Viral Infection or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Gideon J.; Verret, Frederic; Highfield, Andrea; Schroeder, Declan C.

    2017-01-01

    Emiliania huxleyi is the main calcite producer on Earth and is routinely infected by a virus (EhV); a double stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus belonging to the family Phycodnaviridae. E. huxleyi exhibits a haplodiploid life cycle; the calcified diploid stage is non-motile and forms extensive blooms. The haploid phase is a non-calcified biflagellated cell bearing organic scales. Haploid cells are thought to resist infection, through a process deemed the “Cheshire Cat” escape strategy; however, a recent study detected the presence of viral lipids in the same haploid strain. Here we report on the application of an E. huxleyi CCMP1516 EhV-86 combined tiling array (TA) that further confirms an EhV infection in the RCC1217 haploid strain, which grew without any signs of cell lysis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR verified the presence of viral RNA in the haploid cells, yet indicated an absence of viral DNA, respectively. These infected cells are an alternative stage of the virus life cycle deemed the haplococcolithovirocell. In this instance, the host is both resistant to and infected by EhV, i.e., the viral transcriptome is present in haploid cells whilst there is no evidence of viral lysis. This superimposed state is reminiscent of Schrödinger’s cat; of being simultaneously both dead and alive. PMID:28335465

  16. Aeromicrobium ginsengisoli sp. nov., isolated from a ginseng field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Kyum; Park, Min-Ju; Im, Wan-Taek; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2008-09-01

    Strain Gsoil 098(T), a Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile coccus, was isolated from soil from a ginseng field in South Korea and characterized in order to determine its taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain Gsoil 098(T) belongs to the family Nocardioidaceae, and the highest degrees of sequence similarity were found with Aeromicrobium marinum T2(T) (99.0%), A. panaciterrae Gsoil 161(T) (98.9%), A. alkaliterrae KSL-107(T) (98.4%), A. fastidiosum KCTC 9576(T) (98.1%) and A. erythreum NRRL B-3381(T) (97.5%). Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed that strain Gsoil 098(T) possesses menaquinone MK-9(H(4)) and predominant fatty acids C(16 : 0), 10-methyl C(18:0) and C(18:0). DNA-DNA hybridization results and physiological and biochemical tests clearly demonstrated that strain Gsoil 098(T) represents a distinct species. Based on these data, Gsoil 098(T) (=KCTC 19207(T) =JCM 14732(T) =GBS 39(T)) should be classified as the type strain of a novel Aeromicrobium species, for which the name Aeromicrobium ginsengisoli sp. nov. is proposed.

  17. Level of male infertility in the Ghanaian city of Tema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Odoom, A; Brown, C A; Adjei, D N

    2015-01-01

    Infertility among couples is a sensitive issue in Ghana; females are mostly blamed. Most male infertility cases are generally due to low sperm counts (oligozoospermia), poor sperm quality - characterised by poor sperm motility (asthenozoospermia) - or a combination of both (oligoasthenozoospermia). This is a retrospective study from January 1995 to December 2005 which determined the level and type of male infertility in and around the city of Tema. Seminal fluid analysis reports of male clients who visited the Adom Medical Laboratory in Tema were extracted from laboratory data and analysed. Our study involved 2795 males in the age range of 24-36 years. In 1995, 75% of the total samples analysed had sperm concentrations ranging from 21 to 350 million sperms/ml and showed a decreasing trend to 41% in 2005. Samples with sperm concentrations below 20 million sperms/ml in 1995 increased from 20.5% to 57.6% in 2005; those with active motility > 45% decreased from 27 (30.7%) in 1995 to zero (0%) in 2005, whilst samples with > 50% non-motile sperms increased from 47 (53.4%) in 1995 to 449 (87.7%) in 2005. Male infertility in the samples analysed was due to a combination of oligozoospermia and asthenozoospermia.

  18. Accumulation of Astaxanthin by a New Haematococcus pluvialis Strain BM1 from the White Sea Coastal Rocks (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Chekanov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on a novel arctic strain BM1 of a carotenogenic chlorophyte from a coastal habitat with harsh environmental conditions (wide variations in solar irradiance, temperature, salinity and nutrient availability identified as Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow. Increased (25‰ salinity exerted no adverse effect on the growth of the green BM1 cells. Under stressful conditions (high light, nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation, green vegetative cells of H. pluvialis BM1 grown in BG11 medium formed non-motile palmelloid cells and, eventually, hematocysts capable of a massive accumulation of the keto-carotenoid astaxanthin with a high nutraceutical and therapeutic potential. Routinely, astaxanthin was accumulated at the level of 4% of the cell dry weight (DW, reaching, under prolonged stress, 5.5% DW. Astaxanthin was predominantly accumulated in the form of mono- and diesters of fatty acids from C16 and C18 families. The palmelloids and hematocysts were characterized by the formation of red-colored cytoplasmic lipid droplets, increasingly large in size and number. The lipid droplets tended to merge and occupied almost the entire volume of the cell at the advanced stages of stress-induced carotenogenesis. The potential application of the new strain for the production of astaxanthin is discussed in comparison with the H. pluvialis strains currently employed in microalgal biotechnology.

  19. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells as an efficient system for harvesting microalgal cells, lipid production and wastewater treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digby Wrede

    Full Text Available The challenges which the large scale microalgal industry is facing are associated with the high cost of key operations such as harvesting, nutrient supply and oil extraction. The high-energy input for harvesting makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible and can account for up to 50% of the total cost of biofuel production. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells is getting increasing attention because of high efficiency of bio-flocculation of microalgal cells with no requirement for added chemicals and low energy inputs. Moreover, some fungal and microalgal strains are well known for their exceptional ability to purify wastewater, generating biomass that represents a renewable and sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. We have screened the flocculation efficiency of the filamentous fungus A. fumigatus against 11 microalgae representing freshwater, marine, small (5 µm, large (over 300 µm, heterotrophic, photoautotrophic, motile and non-motile strains. Some of the strains are commercially used for biofuel production. Lipid production and composition were analysed in fungal-algal pellets grown on media containing alternative carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources contained in wheat straw and swine wastewater, respectively. Co-cultivation of algae and A. fumigatus cells showed additive and synergistic effects on biomass production, lipid yield and wastewater bioremediation efficiency. Analysis of fungal-algal pellet's fatty acids composition suggested that it can be tailored and optimised through co-cultivating different algae and fungi without the need for genetic modification.

  20. Methylocella tundrae sp. nov., a novel methanotrophic bacterium from acidic tundra peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedysh, Svetlana N; Berestovskaya, Yulia Y; Vasylieva, Lina V; Belova, Svetlana E; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Suzina, Natalia E; Trotsenko, Yuri A; Liesack, Werner; Zavarzin, George A

    2004-01-01

    A novel species, Methylocella tundrae, is proposed for three methanotrophic strains (T4T, TCh1 and TY1) isolated from acidic Sphagnum tundra peatlands. These strains are aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, dinitrogen-fixing rods that possess a soluble methane monooxygenase and utilize the serine pathway for carbon assimilation. Strains T4T, TCh1 and TY1 are moderately acidophilic organisms capable of growth between pH 4.2 and 7.5 (optimum 5.5-6.0) and between 5 and 30 degrees C (optimum 15 degrees C). The major phospholipid fatty acid is 18:1omega7c. The DNA G+C content of strain T4T is 63.3 mol%. The three strains possess almost identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and are most closely related to two previously identified species of Methylocella, Methylocella palustris (97% similarity) and Methylocella silvestris (97.5% similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization values of strain T4T with Methylocella palustris KT and Methylocella silvestris BL2T were respectively 27 and 36%. Thus, the tundra strains represent a novel species, for which the name Methylocella tundrae sp. nov. is proposed. Strain T4T (=DSM 15673T=NCIMB 13949T) is the type strain.

  1. Cell migration is another player of the minute virus of mice infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcin, Pierre O.; Panté, Nelly, E-mail: pante@zoology.ubc.ca

    2014-11-15

    The parvovirus minute virus of mice, prototype strain (MVMp), preferentially infects and kills cancer cells. This intrinsic MVMp oncotropism may depend in part on the early stages of MVMp infection. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the early events of MVMp infection in mouse LA9 fibroblasts and a highly invasive mouse mammary tumor cell line derived from polyomavirus middle T antigen-mediated transformation. Using a combination of fluorescence and electron microscopy, we found that various parameters of the cell migration process affect MVMp infection. We show that, after binding to the plasma membrane, MVMp particles rapidly cluster at the leading edge of migrating cells, which exhibit higher levels of MVMp uptake than non-motile cells. Moreover, promoting cell migration on a fibronectin matrix increased MVMp infection, and induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition allowed MVMp replication in non-permissive epithelial cells. Hence, we propose that cell migration influences the early stages of MVMp infection. - Highlights: • We document early steps of MVMp infection. • We report that a fibronectin matrix promotes MVMp infection. • We show that cellular migration plays a role in MVMp uptake. • We show that epithelial–mesenchymal transition allows MVMp replication.

  2. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells as an efficient system for harvesting microalgal cells, lipid production and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, Digby; Taha, Mohamed; Miranda, Ana F; Kadali, Krishna; Stevenson, Trevor; Ball, Andrew S; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2014-01-01

    The challenges which the large scale microalgal industry is facing are associated with the high cost of key operations such as harvesting, nutrient supply and oil extraction. The high-energy input for harvesting makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible and can account for up to 50% of the total cost of biofuel production. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells is getting increasing attention because of high efficiency of bio-flocculation of microalgal cells with no requirement for added chemicals and low energy inputs. Moreover, some fungal and microalgal strains are well known for their exceptional ability to purify wastewater, generating biomass that represents a renewable and sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. We have screened the flocculation efficiency of the filamentous fungus A. fumigatus against 11 microalgae representing freshwater, marine, small (5 µm), large (over 300 µm), heterotrophic, photoautotrophic, motile and non-motile strains. Some of the strains are commercially used for biofuel production. Lipid production and composition were analysed in fungal-algal pellets grown on media containing alternative carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources contained in wheat straw and swine wastewater, respectively. Co-cultivation of algae and A. fumigatus cells showed additive and synergistic effects on biomass production, lipid yield and wastewater bioremediation efficiency. Analysis of fungal-algal pellet's fatty acids composition suggested that it can be tailored and optimised through co-cultivating different algae and fungi without the need for genetic modification.

  3. Effects of intermediate frequency magnetic fields on male fertility indicators in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, K; Capstick, M; Cassara, A M; Herrala, M; Koivisto, H; Naarala, J; Tanila, H; Viluksela, M; Juutilainen, J

    2017-08-01

    Human exposure to intermediate frequency (IF) fields is increasing due to new applications such as electronic article surveillance systems, wireless power transfer and induction heating cookers. However, limited data is available on effects of IF magnetic fields (MF) on male fertility function. This study was conducted to assess possible effects on fertility indicators from exposure to IF MF. Male C57BL/6J mice were exposed continuously for 5 weeks to 7.5kHz MF at 12 and 120μT. Sperm cells from cauda epididymis were analysed for motility, total sperm counts, and head abnormalities. Motile sperm cells were classified as progressive or non-progressive. Testicular spermatid heads were counted as well. The body weight development and reproductive tissue weights were not affected. No exposure-related differences were observed in sperm counts or sperm head abnormalities. Proportion of non-motile cells was significantly decreased in the 120µT group, and a corresponding increase was seen in the percentage of motile cells (significant in non-progressive motile cells). In conclusion, no adverse effects on fertility indicators were observed. Increased sperm motility is an interesting finding that needs to be confirmed in further studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lactobacillus arizonensis sp. nov., isolated from jojoba meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, J L; Nakamura, L K; Abbott, T P; Peterson, R E

    2000-09-01

    Five strains of simmondsin-degrading, lactic-acid-producing bacteria were isolated from fermented jojoba meal. These isolates were facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, homofermentative, rod-shaped organisms. They grew singly and in short chains, produced lactic acid but no gas from glucose, and did not exhibit catalase activity. Growth occurred at 15 and 45 degrees C. All strains fermented cellobiose, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-glucose, lactose, maltose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, melibiose, D-ribose, salicin, D-sorbitol, sucrose and trehalose. Some strains fermented L-(-)-arabinose and L-rhamnose. D-Xylose was not fermented and starch was not hydrolysed. The mean G+C content of the DNA was 48 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA established that the isolates were members of the genus Lactobacillus. DNA reassociation of 45% or less was obtained between the new isolates and the reference strains of species with G+C contents of about 48 mol%. The isolates were differentiated from other homofermentative Lactobacillus spp. on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence divergence, DNA relatedness, stereoisomerism of the lactic acid produced, growth temperature and carbohydrate fermentation. The data support the conclusion that these organisms represent strains of a new species, for which the name Lactobacillus arizonensis is proposed. The type strain of L. arizonensis is NRRL B-14768T (= DSM 13273T).

  5. Enteric neurons show a primary cilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luesma, Ma José; Cantarero, Irene; Castiella, Tomás; Soriano, Mario; Garcia-Verdugo, José Manuel; Junquera, Concepción

    2013-01-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile cilium whose structure is 9+0. It is involved in co-ordinating cellular signal transduction pathways, developmental processes and tissue homeostasis. Defects in the structure or function of the primary cilium underlie numerous human diseases, collectively termed ciliopathies. The presence of single cilia in the central nervous system (CNS) is well documented, including some choroid plexus cells, neural stem cells, neurons and astrocytes, but the presence of primary cilia in differentiated neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS) has not yet been described in mammals to the best of our knowledge. The enteric nervous system closely resembles the central nervous system. In fact, the ultrastructure of the ENS is more similar to the CNS ultrastructure than to the rest of the peripheral nervous system. This research work describes for the first time the ultrastructural characteristics of the single cilium in neurons of rat duodenum myenteric plexus, and reviews the cilium function in the CNS to propose the possible role of cilia in the ENS cells. © 2012 The Authors. Published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  6. Isolation and molecular detection of Pasteurella multocida Type A from naturally infected chickens, and their histopathological evaluation in artificially infected chickens in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedun Nahar Panna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida type A is the etiologic agent of fowl cholera, a highly contagious and fatal disease of chickens. The present research work was performed for the isolation, identification and molecular detection of P. multocida Type A from chickens. Liver, heart and spleen of suspected dead chicken (n=35 were collected from Gazipur and Pabna districts in Bangladesh. The targeted bacteria from the samples were isolated, identified and characterized based on their morphology, staining, cultural, biochemical characters, pathogenicity test, histopathological study and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. The P. multocida organism was isolated from 11.42% (n=4/35 samples. The organisms were gram negative, non-spore forming rod, non-motile, occurring singly or pairs in Gram staining, whereas in Leishman's stain, bipolar shaped organisms were observed. All the isolates were found positive for oxidase and catalase tests, produced indole, and fermented glucose, mannitol and sucrose. Necrotic foci in liver and congestion with hemorrhages in heart were found on necropsy. After pathogenicity test, the pathological changes were reconfirmed by histopathology depicting congestion, hemorrhage and lymphocyte infiltration in heart, liver and spleen tissues. In type specific PCR reaction, the organisms were confirmed as P. multocida Type A. In conclusion, P. multocida type A is prevalent among poultry in the studied regions; thus, care must be taken to control of the disease. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 338-345

  7. Morphologic study of the effect of iron on pseudocyst formation in Trichomonas vaginalis and its interaction with human epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Lopes, Geovane; Saboia-Vahia, Leonardo; Margotti, Eliane Trindade; Fernandes, Nilma de Souza; Castro, Cássia Luana de Faria; Oliveira, Francisco Odencio; Peixoto, Juliana Figueiredo; Britto, Constança; Silva, Fernando Costa E; Cuervo, Patricia; Jesus, José Batista de

    2017-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the aetiological agent of human trichomoniasis, which is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in humans. Iron is an important element for the survival of this parasite and the colonisation of the host urogenital tract. In this study, we investigated the effects of iron on parasite proliferation in the dynamics of pseudocyst formation and morphologically characterised iron depletion-induced pseudocysts. We performed structural and ultrastructural analyses using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was observed that iron depletion (i) interrupts the proliferation of T. vaginalis, (ii) induces morphological changes in typical multiplicative trophozoites to spherical non-proliferative, non-motile pseudocysts, and (iii) induces the arrest of cell division at different stages of the cell cycle; (iv) iron is the fundamental element for the maintenance of typical trophozoite morphology; (v) pseudocysts induced by iron depletion are viable and reversible forms; and, finally, (vi) we demonstrated that pseudocysts induced by iron depletion are able to interact with human epithelial cells maintaining their spherical forms. Together, these data suggest that pseudocysts could be induced as a response to iron nutritional stress and could have a potential role in the transmission and infection of T. vaginalis.

  8. Spirosoma carri sp. nov., isolated from an automobile air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Uk; Lee, Hyosun; Lee, Suyeon; Park, Sooyeon; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Park, So Yoon; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2017-10-01

    A Gram-stain-negative and yellow-pigmented bacterial strain, designated TX0406 T , was isolated from an automobile evaporator core collected in Korea. The cells were non-motile, aerobic and rod-shaped. The strain grew at 15-37 °C (optimum, 25 °C), at pH 6.0-7.0 (optimum, 6.5) and in the presence of 0-1.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetically, the strain was related to members of the genus Spirosoma(93.7-90.7 % 16S rRNA sequence similarities) and showed the highest sequence similarity of 93.7 % to Spirosomapulveris JSH5-14 T . The major fatty acids of the strain were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), C16 : 1ω5c and C16 : 0. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The polar lipid profile revealed the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminolipid, unidentified aminophospholipids and unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 58.7 mol%. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic data, strain TX0406 T represents a novel species in the genus Spirosoma, for which the name Spirosoma carri sp. nov. (=KACC 19013 T =NBRC 112494 T ) is proposed.

  9. Porphyromonas gingivalis and related bacteria: from colonial pigmentation to the type IX secretion system and gliding motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, K

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative, non-motile, anaerobic bacterium implicated as a major pathogen in periodontal disease. P. gingivalis grows as black-pigmented colonies on blood agar, and many bacteriologists have shown interest in this property. Studies of colonial pigmentation have revealed a number of important findings, including an association with the highly active extracellular and surface proteinases called gingipains that are found in P. gingivalis. The Por secretion system, a novel type IX secretion system (T9SS), has been implicated in gingipain secretion in studies using non-pigmented mutants. In addition, many potent virulence proteins, including the metallocarboxypeptidase CPG70, 35 kDa hemin-binding protein HBP35, peptidylarginine deiminase PAD and Lys-specific serine endopeptidase PepK, are secreted through the T9SS. These findings have not been limited to P. gingivalis but have been extended to other bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Many Bacteroidetes species possess the T9SS, which is associated with gliding motility for some of these bacteria. PMID:25546073

  10. Inoculation density and nutrient level determine the formation of mushroom-shaped structures in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Azadeh; Dehghany, Jaber; Schwebs, Timo; Müsken, Mathias; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa often colonises immunocompromised patients and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. It exhibits resistance to many antibiotics by forming biofilms, which makes it hard to eliminate. P. aeruginosa biofilms form mushroom-shaped structures under certain circumstances. Bacterial motility and the environment affect the eventual mushroom morphology. This study provides an agent-based model for the bacterial dynamics and interactions influencing bacterial biofilm shape. Cell motility in the model relies on recently published experimental data. Our simulations show colony formation by immotile cells. Motile cells escape from a single colony by nutrient chemotaxis and hence no mushroom shape develops. A high number density of non-motile colonies leads to migration of motile cells onto the top of the colonies and formation of mushroom-shaped structures. This model proposes that the formation of mushroom-shaped structures can be predicted by parameters at the time of bacteria inoculation. Depending on nutrient levels and the initial number density of stalks, mushroom-shaped structures only form in a restricted regime. This opens the possibility of early manipulation of spatial pattern formation in bacterial colonies, using environmental factors.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of a New KOR-1 from an Anaerobic Digester Using Pig Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urantulkhuur Battumur

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A new methanogen was isolated from an anaerobic digester using pig slurry in South Korea. Only one strain, designated KOR-1, was characterized in detail. Cells of KOR-1 were straight or crooked rods, non-motile, 5 to 15 μm long and 0.7 μm wide. They stained Gram-positive and produced methane from H2+CO2 and formate. Strain KOR-1 grew optimally at 38°C. The optimum pH for growth was 7.0. The strain grew at 0.5% to 3.0% NaCl, with optimum growth at 2.5% NaCl. The G+C content of genomic DNA of strain KOR-1 was 41 mol%. The strain tolerated ampicillin, penicillin G, kanamycin and streptomycin but tetracycline inhibited cell growth. A large fragment of the 16S rRNA gene (~1,350 bp was obtained from the isolate and sequenced. Comparison of 16S rRNA genes revealed that strain KOR–1 is related to Methanobacterium formicicum (98%, sequence similarity, Methanobacterium bryantii (95% and Methanobacterium ivanovii (93%. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced mcrA gene sequences confirmed the closest relative as based on mcrA gene sequence analysis was Methanobacterium formicicum strain (97% nucleic acid sequence identity. On the basis of physiological and phylogenetic characteristics, strain KOR-1 is proposed as a new strain within the genus Methanobacterium, Methanobacterium formicicum KOR-1.

  12. Rhodococcus antrifimi sp. nov., isolated from dried bat dung of a cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kwan Su; Kim, Youngju; Seong, Chi Nam; Lee, Soon Dong

    2015-11-01

    A Gram-reaction-positive, high DNA G+C content, non-motile actinobacterium, strain D7-21T, was isolated from dried bat dung inside a natural cave and its taxonomic status was examined by using a polyphasic approach. The 16S rRNA gene sequence study showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Rhodococcus and formed a cluster with Rhodococcus defluvii (98.98 % gene similarity), Rhodococcus equi (98.62 %) and Rhodococcus kunmingensis (97.66 %). Whole-cell hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose and galactose as the diagnostic diamino acid and sugars. MK-8(H2) was the predominant menaquinone. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, an unknown phosphoglycolipid and an unknown glycolipid. Mycolic acids were present. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and 10-methyl C18 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 70.1 mol%. A battery of phenotypic features and DNA-DNA relatedness data support that strain D7-21T ( = KCTC 29469T = DSM 46727T) represents a novel species of the genus Rhodococcus, for which Rhodococcus antrifimi sp. nov. is proposed.

  13. Salmonella infection in healthy pet reptiles: Bacteriological isolation and study of some pathogenic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Chemaly, Marianne; Cerri, Domenico; Gall, Françoise Le; Ebani, Valentina Virginia

    2016-06-01

    The fecal samples from 213 captive reptiles were examined, and 29 (13.61%) Salmonella enterica isolates were detected: 14/62 (22.58%) from chelonians, 14/135 (10.37%) from saurians, and 1/16 (6.25%) from ophidians. The isolates were distributed among 14 different serotypes: Miami, Ebrie, Hermannsweder, Tiergarten, Tornov, Pomona, Poona, Goteborg, Abaetetube, Nyanza, Kumasi, Typhimurium, 50:b:z6, 9,12:z29:1,5, and a non-motile serotype with antigenic formula 1,4,[5],12:-:-. Salmonella typhimurium and 50:b:z6 isolates showed the spv plasmid virulence genes, responsible of the capability to induce extra-intestinal infections. In some cases, pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed different profiles for the strains of the same serotypes, showing different origins, whereas a common source of infection was supposed when one pulsotype had been observed for isolates of a serovar. Twenty-seven (93.10%) isolates showed resistance to one or more antibiotics. Ceftazidime was active to all the tested isolates, whereas the highest percentages of strains were no susceptible to tigecycline (93.10%), streptomycin (89.66%), and sulfonamide (86.21%).

  14. Cell migration is another player of the minute virus of mice infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcin, Pierre O.; Panté, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    The parvovirus minute virus of mice, prototype strain (MVMp), preferentially infects and kills cancer cells. This intrinsic MVMp oncotropism may depend in part on the early stages of MVMp infection. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the early events of MVMp infection in mouse LA9 fibroblasts and a highly invasive mouse mammary tumor cell line derived from polyomavirus middle T antigen-mediated transformation. Using a combination of fluorescence and electron microscopy, we found that various parameters of the cell migration process affect MVMp infection. We show that, after binding to the plasma membrane, MVMp particles rapidly cluster at the leading edge of migrating cells, which exhibit higher levels of MVMp uptake than non-motile cells. Moreover, promoting cell migration on a fibronectin matrix increased MVMp infection, and induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition allowed MVMp replication in non-permissive epithelial cells. Hence, we propose that cell migration influences the early stages of MVMp infection. - Highlights: • We document early steps of MVMp infection. • We report that a fibronectin matrix promotes MVMp infection. • We show that cellular migration plays a role in MVMp uptake. • We show that epithelial–mesenchymal transition allows MVMp replication

  15. AOAC Official MethodSM Matrix Extension Validation Study of Assurance GDSTM for the Detection of Salmonella in Selected Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldsine, Philip; Kaur, Mandeep; Shah, Khyati; Immerman, Amy; Jucker, Markus; Lienau, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Assurance GDSTM for Salmonella Tq has been validated according to the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Methods Committee Guidelines for Validation of Microbiological Methods for Food and Environmental Surfaces for the detection of selected foods and environmental surfaces (Official Method of AnalysisSM 2009.03, Performance Tested MethodSM No. 050602). The method also completed AFNOR validation (following the ISO 16140 standard) compared to the reference method EN ISO 6579. For AFNOR, GDS was given a scope covering all human food, animal feed stuff, and environmental surfaces (Certificate No. TRA02/12-01/09). Results showed that Assurance GDS for Salmonella (GDS) has high sensitivity and is equivalent to the reference culture methods for the detection of motile and non-motile Salmonella. As part of the aforementioned validations, inclusivity and exclusivity studies, stability, and ruggedness studies were also conducted. Assurance GDS has 100% inclusivity and exclusivity among the 100 Salmonella serovars and 35 non-Salmonella organisms analyzed. To add to the scope of the Assurance GDS for Salmonella method, a matrix extension study was conducted, following the AOAC guidelines, to validate the application of the method for selected spices, specifically curry powder, cumin powder, and chili powder, for the detection of Salmonella.

  16. Butyricicoccus porcorum sp. nov., a butyrate-producing bacterium from swine intestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachsel, Julian; Humphrey, Samuel; Allen, Heather K

    2018-05-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, butyrate-producing coccus was cultured from the distal ileum of swine. This organism was isolated on rumen-fluid medium, consumes acetate, and produces butyrate as its major end product when grown on mono- and di-saccharides. A phylogenetic analysis based on near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences as well as whole-genome phylogenies suggests that this isolate is most closely related to species in the genus Butyricicoccus, with Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum being the closest named relative (93.5 % 16S similarity). The G+C content of this isolate is 54 mol%, and the major cellular fatty acids are C18 : 0 DMA, C14 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C16 : 0. These data indicate that this isolate represents a novel species within the genus Butyricicoccus, for which the name Butyricicoccus porcorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Butyricicoccus porcorum is BB10 T (ATCC TSD-102 T , DSM 104997 T ).

  17. Molecular analysis of sourdough reveals Lactobacillus mindensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Matthias A; Müller, Martin R A; Vogel, Rudi F

    2003-01-01

    Genotypic fingerprinting to analyse the bacterial flora of an industrial sourdough revealed a coherent group of strains which could not be associated with a valid species. Comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that these strains formed a homogeneous cluster distinct from their closest relatives, Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus alimentarius and Lactobacillus kimchii. To characterize them further, physiological (sugar fermentation, formation of DL-lactate, hydrolysis of arginine, growth temperature, CO2 production) and chemotaxonomic properties have been determined. The DNA G +C content was 37.5 0.2 mol%. The peptidoglycan was of the lysine-D-iso-asparagine (L-Lys-D-Asp) type. The strains were homofermentative, Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile rods. They were found as a major stable component of a rye flour sourdough fermentation. Physiological, biochemical as well as genotypic data suggested them to be a new species of the genus Lactobacillus. This was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization of genomic DNA, and the name Lactobacillus mindensis is proposed. The type strain of this species is DSM 14500T (=LMG 21508T).

  18. Aquimarina hainanensis sp. nov., isolated from diseased Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanfen; Wang, Yanan; Liu, Yan; Li, Wentao; Yu, Mingchao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    One novel Gram-stain-negative, long rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, non-motile, non-flagellated and strictly aerobic strain, designated M124T, was isolated from diseased Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei larvae. Growth occurred at 16-37 °C (optimum 28 °C), in the presence of 2-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3 %) and at pH 7-8 (optimum pH 7). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain M124T belonged to the genus Aquimarina and showed highest sequence similarity to Aquimarina penaei P3-1T (96.4 %). The dominant fatty acids of the isolate were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The major polar lipids comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown aminolipid, three unknown phospholipids, two unknown glycolipids and one unknown polar lipid. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). The DNA G+C content of strain M124T was 33.7 mol%. Based on the polyphasic analyses in this study, strain M124T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Aquimarina, for which the name Aquimarina hainanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M124T ( = KCTC 42423T = MCCC 1K00498T).

  19. Telluribacter humicola gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Cytophagaceae isolated from soil in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongwook; Jang, Jun Hyeong; Cha, Seho; Seo, Taegun

    2016-12-01

    A pink-pigmented, gram-negative, non-motile, non-gliding, flexirubin-negative, rod-shaped and strictly aerobic bacterial strain, designated PTR3 T , was isolated from a soil sample from Goyang, South Korea. Growth occurred between 10 and 42 °C (optimum 30 °C), 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %) and pH 6-9 (optimum 7-8). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequences showed that strain PTR3 T forms a distinct clade with type strains of the closely related genus, Dyadobacter, with similarities of 93.6 and 91.3-93.6 %, respectively. The strain produces a pink carotenoid pigment(s). The major polar lipids are an unidentified aminophospholipid and an aminolipid. Strain PTR3 T was found to contain MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and C 16:1 ω7c and/or C 16:1 ω6c as the major fatty acids. The DNA G + C content of strain PTR3 T was deterrmined to be 45.9 mol %. Based on the chemotaxonomic, phylogenetic and other physiological properties, strain PTR3 T (=KCTC 42819 T  = JCM 31133 T ) is concluded to represent a novel species in a new genus within the family Cytophagaceae, for which the name Telluribacter humicola gen nov., sp. nov., is proposed.

  20. Tangfeifania diversioriginum gen. nov., sp. nov., a representative of the family Draconibacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian-Qian; Li, Xiao-Li; Rooney, Alejandro P; Du, Zong-Jun; Chen, Guan-Jun

    2014-10-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-motile and pink-pigmented bacterium, designated G22(T), was isolated from Gahai, a saltwater lake in Qinghai province, China. Optimal growth occurred at 33-35 °C, pH 7.0-7.5, and in the presence of 2-4% (w/v) NaCl. The DNA G+C content was 40.0 mol%. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and three unknown lipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH and iso-C15:0 3-OH, and MK-7 was the main respiratory quinone. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain G22(T) fell within the class Bacteroidia. Its closest phylogenetic neighbour was the recently described species Draconibacterium orientale, the sole member of the family Draconibacteriaceae, with merely 90.04% sequence similarity. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic evidence observed, a novel species in a new genus, Tangfeifania diversioriginum gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed within the family Draconibacteriaceae. The type strain is G22(T) ( = CICC 10587(T) =DSM 27063(T)).

  1. Characteristics of a pink-pigmented bacterium isolated from biofilm in a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Goto, Keiichi; Kato, Yuko; Saitou, Keiko; Sugiyama, Jun-ichi; Hara, Motonobu; Yoshida, Shin-ichi; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2007-01-01

    Strain K-20, a Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming and strictly aerobic rod, which produces a pale pink pigment, was isolated from biofilm in a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan. The taxonomic feature of the strain was studied using phenotypic tests and phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain was related to Roseomonas gilardii subsp. rosea, Roseomonas gilardii subsp. gilardii, Roseomonas cervicalis and Roseomonas mucosa at 94.3-94.6 sequence similarities. Growth occurred at 25-40 C and pH 5.0-10.0, optimal at 35 C and pH 7.0. Growth did not occur in the presence of >or=2% NaCl. The API 20NE identification system gave a positive result for urease, L-arabinose, potassium gluconate, adipic acid, malic acid and trisodium citrate (API code number 0201465). The predominant fatty acids of strain K-20 were C18:1Delta11 (50.8%) and C16:1 (17.2%). Cells contained ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) as the major quinone and the G+C content was 72.0 mol%. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was assumed that strain K-20 (=JCM 14634) is a novel species of the genus Roseomonas.

  2. Hymenobacter glacieicola sp. nov., isolated from glacier ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keshao; Liu, Yongqin; Wang, Ninglian; Gu, Zhengquan; Shen, Liang; Xu, Baiqing; Zhou, Yuguang; Liu, Hongcan; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2016-10-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and red-pink-pigmented bacterial strain, designated B1909T, was isolated from an ice core drilled from Muztagh Glacier on the Tibetan Plateau, China. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain B1909T formed a lineage within the genus Hymenobacter and was closely related to Hymenobacter xinjiangensis X2-1gT (96.16 % similarity) and Hymenobacter psychrotolerans Tibet-IIU11T (95.99 %). The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c), summed feature 4 (iso-C17 : 1ω6c I/anteiso B), C16 : 1ω5c, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The major menaquinone was MK-7. The major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The DNA G+C content was 59 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic data presented, strain B1909T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Hymenobacter, for which the name Hymenobacterglacieicola sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is B1909T (=JCM 30596T=CGMCC 1.12990T).

  3. Roseomonas wooponensis sp. nov., isolated from wetland freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hee; Kim, Mi Sun; Baik, Keun Sik; Kim, Hyang Mi; Lee, Kang Hyun; Seong, Chi Nam

    2015-11-01

    A non-motile, cocobacilli-shaped and pink-pigmented bacterium, designated strain WW53T, was isolated from wetland freshwater (Woopo wetland, Republic of Korea). Cells were Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive. The major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c and C16 : 0.The predominant quinone and polyamine were ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) and spermidine, respectively. The DNA G+C content was 71 mol%. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and an unknown aminolipid. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain WW53T belongs to the family Acetobacteraceae, and is related to the genus Roseomonas. Strain WW53T was most closely related to Roseomonas stagni HS-69T (95.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Results of a polyphasic taxonomy study suggested that the isolate represents a novel species in the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas wooponensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WW53T ( = KCTC 32534T = JCM 19527T).

  4. Primary cilium - antenna-like structure on the surface of most mammalian cell types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, J.; Sitorova, V.; Hadzi Nikolov, D.; Mokry, J.; Richter, I.; Kasaova, L.; Filip, S.; Ryska, A.; Petera, J.

    2011-12-01

    The primary cilium is a sensory solitary non-motile microtubule-based organelle protruding in the quiescent phase of the cell cycle from the surface of the majority of human cells, including embryonic cells, stem cells and stromal cells of malignant tumors. The presence of a primary cilium on the surface of a cell is transient, limited to the quiescent G1(G0) phase and the beginning of the S phase of the cell cycle. The primary cilium is formed from the mother centriole. Primary cilia are key coordinators of signaling pathways during development and tissue homeostasis and, when deffective, they are a major cause of human diseases and developmental disorders, now commonly referred to as ciliopathies. Most cancer cells do not possess a primary cilium. The loss of the primary cilium is a regular feature of neoplastic transformation in the majority of solid tumors. The primary cilium could serve as a tumor suppressor organelle. The aim of this paper was to provide a review of the current knowledge of the primary cilium.

  5. Parapedobacter koreensis gen. nov., sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Kyum; Na, Ju-Ryun; Cho, Dong Ha; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2007-06-01

    Strain Jip14(T), a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, was isolated from dried rice straw and characterized in order to determine its taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain Jip14(T) belongs to the family Sphingobacteriaceae, and the highest degree of sequence similarity was determined to be to Pedobacter saltans DSM 12145(T) (88.5 %), Pedobacter africanus DSM 12126(T) (87.6 %), Pedobacter heparinus DSM 2366(T) (87.1 %) and Pedobacter caeni LMG 22862(T) (86.9 %). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain Jip14(T) possesses menaquinone MK-7 and the predominant fatty acids C(15 : 0) iso, C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0) 10-methyl, C(17 : 0) iso 3-OH and summed feature 3 (C(15 : 0) iso 2-OH/C(16 : 1)omega7c). The results of physiological and biochemical tests clearly demonstrated that strain Jip14(T) represents a distinct species. Based on these data, Jip14(T) should be classified within a novel genus and species, for which the name Parapedobacter koreensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Parapedobacter koreensis is Jip14(T) (=KCTC 12643(T)=LMG 23493(T)).

  6. Pedobacter insulae sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kang, So-Jung; Oh, Hyun Woo; Oh, Tae-Kwang

    2007-09-01

    A Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, DS-139(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Dokdo, Korea, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Strain DS-139(T) grew optimally at 25 degrees C and pH 6.5-7.5 in the presence of 0-0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. It contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 39.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain DS-39(T) belongs to the genus Pedobacter in the family Sphingobacteriaceae. The similarity values between the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain DS-139(T) and those of the type strains of recognized Pedobacter species, except Pedobacter saltans, were in the range 93.9-96.7 %. The differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic distinctiveness, were sufficient to assign strain DS-139(T) to a species that is separate from recognized Pedobacter species. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, therefore, strain DS-139(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pedobacter, for which the name Pedobacter insulae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DS-139(T) (=KCTC 12820(T) =DSM 18684(T)).

  7. Transition of Plasmodium sporozoites into liver stage-like forms is regulated by the RNA binding protein Pumilio

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes-Santos, Carina S. S.

    2011-05-19

    Many eukaryotic developmental and cell fate decisions that are effected post-transcriptionally involve RNA binding proteins as regulators of translation of key mRNAs. In malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.), the development of round, non-motile and replicating exo-erythrocytic liver stage forms from slender, motile and cell-cycle arrested sporozoites is believed to depend on environmental changes experienced during the transmission of the parasite from the mosquito vector to the vertebrate host. Here we identify a Plasmodium member of the RNA binding protein family PUF as a key regulator of this transformation. In the absence of Pumilio-2 (Puf2) sporozoites initiate EEF development inside mosquito salivary glands independently of the normal transmission-associated environmental cues. Puf2- sporozoites exhibit genome-wide transcriptional changes that result in loss of gliding motility, cell traversal ability and reduction in infectivity, and, moreover, trigger metamorphosis typical of early Plasmodium intra-hepatic development. These data demonstrate that Puf2 is a key player in regulating sporozoite developmental control, and imply that transformation of salivary gland-resident sporozoites into liver stage-like parasites is regulated by a post-transcriptional mechanism. 2011 Gomes-Santos et al.

  8. Virulence of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida in cultured cobia Rachycentron canadum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping-Chung; Lin, Ji-Yang; Lee, Kuo-Kau

    2003-01-01

    An outbreak of serious mortality among the cultured cobia Rachycentron canadum (weighing 3 kg) characterized by the presence of whitish granulomatous deposits on the kidney, liver and spleen occurred in July of 2000 in Taiwan. A non-motile strain CP1 was isolated from kidney and/or liver on tryptic soy agar and/or brain heart infusion agar plates (both supplemented with 1% NaCl, w/v). This strain was characterized and identified as Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida using biochemical characteristics and Bionor mono-Pp tests. The bacterium and its extracellular products (ECP) were lethal to the cobia (weighing 10 g) with LD50 values of 1.03 x 10(4) colony forming units and 1.26 microg protein/g fish body weight, respectively. All the moribund/dead fish exhibited darkness in color with no gross or internal leasions. However, the bacteria could be reisolated from kidney and liver after bacterial challenge. The present results reveal that Ph. damselae subsp. piscicida is the causative agent of fish photobacteriosis in the cobia and the bacterium isolated from sub-adult cobia (chronic form) is virulent to young cobia causing acute form of the disease.

  9. Inoculation density and nutrient level determine the formation of mushroom-shaped structures in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Azadeh; Dehghany, Jaber; Schwebs, Timo; Müsken, Mathias; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2016-09-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa often colonises immunocompromised patients and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. It exhibits resistance to many antibiotics by forming biofilms, which makes it hard to eliminate. P. aeruginosa biofilms form mushroom-shaped structures under certain circumstances. Bacterial motility and the environment affect the eventual mushroom morphology. This study provides an agent-based model for the bacterial dynamics and interactions influencing bacterial biofilm shape. Cell motility in the model relies on recently published experimental data. Our simulations show colony formation by immotile cells. Motile cells escape from a single colony by nutrient chemotaxis and hence no mushroom shape develops. A high number density of non-motile colonies leads to migration of motile cells onto the top of the colonies and formation of mushroom-shaped structures. This model proposes that the formation of mushroom-shaped structures can be predicted by parameters at the time of bacteria inoculation. Depending on nutrient levels and the initial number density of stalks, mushroom-shaped structures only form in a restricted regime. This opens the possibility of early manipulation of spatial pattern formation in bacterial colonies, using environmental factors.

  10. Dynamics of Reactive Microbial Hotspots in Concentration Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, A.; Farasin, J.; Tabuteau, H.; Dufresne, A.; Meheust, Y.; Le Borgne, T.

    2017-12-01

    In subsurface environments, bacteria play a major role in controlling the kinetics of a broad range of biogeochemical reactions. In such environments, nutrients fluxes and solute concentrations needed for bacteria metabolism may be highly variable in space and intermittent in time. This can lead to the formation of reactive hotspots where and when conditions are favorable to particular microorganisms, hence inducing biogeochemical reaction kinetics that differ significantly from those measured in homogeneous model environments. To investigate the impact of chemical gradients on the spatial structure and temporal dynamics of subsurface microorganism populations, we develop microfluidic cells allowing for a precise control of flow and chemical gradient conditions, as well as quantitative monitoring of the bacteria's spatial distribution and biofilm development. Using the non-motile Escherichia coli JW1908-1 strain and Gallionella capsiferriformans ES-2 as model organisms, we investigate the behavior and development of bacteria over a range of single and double concentration gradients in the concentrations of nutrients, electron donors and electron acceptors. We measure bacterial activity and population growth locally in precisely known hydrodynamic and chemical environments. This approach allows time-resolved monitoring of the location and intensity of reactive hotspots in micromodels as a function of the flow and chemical gradient conditions. We compare reactive microbial hotspot dynamics in our micromodels to classic growth laws and well-known growth parameters for the laboratory model bacteria Escherichia coli.We also discuss consequences for the formation and temporal dynamics of biofilms in the subsurface.

  11. The spatiotemporal system dynamics of acquired resistance in an engineered microecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datla, Udaya Sree; Mather, William H; Chen, Sheng; Shoultz, Isaac W; Täuber, Uwe C; Jones, Caroline N; Butzin, Nicholas C

    2017-11-22

    Great strides have been made in the understanding of complex networks; however, our understanding of natural microecologies is limited. Modelling of complex natural ecological systems has allowed for new findings, but these models typically ignore the constant evolution of species. Due to the complexity of natural systems, unanticipated interactions may lead to erroneous conclusions concerning the role of specific molecular components. To address this, we use a synthetic system to understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of growth and to study acquired resistance in vivo. Our system differs from earlier synthetic systems in that it focuses on the evolution of a microecology from a killer-prey relationship to coexistence using two different non-motile Escherichia coli strains. Using empirical data, we developed the first ecological model emphasising the concept of the constant evolution of species, where the survival of the prey species is dependent on location (distance from the killer) or the evolution of resistance. Our simple model, when expanded to complex microecological association studies under varied spatial and nutrient backgrounds may help to understand the complex relationships between multiple species in intricate natural ecological networks. This type of microecological study has become increasingly important, especially with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  12. Roultella ornithinolytica infection in infancy: a case of febrile urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Petris, Laura; Ruffini, Ermanno

    2018-05-02

    Raoultella ornithinolytica is a Gram-negative, non-motile, encapsulated, aerobic bacillus belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. R. ornithinolytica is a not very common, but emergent causal agent of human infection, and its expression of beta-lactamase provides resistance to commonly used antibiotics. The pathogenetic potential of R. ornithinolytica isolates in human disease has become increasingly important. Several cases of hospital-acquired infection, mostly associated with invasive procedures, or in patients with co-morbidity caused by R. ornithinolytica, have been previously reported in the adult population. In pediatric population, two cases in immunocompromised children, one case in an infant with visceral heterotaxy and one case of catheter-related bacteraemia are described. Here, we present the first case of febrile urinary tract infection due to R. ornithinolytica in an 8-month-old infant, recovered from a previous febrile UTI caused by E. coli and without co-morbidity. The empiric therapy with ceftriaxone, followed by cefpodoxime proxetil, resolved symptoms: the clinical condition of the infant improved rapidly and the treatment eradicated urine from the R. ornithinolytica infection. Since other pathogens rather than R. ornithinolytica are usually identified in children with urinary tract infections, including Escherichia coli, Proteus, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas, the identification of this microorganism in our patient's urine was also unexpected.

  13. In Azospirillum brasilense, mutations in flmA or flmB genes affect polar flagellum assembly, surface polysaccharides, and attachment to maize roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fernando Ariel; Medeot, Daniela Beatriz; Liaudat, Juan Pablo; Pistorio, Mariano; Jofré, Edgardo

    2016-09-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a soil bacterium capable of promoting plant growth. Several surface components were previously reported to be involved in the attachment of A. brasilense to root plants. Among these components are the exopolysaccharide (EPS), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the polar flagellum. Flagellin from polar flagellum is glycosylated and it was suggested that genes involved in such a posttranslational modification are the same ones involved in the biosynthesis of sugars present in the O-antigen of the LPS. In this work, we report on the characterization of two homologs present in A. brasilense Cd, to the well characterized flagellin modification genes, flmA and flmB, from Aeromonas caviae. We show that mutations in either flmA or flmB genes of A. brasilense resulted in non-motile cells due to alterations in the polar flagellum assembly. Moreover, these mutations also affected the capability of A. brasilense cells to adsorb to maize roots and to produce LPS and EPS. By generating a mutant containing the polar flagellum affected in their rotation, we show the importance of the bacterial motility for the early colonization of maize roots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of mice infected to Salmonella Spp in Poultry farms of Tehran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hadadian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this survey, 290 mice and rats fecal samples from commercial layer and broiler poultry houses were tested for Salmonella sp. presence. All samples were cultured on Selenite F broth media and passaged on SS agar and McConkey agar. The suspected colonies were cultured on Urea and TSI agars to be confirmed as Salmonella sp.. Finally, Salmonella isolates were identified genetically and biochemically by PCR and conventional methods, respectively. Serogrouping and Antibiotic resistance profiling were done for further differentiation of isolates. Twenty eight (9.65% Salmonellas were isolated from (out of 290 samples. Eight (28.6%, seven (25%, four (14.3%, and two (7.2% isolates were located in serogroups C, D, B and E, respectively. Seven isolates (25% belonged to Arizona subspecies and just one non-motile serogroup D Salmonella was isolated. All isolates were sensitive to enrofloxacin, difloxacin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol and florfenicol, but they were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and neomycin in decreasing order. In addition to former surveys, this study confirmed the role of mice and rats in spreading of Salmonella spp. in poultry farms. In conclusion it is essential to take appropriate measurements (measures for pest management in poultry houses to approach the prevention of some bacterial infection like  (such as salmonellosis.

  15. Spread and change in stress resistance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 on fungal colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ken-Ichi; Kobayashi, Naoki; Watanabe, Maiko; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Kumagai, Susumu; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-11-01

    To elucidate the effect of fungal hyphae on the behaviour of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, the spread and change in stress resistance of the bacterium were evaluated after coculture with 11 species of food-related fungi including fermentation starters. Spread distances of STEC O157 varied depending on the co-cultured fungal species, and the motile bacterial strain spread for longer distances than the non-motile strain. The population of STEC O157 increased when co-cultured on colonies of nine fungal species but decreased on colonies of Emericella nidulans and Aspergillus ochraceus. Confocal scanning microscopy visualization of green fluorescent protein-tagged STEC O157 on fungal hyphae revealed that the bacterium colonized in the water film that existed on and between hyphae. To investigate the physiological changes in STEC O157 caused by co-culturing with fungi, the bacterium was harvested after 7 days of co-culturing and tested for acid resistance. After co-culture with eight fungal species, STEC O157 showed greater acid resistance compared to those cultured without fungi. Our results indicate that fungal hyphae can spread the contamination of STEC O157 and can also enhance the stress resistance of the bacteria. © 2013 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter species in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Nazar M; Osman, Amani A; Haimour, Waleed O; Sarhan, Mohammed A A; Mohammed, Mohammed N; Zyad, Eyhab M; Al-Ghtani, Abdalla M

    2013-03-15

    This study aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of antibiotics towards nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter species. The study took place during the period Dec. 2011- Dec. 2012 at Assir Central Hospital in collaboration with the department of microbiology, college of medicine, King Khalid University, Abha. A prospective study involving 150 patients presented with nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter species detected by bacteriological tests; direct microscopy, culture in blood agar media, fermentation test in MacConkey media and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) for antibiotics sensitivity using Muller Hinton media and Chemical test using API 20. A 150 nosocomial infections in this study showed gram-negative coccobacilli, non motile, glucose-negative fermentor and oxidase negative. All isolates showed 100% sensitivity to: Imipramine, Meropenem, Colistin. From the rest of tested antibiotics the higher resistant ones were; Nitrofurantoin 87% and Cefoxitin 85%. The least resistant antibiotics; Imipenem 3% and Ticarcillin 7%. While variable resistance in the rest of tested antimicrobials. A 47 patients (31.3%) have used antibiotics prior to this study. The high rate of usage occurred in elder patients. The frequency of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus baumannii complex multi-drugs resistance ABCMDR is rising including almost all commonly used antibiotics. Only few antibiotics exert 100% sensitivity towards these bacteria.

  17. Failed sperm development as a reproductive isolating barrier between species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünsch, Lisa K; Pfennig, Karin S

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid male sterility is a common reproductive isolating barrier between species. Yet, little is known about the actual developmental causes of this phenomenon, especially in naturally hybridizing species. We sought to evaluate the developmental causes of hybrid male sterility, using spadefoot toads as our study system. Plains spadefoot toads (Spea bombifrons) and Mexican spadefoot toads (S. multiplicata) hybridize where they co-occur in the southwestern USA. Hybrids are viable, but hybrid males suffer reduced fertility. We compared testes size and developmental stages of sperm cell maturation between hybrid males and males of each species. We found that testes of hybrid males did not differ in mean size from pure-species males. However, hybrids showed a greater range of within-individual variation in testes size than pure-species males. Moreover, although hybrids produced similar numbers of early stage sperm cells, hybrids produced significantly fewer mature spermatozoids than pure-species males. Interestingly, an introgressed individual produced numbers of live sperm comparable to pure-species males, but the majority of these sperm cells were abnormally shaped and non-motile. These results indicate that hybrid incompatibilities in late sperm development serve as a reproductive isolating barrier between species. The nature of this breakdown highlights the possibilities that hybrid males may vary in fertility and that fertility could possibly be recovered in introgressed males. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Vibrio cholerae O1 secretes an extracellular matrix in response to antibody-mediated agglutination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E Baranova

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae O1 is one of two serogroups responsible for epidemic cholera, a severe watery diarrhea that occurs after the bacterium colonizes the human small intestine and secretes a potent ADP-ribosylating toxin. Immunity to cholera is associated with intestinal anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS antibodies, which are known to inhibit V. cholerae motility and promote bacterial cell-cell crosslinking and aggregation. Here we report that V. cholerae O1 classical and El Tor biotypes produce an extracellular matrix (ECM when forcibly immobilized and agglutinated by ZAC-3 IgG, an intestinally-derived monoclonal antibody (MAb against the core/lipid A region of LPS. ECM secretion, as demonstrated by crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy, occurred within 30 minutes of antibody exposure and peaked by 3 hours. Non-motile mutants of V. cholerae did not secrete ECM following ZAC-3 IgG exposure, even though they were susceptible to agglutination. The ECM was enriched in O-specific polysaccharide (OSP but not Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS. Finally, we demonstrate that ECM production by V. cholerae in response to ZAC-3 IgG was associated with bacterial resistant to a secondary complement-mediated attack. In summary, we propose that V. cholerae O1, upon encountering anti-LPS antibodies in the intestinal lumen, secretes an ECM (or O-antigen capsule possibly as a strategy to shield itself from additional host immune factors and to exit an otherwise inhospitable host environment.

  19. Halorubrum depositum sp. nov., a Novel Halophilic Archaeon Isolated from a Salt Deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoxing; Sun, Siqi; Xu, Yao; Lv, Jinting; Chen, Linan; Liu, Liu

    2018-06-01

    A non-motile, pleomorphic rod-shaped or oval, red-pigmented (nearly scarlet), extremely halophilic archaeon, strain Y78 T , was isolated from a salt deposit of Yunnan salt mine, China. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that it was phylogenetically related to species of the genus Halorubrum, with a close relationship to Halorubrum rutilum YJ-18-S1 T (98.6%), Halorubrum yunnanense Q85 T (98.3%), and Halorubrum lipolyticum 9-3 T (98.1%). The temperature, NaCl, and pH ranges for growth were 25-50 °C, 12-30% (w/v), and 6.5-9.0, respectively. Mg 2+ was required for growth. The polar lipids of strain Y78 T were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, and a sulfated diglycosyl diether. The DNA G+C content was 66.6 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain Y78 T and two closely related species of the genus Halorubrum were far below 70%. Based on the data presented in this study, strain Y78 T represents a novel species for which the name Halorubrum depositum sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is Y78 T (= CGMCC 1.15456 T  = JCM 31272 T ).

  20. Basfia succiniciproducens gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Pasteurellaceae isolated from bovine rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Peter; Scholten, Edzard; Haefner, Stefan; Mayor, Désirée; Frey, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Gram-negative, coccoid, non-motile bacteria that are catalase-, urease- and indole-negative, facultatively anaerobic and oxidase-positive were isolated from the bovine rumen using an improved selective medium for members of the Pasteurellaceae. All strains produced significant amounts of succinic acid under anaerobic conditions with glucose as substrate. Phenotypic characterization and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using 16S rRNA, rpoB, infB and recN genes were performed on seven independent isolates. All four genes showed high sequence similarity to their counterparts in the genome sequence of the patent strain MBEL55E, but less than 95 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to any other species of the Pasteurellaceae. Genetically these strains form a very homogeneous group in individual as well as combined phylogenetic trees, clearly separated from other genera of the family from which they can also be separated based on phenotypic markers. Genome relatedness as deduced from the recN gene showed high interspecies similarities, but again low similarity to any of the established genera of the family. No toxicity towards bovine, human or fish cells was observed and no RTX toxin genes were detected in members of the new taxon. Based on phylogenetic clustering in the MLSA analysis, the low genetic similarity to other genera and the phenotypic distinction, we suggest to classify these bovine rumen isolates as Basfia succiniciproducens gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is JF4016(T) (=DSM 22022(T) =CCUG 57335(T)).

  1. Bifidobacterium mongoliense sp. nov., from airag, a traditional fermented mare's milk product from Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Koichi; Makino, Hiroshi; Sasamoto, Masae; Kudo, Yuko; Fujimoto, Junji; Demberel, Shirchin

    2009-06-01

    Two novel micro-organisms, designated strains YIT 10443(T) and YIT 10738, were isolated from airag, a traditional fermented mare's milk from Mongolia. The two strains were Gram-positive-staining, non-motile, asporogenous, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods of various shapes. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA and ClpC ATPase (clpC) gene sequences and the presence of fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase (F6PPK) demonstrated that the novel strains were members of the genus Bifidobacterium. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the type strains of Bifidobacterium minimum (96.6 %) and Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum (95.7 %) were the closest neighbours of the novel strains, and DNA-DNA reassociation values with these strains were found to be lower than 15 %. The phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that the two strains represent a single, novel Bifidobacterium species, for which the name Bifidobacterium mongoliense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIT 10443(T) (=JCM 15461(T) =DSM 21395(T)).

  2. Pseudomonas versuta sp. nov., isolated from Antarctic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See-Too, Wah Seng; Salazar, Sergio; Ee, Robson; Convey, Peter; Chan, Kok-Gan; Peix, Álvaro

    2017-06-01

    In this study we analysed three bacterial strains coded L10.10 T , A4R1.5 and A4R1.12, isolated in the course of a study of quorum-quenching bacteria occurring in Antarctic soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequence was identical in the three strains and showed 99.7% pairwise similarity with respect to the closest related species Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis WS4993 T . Therefore, the three strains were classified within the genus Pseudomonas. Analysis of housekeeping genes (rpoB, rpoD and gyrB) sequences showed similarities of 84-95% with respect to the closest related species of Pseudomonas, confirming its phylogenetic affiliation. The ANI values were less than 86% to the closest related species type strains. The respiratory quinone is Q9. The major fatty acids are C16:0, C16:1 ω7c/ C16:1 ω6c in summed feature 3 and C18:1 ω7c / C18:1 ω6c in summed feature 8. The strains are oxidase- and catalase-positive. Growth occurs at 4-30°C, and at pH 4.0-10. The DNA G+C content is 58.2-58.3mol %. The combined genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data support the classification of strains L10.10 T , A4R1.5 and A4R1.12 into a novel species of Pseudomonas, for which the name P. versuta sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L10.10 T (LMG 29628 T , DSM 101070 T ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. [Vitamin B12-independent strains of Methylophaga marina isolated from Red Sea algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ts D; Doronina, N V; Ivanova, E G; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2007-01-01

    Two strains (KM3 and KM5) of halophilic methylobacteria isolated from Red Sea algae do not require vitamin B12 for growth and can use methanol, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, dimethyl sulfide, and fructose as sources of carbon and energy. The cells of these strains are gram-negative motile monotrichous (strain KM3) or peritrichous (strain KM5) rods. The strains are strictly aerobic and require Na+ ions but not growth factors for growth. They are oxidase- and catalase-positive and reduce nitrates to nitrites. Both strains can grow in a temperature range of 4 to 37 degrees C (with optimal growth at 29-34 degrees C), at pH between 5.5 and 8.5 (with optimal growth at pH 7.5-8.0), and in a range of salt concentrations between 0.5 and 15% NaCl (with optimal growth at 5-9% NaCl). The phospholipids of these strains are dominated by phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol and also include phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and cardiolipin. The dominant fatty acids are C(16:1omega7c) and C(16:0). The major ubiquinone is Q8. The cells accumulate ectoin, glutamate, and sucrose as intracellular osmoprotectants. The strains implement the 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate-dependent variant of the ribulose monophosphate pathway. The G+C content of the DNA is 44.4-44.7 mol %. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes showed that both strains belong to Gammaproteobacteria and have a high degree of homology (99.4%) to Methylophaga marina ATCC 35842T . Based on the data of polyphasic taxonomy, strains KM3 and KM5 are identified as new strains M. marina KM3 (VKM B-2386) and M. marina KM5 (VKM B-2387). The ability of these strains to produce auxins (indole-3-acetic acid) suggests their metabolic association with marine algae.

  4. [Methylophaga murata sp. nov.: a haloalkaliphilic aerobic methylotroph from deteriorating marble].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, N V; Li, Ts D; Ivanova, E G; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2005-01-01

    The haloalkaliphilic methylotrophic bacterium (strain Kr3) isolated from material scraped off the deteriorating marble of the Moscow Kremlin masonry has been found to be able to utilize methanol, methylamine, trimethylamine, and fructose as carbon and energy sources. Its cells are gram-negative motile rods multiplying by binary fission. Spores are not produced. The isolate is strictly aerobic and requires vitamin B12 and Na+ ions for growth. It is oxidase- and catalase-positive and reduces nitrates to nitrites. Growth occurs at temperatures between 0 and 42 degrees C (with the optimum temperatures being 20-32 degrees C), pH values between 6 and 11 (with the optimum at 8-9), and NaCl concentrations between 0.05 and 3 M (with the optimum at 0.5-1.5 M). The dominant cellular phospholipids are phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and cardiolipin. The major cellular fatty acids are palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1), and octadecenoic (C18:1) acids. The major ubiquinone is Q8. The isolate accumulates ectoine and glutamate, as well as a certain amount of sucrose, to function as osmoprotectants and synthesizes an exopolysaccharide composed of carbohydrate and protein components. It is resistant to heating at 70 degrees C, freezing, and drying; utilizes methanol, with the resulting production of formic acid, which is responsible for the marble-degrading activity of the isolate; and implements the 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate variant of the ribulose monophosphate pathway. The G+C content of its DNA is 44.6 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA-DNA homology levels (23-41%) with neutrophilic and alkaliphilic methylobacteria from the genus Methylophaga, the isolate has been identified as a new species, Methylophaga murata (VKM B-2303T = NCIMB 13993T).

  5. Nitrincola alkalilacustris sp. nov. and Nitrincola schmidtii sp. nov., alkaliphilic bacteria isolated from soda pans, and emended description of the genus Nitrincola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsodi, Andrea K; Korponai, Kristóf; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Felföldi, Tamás; Márialigeti, Károly; Szili-Kovács, Tibor; Tóth, Erika

    2017-12-01

    Three alkaliphilic and halotolerant bacterial strains, designated ZV-19 T , R4-8 T and S4-12, were isolated from the water of soda pans located in the Kiskunság National Park, Hungary. Cells of all three strains were Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped, motile and non-endospore-forming. They were facultatively anaerobic, and oxidase- and catalase-positive. Their major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8, and their predominant fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, C16 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 54.5 mol% in strain ZV-19 T and 45.8 mol% in strain R4-8 T . The 16S rRNA gene based phylogenetic analysis showed that all three strains were members of the genus Nitrincola (family Oceanospirillaceae, class Gammaproteobacteria). Strain ZV-19 T showed 96.6 and 95.5 % sequence similarities and 19±3 and 18±3 % DNA-DNA relatedness to Nitrincolalacisaponensis DSM 16316 T and Nitrincolaalkalisediminis JCM 19317 T , respectively. Strains R4-8 T and S4-12 exhibited 97.9 and 98.6 % sequence matches and 34±4 and 13±8 % DNA-DNA hybridization values with N. lacisaponensis DSM 16316 T and N. alkalisediminis JCM 19317 T , respectively. According to the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, the strains studied represent two novel species, Nitrincola alkalilacustris sp. nov. with the type strain ZV-19 T (=DSM 29817 T =NCAIM B 02612 T ) and Nitrincola schmidtii sp. nov. with the type strain R4-8 T (=DSM 100788 T =NCAIM B.02626 T ). An emended description of the genus Nitrincola is also presented.

  6. Bacillus tamaricis sp. nov., an alkaliphilic bacterium isolated from a Tamarix cone soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Guang; Zhou, Xing-Kui; Guo, Jian-Wei; Xiao, Min; Wang, Hong-Fei; Wang, Yun; Bobodzhanova, Khursheda; Li, Wen-Jun

    2018-02-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, alkaliphilic bacterium, designated EGI 80668 T , was isolated from a Tamarix cone soil in Xinjiang, north-west China. Cells were facultatively anaerobic, terminal endospore-forming and motile by means of peritrichous flagella. Colonies were yellowish and the cells showed oxidase-negative and catalase-positive reactions. Strain EGI 80668 T grew at pH 8.0-10.0 and with 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl (optimally at pH 9.0 and with 1-2 % NaCl) on marine agar 2216. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C17 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The cellular polar lipids contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, four unknown phospholipids and one unknown aminophospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 38.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain EGI 80668 T was affiliated to the genus Bacillus. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain EGI 80668 T and a member of the genus Bacillus was 96.83 % with Bacillus cellulosilyticus JCM 9156 T . A polyphasic taxonomic study based on morphological, physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic data indicated that strain EGI 80668 T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus tamaricis sp. nov. (type strain EGI 80668 T =KCTC 33703 T =CGMCC 1.15917 T ) is proposed.

  7. Ferrovibrio soli sp. nov., a novel cellulolytic bacterium isolated from stream bank soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Ram Hari; Kim, Jaisoo

    2018-01-01

    Two isolates of bacterial strains A15 T and A17 were isolated from stream bank soil in Kyonggi University. Cells were aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, opaque, and cream coloured. Both strains hydrolysed CM-cellulose. Strains were able to grow at 20-42 °C, pH 5.5-10.0 and at 1.5 % NaCl concentration (w/v). Indole test was positive. Analyses of phylogenetic trees based on its 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain A15 T formed a lineage within the family Rhodospirillaceae of the phylum Proteobacteria which was distinct from Ferrovibrio denitrificans S3 T (98.4 % sequence similarity) and Ferrovibrio xuzhouensis LM-6 T (97.4 %). The sole detected respiratory quinone was Q-10. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified aminolipid. The major cellular fatty acids were C19 : 0 cycloω8c, C16 : 0, summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c), C18 : 0cyclo and C12 : 0. The DNA G+C contents of strains A15 T and A17 were 63.4 and 62.9 mol%, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain A15 T and other two members of the genus Ferrovibrioranged from 25 to 37 %. The polyphasic characterization revealed strains A15 T and A17 represent a novel species in the genus Ferrovibrio, for which the name Ferrovibriosoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A15 T (=KEMB 9005-522 T =KACC 19102 T =NBRC 112682 T ).

  8. Minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from different clinical samples at a tertiary care hospital in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Ojha Kshetry

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has evolved as a serious threat to public health. It has capability to cause infections not only in health care settings but also in community. Due to the multidrug resistance shown by MRSA, there are limited treatment options for the infections caused by this superbug. Vancomycin is used as the drug of choice for the treatment of infections caused by MRSA. Different studies from all around the world have documented the emergence of strains of S. aureus those are intermediate sensitive or resistant to vancomycin. And recently, there have been reports of reduced susceptibility of MRSA to vancomycin, from Nepal also. So the main purpose of this study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of vancomycin to methicillin resistant S. aureus isolated from different clinical specimens. Methods Total 125 strains of S. aureus isolated from different clinical samples at KIST Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Lalitpur, Nepal from Nov 2012 to June 2013, were subjected to MRSA detection by cefoxitin disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin to confirmed MRSA strains were determined by agar dilution method. Yellow colored colonies in mannitol salt agar, which were gram positive cocci, catalase positive and coagulase positive were confirmed to be S. aureus. Results Among, total 125 S. aureus strains isolated; 47(37.6% were MRSA. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin to the strains of MRSA ranged from 0.125 μg/ml to 1 μg/ml. Conclusion From our findings we concluded that the rate of isolation of MRSA among all the strains of S. aureus isolated from clinical samples was very high. However, none of the MRSA strains were found to be vancomycin intermediate-sensitive or vancomycin-resistant.

  9. Taxonomy of oxalotrophic Methylobacterium strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Kato, Yuko; Yilmaz, Ferah

    2008-10-01

    Most of the oxalotrophic bacteria are facultative methylotrophs and play important ecological roles in soil fertility and cycling of elements. This study gives a detailed picture of the taxonomy and diversity of these bacteria and provides new information about the taxonomical variability within the genus Methylobacterium. Twelve mesophilic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic oxalate-oxidizing strains were included in this work that had been previously isolated from the soil and some plant tissues by the potassium oxalate enrichment method. The isolates were characterized using biochemical tests, cellular lipid profiles, spectral characteristics of carotenoid pigments, G+C content of the DNA, and 16S rDNA sequencing. The taxonomic similarities among the strains were analyzed using the simple matching ( S SM) and Jaccard ( S J) coefficients, and the UPGMA clustering algorithm. The phylogenetic position of the strains was inferred by the neighbor-joining method on the basis of the 16S rDNA sequences. All isolates were Gram-negative, facultatively methylotrophic, oxidase and catalase positive, and required no growth factors. Based on the results of numerical taxonomy, the strains formed four closely related clusters sharing ≥85% similarity. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences demonstrated that oxalotrophic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic strains could be identified as members of the genus Methylobacterium. Except for M. variabile and M. aquaticum, all of the Methylobacterium type strains tested had the ability of oxalate utilization. Our results indicate that the capability of oxalate utilization seems to be an uncommon trait and could be used as a valuable taxonomic criterion for differentiation of Methylobacterium species.

  10. The oxidant-scavenging abilities in the oral cavity may be regulated by a collaboration among antioxidants in saliva, microorganisms, blood cells and polyphenols: a chemiluminescence-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Ginsburg

    Full Text Available Saliva has become a central research issue in oral physiology and pathology. Over the evolution, the oral cavity has evolved the antioxidants uric acid, ascorbate reduced glutathione, plasma-derived albumin and antioxidants polyphenols from nutrients that are delivered to the oral cavity. However, blood cells extravasated from injured capillaries in gingival pathologies, or following tooth brushing and use of tooth picks, may attenuate the toxic activities of H2O2 generated by oral streptococci and by oxidants generated by activated phagocytes. Employing a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, the DPPH radical and XTT assays to quantify oxidant-scavenging abilities (OSA, we show that saliva can strongly decompose both oxygen and nitrogen species. However, lipophilic antioxidant polyphenols in plants, which are poorly soluble in water and therefore not fully available as effective antioxidants, can nevertheless be solubilized either by small amounts of ethanol, whole saliva or also by salivary albumin and mucin. Plant-derived polyphenols can also act in collaboration with whole saliva, human red blood cells, platelets, and also with catalase-positive microorganisms to decompose reactive oxygen species (ROS. Furthermore, polyphenols from nutrient can avidly adhere to mucosal surfaces, are retained there for long periods and may function as a "slow-release devises" capable of affecting the redox status in the oral cavity. The OSA of saliva is due to the sum result of low molecular weight antioxidants, albumin, polyphenols from nutrients, blood elements and microbial antioxidants. Taken together, saliva and its antioxidants are considered regulators of the redox status in the oral cavity under physiological and pathological conditions.

  11. The Oxidant-Scavenging Abilities in the Oral Cavity May Be Regulated by a Collaboration among Antioxidants in Saliva, Microorganisms, Blood Cells and Polyphenols: A Chemiluminescence-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Isaac; Kohen, Ron; Shalish, Miri; Varon, David; Shai, Ella; Koren, Erez

    2013-01-01

    Saliva has become a central research issue in oral physiology and pathology. Over the evolution, the oral cavity has evolved the antioxidants uric acid, ascorbate reduced glutathione, plasma-derived albumin and antioxidants polyphenols from nutrients that are delivered to the oral cavity. However, blood cells extravasated from injured capillaries in gingival pathologies, or following tooth brushing and use of tooth picks, may attenuate the toxic activities of H2O2 generated by oral streptococci and by oxidants generated by activated phagocytes. Employing a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, the DPPH radical and XTT assays to quantify oxidant-scavenging abilities (OSA), we show that saliva can strongly decompose both oxygen and nitrogen species. However, lipophilic antioxidant polyphenols in plants, which are poorly soluble in water and therefore not fully available as effective antioxidants, can nevertheless be solubilized either by small amounts of ethanol, whole saliva or also by salivary albumin and mucin. Plant-derived polyphenols can also act in collaboration with whole saliva, human red blood cells, platelets, and also with catalase-positive microorganisms to decompose reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, polyphenols from nutrient can avidly adhere to mucosal surfaces, are retained there for long periods and may function as a “slow- release devises” capable of affecting the redox status in the oral cavity. The OSA of saliva is due to the sum result of low molecular weight antioxidants, albumin, polyphenols from nutrients, blood elements and microbial antioxidants. Taken together, saliva and its antioxidants are considered regulators of the redox status in the oral cavity under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:23658797

  12. Algoriphagus resistens sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Ru; Zhao, Jin-Xin; Wang, Zong-Jie; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2017-05-01

    Strain NH1T, a pink-pigmented, facultatively anaerobic, heterotrophic, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, Gram-stain-negative marine bacterium, was isolated from marine sediment on the coast of Weihai, China. Cells of strain NH1T were rod-shaped, 0.8-2.0 µm in length and 0.5-1.0 µm in width. The strain was able to grow at 13-37 °C, pH 5.5-8.5, in the presence of 0.0-8.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Optimal growth was observed at 28 °C, with 3.0 % (w/v) NaCl and pH 6.5-7.0. Nitrate was reduced. The G+C content of the DNA was 41.9 mol%. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and the main cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were summed feature 3 (33.6 %) comprising iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c, and iso-C15:0 (19.2%). The major polar lipids in strain NH1T were phosphatidylethanolamine, unidentified lipids, phospholipid and aminolipids. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain NH1T was highly related to the type strains of Algoriphagus antarcticus (97.87 % 16SrRNA gene sequence similarity) and Algoriphagus ratkowskyi (97.56 %). On basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain NH1T should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Algoriphagus, for which the name Algoriphagus resistens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NH1T (=MCCC 1H00140T=KCTC 52228T).

  13. Isolation and characterization of a radiation resistant thermophilic bacterium from radon hot spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Xinle; Yang Long; Zhang Hong; Zhang Lei

    2011-01-01

    A radiation resistant and thermophilic bacterium strain R4-33 was isolated from radon hot spring water samples, pretreated with 60 Co γ-rays and UV irradiation. Tests on morphological, physiological and biochemical characters, fatty acid compositions, (G + C) mol% contents, and 16S rDNA sequencing were conducted. The results showed that strain R4-33 was of rod-shape, Gram-negative, atrichous, and endospore-forming. The optimum growth temperature and pH were 60 ℃ and 7.5, respectively. The strain utilized glucose, maltose and trehalose as carbon sources, and hydrolyzed casein and starch. Its catalase positive. The strain was sensitive to penicillin, neomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, amikacin and ampicillin. The major cellular fatty acids were C 14:1 (48.8%) and C 15:1 (15.2%). The (G + C) mol% content of DNA was 58.2%. Phylogenetic tree based on 16S rDNA sequence showed R4-33 shared highly similarity to those of species in genus Anoxybacillus, especially to that of Anoxybacillus gonensis (99.5%). Based on the above, the strain R4-33 was proposed to the evolution branch of Anoxybacillus and designated as Anoxybacillu sp. R4-33. The UV and γ-radiation tests showed that the strain R4-33 had an ability of resistance to UV of 396 J/m 2 and 60 Co γ-rays irradiation of 14.0 kGy, indicating that the strain was a radiation resistant and thermophilic bacterium. (authors)

  14. Marivirga lumbricoides sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongle; Zhang, Rui; Li, Qipei; Liu, Keshao; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-02-01

    A novel, aerobic, heterotrophic, orange-pigmented, Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped, gliding bacterial strain, designated JLT2000(T), was isolated from surface water of the South China Sea. The strain was oxidase- and catalase-positive. The major cellular fatty acids of strain JLT2000 T: were C12 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0 and C18 : 0. MK-7 was the major respiratory quinone and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JLT2000(T) was 37.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JLT2000(T) formed a branch within the genus Marivirga, but was clearly separated from the two established species of this genus, Marivirga tractuosa and Marivirga sericea. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain JLT2000(T) with the type strains of these two species was 95.8 % and 96.1 %, respectively. Strain JLT2000(T) had a shorter cell length and wider growth range in different temperatures and salinities than those of Marivirga tractuosa NBRC 15989(T) and Marivirga sericea NBRC 15983(T). In addition, strain JLT2000(T) could utilize more carbon sources and hydrolyse more polymers than Marivirga tractuosa NBRC 15989(T) and Marivirga sericea NBRC 15983(T). Based on this polyphasic analysis, strain JLT2000(T) represents a novel species of the genus Marivirga, for which the name Marivirga lumbricoides sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JLT2000(T) ( = JCM 18012(T) = CGMCC 1.10832(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  15. Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov., Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium arcueilense sp. nov., members of a novel group of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria recovered from a water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjek, Julie; Souded, Sabiha; Guerardel, Yann; Trivelli, Xavier; Bernut, Audrey; Kremer, Laurent; Welte, Benedicte; Joyeux, Michel; Dubrou, Sylvie; Euzeby, Jean-Paul; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Sapriel, Guillaume; Heym, Beate

    2016-09-01

    From our recent survey of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria in the Parisian water system, three groups of isolates (taxons 1-3) corresponding to possible novel species were selected for taxonomic study. The three taxa each formed creamy white, rough colonies, had an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C, hydrolyzed Tween 80, were catalase-positive at 22 °C and expressed arylsulfatase activity. All three were susceptible to amikacin, ciprofloxacin and tigecycline. The three taxa produced specific sets of mycolic acids, including one family that has never previously been described, as determined by thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. The partial rpoB sequences (723 bp) showed 4-6 % divergence from each other and more than 5 % differences from the most similar species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 99 % identity within each species. The most similar sequences for 16S rRNA genes (98-99 % identity over 1444-1461 bp) were found in the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, Mycobacterium septicum and Mycobacterium farcinogenes. The three taxa formed a new clade (bootstrap value, 99 %) on trees reconstructed from concatenated partial 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB sequences. The above results led us to propose three novel species for the three groups of isolates, namely Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov. [type strain 071T=ParisRGMnew_1T (CIP 110656T=DSM 46713T)], Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. [type strain 196T=ParisRGMnew_2T (CIP 110655T=DSM 46714T)] and Mycobacteriu marcueilense sp. nov. [type strain of 269T=ParisRGMnew_3T (CIP 110654T=DSM 46715T)].

  16. Isolation and characterization of Sulfurospirillum carboxydovorans sp. nov., a new microaerophilic carbon monoxide oxidizing epsilon Proteobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anders; Finster, Kai

    2005-05-01

    A new microaerophilic, Gram-negative, motile, 2-3 microm long and 0.3 microm wide, vibrioid to spirillum-shaped, CO oxidizing bacterium, designated strain MV, isolated from marine sediment (The North Sea) is described. Strain MV was able to couple the oxidation of CO to the reduction of elemental sulphur, DMSO and thiosulphate. Growth occurred with up to 100% (v/v) CO in the headspace. Acetate was needed as carbon source. No growth on CO was observed with nitrate and selenate as electron acceptor. Sulphite, elemental sulphur, DMSO, thiosulphate, nitrate, nitrite, perchloroethylene, arsenate and selenate were used as electron acceptors with pyruvate as energy and carbon source. Microaerophilic growth was observed. In non-agitated cultures growth occurred at atmospheric oxygen concentrations in the headspace. Hydrogen (with acetate as carbon source), formate (with acetate as carbon source), pyruvate, lactate, succinate, fumarate, malate alpha-ketoglutaric acid, aspartate and yeast extract (1% (w/v)) supported growth with nitrate as electron acceptor. Fumarate and malate were fermented. Vitamins were not required for growth. The strain was cytochrome C oxidase and catalase positive. The DNA mol G+C content was 30.5%. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison showed that strain MV grouped within the genus Sulfurospirillum with Sulfurospirillum arcachonense (sequence similarity 98.3%) as closest relative. The relative DNA-DNA relatedness between strain MV and S. arcachonense was 33.1%. Based on a detailed phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis, inclusion of strain MV in the genus Sulfurospirillum as a well separated new species is proposed. As species name we propose Sulfurospirillum carboxydovorans. The type strain is strain MV (ATCC BAA-937 = DSM 16295, GenBank accession number: AY740528).

  17. Nocardiopsis species: Incidence, ecological roles and adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennur, Tahsin; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita; Javdekar, Vaishali

    2015-05-01

    Members of the genus Nocardiopsis are ecologically versatile and biotechnologically important. They produce a variety of bioactive compounds such as antimicrobial agents, anticancer substances, tumor inducers, toxins and immunomodulators. They also secrete novel extracellular enzymes such as amylases, chitinases, cellulases, β-glucanases, inulinases, xylanases and proteases. Nocardiopsis species are aerobic, Gram-positive, non-acid-fast, catalase-positive actinomycetes with nocardioform substrate mycelia and their aerial mycelia bear long chains of spores. Their DNA possesses high contents of guanine and cytosine. There is a marked variation in properties of the isolates obtained from different ecological niches and their products. An important feature of several species is their halophilic or halotolerant nature. They are associated with a variety of marine and terrestrial biological forms wherein they produce antibiotics and toxins that help their hosts in evading pathogens and predators. Two Nocardiopsis species, namely, N. dassonvillei and N. synnemataformans (among the thirty nine reported ones) are opportunistic human pathogens and cause mycetoma, suppurative infections and abscesses. Nocardiopsis species are present in some plants (as endophytes or surface microflora) and their rhizospheres. Here, they are reported to produce enzymes such as α-amylases and antifungal agents that are effective in warding-off plant pathogens. They are prevalent as free-living entities in terrestrial locales, indoor locations, marine ecosystems and hypersaline habitats on account of their salt-, alkali- and desiccation-resistant behavior. In such natural locations, Nocardiopsis species mainly help in recycling organic compounds. Survival under these diverse conditions is mediated by the production of extracellular enzymes, antibiotics, surfactants, and the accumulation of compatible solutes. The accommodative genomic features of Nocardiopsis species support their existence

  18. Low field orientation magnetic separation methods for magnetotactic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeschler, F.D.

    1999-01-01

    Microbial biomineralisation of iron often results in a biomass that is magnetic and can be separated from water systems by the application of a magnetic field. Magnetotactic bacteria form magnetic membrane bound crystals within their structure, generally of magnetite. In nature, this enables magnetotactic bacteria to orientate themselves with respect to the local geomagnetic field. The bacteria then migrate with flagellar driven motion towards their preferred environment. This property has been harnessed to produce a process in which metal loaded magnetotactic bacteria can be recovered from a waste stream. This process is known as orientation magnetic separation. Several methods exist which permit the unique magnetic properties of individual magnetotactic bacteria to be studied, such as U-turn analysis, transmission electron microscopy and single wire cell studies. In this work an extension of U-turn analysis was developed. The bacteria were rendered non-motile by the addition of specific metal ions and the resulting 'flip time' which occurs during a field reversal enabled the magnetic moment of individual bacteria to be determined. This method proved to be much faster and more accurate than previous methods. For a successful process to be developed, large scale culturing of magnetotactic bacteria is required Experiments showed that culture vessel geometry was an important factor for high-density growth. Despite intensive studies reproducible culturing at volumes exceeding one litre was not achieved. This work showed that numerous metal ions rendered magnetotactic bacteria non-motile at concentrations below 10 ppm. Sequential adaptation raised typical levels to in excess of 100 ppm for a number of ions. such as zinc and tin. However, specific ions. such as copper or nickel, remained motility inhibiting at lower concentrations. To achieve separation using orientation magnetic separation, motile, field susceptible MTB are required. Despite successful adaptation, the

  19. Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens sp. nov., a chlorinated-alkane-dehalogenating bacterium isolated from groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Kimberly S; Nobre, M Fernanda; da Costa, Milton S; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M

    2013-04-01

    Two strictly anaerobic bacterial strains, designated IP3-3(T) and SBP-1, were isolated from groundwater contaminated by chlorinated alkanes and alkenes at a Superfund Site located near Baton Rouge, Louisiana (USA). Both strains reductively dehalogenate a variety of polychlorinated aliphatic alkanes, including 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane and 1,2,3-trichloropropane, when provided with hydrogen as the electron donor. To clarify their taxonomic position, strains IP3-3(T) and SBP-1 were characterized using a polyphasic approach. Both IP3-3(T) and SBP-1 are mesophilic, non-spore-forming, non-motile and Gram-stain-negative. Cells of both strains are irregular cocci with diameters of 0.4-1.1 µm. Both are resistant to ampicillin and vancomycin. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains IP3-3(T) and SBP-1 are 55.5±0.4 and 56.2±0.2 mol% (HPLC), respectively. Major cellular fatty acids include C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0, C14 : 0 and C16 : 1ω9c. 16S rRNA gene sequence based phylogenetic analyses indicated that the strains cluster within the phylum Chloroflexi most closely related to but distinct from the species Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens (96.2 % pairwise similarity) and Dehalococcoides mccartyi (90.6 % pairwise similarity). Physiological and chemotaxonomic traits as well as phylogenetic analysis support the conclusion that these strains represent a novel species within the genus Dehalogenimonas for which the name Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IP3-3(T) ( = JCM 17062(T) = NRRL B-59545(T)).

  20. Can the rapid identification of mature spermatozoa during microdissection testicular sperm extraction guide operative planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrabeeah, K; Doucet, R; Boulet, E; Phillips, S; Al-Hathal, N; Bissonnette, F; Kadoch, I J; Zini, A

    2015-05-01

    The minimum sperm count and quality that must be identified during microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) to deem the procedure successful remains to be established. We conducted a retrospective study of 81 consecutive men with non-obstructive azoospermia who underwent a primary (first) micro-TESE between March 2007 and October 2013. Final assessment of sperm recovery [reported on the day of (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) ICSI] was recorded as (i) successful (available spermatozoa for ICSI) or (ii) unsuccessful (no spermatozoa for ICSI). The decision to perform a unilateral (with limited or complete microdissection) or bilateral micro-TESE was guided by the intra-operative identification of sperm recovery (≥5 motile or non-motile sperm) from the first testicle. Overall, sperm recovery was successful in 56% (45/81) of the men. A unilateral micro-TESE was performed in 47% (38/81) of the men (based on intra-operative identification of sperm) and in 100% (38/38) of these men, spermatozoa was found on final assessment. In 42% (16/38) of the unilateral cases, a limited microdissection was performed (owing to the rapid intra-operative identification of sperm). The remaining 43 men underwent a bilateral micro-TESE and 16% (7/43) of these men had sperm identified on final assessment. The cumulative ICSI pregnancy rates (per cycle started and per embryo transfer) were 47% (21/45) and 60% (21/35), respectively, with a mean (±SD) of 1.9 ± 1.0 embryos transferred. The data demonstrate that intra-operative assessment of sperm recovery can correctly identify those men that require a unilateral micro-TESE. Moreover, the rapid identification of sperm recovery can allow some men to undergo a limited unilateral micro-TESE and avoid the need for complete testicular microdissection. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  1. Spermatogenesis and sperm ultrastructure in the polychaete genus Ophryotrocha (Dorvilleidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannenstiel, Hans-Dieter; Grünig, Charlotte

    1990-06-01

    The details of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis are described for Ophryotrocha puerilis. The ultrastructure of mature sperm is shown for O. puerilis, O. hartmanni, O. gracilis, O. diadema, O. labronica, and O. notoglandulata. Clusters of sixteen cells each are proliferated by two stem cells in each setigerous segment of O. puerilis representing the very early stages of both oogenesis and spermatogenesis. In each spermatocyte-I cluster, the cells are interconnected by cytoplasmic bridges. Early, clusters are enveloped by peritoneal sheath cells. These transient gonad walls break down prior to meiosis. The meiotic processes may start in the clusters with the cells still interconnected, or during breakdown of the original cluster, giving rise to smaller subclusters of both spermatocytes I and spermatocytes II with various numbers of cells. Finally, spermatid tetrads are present. As spermiogenesis progresses, the tetrads disintegrate. Golgi vesicles in both spermatocytes and spermatids contain electron-dense material, presumably preacrosomal. The acrosome is formed by such vesicles. In the six species studied here, the acrosomes appear to be of a similar overall structure but are of different shape. Centrioles are usually located beneath the acrosome. The distal centriole forms the basal body of a flagellum-like cytoplasmic process. The microtubules of these flagellar equivalents do not show a normal ciliar arrangement. The flagellar equivalent appears to be non-motile. In O. hartmanni and in O. notoglandulata, a flagellar equivalent is missing. Microtubules originating from the proximal end of the distal centriole stretch to the nuclear envelope. This feature appears to be especially conspicuous in O. puerilis and in O. labronica. In O. labronica and in O. notoglandulata, bundles of microtubules paralleling the cell perimeter appear to stabilise the sperm. Various numbers of mitochondria are either randomly distributed around the nucleus or accumulate on one side

  2. Novel sex cells and evidence for sex pheromones in diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shinya; Beakes, Gordon; Idei, Masahiko; Nagumo, Tamotsu; Mann, David G

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms belong to the stramenopiles, one of the largest groups of eukaryotes, which are primarily characterized by a presence of an anterior flagellum with tubular mastigonemes and usually a second, smooth flagellum. Based on cell wall morphology, diatoms have historically been divided into centrics and pennates, of which only the former have flagella and only on the sperm. Molecular phylogenies show the pennates to have evolved from among the centrics. However, the timing of flagellum loss--whether before the evolution of the pennate lineage or after--is unknown, because sexual reproduction has been so little studied in the 'araphid' basal pennate lineages, to which Pseudostaurosira belongs. Sexual reproduction of an araphid pennate, Pseudostaurosira trainorii, was studied with light microscopy (including time lapse observations and immunofluorescence staining observed under confocal scanning laser microscopy) and SEM. We show that the species produces motile male gametes. Motility is mostly associated with the extrusion and retrieval of microtubule-based 'threads', which are structures hitherto unknown in stramenopiles, their number varying from one to three per cell. We also report experimental evidence for sex pheromones that reciprocally stimulate sexualization of compatible clones and orientate motility of the male gametes after an initial 'random walk'. The threads superficially resemble flagella, in that both are produced by male gametes and contain microtubules. However, one striking difference is that threads cannot beat or undulate and have no motility of their own, and they do not bear mastigonemes. Threads are sticky and catch and draw objects, including eggs. The motility conferred by the threads is probably crucial for sexual reproduction of P. trainorii, because this diatom is non-motile in its vegetative stage but obligately outbreeding. Our pheromone experiments are the first studies in which gametogenesis has been induced in diatoms by cell

  3. Description of Micrococcus aloeverae sp. nov., an endophytic actinobacterium isolated from Aloe vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Nimonkar, Yogesh; Munot, Hitendra; Sharma, Avinash; Vemuluri, Venkata Ramana; Chavadar, Mahesh S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2014-10-01

    A yellow Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-endospore -forming, spherical endophytic actinobacterium, designated strain AE-6(T), was isolated from the inner fleshy leaf tissues of Aloe barbadensis (Aloe vera) collected from Pune, Maharashtra, India. Strain AE-6(T) grew at high salt concentrations [10% (w/v) NaCl], temperatures of 15-41 °C and a pH range of 5-12. It showed highest (99.7%) 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Micrococcus yunnanensis YIM 65004(T) followed by Micrococcus luteus NCTC 2665(T) (99.6%) and Micrococcus endophyticus YIM 56238(T) (99.0%). Ribosomal protein profiling by MALDI-TOF/MS also showed it was most closely related to M. yunnanensis YIM 65004(T) and M. luteus NCTC 2665(T). Like other members of the genus Micrococcus, strain AE-6(T) had a high content of branched chain fatty acids (iso-C15:0 and anteiso-C15:0). MK-8(H2) and MK-8 were the predominant isoprenoid quinones. Cell wall analysis showed an 'A2 L-Lys-peptide subunit' type of peptidoglycan and ribose to be the major cell wall sugar. The DNA G+C content was 70 mol%. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization of AE-6(T) with its closest relatives from the genus Micrococcus produced a value of less than 70%. Based on the results of this study, strain AE-6(T) could be clearly differentiated from other members of the genus Micrococcus. We propose that it represents a novel species of the genus Micrococcus and suggest the name Micrococcus aloeverae sp. nov., with strain AE-6(T) ( = MCC 2184(T) = DSM 27472(T)) as the type strain of the species. © 2014 IUMS.

  4. Cecembia lonarensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a haloalkalitolerant bacterium of the family Cyclobacteriaceae, isolated from a haloalkaline lake and emended descriptions of the genera Indibacter, Nitritalea and Belliella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil Kumar, P; Srinivas, T N R; Madhu, S; Sravan, R; Singh, Shashi; Naqvi, S W A; Mayilraj, S; Shivaji, S

    2012-09-01

    A novel Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, designated strain LW9(T), was isolated from a water sample collected from Lonar Lake of Buldhana district, Maharashtra, India. Colonies and broth cultures were reddish orange due to the presence of carotenoid pigments. Strain LW9(T) was positive for catalase, ornithine decarboxylase and lysine decarboxylase activities and negative for gelatinase, oxidase, urease and lipase activities. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (31.3 %), iso-C(16 : 0) (9.3 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (7.3 %), iso-C(16 : 1) H (6.1 %), summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)ω7c/C(16 : 1)ω6c; 5.9 %), iso-C(17 : 1)ω9c (5.4 %) and iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH (5.0 %). Strain LW9(T) contained MK-7 as the major respiratory quinone. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and seven unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain LW9(T) was 40.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the type strains of Indibacter alkaliphilus and Aquiflexum balticum, two members of the family Cyclobacteriaceae (phylum 'Bacteroidetes') were the most closely related strains with sequence similarities of 93.0 and 94.0 %, respectively. Other members of the family Cyclobacteriaceae showed sequence similarities <93.0 %. Based on these phenotypic characteristics and on phylogenetic inference, strain LW9(T) is proposed as the representative of novel species in a new genus, Cecembia lonarensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of the type species, Cecembia lonarensis, is LW9(T) (= CCUG 58316(T) = KCTC 22772(T)). Emended descriptions of the genera Indibacter, Nitritalea and Belliella are also proposed.

  5. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J.; Rattner, Jerome B.; Hoorn, Frans A. van der

    2009-01-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3β by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  6. Detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection in Female Partners of Infertile Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Kalantar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of infertility is about 10-15% among the couples overally. Several factors can affect fertility ability of men and women. Chlamydia is a non-motile gram negative obligatory interacellular pathogenic organism. It can cause infections in females as cervicitis, urethritis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease also prostatitis and epidydidimitis in male as well. The aim of this survey is to mention the frequency of infection with Chlamydia in infertile female who were treated in Yazd Research & Clinical Center for Infertility.Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing some demographic information and clinical features related to the infection was completed for each infertile woman. Specimen of vaginal discharge was collected by well trained nurses using sterile cotton swap from 91 women. Elisa test was done on blood serum. DNA extraction for Chlamydia was carried out using low salt method and PCR was done using MOMP and plasmid primers. DNA sequencing was performed on two PCR products using Chromas LITE ver.2.01 and analyzed by BLAST.Results: Of 91 blood samples collected in this survey, none of them was positive by ELISA. Also there was no positive PCR result. Four PCR products showed a questionable band which was not in the range of Chlamydia. The products underwent DNA sequencing and there were not any finding related to any other micro-organism.Conclusion: However, it is well known that Chlamydia as an infection plays a role in infertility. Nevertheless, there was not evidence of this organism in these infertile patients. It is necessary to design such a survey in larger populations of infertile patients especially on infertile women with tubal infertility and their husbands as well.

  7. RickA expression is not sufficient to promote actin-based motility of Rickettsia raoultii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premanand Balraj

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsia raoultii is a novel Rickettsia species recently isolated from Dermacentor ticks and classified within the spotted fever group (SFG. The inability of R. raoultii to spread within L929 cells suggests that this bacterium is unable to polymerize host cell actin, a property exhibited by all SFG rickettsiae except R. peacocki. This result led us to investigate if RickA, the protein thought to generate actin nucleation, was expressed within this rickettsia species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Amplification and sequencing of R. raoultii rickA showed that this gene encoded a putative 565 amino acid protein highly homologous to those found in other rickettsiae. Using immunofluorescence assays, we determined that the motility pattern (i.e. microcolonies or cell-to-cell spreading of R. raoultii was different depending on the host cell line in which the bacteria replicated. In contrast, under the same experimental conditions, R. conorii shares the same phenotype both in L929 and in Vero cells. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of infected cells showed that non-motile bacteria were free in the cytosol instead of enclosed in a vacuole. Moreover, western-blot analysis demonstrated that the defect of R. raoultii actin-based motility within L929 cells was not related to lower expression of RickA. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results, together with previously published data about R. typhi, strongly suggest that another factor, apart from RickA, may be involved with be responsible for actin-based motility in bacteria from the Rickettsia genus.

  8. Semen analysis parameters: Experiences and insight into male infertility at a tertiary care hospital in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, F.; Akram, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of low sperm count including oligospermia and azoospermia in male infertile population, and to assess the pattern and distribution of abnormal semen parameters in infertile men. Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional survey was carried out at the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Sharif Medical City Hospital, Lahore, from June 2009 to June 2010. A total of 500 consecutively consenting male partners of women fulfilling the inclusion criteria between 20 and 40 years of age were approached. Semen analysis was performed according to methods and standards defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Samples were categorised into normospermia, oligospermia and azoospermia on the basis of sperm count. After exclusion of azoospermic samples, normospermic and oligospermic samples were compared for ejaculated volume, pus cells, motility and morphology. SPSS 10 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Out of the 500 males approached, 104 (20.8%) had to be left out either because of their unwillingness or inability to pass semen. The study sample comprised of 396 (response rate 79.2%); normospermia was observed in 293 (73.99%) males, azoospermia in 59 (14.89%), and oligospermia in 44 (11.11%). The oligospermic samples had low ejaculated volume, but significantly higher percentage of non-motile sperms 62%+-23.9% and abnormal morphology 55%+-15.6% in comparison to normospermic samples (p 0.0001). Asthenospermia was observed in 37 (25.81%), teratospermia in 11 (3.26%) and oligoasthenoteratospermia in 4 (9.09%) of samples. Conclusion: Semen analysis is the cornerstone for the evaluation of infertility in men. Sperm concentration, motility and morphology are related to each other, factors that cause deterioration of one of them usually also have negative impact on the other two as well. (author)

  9. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada); Rattner, Jerome B. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada); Hoorn, Frans A. van der, E-mail: fvdhoorn@ucalgary.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada)

    2009-10-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3{beta} by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  10. Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on cyanobacteria and algae in laboratory strains and in natural algal assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bácsi, István; B-Béres, Viktória; Kókai, Zsuzsanna; Gonda, Sándor; Novák, Zoltán; Nagy, Sándor Alex; Vasas, Gábor

    2016-05-01

    In recent years measurable concentrations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown in the aquatic environment as a result of increasing human consumption. Effects of five frequently used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, diflunisal, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid and piroxicam in 0.1 mg ml(-1) concentration) in batch cultures of cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus, Microcystis aeruginosa, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii), and eukaryotic algae (Desmodesmus communis, Haematococcus pluvialis, Cryptomonas ovata) were studied. Furthermore, the effects of the same concentrations of NSAIDs were investigated in natural algal assemblages in microcosms. According to the changes of chlorophyll-a content, unicellular cyanobacteria seemed to be more tolerant to NSAIDs than eukaryotic algae in laboratory experiments. Growth of eukaryotic algae was reduced by all drugs, the cryptomonad C. ovata was the most sensitive to NSAIDs, while the flagellated green alga H. pluvialis was more sensitive than the non-motile green alga D. communis. NSAID treatments had weaker impact in the natural assemblages dominated by cyanobacteria than in the ones dominated by eukaryotic algae, confirming the results of laboratory experiments. Diversity and number of functional groups did not change notably in cyanobacteria dominated assemblages, while they decreased significantly in eukaryotic algae dominated ones compared to controls. The results highlight that cyanobacteria (especially unicellular ones) are less sensitive to the studied, mostly hardly degradable NSAIDs, which suggest that their accumulation in water bodies may contribute to the expansion of cyanobacterial mass productions in appropriate environmental circumstances by pushing back eukaryotic algae. Thus, these contaminants require special attention during wastewater treatment and monitoring of surface waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pseudoclavibacter caeni sp. nov., isolated from sludge of a sewage disposal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lee, Myungjin

    2012-04-01

    A Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterial strain, designated MJ28T, was isolated from a sludge sample from the Daejeon sewage disposal plant in South Korea. A polyphasic approach was applied to study the taxonomic position of strain MJ28T. Strain MJ28T showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Pseudoclavibacter soli KP02T (95.2 %). Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of other Pseudoclavibacter species were less than 94.0 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJ28T belonged to the clade formed by members of the genus Pseudoclavibacter in the family Microbacteriaceae. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain MJ28T was 65.8 mol%. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain MJ28T showed features typical of the genus Pseudoclavibacter, with MK-9 as the predominant respiratory quinone, 2,4-diaminobutryic acid as the diamino acid in the peptidoglycan, and anteiso-C17:0 (44.6 %), anteiso-C15:0 (35.7 %) and C16:0 (9.5 %) as the major fatty acids. On the basis of phylogenetic inference, fatty acid profile and other phenotypic properties, strain MJ28T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Pseudoclavibacter, for which the name Pseudoclavibacter caeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ28T (=KCTC 19773T=JCM 16921T).

  12. Nocardioides daejeonensis sp. nov., a denitrifying bacterium isolated from sludge in a sewage-disposal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sung-Geun; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Yang, Jihoon; Jung, Yong-An; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lee, Myungjin

    2012-05-01

    Strain MJ31(T), a gram-reaction-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, was isolated from a sludge sample collected at the Daejeon sewage-disposal plant, in South Korea, and characterized in order to determine its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain MJ31(T) belonged to the genus Nocardioides, appearing most closely related to Nocardioides dubius KSL-104(T) (98.6 % sequence similarity), Nocardioides jensenii DSM 20641(T) (97.6 %), Nocardioides daedukensis MDN22(T) (97.2 %) and Nocardioides mesophilus MSL-22(T) (97.0 %). The chemotaxonomic properties of strain MJ31(T) were consistent with those of the genus Nocardioides: MK-8(H(4)) was the predominant menaquinone, iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) and C(18 : 1)ω9c were the predominant cellular fatty acids, and the cell-wall peptidoglycan was based on LL-2,6-diaminopimelic acid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain MJ31(T) was 71.2 mol%. Some differential phenotypic properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values (<28 %) with the type strains of closely related species indicated that strain MJ31(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Nocardioides daejeonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ31(T) ( = KCTC 19772(T) = JCM 16922(T)).

  13. Gordonia caeni sp. nov., isolated from sludge of a sewage disposal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Park, Giho; Yang, Hyejin; Hwang, Supyong; Bae, Yoonjung; Jung, Yong-An; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lee, Myungjin

    2012-11-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, short-rod-shaped, non-motile strain (designated MJ32(T)) was isolated from a sludge sample of the Daejeon sewage disposal plant in South Korea. A polyphasic approach was applied to study the taxonomic position of strain MJ32(T). Strain MJ32(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Gordonia hirsuta DSM 44140(T) (98.1%) and Gordonia hydrophobica DSM 44015(T) (97.0%); levels of sequence similarity to the type strains of other recognized Gordonia species were less than 97.0%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJ32(T) belonged to the clade formed by members of the genus Gordonia in the family Gordoniaceae. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain MJ32(T) was 69.2 mol%. Chemotaxonomically, strain MJ32(T) showed features typical of the genus Gordonia. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-9(H(2)), the mycolic acids present had C(56)-C(60) carbon atoms, and the major fatty acids were C(16:0) (34.6%), tuberculostearic acid (21.8%), C(16:1)ω7c (19.5%) and C(18:1)ω9c (12.7%). The peptidoglycan type was based on meso-2,6-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid with glycolated sugars. On the basis of phylogenetic inference, fatty acid profile and other phenotypic properties, strain MJ32(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Gordonia, for which the name Gordonia caeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ32(T) (=KCTC 19771(T)=JCM 16923(T)).

  14. Methylocapsa palsarum sp. nov., a methanotroph isolated from a subArctic discontinuous permafrost ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedysh, Svetlana N; Didriksen, Alena; Danilova, Olga V; Belova, Svetlana E; Liebner, Susanne; Svenning, Mette M

    2015-10-01

    An aerobic methanotrophic bacterium was isolated from a collapsed palsa soil in northern Norway and designated strain NE2T. Cells of this strain were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-pigmented, slightly curved thick rods that multiplied by normal cell division. The cells possessed a particulate methane monooxygenase enzyme (pMMO) and utilized methane and methanol. Strain NE2T grew in a wide pH range of 4.1–8.0 (optimum pH 5.2–6.5) at temperatures between 6 and 32 °C (optimum 18–25 °C), and was capable of atmospheric nitrogen fixation under reduced oxygen tension. The major cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0 and C16 : 1ω7c, and the DNA G+C content was 61.7 mol%. The isolate belonged to the family Beijerinckiaceae of the class Alphaproteobacteria and was most closely related to the facultative methanotroph Methylocapsa aurea KYGT (98.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and 84 % PmoA sequence identity). However, strain NE2T differed from Methylocapsa aurea KYGT by cell morphology, the absence of pigmentation, inability to grow on acetate, broader pH growth range, and higher tolerance to NaCl. Therefore, strain NE2T represents a novel species of the genus Methylocapsa, for which we propose the name Methylocapsa palsarum sp. nov. The type strain is NE2T ( = LMG 28715T = VKM B-2945T).

  15. Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov., Isolated from Surface Soil in the Permafrost Region of Qilian Mountains, China.

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    Piao, Ai-Lian; Feng, Xiao-Min; Nogi, Yuichi; Han, Lu; Li, Yonghong; Lv, Jie

    2016-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated X1(T), was isolated from the permafrost region of Qilian Mountains in northwest of China. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain X1(T) was a member of the genus Sphingomonas and shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Sphingomonas oligophenolica JCM 12082(T) (96.9%), followed by Sphingomonas glacialis CGMCC 1.8957(T) (96.7%) and Sphingomonas alpina DSM 22537(T) (96.4%). Strain X1(T) was able to grow at 15-30 °C, pH 6.0-10.0 and with 0-0.3% NaCl (w/v). The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 64.8 mol%. Strain X1(T)-contained Q-10 as the dominant ubiquinone and C(18:1)ω7c, C(16:1)ω7c, C(16:0) and C(14:0) 2-OH as the dominant fatty acids. The polar lipid profile of strain XI(T)-contained sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipid. Due to the phenotypic and genetic distinctiveness and other characteristic studied in this article, we consider X1(T) as a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas and propose to name it Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov. The type strain is X1(T) (=CGMCC 1.15349(T) = KCTC 42862(T)).

  16. Streptobacillus hongkongensis sp. nov., isolated from patients with quinsy and septic arthritis, and emended descriptions of the genus Streptobacillus and Streptobacillus moniliformis.

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    Woo, Patrick C Y; Wu, Alan K L; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Leung, Kit-Wah; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Curreem, Shirly O T; Lam, Kwok-Wai; Chen, Jonathan H K; Chan, Jasper F W; Lau, Susanna K P

    2014-09-01

    Two bacterial strains, HKU33(T) and HKU34, were isolated in Hong Kong from the pus aspirated from the right peritonsillar abscess of a patient with quinsy and the left elbow joint fluid of another patient with tophaceous gout and left elbow septic arthritis, respectively. The bacteria were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, non-haemolytic pleomorphic bacilli. They grew best on Columbia agar with 5 % defibrinated sheep blood in an anaerobic environment or aerobic environment with 5 % CO2. They also grew on chocolate agar but not on MacConkey agar. They were catalase- and cytochrome oxidase-negative. They showed a unique profile of enzyme activities distinguishable from their closely related species. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete 16S rRNA gene, and partial groEL, gyrB and recA gene sequences showed the two isolates formed a distinct branch within the family Leptotrichiaceae, being related most closely to Streptobacillus moniliformis. Hierarchical cluster analysis of mass spectra of whole-cell protein contents showed that strains HKU33(T) and HKU34 were closely related to each other, but were distinct from Streptobacillus moniliformis, Sneathia sanguinegens and 'Leptotrichia amnionii'. The DNA G+C content of strain HKU33(T) was 26.0±2.1 mol% (mean±sd; n = 3). DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated ≤45.02 % DNA relatedness between the two isolates and Streptobacillus moniliformis CCUG 13453(T). A novel species, Streptobacillus hongkongensis sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate strains HKU33(T) and HKU34, with HKU33(T) ( = JCM 18691(T) = NCTC 13659(T) = DSM 26322(T)) designated the type strain. Emended descriptions of the genus Streptobacillus and Streptobacillus moniliformis are also given. © 2014 IUMS.

  17. Systems level analysis of two-component signal transduction systems in Erwinia amylovora: Role in virulence, regulation of amylovoran biosynthesis and swarming motility

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    Sundin George W

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSTs, consisting of a histidine kinase (HK and a response regulator (RR, represent a major paradigm for signal transduction in prokaryotes. TCSTs play critical roles in sensing and responding to environmental conditions, and in bacterial pathogenesis. Most TCSTs in Erwinia amylovora have either not been identified or have not yet been studied. Results We used a systems approach to identify TCST and related signal transduction genes in the genome of E. amylovora. Comparative genomic analysis of TCSTs indicated that E. amylovora TCSTs were closely related to those of Erwinia tasmaniensis, a saprophytic enterobacterium isolated from apple flowers, and to other enterobacteria. Forty-six TCST genes in E. amylovora including 17 sensor kinases, three hybrid kinases, 20 DNA- or ligand-binding RRs, four RRs with enzymatic output domain (EAL-GGDEF proteins, and two kinases were characterized in this study. A systematic TCST gene-knockout experiment was conducted, generating a total of 59 single-, double-, and triple-mutants. Virulence assays revealed that five of these mutants were non-pathogenic on immature pear fruits. Results from phenotypic characterization and gene expression experiments indicated that several groups of TCST systems in E. amylovora control amylovoran biosynthesis, one of two major virulence factors in E. amylovora. Both negative and positive regulators of amylovoran biosynthesis were identified, indicating a complex network may control this important feature of pathogenesis. Positive (non-motile, EnvZ/OmpR, negative (hypermotile, GrrS/GrrA, and intermediate regulators for swarming motility in E. amylovora were also identified. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that TCSTs in E. amylovora played major roles in virulence on immature pear fruit and in regulating amylovoran biosynthesis and swarming motility. This suggested presence of regulatory networks governing

  18. Hymenobacter swuensis sp. nov., a gamma-radiation-resistant bacteria isolated from mountain soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Jin; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Lee, Sang Hee; Kwon, Shin Ae; Kwon, Yoon Jung; Lee, Jin; Choi, Jin Ju; Lee, Hye Min; Auh, Young Kyung; Kim, Myung Kyum

    2014-03-01

    Gram stain-negative and non-motile bacteria, designated as DY53(T) and DY43, were isolated from mountain soil in South Korea prior exposure with 5 kGy gamma radiation. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strains belonged to the family Cytophagaceae in the class Cytophagia. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strains DY53(T) and DY43 was 100 %. The highest degrees of sequence similarities of strains DY53(T) and DY43 were found with Hymenobacter perfusus A1-12(T) (98.8 %), Hymenobacter rigui WPCB131(T) (98.5 %), H. yonginensis HMD1010(T) (97.9 %), H. xinjiangensis X2-1g(T) (96.6 %), and H. gelipurpurascens Txg1(T) (96.5 %). The DNA G+C content of the novel strains DY53(T) and DY43 were 59.5 mol%. Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strains possessed major fatty acids such as C₁₅:₀ iso, C₁₅:₀ anteiso, C₁₆:₁ ω5c, summed feature 3 (16:1 ω7c/ω6c), summed feature 4 (17:1 anteiso B/iso I) and C₁₇:₀ iso, and major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The novel strains showed resistance to gamma radiation, with a D10 value (i.e., the dose required to reduce the bacterial population by tenfold) in excess of 5 kGy. Based on these data, strains DY53(T) and DY43 should be classified as representing a novel species, for which the name Hymenobacter swuensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain DY53(T) (=KCTC 32018(T) = JCM 18582(T)) and DY43 (=KCTC 32010).

  19. The genome of a Bacillus isolate causing anthrax in chimpanzees combines chromosomal properties of B. cereus with B. anthracis virulence plasmids.

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    Silke R Klee

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a fatal disease caused by strains of Bacillus anthracis. Members of this monophyletic species are non motile and are all characterized by the presence of four prophages and a nonsense mutation in the plcR regulator gene. Here we report the complete genome sequence of a Bacillus strain isolated from a chimpanzee that had died with clinical symptoms of anthrax. Unlike classic B. anthracis, this strain was motile and lacked the four prohages and the nonsense mutation. Four replicons were identified, a chromosome and three plasmids. Comparative genome analysis revealed that the chromosome resembles those of non-B. anthracis members of the Bacillus cereus group, whereas two plasmids were identical to the anthrax virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2. The function of the newly discovered third plasmid with a length of 14 kbp is unknown. A detailed comparison of genomic loci encoding key features confirmed a higher similarity to B. thuringiensis serovar konkukian strain 97-27 and B. cereus E33L than to B. anthracis strains. For the first time we describe the sequence of an anthrax causing bacterium possessing both anthrax plasmids that apparently does not belong to the monophyletic group of all so far known B. anthracis strains and that differs in important diagnostic features. The data suggest that this bacterium has evolved from a B. cereus strain independently from the classic B. anthracis strains and established a B. anthracis lifestyle. Therefore we suggest to designate this isolate as "B. cereus variety (var. anthracis".

  20. Characterization of Novel Factors Involved in Swimming and Swarming Motility in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium.

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    Julia Andrea Deditius

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica utilizes flagellar motility to swim through liquid environments and on surfaces. The biosynthesis of the flagellum is regulated on various levels, including transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Here, we investigated the motility phenotype of 24 selected single gene deletions that were previously described to display swimming and swarming motility effects. Mutations in flgE, fliH, ydiV, rfaG, yjcC, STM1267 and STM3363 showed an altered motility phenotype. Deletions of flgE and fliH displayed a non-motile phenotype in both swimming and swarming motility assays as expected. The deletions of STM1267, STM3363, ydiV, rfaG and yjcC were further analyzed in detail for flagellar and fimbrial gene expression and filament formation. A ΔydiV mutant showed increased swimming motility, but a decrease in swarming motility, which coincided with derepression of curli fimbriae. A deletion of yjcC, encoding for an EAL domain-containing protein, increased swimming motility independent on flagellar gene expression. A ΔSTM1267 mutant displayed a hypermotile phenotype on swarm agar plates and was found to have increased numbers of flagella. In contrast, a knockout of STM3363 did also display an increase in swarming motility, but did not alter flagella numbers. Finally, a deletion of the LPS biosynthesis-related protein RfaG reduced swimming and swarming motility, associated with a decrease in transcription from flagellar class II and class III promoters and a lack of flagellar filaments.

  1. Use of CFSE staining of borreliae in studies on the interaction between borreliae and human neutrophils

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    Hytönen Jukka

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species of the tick-transmitted spirochete group Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi cause Lyme borreliosis. Acute borrelial infection of the skin has unusual characteristics with only a mild local inflammatory response suggesting that the interaction between borreliae and the cells of the first-line defence might differ from that of other bacteria. It has been reported that human neutrophils phagocytose motile borreliae through an unconventional mechanism (tube phagocytosis which is not observed with non-motile borreliae. Therefore, it would be of great interest to visualise the bacteria by a method not affecting motility and viability of borreliae to be able to study their interaction with the cells of the innate immunity. Carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester (CFSE labelling has been previously used for studying the adhesion of labelled bacteria to host cells and the uptake of labelled substrates by various cells using flow cytometry. Results In this study, CFSE was shown to efficiently stain different genospecies of B. burgdorferi without affecting bacterial viability or motility. Use of CFSE staining allowed subsequent quantification of borreliae associated with human neutrophils with flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. As a result, no difference in association between different borrelial genospecies (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, or between borreliae and the pyogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes, with neutrophils could be detected. Borrelial virulence, on the other hand, affected association with neutrophils, with significantly higher association of a non-virulent mutant B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain compared to the parental virulent wild type strain. Conclusion These results suggest that the flow cytometric assay using CFSE labelled borreliae is a valuable tool in the analysis of the interaction between borreliae and human neutrophils. The

  2. Sphaerisporangium dianthi sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from a root of Dianthus chinensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jia; Liu, Chongxi; Zhang, Yuejing; He, Hairong; Zhou, Ying; Li, Lianjie; Zhao, Junwei; Liu, Shuanghe; Wang, Xiangjing; Xiang, Wensheng

    2015-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-CY18(T), was isolated from the root of a Chinese medicinal plant Dianthus chinensis L and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The novel strain was found to develop spherical sporangia with non-motile spores on aerial mycelium. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars were identified as madurose, mannose, ribose, galactose and glucose. The phospholipid profile was found to contain diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxy-phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and an unidentified phospholipid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H6). The major fatty acids were identified as C17:0 10-methyl, iso-C16:0 and C16:0. EzTaxon-e analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Sphaerisporangium and was most closely related to Sphaerisporangium cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T) (98.9 %) and Sphaerisporangium melleum JCM 13064(T) (98.3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain NEAU-CY18(T) forms a monophyletic clade with S. cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T), an association that was supported by a bootstrap value of 97 % in the neighbour-joining tree and also recovered with the maximum-likelihood algorithm. Comparisons of some phenotypic properties and low DNA-DNA relatedness values enabled the strain to be differentiated from S. cinnabarinum JCM 3291(T) and S. melleum JCM 13064(T). Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-CY18(T) represents a novel Sphaerisporangium species, for which the name Sphaerisporangium dianthi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-CY18(T) ( = CGMCC 4.7132(T) = DSM 46736(T)).

  3. Methylocapsa acidiphila gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel methane-oxidizing and dinitrogen-fixing acidophilic bacterium from Sphagnum bog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedysh, Svetlana N; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Suzina, Natalia E; Trotsenko, Yuri A; Semrau, Jeremy D; Liesack, Werner; Tiedje, James M

    2002-01-01

    A novel genus and species, Methylocapsa acidiphila gen. nov., sp. nov., are proposed for a methane-oxidizing bacterium isolated from an acidic Sphagnum peat bog. This bacterium, designated strain B2T, represents aerobic, gram-negative, colourless, non-motile, curved coccoids that form conglomerates covered by an extracellular polysaccharide matrix. The cells use methane and methanol as sole sources of carbon and energy and utilize the serine pathway for carbon assimilation. Strain B2T is a moderately acidophilic organism with growth between pH 4.2 and 7.2 and at temperatures from 10 to 30 degrees C. The cells possess a well-developed system of intracytoplasmic membranes (ICM) packed in parallel on only one side of the cell membrane. This type of ICM structure represents a novel arrangement, which was termed type III. The resting cells are Azotobacter-type cysts. Strain B2T is capable of atmospheric nitrogen fixation; it possesses particulate methane monooxygenase and does not express soluble methane monooxygenase. The major phospholipid fatty acid is 18:1omega7c and the major phospholipids are phosphatidylglycerols. The G+C content of the DNA is 63.1 mol%. This bacterium belongs to the alpha-subclass of the Proteobacteria and is most closely related to the acidophilic methanotroph Methylocella palustris KT (97.3% 16S rDNA sequence similarity). However, the DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain B2T and Methylocella palustris K(T) is only 7%. Thus, strain B2T is proposed to comprise a novel genus and species, Methylocapsa acidiphila gen. nov., sp. nov. Strain B2T (= DSM 13967T = NCIMB 13765T) is the type strain.

  4. Methylocella silvestris sp. nov., a novel methanotroph isolated from an acidic forest cambisol.

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    Dunfield, Peter F; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Suzina, Natalia E; Trotsenko, Yuri A; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2003-09-01

    Two strains of Gram-negative, aerobic, non-pigmented, non-motile, rod-shaped, methane-oxidizing bacteria were isolated from an acidic forest cambisol near Marburg, Germany, and were designated as strains BL2(T) and A1. These bacteria were morphologically and phenotypically similar to Methylocella palustris K(T). The cells possess a highly specific bipolar appearance. They lack the intracytoplasmic membranes common to all methane-oxidizing bacteria except Methylocella, but contain a vesicular membrane system connected to the cytoplasmic membrane. A soluble methane monooxygenase was present, but no particulate methane monooxygenase could be detected. These bacteria utilize the serine pathway for carbon assimilation. Strains BL2(T) and A1 are moderately acidophilic, mesophilic organisms capable of growth at pH values between 4.5 and 7 (with an optimum at pH 5.5) and at temperatures between 4 and 30 degrees C. Compared with Methylocella palustris K(T), these strains have greater tolerance of cold temperatures, dissolved salts and methanol. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence identity, of species with validly published names, strain BL2(T) is most closely related to Methylocella palustris K(T) (97.3 % identity), Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica ATCC 9039(T) (97.1 %) and Methylocapsa acidiphila B2(T) (96.2 %). The DNA G+C content is 60 mol% and the major phospholipid fatty acid is 18 : 1omega7. Strain BL2(T) showed only 21-22 % DNA-DNA hybridization with Methylocella palustris K(T). The data therefore suggest that strains BL2(T) and A1 represent a novel species of Methylocella; the name Methylocella silvestris sp. nov. is proposed, with strain BL2(T) (=DSM 15510(T)=NCIMB 13906(T)) as the type strain.

  5. Methylocapsa aurea sp. nov., a facultative methanotroph possessing a particulate methane monooxygenase, and emended description of the genus Methylocapsa.

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    Dunfield, Peter F; Belova, Svetlana E; Vorob'ev, Alexey V; Cornish, Sabrina L; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2010-11-01

    An aerobic, methanotrophic bacterium, designated KYG(T), was isolated from a forest soil in Germany. Cells of strain KYG(T) were Gram-negative, non-motile, slightly curved rods that multiplied by binary fission and produced yellow colonies. The cells contained intracellular granules of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate at each cell pole, a particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) and stacks of intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs) packed in parallel along one side of the cell envelope. Strain KYG(T) grew at pH 5.2-7.2 and 2-33 °C and could fix atmospheric nitrogen under reduced oxygen tension. The major cellular fatty acid was C(18 : 1)ω7c (81.5 %) and the DNA G+C content was 61.4 mol%. Strain KYG(T) belonged to the family Beijerinckiaceae of the class Alphaproteobacteria and was most closely related to the obligate methanotroph Methylocapsa acidiphila B2(T) (98.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and 84.7 % pmoA sequence similarity). Unlike Methylocapsa acidiphila B2(T), which grows only on methane and methanol, strain KYG(T) was able to grow facultatively on acetate. Facultative acetate utilization is a characteristic of the methanotrophs of the genus Methylocella, but the genus Methylocella does not produce pMMO or ICMs. Strain KYG(T) differed from Methylocapsa acidiphila B2(T) on the basis of substrate utilization pattern, pigmentation, pH range, cell ultrastructure and efficiency of dinitrogen fixation. Therefore, we propose a novel species, Methylocapsa aurea sp. nov., to accommodate this bacterium. The type strain is KYG(T) (=DSM 22158(T) =VKM B-2544(T)).

  6. Whole-genome analyses of the speciation events in the pathogenic Brucellae

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    Chain, P; Comerci, D; Tolmasky, M; Larimer, F; Malfatti, S; Vergez, L; Aguero, F; Land, M; Ugalde, R; Garcia, E

    2005-07-14

    Despite their high DNA identity and a proposal to group classical Brucella species as biovars of B. melitensis, the commonly recognized Brucella species can be distinguished by distinct biochemical and fatty acid characters as well as by a marked host range (e.g. B. suis for swine, B. melitensis for sheep and goats, B. abortus for cattle). Here we present the genome of B. abortus 2308, the virulent prototype biovar 1 strain, and its comparison to the two other human pathogenic Brucellae species and to the B. abortus field isolate 9-941. The global distribution of pseudogenes, deletions and insertions support previous indications that B. abortus and B. melitensis share a common ancestor that diverged from B. suis. With the exception of a dozen genes, the genetic complement of both B. abortus strains is identical, whereas the three species differ in gene content and pseudogenes. The pattern of species-specific gene inactivations affecting transcriptional regulators and outer membrane proteins suggest that these inactivations may play an important role in the establishment of host-specificity and may have been a primary driver of speciation in the Brucellae. Despite being non-motile, the Brucellae contain flagellum gene clusters and display species-specific flagellar gene inactivations, which lead to the putative generation of different versions of flagellum-derived structures, and may contribute to differences in host-specificity and virulence. Metabolic changes such as the lack of complete metabolic pathways for the synthesis of numerous compounds (e.g. glycogen, biotin, NAD, and choline) are consistent with adaptation of Brucellae to an intracellular lifestyle.

  7. Novel sex cells and evidence for sex pheromones in diatoms.

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    Shinya Sato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diatoms belong to the stramenopiles, one of the largest groups of eukaryotes, which are primarily characterized by a presence of an anterior flagellum with tubular mastigonemes and usually a second, smooth flagellum. Based on cell wall morphology, diatoms have historically been divided into centrics and pennates, of which only the former have flagella and only on the sperm. Molecular phylogenies show the pennates to have evolved from among the centrics. However, the timing of flagellum loss--whether before the evolution of the pennate lineage or after--is unknown, because sexual reproduction has been so little studied in the 'araphid' basal pennate lineages, to which Pseudostaurosira belongs. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Sexual reproduction of an araphid pennate, Pseudostaurosira trainorii, was studied with light microscopy (including time lapse observations and immunofluorescence staining observed under confocal scanning laser microscopy and SEM. We show that the species produces motile male gametes. Motility is mostly associated with the extrusion and retrieval of microtubule-based 'threads', which are structures hitherto unknown in stramenopiles, their number varying from one to three per cell. We also report experimental evidence for sex pheromones that reciprocally stimulate sexualization of compatible clones and orientate motility of the male gametes after an initial 'random walk'. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The threads superficially resemble flagella, in that both are produced by male gametes and contain microtubules. However, one striking difference is that threads cannot beat or undulate and have no motility of their own, and they do not bear mastigonemes. Threads are sticky and catch and draw objects, including eggs. The motility conferred by the threads is probably crucial for sexual reproduction of P. trainorii, because this diatom is non-motile in its vegetative stage but obligately outbreeding. Our pheromone experiments

  8. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Mice Models to Study Blastocystis spp. Adhesion, Colonization and Pathology: Closer to Proving Koch's Postulates.

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    Sitara S R Ajjampur

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC, isolate B (ST7-B and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H, we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch's postulates for this parasite.

  9. Gene loss and horizontal gene transfer contributed to the genome evolution of the extreme acidophile Ferrovum

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    Sophie Roxana Ullrich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD, associated with active and abandoned mining sites, is a habitat for acidophilic microorganisms that gain energy from the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds and ferrous iron and that thrive at pH below 4. Members of the recently proposed genus Ferrovum are the first acidophilic iron oxidizers to be described within the Betaproteobacteria. Although they have been detected as typical community members in AMD habitats worldwide, knowledge of their phylogenetic and metabolic diversity is scarce. Genomics approaches appear to be most promising in addressing this lacuna since isolation and cultivation of Ferrovum has proven to be extremely difficult and has so far only been successful for the designated type strain Ferrovum myxofaciens P3G. In this study, the genomes of two novel strains of Ferrovum (PN-J185 and Z-31 derived from water samples of a mine water treatment plant were sequenced. These genomes were compared with those of Ferrovum sp. JA12 that also originated from the mine water treatment plant, and of the type strain (P3G. Phylogenomic scrutiny suggests that the four strains represent three Ferrovum species that cluster in two groups (1 and 2. Comprehensive analysis of their predicted metabolic pathways revealed that these groups harbor characteristic metabolic profiles, notably with respect to motility, chemotaxis, nitrogen metabolism, biofilm formation and their potential strategies to cope with the acidic environment. For example, while the F. myxofaciens strains (group 1 appear to be motile and diazotrophic, the non-motile group 2 strains have the predicted potential to use a greater variety of fixed nitrogen sources. Furthermore, analysis of their genome synteny provides first insights into their genome evolution, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer and genome reduction in the group 2 strains by loss of genes encoding complete metabolic pathways or physiological features contributed to the observed

  10. Egibacter rhizosphaerae gen. nov., sp. nov., an obligately halophilic, facultatively alkaliphilic actinobacterium and proposal of Egibaceraceae fam. nov. and Egibacterales ord. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Guang; Wang, Hong-Fei; Yang, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Xing-Kui; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Duan, Yan-Qing; Xiao, Min; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-01-01

    A novel obligately halophilic, facultatively alkaliphilic actinobacterium, designated EGI 80759T, was isolated from the rhizosphere of Tamarix hispida Willd, Karamay, Xinjiang province, north-west China. Cells of strain EGI 80759T were Gram-stain-positive, non-motile and non-endospore-forming rods. Strain EGI 80759T showed obligately halophilic growth with a tolerance to 8-25 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum growth at 10-12 %, w/v) and facultatively alkaliphilic growth within the pH range 7.0-11.0 (optimum growth at pH 9.0-10.0). Cell-wall hydrolysates of the isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid (peptidoglycan type A1γ), with glucose, glucosamine, ribose and mannose as the major sugars. The major fatty acids identified were 10-methyl-C17 : 0, C17 : 1ω8c and C17 : 0. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 72.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that strain EGI 80759T clustered with members of the class Nitriliruptoria and showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Euzebya tangerina F10T (90.3 %) and Nitriliruptor alkaliphilus ANL-iso2T (88.1 %). On the basis of the data obtained from phenotypic and chemotaxonomic studies and the phylogenetic analysis, the isolate is proposed to be a representative of a novel genus and a novel species, Egibacter rhizosphaerae gen. nov., sp. nov., of a proposed novel family, Egibacteraceae fam. nov., and order, Egibacterales ord. nov., within the class Nitriliruptoria. The type strain of the type species, Egibacter rhizosphaerae, is EGI 80759T ( = CGMCC 1.14997T = KCTC 39588T).

  11. Lentibacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from saline sediment sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Li; Ma, Ke-Dong; Wang, Yan-Wei; Wang, Hui-Min; Li, Yan-Bin; Zhou, Shan; Chen, Xiao-Rong; Kong, De-Long; Guo, Xiang; He, Ming-Xiong; Ruan, Zhi-Yong

    2016-02-01

    A Gram-stain positive, non-motile, non-sporogenous, aerobic, rod-shaped and halophilic bacterium, designated LAM0015(T), was isolated from a saline sediment sample collected from Yantai City in China. The isolate was found to be able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 5-25 % (w/v) (optimum: 7-12 %), 15-45 °C (optimum: 35 °C) and pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum: 7.0). The major fatty acids were determined to be anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The predominant respiratory quinone was identified as MK-7. The cell wall peptidoglycan was determined to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidyglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, five phospholipids and one glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 43.1 mol% as determined by the T m method. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the isolate belongs within the genus Lentibacillus and is closely related to Lentibacillus persicus DSM 22530(T), Lentibacillus salicampi JCM 11462(T) and Lentibacillus jeotgali JCM 15795(T) with 97.3, 96.7 and 96.4 % sequence similarity, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between LAM0015(T) and L. persicus DSM 22530(T) was 51.2 ± 1.4 %. Based on its phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain LAM0015(T) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Lentibacillus, for which the name Lentibacillus amyloliquefaciens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LAM0015(T) (=ACCC 06401(T) = JCM 19838(T)).

  12. Tahibacter aquaticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a new gammaproteobacterium isolated from the drinking water supply system of Budapest (Hungary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makk, Judit; Homonnay, Zalán G; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Lejtovicz, Zsuzsanna; Márialigeti, Károly; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Tóth, Erika M

    2011-04-01

    Three Gram-stain negative, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strains, PYM5-11(T), RaM5-2 and PYM5-8, were isolated from the drinking water supply system of Budapest (Hungary) and their taxonomic positions were investigated by a polyphasic approach. All three strains grew optimally at 20-28°C and pH 5-7 without NaCl. The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain was 65.4mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates showed 94.5-94.9% sequence similarity to the type strain of Dokdonella koreensis and a similarity of 93.0-94.1% to the species of the genera Aquimonas and Arenimonas. The major isoprenoid quinone of the strains was ubiquinone Q-8. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C(15:0), iso-C(17:1)ω9c, C(16:1)ω7c, and C(16:0). Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, as well as several unidentified aminolipids and phospholipids were present. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the predominant fatty acids, the polar lipid composition, RiboPrint patterns, physiological and biochemical characteristics showed that the three strains were related but distinct from the type strains of the four recognized species of the genus Dokdonella, and indicated that the strains represented a new genus within the Gammaproteobacteria. The strain PYM5-11 (=DSM 21667(T)=NCAIM B 02337(T)) is proposed as the type strain of a new genus and species, designated as Tahibacter aquaticus gen. nov., sp. nov. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Singulisphaera rosea sp. nov., a planctomycete from acidic Sphagnum peat, and emended description of the genus Singulisphaera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Detkova, Ekaterina N; Bodelier, Paul L E; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2012-01-01

    An aerobic, pink-pigmented, budding bacterium, designated strain S26(T), was isolated from an acidic Sphagnum peat bog of north-western Russia. Cells were non-motile and spherical, occurring singly, in pairs or in short chains, and were able to attach to surfaces by means of a holdfast material. Strain S26(T) was a moderately acidophilic, mesophilic organism capable of growth at pH 3.2-7.1 (optimum at pH 4.8-5.0) and at 4-33 °C (optimum at 20-26 °C). Most sugars, several organic acids and polyalcohols were the preferred growth substrates. The major fatty acids were C(16:0), C(18:1)ω9c and C(18:2)ω6c,12c. The major neutral lipids were n-C(31:9) hydrocarbon and squalene; the polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and components with an unknown structure. The DNA G+C content of strain S26(T) was 62.2 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain S26(T) is a member of the order Planctomycetales. Among taxonomically characterized representatives of this order, highest levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (95.1-95.2%) were observed with strains of the non-filamentous, peat-inhabiting planctomycete Singulisphaera acidiphila. Strain S26(T) could be differentiated from Singulisphaera acidiphila based on pigmentation, significant differences in substrate utilization patterns, greater tolerance of acidic conditions and the presence of C(16:1)ω9c. Based on the data presented, strain S26(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Singulisphaera, for which the name Singulisphaera rosea sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is S26(T) (=DSM 23044(T)=VKM B-2599(T)).

  14. Effect of Follicular Fluid and Platelet-Activating Factor on Lactate Dehydrogenase C Expression in Human Asthenozoospermic Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Esmaeilpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Application of follicular fluid (FF and platelet-activating factor (PAF in artificial insemination improves sperm motility. Lactate dehydrogenase C (LDH-C is a key enzyme for sperm motility. In this study, the effects of FF and PAF on the sperm motility index and LDH-C expression were investigated. Moreover, LDH-C expression was compared between asthenozoospermic and normozoospermic samples. Methods: The expression of LDH-C was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT PCR and western blotting after it was treated with optimized concentrations of FF and PAF in twenty asthenozoospermic samples. Also, LDH-C expression was evaluated in five normozoospermic samples. Results: Samples with 75% FF and 100 nM of PAF had an increase in their percentages of progressive and slowly motile sperms and a decrease in their percentages of non-progressive and non-motile sperms. Moreover, LDH-C mRNA transcripts were not changed following PAF and FF treatment, and LDH-C protein was detected in highly progressive motile specimens treated with FF in the asthenozoospermic samples. Furthermore, LDH-C expression was more detectable in the normal sperms. Conclusion: Our results indicated that PAF had more beneficial effects than FF on sperm motility in the asthenozoospermic samples (P=0.0001, although the LDH-C expressions of the sperms were not changed significantly in both groups. We found no association between LDH-C expression and sperm motility after FF and PAF actions. This finding, however, requires further investigation. The fact that LDH-C protein was detected in the normozoospermic, but not asthenozoospermic, samples could be cited as a reason for the infertility in these patients.

  15. Flavisolibacter metallilatus sp. nov., isolated from an automotive air conditioning system and emended description of the genus Flavisolibacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Uk; Lee, Hyosun; Lee, Suyeon; Kim, Song-Gun; Park, A-Young; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2018-03-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and pale yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain TX0661 T , was isolated from an automotive air conditioning system collected in the Republic of Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strain TX0661 T was grouped with members of the genus Flavisolibacter and the strain had 98.2-95.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to the species of the genus Flavisolibacter. DNA-DNA relatedness between TX0661 T and Flavisolibacter ginsenosidimutans KCTC 22818 T and Flavisolibacter ginsengisoli KCTC 12657 T was less than 30 %. The low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness identified strain TX0661 T as a novel species in the genus Flavisolibacter. The strain grew at 28-37 °C (optimum, 37 °C), at pH 6.0-7.0 (optimum, pH 6.5) and in the presence of 0-0.5 % (w/v, optimum, 0.5 %) NaCl. It contained summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as major fatty acids and MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone. The polar lipid profile revealed that the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine, aminoglycophospholipid, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of the strain was 49.1 mol%. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic data, strain TX0661 T represents a novel species in the genus Flavisolibacter, for which the name Flavisolibactermetallilatus sp. nov. (=KACC 19145 T =KCTC 52779 T =NBRC 111784 T ) is proposed.

  16. Flavisolibacter carri sp. nov., isolated from an automotive air-conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyosun; Kim, Dong-Uk; Lee, Suyeon; Kim, Song-Gun; Park, A-Young; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2018-04-18

    A Gram-stain negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and yellow bacterium, designated TX0651 T , was isolated from an automotive air-conditioning system. Phylogenetically, the strain groups with the members of the genus Flavisolibacter and exhibits high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Flavisolibacter ginsenosidimutans Gsoil 636 T (97.4%), Flavisolibacter ginsengiterrae Gsoil 492 T (96.3%) and Flavisolibacter ginsengisoli Gsoil 643 T (96.2%). DNA-DNA relatedness between TX0651 T and F. ginsenosidimutans KCTC 22818 T and F. ginsengiterrae KCTC 12656 T were determined to be less than 40%. The low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness identifies the strain TX0651 T as a novel species in the genus Flavisolibacter. The major cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C 15:0 , summed feature 3 (C 16:1 ω7c and/or C 16:1 ω6c), iso-C 15:1 G and iso-C 17:0 3-OH. The predominant respiratory quinone was identified as MK-7. The polar lipids were found to be comprised of phosphatidylethanolamine, unidentified amino-glycophospholipids, an unidentified aminophospholipid, an unidentified amino lipid and unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C content of the strain was determined to be 31.2 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain TX0651 T should be classified in a novel species in the genus Flavisolibacter, for which the name Flavisolibacter carri sp. nov. (= KACC 19014 T  = KCTC 52836 T  = NBRC 111784 T ) is proposed.

  17. Roseomonas aeriglobus sp. nov., isolated from an air-conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunho; Jeon, Che Ok

    2018-03-01

    A novel pale pink-coloured, strictly aerobic, Gram-stain negative bacterial strain, designated strain KER25-12 T , was isolated from a laboratory air-conditioning system in South Korea. Cells were observed to be non-motile cocci showing positive catalase and oxidase reactions. Strain KER25-12 T was found to grow at 10-30 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), at pH 4.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 6.0-7.0) and in the presence of 0-2% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0%). Ubiquinone-10 and spermidine were detected as the sole respiratory quinone and the predominant polyamine, respectively. The major fatty acids were identified as summed feature 8 (comprising C 18:1 ω7c and/or C 18:1 ω6c), summed feature 3 (comprising C 16:1 ω7c and/or C 16:1 ω6c), C 16:0 and C 18:0 . The genomic DNA G+C content of strain KER25-12 T was determined to be 70.0 mol%. The major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and an unidentified aminolipid. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that strain KER25-12 T belongs to the genus Roseomonas and shows high sequence similarity to Roseomonas aerilata 5420S-30 T (98.57%), Roseomonas pecuniae N75 T (97.44%) and Roseomonas vinacea CPCC 100056 T (97.40%). Based on the morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic features, strain KER25-12 T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas aeriglobus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KER25-12 T (= KACC 19282 T  = JCM 32049 T ).

  18. Sphingomonas frigidaeris sp. nov., isolated from an air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunho; Jeon, Che Ok

    2017-10-01

    A strictly aerobic Gram-stain-negative bacterium, designated strain KER25-10 T , was isolated from a laboratory air conditioning system in South Korea. Cells were yellow-pigmented, non-motile rods showing catalase- and oxidase-positive reactions. The strain grew at pH 4.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 6.0-7.0) and 10-40 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and in the presence of 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 65.1 mol%. Strain KER25-10 T contained ubiquinone-10 (Q-10) as the predominant isoprenoid quinone and C16 : 0, C17 : 1ω6c, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and summed feature 8 (comprising C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were sphingoglycolipid, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Only spermidine was detected as the polyamine. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequences indicated that strain KER25-10 T formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the genus Sphingomonas of the family Sphingomonadaceae and the strain was most closely related to Sphingomonas kyeonggiense THG-DT81 T with a 96.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular features, strain KER25-10 T clearly represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas frigidaeris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KER25-10 T (=KACC 19285 T =JCM 32053 T ).

  19. Deinococcus metallilatus sp. nov. and Deinococcus carri sp. nov., isolated from a car air-conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Uk; Lee, Hyosun; Lee, Ji-Hyeong; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Lim, Sangyong; Jeong, Sunwook; Park, So Yoon; Seong, Chi Nam; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2015-09-01

    Two bacterial strains, designated MA1002(T) and MA1003(T), were isolated from the air-conditioning system of a car. Cells of both strains were Gram-reaction-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming coccoids, catalase- and oxidase-positive and UV-radiation resistant. The major fatty acids of strain MA1002(T) were iso-C17 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0 and those of strain MA1003(T) were iso-C16 : 0 and iso-C16 : 1 H. The polar lipid profile of MA1002(T) contained phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified phosphoglycolipids, an unidentified phospholipid, an unidentified aminophospholipid, an unidentified aminolipid and an unidentified lipid. MA1003(T) had three unidentified phosphoglycolipids, six unidentified phospholipids, two unidentified glycolipids and two unidentified polar lipids as the polar lipids. The G+C contents of the genomic DNA of MA1002(T) and MA1003(T) were 70.5 and 76.0 mol%, respectively. MK-8 was the predominant respiratory quinone for both strains. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain MA1002(T) was phylogenetically related to Deinococcus apachensis DSM 19763(T), D. geothermalis DSM 11300(T), D. aerius TR0125(T) and D. aetherius ST0316(T) (92.9, 92.6, 92.0 and 91.9% sequence similarity, respectively), and MA1003(T) showed the highest sequence similarity to Deinococcus hopiensis KR-140(T) (92.9%) and D. xinjiangensis X-82(T) (91.4%). The results of genotypic and phenotypic characterizations showed that both strains could be distinguished from phylogenetically related species, and that the strains represented novel species within the genus Deinococcus, for which we propose the names Deinococcus metallilatus sp. nov. (type strain MA1002(T) = KACC 17964(T) = NBRC 110141(T)) and Deinococcus carri sp. nov. (type strain is MA1003(T) = KACC 17965(T) = NBRC 110142(T)).

  20. Porphyromonas pasteri sp. nov., isolated from human saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Li, Dan; Shibata, Yukie; Takeshita, Toru; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2015-08-01

    A bacterial strain, designated KUFDS01T, isolated from human saliva was characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach that included analysis of physiological and biochemical features, cellular fatty acid profiles and phylogenetic position based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Cells of the strain were obligately anaerobic, non-pigmented, non-spore-forming, non-motile, Gram-stain-negative rods. Growth of the strain was inhibited on medium containing 20% bile. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strain was a member of the genus Porphyromonas. Strain KUFDS01T was closely related to Porphyromonas catoniae JCM 13863T (96.6% sequence similarity). An hsp60 gene sequence analysis indicated that strain KUFDS01T was different from P. catoniae JCM 13863T, with a sequence similarity value of 87.8%. The major cellular fatty acids of strain KUFDS01T were C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, C18 : 2ω6, 9c and C18 : 1ω9c. The DNA G+C content of strain KUFDS01T was 57.7 ± 0.66 mol%. On the basis of these data, strain KUFDS01T represents a novel species of the genus Porphyromonas, for which the name Porphyromonas pasteri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of P. pasteri is KUFDS01T ( = JCM 30531T = CCUG 66735T).

  1. Spheres of influence: Porphyromonas gingivalis outer membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, M J; Dashper, S G; Slakeski, N; Chen, Y-Y; Reynolds, E C

    2016-10-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are asymmetrical single bilayer membranous nanostructures produced by Gram-negative bacteria important for bacterial interaction with the environment. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen associated with chronic periodontitis, produces OMVs that act as a virulence factor secretion system contributing to its pathogenicity. Despite their biological importance, the mechanisms of OMV biogenesis have not been fully elucidated. The ~14 times more curvature of the OMV membrane than cell outer membrane (OM) indicates that OMV biogenesis requires energy expenditure for significant curvature of the OMV membrane. In P. gingivalis, we propose that this may be achieved by upregulating the production of certain inner or outer leaflet lipids, which causes localized outward curvature of the OM. This results in selection of anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) and associated C-terminal domain (CTD) -family proteins on the outer surface due to their ability to accommodate the curvature. Deacylation of A-LPS may further enable increased curvature leading to OMV formation. Porphyromonas gingivalis OMVs that are selectively enriched in CTD-family proteins, largely the gingipains, can support bacterial coaggregation, promote biofilm development and act as an intercessor for the transport of non-motile bacteria by motile bacteria. The P. gingivalis OMVs are also believed to contribute to host interaction and colonization, evasion of immune defense mechanisms, and destruction of periodontal tissues. They may be crucial for both micro- and macronutrient capture, especially heme and probably other assimilable compounds for its own benefit and that of the wider biofilm community. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Loktanella spp. Gb03 as an algicidal bacterium, isolated from the culture of Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus belizeanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloh, Anmar Hameed; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2016-02-01

    Bacteria associated with harmful algal blooms can play a crucial role in regulating algal blooms in the environment. This study aimed at isolating and identifying algicidal bacteria in Dinoflagellate culture and to determine the optimum growth requirement of the algicidal bacteria, Loktanella sp. Gb-03. The Dinoflagellate culture used in this study was supplied by Professor Gires Usup's Laboratory, School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia. The culture was used for the isolation of Loktanella sp., using biochemical tests, API 20 ONE kits. The fatty acid content of the isolates and the algicidal activity were further evaluated, and the phenotype was determined through the phylogenetic tree. Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, short rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria (Gb01, Gb02, Gb03, Gb04, Gb05, and Gb06) were isolated from the Dinoflagellate culture. The colonies were pink in color, convex with a smooth surface and entire edge. The optimum growth temperature for the Loktanella sp. Gb03 isolate was determined to be 30°C, in 1% of NaCl and pH7. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus Loktanella of the class Alphaproteobacteria and formed a tight cluster with the type strain of Loktanella pyoseonensis (97.0% sequence similarity). On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic data and genetic distinctiveness, strain Gb-03, were placed in the genus Loktanella as the type strain of species. Moreover, it has algicidal activity against seven toxic Dinoflagellate. The algicidal property of the isolated Loktanella is vital, especially where biological control is needed to mitigate algal bloom or targeted Dinoflagellates.

  3. Aeribacillus composti sp. nov., a thermophilic bacillus isolated from olive mill pomace compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finore, Ilaria; Gioiello, Alessia; Leone, Luigi; Orlando, Pierangelo; Romano, Ida; Nicolaus, Barbara; Poli, Annarita

    2017-11-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, endospore-forming, thermophilic bacterium, strain N.8 T , was isolated from the curing step of an olive mill pomace compost sample, collected at the Composting Experimental Centre (CESCO, Salerno, Italy). Strain N.8 T , based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, was most closely related to Aeribacillus pallidus strain H12 T (=DSM 3670 T ) (99.8 % similarity value) with a 25 % DNA-DNA relatedness value. Cells were rod-shaped, non-motile and grew optimally at 60 °C and pH 9.0, forming cream colonies. Strain N.8 was able to grow on medium containing up to 9.0 % (w/v) NaCl with an optimum at 6.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The cellular membrane contained MK-7, and C16 : 0 (48.4 %), iso-C17 : 0 (19.4 %) and anteiso-C17 : 0 (14.6 %) were the major cellular fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 40.5 mol%. Based on phenotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequences, DNA-DNA hybridization values and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain N.8 T represents a novel species of the genus Aeribacillus, for which the name Aeribacillus composti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is N.8 T (=KCTC 33824 T =JCM 31580 T ).

  4. Kordia antarctica sp. nov., isolated from Antarctic seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kiwoon; Choi, Ahyoung; Kang, Ilnam; Lee, Kiyoung; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2013-10-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, chemoheterotrophic, yellow-pigmented, non-motile, flexirubin-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated strain IMCC3317(T), was isolated from a coastal seawater sample from the Antarctic Penninsula. Optimal growth of strain IMCC3317(T) was observed at 20 °C, pH 8.0 and in the presence of 2-3 % NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain IMCC3317(T) belonged to the genus Kordia and was closely related to Kordia algicida OT-1(T) (96.7 % sequence similarity) and Kordia periserrulae IMCC1412(T) (96.1 % sequence similarity). The major fatty acids were 10-methyl C16 : 0 and/or iso-C16 : 1ω9c, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 35.1 mol%. The strain contained menaquinone-6 (MK-6) as the respiratory quinone. The polar lipids detected in the strain were phosphatidylethanolamine and unknown aminophospholipids, aminolipids and polar lipids. On the basis of phylogenetic distinction and differential phenotypic characteristics, it is suggested that strain IMCC3317(T) ( = KCTC 32292(T) = NBRC 109401(T)) be assigned to the genus Kordia as the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Kordia antarctica sp. nov. is proposed.

  5. Hymenobacter mucosus sp. nov., isolated from a karst cave soil sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lan; Zhou, En-Min; Jiao, Jian-Yu; Manikprabhu, Deene; Ming, Hong; Huang, Mei-Juan; Yin, Yi-Rui; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-11-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped and watermelon-red-pigmented aerobic bacterial strain, designated YIM 77969T, was isolated from a soil sample of Jiuxiang cave, a tourism cave located in Yiliang county, Yunnan province, south-west China. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain YIM 77969T belongs to the genus Hymenobacter, and was closely related to Hymenobacter tibetensis XTM003T (96.58 %), Hymenobacter gelipurpurascens Txg1T (96.02 %) and Hymenobacter xinjiangensis X2-1gT (95.80 %). Growth of strain YIM 77969T occurred at 5-35 °C, at pH 5.0-9.0 and in the presence of 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω5c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c). The polar lipid profiles consisted of the major compound phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids, three unknown aminophospholipids, one glycolipid and one unknown polar lipid. Pigment analysis showed that the pigment belonged to the plectaniaxanthin series of carotenoid pigments. The genomic DNA G+C content was 55.2 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain YIM 77969T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Hymenobacter, for which the name Hymenobacter mucosus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 77969T ( = KCTC 32567T = DSM 28041T).

  6. Natronolimnobius aegyptiacus sp. nov., an extremely halophilic alkalithermophilic archaeon isolated from the athalassohaline Wadi An Natrun, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baisuo; Hu, Qingping; Guo, Xiaomeng; Liao, Ziya; Sarmiento, Felipe; Mesbah, Noha M; Yan, Yanchun; Li, Jun; Wiegel, Juergen

    2018-02-01

    An obligately aerobic extremely halophilic alkalithermophilic archaeon, strain JW/NM-HA 15 T , was isolated from the sediments of Wadi An Natrun in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and rpoB' gene sequences indicated that it belongs to the family Natrialbaceae of the order Natrialbales. The closest relatives were Natronolimnobius baerhuensis IHC-005 T and Natronolimnobius innermongolicus N-1311 T (95.3 and 94.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). Genome relatedness between strain JW/NM-HA 15 T and its neighbours was evaluated using average nucleotide identity, digital DNA-DNA hybridization and average amino acid identity with the values of 75.7-85.0, 18.1-20.0, and 70.2-71.0%, respectively. Cells were obligately aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, Gram-stain-negative and chemo-organotrophic. The strain grew in the presence of 2.57 M to saturating Na + (optimum 3.25-4.60 M Na + ), at pH 55 °C 7.5-10.5 (optimum pH 55 °C 9.0-9.5), and at 30-56 °C (optimum 52 °C). The major polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, methylated phosphatidylglycerolphosphate and two phospholipids. The complete genome size of strain JW/NM-HA 15 T is approximately 3.93 Mb, with a DNA G+C content of 64.1 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic features, genomic relatedness, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, strain JW/NM-HA 15 T was thus considered to represent a novel species within the genus Natronolimnobius, for which the name Natronolimnobius aegyptiacus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JW/NM-HA 15 T (=ATCC BAA-2088 T =DSM 23470 T ).

  7. Effect of bacteriocin and exopolysaccharides isolated from probiotic on P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Harjai, Kusum; Shukla, Geeta

    2018-03-01

    Microorganisms develop biofilms on indwelling medical devices and are associated with biofilm-related infections, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. Therefore, to prevent and control biofilm-associated infections, the present study was designed to assess the anti-biofilm potential of postbiotics derived from probiotic organisms against most prevalent biofilm-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Eighty lactic acid bacteria isolated from eight neonatal fecal samples possessed antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa PAO1. Among these, only four lactic acid bacteria produced both bacteriocin and exopolysaccharides but only one isolate was found to maximally attenuate the P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm. More specifically, the phenotypic and probiotic characterization showed that the isolated lactic acid bacteria were gram positive, non-motile, and catalase and oxidase negative; tolerated acidic and alkaline pH; has bile salt concentration; showed 53% hydrophobicity; and was found to be non-hemolytic. Phylogenetically, the organism was found to be probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum with accession no. KT998657. Interestingly, pre-coating of a microtiter plate either with bacteriocin or with exopolysaccharides as well as their combination significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of viable cells forming biofilms to 41.7% compared with simultaneous coating of postbiotics that had 72.4% biofilm-forming viable cells as observed by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Therefore, it can be anticipated that postbiotics as the natural biointerventions can be employed as the prophylactic agents for medical devices used to treat gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections.

  8. Cauli: a mouse strain with an Ift140 mutation that results in a skeletal ciliopathy modelling Jeune syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry A Miller

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cilia are architecturally complex organelles that protrude from the cell membrane and have signalling, sensory and motility functions that are central to normal tissue development and homeostasis. There are two broad categories of cilia; motile and non-motile, or primary, cilia. The central role of primary cilia in health and disease has become prominent in the past decade with the recognition of a number of human syndromes that result from defects in the formation or function of primary cilia. This rapidly growing class of conditions, now known as ciliopathies, impact the development of a diverse range of tissues including the neural axis, craniofacial structures, skeleton, kidneys, eyes and lungs. The broad impact of cilia dysfunction on development reflects the pivotal position of the primary cilia within a signalling nexus involving a growing number of growth factor systems including Hedgehog, Pdgf, Fgf, Hippo, Notch and both canonical Wnt and planar cell polarity. We have identified a novel ENU mutant allele of Ift140, which causes a mid-gestation embryonic lethal phenotype in homozygous mutant mice. Mutant embryos exhibit a range of phenotypes including exencephaly and spina bifida, craniofacial dysmorphism, digit anomalies, cardiac anomalies and somite patterning defects. A number of these phenotypes can be attributed to alterations in Hedgehog signalling, although additional signalling systems are also likely to be involved. We also report the identification of a homozygous recessive mutation in IFT140 in a Jeune syndrome patient. This ENU-induced Jeune syndrome model will be useful in delineating the origins of dysmorphology in human ciliopathies.

  9. Geobacter anodireducens sp. nov., an exoelectrogenic microbe in bioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, D.

    2014-07-22

    © 2014 IUMS. A previously isolated exoelectrogenic bacterium, strain SD-1(T), was further characterized and identified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Geobacter. Strain SD-1(T) was Gram-negative, aerotolerant, anaerobic, non-spore-forming, non-fermentative and non-motile. Cells were short, curved rods (0.8-1.3 µm long and 0.3 µm in diameter). Growth of strain SD-1(T) was observed at 15-42 °C and pH 6.0-8.5, with optimal growth at 30-35 °C and pH 7. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate was a member of the genus Geobacter, with the closest known relative being Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA(T) (98% similarity). Similar to other members of the genus Geobacter, strain SD-1(T) used soluble or insoluble Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor coupled with the oxidation of acetate. However, SD-1(T) could not reduce fumarate as an electron acceptor with acetate oxidization, which is an important physiological trait for G. sulfurreducens. Moreover, SD-1(T) could grow in media containing as much as 3% NaCl, while G. sulfurreducens PCA(T) can tolerate just half this concentration, and this difference in salt tolerance was even more obvious when cultivated in bioelectrochemical systems. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis of strain SD-1(T) and its closest relative, G. sulfurreducens ATCC 51573(T), showed a relatedness of 61.6%. The DNA G+C content of strain SD-1(T) was 58.9 mol%. Thus, on the basis of these characteristics, strain SD-1(T) was not assigned to G. sulfurreducens, and was instead classified in the genus Geobacter as a representative of a novel species. The name Geobacter anodireducens sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain SD-1(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12536(T) = KCTC 4672(T)).

  10. Brucella vulpis sp. nov., isolated from mandibular lymph nodes of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Holger C; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Hammerl, Jens A; Zygmunt, Michel S; Cloeckaert, Axel; Koylass, Mark; Whatmore, Adrian M; Blom, Jochen; Vergnaud, Gilles; Witte, Angela; Aistleitner, Karin; Hofer, Erwin

    2016-05-01

    Two slow-growing, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, coccoid bacteria (strains F60T and F965), isolated in Austria from mandibular lymph nodes of two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic analysis. In a recent study, both isolates were assigned to the genus Brucella but could not be attributed to any of the existing species. Hence, we have analysed both strains in further detail to determine their exact taxonomic position and genetic relatedness to other members of the genus Brucella. The genome sizes of F60T and F965 were 3 236 779 and 3 237 765 bp, respectively. Each genome consisted of two chromosomes, with a DNA G+C content of 57.2 %. A genome-to-genome distance of >80 %, an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 97 % and an average amino acid identity (AAI) of 98 % compared with the type species Brucella melitensis confirmed affiliation to the genus. Remarkably, 5 % of the entire genetic information of both strains was of non-Brucella origin, including as-yet uncharacterized bacteriophages and insertion sequences as well as ABC transporters and other genes of metabolic function from various soil-living bacteria. Core-genome-based phylogenetic reconstructions placed the novel species well separated from all hitherto-described species of the genus Brucella, forming a long-branched sister clade to the classical species of Brucella. In summary, based on phenotypic and molecular data, we conclude that strains F60T and F965 are members of a novel species of the genus Brucella, for which the name Brucella vulpis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain F60T ( = BCCN 09-2T = DSM 101715T).

  11. Bacillus isabeliae sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from a sea salt evaporation pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Luciana; Tiago, Igor; Taborda, Marco; Nobre, M Fernanda; Veríssimo, António; da Costa, Milton S

    2008-01-01

    A low-G+C, Gram-positive isolate, designated strain CVS-8(T), was isolated from a sea salt evaporation pond on the Island of Sal in the Cape Verde Archipelago. This organism was found to be a catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-motile, spore-forming, aerobic, curved rod-shaped organism with an optimum growth temperature of about 35-37 degrees C and an optimum pH between 7.5 and 8.0. Optimal growth occurred in media containing 4-6% (w/v) NaCl and no growth occurred in medium without NaCl. The cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the A1gamma type with meso-diaminopimelic acid, the major respiratory quinone was MK-7, the major fatty acids were iso-15:0, 16:0, anteiso-15:0 and iso-16:0 and the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified aminoglycophospholipid. The G+C content of the DNA was 37.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain CVS-8(T) represented a novel species of the genus Bacillus, the highest levels of sequence similarity (mean pairwise similarity values of approximately 97.5 %) being found with respect to the type strains of Bacillus shackletonii and Bacillus acidicola. On the basis of the phylogenetic, physiological and biochemical data, strain CVS-8(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus isabeliae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CVS-8(T) (=LMG 22838(T)=CIP 108578(T)).

  12. Streptomyces euryhalinus sp. nov., a new actinomycete isolated from a mangrove forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Choudhury, Jayanta D; Mahansaria, Riddhi; Saha, Malay; Mukherjee, Joydeep

    2017-06-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile actinomycete (strain MS 3/20 T ) was isolated from the sediment of the Sundarbans mangrove forest in India. On International Streptomyces Project (ISP) medium 2, the isolate produced yellowish brown to red aerial hyphae that carried spiny-surfaced spores in a retinaculum-apertum arrangement. Whole-cell hydrolysate of the strain contained LL-diaminopimelic acid and galactose. Predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H 8 ) and MK-9(H 6 ). Diagnostic polar lipids were glycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, unidentified phospholipid and unidentified amino lipid. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C 15:0 (17.53%), iso-C 16:0 (23.89%) and anteiso-C 17:0 (10.29%). The strain showed 100% 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence similarity with Streptomyces variabilis NBRC 12825 T , Streptomyces erythrogriseus LMG 19406 T , Streptomyces griseoincarnatus LMG 19316 T and Streptomyces labedae NBRC 15864 T . However, strain MS 3/20 T could be distinguished from these and seven other closely related species based on low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness (27.2-53.8%), supported by the unique banding pattern obtained from random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR amplification and the distinctive matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) profile of whole-cell proteins acquired for strain MS 3/20 T in comparison with its phylogenetic relatives. Disparate morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic features, principally growth in NaCl, further corroborated the distinction of strain MS 3/20 T from other phylogenetic relatives. Strain MS 3/20 T is therefore suggested to be a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces euryhalinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MS 3/20 T (=CICC 11032 T =DSM 103378 T ).

  13. Hymenobacter seoulensis sp. nov., isolated from river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Jin; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Park, Sangkyu; Kim, Myung Kyum; Ten, Leonid N; Jung, Hee-Young

    2017-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile and pink-pigmented bacterial strain, designated 16F7GT, was isolated from river water. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain 16F7GT belongs to the genus Hymenobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to members of the genus Hymenobacter ranged from 90.5 to 97.4 %, and the most closely related strains were Hymenobacter rigui WPCB131T (97.4 %) and Hymenobacter xinjiangensis X2-1gT (97.3 %). Strain 16F7GT had <70 % DNA-DNA relatedness with H. rigui (32.8±7.8 %) and H. xinjiangensis (30.2±6.2 %), indicating that it represents a novel genospecies. Cells were catalase- and oxidase-positive. The genomic DNA G+C content was 56.6 mol%. The major fatty acids were summed feature 4 (C17 : 1iso I/C17 : 1 anteiso B; 19.8 %), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c; 18.4 %), C15 : 0 iso (17.0 %), C16 : 1ω5c (11.8 %) and C15 : 0 anteiso (9.8 %). The major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine and the predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). Based on the phylogenetic, phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses, it is concluded that strain 16F7GT represents a novel species within the genus Hymenobacter, for which the name Hymenobacter seoulensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 16F7GT (=KCTC 52197T=JCM 31655T).

  14. Spiribacter roseus sp. nov., a moderately halophilic species of the genus Spiribacter from salterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, María José; Vera-Gargallo, Blanca; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Four pink-pigmented, non-motile, Gram-staining-negative and moderately halophilic curved rods, designated strains SSL50T, SSL25, SSL97 and SSL4, were isolated from a saltern located in Isla Cristina, Huelva, south-west Spain. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that they were members of the genus Spiribacter, most closely related to Spiribacter curvatus UAH-SP71T (99.3-99.5 % sequence similarity) and Spiribacter salinus M19-40T (96.5-96.7 %). Other related strains were Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii MLHE-1T (95.1-95.3 %), Arhodomonas recens RS91T (95.1-95.2 %) and Arhodomonas aquaeolei ATCC 49307T (95.0-95.1 %), all members of the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae. The major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω6c and/or C18 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0 and C12 : 0. The DNA G+C range was 64.0-66.3 mol%. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strains SSL50T, SSL25, SSL97, SSL4 and S. piribacter. curvatus UAH-SP71T were 37-49 %. The average nucleotide identity (ANIb) values between the genome of strain SSL50T and those of the two other representatives of the genus Spiribacter, S. curvatus UAH-SP71T and S. salinus M19-40T, were 82.4 % and 79.1 %, respectively, supporting the proposal of a novel species of the genus Spiribacter. On the basis of the polyphasic analysis, the four new isolates are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Spiribacter, for which the name Spiribacter roseus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SSL50T (=CECT 9117T=IBRC-M 11076T).

  15. Roseomonas oryzae sp. nov., isolated from paddy rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-10-01

    A non-motile, coccus-shaped, pale-pink-pigmented bacterium, designated strain JC288T, was isolated from a paddy rhizosphere soil collected from Western Ghats, Kankumbi, Karnataka, India. Cells were found to be Gram-stain-negative, and catalase- and oxidase-positive; the major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c, C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c and C18 : 1 2-OH. The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-10 and the genomic DNA G+C content was 67.5 mol%. Strain JC288T contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, four unidentified aminolipids, three unidentified phospholipids, two unidentified lipids, an aminophospholipid and a glycolipid. Hydroxyspirilloxanthin was the major carotenoid of strain JC288T. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons indicated that strain JC288T represents a member of the genus Roseomonas within the family Acetobacteraceae of the phylum Proteobacteria. Strain JC288T shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Roseomonas rhizosphaerae YW11T (97.3 %), Roseomonas aestuarii JC17T (97.1 %), Roseomonas cervicalis CIP 104027T (95.9 %) and other members of the genus Roseomonas ( < 95.5 %). The distinct genomic difference and morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic differences from the previously described taxa support the classification of strain JC288T as a representative of a novel species of the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC288T ( = KCTC 42542T = LMG 28711T).

  16. Paludisphaera borealis gen. nov., sp. nov., a hydrolytic planctomycete from northern wetlands, and proposal of Isosphaeraceae fam. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Ivanova, Anastasia A; Suzina, Natalia E; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2016-02-01

    Two isolates of aerobic, budding, pink-pigmented bacteria, designated strains PX4 T and PT1, were isolated from a boreal Sphagnum peat bog and a forested tundra wetland. Cells of these strains were non-motile spheres that occurred singly or in short chains. Novel isolates were capable of growth at pH values between 3.5 and 6.5 (optimum at pH 5.0-5.5) and at temperatures between 6 and 30 °C (optimum at 15-25 °C). Most sugars and a number of polysaccharides including pectin, xylan, lichenin and Phytagel were used as growth substrates. The major fatty acids were C 16 : 0 , C 18 : 1 ω9 and C 18 : 0 ; the major polar lipids were phosphocholine and trimethylornithine. The quinone was menaquinone-6, and the G+C content of the DNA was 66 mol%. Strains PX4 T and PT1 were members of the order Planctomycetales and displayed 93-94 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Aquisphaera giovannonii , 91-92 % to species of the genus Singulisphaera and 90-91 % to Isosphaera pallida . The two novel strains, however, differed from members of these genera by cell morphology, substrate utilization pattern and a number of physiological characteristics. Based on these data, the novel isolates should be considered as representing a novel genus and species of planctomycetes, for which the name Paludisphaera borealis gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is PX4 T ( = DSM 28747 T  = VKM B-2904 T ). We also suggest the establishment of a novel family, Isosphaeraceae fam. nov., to accommodate stalk-free planctomycetes with spherical cells, which can be assembled in short chains, long filaments or shapeless aggregates. This family includes the genera Isosphaera, Aquisphaera, Singulisphaera and Paludisphaera .

  17. Umboniibacter roseus sp. nov., isolated from coastal seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hye-Ri; Kim, Mibang; Shin, Kee-Sun

    2015-11-01

    A Gram-reaction-negative, non-motile, strictly aerobic, dark pink-pigmented and rod-shaped bacterial isolate, designated 14-121-B13T, was isolated from surface seawater off the coast of the South Sea at Namhae-gun, Republic of Korea. Cells were catalase- and oxidase-positive and required NaCl for growth. Strain 14-121-B13T grew optimally at 30 °C, in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7.5-8.0.Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 14-121-B13T clustered with the type strain of Umboniibacter marinipuniceus, with which it exhibited 96.7 % sequence similarity. The DNA G+C content of strain 14-121-B13T was 48.9 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-7 and the polar lipids detected in strain 14-121-B13T were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminolipid, unidentified phospholipids, unidentified aminophospholipids and unidentified lipids. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data presented, strain 14-121-B13T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus, Umboniibacter for which the name Umboniibacter roseus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 14-121-B13T ( = DSM 29882T = KCTC 42467T).

  18. Mucilaginibacter vulcanisilvae sp. nov., isolated from a volcanic forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kyunghwa; Ok Jeon, Che

    2015-07-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, pale-pink-pigmented bacterium, designated strain G27(T), was isolated from a volcanic forest of Jeju Island, South Korea. Cells were catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-motile rods producing exopolysaccharide and flexirubin-type and pale pink pigments. Growth of strain G27(T) was observed at 4-30 °C (optimum, 25 °C) and pH 5.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain G27(T) formed a phyletic lineage within the genus Mucilaginibacter of the family Sphingobacteriaceae. Strain G27(T) was related most closely to Mucilaginibacter gossypii Gh-67(T) at 96.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Strain G27(T) contained menaquinone 7 (MK-7) as the sole isoprenoid quinone and summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c/C16:1ω6c), iso-C15:0, C16:0, C16:1ω5c and C16:1ω5c as the major cellular fatty acids. Phosphatidylethanolamine was identified as the major polar lipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 46.5 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular properties, strain G27(T) represents a novel species of the genus Mucilaginibacter, for which the name Mucilaginibacter vulcanisilvae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G27(T) ( = KACC 18231(T) = JCM 30363(T)).

  19. Mucilaginibacter pedocola sp. nov., isolated from a heavy-metal-contaminated paddy field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingwei; Huang, Jing; Qiao, Zixu; Wang, Rui; Wang, Gejiao

    2016-10-01

    Strain TBZ30T was isolated from soil of a heavy-metal-contaminated paddy field. Cells of strain TBZ30T were Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and non-spore-forming. The isolate was strictly aerobic, pink-pigmented, catalase- and oxidase-positive and produced exopolysaccharides. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, strain TBZ30T belonged to the genus Mucilaginibacter and appeared most closely related to Mucilaginibacter gynuensis YC7003T (95.8 %), Mucilaginibacter litoreus BR-18T (95.4 %) and Mucilaginibacter mallensis MP1X4T (95.4 %). Strain TBZ30T contained menaquinone-7 as the only ubiquinone. The main cellular fatty acids included summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and C16 : 1ω5c. The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified phospholipid, two unidentified aminophospholipids, four unidentified aminolipids, three unidentified lipids and two unidentified glycolipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 49.0 mol%. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomy analyses, strain TBZ30T represents a novel species of the genus Mucilaginibacter, for which the name Mucilaginibacter pedocola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TBZ30T (=KCTC 42833T=CCTCC AB 2015301T).

  20. Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ning; Li, Hui-Rong; Yuan, Meng; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Yong

    2015-02-01

    A pink-pigmented, non-motile, coccoid bacterial strain, designated G3-6-20(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in the Grove Mountains, East Antarctica. This strain was resistant to UV irradiation (810 J m(-2)) and slightly more sensitive to desiccation as compared with Deinococcus radiodurans. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate indicated that the organism belongs to the genus Deinococcus. Highest sequence similarities were with Deinococcus ficus CC-FR2-10(T) (93.5 %), Deinococcus xinjiangensis X-82(T) (92.8 %), Deinococcus indicus Wt/1a(T) (92.5 %), Deinococcus daejeonensis MJ27(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus wulumuqiensis R-12(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus aquaticus PB314(T) (92.2 %) and Deinococcus radiodurans DSM 20539(T) (92.2 %). Major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain G3-6-20(T) was 63.1 mol%. Menaquinone 8 (MK-8) was the predominant respiratory quinone. Based on its phylogenetic position, and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, strain G3-6-20(T) represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G3-6-20(T) ( = DSM 27864(T) = CCTCC AB 2013263(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  1. Halococcus agarilyticus sp. nov., an agar-degrading haloarchaeon isolated from commercial salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minegishi, Hiroaki; Echigo, Akinobu; Shimane, Yasuhiro; Kamekura, Masahiro; Itoh, Takashi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Usami, Ron

    2015-05-01

    Two agar-degrading halophilic archaeal strains, 62 E(T) and 197 A, were isolated from commercial salt samples. Cells were non-motile cocci, approximately 1.2-2.0 µm in diameter and stained Gram-negative. Colonies were pink-pigmented. Strain 62 E(T) was able to grow with 24-30% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 27%), at pH 6.5-8.5 (optimum, pH 7.5) and at 22-47 °C (optimum, 42 °C). The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains 62 E(T) and 197 A were identical, and the level of DNA-DNA relatedness between them was 90 and 90% (reciprocally). The closest relative was Halococcus saccharolyticus JCM 8878(T) with 99.7% similarity in 16S rRNA orthologous gene sequences, followed by Halococcus salifodinae JCM 9578(T) (99.6%), while similarities with other species of the genus Halococcus were equal to or lower than 95.1%. The rpoB' gene tree strongly supported that the two strains were members of the genus Halococcus . Mean DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 62 E(T) and H. saccharolyticus JCM 8878(T) and H. salifodinae JCM 9578(T) was 46 and 44%, respectively. The major polar lipids were archaeol derivatives of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, derived from both C20C20 and C20C25 archaeol, and sulfated diglycosyl archaeol-1. Several unidentified glycolipids were present. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, the isolates are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Halococcus , for which the name Halococcus agarilyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 62 E(T) ( = JCM 19592(T) =KCTC 4143(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  2. Pedobacterpsychrotolerans sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Pooja; Zhang, Gengxin; Lama, Arun; Hu, Yilun; Gao, Feng

    2016-11-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, light-pink-pigmented, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated V5RDT, was isolated from soil of Damxung county in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Strain V5RDT grew luxuriously at 10 °C, at pH 9.0 and in the presence of 1 % NaCl (w/v). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences placed strain V5RDT in the genus Pedobacter and found that it was most closely related to Pedobacter alluvionis DSM 19624T (97.3 %), Pedobacter ginsenosidimutans JCM 16721T (96.84 %), Pedobacter agri DSM 19486T (96.28 %), Pedobacter roseus JCM 13399T (96.22 %), Pedobacter sandarakinus KCTC 12559T (95.92 %) and Pedobacter borealis DSM 19626T (95.85 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA of the type strain V5RDT was 37.40 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness for the type strain V5RDT with respect to its closest phylogenetic relative, P. alluvionis DSM 19624T, was 62.5±1.7 %. The polar lipid profile of the strain consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid, one unidentified glycolipid and two unidentified polar lipids. Menaquinone MK-7 was the predominant respiratory quinone, and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH were the major fatty acids. With respect to phenotypic characteristics, biochemical properties and phylogenetic inference, strain V5RDT represents a novel species of the genus Pedobacter, for which the name Pedobacter psychrotolerans sp. nov is proposed. The type strain is V5RDT (=CGMCC 1.15644T=DSM 103236T).

  3. Comparative Genomics of the Herbivore Gut Symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri Reveals Genetic Diversity and Lifestyle Adaptation

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    Jie Yu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus reuteri is a catalase-negative, Gram-positive, non-motile, obligately heterofermentative bacterial species that has been used as a model to describe the ecology and evolution of vertebrate gut symbionts. However, the genetic features and evolutionary strategies of L. reuteri from the gastrointestinal tract of herbivores remain unknown. Therefore, 16 L. reuteri strains isolated from goat, sheep, cow, and horse in Inner Mongolia, China were sequenced in this study. A comparative genomic approach was used to assess genetic diversity and gain insight into the distinguishing features related to the different hosts based on 21 published genomic sequences. Genome size, G + C content, and average nucleotide identity values of the L. reuteri strains from different hosts indicated that the strains have broad genetic diversity. The pan-genome of 37 L. reuteri strains contained 8,680 gene families, and the core genome contained 726 gene families. A total of 92,270 nucleotide mutation sites were discovered among 37 L. reuteri strains, and all core genes displayed a Ka/Ks ratio much lower than 1, suggesting strong purifying selective pressure (negative selection. A highly robust maximum likelihood tree based on the core genes shown in the herbivore isolates were divided into three clades; clades A and B contained most of the herbivore isolates and were more closely related to human isolates and vastly distinct from clade C. Some functional genes may be attributable to host-specific of the herbivore, omnivore, and sourdough groups. Moreover, the numbers of genes encoding cell surface proteins and active carbohydrate enzymes were host-specific. This study provides new insight into the adaptation of L. reuteri to the intestinal habitat of herbivores, suggesting that the genomic diversity of L. reuteri from different ecological origins is closely associated with their living environment.

  4. The significance of sperm heads and tails within the vasal fluid during vasectomy reversal

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    Ryan P Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The finding of only sperm heads and/or short tails (SHST during vasectomy reversal (VR creates a difficult decision for the best method of vasal reconstruction, i.e. vasovasostomy (VV or epididymovasostomy (EV. Using outcome analyses, we report the impact of SHST alone and combined with qualitative analysis of gross fluid quality in predicting successful VR. Materials and Methods: The records of 356 men who underwent VR by a single surgeon from 2005 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Intravasal fluid was assessed for gross quality (i.e., clear, opaque, pasty or creamy as well as microscopic composition (i.e., motile or non-motile whole sperm, SHST or no sperm. The post-operative patency rates and semen analysis parameters were assessed. Results: Fourteen men (3.9% demonstrated SHST bilaterally in the vasal fluid. The median duration from vasectomy was 6.0 years (interquartile range 4.0-9.8. Bilateral VVs were performed on 12 men (86%, while two men (14% had a unilateral VV and a contralateral EV. Of the 26 vasa undergoing VR, the majority of the fluid quality was classified as creamy (n = 20 vasa, 76.9%. The remaining fluid was classified as pasty (n = 3 vasa, 11.5%, opaque (n = 2 vasa, 7.7% and clear (n = 1 vasa, 3.8%. In cases undergoing bilateral VV with only SHST, patency rates were 90.9%, and both cases of unilateral EV were patent (100%. Conclusions: VV was successful in 90.9% of patients undergoing VR in the setting of SHST alone. Even when creamy or pasty fluid was present, the results surpassed the expected patency rate for an EV. Therefore, the presence of only SHST, regardless of fluid quality, should not dissuade the surgeon from performing a VV.

  5. Lon protease modulates virulence traits in Erwinia amylovora by direct monitoring of major regulators and indirectly through the Rcs and Gac-Csr regulatory systems.

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    Lee, Jae Hoon; Ancona, Veronica; Zhao, Youfu

    2018-04-01

    Lon, an ATP-dependent protease in bacteria, influences diverse cellular processes by degrading damaged, misfolded and short-lived regulatory proteins. In this study, we characterized the effects of lon mutation and determined the molecular mechanisms underlying Lon-mediated virulence regulation in Erwinia amylovora, an enterobacterial pathogen of apple. Erwinia amylovora depends on the type III secretion system (T3SS) and the exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran to cause disease. Our results showed that mutation of the lon gene led to the overproduction of amylovoran, increased T3SS gene expression and the non-motile phenotype. Western blot analyses showed that mutation in lon directly affected the accumulation and stability of HrpS/HrpA and RcsA. Mutation in lon also indirectly influenced the expression of flhD, hrpS and csrB through the accumulation of the RcsA/RcsB proteins, which bind to the promoter of these genes. In addition, lon expression is under the control of CsrA, possibly at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Although mutation in csrA abolished both T3SS and amylovoran production, deletion of the lon gene in the csrA mutant only rescued amylovoran production, but not T3SS. These results suggest that CsrA might positively control both T3SS and amylovoran production partly by suppressing Lon, whereas CsrA may also play a critical role in T3SS by affecting unknown targets. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  6. Description of Leifsonia kafniensis sp. nov. and Leifsonia antarctica sp. nov.

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    Pindi, Pavan Kumar; Kishore, K Hara; Reddy, G S N; Shivaji, S

    2009-06-01

    Strains KFC-22(T) and SPC-20(T) are yellow-pigmented, Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria that were isolated from a soil sample near the Kafni glacier in the Himalayan mountain ranges in India, and from a spade core sediment sample from the Antarctic Ocean at Larsemann Hill, respectively. In both cases, the cell-wall peptidoglycan contained 2,4-diaminobutyric acid as the diamino acid, anteiso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(17 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0) were the predominant fatty acids and MK-11 was the major isoprenoid quinone in the cell membrane. On the basis of the above-mentioned characteristics, both strains can be assigned to the genus Leifsonia. The strains share 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.7 % and DNA relatedness of only 10 %, indicating that they represent different species. A blast analysis indicated that Leifsonia pindariensis PON10(T) was the closest phylogenetic neighbour of strains SPC-20(T) and KFC-22(T), showing 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 97.3 and 97.7 %, respectively. However, at the whole-genome level, strains KFC-22(T) and SPC-20(T) shared 42 and 11 % DNA-DNA relatedness, respectively, with L. pindariensis PON10(T). In addition, both strains exhibited several phenotypic differences with respect to L. pindariensis PON10(T). Thus, on the basis of the differences that the two strains exhibited with respect to L. pindariensis, both were identified as representing novel species of the genus Leifsonia, for which the names Leifsonia kafniensis sp. nov. (type strain KFC-22(T) =NCCB 100216(T) =LMG 24362(T)) and Leifsonia antarctica sp. nov. (type strain SPC-20(T) =NCCB 100227(T) =LMG 24541(T)) are proposed.

  7. Colony shape as a genetic trait in the pattern-forming Bacillus mycoides

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    Pisaneschi Giuseppe

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus mycoides Flügge, a Gram-positive, non-motile soil bacterium assigned to Bacillus cereus group, grows on agar as chains of cells linked end to end, forming radial filaments curving clock- or counter-clockwise (SIN or DX morphotypes. The molecular mechanism causing asymmetric curving is not known: our working hypothesis considers regulation of filamentous growth as the prerequisite for these morphotypes. Results SIN and DX strains isolated from the environment were classified as B. mycoides by biochemical and molecular biology tests. Growth on agar of different hardness and nutrient concentration did not abolish colony patterns, nor was conversion between SIN and DX morphotypes ever noticed. A number of morphotype mutants, all originating from one SIN strain, were obtained. Some lost turn direction becoming fluffy, others became round and compact. All mutants lost wild type tight aggregation in liquid culture. Growth on agar was followed by microscopy, exploring the process of colony formation and details of cell divisions. A region of the dcw (division cell wall cluster, including ftsQ, ftsA, ftsZ and murC, was sequenced in DX and SIN strains as a basis for studying cell division. This confirmed the relatedness of DX and SIN strains to the B. cereus group. Conclusions DX and SIN asymmetric morphotypes stem from a close but not identical genomic context. Asymmetry is established early during growth on agar. Wild type bacilli construct mostly uninterrupted filaments with cells dividing at the free ends: they "walk" longer distances compared to mutants, where enhanced frequency of cell separation produces new growing edges resulting in round compact colonies.

  8. Carboxydobrachium pacificum gen. nov., sp. nov., a new anaerobic, thermophilic, CO-utilizing marine bacterium from Okinawa Trough.

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    Sokolova, T G; González, J M; Kostrikina, N A; Chernyh, N A; Tourova, T P; Kato, C; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, E A; Robb, F T

    2001-01-01

    A new anaerobic, thermophilic, CO-utilizing marine bacterium, strain JMT, was isolated from a submarine hot vent in Okinawa Trough. Cells of strain JMT were non-motile thin straight rods, sometimes branching, with a cell wall of the Gram-positive type, surrounded with an S-layer. Chains of three to five cells were often observed. The isolate grew chemolithotrophically on CO, producing equimolar quantities of H2 and CO2 (according to the equation CO+H2O-->CO2+H2) and organotrophically on peptone, yeast extract, starch, cellobiose, glucose, galactose, fructose and pyruvate, producing H2, acetate and CO2. Growth was observed from 50 to 80 degrees C with an optimum at 70 degrees C. The optimum pH was 6.8-7.1. The optimum concentration of sea salts in the medium was 20.5-25.5 g l(-1). The generation time under optimal conditions was 7.1 h. The DNA G+C content was 33 mol %. Growth of isolate JMT was not inhibited by penicillin, but ampicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin and neomycin completely inhibited growth. The results of 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed that strain JMT belongs to the Thermoanaerobacter phylogenetic group within the Bacillus-Clostridium subphylum of Gram-positive bacteria but represents a separate branch of this group. On the basis of morphological and physiological features and phylogenetic data, this isolate should be assigned to a new genus, for which the name Carboxydobrachium is proposed. The type species is Carboxydobrachium pacificum; the type strain is JMT (= DSM 12653T).

  9. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni FliS and FliW in Flagella Biogenesis and Flagellin Secretion

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    Katarzyna A. Radomska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flagella-driven motility enables bacteria to reach their favorable niche within the host. The human foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni produces two heavily glycosylated structural flagellins (FlaA and FlaB that form the flagellar filament. It also encodes the non-structural FlaC flagellin which is secreted through the flagellum and has been implicated in host cell invasion. The mechanisms that regulate C. jejuni flagellin biogenesis and guide the proteins to the export apparatus are different from those in most other enteropathogens and are not fully understood. This work demonstrates the importance of the putative flagellar protein FliS in C. jejuni flagella assembly. A constructed fliS knockout strain was non-motile, displayed reduced levels of FlaA/B and FlaC flagellin, and carried severely truncated flagella. Pull-down and Far Western blot assays showed direct interaction of FliS with all three C. jejuni flagellins (FlaA, FlaB, and FlaC. This is in contrast to, the sensor and regulator of intracellular flagellin levels, FliW, which bound to FlaA and FlaB but not to FlaC. The FliS protein but not FliW preferred binding to glycosylated C. jejuni flagellins rather than to their non-glycosylated recombinant counterparts. Mapping of the binding region of FliS and FliW using a set of flagellin fragments showed that the C-terminal subdomain of the flagellin was required for FliS binding, whereas the N-terminal subdomain was essential for FliW binding. The separate binding subdomains required for FliS and FliW, the different substrate specificity, and the differential preference for binding of glycosylated flagellins ensure optimal processing and assembly of the C. jejuni flagellins.

  10. Comparison of MKP and BSK-H media for the cultivation and isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

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    Eva Ružić-Sabljić

    Full Text Available The isolation of B. burgdorferi sensu lato requires the use of complex cultivation media. The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of BSK-H (a commercial medium produced by HiMedia, India and MKP medium. MKP and BSK-H media were prepared in accordance with the relevant protocols. Borrelia strains and skin culture biopsies were simultaneously inoculated into both media, incubated and checked for growth. Borrelial growth characteristics, isolation rates and characteristics of the isolated borreliae were analysed and compared. Initially, numbers of spirochaetes were higher in BSK-H than in MKP; however, in comparison with MKP, the strains subcultured in BSK-H medium were more frequently irregular, thin and non-motile, and rapidly died. In addition, the borrelial isolation rate from erythema migrans skin samples was higher in MKP than in BSK-H medium (108/171, 63.2% versus 70/171, 40.9%; p<0.0001. The far most frequently isolated species was Borrelia afzelii (92.9% and 97.2% strains isolated from BSK-H and MKP, respectively. Comparison of strains cultured from individual patients in both media showed differences in plasmid contents in 9/46 (19.6% strain pairs, and protein profiles differed in 30/43 (69.8% strain pairs, most often in the expression of OspC (in 27/28 patients OspC was expressed only in strains growing in MKP. BSK-H medium supports the growth of borrelial strains but MKP is superior with regard to the isolation rate, morphology and motility of strains. BSK-H medium supports fast initial growth of borreliae but this is followed by rapid deformation and death of the spirochaetes.

  11. Characterisation of Shigella species isolated from river catchments in the North West province of South Africa

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    Constance Wose Kinge

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and distribution of Shigella species in water from the five river catchments in the North West province of South Africa were investigated. Shigella is a Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobic bacillus that causes shigellosis, an important cause of morbidity and mortality in high-risk populations (such as children, the elderly and immuno-compromised individuals that depend on river water. A total of 54 water samples collected in winter (April 2007 to July 2007 and summer (December 2007 to March 2008 were cultured on Salmonella-Shigella agar by the spread-plate method. Suspected Shigella isolates obtained were characterised by primary biochemical (Triple Sugar Iron agar and agglutination and molecular (polymerase chain reactions, PCR tests. Amplification of the invasion plasmid gene (ipaH by PCR was done to confirm the presence of Shigella spp. in water. In total, 214 Shigella boydii, 15 Shigella dysenteriae, 11 Shigella flexneri and 2 Shigella sonnei were confirmed by serotyping in both winter and summer samples. The ipaH gene (606 bp was present in 176 and 49 of the winter and summer isolates, respectively. The presence of Shigella spp. in water was confirmed with over 90% specificity. The need for more effective management of these river catchments and the provision of potable water and sanitation facilities is needed to minimise the occurrence and transmission of water-borne diseases caused by these and other pathogenic bacteria.

  12. Lactobacillus panisapium sp. nov., from honeybee Apis cerana bee bread.

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    Wang, Cong; Huang, Yan; Li, Li; Guo, Jun; Wu, Zhengyun; Deng, Yu; Dai, Lirong; Ma, Shichun

    2018-03-01

    A novel facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, catalase-negative bacterium of the genus Lactobacillus, designated strain Bb 2-3 T , was isolated from bee bread of Apis cerana collected from a hive in Kunming, China. The strain was regular rod-shaped. Optimal growth occurred at 37 °C, pH 6.5 with 5.0 g l -1 NaCl. The predominant fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 iso. Respiratory quinones were not detected. Seven glycolipids, three lipids, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol were detected. The peptidoglycan type A4α l-Lys-d-Asp was determined. Strain Bb 2-3 T was closely related to Lactobacillus bombicola DSM 28793 T , Lactobacillus apis LMG 26964 T and Lactobacillus helsingborgensis DSM 26265 T , with 97.8, 97.6 and 97.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. A comparison of two housekeeping genes, rpoA and pheS, revealed that strain Bb 2-3 T was well separated from the reference strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus. The average nucleotide identity between strain Bb 2-3 T and the type strains of closely related species was lower than the 95-96 % threshold value for delineation of genomic prokaryotic species. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain Bb 2-3 T was 37.4 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain Bb 2-3 T is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which we propose the name Lactobacillus panisapium sp. nov. The type strain is Bb 2-3 T (=DSM 102188 T =ACCC 19955 T ).

  13. Methanobacterium aarhusense sp. nov., a novel methanogen isolated from a marine sediment (Aarhus Bay, Denmark).

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    Shlimon, Adris Georgis; Friedrich, Michael W; Niemann, Helge; Ramsing, Niels Birger; Finster, Kai

    2004-05-01

    Strain H2-LR(T), a 5-18 micro m long and 0.7 micro m wide filamentous, mesophilic, moderately halophilic, non-motile hydrogenotrophic methanogen, was isolated from marine sediment of Aarhus Bay, Denmark, 1.7 m below the sediment surface. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene comparison with sequences of known methanogens, strain H2-LR(T) could be affiliated to the genus Methanobacterium. The strain forms a distinct line of descent within this genus, with Methanobacterium oryzae (95.9 % sequence identity) and Methanobacterium bryantii (95.7 % sequence identity) as its closest relatives. The 16S rRNA-based affiliation was supported by comparison of the mcrA gene, which encodes the alpha-subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase. Strain H2-LR(T) grew only on H(2)/CO(2). The DNA G+C content is 34.9 mol%. Optimum growth temperature was 45 degrees C. The strain grew equally well at pH 7.5 and 8. No growth or methane production was observed below pH 5 or above pH 9. Strain H2-LR(T) grew well within an NaCl concentration range of 100 and 900 mM. No growth or methane production was observed at 1 M NaCl. At 50 mM NaCl, growth and methane production were reduced. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate is proposed to represent a novel taxon within the genus Methanobacterium, namely Methanobacterium aarhusense sp. nov. The type strain is H2-LR(T) (=DSM 15219(T)=ATCC BAA-828(T)).

  14. Spirosoma spitsbergense sp. nov. and Spirosoma luteum sp. nov., isolated from a high Arctic permafrost soil, and emended description of the genus Spirosoma.

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    Finster, Kai Waldemar; Herbert, Rodney Andrew; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard

    2009-04-01

    Two pigmented, Gram-negative, non-motile, pleomorphic rod-shaped bacteria (strains SPM-9(T) and SPM-10(T)) were isolated from a permafrost soil collected from the Adventdalen valley, Spitsbergen, northern Norway. A third isolate (strain M5-H2) was recovered from the same soil sample after the sample had been exposed to simulated Martian environmental conditions. The three strains were characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, physiological and morphological analyses demonstrated that the three isolates were most closely related to members of the genus Spirosoma. 16S rRNA gene sequence data indicated that the three isolates could be divided into two clusters: (i) strain SPM-9(T) and (ii) strains SPM-10(T) and M5-H2. This grouping was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization experiments. Strains SPM-9(T) and SPM-10(T) exhibited 92 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to both Spirosoma linguale LMG 10896(T) and Spirosoma rigui WPCB 118(T). The major fatty acids present in all three isolates were summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C(15:0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)omega7c; 43.0-48.2 % of the total), C(16 : 1)omega5c (19.1-21.3 %), C(16 : 0) (6.7-7.3 %), iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH (4.7-6.0 %) and iso-C(15 : 0) (2.6-5.7 %). On the basis of their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, the new strains are assigned to two novel species of the genus Spirosoma, for which the names Spirosoma spitsbergense sp. nov. and Spirosoma luteum sp. nov. are proposed. The type strain of Spirosoma spitsbergense is SPM-9(T) (=NCIMB 14407(T)=DSM 19989(T)) and the type strain of Spirosoma luteum is SPM-10(T) (=NCIMB 14406(T)=DSM 19990(T)). An emended description of the genus Spirosoma is also proposed.

  15. [Isolation and characterization of Thermopirellula anaerolimosa gen. nov., sp. nov., an obligate anaerobic hydrogen-producing bacterium of the phylum Planctomycetes].

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    Liu, Dongying; Liu, Yi; Men, Xuehui; Guo, Qunqun; Guo, Rongbo; Qiu, Yanling

    2012-08-04

    To cultivate various yet-to-be cultured heterotrophs from anaerobic granule sludge, we used a selective culture medium with low concentrations of substrates supplemented a variety of antibiotics. An obligate anaerobic, thermophilic, hydrogen-producing bacterium, strain VM20-7(T), was isolated from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating high-strength organic wastewater from isomerized sugar production processes. Cells of strain VM20-7(T) are non-motile, spherical, pear or teardrop shaped, occurring singly(o)r as aggregates (0.7 - 2.0 microm x 0.7 - 2.0 microm). Spore formation was not observed. Growth temperature ranges from 35 - 50 degrees C (optimum 45 degrees C), pH ranges from 6.0 - 8.3 (optimum 7.0 - 7.5) , NaCl tolerant concentration ranges from 0% - 0.5% (w/v, optimum 0% ). Nitrate, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, elemental sulfur and Fe (III)-NTA were not used as terminal electron acceptors. Strain VM20-7(T) utilizes a wide range of carbohydrates, including glucose, maltose, ribose, xylose, sucrose, galactose, mannose, raffinose, pectin, yeast extract and xylan. Acetate and H2 are the main end products of glucose fermentation. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 60.9 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that it is related to the Pirellula-Rhodopirellula-Blastopirellula (PRB) clade within the order Planctomycetales (82.7 - 84.3% similarity with 16S rRNA genes of other known related species). The first obligate anaerobic bacterium within the phylum Planctomycetes was isolated with low concentration of carbohydrates and antibiotics. On the basis of the physiological and phylogenetic data, the name Thermopirellula anaerolimosa gen. nov. , sp. nov. is proposed for strain VM20-7(T) (= CGMCC 1.5169(T) = JCM 17478(T) = DSM 24165(T)).

  16. Colonization of Lutzomyia verrucarum and Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) by Bartonella bacilliformis, the Etiologic Agent of Carrión’s Disease

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    Battisti, James M.; Lawyer, Phillip G.; Minnick, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is a pathogenic bacterium transmitted to humans presumably by bites of phlebotomine sand flies, infection with which results in a bi-phasic syndrome termed Carrión’s disease. After constructing a low-passage GFP-labeled strain of B. bacilliformis, we artificially infected Lutzomyia verrucarum and L. longipalpis populations, and subsequently monitored colonization of sand flies by fluorescence microscopy. Initially, colonization of the two fly species was indistinguishable, with bacteria exhibiting a high degree of motility, yet still confined to the abdominal midgut. After 48h, B. bacilliformis transitioned from bacillus-shape to a non-motile, small coccoid form and appeared to be digested along with the blood meal in both fly species. Differences in colonization patterns became evident at 72h when B. bacilliformis was observed at relatively high density outside the peritrophic membrane in the lumen of the midgut in L. verrucarum, but colonization of L. longipalpis was limited to the blood meal within the intra-peritrophic space of the abdominal midgut, and the majority of bacteria were digested along with the blood meal by day 7. The viability of B. bacilliformis in L. longipalpis was assessed by artificially infecting, homogenizing, and plating for determination of colony-forming units in individual flies over a 13-d time course. Bacteria remained viable at relatively high density for approximately seven days, suggesting that L. longipalpis could potentially serve as a vector. The capacity of L. longipalpis to transmit viable B. bacilliformis from infected to uninfected meals was analyzed via interrupted feeds. No viable bacteria were retrieved from uninfected blood meals in these experiments. This study provides significant information toward understanding colonization of sand flies by B. bacilliformis and also demonstrates the utility of L. longipalpis as a user-friendly, live-vector model system for studying this severely neglected

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Acetate-Utilizing Anaerobes from a Freshwater Sediment.

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    Scholten, J.C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2000-12-01

    Acetate-degrading anaerobic microorganisms in freshwater sediment were quantified by the most probable number technique. From the highest dilutions a methanogenic, a sulfate-reducing, and a nitrate-reducing microorganism were isolated with acetate as substrate. The methanogen (culture AMPB-Zg) was non-motile and rod-shaped with blunted ends (0.5-1 mm x 3-4 mm long). Doubling times with acetate at 30-35 degrees C were 5.6-8.1 days. The methanogen grew only on acetate. Analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence showed that AMPB-Zg is closely related to Methanosaeta concilii. The isolated sulfate-reducing bacterium (strain ASRB-Zg) was rod-shaped with pointed ends (0.5-0.7 mm x 1.5-3.5 mm long), weakly motile, spore forming, and gram positive. At the optimum growth temperature of 30 degrees C the doubling times with acetate were 3.9-5.3 days. The bacterium grew on a range of organic acids, such as acetate, butyrate, fumarate, and benzoate, but did not grow autotrophically with H2, CO2, and sulfate. The closest relative of strain ASRB-Zg is Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans. The nitrate-reducing bacterium (strain ANRB-Zg) was rod-shaped (0.5-0.7 mm x 0.7-1 mm long), weakly motile, and gram negative. Optimum growth with acetate occurred at 20-25 degrees C. The bacterium grew on a range of organic substrates, such as acetate, butyrate, lactate, and glucose, and did grow autotrophically with H2, CO2, and oxygen but not with nitrate. In the presence of acetate and nitrate, thiosulfate was oxidized to sulfate. Phylogenetically, the closest relative of strain ANRB-Zg is Variovorax paradoxus.

  18. P110 and P140 cytadherence-related proteins are negative effectors of terminal organelle duplication in Mycoplasma genitalium.

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    Oscar Q Pich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The terminal organelle is a complex structure involved in many aspects of the biology of mycoplasmas such as cell adherence, motility or cell division. Mycoplasma genitalium cells display a single terminal organelle and duplicate this structure prior to cytokinesis in a coordinated manner with the cell division process. Despite the significance of the terminal organelle in mycoplasma virulence, little is known about the mechanisms governing its duplication. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we describe the isolation of a mutant, named T192, with a transposon insertion close to the 3' end of the mg192 gene encoding for P110 adhesin. This mutant shows a truncated P110, low levels of P140 and P110 adhesins, a large number of non-motile cells and a high frequency of new terminal organelle formation. Further analyses revealed that the high rates of new terminal organelle formation in T192 cells are a direct consequence of the reduced levels of P110 and P140 rather than to the expression of a truncated P110. Consistently, the phenotype of the T192 mutant was successfully complemented by the reintroduction of the mg192 WT allele which restored the levels of P110 and P140 to those of the WT strain. Quantification of DAPI-stained DNA also showed that the increase in the number of terminal organelles in T192 cells is not accompanied by a higher DNA content, indicating that terminal organelle duplication does not trigger DNA replication in mycoplasmas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the existence of a mechanism regulating terminal organelle duplication in M. genitalium and strongly suggest the implication of P110 and P140 adhesins in this mechanism.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of some sulfonamide derivatives on clinical isolates of Staphylococus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekdemir Yunus

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is a non-motile, gram positive, non-sporforming, facultative anaerobic microorganism. It is one of the important bacteria as a potential pathogen specifically for nosocomial infections. The sulfonamide derivative medicines are preferred to cure infection caused by S. aureus due to methicillin resistance. Methods Antimicrobial activity of four sulfonamide derivatives have been investigated against 50 clinical isolates of S. aureus and tested by using MIC and disc diffusion methods. 50 clinical isolate which collected from specimens of patients who are given medical treatment in Ondokuz Mayis University Medical School Hospital. A control strain of S. aureus ATCC 29213 was also tested. Results The strongest inhibition was observed in the cases of I [N-(2-hydroxy-4-nitro-phenyl-4-methyl-benzensulfonamid], and II [N-(2-hydroxy-5-nitro-phenyl-4-methyl-benzensulfonamid] against S. aureus. Compound I [N-(2-hydroxy-4-nitro-phenyl-4-methyl-benzensulfonamid] showed higher effect on 21 S. aureus MRSAisolates than oxacillin antibiotic. Introducing an electron withdrawing on the ring increased the antimicrobial activity remarkably. Conclusion This study may help to suggest an alternative possible leading compound for development of new antimicrobial agents against MRSA and MSSA resistant S. aureus. It was also shown here that that clinical isolates of 50 S. aureus have various resistance patterns against to four sulfonamide derivatives. It may also be emphasized here that in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing results for S. aureus need standardization with further studies and it should also have a correlation with in vivo therapeutic response experiments.

  20. Sperm quality assessment via separation and sedimentation in a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Yu; Chiang, Tsun-Chao; Lin, Cheng-Ming; Lin, Shu-Sheng; Jong, De-Shien; Tsai, Vincent F-S; Hsieh, Ju-Ton; Wo, Andrew M

    2013-09-07

    A major reason for infertility is due to male factors, including the quality of spermatozoa, which is a primary factor and often difficult to assess, particularly the total sperm concentration and its motile percentage. This work presents a simple microfluidic device to assess sperm quality by quantifying both total and motile sperm counts. The key design feature of the microfluidic device is two channels separated by a permeative phase-guide structure, where one channel is filled with raw semen and the other with pure buffer. The semen sample was allowed to reach equilibrium in both chambers, whereas non-motile sperms remained in the original channel, and roughly half of the motile sperms would swim across the phase-guide barrier into the buffer channel. Sperms in each channel agglomerated into pellets after centrifugation, with the corresponding area representing total and motile sperm concentrations. Total sperm concentration up to 10(8) sperms per ml and motile percentage in the range of 10-70% were tested, encompassing the cutoff value of 40% stated by World Health Organization standards. Results from patient samples show compact and robust pellets after centrifugation. Comparison of total sperm concentration between the microfluidic device and the Makler chamber reveal they agree within 5% and show strong correlation, with a coefficient of determination of R(2) = 0.97. Motile sperm count between the microfluidic device and the Makler chamber agrees within 5%, with a coefficient of determination of R(2) = 0.84. Comparison of results from the Makler Chamber, sperm quality analyzer, and the microfluidic device revealed that results from the microfluidic device agree well with the Makler chamber. The sperm microfluidic chip analyzes both total and motile sperm concentrations in one spin, is accurate and easy to use, and should enable sperm quality analysis with ease.

  1. Four novel Arthrobacter species isolated from filtration substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Linxian; Hirose, Taketo; Yokota, Akira

    2009-04-01

    Four Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterial strains, LC4(T), LC6(T), LC10(T) and LC13(T), were isolated from a filtration substrate made from trass, a volcanic rock, and their taxonomic positions were investigated by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The novel strains grew over a temperature range of 5-40 degrees C, at pH values of 6-11 and in the presence of 3-7 % (w/v) NaCl. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the novel strains formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the genus Arthrobacter. Chemotaxonomic analyses demonstrated that the major menaquinone was MK-9(H(2)), a menaquinone typical of the Arthrobacter globiformis group. The major fatty acid was anteiso-C(15 : 0) and the major amino acid present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was l-lysine. These observations supported the affiliation of the novel strains to the genus Arthrobacter. On the basis of their morphological, physiological and genotypic characteristics, the new isolates are considered to represent four novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, for which the names Arthrobacter niigatensis sp. nov. (type strain LC4(T)=IAM 15382(T)=CCTCC AB 206012(T)), Arthrobacter alkaliphilus sp. nov. (type strain LC6(T)=IAM 15383(T)=CCTCC AB 206013(T)), Arthrobacter echigonensis sp. nov. (type strain LC10(T)=IAM 15385(T)=CCTCC AB 206017(T)) and Arthrobacter albidus sp. nov. (type strain LC13(T)=IAM 15386(T)=CCTCC AB 206018(T)) are proposed.

  2. Deinococcus frigens sp. nov., Deinococcus saxicola sp. nov., and Deinococcus marmoris sp. nov., low temperature and draught-tolerating, UV-resistant bacteria from continental Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Peter; Gallikowski, Claudia A; Siebert, Jörg; Peissl, Klaus; Kroppenstedt, Reiner; Schumann, Peter; Stackebrandt, Erko; Anderson, Robert

    2004-11-01

    Six Gram-positive, non-motile, UV- and draught-tolerant bacteria were isolated from antarctic soil and rock samples. The pink to orange cocci grew well on oligotrophic medium PYGV (pH 7.5) at 9-18 degrees C. They tolerated 0-10% NaCl, were aerobic to facultatively anaerobic and contained ornithine in their cell wall (type A3beta, Orn-Gly2). The lipid profiles of four strains were found to be typical for those of D. radiodurans. Major fatty acids were 16:1cis9, 15:1cis9, 17:1cis9 and i17:1cis9, the respiratory quinone of three strains was MK-8. Comparative 16S rDNA gene sequencing revealed phylogenetic relationships to the Deinococcus clade, especially to D. radiopugnans. The levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA hybridisation data showed the six isolates represented new taxa. Phenotypic properties supported the description of three new species which were different from the eight known Deinococcus species and particularly from D. radiopugnans. Soil isolate AA-692T (DSM 12807T) is the type strain of Deinococcus frigens sp. nov., with AA-752 (DSM 15993) and AA-829 (DSM 15994) as additional strains from soil. The endolithic isolate AA-1444T, Deinococcus saxicola sp. nov., (DSM 15974T) came from antarctic sandstone, and Deinococcus marmoris sp. nov. (isolate AA-63T [DSM 12784T]) as well as AA-69 (DSM 15951) were isolated from antarctic marble.

  3. Respiratory manifestations in 38 patients with Alström syndrome.

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    Boerwinkle, Caroline; Marshall, Jan D; Bryant, Joy; Gahl, William A; Olivier, Kenneth N; Gunay-Aygun, Meral

    2017-04-01

    Alström syndrome (AS) is a rare, multi-system condition characterized by retinal degeneration, sensorineural hearing loss, obesity, insulin-resistant diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, cardiomyopathy, hepatorenal disease, and recurrent respiratory infections. It belongs to a group of genetic disorders known as primary ciliopathies, which includes autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases, as well as Joubert and Bardet-Biedl syndromes. Prior studies have suggested phenotypic overlap between primary ciliopathies affecting the non-motile, sensory cilia, and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a motile ciliopathy characterized by respiratory tract disease. We describe the burden of oto-sino-pulmonary disease in 38 individuals with AS and examines the degree of clinical overlap between PCD and AS. Evaluation at the NIH Clinical Center included clinical examination, chest imaging, and clinical history surveys, as well as measurement of nasal nitric oxide (nNO) in nine patients. Recurrent otitis media was ubiquitous in the AS cohort (92%) with 50% requiring pressure equalization tube placement. A history of bronchitis/pneumonia and sinusitis was reported in 61% and 50% of individuals, respectively. PCD-characterizing symptoms (laterality defects, unexplained neonatal respiratory distress, year-round nasal congestion, and wet cough) were far less prevalent in the AS cohort compared to PCD, and the average nNO production in the AS cohort was 232 ± 57.1 nl/min compared to a cut-off of <77 nl/min for PCD. These data suggest that the oto-sino-respiratory complications in AS are prominent enough to warrant increased clinical attention, but significantly impaired respiratory cilia function as seen in PCD is unlikely in AS. (www.clinicaltrials.gov, trial NCT00068224) Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:487-493. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Rhodonellum psychrophilum gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel psychrophilic and alkaliphilic bacterium of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mariane; Priemé, Anders; Stougaard, Peter

    2006-12-01

    A novel alkaliphilic and psychrophilic bacterium was isolated from the cold and alkaline ikaite tufa columns of the Ikka Fjord in south-west Greenland. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain GCM71(T) belonged to the family 'Flexibacteraceae' in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Strain GCM71(T), together with five related isolates from ikaite columns, formed a separate cluster with 86-93 % gene sequence similarity to their closest relative, Belliella baltica. The G+C content of the DNA from strain GCM71(T) was 43.1 mol%, whereas that of B. baltica was reported to be 35 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization between strain GCM71(T) and B. baltica was 9.5 %. The strain was red pigmented, Gram-negative, strictly aerobic with non-motile, rod-shaped cells. The optimal growth conditions for strain GCM71(T) were pH 9.2-10.0, 5 degrees C and 0.6 % NaCl. The fatty acid profile of the novel strain was dominated by branched and unsaturated fatty acids (90-97 %), with a high abundance of iso-C(17 : 1)omega9c (17.5 %), iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH (17.5 %) and summed feature 3, comprising iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)omega7c (12.6 %). Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and physiological characteristics showed that the novel strain could not be affiliated to any known genus. A new genus, Rhodonellum gen. nov., is proposed to accommodate the novel strain. Strain GCM71(T) (=DSM 17998(T)=LMG 23454(T)) is proposed as the type strain of the type species, Rhodonellum psychrophilum sp. nov.

  5. Ruegeria profundi sp. nov. and Ruegeria marisrubri sp. nov., isolated from the brine–seawater interface at Erba Deep in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Guishan

    2017-10-12

    Two moderately halophilic marine bacterial strains of the family Rhodobacteraceae, designated ZGT108T and ZGT118T, were isolated from the brine-seawater interface at Erba Deep in the Red Sea (Saudi Arabia). Cells of both strains were aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, and Gram-stain-negative. The sequence similarity of the 16S rRNA genes of strains ZGT108T and ZGT118T was 94.9 %. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain ZGT108T to its closest relative, Ruegeria conchae JCM 17315T, was 98.9 %, while the 16S rRNA gene of ZGT118T was most closely related to that of Ruegeria intermedia LMG 25539T (97.7 % similarity). The sizes of the draft genomes as presented here are 4 258 055 bp (strain ZGT108T) and 4 012 109 bp (strain ZGT118T), and the G+C contents of the draft genomes are 56.68 mol% (ZGT108T) and 62.94 mol% (ZGT108T). The combined physiological, biochemical, phylogenetic and genotypic data supported placement of both strains in the genus Ruegeria and indicated that the two strains are distinct from each other as well as from all other members in the genus Ruegeria. This was also confirmed by low DNA-DNA hybridization values (<43.6 %) and low ANI values (<91.8 %) between both strains and the most closely related Ruegeria species. Therefore, we propose two novel species in the genus Ruegeria to accommodate these novel isolates: Ruegeriaprofundi sp. nov. (type strain ZGT108T=JCM 19518T=ACCC 19861T) and Ruegeriamarisrubri sp. nov. (type strain ZGT118T=JCM 19519T= ACCC 19862T).

  6. Akkermansia glycaniphila sp. nov., an anaerobic mucin-degrading bacterium isolated from reticulated python faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwerkerk, Janneke P; Aalvink, Steven; Belzer, Clara; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-11-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, strictly anaerobic, oval-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (strain PytT) was isolated from reticulated python faeces. Strain PytT was capable of using mucin as sole carbon, energy and nitrogen source. Cells could grow singly, in pairs, and were also found to aggregate. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of filamentous structures connecting individual bacterial cells. Strain PytT could grow on a limited number of single sugars, including N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, glucose, lactose and galactose, but only when a plentiful protein source was provided. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed strain PytT to belong to the Verrucomicrobiae class I, family Akkermansiaceae, genus Akkermansia, with Akkermansia muciniphila MucT as the closest relative (94.4 % sequence similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization revealed low relatedness of 28.3 % with A. muciniphila MucT. The G+C content of DNA from strain PytT was 58.2 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) of the genome of strain PytT compared to the genome of strain MucT was 79.7 %. Chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain PytT to the genus Akkermansia. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic characteristics, strain PytT represents a novel species of the genus Akkermansia, for which the name Akkermansia glycaniphila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PytT (=DSM 100705T=CIP 110913T).

  7. Lactobacillus shenzhenensis sp. nov., isolated from a fermented dairy beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuanqiang; Liu, Feng; Fang, Chengxiang; Wan, Daiwei; Yang, Rentao; Su, Qingqing; Yang, Ruifu; Zhao, Jiao

    2013-05-01

    Two Lactobacillus strains, designated LY-73(T) and LY-30B, were isolated from a dairy beverage, sold in Shenzhen market, China. The two isolates were Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile, facultatively anaerobic rods that were heterofermentative and did not exhibit catalase activity. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA genes revealed that the two isolates shared 99.5, 99.8 and 99.9 % sequence similarity, which indicates that they belong to the same species. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated clustering of the two isolates with the genus Lactobacillus. Strain LY-73(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Lactobacillus harbinensis KACC 12409(T) (97.73%), Lactobacillus perolens DSM 12744(T) (96.96 %) and Lactobacillus selangorensis DSM 13344(T) (93.10 %). Comparative analyses of their rpoA and pheS gene sequences indicated that the novel strains were significantly different from other Lactobacillus species. Low DNA-DNA reassociation values (50.5 %) were obtained between strain LY-73(T) and its phylogenetically closest neighbours. The G+C contents of the DNA of the two novel isolates were 56.1 and 56.5 mol%. Straight-chain unsaturated fatty acids C18 : 1ω9c (78.85 and 74.29 %) were the dominant components, and the cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the l-Lys-d-Asp type. Based on phenotypic characteristics, and chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, the novel strains represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus shenzhenensis sp. nov. is proposed, with LY-73(T) ( = CCTCC M 2011481(T) = KACC 16878(T)) as the type strain.

  8. Erysipelothrix larvae sp. nov., isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Byung-Ho; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Chang, Dong-Ho; Park, Doo-Sang; Kim, Byoung-Chan

    2015-02-01

    A novel, Gram-stain positive, facultative anaerobic, non-motile and straight to curve rod shaped bacterium, strain LV19(T) was isolated from the larval gut of the rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, which was collected from Yeong-dong, Chuncheongbuk-do, South Korea. The colonies of the new isolate were convex, circular, cream white in color and 1-2 mm in diameter after 3 days incubation on Tryptic Soy Agar at 37 °C. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the new isolate was most closely related to Erysipelothrix inopinata MF-EP02(T), E. rhusiopathiae ATCC 19414 (T) and E. tonsillarum T-305(T) (94.8, 93.8 and 93.7 % similarity, respectively). Strain LV19(T) grew optimally at 37 °C, at pH 8.0 and in the presence of 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Oxidase activity and catalase activity were negative. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C18:2 cis-9,12 (28.9 %), C18:1 cis-9 (22.3 %), C16:0 (22.2 %) and C18:0 (18.5 %). The cell-wall hydrolysates contained ribose as a major sugar. Major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol and three unidentified glycolipids. No quinone was detected. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 36.3 mol%. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain LV19(T) and all the reference strains were less than 20 %. On the basis of polyphasic evidence from this study, the isolate is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Erysipelothrix, for which the name Erysipelothrix larvae sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is LV19(T) (=KCTC 33523(T) = DSM 28480(T)).

  9. Primary isolation strain determines both phage type and receptors recognised by Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages.

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    Martine C Holst Sørensen

    Full Text Available In this study we isolated novel bacteriophages, infecting the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. These phages may be used in phage therapy of C. jejuni colonized poultry to prevent spreading of the bacteria to meat products causing disease in humans. Many C. jejuni phages have been isolated using NCTC12662 as the indicator strain, which may have biased the selection of phages. A large group of C. jejuni phages rely on the highly diverse capsular polysaccharide (CPS for infection and recent work identified the O-methyl phosphoramidate modification (MeOPN of CPS as a phage receptor. We therefore chose seven C. jejuni strains each expressing different CPS structures as indicator strains in a large screening for phages in samples collected from free-range poultry farms. Forty-three phages were isolated using C. jejuni NCTC12658, NCTC12662 and RM1221 as host strains and 20 distinct phages were identified based on host range analysis and genome restriction profiles. Most phages were isolated using C. jejuni strains NCTC12662 and RM1221 and interestingly phage genome size (140 kb vs. 190 kb, host range and morphological appearance correlated with the isolation strain. Thus, according to C. jejuni phage grouping, NCTC12662 and NCTC12658 selected for CP81-type phages, while RM1221 selected for CP220-type phages. Furthermore, using acapsular ∆kpsM mutants we demonstrated that phages isolated on NCTC12658 and NCTC12662 were dependent on the capsule for infection. In contrast, CP220-type phages isolated on RM1221 were unable to infect non-motile ∆motA mutants, hence requiring motility for successful infection. Hence, the primary phage isolation strain determines both phage type (CP81 or CP220 as well as receptors (CPS or flagella recognised by the isolated phages.

  10. Paenibacillus solanacearum sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil of a tomato plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hayoung; Heo, Jun; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kim, Jeong-Seon; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Kim, Soo-Jin

    2017-12-01

    The taxonomic position of a bacterial strain designated T16R-228 T , isolated from a rhizosphere soil sample of a tomato plant collected from a farm in Buyeo, Chungcheongnam-do, Republic of Korea, was determined using a polyphasic approach. On the basis of morphological, genetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, it was determined to belong to the genus Paenibacillus. It was an aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, catalase-negative, oxidase-negative rod with peritrichous flagella. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, hydroxyl- phosphatidylethanolamine and one unidentified polar lipid. Menaquiones were MK-7. Predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. DNA G+C content was 56.8 mol%. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the strain formed a clade with P. mucilaginosus VKPM B-7519 T , P. edaphicus T7 T , P. ehimensis KCTC 3748 T , P. koreensis YC300 T , P. tianmuensis B27 T and P. elgii SD17 T , showing the highest sequence similarity with P. mucilaginosus VKPM B-7519 T (96.5 %). The polyphasic data supported that strain T16R-228 T was clearly distinguished from its closely related species and represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus for which the name Paenibacillus solanacearum is proposed. The type strain is T16R-228 T (=KACC 18654 T =NBRC 111896 T ).

  11. A role for the RNA chaperone Hfq in controlling adherent-invasive Escherichia coli colonization and virulence.

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    Karina T Simonsen

    Full Text Available Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC has been linked with the onset and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel diseases. The AIEC strain LF82 was originally isolated from an ileal biopsy from a patient with Crohn's disease. The pathogenesis of LF82 results from its abnormal adherence to and subsequent invasion of the intestinal epithelium coupled with its ability to survive phagocytosis by macrophages once it has crossed the intestinal barrier. To gain further insight into AIEC pathogenesis we employed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an in vivo infection model. We demonstrate that AIEC strain LF82 forms a persistent infection in C. elegans, thereby reducing the host lifespan significantly. This host killing phenotype was associated with massive bacterial colonization of the nematode intestine and damage to the intestinal epithelial surface. C. elegans killing was independent of known LF82 virulence determinants but was abolished by deletion of the LF82 hfq gene, which encodes an RNA chaperone involved in mediating posttranscriptional gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs. This finding reveals that important aspects of LF82 pathogenesis are controlled at the posttranscriptional level by riboregulation. The role of Hfq in LF82 virulence was independent of its function in regulating RpoS and RpoE activity. Further, LF82Δhfq mutants were non-motile, impaired in cell invasion and highly sensitive to various chemical stress conditions, reinforcing the multifaceted function of Hfq in mediating bacterial adaptation. This study highlights the usefulness of simple non-mammalian infection systems for the identification and analysis of bacterial virulence factors.

  12. Colonization of Lutzomyia verrucarum and Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) by Bartonella bacilliformis, the Etiologic Agent of Carrión's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, James M; Lawyer, Phillip G; Minnick, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is a pathogenic bacterium transmitted to humans presumably by bites of phlebotomine sand flies, infection with which results in a bi-phasic syndrome termed Carrión's disease. After constructing a low-passage GFP-labeled strain of B. bacilliformis, we artificially infected Lutzomyia verrucarum and L. longipalpis populations, and subsequently monitored colonization of sand flies by fluorescence microscopy. Initially, colonization of the two fly species was indistinguishable, with bacteria exhibiting a high degree of motility, yet still confined to the abdominal midgut. After 48 h, B. bacilliformis transitioned from bacillus-shape to a non-motile, small coccoid form and appeared to be digested along with the blood meal in both fly species. Differences in colonization patterns became evident at 72 h when B. bacilliformis was observed at relatively high density outside the peritrophic membrane in the lumen of the midgut in L. verrucarum, but colonization of L. longipalpis was limited to the blood meal within the intra-peritrophic space of the abdominal midgut, and the majority of bacteria were digested along with the blood meal by day 7. The viability of B. bacilliformis in L. longipalpis was assessed by artificially infecting, homogenizing, and plating for determination of colony-forming units in individual flies over a 13-d time course. Bacteria remained viable at relatively high density for approximately seven days, suggesting that L. longipalpis could potentially serve as a vector. The capacity of L. longipalpis to transmit viable B. bacilliformis from infected to uninfected meals was analyzed via interrupted feeds. No viable bacteria were retrieved from uninfected blood meals in these experiments. This study provides significant information toward understanding colonization of sand flies by B. bacilliformis and also demonstrates the utility of L. longipalpis as a user-friendly, live-vector model system for studying this severely neglected

  13. Halolactibacillus halophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Halolactibacillus miurensis sp. nov., halophilic and alkaliphilic marine lactic acid bacteria constituting a phylogenetic lineage in Bacillus rRNA group 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Morio; Nakajima, Kazuyuki; Itamiya, Yuko; Furukawa, Sayumi; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Yamasato, Kazuhide

    2005-11-01

    Eleven novel strains of marine-inhabiting lactic acid bacteria that were isolated from living and decaying marine organisms collected from a temperate area of Japan are described. The isolates were motile with peritrichous flagella and non-sporulating. They lacked catalase, quinones and cytochromes. Fermentation products from glucose were lactate, formate, acetate and ethanol. Lactate yield as percentage conversion from glucose was affected by the pH of the fermentation medium: approximately 55 % at the optimal growth pH of 8.0, greater than approximately 70 % at pH 7.0 and less than approximately 30 % at pH 9.0. The molar ratio of the other three products was the same at each cultivation pH, approximately 2 : 1 : 1. Carbohydrates and related compounds were aerobically metabolized to acetate and pyruvate as well as lactate. The isolates were slightly halophilic, highly halotolerant and alkaliphilic. The optimum NaCl concentration for growth was 2.0-3.0 % (w/v), with a range of 0-25.5 %. The optimum pH for growth was 8.0-9.5, with a range of 6.0-10.0. The G+C content of the DNA was 38.5-40.7 mol%. The isolates constituted two genomic species (DNA-DNA relatedness of less than 41 %) each characterized by sugar fermentation profiles. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of both phenotypes contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major cellular fatty acids were C(16 : 0) and a-C(13 : 0). Comparative sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that these isolates represent novel species constituting a phylogenetic unit outside the radiation of typical lactic acid bacteria and an independent line of descent within the group composed of the halophilic/halotolerant/alkaliphilic and/or alkalitolerant species in Bacillus rRNA group 1, with 94.8-95.1 % similarity to the genus Paraliobacillus, 93.7-94.1 % to the genus Gracilibacillus and 93.8-94.2 % to Virgibacillus marismortui. On the basis of possession of physiological and biochemical characteristics common to typical lactic acid

  14. Detecção e variabilidade de Plasmopara halstedii no Brasil e avaliação da resistência de genótipos de girassol ao míldio Detection and variability of Plasmopara halstedii in Brazil and resistance of sunflower genotypes to downy mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria Villas Bôas de Campos Leite

    2007-12-01

    sand boxes. Seedlings were kept in growing chambers at 21ºC for 11 days. After this period, plants were intensively misted with distilled water, covered with plastic bag, and kept in the dark at 18ºC. In the next day, sporulation in cotyledons was observed. Plants with sporulation were considered susceptible and non-sporulated plants were resistant. Results indicated the occurrence of race 330 (former American race 7 in the three years evaluated. Sunflower genotypes Embrapa 122, BRS 191 and ornamental sunflower cultivars BRS Capri M, BRS Encanto M, BRS Oásis, BRS Paixão M, BRS Pesqueiro M, BRS Refúgio M, BRS Saudade M and BRS Saudade U and respective parents were susceptible to P. halstedii race 330. The genotypes AGROBEL 910, AGROBEL 920, AGROBEL 960, AGROBEL 965, C11, EXP38, M734, M742 and RUMBOSOL 91 were resistant to that race and can be used by the growers in regions of high potential for disease occurrence.

  15. Fungos e fumonisinas no período pré-colheita do milho Fungi and fumonisins at maize's pre-harvest period

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    Gislaine Hermanns

    2006-03-01

    and associated with pulmonary edema syndrome in swine and esophageal cancer in humans. The objective of this work was to identify critical points of fungal contamination and fumonisins production during pre-harvest growth stage. Results showed fungal growth since the dough stage, with no significant difference at both following stages: dent and physiological maturity. Non sporulated fungi were predominant at the silking stage (100% and at the dough stage (95%. Saprophytes species were identified at the dent stage (23.25%. Fusarium spp. was evident since the dough stage (5% increasing considerably through the dent stage (62.5% to the physiological maturity (90%. All Fusarium spp. strains tested showed toxigenic potential. Fumonisins were evident at the latest development stages increasing considerably from the dent stage (0.2 ppm to the physiological maturity (2.5 ppm. Authors suggest special attention and adopting preventive measures in relation to the dough stage, from which Fusarium spp. begin to be evident.

  16. Salinifilum gen. nov., with description of Salinifilum proteinilyticum sp. nov., an extremely halophilic actinomycete isolated from Meighan wetland, Iran, and reclassification of Saccharopolyspora aidingensis as Salinifilum aidingensis comb. nov. and Saccharopolyspora ghardaiensis as Salinifilum ghardaiensis comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghi Nikou, Mahdi; Ramezani, Mohaddaseh; Harirchi, Sharareh; Makzoom, Somayyeh; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Seyed Abolhassan; Schumann, Peter; Ventosa, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    A Gram-positive, halophilic actinobacterial strain Miq-12 T was isolated from Meighan wetland in Iran. Strain Miq-12 T was strictly aerobic, catalase positive and oxidase negative. The isolate grew at 12-25 % NaCl, at 30-50 °C and pH 5.5-10.5. The optimum NaCl, temperature and pH for growth were 15-20 %, 40 °C and 7.0-8.0, respectively. The cell wall of strain Miq-12 T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diamino acid and arabinose as whole-cell sugar. The polar lipid pattern consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol. It synthesized cellular fatty acids of anteiso and iso-branched types, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C17:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16 : 0. The major respiratory quinone was MK-9(H4). The G+C content of its genomic DNA was 72.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that strain Miq-12 T belongs to the family Pseudonocardiaceae, constituted a separate clade, and showed the closest phylogenetic similarity to Saccharopolyspora aidingensis TRM 46074 T (96.99 %) and Saccharopolyspora ghardaiensis CCUG 63370 T (96.92 %). On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, a novel genus and species of the family Pseudonocardiaceae, Salinifilum proteinilyticum gen. nov., sp. nov., are proposed. The type strain is Miq-12 T (=IBRCM 11033 T =LMG 28390 T ). We also propose that S. aidingensis and S. ghardaiensis should be transferred to this new genus and be named Salinifilum aidingensis comb. nov. and Salinifilum ghardaiensis comb. nov., respectively. The type strain of Salinifilum aidingensis comb. nov. is TRM 46074 T (=CCTCCAA 2012014 T =JCM 30185 T ) and the type strain of Salinifilum ghardaiensis comb. nov. is CCUG 63370 T (=DSM 45606 T =CECT 8304 T ).

  17. Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov., isolated from air-conditioning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ping-Hua; Chen, Shou-Yi; Scholz, Holger C; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Gu, Quan; Kämpfer, Peter; Foster, Jeffrey T; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Chen, Cha; Yang, Zhi-Chong

    2013-10-01

    Four strains (08HL01032(T), 09HG994, 10HP82-6 and 10HL1960) were isolated from water of air-conditioning systems of various cooling towers in Guangzhou city, China. Cells were Gram-stain-negative coccobacilli without flagella, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, showing no reduction of nitrate, no hydrolysis of urea and no production of H2S. Growth was characteristically enhanced in the presence of l-cysteine, which was consistent with the properties of members of the genus Francisella. The quinone system was composed of ubiquinone Q-8 with minor amounts of Q-9. The polar lipid profile consisted of the predominant lipids phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified phospholipids (PL2, PL3), an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid (GL2). The polyamine pattern consisted of the major compounds spermidine, cadaverine and spermine. The major cellular fatty acids were C10 : 0, C14 : 0, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C18 : 1 3-OH. A draft whole-genome sequence of the proposed type strain 08HL01032(T) was generated. Comparative sequence analysis of the complete 16S and 23S rRNA genes confirmed affiliation to the genus Francisella, with 95 % sequence identity to the closest relatives in the database, the type strains of Francisella philomiragia and Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis. Full-length deduced amino acid sequences of various housekeeping genes, recA, gyrB, groEL, dnaK, rpoA, rpoB, rpoD, rpoH, fopA and sdhA, exhibited similarities of 67-92 % to strains of other species of the genus Francisella. Strains 08HL01032(T), 09HG994, 10HP82-6 and 10HL1960 exhibited highly similar pan-genome PCR profiles. Both the phenotypic and molecular data support the conclusion that the four strains belong to the genus Francisella but exhibit considerable divergence from all recognized Francisella species. Therefore, we propose the name Francisella guangzhouensis sp

  18. The inability of Bacillus licheniformis perR mutant to grow is mainly due to the lack of PerR-mediated fur repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Yang, Yoon-Mo; Ji, Chang-Jun; Ryu, Su-Hyun; Won, Young-Bin; Ju, Shin-Yeong; Kwon, Yumi; Lee, Yeh-Eun; Youn, Hwan; Lee, Jin-Won

    2017-06-01

    PerR, a member of Fur family protein, is a metal-dependent H 2 O 2 sensing transcription factor that regulates genes involved in peroxide stress response. Industrially important bacterium Bacillus licheniformis contains three PerR-like proteins (PerR BL , PerR2, and PerR3) compared to its close relative Bacillus subtilis. Interestingly, unlike other bacteria including B. subtilis, no authentic perR BL null mutant could be established for B. licheniformis. Thus, we constructed a conditional perR BL mutant using a xylose-inducible promoter, and investigated the genes under the control of PerR BL . PerR BL regulon genes include katA, mrgA, ahpC, pfeT, hemA, fur, and perR as observed for PerR BS . However, there is some variation in the expression levels of fur and hemA genes between B. subtilis and B. licheniformis in the derepressed state. Furthermore, katA, mrgA, and ahpC are strongly induced, whereas the others are only weakly or not induced by H 2 O 2 treatment. In contrast to the B. subtilis perR null mutant which frequently gives rise to large colony phenotype mainly due to the loss of katA, the suppressors of B. licheniformis perR mutant, which can form colonies on LB agar, were all catalase-positive. Instead, many of the suppressors showed increased levels of siderophore production, suggesting that the suppressor mutation is linked to the fur gene. Consistent with this, perR fur double mutant could grow on LB agar without Fe supplementation, whereas perR katA double mutant could only grow on LB agar with Fe supplementation. Taken together, our data suggest that in B. licheniformis, despite the similarity in PerR BL and PerR BS regulon genes, perR is an essential gene required for growth and that the inability of perR null mutant to grow is mainly due to elevated expression of Fur.

  19. Paenibacillus kyungheensis sp. nov., isolated from flowers of magnolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubair; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hanif; Im, Wan Taek; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2015-11-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium designated strain DCY88T, was isolated from flowers of magnolia. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that the strain formed a distinct lineage within the genus Paenibacillus that was closely related to Paenibacillus hordei RH-N24T (97.8 %). The other most closely related species were Paenibacillus illinoisensis NRRL NRS-1356T (94.3 %), Paenibacillus hunanensis DSM 22170T (94.2 %), Paenibacillus peoriae DSM 8320T (93.9 %), Paenibacillus kribbensis Am49T (93.8 %) and the type species of the genus, Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 842T (93.3 %). Cells of the strain were endospore-forming and motile by peritrichous flagella. Strain DCY88T formed pink-pigmented colonies on trypticase soy agar and R2A agar medium. Growth of strain DCY88T occurs at temperatures 5-37 °C, at pH 4-9 and 0.5-5.5 % NaCl (w/v). The menaquinone was MK-7.The cell wall peptidoglycan of strain DCY88T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (61.0 %) and C16 : 0 (11.0 %). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified polar lipid. The strain DCY88T contained spermidine as the major polyamine. The DNA G+C content was 51.6 mol%. The DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness between strain DCY88T and P. hordei RH-N24T was 48 ± 2 %. The phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic results indicate that the strain DCY88T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus kyungheensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DCY88T ( = JCM 19886T = KCTC 33429T).

  20. Pseudopedobacter beijingensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from coking wastewater activated sludge, and reclassification of Pedobacter saltans as Pseudopedobacter saltans comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junwei; Lai, Qiliang; Li, Guizhen; Shao, Zongze

    2014-06-01

    A taxonomic study was carried out on strain GCS-AE-31(T), which was isolated from a phenol-degrading consortium, enriched from coking wastewater activated sludge of the Beijing Shougang Company Limited during the screening of phenol-degrading bacteria. Cells of strain GCS-AE-31(T) were Gram-stain-negative, short rods, motile by gliding, oxidase- and catalase-positive. Growth was observed at salinities of 0-3% and at temperatures of 10-37 °C. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain GCS-AE-31(T) was most closely related to Pedobacter saltans LMG 10337(T) (96.17%), but it showed low similarity to all other species of the genus Pedobacter (89.28-92.45%). It also showed low 16S rRNA gene similarity to all other species of the family Sphingobacteriaceae (87.25-92.45%) examined. The dominant fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)ω7c/C(16 : 1)ω6c), anteiso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH. The menaquinones were MK-7 (95.5%) and MK-6 (4.5%). The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, three aminolipids and three unknown phospholipids. Sphingolipid was present. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 36.2 mol%. According to its phylogenetic position and phenotypic traits, the novel strain could not be assigned to the genus Pedobacter; it should be classified as representing a novel species of a novel genus in the family Sphingobacteriaceae, for which the name Pseudopedobacter beijingensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed (type strain GCS-AE-31(T) = MCCC 1A01299(T) = CGMCC 1.12329(T) = LMG 27180(T)). The misclassified species Pedobacter saltans is transferred to the novel genus as Pseudopedobacter saltans comb. nov. (type strain LMG 10337(T) = MCCC 1A06472(T) = DSM 12145(T) = CCUG 39354(T) = CIP 105500(T) = JCM 21818(T) = NBRC 100064(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  1. Corynebacterium tapiri sp. nov. and Corynebacterium nasicanis sp. nov., isolated from a tapir and a dog, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardt, Sandra; Loncaric, Igor; Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    Two Gram-stain-positive bacterial isolates, strain 2385/12T and strain 2673/12T were isolated from a tapir and a dog's nose, respectively. The two strains were rod to coccoid-shaped, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity identified Corynebacterium singulare CCUG 37330T (96.3% similarity) as the nearest relative of strain 2385/12T and suggested the isolate represented a novel species. Corynebacterium humireducens DSM 45392T (98.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) was identified as the nearest relative of strain 2673/12T. Results from DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain of C. humireducens demonstrated that strain 2673/12T also represented a novel species. Strain 2385/12T showed a quinone system consisting predominantly of menaquinones MK-8(H2) and MK-9(H2) whereas strain 2673/12T contained only MK-8(H2) as predominant quinone. The polar lipid profiles of the two strains showed the major compounds phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified glycolipid. Phosphatidylinositol was identified as another major lipid in 2673/12T whereas it was only found in moderate amounts in strain 2385/12T. Furthermore, moderate to minor amounts of phosphatidylinositol-mannoside, β-gentiobiosyl diacylglycerol and variable counts of several unidentified lipids were detected in the two strains. Both strains contained corynemycolic acids. The polyamine patterns were characterized by the major compound putrescine in strain 2385/12T and spermidine in strain 2673/12T. In the fatty acid profiles, predominantly C18:1ω9c and C16:0 were detected. The two strains are distinguishable from each other and the nearest related established species of the genus Corynebacterium phylogenetically and phenotypically. In conclusion, two novel species of the genus Corynebacterium are proposed, namely Corynebacterium tapiri sp. nov. (type strain, 2385/12T = CCUG 65456T = LMG 28165T) and Corynebacterium nasicanis sp. nov. (type

  2. Herbaspirillum robiniae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Robinia pseudoacacia in a lead-zinc mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Miao-Chun; Guo, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Li-Ping; Zhu, Ya-Min; Chen, Wei-Min; Lin, Yan-Bing; Wei, Ge-Hong

    2018-04-01

    A novel endophytic bacterium, designated strain HZ10 T , was isolated from root nodules of Robinia pseudoacacia growing in a lead-zinc mine in Mianxian County, Shaanxi Province, China. The bacterium was Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile, slightly curved- and rod-shaped, methyl red-negative, catalase-positive, and did not produce H2S. Strain HZ10 T grew at 4-45 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), pH 5-9 (optimum, pH 7-8) and 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl. The major fatty acids were identified as C16 : 0, summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), and the quinone type was Q-8. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 64.9 mol% based on the whole genome sequence. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the closest phylogenetic relative to strain HZ10 T is Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum CPW301 T (98.72 % sequence identity). Genome relatedness of the type strains H. chlorophenolicum CPW301 T , Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67 T and Herbaspirillum aquaticum IEH 4430 T , was quantified by using the average nucleotide identity (86.9-88.0 %) and a genome-to-genome distance analysis (26.6 %-29.3 %), with both strongly supporting the notion that strain HZ10 T belongs to the genus Herbaspirillum as a novel species. Based on the results from phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and physiological analyses, strain HZ10 T represents a novel Herbaspirillum species, for which the name Herbaspirillum robiniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HZ10 T (=JCM 31754 T =CCTCC AB 2014352 T ).

  3. Desulfovibrio oceani subsp. oceani sp. nov., subsp. nov. and Desulfovibrio oceani subsp. galateae subsp. nov., novel sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from the oxygen minimum zone off the coast of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Kai W; Kjeldsen, Kasper U

    2010-03-01

    Two deltaproteobacterial sulfate reducers, designated strain I.8.1(T) and I.9.1(T), were isolated from the oxygen minimum zone water column off the coast of Peru at 400 and 500 m water depth. The strains were Gram-negative, vibrio-shaped and motile. Both strains were psychrotolerant, grew optimally at 20 degrees C at pH 7.0-8.0 and at 2.5-3.5% NaCl (w/v). The strains grew by utilizing hydrogen/acetate, C(3-4) fatty acids, amino acids and glycerol as electron acceptors for sulfate reduction. Fumarate, lactate and pyruvate supported fermentative growth. Sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate and taurin supported growth as electron acceptors. Both strains were catalase-positive and highly oxygen-tolerant, surviving 24 days of exposure to atmospheric concentrations. MK6 was the only respiratory quinone. The most prominent cellular fatty acid was iso-17:1-omega9c (18%) for strain I.8.1(T) and iso-17:0-omega9c (14%) for strain I.9.1(T). The G+C contents of their genomic DNA were 45-46 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and dsrAB gene sequences showed that both strains belong to the genus Desulfovibrio. Desulfovibrio acrylicus DSM 10141(T) and Desulfovibrio marinisediminis JCM 14577(T) represented their closest validly described relatives with pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence identities of 98-99%. The level of DNA-DNA hybridization between strains I.8.1(T) and I.9.1(T) was 30-38%. The two strains shared 10-26% DNA-DNA relatedness with D. acrylicus. Based on a polyphasic investigation it is proposed that strains I.8.1(T) and I.9.1(T) represent a novel species for which the name Desulfovibrio oceani sp. nov. is proposed with the two subspecies D. oceani subsp. oceani (type strain, I.8.1(T) = DSM 21390(T) = JCM 15970(T)) and D. oceani subsp. galateae (type strain, I.9.1(T) = DSM 21391(T) = JCM 15971(T)).

  4. Photobacterium kishitanii sp. nov., a luminous marine bacterium symbiotic with deep-sea fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, Jennifer C; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Engelbeen, Katrien; Urbanczyk, Henryk; Thompson, Fabiano L; De Vos, Paul; Dunlap, Paul V

    2007-09-01

    Six representatives of a luminous bacterium commonly found in association with deep, cold-dwelling marine fishes were isolated from the light organs and skin of different fish species. These bacteria were Gram-negative, catalase-positive, and weakly oxidase-positive or oxidase-negative. Morphologically, cells of these strains were coccoid or coccoid-rods, occurring singly or in pairs, and motile by means of polar flagellation. After growth on seawater-based agar medium at 22 degrees C for 18 h, colonies were small, round and white, with an intense cerulean blue luminescence. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity placed these bacteria in the genus Photobacterium. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven housekeeping gene sequences (16S rRNA gene, gapA, gyrB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and rpoD), seven gene sequences of the lux operon (luxC, luxD, luxA, luxB, luxF, luxE and luxG) and four gene sequences of the rib operon (ribE, ribB, ribH and ribA), resolved the six strains as members of the genus Photobacterium and as a clade distinct from other species of Photobacterium. These strains were most closely related to Photobacterium phosphoreum and Photobacterium iliopiscarium. DNA-DNA hybridization values between the designated type strain, Photobacterium kishitanii pjapo.1.1(T), and P. phosphoreum LMG 4233(T), P. iliopiscarium LMG 19543(T) and Photobacterium indicum LMG 22857(T) were 51, 43 and 19 %, respectively. In AFLP analysis, the six strains clustered together, forming a group distinct from other analysed species. The fatty acid C(17 : 0) cyclo was present in these bacteria, but not in P. phosphoreum, P. iliopiscarium or P. indicum. A combination of biochemical tests (arginine dihydrolase and lysine decarboxylase) differentiates these strains from P. phosphoreum and P. indicum. The DNA G+C content of P. kishitanii pjapo.1.1(T) is 40.2 %, and the genome size is approximately 4.2 Mbp, in the form of two circular chromosomes. These strains represent a novel species, for

  5. Burkholderia ginsengiterrae sp. nov. and Burkholderia panaciterrae sp. nov., antagonistic bacteria against root rot pathogen Cylindrocarpon destructans, isolated from ginseng soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Van An, Hoang; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Singh, Priyanka; Huq, Md Amdadul; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2015-04-01

    Strain DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T), isolated from rhizosphere of ginseng, were rod-shaped, Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, catalase positive and oxidase negative. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain DCY85(T) as well as DCY85-1(T) belonged to the genus Burkholderia and were closely related to Burkholderia fungorum KACC 12023(T) (98.1 and 98.0 % similarity, respectively). The major polar lipids of strain DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid and two unidentified phospholipids. The major fatty acids of both strains are C16:0, C18:1 ω7c and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω6c and/or C16:1 ω7c). The predominant isoprenoid quinone of each strain DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T) was ubiquinone (Q-8) and the G+C content of their genomic DNA was 66.0 and 59.4 mol%, respectively, which fulfill the characteristic range of the genus Burkholderia. The polyamine content of both DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T) was putrescine. Although both DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T) have highly similar 16S rRNA and identical RecA and gyrB sequences, they show differences in phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics. DNA-DNA hybridization results proved the consideration of both strains as two different species. Based on the results from our polyphasic characterization, strain DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T) are considered novel Burkholderia species for which the name Burkholderia ginsengiterrae sp. nov and Burkholderia panaciterrae sp. nov are, respectively, proposed. An emended description of those strains is also proposed. DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T) showed antagonistic activity against the common root rot pathogen of ginseng, Cylindrocarpon destructans. The proposed type strains are DCY85(T) (KCTC 42054(T) = JCM 19888(T)) and DCY85-1(T) (KCTC 42055(T) = JCM 19889(T)).

  6. The animal model determines the results of Aeromonas virulence factors

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    Alejandro Romero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The selection of an experimental animal model is of great importance in the study of bacterial virulence factors. Here, a bath infection of zebrafish larvae is proposed as an alternative model to study the virulence factors of A. hydrophila. Intraperitoneal infections in mice and trout were compared with bath infections in zebrafish larvae using specific mutants. The great advantage of this model is that bath immersion mimics the natural route of infection, and injury to the tail also provides a natural portal of entry for the bacteria. The implication of T3SS in the virulence of A. hydrophila was analysed using the AH-1::aopB mutant. This mutant was less virulent than the wild-type strain when inoculated into zebrafish larvae, as described in other vertebrates. However, the zebrafish model exhibited slight differences in mortality kinetics only observed using invertebrate models. Infections using the mutant AH-1∆vapA lacking the gene coding for the surface S-layer suggested that this protein was not totally necessary to the bacteria once it was inside the host, but it contributed to the inflammatory response. Only when healthy zebrafish larvae were infected did the mutant produce less mortality than the wild type. Variations between models were evidenced using the AH-1∆rmlB, which lacks the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS, and the AH-1∆wahD, which lacks the O-antigen LPS and part of the LPS outer-core. Both mutants showed decreased mortality in all of the animal models, but the differences between them were only observed in injured zebrafish larvae, suggesting that residues from the LPS outer core must be important for virulence. The greatest differences were observed using the AH-1ΔFlaB-J (lacking polar flagella and unable to swim and the AH-1::motX (non-motile but producing flagella. They were as pathogenic as the wild-type strain when injected into mice and trout, but no mortalities were registered in zebrafish larvae. This study

  7. Modification of Salmonella Typhimurium motility by the probiotic yeast strain Saccharomyces boulardii.

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    Rodolphe Pontier-Bres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motility is an important component of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST pathogenesis allowing the bacteria to move into appropriate niches, across the mucus layer and invade the intestinal epithelium. In vitro, flagellum-associated motility is closely related to the invasive properties of ST. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii BIOCODEX (S.b-B is widely prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of diarrheal diseases caused by bacteria or antibiotics. In case of Salmonella infection, S.b-B has been shown to decrease ST invasion of T84 colon cell line. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of S.b-B on ST motility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiments were performed on human colonic T84 cells infected by the Salmonella strain 1344 alone or in the presence of S.b-B. The motility of Salmonella was recorded by time-lapse video microscopy. Next, a manual tracking was performed to analyze bacteria dynamics (MTrackJ plugin, NIH image J software. This revealed that the speed of bacterial movement was modified in the presence of S.b-B. The median curvilinear velocity (CLV of Salmonella incubated alone with T84 decreased from 43.3 µm/sec to 31.2 µm/sec in the presence of S.b-B. Measurement of track linearity (TL showed similar trends: S.b-B decreased by 15% the number of bacteria with linear tract (LT and increased by 22% the number of bacteria with rotator tract (RT. Correlation between ST motility and invasion was further established by studying a non-motile flagella-deficient ST strain. Indeed this strain that moved with a CLV of 0.5 µm/sec, presented a majority of RT and a significant decrease in invasion properties. Importantly, we show that S.b-B modified the motility of the pathogenic strain SL1344 and significantly decreased invasion of T84 cells by this strain. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that S.b-B modifies Salmonella's motility and trajectory which may account for the modification

  8. Morfologia do Mycobacterium leprae hominis e do M. leprae muris: estudo baseado na microscopia electrônica e de contraste de fases Morphology of Mycobacterium leprae hominis and M. leprae muris based on electron and phases contrast microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. de Souza-Araújo

    1955-12-01

    (bipolar, 3 or more internal small granules, developing identical movements as those of Hansen. The globi seem to be non-motile but the free bacilli appearing around the globi show intense movement. At 1000 x the examination is less satisfactory than at 400 x. The addition of formol solution in the preparation suppresses all movements, even the brownian, but the material becomes more suitable for the study of static morphology of the bacilli. CONCLUSION - The electron and phases contrast microscopy of leprous material from different types and phases of the disease may explain some of the unknown aspects of the biology and morphology of the bacilli.

  9. Defensin-like ZmES4 mediates pollen tube burst in maize via opening of the potassium channel KZM1.

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    Suseno Amien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to animals and lower plant species, sperm cells of flowering plants are non-motile and are transported to the female gametes via the pollen tube, i.e. the male gametophyte. Upon arrival at the female gametophyte two sperm cells are discharged into the receptive synergid cell to execute double fertilization. The first players involved in inter-gametophyte signaling to attract pollen tubes and to arrest their growth have been recently identified. In contrast the physiological mechanisms leading to pollen tube burst and thus sperm discharge remained elusive. Here, we describe the role of polymorphic defensin-like cysteine-rich proteins ZmES1-4 (Zea mays embryo sac from maize, leading to pollen tube growth arrest, burst, and explosive sperm release. ZmES1-4 genes are exclusively expressed in the cells of the female gametophyte. ZmES4-GFP fusion proteins accumulate in vesicles at the secretory zone of mature synergid cells and are released during the fertilization process. Using RNAi knock-down and synthetic ZmES4 proteins, we found that ZmES4 induces pollen tube burst in a species-preferential manner. Pollen tube plasma membrane depolarization, which occurs immediately after ZmES4 application, as well as channel blocker experiments point to a role of K(+-influx in the pollen tube rupture mechanism. Finally, we discovered the intrinsic rectifying K(+ channel KZM1 as a direct target of ZmES4. Following ZmES4 application, KZM1 opens at physiological membrane potentials and closes after wash-out. In conclusion, we suggest that vesicles containing ZmES4 are released from the synergid cells upon male-female gametophyte signaling. Subsequent interaction between ZmES4 and KZM1 results in channel opening and K(+ influx. We further suggest that K(+ influx leads to water uptake and culminates in osmotic tube burst. The species-preferential activity of polymorphic ZmES4 indicates that the mechanism described represents a pre-zygotic hybridization

  10. Defensin-Like ZmES4 Mediates Pollen Tube Burst in Maize via Opening of the Potassium Channel KZM1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márton, Mihaela L.; Debener, Thomas; Geiger, Dietmar; Becker, Dirk; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to animals and lower plant species, sperm cells of flowering plants are non-motile and are transported to the female gametes via the pollen tube, i.e. the male gametophyte. Upon arrival at the female gametophyte two sperm cells are discharged into the receptive synergid cell to execute double fertilization. The first players involved in inter-gametophyte signaling to attract pollen tubes and to arrest their growth have been recently identified. In contrast the physiological mechanisms leading to pollen tube burst and thus sperm discharge remained elusive. Here, we describe the role of polymorphic defensin-like cysteine-rich proteins ZmES1-4 (Zea mays embryo sac) from maize, leading to pollen tube growth arrest, burst, and explosive sperm release. ZmES1-4 genes are exclusively expressed in the cells of the female gametophyte. ZmES4-GFP fusion proteins accumulate in vesicles at the secretory zone of mature synergid cells and are released during the fertilization process. Using RNAi knock-down and synthetic ZmES4 proteins, we found that ZmES4 induces pollen tube burst in a species-preferential manner. Pollen tube plasma membrane depolarization, which occurs immediately after ZmES4 application, as well as channel blocker experiments point to a role of K+-influx in the pollen tube rupture mechanism. Finally, we discovered the intrinsic rectifying K+ channel KZM1 as a direct target of ZmES4. Following ZmES4 application, KZM1 opens at physiological membrane potentials and closes after wash-out. In conclusion, we suggest that vesicles containing ZmES4 are released from the synergid cells upon male-female gametophyte signaling. Subsequent interaction between ZmES4 and KZM1 results in channel opening and K+ influx. We further suggest that K+ influx leads to water uptake and culminates in osmotic tube burst. The species-preferential activity of polymorphic ZmES4 indicates that the mechanism described represents a pre-zygotic hybridization barrier and may be a

  11. Ultrastructural characterization of primary cilia in pathologically characterized human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Joanna J; Fritzler, Marvin J; Rattner, Jerome B

    2014-01-01

    Primary cilia are non-motile sensory cytoplasmic organelles that are involved in cell cycle progression. Ultrastructurally, the primary cilium region is complex, with normal ciliogenesis progressing through five distinct morphological stages in human astrocytes. Defects in early stages of ciliogenesis are key features of astrocytoma/glioblastoma cell lines and provided the impetus for the current study which describes the morphology of primary cilia in molecularly characterized human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors. Seven surgically resected human GBM tissue samples were molecularly characterized according to IDH1/2 mutation status, EGFR amplification status and MGMT promoter methylation status and were examined for primary cilia expression and structure using indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. We report for the first time that primary cilia are disrupted in the early stages of ciliogenesis in human GBM tumors. We confirm that immature primary cilia and basal bodies/centrioles have aberrant ciliogenesis characteristics including absent paired vesicles, misshaped/swollen vesicular hats, abnormal configuration of distal appendages, and discontinuity of centriole microtubular blades. Additionally, the transition zone plate is able to form in the absence of paired vesicles on the distal end of the basal body and when a cilium progresses beyond the early stages of ciliogenesis, it has electron dense material clumped along the transition zone and a darkening of the microtubules at the proximal end of the cilium. Primary cilia play a role in a variety of human cancers. Previously primary cilia structure was perturbed in cultured cell lines derived from astrocytomas/glioblastomas; however there was always some question as to whether these findings were a cell culture phenomena. In this study we confirm that disruptions in ciliogenesis at early stages do occur in GBM tumors and that these ultrastructural findings bear resemblance to those previously

  12. Quantitative measurements and modeling of cargo–motor interactions during fast transport in the living axon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, Pamela E; Loewenberg, Michael; Pascal, Jennifer; Chauviere, Arnaud; Gonzales, Aaron; Cristini, Vittorio; Bearer, Elaine L

    2012-01-01

    The kinesins have long been known to drive microtubule-based transport of sub-cellular components, yet the mechanisms of their attachment to cargo remain a mystery. Several different cargo-receptors have been proposed based on their in vitro binding affinities to kinesin-1. Only two of these—phosphatidyl inositol, a negatively charged lipid, and the carboxyl terminus of the amyloid precursor protein (APP-C), a trans-membrane protein—have been reported to mediate motility in living systems. A major question is how these many different cargo, receptors and motors interact to produce the complex choreography of vesicular transport within living cells. Here we describe an experimental assay that identifies cargo–motor receptors by their ability to recruit active motors and drive transport of exogenous cargo towards the synapse in living axons. Cargo is engineered by derivatizing the surface of polystyrene fluorescent nanospheres (100 nm diameter) with charged residues or with synthetic peptides derived from candidate motor receptor proteins, all designed to display a terminal COOH group. After injection into the squid giant axon, particle movements are imaged by laser-scanning confocal time-lapse microscopy. In this report we compare the motility of negatively charged beads with APP-C beads in the presence of glycine-conjugated non-motile beads using new strategies to measure bead movements. The ensuing quantitative analysis of time-lapse digital sequences reveals detailed information about bead movements: instantaneous and maximum velocities, run lengths, pause frequencies and pause durations. These measurements provide parameters for a mathematical model that predicts the spatiotemporal evolution of distribution of the two different types of bead cargo in the axon. The results reveal that negatively charged beads differ from APP-C beads in velocity and dispersion, and predict that at long time points APP-C will achieve greater progress towards the presynaptic

  13. Characterization of biofilm-forming capacity and resistance to sanitizers of a range of E. coli O26 pathotypes from clinical cases and cattle in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajhar, Salma A; Brownlie, Jeremy; Barlow, Robert

    2018-05-08

    The formation of biofilms and subsequent encasement of bacterial cells in a complex matrix can enhance resistance to antimicrobials and sterilizing agents making these organisms difficult to eradicate and control. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the capacity of 40 E. coli O26 isolates of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, n = 27), potential EHEC (pEHEC, n = 3), atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC, n = 8) and non-toxigenic E. coli (NTEC, n = 2) from human and cattle sources to form biofilms on different surfaces, and determine whether extracellular matrix (ECM) components (cellulose, curli), motility, prophage insertion in mlrA and cell surface hydrophobicity could influence biofilm formation. Finally, the influence of biofilm formation on the sensitivity of isolates to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs; Profoam, Kwiksan 22) and peracetic acid-based sanitizer (Topactive Des.) for 2 min on polystyrene plate were also evaluated. Biofilm production on one surface may not indicate biofilm formation on a different surface. Biofilm was formed by different pathotypes on polystyrene (70%), stainless steel (87.5%) and glass slides (95%), however only 50% demonstrated pellicle formation. EHEC isolates were significantly more likely to form a pellicle at the air-liquid interface and biofilms on polystyrene surface at 48 h than aEPEC. Strains that don't produce ECM (curli or cellulose), harbor a prophage insertion in mlrA, and are non-motile have lower biofilm forming capacities than those isolates possessing combinations of these attributes. Hydrophobicity had no impact on biofilm formation. After 2 min exposure, none of the disinfectants tested were able to completely inactivate all cells within a biofilm regardless of pathotypes and the amount of biofilm formed. Pathotypes of E. coli O26 showed varying capacities to form biofilms, however, most EHEC strains had the capacity to form biofilm on all surfaces and at the air

  14. Deinococcus daejeonensis sp. nov., isolated from sludge in a sewage disposal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Lee, Myungjin

    2012-06-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, spherical, non-motile red-pigmented bacterial strain, designated MJ27(T), was isolated from a sludge sample of the Daejeon sewage disposal plant in South Korea. A polyphasic approach was used to study the taxonomic position of strain MJ27(T). Strain MJ27(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Deinococcus grandis DSM 3963(T) (98.8 %), Deinococcus caeni Ho-08(T) (97.5 %) and Deinococcus aquaticus PB314(T) (96.6 %.); levels of sequence similarity with the type strains of other Deinococcus species were less than 96.0 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJ27(T) belonged to the clade formed by members of the genus Deinococcus in the family Deinococcaceae. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain MJ27(T) was 67.6 mol%. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain MJ27(T) were typical of members of the genus Deinococcus, with MK-8 as the predominant respiratory quinone, C(16:1)ω7c, C(15:1)ω6c, C(16:0) and C(15:0) as major fatty acids (>12 %), ornithine as the diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan and resistance to gamma radiation [D(10) (dose required to reduce the bacterial population by tenfold) >9 kGy]. The low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness reported here (5.3±1.5-29.2±2.3 %) indicate that strain MJ27(T) represents a species that is separate from its closest relatives in the genus Deinococcus. On the basis of phylogenetic inference, fatty acid profile and other phenotypic properties, strain MJ27(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus daejeonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ27(T) ( = KCTC 13751(T) = JCM 16918(T)).

  15. Epilithonimonas psychrotolerans sp. nov., isolated from alpine permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liang; Zhao, Qi; Sheng, Hongmei; Wu, Jianmin; An, Lizhe

    2015-11-01

    A bacterial strain, designated TSBY 57T, was isolated during a study on the phylogenetic diversity of culturable bacteria from alpine permafrost in Tianshan Mountains, China, and was classified by means of a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The novel strain was found to belong to the genus Epilithonimonas and was distinguished from recognized species of this genus. Strain TSBY 57T grew aerobically, at 0-30 °C, with 0-1.5% (w/v) NaCl and at pH 6-8.Cells were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming rods. Compared with the reference strains, the novel strain was psychrotolerant. The predominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (consisting of C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c), anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:0.The sole respiratory quinone was MK-6.Phosphatidylethanolamine was predominant in the polar lipid profile of strain TSBY 57T. These chemotaxonomic traits were in good agreement with the characteristics of the genus Epilithonimonas. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain TSBY 57T was a member of the genus Epilithonimonas and was closely related to Epilithonimonas tenax DSM 16811T (99.0%), Epilithonimonas ginsengisoli DCY78T (98.6%) and Epilithonimonas lactis H1T (98.5%). However, DNA-DNA reassociation values between strain TSBY 57T and E. tenax DSM 16811T, E. ginsengisoli DCY78T and E. lactis H1T were 39.5 ± 2.6, 37.7 ± 1.0 and 37.3 ± 1.1%, respectively. The G+C content of the DNA was 34.4 ± 0.2  mol%. Based on data from this polyphasic taxonomic study, strain TSBY 57T represents a novel species of the genus Epilithonimonas, for which the name Epilithonimonas psychrotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TSBY 57T ( = NRRL B-51307T=CCTCC AB 207182T).

  16. Proposal to rename Carnobacterium inhibens as Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. inhibens subsp. nov. and description of Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. gilichinskyi subsp. nov., a psychrotolerant bacterium isolated from Siberian permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Wayne L; Zhalnina, Kateryna; de Oliveira, Rafael R; Triplett, Eric W

    2015-02-01

    A novel, psychrotolerant facultative anaerobe, strain WN1359(T), was isolated from a permafrost borehole sample collected at the right bank of the Kolyma River in Siberia, Russia. Gram-positive-staining, non-motile, rod-shaped cells were observed with sizes of 1-2 µm long and 0.4-0.5 µm wide. Growth occurred in the range of pH 5.8-9.0 with optimal growth at pH 7.8-8.6 (pH optimum 8.2). The novel isolate grew at temperatures from 0-37 °C and optimal growth occurred at 25 °C. The novel isolate does not require NaCl; growth was observed between 0 and 8.8 % (1.5 M) NaCl with optimal growth at 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The isolate was a catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic chemo-organoheterotroph that used sugars but not several single amino acids or dipeptides as substrates. The major metabolic end-product was lactic acid in the ratio of 86 % l-lactate : 14 % d-lactate. Strain WN1359(T) was sensitive to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, fusidic acid, lincomycin, monocycline, rifampicin, rifamycin SV, spectinomycin, streptomycin, troleandomycin and vancomycin, and resistant to nalidixic acid and aztreonam. The fatty acid content was predominantly unsaturated (70.2 %), branched-chain unsaturated (11.7 %) and saturated (12.5 %). The DNA G+C content was 35.3 mol% by whole genome sequence analysis. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 98.7 % sequence identity between strain WN1359(T) and Carnobacterium inhibens. Genome relatedness was computed using both Genome-to-Genome Distance Analysis (GGDA) and Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI), which both strongly supported strain WN1359(T) belonging to the species C. inhibens. On the basis of these results, the permafrost isolate WN1359(T) represents a novel subspecies of C. inhibens, for which the name Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. gilichinskyi subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WN1359(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2557(T) = DSM 27470(T)). The subspecies Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. inhibens subsp. nov. is created automatically. An

  17. Pinnatoxin G is responsible for atypical toxicity in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and clams (Venerupis decussata) from Ingril, a French Mediterranean lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Philipp; Abadie, Eric; Hervé, Fabienne; Berteaux, Tom; Séchet, Véronique; Aráoz, Romulo; Molgó, Jordi; Zakarian, Armen; Sibat, Manoëlla; Rundberget, Thomas; Miles, Christopher O.; Amzil, Zouher

    2014-01-01

    of non-motile life stages of V. rugosum both suggest that further studies will be required to fully describe the ecology of this organism and the accumulation of pinnatoxins in shellfish. PMID:23726853

  18. Analysis of the ArcA regulon in anaerobically grown Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porwollik Steffen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium is a Gram-negative pathogen that must successfully adapt to the broad fluctuations in the concentration of dissolved dioxygen encountered in the host. In Escherichia coli, ArcA (Aerobic Respiratory Control helps the cells to sense and respond to the presence of dioxygen. The global role of ArcA in E. coli is well characterized; however, little is known about its role in anaerobically grown S. Typhimurium. Results We compared the transcriptional profiles of the virulent wild-type (WT strain (ATCC 14028s and its isogenic arcA mutant grown under anaerobic conditions. We found that ArcA directly or indirectly regulates 392 genes (8.5% of the genome; of these, 138 genes are poorly characterized. Regulation by ArcA in S. Typhimurium is similar, but distinct from that in E. coli. Thus, genes/operons involved in core metabolic pathways (e.g., succinyl-CoA, fatty acid degradation, cytochrome oxidase complexes, flagellar biosynthesis, motility, and chemotaxis were regulated similarly in the two organisms. However, genes/operons present in both organisms, but regulated differently by ArcA in S. Typhimurium included those coding for ethanolamine utilization, lactate transport and metabolism, and succinate dehydrogenases. Salmonella-specific genes/operons regulated by ArcA included those required for propanediol utilization, flagellar genes (mcpAC, cheV, Gifsy-1 prophage genes, and three SPI-3 genes (mgtBC, slsA, STM3784. In agreement with our microarray data, the arcA mutant was non-motile, lacked flagella, and was as virulent in mice as the WT. Additionally, we identified a set of 120 genes whose regulation was shared with the anaerobic redox regulator, Fnr. Conclusion(s We have identified the ArcA regulon in anaerobically grown S. Typhimurium. Our results demonstrated that in S. Typhimurium, ArcA serves as a transcriptional regulator coordinating cellular metabolism, flagella

  19. Methylarcula marina gen. nov., sp. nov. and Methylarcula terricola sp. nov.: novel aerobic, moderately halophilic, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria from coastal saline environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, N V; Trotsenko, Y A; Tourova, T P

    2000-09-01

    A new genus, Methylarcula, with two new species, Methylarcula marina and Methylarcula terricola, are proposed for strains h1T and h37T of moderately halophilic facultatively methylotrophic bacteria isolated from the coastal saline habitats. These methylobacteria are aerobic, Gram-negative, asporogenous, non-motile, colourless rods that multiply by binary fission. Their cellular fatty acids profiles consist primarily of straight-chain unsaturated (C18:1; 70-80%), saturated (C18:0; 14-16%) and cyclopropane (C19:0; 5-6%) acids. The major ubiquinone is Q-10. The dominant phospholipids are phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Both strains could use methylamine, some sugars and organic acids as carbon and energy sources. They grew well under optimal conditions (29-35 degrees C, pH 7.5-8.5, 0.5-1.0 M NaCl) and accumulated intracellularly poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and the compatible solute ectoine. The ectoine pool was found to increase upon increasing the external NaCl concentration and accounted for 18% of the dry cellular weight. Both strains oxidized methylamine by the N-methylglutamate (N-MG) pathway enzymes (gamma-glutamylmethylamide synthetase/lyase and N-MG synthetase/lyase) to formaldehyde and assimilated it via the icl- serine pathway. The DNA G+C content was 60-4 mol% for Methylarcula marina h1T and 57.1 mol% for Methylarcula terricola h37T. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strains hl and h37 was 25-30%, although they had a low level of DNA relatedness (5-7%) with the type strains of the serine pathway methylobacteria belonging to the genera Methylobacterium, Aminobacter, Methylorhabdus and Methylopila. A comparative 16S rDNA sequence-based phylogenetic analysis placed the two species of Methylarcula into a separate branch of the alpha-3 subclass of the Proteobacteria. The type strains of the new species are Methylarcula marina h1T (= VKM B-2159T) and Methylarcula terricola h37T (= VKM B-2160T).

  20. Caulobacter hibisci sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere of Hibiscus syriacus L. (Mugunghwa flower).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Gabriela; Yan, Zheng-Fei; Won, KyungHwa; Yang, Jung-Eun; Wang, Qi-Jun; Kook, MooChang; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2017-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, smooth, bright yellow-pigmented, aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive and rod-shaped bacterial strain was isolated from rhizosphere of Hibiscus syriacus L. (Mugunghwa flower) located in Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi, South Korea. Cells were dimorphic, non-motile or non-stalked, and motile by means of peritrichous flagellum. The strain, named THG-AG3.4T, grew at 15-35 °C, at pH 6.5-9.0 and in the presence of 0-1.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain THG-AG3.4T was most closely related to Caulobacter segnis ATCC 21756T (98.64 % similarity), Caulobacter vibrioides CB51T (98.57 %) and Caulobacter henricii ATCC 15253T (97.41 %). The DNA G+C content of strain THG-AG3.4T was 64.0 mol%. In DNA-DNA hybridization, the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain THG-AG3.4T and its closest phylogenetic neighbour was below 55.0 %. The predominant isoprenoid quinone detected in strain THG-AG3.4T was ubiquinone-10 (Q-10). The major polar lipids were found to be an unidentified lipid, two unidentified phosphoglycolipids, five unidentified glycolipids, eight unidentified aminolipids and phosphatidylglycerol. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c). Thus, based on the report of the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characterization of strain THG-AG3.4T, it has been concluded that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Caulobacter, for which the name Caulobacter hibisci sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-AG3.4T (=KACC 18849T=CCTCC AB 2016077T).

  1. Deinococcus hibisci sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere of Hibiscus syriacus L. (mugunghwa flower).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Gabriela; Yan, Zheng-Fei; Chu, Dong-Hun; Won, KyungHwa; Yang, Jung-Eun; Wang, Qi-Jun; Kook, Moo-Chang; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2018-01-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, pink-pigmented, coccus-shaped, strictly aerobic, non-motile bacterium, strain THG-AG1.5 T , was isolated from rhizosphere of Hibiscus syriacus L. (Mugunghwa flower) located in Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi, Republic of Korea. The isolated strain grew optimally at 25-30 °C, at pH 6.0-7.5 and in the presence of additional 0-1.5 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain THG-AG1.5 T exhibited tolerance to UV radiation (>1500 J m -2 ) and to gamma radiation (>12 kGy). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain THG-AG1.5 T was closely related to Deinococcus daejeonensis MJ27 T (98.03 %), Deinococcus radiotolerans C1 T (97.61 %) and Deinococcus grandis DSM 3963 T (97.32 %). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain THG-AG1.5 T was 74.8 mol%. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain THG-AG1.5 T and its closest phylogenetically neighbours were below 63.0 %. The peptidoglycan amino acids were alanine, valine, glutamic acid, glycine, ornithine, lysine and aspartic acid. Strain THG-AG1.5 T contained ribose, mannose and glucose as whole-cell-wall sugars and menaquinone-8 (MK-8) as the only isoprenoid quinone. The major component in the polyamine pattern was spermidine. The major polar lipids of strain THG-AG1.5 T were a phosphoglycolipid, six unidentified glycolipids and an unidentified aminophospholipid. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C15 : 0, C15 : 1ω6c, C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 0, C17 : 0, C18 : 0 and summed feature 3. On the basis of our polyphasic taxonomy study, strain THG-AG1.5 T represents a novel species within the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcushibisci sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-AG1.5 T (=KACC 18850 T =CCTCC AB 2016078 T ).

  2. Roseomonas hibiscisoli sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of Mugunghwa (Hibiscus syriacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng-Fei; Lin, Pei; Li, Chang-Tian; Kook, MooChang; Wang, Qi-Jun; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2017-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile and coccoid to short-rod-shaped bacterial strain (THG-N2.22T) was isolated from the rhizosphere of Mugunghwa (Hibiscus syriacus). Growth occurred at 20-40 °C (optimum 28 °C), at pH 5-9 (optimum 7) and with 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1 %). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the nearest phylogenetic neighbours of strain THG-N2.22T were identified as Roseomonas rhizosphaerae YW11T (98.5 % similarity), Roseomonas rubra S5T (98.5 %), Roseomonas cervicalis ATCC 49957T (98.2 %), Roseomonas aestuarii JC17T (97.8 %), Roseomonas oryzae JC288T (97.3 %) and Roseomonas ludipueritiae 170/96T (97.3 %); levels of similarity with the type strains of other Roseomonas species were lower than 97.0 %. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, two unidentified aminolipids, three unidentified phospholipids and three unidentified lipids. The major quinone was ubiquinone-10. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C18 : 1 2-OH, C18 : 1ω7c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c). The DNA G+C content of strain THG-N2.22T was 64.1 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain THG-N2.22T and R. rhizosphaerae YW11T, R. rubra S5T, R. cervicalis ATCC 49957T, R. aestuarii JC17T, R. oryzae JC288T and R. ludipueritiae 170/96T were 43.1 % (30.2 %, reciprocal analysis), 39.0 % (24.7 %), 34.4 % (15.2 %), 18.0 % (14.5 %), 14.7 % (9.7 %) and 11.0 % (5.6 %), respectively. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis, chemotaxonomic data, physiological characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain THG-N2.22T represents a novel species of the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas hibiscisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-N2.22T (=KACC 18935T=CCTCC AB 2016176T).

  3. Paracoccus hibiscisoli sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of Mugunghwa (Hibiscus syriacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei; Yan, Zheng-Fei; Won, Kyung-Hwa; Yang, Jung-Eun; Li, Chang-Tian; Kook, MooChang; Wang, Qi-Jun; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2017-07-01

    A Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, non-motile, short-rod-shaped bacterium (THG-T2.31T) was isolated from the rhizosphere of Mugunghwa (Hibiscus syriacus). Growth occurred at 10-35 °C (optimum 28 °C), at pH 5.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and with 0-4.0 % NaCl (optimum 1.0 %). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the nearest phylogenetic neighbours of strain THG-T2.31T were identified as Paracoccus marcusii DSM 11574T (98.4 %), Paracoccus haeundaensis BC74171T (98.3 %), Paracoccus carotinifaciens E-396T (98.3 %), Paracoccus aestuarii B7T (97.3 %) and Paracoccus seriniphilus MBT-A4T (97.0 %); levels of similarity with the type strains of other species of the genus Paracoccus were lower than 97.0 %. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, one unidentified aminolipid and two unidentified phospholipids. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C18 : 0, C10 : 0 3-OH, and C18 : 1ω7c. The quinone was ubiquinone-10 (Q-10). The DNA G+C content of strain THG-T2.31T was 69.1 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain THG-T2.31T and P. marcusii DSM 11574T, P. haeundaensis BC74171T, P. carotinifaciens E-396T, P. aestuarii B7T and P. seriniphilus MBT-A4T were 38.9 % (34.9 %, reciprocal analysis), 29.1 % (23.5 %), 28.0 % (19.7 %), 18.9 % (9.3) and 13.1 % (6.2 %). On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis, chemotaxonomic data, physiological characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain THG-T2.31T represents a novel species of the genus Paracoccus, for which the name Paracoccus hibiscisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-T2.31T (=KACC 18933T=CCTCC AB 2016182T).

  4. Methyloferula stellata gen. nov., sp. nov., an acidophilic, obligately methanotrophic bacterium that possesses only a soluble methane monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobev, Alexey V; Baani, Mohamed; Doronina, Nina V; Brady, Allyson L; Liesack, Werner; Dunfield, Peter F; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2011-10-01

    Two strains of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, AR4(T) and SOP9, were isolated from acidic (pH 3.8-4.0) Sphagnum peat bogs in Russia. Another phenotypically similar isolate, strain LAY, was obtained from an acidic (pH 4.0) forest soil in Germany. Cells of these strains were Gram-negative, non-pigmented, non-motile, thin rods that multiplied by irregular cell division and formed rosettes or amorphous cell conglomerates. Similar to Methylocella species, strains AR4(T), SOP9 and LAY possessed only a soluble form of methane monooxygenase (sMMO) and lacked intracytoplasmic membranes. Growth occurred only on methane and methanol; the latter was the preferred growth substrate. mRNA transcripts of sMMO were detectable in cells when either methane or both methane and methanol were available. Carbon was assimilated via the serine and ribulose-bisphosphate (RuBP) pathways; nitrogen was fixed via an oxygen-sensitive nitrogenase. Strains AR4(T), SOP9 and LAY were moderately acidophilic, mesophilic organisms capable of growth between pH 3.5 and 7.2 (optimum pH 4.8-5.2) and at 4-33 °C (optimum 20-23 °C). The major cellular fatty acid was 18 : 1ω7c and the quinone was Q-10. The DNA G+C content was 55.6-57.5 mol%. The isolates belonged to the family Beijerinckiaceae of the class Alphaproteobacteria and were most closely related to the sMMO-possessing methanotrophs of the genus Methylocella (96.4-97.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), particulate MMO (pMMO)-possessing methanotrophs of the genus Methylocapsa (96.1-97.0 %), facultative methylotrophs of the genus Methylovirgula (96.1-96.3 %) and non-methanotrophic organotrophs of the genus Beijerinckia (96.5-97.0 %). Phenotypically, strains AR4(T), SOP9 and LAY were most similar to Methylocella species, but differed from members of this genus by cell morphology, greater tolerance of low pH, detectable activities of RuBP pathway enzymes and inability to grow on multicarbon compounds. Therefore, we propose a novel

  5. Methylocella palustris gen. nov., sp. nov., a new methane-oxidizing acidophilic bacterium from peat bogs, representing a novel subtype of serine-pathway methanotrophs.

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    Dedysh, S N; Liesack, W; Khmelenina, V N; Suzina, N E; Trotsenko, Y A; Semrau, J D; Bares, A M; Panikov, N S; Tiedje, J M

    2000-05-01

    A new genus, Methylocella, and a new species, Methylocella palustris, are proposed for three strains of methane-oxidizing bacteria isolated from acidic Sphagnum peat bogs. These bacteria are aerobic, Gram-negative, colourless, non-motile, straight and curved rods that utilize the serine pathway for carbon assimilation, multiply by normal cell division and contain intracellular poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules (one at each pole). These strains use methane and methanol as sole sources of carbon and energy and are moderately acidophilic organisms with growth between pH 4.5 and pH 7.0, the optimum being at pH 5.0-5.5. The temperature range for growth is 10-28 degrees C with the optimum at 15-20 degrees C. The intracytoplasmic membrane system is different from those of type I and II methanotrophs. Cells contain an extensive periplasmic space and a vesicular membrane system connected to the cytoplasmic membrane. The strains grew only on media with a low salt content (0.2-0.5 g l(-1)). All three strains were found to possess soluble methane monooxygenase and are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen via an oxygen-sensitive nitrogenase. No products were observed in a PCR with particulate methane monooxygenase-targeted primers; hybridization with a pmoA probe was also negative. The major phospholipid fatty acids are 18:1 acids. The G+C content of the DNA is 61.2 mol%. The three strains share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and represent a novel lineage of methane-oxidizing bacteria within the alpha-subclass of the class Proteobacteria and are only moderately related to type II methanotrophs of the Methylocystis-Methylosinus group. The three strains are most closely related to the acidophilic heterotrophic bacterium Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica (96.5% 16S rDNA sequence similarity). Collectively, these strains comprise a new species and genus Methylocella palustris gen. nov., sp. nov.; strain KT (= ATCC 700799T) is the type strain.

  6. Advenella alkanexedens sp. nov., an alkane-degrading bacterium isolated from biogas slurry samples.

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    Wang, Huimin; Zhou, Shan; Wang, Yanwei; Kong, Delong; Guo, Xiang; Zhu, Jie; Dong, Weiwei; Ruan, Zhiyong

    2016-02-01

    A novel aerobic bacterium, designated strain LAM0050 T , was isolated from a biogas slurry sample, which had been enriched with diesel oil for 30 days. Cells of strain LAM0050 T were gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming and coccoid-shaped. The optimal temperature and pH for growth were 30-35 °C and 8.5, respectively. The strain did not require NaCl for growth, but tolerated up to 5.3 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain LAM0050 T was a member of the genus Advenella , and was most closely related to Advenella faeciporci KCTC 23732 T , Advenella incenata CCUG 45225 T , Advenella kashmirensis DSM 17095 T and Advenella mimigardefordensis DSM 17166 T , with 98.1, 96.6, 96.6 and 96.3 % sequence similarity, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness between strain LAM0050 T and A. faeciporci KCTC 23732 T was 41.7 ± 2.4 %. The genomic DNA G+C content was 51.2 mol%, as determined by the T m method. The major fatty acids of strain LAM0050 T were C 16 : 0 , C 17 : 0 cyclo, summed feature 3 (C 16 : 1 ω7 c and/or C 16 : 1 ω6 c ) and summed feature 8 (C 18 : 1 ω7 c and/or C 18 : 1 ω6 c ). The predominant ubiquinone was Q-8. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidyglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine and four unidentified phospholipids. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic properties, strain LAM0050 T is suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Advenella , for which the name Advenella alkanexedens sp. nov., is proposed, the type strain is LAM0050 T ( = ACCC 06485 T  = JCM 30465 T ).

  7. Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov., subdivision 1 Acidobacteria from Sphagnum peat and decaying wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Kostina, Lilia A; Valásková, Vendula; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; de Boer, Wietse; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2012-07-01

    Two strains of subdivision 1 Acidobacteria, a pink-pigmented bacterium KA1(T) and a colourless isolate WH120(T), were obtained from acidic Sphagnum peat and wood under decay by the white-rot fungus Hyploma fasciculare, respectively. Cells of these isolates were Gram-negative-staining, non-motile, short rods, which were covered by large polysaccharide capsules and occurred singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) were strictly aerobic mesophiles that grew between 10 and 33 °C, with an optimum at 22-28 °C. Both isolates developed under acidic conditions, but strain WH120(T) was more acidophilic (pH growth range 3.5-6.4; optimum, 4.0-4.5) than strain KA1(T) (pH growth range 3.5-7.3; optimum , 5.0-5.5). The preferred growth substrates were sugars. In addition, the wood-derived isolate WH120(T) grew on oxalate, lactate and xylan, while the peat-inhabiting acidobacterium strain KA1(T) utilized galacturonate, glucuronate and pectin. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(17:1)ω8c; the cells also contained significant amounts of 13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid. The quinone was MK-8. The DNA G+C contents of strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) were 54.1 and 51.7 mol%, respectively. Strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) displayed 97.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each other. The closest recognized relatives were Acidobacterium capsulatum and Telmatobacter bradus (93.4-94.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). These species differed from strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) by their ability to grow under anoxic conditions, the absence of capsules, presence of cell motility and differing fatty acid composition. Based on these differences, the two new isolates are proposed as representing a novel genus, Acidicapsa gen. nov., and two novel species. Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. is the type species for the new genus with strain KA1(T) (=DSM 23886(T)=LMG 25897(T)=VKM B-2678(T)) as the type strain. The name Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov. is proposed for

  8. Methylocystis bryophila sp. nov., a facultatively methanotrophic bacterium from acidic Sphagnum peat, and emended description of the genus Methylocystis (ex Whittenbury et al. 1970) Bowman et al. 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, Svetlana E; Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Bodelier, Paul L E; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2013-03-01

    A novel species is proposed for two facultatively methanotrophic representatives of the genus Methylocystis, strains H2s(T) and S284, which were isolated from an acidic (pH 4.3) Sphagnum peat-bog lake (Teufelssee, Germany) and an acidic (pH 3.8) peat bog (European North Russia), respectively. Cells of strains H2s(T) and S284 are aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, curved coccoids or short rods that contain an intracytoplasmic membrane system typical of type-II methanotrophs. They possess both a soluble and a particulate methane monooxygenase (MMO); the latter is represented by two isozymes, pMMO1 and pMMO2. The preferred growth substrates are methane and methanol. In the absence of C1 substrates, however, these methanotrophs are capable of slow growth on acetate. Atmospheric nitrogen is fixed by means of an aerotolerant nitrogenase. Strains H2s(T) and S284 grow between pH 4.2 and 7.6 (optimum pH 6.0-6.5) and at 8-37 °C (optimum 25-30 °C). The major fatty acids are C18 : 1ω8c, C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 1ω7c; the major quinone is Q-8. The DNA G+C content is 62.0-62.3 mol%. Strains H2s(T) and S284 share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, which displayed 96.6-97.3 % similarity to sequences of other taxonomically characterized members of the genus Methylocystis. Therefore, strains H2s(T) and S284 are classified as members of a novel species, for which the name Methylocystis bryophila sp. nov. is proposed; strain H2s(T) ( = DSM 21852(T)  = VKM B-2545(T)) is the type strain.

  9. Fimbriiglobus ruber gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gemmata-like planctomycete from Sphagnum peat bog and the proposal of Gemmataceae fam. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Ivanova, Anastasia A; Baulina, Olga I; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2017-02-01

    An aerobic, budding, dark pink to red-pigmented bacterium was isolated from an acidic boreal Sphagnum peat bog and designated strain SP5T. Cells of this strain were non-motile spheres that were uniformly covered with crateriform pits and fimbria, and tended to form aggregates during growth in liquid media. Strain SP5T was capable of growth between pH 4.0 and pH 6.8 (optimum at pH 5.5-6.0) and at temperatures between 10 and 30 °C (optimum at 20-25 °C). The preferred growth substrates were sugars and some heteropolysaccharides. The major fatty acids were C20 : 1ω9c, C16 : 1ω9c and C16 : 0, and the major polar lipid was trimethylornithine. Cells contained also significant amounts of bound (ω-1)OH-C30 : 1 fatty acid. The quinone was menaquinone-6, and the G+C content of the DNA was 60.7 mol%. Strain SP5T was a member of the order Planctomycetales and belonged to the phylogenetic lineage defined by the genus Gemmata. It displayed 88 and 89 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Gemmata obscuriglobusUQM 2246T and 'Gemmata massiliana' IIL30, 89 % to Zavarzinella formosa A10T and 86 % to Telmatocola sphagniphila SP2T. However, strain SP5T differed from members of these genera by cell morphology, substrate utilization pattern and fatty acid composition. Based on these data, the novel isolate should be considered as representing a novel species of a new genus of planctomycetes, for which the name Fimbriiglobus ruber gen. nov., sp. nov, is proposed. The type strain is SP5T (=LMG 29572T=VKM B-3045T). We also suggest the establishment of a novel family, Gemmataceaefam. nov., which includes the phylogenetically related genera Gemmata, Zavarzinella, Telmatocola and Fimbriiglobus.

  10. Fervidicoccus fontis gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, thermophilic crenarchaeote from terrestrial hot springs, and proposal of Fervidicoccaceae fam. nov. and Fervidicoccales ord. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perevalova, Anna A; Bidzhieva, Salima Kh; Kublanov, Ilya V; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Liu, Xiaolei L; Mardanov, Andrey V; Lebedinsky, Alexander V; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A

    2010-09-01

    Two novel thermophilic and slightly acidophilic strains, Kam940(T) and Kam1507b, which shared 99 % 16S rRNA gene sequence identity, were isolated from terrestrial hot springs of the Uzon caldera on the Kamchatka peninsula. Cells of both strains were non-motile, regular cocci. Growth was observed between 55 and 85 degrees C, with an optimum at 65-70 degrees C (doubling time, 6.1 h), and at pH 4.5-7.5, with optimum growth at pH 5.5-6.0. The isolates were strictly anaerobic organotrophs and grew on a narrow spectrum of energy-rich substrates, such as beef extract, gelatin, peptone, pyruvate, sucrose and yeast extract, with yields above 10(7) cells ml(-1). Sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate and nitrate added as potential electron acceptors did not stimulate growth when tested with peptone. H(2) at 100 % in the gas phase inhibited growth on peptone. Glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) with zero to four cyclopentyl rings were present in the lipid fraction of isolate Kam940(T). The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain Kam940(T) was 37 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates were archaea of the phylum Crenarchaeota, only distantly related to the cultured members of the class Thermoprotei (no more than 89 % identity), and formed an independent lineage adjacent to the orders Desulfurococcales and Acidilobales and clustering only with uncultured clones from hot springs of Yellowstone National Park and Iceland as the closest relatives. On the basis of their phylogenetic position and novel phenotypic features, isolates Kam940(T) and Kam1507b are proposed to be assigned to a new genus and species, Fervidicoccus fontis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Fervidicoccus fontis is strain Kam940(T) (=DSM 19380(T) =VKM B-2539(T)). The phylogenetic data as well as phenotypic properties suggest that the novel crenarchaeotes form the basis of a new family, Fervidicoccaceae fam. nov., and order, Fervidicoccales ord. nov

  11. Bacillus beijingensis sp. nov. and Bacillus ginsengi sp. nov., isolated from ginseng root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fubin; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Lin; Sun, Lei; Schumann, Peter; Song, Wei

    2009-04-01

    Four alkaligenous, moderately halotolerant strains, designated ge09, ge10(T), ge14(T) and ge15, were isolated from the internal tissue of ginseng root and their taxonomic positions were investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of the four strains were Gram-positive-staining, non-motile, short rods. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains ge09 and ge10(T) formed one cluster and strains ge14(T) and ge15 formed another separate cluster within the genus Bacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with type strains of other Bacillus species were less than 97 %. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness among the four strains showed that strains ge09 and ge10(T) and strains ge14(T) and ge15 belonged to two separate species; the mean level of DNA-DNA relatedness between ge10(T) and ge14(T) was only 28.7 %. Their phenotypic and physiological properties supported the view that the two strains represent two different novel species of the genus Bacillus. The DNA G+C contents of strains ge10(T) and ge14(T) were 49.9 and 49.6 mol%, respectively. Strains ge10(T) and ge14(T) showed the peptidoglycan type A4alpha l-Lys-d-Glu. The lipids present in strains ge10(T) and ge14(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, a minor amount of phosphatidylcholine and two unknown phospholipids. Their predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The fatty acid profiles of the four novel strains contained large quantities of branched and saturated fatty acids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (42.5 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (22.2 %), anteiso-C(17 : 0) (7.3 %) and C(16 : 1)omega7c alcohol (5.7 %) in ge10(T) and iso-C(15 : 0) (50.7 %) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) (20.1 %) in ge14(T). On the basis of their phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, two novel species of the genus Bacillus are proposed, Bacillus beijingensis sp. nov. (type strain ge10(T) =DSM 19037(T) =CGMCC 1.6762(T)) and Bacillus ginsengi sp. nov. (type strain ge14

  12. Reclassification of Bacillus beijingensis Qiu et al. 2009 and Bacillus ginsengi Qiu et al. 2009 as Bhargavaea beijingensis comb. nov. and Bhargavaea ginsengi comb. nov. and emended description of the genus Bhargavaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pankaj; Pandey, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Seong, Chi Nam; Park, Seong Chan; Choe, Han Na; Baik, Keun Sik; Patole, Milind Shivaji; Shouche, Yogesh Shreepad

    2012-10-01

    We have carried out a polyphasic taxonomic characterization of Bacillus beijingensis DSM 19037(T) and Bacillus ginsengi DSM 19038(T), which are closely related phylogenetically to Bhargavaea cecembensis LMG 24411(T). All three strains are Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, moderately halotolerant and non-spore-forming. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed that the strains constituted a coherent cluster, with sequence similarities between 99.7 and 98.7 %. The percentage similarity on the basis of amino acid sequences deduced from partial gyrB gene nucleotide sequences of these three type strains was 96.1-92.7 %. Phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA gene and GyrB amino acid sequences, obtained by using three different algorithms, were consistent and showed that these three species constituted a deeply rooted cluster separated from the clades represented by the genera Bacillus, Planococcus, Planomicrobium, Sporosarcina, Lysinibacillus, Viridibacillus, Kurthia and Geobacillus, supporting their placement in the genus Bhargavaea. All three type strains have menaquinone MK-8 as the major respiratory quinone and showed similar fatty acid profiles. The main polar lipids present in the three type strains were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol, and the three strains showed peptidoglycan type A4α with L-lysine as the diagnostic diamino acid. The DNA G+C contents of Bacillus beijingensis DSM 19037(T), Bacillus ginsengi DSM 19038(T) and Bhargavaea cecembensis LMG 24411(T) were 53.1, 50.2 and 53.7 mol%, respectively. The level of DNA-DNA hybridization among the three strains was 57-39 %, indicating that they are members of different species of the genus Bhargavaea. The phenotypic data are consistent with the placement of these three species in a single genus and support their differentiation at the species level. On the basis of these data, we have emended the description of the genus Bhargavaea and propose the reclassification of Bacillus beijingensis

  13. Characterization of Romboutsia ilealis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gastro-intestinal tract of a rat, and proposal for the reclassification of five closely related members of the genus Clostridium into the genera Romboutsia gen. nov., Intestinibacter gen. nov., Terrisporobacter gen. nov. and Asaccharospora gen. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Jacoline; Fuentes, Susana; Grievink, Wieke; van Niftrik, Laura; Tindall, Brian J; Timmerman, Harro M; Rijkers, Ger T; Smidt, Hauke

    2014-05-01

    A Gram-positive staining, rod-shaped, non-motile, spore-forming obligately anaerobic bacterium, designated CRIBT, was isolated from the gastro-intestinal tract of a rat and characterized. The major cellular fatty acids of strain CRIBT were saturated and unsaturated straight-chain C12-C19 fatty acids, with C16:0 being the predominant fatty acid. The polar lipid profile comprised six glycolipids, four phospholipids and one lipid that did not stain with any of the specific spray reagents used. The only quinone was MK-6. The predominating cell-wall sugars were glucose and galactose. The peptidoglycan type of strain CRIBT was A1σ lanthionine-direct. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain CRIBT was 28.1 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain CRIBT was most closely related to a number of species of the genus Clostridium, including Clostridium lituseburense (97.2%), Clostridium glycolicum (96.2%), Clostridium mayombei (96.2%), Clostridium bartlettii (96.0%) and Clostridium irregulare (95.5%). All these species show very low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (genus Clostridium. DNA-DNA hybridization with closely related reference strains indicated reassociation values below 32%. On the basis of phenotypic and genetic studies, a novel genus, Romboutsia gen. nov., is proposed. The novel isolate CRIBT (=DSM 25109T=NIZO 4048T) is proposed as the type strain of the type species, Romboutsia ilealis gen. nov., sp. nov., of the proposed novel genus. It is proposed that C. lituseburense is transferred to this genus as Romboutsia lituseburensis comb. nov. Furthermore, the reclassification into novel genera is proposed for C. bartlettii, as Intestinibacter bartlettii gen. nov., comb. nov. (type species of the genus), C. glycolicum, as Terrisporobacter glycolicus gen. nov., comb. nov. (type species of the genus), C. mayombei, as Terrisporobacter mayombei gen. nov., comb. nov., and C. irregulare, as Asaccharospora irregularis gen. nov., comb. nov. (type species

  14. Lactobacillus ruminis strains cluster according to their mammalian gut source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Donnell, Michelle M; Harris, Hugh Michael B; Lynch, Denise B; Ross, Reynolds Paul; O'Toole, Paul W

    2015-04-01

    Lactobacillus ruminis is a motile Lactobacillus that is autochthonous to the human gut, and which may also be isolated from other mammals. Detailed characterization of L. ruminis has previously been restricted to strains of human and bovine origin. We therefore sought to expand our bio-bank of strains to identify and characterise isolates of porcine and equine origin by comparative genomics. We isolated five strains from the faeces of horses and two strains from pigs, and compared their motility, biochemistry and genetic relatedness to six human isolates and three bovine isolates including the type strain 27780(T). Multilocus sequence typing analysis based on concatenated sequence data for six individual loci separated the 16 L. ruminis strains into three clades concordant with human, bovine or porcine, and equine sources. Sequencing the genomes of four additional strains of human, bovine, equine and porcine origin revealed a high level of genome synteny, independent of the source animal. Analysis of carbohydrate utilization, stress survival and technological robustness in a combined panel of sixteen L. ruminis isolates identified strains with optimal survival characteristics suitable for future investigation as candidate probiotics. Under laboratory conditions, six human isolates of L. ruminis tested were aflagellate and non-motile, whereas all 10 strains of bovine, equine and porcine origin were motile. Interestingly the equine and porcine strains were hyper-flagellated compared to bovine isolates, and this hyper-flagellate phenotype correlated with the ability to swarm on solid medium containing up to 1.8% agar. Analysis by RNA sequencing and qRT-PCR identified genes for the biosynthesis of flagella, genes for carbohydrate metabolism and genes of unknown function that were differentially expressed in swarming cells of an equine isolate of L. ruminis. We suggest that Lactobacillus ruminis isolates have potential to be used in the functional food industry. We

  15. Thioredoxin A Is Essential for Motility and Contributes to Host Infection of Listeria monocytogenes via Redox Interactions

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    Changyong Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbes employ the thioredoxin system to defend against oxidative stress and ensure correct disulfide bonding to maintain protein function. Listeria monocytogenes has been shown to encode a putative thioredoxin, TrxA, but its biological roles and underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we showed that expression of L. monocytogenes TrxA is significantly induced in bacteria treated with the thiol-specific oxidizing agent, diamide. Deletion of trxA markedly compromised tolerance of the pathogen to diamide, and mainly impaired early stages of infection in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. In addition, most trxA mutant bacteria were not associated with polymerized actin, and the rare bacteria that were associated with polymerized actin displayed very short tails or clouds during infection. Deletion or constitutive overexpression of TrxA, which was regulated by SigH, severely attenuated the virulence of the pathogen. Transcriptome analysis of L. monocytogenes revealed over 270 genes that were differentially transcribed in the ΔtrxA mutant compared to the wild-type, especially for the virulence-associated genes plcA, mpl, hly, actA, and plcB. Particularly, deletion of TrxA completely reduced LLO expression, and thereby led to a thoroughly impaired hemolytic activity. Expression of these virulence factors are positively regulated by the master regulator PrfA that was found here to use TrxA to maintain its reduced forms for activation. Interestingly, the trxA deletion mutant completely lacked flagella and was non-motile. We further confirmed that this deficiency is attributable to TrxA in maintaining the reduced intracellular monomer status of MogR, the key regulator for flagellar formation, to ensure correct dimerization. In summary, we demonstrated for the first time that L. monocytogenes thioredoxin A as a vital cellular reductase is essential for maintaining a highly reducing environment in the bacterial cytosol, which provides a

  16. Role of the two component signal transduction system CpxAR in conferring cefepime and chloramphenicol resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae NTUH-K2044.

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    Vijaya Bharathi Srinivasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobe belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family of the γ-Proteobacteria class in the phylum Proteobacteria. Multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae have caused major therapeutic problems worldwide due to emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing strains. Two-component systems serve as a basic stimulus-response coupling mechanism to allow organisms to sense and respond to changes in many different environmental conditions including antibiotic stress. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we investigated the role of an uncharacterized cpxAR operon in bacterial physiology and antimicrobial resistance by generating isogenic mutant (ΔcpxAR deficient in the CpxA/CpxR component derived from the hyper mucoidal K1 strain K. pneumoniae NTUH-K2044. The behaviour of ΔcpxAR was determined under hostile conditions, reproducing stresses encountered in the gastrointestinal environment and deletion resulted in higher sensitivity to bile, osmotic and acid stresses. The ΔcpxAR was more susceptible to β-lactams and chloramphenicol than the wild-type strain, and complementation restored the altered phenotypes. The relative change in expression of acrB, acrD, eefB efflux genes were decreased in cpxAR mutant as evidenced by qRT-PCR. Comparison of outer membrane protein profiles indicated a conspicuous difference in the knock out background. Gel shift assays demonstrated direct binding of CpxR(KP to promoter region of ompC(KP in a concentration dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The Cpx envelope stress response system is known to be activated by alterations in pH, membrane composition and misfolded proteins, and this systematic investigation reveals its direct involvement in conferring antimicrobial resistance against clinically significant antibiotics for the very first time. Overall results displayed in this report reflect the pleiotropic role of the Cpx

  17. Brucella papionis sp. nov., isolated from baboons (Papio spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatmore, Adrian M; Davison, Nicholas; Cloeckaert, Axel; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Zygmunt, Michel S; Brew, Simon D; Perrett, Lorraine L; Koylass, Mark S; Vergnaud, Gilles; Quance, Christine; Scholz, Holger C; Dick, Edward J; Hubbard, Gene; Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E

    2014-12-01

    Two Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming coccoid bacteria (strains F8/08-60(T) and F8/08-61) isolated from clinical specimens obtained from baboons (Papio spp.) that had delivered stillborn offspring were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, both strains, which possessed identical sequences, were assigned to the genus Brucella. This placement was confirmed by extended multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), where both strains possessed identical sequences, and whole-genome sequencing of a representative isolate. All of the above analyses suggested that the two strains represent a novel lineage within the genus Brucella. The strains also possessed a unique profile when subjected to the phenotyping approach classically used to separate species of the genus Brucella, reacting only with Brucella A monospecific antiserum, being sensitive to the dyes thionin and fuchsin, being lysed by bacteriophage Wb, Bk2 and Fi phage at routine test dilution (RTD) but only partially sensitive to bacteriophage Tb, and with no requirement for CO2 and no production of H2S but strong urease activity. Biochemical profiling revealed a pattern of enzyme activity and metabolic capabilities distinct from existing species of the genus Brucella. Molecular analysis of the omp2 locus genes showed that both strains had a novel combination of two highly similar omp2b gene copies. The two strains shared a unique fingerprint profile of the multiple-copy Brucella-specific element IS711. Like MLSA, a multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) showed that the isolates clustered together very closely, but represent a distinct group within the genus Brucella. Isolates F8/08-60(T) and F8/08-61 could be distinguished clearly from all known species of the genus Brucella and their biovars by both phenotypic and molecular properties. Therefore, by applying the species concept for the genus Brucella suggested by the ICSP

  18. Roseomonas chloroacetimidivorans sp. nov., a chloroacetamide herbicide-degrading bacterium isolated from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cui-Wei; Chen, Qing; Wang, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Hong-Mei; Sun, Zhong-Guan; He, Qin; He, Jian; Gu, Jin-Gang

    2016-05-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped, pink-pigmented, non-motile bacterium, designated BUT-13(T), was isolated from activated sludge of an herbicide-manufacturing wastewater treatment facility in Jiangsu province, China. Growth was observed at 0-5.5 % NaCl, pH 6.0-9.0 and 12-37 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain BUT-13(T) is a member of the genus Roseomonas, and shows high sequence similarities to R. pecuniae N75(T) (98.0 %) and R. rosea 173-96(T) (97.5 %), and lower (<97 %) sequence similarities to all other Roseomonas species. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed that strain BUT-13(T) possesses Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone; summed feature 8 (C18:1 w7c and/or C18:1 w6c; 38.8 %), C18:0 (16.6 %), C16:0 (15.2 %), summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω6c and/or C16:1 ω7; 7.9 %) and C18:1 w9c (4.7 %) as the major fatty acids. The polar lipids were found to consist of two aminolipids, a glycolipid, a phospholipid, a phosphoglycolipid, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and diphosphatidylglycerol. Strain BUT-13(T) showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with R. pecuniae N75(T) (45.2 %) and R. rosea 173-96(T) (51.2 %). The DNA G+C content was determined to be 67.6 mol%. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and chemotaxonomic analysis, as well as biochemical characteristics, strain BUT-13(T) can be clearly distinguished from all currently recognised Roseomonas species and should be classified as a novel species of the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas chloroacetimidivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BUT-13(T) (CCTCC AB 2015299(T) = JCM 31050(T)).

  19. Haladaptatus pallidirubidus sp. nov., a halophilic archaeon isolated from saline soil samples in Yunnan and Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing-Bing; Zhao, Wan-Yu; Chu, Xiao; Hozzein, Wael N; Prabhu, Deene Manik; Wadaan, Mohammed A M; Tang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, Li-Li; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Two extremely halophilic archaea, designated YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T), were isolated from saline soils in Yunnan province and Lup nur region in Xinjiang province, western China, respectively. Colonies of the two strains were observed to be pink-pigmented. The cells were found to be Gram-stain negative, coccoid and non-motile. The organisms were found to be aerobic and could grow in an NaCl range of 6-35 % (optimum 18 %), temperatures ranging from 25 to 50 °C (optimum 37-42 °C), pH range from 6.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5) and Mg(2+) range from 0 to 1.5 M (optimum 0.5-1.0 M); Mg(2+) was not necessary for growth. Cells were not observed to lyse in distilled water. Strains YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Haladaptatus cibarius JCM 15962(T) (97.6 and 97.9 %, respectively). In addition, the DNA-DNA hybridizations of strains YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T) with type strains H. cibarius JCM 15962(T), Haladaptatus litoreus JCM 15771(T) and Haladaptatus paucihalophilus JCM 13897(T) were 37.2 and 38.2 %, 36.6 and 39.0 % and 27.9 and 27.7 %, respectively. The DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T) were determined to be 56.0 and 57.4 mol%. The major polar lipids of the two strains were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether and other four unidentified glycolipids. On the basis of physiological, chemotaxonomic data and phylogenetic analysis, the strains YIM 90917 and YIM 93656(T) can be classified as a novel species of the genus Haladaptatus, for which the name Haladaptatus pallidirubidus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 93656(T) (=JCM 17504(T) = CCTCC AB2010454(T)).

  20. Spiribacter curvatus sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a saltern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, María José; Rodríguez-Olmos, Angel; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; López-Pérez, Mario; Rodríguez-Valera, Francisco; Soliveri, Juan; Ventosa, Antonio; Copa-Patiño, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    A novel pink-pigmented bacterial strain, UAH-SP71T, was isolated from a saltern located in Santa Pola, Alicante (Spain) and the complete genome sequence was analysed and compared with that of Spiribacter salinus M19-40T, suggesting that the two strains constituted two separate species, with a 77.3% ANI value. In this paper, strain UAH-SP71T was investigated in a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. Strain UAH-SP71T was a Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile curved rod that grew in media containing 5-20% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 10% NaCl), at 5-40 °C (optimum 37 °C) and at pH 5-10 (optimum pH 8). Phylogenetic analysis based on the comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed thatstrain UAH-SP71T is a member of the genus Spiribacter, showing a sequence similarity of 96.5% with Spiribacter salinus M19-40T. Other related species are also members of the family Ectothiorhodospiraceae, including Arhodomonas recens RS91T (95.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Arhodomonas aquaeolei ATCC 49307T (95.4 %) and Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii MLHE-1T (94.9 %). DNA-DNA hybridization between strain UAH-SP71T and Spiribacter salinus M19-40T was 39 %. The major cellular fatty acids of strain UAH-SP71T were C18 : 1ω6c and/or C18 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c, C10 : 0 3-OH and C12 : 0, a pattern similar to that of Spiribacter salinus M19-40T. Phylogenetic, phenotypic and genotypic differences between strain UAH-SP71T and Spiribacter salinus M19-40T indicate that strainUAH-SP71T represents a novel species of the genus Spiribacter, for which the name Spiribacter curvatus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is UAH-SP71T (5CECT8396T5DSM 28542T).

  1. Halopiger thermotolerans sp. nov., a thermo-tolerant haloarchaeon isolated from commercial salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minegishi, Hiroaki; Shimogaki, Ryuta; Enomoto, Shigeaki; Echigo, Akinobu; Kondo, Yusuke; Nagaoka, Shuhei; Shimane, Yasuhiro; Kamekura, Masahiro; Itoh, Takashi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken; Usami, Ron

    2016-12-01

    Three thermo-tolerant halophilic archaeal strains, SR-441T, SR-412 and SR-188, were isolated from commercial salt samples. Cells were non-motile pleomorphic rod-shaped, and stained Gram-negative. Colonies were pink-pigmented. The three strains were able to grow with 1.7-4.6 M NaCl (optimum, 2.5 M), at pH 6.5-9.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and at 35-60 °C (optimum, 45 °C). The orthologous 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities amongst the three strains were 98.8-99.3 %, and the level of DNA-DNA relatedness was 71-74 and 72-75 % (reciprocally). The closest relative was Halopiger aswanensis JCM 11628T with 98.6 %-99.1 % similarity in the orthologous 16S rRNA gene sequences, followed by two more Halopiger species, Halopiger xanaduensis JCM 14033T (98.5 %-99.1 %) and Halopiger salifodinae JCM 9578T (95.5 %-95.6 %). DNA-DNA relatednesses between the three strains and H. aswanensis JCM 11628T and H. xanaduensis JCM 14033T were 61 and 54 %, respectively. The polar lipids of the three novel strains were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, and bis-sulfated diglycosyl archaeol-1. The most distinctive feature of the three strains was the ability to grow at 60 °C, while the maximum growth temperature of H. aswanensis is 55 °C. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, the isolates are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Halopiger, for which the name Halopiger thermotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SR-441T (=JCM 19583T=KCTC 4248T) isolated from solar salt produced in Australia. SR-412 (=JCM 19582) and SR-188 (=JCM 19581) isolated from commercial salt samples are additional strains of the species.

  2. Descriptions of Roseiarcus fermentans gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacteriochlorophyll a-containing fermentative bacterium related phylogenetically to alphaproteobacterial methanotrophs, and of the family Roseiarcaceae fam. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Danilova, Olga V; Tereshina, Vera M; Kevbrin, Vadim V; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2014-08-01

    A light-pink-pigmented, microaerophilic bacterium was obtained from a methanotrophic consortium enriched from acidic Sphagnum peat and designated strain Pf56(T). Cells of this bacterium were Gram-negative, non-motile, thick curved rods that contained a vesicular intracytoplasmic membrane system characteristic of some purple non-sulfur alphaproteobacteria. The absorption spectrum of acetone/methanol extracts of cells grown in the light showed maxima at 363, 475, 505, 601 and 770 nm; the peaks at 363 and 770 nm are characteristic of bacteriochlorophyll a. However, in contrast to purple non-sulfur bacteria, strain Pf56(T) was unable to grow phototrophically under anoxic conditions in the light. Best growth occurred on some sugars and organic acids under micro-oxic conditions by means of fermentation. The fermentation products were propionate, acetate and hydrogen. Slow chemo-organotrophic growth was also observed under fully oxic conditions. Light stimulated growth. C1 substrates were not utilized. Strain Pf56(T) grew at pH 4.0-7.0 (optimum pH 5.5-6.5) and at 15-30 °C (optimum 22-28 °C). The major cellular fatty acids were 19 : 0 cyclo ω8c and 18 : 1ω7c; quinones were represented by ubiquinone Q-10. The G+C content of the DNA was 70.0 mol%. Strain Pf56 displays 93.6-94.7 and 92.7-93.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to members of the families Methylocystaceae and Beijerinckiaceae, respectively, and belongs to a large cluster of environmental sequences retrieved from various wetlands and forest soils in cultivation-independent studies. Phenotypic, genotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain Pf56(T) suggest that it represents a novel genus and species of bacteriochlorophyll a-containing fermentative bacteria, for which the name Roseiarcus fermentans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. Strain Pf56(T) ( = DSM 24875(T) = VKM B-2876(T)) is the type strain of Roseiarcus fermentans, and is also the first characterized member of a novel family

  3. Telmatocola sphagniphila gen. nov., sp. nov., a Novel Dendriform Planctomycete from Northern Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S.; Serkebaeva, Yulia M.; Kim, Yongkyu; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Liesack, Werner; Dedysh, Svetlana N.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the phylum Planctomycetes are common inhabitants of northern wetlands. We used barcoded pyrosequencing to survey bacterial diversity in an acidic (pH 4.0) Sphagnum peat sampled from the peat bog Obukhovskoye, European North Russia. A total of 21189 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained, of which 1081 reads (5.1%) belonged to the Planctomycetes. Two-thirds of these sequences affiliated with planctomycete groups for which characterized representatives have not yet been available. Here, we describe two organisms from one of these previously uncultivated planctomycete groups. One isolate, strain OB3, was obtained from the peat sample used in our molecular study, while another strain, SP2T (=DSM 23888T = VKM B-2710T), was isolated from the peat bog Staroselsky moss. Both isolates are represented by aerobic, budding, pink-pigmented, non-motile, spherical cells that are arranged in unusual, dendriform-like structures during growth on solid media. These bacteria are moderately acidophilic and mesophilic, capable of growth at pH 4.0–7.0 (optimum pH 5.0–5.5) and at 6–30°C (optimum 20–26°C). The preferred growth substrates are various heteropolysaccharides and sugars, the latter being utilized only if provided in low concentrations (≤0.025%). In contrast to other described planctomycetes, strains SP2T and OB3 possess weak cellulolytic potential. The major fatty acids are C16:1ω5c, C18:1ω5c, C16:0, and C18:0. Characteristic lipids are the n-C31 polyunsaturated alkene (9–10 double bonds) and C30:1/C32:1 (ω-1) hydroxy fatty acids. The G + C content of the DNA is 58.5–59.0 mol%. Strains SP2T and OB3 share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, which exhibit only 86 and 87% similarity to those of Gemmata obscuriglobus and Zavarzinella formosa. Based on the characteristics reported here, we propose to classify these novel planctomycetes as representatives of a novel genus and species, Telmatocola sphagniphila gen. nov., sp. nov. PMID

  4. Tundrisphaera lichenicola gen. nov., sp. nov., a psychrotolerant representative of the family Isosphaeraceae from lichen-dominated tundra soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Ivanova, Anastasia A; Detkova, Ekaterina N; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2017-09-01

    Two strains of aerobic, budding, pink-pigmented bacteria, P12T and P515, were isolated from a lichen-dominated peatland and a forested tundra soil of north-western Siberia, respectively. Cells of these isolates were represented by non-motile spheres that occurred singly or were arranged in short chains and aggregates. While growing on solid media, cells of strains P12T and P515 attached to the surface by means of holdfast-like appendages. These isolates were mildly acidophilic (optimum growth at pH 5.5-6.0), psychrotolerant bacteria, which displayed tolerance of low temperatures (4-15 °C), grew optimally at 15-22 °C and did not grow at temperatures above 28 °C. The preferred growth substrates were sugars and some heteropolysaccharides. The major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and C14 : 0. Trimethylornithine lipid was the major polar lipid. The only quinone was MK-6, and the G+C content of the DNA was 61.2-62.2 mol%. Strains P12T and P515 possessed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, which affiliated them with the family Isosphaeraceae, order Planctomycetales, and these displayed the highest similarity (93-94 %) to 16S rRNA gene sequences from members of the genus Singulisphaera. However, the signature fatty acid of species of the genus Singulisphaera, i.e. C18 : 2ω6c,12c, was absent in cells of strains P12T and P515. They also differed from members of the genus Singulisphaera by substrate utilization pattern and a number of physiological characteristics. Based on these data, the novel isolates should be considered as representing a novel genus and species of planctomycetes, for which the name Tundrisphaera lichenicola gen. nov., sp. nov, is proposed. The type strain is P12T (=LMG 29571T=VKM B-3044T).

  5. Methylovulum psychrotolerans sp. nov., a cold-adapted methanotroph from low-temperature terrestrial environments, and emended description of the genus Methylovulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshkin, Igor Y; Belova, Svetlana E; Danilova, Olga V; Miroshnikov, Kirill K; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Liesack, Werner; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2016-06-01

    Two isolates of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, strains Sph1T and Sph2, were obtained from cold methane seeps in a floodplain of the river Mukhrinskaya, Irtysh basin, West Siberia. Another morphologically and phenotypically similar methanotroph, strain OZ2, was isolated from a sediment of a subarctic freshwater lake, Archangelsk region, northern Russia. Cells of these three strains were Gram-stain-negative, light-pink-pigmented, non-motile, encapsulated, large cocci that contained an intracytoplasmic membrane system typical of type I methanotrophs. They possessed a particulate methane monooxygenase enzyme and utilized only methane and methanol. Strains Sph1T, Sph2 and OZ2 were able to grow at a pH range of 4.0-8.9 (optimum at pH 6.0-7.0) and at temperatures between 2 and 36 °C. Although their temperature optimum was at 20-25 °C, these methanotrophs grew well at lower temperatures, down to 4 °C. The major cellular fatty acids were C16 : 1ω5c, C16 : 1ω6c, C16 : 1ω7c, C16 : 1ω8c, C16 : 0 and C14 : 0; the DNA G+C content was 51.4-51.9 mol%. Strains Sph1T, Sph2 and OZ2 displayed nearly identical (99.1-99.7 % similarity) 16S rRNA gene sequences and belonged to the family Methylococcaceae of the class Gammaproteobacteria. The most closely related organism was Methylovulum miyakonense HT12T (96.0-96.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and 90 % pmoA sequence similarity). The novel isolates, however, differed from Methylovulum miyakonense HT12T by cell morphology, pigmentation, absence of soluble methane monooxygenase, more active growth at low temperatures, growth over a broader pH range and higher DNA G+C content. On the basis of these differences, we propose a novel species, Methylovulum psychrotolerans sp. nov., to accommodate these methanotrophs. Strain Sph1T (=LMG 29227T=VKM B-3018T) is the type strain.

  6. Description of Deinococcus oregonensis sp. nov., from biological soil crusts in the Southwestern arid lands of the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlapally, Sathyanarayana Reddy; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2017-01-01

    Biological soil crusts are distinct habitats, harbor unique prokaryotic diversity and gave an impetus to isolate novel species. In the present study, a pink-pigmented bacterium, (OR316-6 T ), was isolated from biological soil crusts using oligotrophic BG11-PGY medium. Strain OR316-6 T was Gram-positive, short rods, non-motile and non-spore forming. Cells were positive for catalase, oxidase and β-galactosidase and negative for most of the enzymatic activities. The major fatty acids present were C 16:0 , C 17:0 , and C 16:1 ω7c and contained MK-8 and MK-10 as the predominant menaquinones. The cell wall peptidoglycan was of A3β variant with L-ornithine as the diamino acid. Based on the above characteristics, strain OR316-6 T was assigned to the genus Deinococcus. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain OR316-6 T was closely related to D. aquatilis DSM 23025 T with a 16S rRNA gene similarity of 99.3 % and clustered with a bootstrap value of 100 %. DNA-DNA similarity between strain OR316-6 T and D. aquatilis DSM 23025 T was 37.0 % indicating that strain OR316-6 T was a novel species. Further, DNA fingerprinting of stains OR316-6 T and D. aquatilis DSM 23035 T demonstrated that both strains were related to each other with a similarity coefficient of only 0.32 and supported the species status to strain OR316-6 T . In addition, phenotypic characteristics distinguished strain OR316-6 T from D. aquatilis DSM 23025 T . Based on the cumulative differences, strain OR316-16 T exhibited with its closely related species, it was identified as a novel species and proposed the name Deinococcus oregonensis sp. nov. The type strain is D. oregonensis sp. nov. (OR316-6 T  = JCM 13503 T  = DSM 17762 T ).

  7. Molecular identification and histopathological study of natural Streptococcus agalactiae infection in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laith, A A; Ambak, Mohd Azmi; Hassan, Marina; Sheriff, Shahreza Md; Nadirah, Musa; Draman, Ahmad Shuhaimi; Wahab, Wahidah; Ibrahim, Wan Nurhafizah Wan; Aznan, Alia Syafiqah; Jabar, Amina; Najiah, Musa

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to emphasize on histopathological examinations and molecular identification of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from natural infections in hybrid tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) in Temerloh Pahang, Malaysia, as well as to determine the susceptibility of the pathogen strains to various currently available antimicrobial agents. The diseased fishes were observed for variable clinical signs including fin hemorrhages, alterations in behavior associated with erratic swimming, exophthalmia, and mortality. Tissue samples from the eyes, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen were taken for bacterial isolation. Identification of S. agalactiae was screened by biochemical methods and confirmed by VITEK 2 and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The antibiogram profiling of the isolate was tested against 18 standard antibiotics included nitrofurantoin, flumequine, florfenicol, amoxylin, doxycycline, oleandomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, lincomycin, colistin sulfate, oxolinic acid, novobiocin, spiramycin, erythromycin, fosfomycin, neomycin, gentamycin, and polymyxin B. The histopathological analysis of eyes, brain, liver, kidney, and spleen was observed for abnormalities related to S. agalactiae infection. The suspected colonies of S. agalactiae identified by biochemical methods was observed as Gram-positive chained cocci, β-hemolytic, and non-motile. The isolate was confirmed as S. agalactiae by VITEK 2 (99% similarity), reconfirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (99% similarity) and deposited in GenBank with accession no. KT869025. The isolate was observed to be resistance to neomycin and gentamicin. The most consistent gross findings were marked hemorrhages, erosions of caudal fin, and exophthalmos. Microscopic examination confirmed the presence of marked congestion and infiltration of inflammatory cell in the eye, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen. Eye samples showed damage of the lens capsule, hyperemic and hemorrhagic choroid tissue, and retina

  8. Cesiribacter andamanensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a soil sample from a mud volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, T N R; Anil Kumar, P; Madhu, S; Sunil, B; Sharma, T V R S; Shivaji, S

    2011-07-01

    A novel gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, strain AMV16(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from a mud volcano located in the Andaman Islands, India. The cell suspension was pale orange. Cells of strain AMV16(T) were positive for catalase, oxidase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase and lysine decarboxylase and negative for gelatinase and urease. The fatty acids present were anteiso-C(11 : 0) (5.4 %), anteiso-C(12 : 0) (4.1 %), C(12 : 0) (7.0 %), iso-C(15 : 0) (14.4 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (3.4 %), anteiso-C(16 : 0) (3.0 %), C(16 : 0) (2.6 %), anteiso-C(17 : 0) (3.7 %), iso-C(19 : 0) (9.7 %), C(13 : 1) (13.8 %), iso-C(15 : 1) G (15.9 %), iso-C(16 : 1) G (11.1 %) and summed feature 5 (anteiso-C(18 : 0) and/or C(18 : 2)ω6,9c; 5.9 %). Strain AMV16(T) contained MK-4 is [corrected] the major respiratory quinone and diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine made up the phospholipids. The G+C content of DNA of strain AMV16(T) was 50.9 mol%. blast sequence similarity searches based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that species of the genus Marivirga were the nearest phylogenetic neighbours, with pairwise sequence similarity ranging from 89.9 to 90.0 %. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that strain AMV16(T) clustered with the type strains of Marivirga tractuosa and Marivirga sericea at a phylogenetic distance of 14.6 % (85.4 % similarity), distinct from clades representing other genera of the family 'Flammeovirgaceae'. Based on the above-mentioned phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain AMV16(T) is proposed as a representative of a new genus and novel species, Cesiribacter andamanensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Cesiribacter andamanensis is AMV16(T) ( = DSM 22818(T)  = CCUG 58431(T)).

  9. Brucella microti sp. nov., isolated from the common vole Microtus arvalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Holger C; Hubalek, Zdenek; Sedlácek, Ivo; Vergnaud, Gilles; Tomaso, Herbert; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Melzer, Falk; Kämpfer, Peter; Neubauer, Heinrich; Cloeckaert, Axel; Maquart, Marianne; Zygmunt, Michel S; Whatmore, Adrian M; Falsen, Enevold; Bahn, Peter; Göllner, Cornelia; Pfeffer, Martin; Huber, Birgit; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Nöckler, Karsten

    2008-02-01

    Two Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, coccoid bacteria (strains CCM 4915(T) and CCM 4916), isolated from clinical specimens of the common vole Microtus arvalis during an epizootic in the Czech Republic in 2001, were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. On the basis of 16S rRNA (rrs) and recA gene sequence similarities, both isolates were allocated to the genus Brucella. Affiliation to Brucella was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization studies. Both strains reacted equally with Brucella M-monospecific antiserum and were lysed by the bacteriophages Tb, Wb, F1 and F25. Biochemical profiling revealed a high degree of enzyme activity and metabolic capabilities not observed in other Brucella species. The omp2a and omp2b genes of isolates CCM 4915(T) and CCM 4916 were indistinguishable. Whereas omp2a was identical to omp2a of brucellae from certain pinniped marine mammals, omp2b clustered with omp2b of terrestrial brucellae. Analysis of the bp26 gene downstream region identified strains CCM 4915(T) and CCM 4916 as Brucella of terrestrial origin. Both strains harboured five to six copies of the insertion element IS711, displaying a unique banding pattern as determined by Southern blotting. In comparative multilocus VNTR (variable-number tandem-repeat) analysis (MLVA) with 296 different genotypes, the two isolates grouped together, but formed a separate cluster within the genus Brucella. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis using nine different loci also placed the two isolates separately from other brucellae. In the IS711-based AMOS PCR, a 1900 bp fragment was generated with the Brucella ovis-specific primers, revealing that the insertion element had integrated between a putative membrane protein and cboL, encoding a methyltransferase, an integration site not observed in other brucellae. Isolates CCM 4915(T) and CCM 4916 could be clearly distinguished from all known Brucella species and their biovars by means of both their phenotypic and molecular

  10. Telmatocola sphagniphila gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel dendriform planctomycete from northern wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina S. Kulichevskaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Members of the phylum Planctomycetes are common inhabitants of northern wetlands. We used barcoded pyrosequencing to survey bacterial diversity in an acidic (pH 4.0 Sphagnum peat sampled from the peat bog Obukhovskoye, European North Russia. A total of 21189 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained, of which 1081 reads (5.1% belonged to the Planctomycetes. Two-thirds of these sequences affiliated with planctomycete groups for which characterized representatives have not yet been available. Here, we describe two organisms from one of these previously uncultivated planctomycete groups. One isolate, strain OB3, was obtained from the peat sample used in our molecular study, while another strain, SP2T (=DSM 23888T = VKM B-2710T, was isolated from the peat bog Staroselskiy moss. Both isolates are represented by aerobic, budding, pink-pigmented, non-motile, spherical cells that are arranged in unusual, dendriform-like structures during growth on solid media. These bacteria are moderately acidophilic and mesophilic, capable of growth at pH 4.0-7.0 (optimum pH 5.0-5.5 and at 6-30ºC (optimum 20-26ºC. The preferred growth substrates are various heteropolysaccharides and sugars, the latter being utilized only if provided in low concentrations (≤ 0.025%. In contrast to other described planctomycetes, strains SP2T and OB3 possess weak cellulolytic potential. The major fatty acids are C16:1ω5c, C18:1ω5c, C16:0 and C18:0. Characteristic lipids are the n-C31 polyunsaturated alkene (9-10 double bonds and C30:1/C32:1 (ω-1 hydroxy fatty acids. The G+C content of the DNA is 58.5-59.0 mol%. Strains SP2T and OB3 share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, which exhibit only 86 and 87% similarity to those of Gemmata obscuriglobus and Zavarzinella formosa. Based on the characteristics reported here, we propose to classify these novel planctomycetes as representatives of a novel genus and species, Telmatocola sphagniphila gen. nov., sp. nov.

  11. Isolation, Characterization and Identification of Microalgae from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Luque Alanís, Patricio

    2013-05-01

    Eukaryotic microalgae from the Red Sea were isolated, characterized and identified with the purpose of building a culture collection that will serve future research activities in the area of industrial microbiology. Seven sampling locations were surveyed using an in-house designed isolation protocol. Microalgae enrichment was carried out in vitro using the streak plate method and fluorescence activated cell sorting approaches. Colonial and cellular microscopy, growth media preference assays, as well as temperature, pH and salinity tolerance tests were carried out to describe the isolates. DNA extraction, PCR amplification, template sequencing and in silico analyses were carried out to identify the isolates and arrange them in a proper phylogenetic description. In total, 129 isolates were obtained. From these, only 39 were selected for characterization given their increased ability of accumulating large amounts of biomass in solid and liquid media in relatively short periods of time. All of these have a green color, are unicellular, non-motile, photosynthetic organisms and have a cell size ranging from 5 to 8 µm. More than half of them showed growth preference in Walne media, followed by F/2, MN and BG-11 SW. Maximum temperature tolerance of all organisms was around 38 ºC, while optimum growth was observed close to 25 ºC. pH preference was diverse and three groups were identified: acidic (6), intermediate (8 - 9) and alkaline (> 10) growing isolates. Salinity tests showed an overall growth preference at 25 PSU, approximately 10 units lower than that found at the sampling stations. Most isolates showed diminished growth at high salinity and high pH, except for OS3S1b which grew well in both cases, and could be an interesting strain to study further. Twenty four isolates were related to Ulvophyceae sp. MBIC10591 by BLAST approaches with a maximum identity of 96 - 97%. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was created for these isolates, relative to the BLAST hits

  12. [Investigation of in vitro metronidazole resistance in the clinical isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertabaklar, Hatice; Yaman Karadam, Senem; Malatyalı, Erdoğan; Ertuğ, Sema

    2016-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated, urogenital anaerobic protozoon is reported as an important cause of vaginitis with a global distribution. Although metronidazole is the primary choice of drug for the treatment of trichomoniasis, the presence of resistant isolates from many different countries highlights the need of novel drugs for the treatment. Many studies from Turkey mostly dealing with the in vitro effects of compounds and natural products against T.vaginalis have been reported, however, only one study has been encountered searching the metronidazole resistance in a single T.vaginalis isolate. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro metronidazole resistance and minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) of the isolates from symptomatic cases. T.vaginalis strains isolated from vaginal discharge samples of symptomatic women that were sent to Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Research and Training Hospital Parasitology Laboratory, between 2009-2014 period, were included in the study. The strains were isolated by the inoculation of samples into trypticase-yeast-maltose medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. A total of 40 T.vaginalis isolates stored by cryopreservation were revived before the experiments. T.vaginalis trophozoites were incubated with different concentrations of metronidazole (200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.12, 1.56 μg/ml) and the viability of cells were examined in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions under phase contrast microscope. Additionally, non-motile isolates were further inoculated into fresh media and viability was checked. The wells containing motile trophozoites after 48 hours of incubation with 15 µg/ml and/or higher metronidazole concentration in anaerobic condition and 75 µg/ml and/or higher metronidazole concentration in aerobic conditions were determined as resistant isolates. Of the 40 T.vaginalis isolates three (7.5%) were resistant to metronidazole. MLC mean values of metronidazole

  13. Thioredoxin A Is Essential for Motility and Contributes to Host Infection of Listeria monocytogenes via Redox Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Changyong; Dong, Zhimei; Han, Xiao; Wang, Hang; Jiang, Li; Sun, Jing; Yang, Yongchun; Ma, Tiantian; Shao, Chunyan; Wang, Xiaodu; Chen, Zhongwei; Fang, Weihuan; Freitag, Nancy E; Huang, Huarong; Song, Houhui

    2017-01-01

    Microbes employ the thioredoxin system to defend against oxidative stress and ensure correct disulfide bonding to maintain protein function. Listeria monocytogenes has been shown to encode a putative thioredoxin, TrxA, but its biological roles and underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we showed that expression of L. monocytogenes TrxA is significantly induced in bacteria treated with the thiol-specific oxidizing agent, diamide. Deletion of trxA markedly compromised tolerance of the pathogen to diamide, and mainly impaired early stages of infection in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. In addition, most trxA mutant bacteria were not associated with polymerized actin, and the rare bacteria that were associated with polymerized actin displayed very short tails or clouds during infection. Deletion or constitutive overexpression of TrxA, which was regulated by SigH, severely attenuated the virulence of the pathogen. Transcriptome analysis of L. monocytogenes revealed over 270 genes that were differentially transcribed in the Δ trxA mutant compared to the wild-type, especially for the virulence-associated genes plcA, mpl, hly, actA , and plcB . Particularly, deletion of TrxA completely reduced LLO expression, and thereby led to a thoroughly impaired hemolytic activity. Expression of these virulence factors are positively regulated by the master regulator PrfA that was found here to use TrxA to maintain its reduced forms for activation. Interestingly, the trxA deletion mutant completely lacked flagella and was non-motile. We further confirmed that this deficiency is attributable to TrxA in maintaining the reduced intracellular monomer status of MogR, the key regulator for flagellar formation, to ensure correct dimerization. In summary, we demonstrated for the first time that L. monocytogenes thioredoxin A as a vital cellular reductase is essential for maintaining a highly reducing environment in the bacterial cytosol, which provides a favorable condition for

  14. Modification of Salmonella Typhimurium Motility by the Probiotic Yeast Strain Saccharomyces boulardii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier-Bres, Rodolphe; Prodon, François; Munro, Patrick; Rampal, Patrick; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Peyron, Jean François; Czerucka, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    Background Motility is an important component of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) pathogenesis allowing the bacteria to move into appropriate niches, across the mucus layer and invade the intestinal epithelium. In vitro, flagellum-associated motility is closely related to the invasive properties of ST. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii BIOCODEX (S.b-B) is widely prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of diarrheal diseases caused by bacteria or antibiotics. In case of Salmonella infection, S.b-B has been shown to decrease ST invasion of T84 colon cell line. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of S.b-B on ST motility. Methodology/Principal Findings Experiments were performed on human colonic T84 cells infected by the Salmonella strain 1344 alone or in the presence of S.b-B. The motility of Salmonella was recorded by time-lapse video microscopy. Next, a manual tracking was performed to analyze bacteria dynamics (MTrackJ plugin, NIH image J software). This revealed that the speed of bacterial movement was modified in the presence of S.b-B. The median curvilinear velocity (CLV) of Salmonella incubated alone with T84 decreased from 43.3 µm/sec to 31.2 µm/sec in the presence of S.b-B. Measurement of track linearity (TL) showed similar trends: S.b-B decreased by 15% the number of bacteria with linear tract (LT) and increased by 22% the number of bacteria with rotator tract (RT). Correlation between ST motility and invasion was further established by studying a non-motile flagella-deficient ST strain. Indeed this strain that moved with a CLV of 0.5 µm/sec, presented a majority of RT and a significant decrease in invasion properties. Importantly, we show that S.b-B modified the motility of the pathogenic strain SL1344 and significantly decreased invasion of T84 cells by this strain. Conclusions This study reveals that S.b-B modifies Salmonella's motility and trajectory which may account for the modification of Salmonella

  15. Demequina lutea sp. nov., isolated from a high Arctic permafrost soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Kai Waldemar; Herbert, Rodney Andrew; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Schumann, Peter; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard

    2009-04-01

    Two Gram-stain-positive, pigmented, non-motile, non-spore-forming, pleomorphic, rod-shaped bacteria (strains SV45(T) and SV47), isolated from a permafrost soil collected from the Adventdalen valley, Spitsbergen, northern Norway, have been characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the two permafrost isolates formed a distinct phyletic line within the suborder Micrococcineae of the order Actinomycetales. DNA-DNA hybridization analyses indicate that strains SV45(T) and SV47 are closely related (60-69 % relatedness) and belong to the same species, although they show slightly different colony pigmentation. The closest phylogenetic neighbour was Demequina aestuarii JC2054(T), with 96 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Optimum growth of SV45(T) and SV47 occurred aerobically in the absence of NaCl, but both isolates tolerated up to 2 % NaCl (w/v) in the growth medium. Growth under anaerobic conditions was slow and weak. The peptidoglycan of both isolates was of the A4beta type with l-ornithine as the diamino acid and serine as a component of the interpeptide bridge with either d-aspartate (SV45(T)) or d-glutamate (SV47) as the N-terminal amino acid. The major fatty acids present in both isolates were C(15 : 0) (3.2-8.6 %), iso-C(16 : 0) (5.0-8.9 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (59.4-61.5 %), anteiso-C(17 : 0) (4.1-8.8 %) and anteiso-C(15 : 1) (4.4-6.4 %). Isoprenoid quinones were present at exceptionally low levels in both isolates, and only demethylmenaquinone DMK-9(H(4)) could be identified with any degree of confidence. Phylogenetic analysis and differences in physiological and biochemical characteristics between the strains and Demequina aestuarii JC2054(T) indicate that these isolates belong to a novel species within the genus Demequina, for which the name Demequina lutea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SV45(T) (=LMG 24795(T) =DSM 19970(T)).

  16. Megasphaera indica sp. nov., an obligate anaerobic bacteria isolated from human faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjekar, V B; Marathe, N P; Ramana, V Venkata; Shouche, Y S; Ranade, D R

    2014-07-01

    Two coccoid, non-motile, obligately anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative bacteria, occurring singly or in pairs, or as short chains, with a mean size of 1.4-2.5 µm were isolated from the faeces of two healthy human volunteers, aged 26 and 56 years, and were designated NMBHI-10(T) and BLPYG-7, respectively. Both the strains were affiliated to the sub-branch Sporomusa of the class Clostridia as revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The isolates NMBHI-10(T) and BLPYG-7 showed 99.1 and 99.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively, with Megasphaera elsdenii JCM 1772(T). DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic analysis showed that both the strains were distinct from their closest relative, M. elsdenii JCM 1772(T) (42 and 53% DNA-DNA relatedness with NMBHI-10(T) and BLPYG-7, respectively), but belong to the same species (DNA-DNA relatedness of 80.9 % between the isolates). According to DNA-DNA hybridization results, the coccoid strains belong to the same genospecies, and neither is related to any of the recognized species of the genus Megasphaera. Strains NMBHI-10(T) and BLPYG-7 grew in PYG broth at temperatures of between 15 and 40 °C (optimum 37 °C), but not at 45 °C. The strains utilized a range of carbohydrates as sources of carbon and energy including glucose, lactose, cellobiose, rhamnose, galactose and sucrose. Glucose fermentation resulted in the formation of volatile fatty acids, mainly caproic acid and organic acids such as succinic acid. Phylogenetic analysis, specific phenotypic characteristics and/or DNA G+C content also differentiated the strains from each other and from their closest relatives. The DNA G+C contents of strains NMBHI-10(T) and BLPYG-7 are 57.7 and 54.9 mol%, respectively. The major fatty acids were 12 : 0 FAME and 17 : 0 CYC FAME. On the basis of these data, we conclude that strains NMBHI-10(T) and BLPYG-7 should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Megasphaera, for which the name Megsphaera indica sp. nov

  17. Clostridium punense sp. nov., an obligate anaerobe isolated from healthy human faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjekar, Vikram Bholanath; Marathe, Nachiket Prakash; Shouche, Yogesh Shreepad; Ranade, Dilip Ramchandra

    2015-12-01

    An obligately anaerobic, rod-shaped (0.5-1.0 × 2.0-10.0 μm), Gram-stain-positive bacterium, occurring mainly singly or in pairs, and designated BLPYG-8T, was isolated from faeces of a healthy human volunteer aged 56 years. Cells were non-motile. Oval, terminal spores were formed that swell the cells. The strain was affiliated with the genus Clostridium sensu stricto (Clostridium rRNA cluster I) as revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain BLPYG-8T showed 97.3 to 97.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Clostridium sulfidigenes DSM 18982T, Clostridium subterminale DSM 6970T and Clostridium thiosulfatireducens DSM 13105T. DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic analysis showed that the strain was distinct from its closest relatives, C. sulfidigenes DSM 18982T, C. subterminale DSM 6970T, C. thiosulfatireducens DSM 13105T with 54.2, 53.9 and 53.3 % DNA-DNA relatedness, respectively. Strain BLPYG-8T grew in PYG broth at temperatures between 20 and 40 °C (optimum 37 °C). The strain utilized a range of amino acids as well as carbohydrates as a source of carbon and energy. Glucose fermentation resulted in the formation of volatile fatty acids mainly acetic acid, n-butyric acid and organic acids such as succinic and lactic acid. The DNA G+C content of strain BLPYG-8T was 44.1 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were C14 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis and specific phenotypic characteristics and/or DNA G+C content differentiated the strain from its closest relatives. On the basis of these data, strain BLPYG-8T represents a novel species of the genus Clostridium, for which the name Clostridium punense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BLPYG-8T ( = DSM 28650T = CCUG 64195T = MCC 2737T).

  18. Molecular identification and histopathological study of natural Streptococcus agalactiae infection in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    Laith Abdul Razzak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main objective of this study was to emphasize on histopathological examinations and molecular identification of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from natural infections in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in Temerloh Pahang, Malaysia, as well as to determine the susceptibility of the pathogen strains to various currently available antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: The diseased fishes were observed for variable clinical signs including fin hemorrhages, alterations in behavior associated with erratic swimming, exophthalmia, and mortality. Tissue samples from the eyes, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen were taken for bacterial isolation. Identification of S. agalactiae was screened by biochemical methods and confirmed by VITEK 2 and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The antibiogram profiling of the isolate was tested against 18 standard antibiotics included nitrofurantoin, flumequine, florfenicol, amoxylin, doxycycline, oleandomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, lincomycin, colistin sulfate, oxolinic acid, novobiocin, spiramycin, erythromycin, fosfomycin, neomycin, gentamycin, and polymyxin B. The histopathological analysis of eyes, brain, liver, kidney, and spleen was observed for abnormalities related to S. agalactiae infection. Results: The suspected colonies of S. agalactiae identified by biochemical methods was observed as Gram-positive chained cocci, β-hemolytic, and non-motile. The isolate was confirmed as S. agalactiae by VITEK 2 (99% similarity, reconfirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (99% similarity and deposited in GenBank with accession no. KT869025. The isolate was observed to be resistance to neomycin and gentamicin. The most consistent gross findings were marked hemorrhages, erosions of caudal fin, and exophthalmos. Microscopic examination confirmed the presence of marked congestion and infiltration of inflammatory cell in the eye, brain, kidney, liver, and spleen. Eye samples showed damage of the lens capsule

  19. Primary ciliogenesis defects are associated with human astrocytoma/glioblastoma cells

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    Rattner Jerome B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary cilia are non-motile sensory cytoplasmic organelles that have been implicated in signal transduction, cell to cell communication, left and right pattern embryonic development, sensation of fluid flow, regulation of calcium levels, mechanosensation, growth factor signaling and cell cycle progression. Defects in the formation and/or function of these structures underlie a variety of human diseases such as Alström, Bardet-Biedl, Joubert, Meckel-Gruber and oral-facial-digital type 1 syndromes. The expression and function of primary cilia in cancer cells has now become a focus of attention but has not been studied in astrocytomas/glioblastomas. To begin to address this issue, we compared the structure and expression of primary cilia in a normal human astrocyte cell line with five human astrocytoma/glioblastoma cell lines. Methods Cultured normal human astrocytes and five human astrocytoma/glioblastoma cell lines were examined for primary cilia expression and structure using indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Monospecific antibodies were used to detect primary cilia and map the relationship between the primary cilia region and sites of endocytosis. Results We show that expression of primary cilia in normal astrocytes is cell cycle related and the primary cilium extends through the cell within a unique structure which we show to be a site of endocytosis. Importantly, we document that in each of the five astrocytoma/glioblastoma cell lines fully formed primary cilia are either expressed at a very low level, are completely absent or have aberrant forms, due to incomplete ciliogenesis. Conclusions The recent discovery of the importance of primary cilia in a variety of cell functions raises the possibility that this structure may have a role in a variety of cancers. Our finding that the formation of the primary cilium is disrupted in cells derived from astrocytoma/glioblastoma tumors provides the first

  20. Ponticoccus marisrubri sp. nov., a moderately halophilic marine bacterium of the family Rhodobacteraceae

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Guishan

    2017-10-06

    Strain SJ5A-1T, a Gram-stain-negative, coccus-shaped, non-motile, aerobic bacterium, was isolated from the brine-seawater interface of the Erba Deep in the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. The colonies of strain SJ5A-1T have a beige to pale-brown pigmentation, are approximately 0.5-0.7 µm in diameter, and are catalase and oxidase positive. Growth occurred optimally at 30-33 °C, pH 7.0-7.5, and in the presence of 9.0-12.0 % NaCl (w/v). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicates that strain SJ5A-1T is a member of the genus Ponticoccus within the family Rhodobacteraceae. Ponticoccus litoralis DSM 18986T is the most closely related described species based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identity (96.7 %). The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain SJ5A-1T and P. litoralis DSM 18986T was 36.7 %. The major respiratory quinone of strain SJ5A-1T is Q-10; it predominantly uses the fatty acids C18 : 1 (54.2 %), C18 : 0 (11.2 %), C16 : 0 (8.6 %), 11-methyl C18 : 1ω7c (7.7 %), C19 : 0cyclo ω8c (3.3 %), and C12 : 1 3-OH (3.5 %), and its major polar lipids are phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphocholine, an unknown aminolipid, an unknown phospholipid and two unknown lipids. The genome draft of strain SJ5A-1T as presented here is 4 562 830 bp in size and the DNA G+C content is 68.0 mol %. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic data, strain SJ5A-1T represents a novel species in the genus Ponticoccus, for which we propose the name Ponticoccus marisrubri sp. nov. The type strain of P. marisrubri is SJ5A-1T (=JCM 19520T=ACCC19863T).

  1. Streptococcus caviae sp. nov., isolated from guinea pig faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; Hilderink, Loes J; Oost, John van der; Vos, Willem M de; Plugge, Caroline M

    2017-05-01

    A novel cellobiose-degrading and lactate-producing bacterium, strain Cavy grass 6T, was isolated from faecal samples of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Cells of the strain were ovalshaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming, Gram-stain-positive and facultatively anaerobic. The strain gr at 25-40 °C (optimum 37 °C) and pH 4.5-9.5 (optimum 8.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain Cavy grass 6T belongs to the genus Streptococcus with its closest relative being Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T with only 96.5 % similarity. Comparing strain Cavy grass 6T and Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T, average nucleotide identity and level of digital DNA-DNA hybridization dDDH were only 86.9 and 33.3 %, respectively. Housekeeping genes groEL and gyrA were different between strain Cavy grass 6T and other streptococci. The G+C content of strain Cavy grass 6T was 42.6±0.3 mol%. The major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids of strain Cavy grass 6T were C16:0, C20 : 1ω9c and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c). Strain Cavy grass 6T ferment a range of plant mono- and disaccharides as well as polymeric carbohydrates, including cellobiose, dulcitol, d-glucose, maltose, raffinose, sucrose, l-sorbose, trehalose, inulin and dried grass extract, to lactate, formate, acetate and ethanol. Based on phylogenetic and physiological characteristics, Cavy grass 6T can be distinguished from other members of the genus Streptococcus. Therefore, a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, family Streptococcaceae, order Lactobacillales is proposed, Streptococcuscaviae sp. nov. (type strain Cavy grass 6T=TISTR 2371T=DSM 102819T).

  2. La géochimie organique des sédiments marins profonds. Mission orgon 3, 1976 (Mauritanie, Sénégal, Iles du Cap-Vert. Généralités et résultats obtenus à la mer. Organic Geochemistry of Deep Marine Sediments. Orgon 3 Mission, 1976 (Mauritania,Senegal,Cape Verde Islands. General and Results Obtained At Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelet R.

    2006-11-01

    écédentes missions ORLON. A la pauvreté générale en bactéries des sédiments étudiés, jointe à la disparition totale de ces bactéries très rapidement dans la profondeur des carottes, se superpose ici, dans des niveaux profonds différents suivant les carottes, une microflore très abondante et active (non sporulée. L'importance géologique de cette découverte ne saurait être sous-estimée. Seven separate articles will be published on the ORLON 3 mission.The first will deal with general aspects, the second with the general geological setting and the other five with the results obtained at sea in the fields of interpreting echosounder profiles, describing tore samples, observing parriculote organic motter, examining entrapped gas and investigating microbiology. Echosounder profiles describe the topography of the sea bed which appears to be slashed by canyons. They also detect sedimentary sliding which appears as a normal process of sediment deposition in the region being investigated. The im.nediate description of core samples in particular revealed turbidite levels with bioclastic elements subsisting under the lysocline, thus confirming the preceding considerations among others. An examination of the figured elements in the organic matter suggests the importance of eolian detrital influx, which is something new. An analysis of the entrappeci gas gives rise ta clearcut opposition between the northern region (radial of Nouadhibou and the southern region (a region of coastal rivers and the Kayar canyon. In the latter region, the gas contains almost nothing other thon methane as a hydrocarbon. The amounts of methane in the gas are irregularly distributed and show no correlation either with the organic carbon contents or with the microbial richness of the levels. In the north the methane is slightly less predominant (ethane represents a few hundredths of methane, and the upper homo-logous series have merely traces. Although there is no correlation witb the microbial richness

  3. Phenotypic characterization and 16S rDNA identification of culturable non-obligate halophilic bacterial communities from a hypersaline lake, La Sal del Rey, in extreme South Texas (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kristen; Zaidan, Frederic; Elizondo, Omar R; Lowe, Kristine L

    2012-02-02

    La Sal del Rey ("the King's Salt") is one of several naturally-occurring salt lakes in Hidalgo County, Texas and is part of the Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge. The research objective was to isolate and characterize halophilic microorganisms from La Sal del Rey. Water samples were collected from the lake and a small creek that feeds into the lake. Soil samples were collected from land adjacent to the water sample locations. Sample salinity was determined using a refractometer. Samples were diluted and cultured on a synthetic saline medium to grow halophilic bacteria. The density of halophiles was estimated by viable plate counts. A collection of isolates was selected, gram-stained, tested for catalase, and characterized using API 20E® test strips. Isolates were putatively identified by sequencing the 16S rDNA. Carbon source utilization by the microbial community from each sample site was examined using EcoPlate™ assays and the carbon utilization total activity of the community was determined. Results showed that salinity ranged from 4 parts per thousand (ppt) at the lake water source to 420 ppt in water samples taken just along the lake shore. The density of halophilic bacteria in water samples ranged from 1.2 × 102 - 5.2 × 103 colony forming units per ml (cfu ml-1) whereas the density in soil samples ranged from 4.0 × 105 - 2.5 × 106 colony forming units per gram (cfu g-1). In general, as salinity increased the density of the bacterial community decreased. Microbial communities from water and soil samples were able to utilize 12 - 31 carbon substrates. The greatest number of substrates utilized was by water-borne communities compared to soil-based communities, especially at lower salinities. The majority of bacteria isolated were gram-negative, catalase-positive, rods. Biochemical profiles constructed from API 20E® test strips showed that bacterial isolates from low-salinity water samples (4 ppt) showed the greatest phenotypic diversity

  4. Investigation of susceptibility of Staphylococcus species to some antibacterial drugs by disk diffusion and broth microdilution

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    Ašanin Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify isolated Staphylococcus species and to investigate their sensitivity to some antibacterial drugs. The material used for these investigations were Staphylococcus isolates originating from milk samples. A total of 25 strains of Staphylococcus isolates were examined, including 24 from milk samples from cows with mastitis, and one strain was isolated from a milk sample from a cow following treatment for mastitis. For primary identification, catalase and oxidase tests were used, as well as the free coagulase test. Following the preliminary tests, the isolated strains were identified using commercial systems ID32 STAPH (bioMérieux, France and the BBL Crystal Gram-Positive ID Kit (Becton Dickinson, USA according to the enclosed instructions. The Staphylococcus isolates were examined for sensitivity to the following: oxacillin, penicillin, cefoxitin, gentamicin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim, and vacomycin using the disk diffusion method and the broth microdilution method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Strandards Institute - CLSI(2003, and the results were interpreted according to CLSI recommendations from 2008 and 2010. Antibiogram disks manufactured by Becton Dickinson (USA were used, and the broth microdilution method was applied using pure antibiotic substances from different manufacturers: erythromycin, chloramphenicol, cefoxitin, gentamicin, oxacillin, tetracycline (Sigma Aldrich, USA, sulfametoxazol (Fluka, USA, penicillin (Calbiochem, Germany, vancomycin (Abbott laboratories, USA, ciprofloxacin and trimetoprim (Zdravlje A.D., Serbia. All 25 strains were catalase positive and oxidase negative. Of the 25 strains, 19 were coagulase positive and 6 were coagulase negative.With the implementation of the disk diffusion method on 19 strains of S. aureus, 17 were established to be resistant to penicillin (89.5%, and 2 strains to gentamicin

  5. Agrococcus terreus sp. nov. and Micrococcus terreus sp. nov., isolated from forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Yue; Liu, Xing-Yu; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2010-08-01

    Two bacterial strains, DNG5T and V3M1T, isolated from forest soil of the Changbai mountains in China, were characterized using a polyphasic approach. Analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strains DNG5T and V3M1T were phylogenetically related to members of the genus Agrococcus (96.0-98.4% similarity) and Micrococcus (96.7-98.0% similarity), respectively, within the order Actinomycetales. Strains DNG5T and V3M1T were Gram-stain-positive and strictly aerobic and formed yellow colonies on LB agar. Cells of strain DNG5T were short, non-motile rods, 0.4-0.5x0.8-1.0 microm. Strain DNG5T contained MK-10 and MK-11 as the major respiratory quinones and anteiso-C15:0 (49.2%) and iso-C16:0 (22.4%) as the major fatty acids. The diamino acid in the peptidoglycan of strain DNG5T was 2,4-diaminobutyric acid and the murein was of the acetyl type. Cells of strain V3M1T were cocci, 0.6-0.7 microm in diameter. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain V3M1T contained the amino acids lysine, glutamic acid, alanine and glycine. Strain V3M1T contained MK-7, MK-7(H2), MK-8 and MK-8(H2) as respiratory quinones and anteiso-C15:0 (78.2%) and iso-C15:0 (13.1%) as the major cellular fatty acids. The DNA G+C contents of strains DNG5T and V3M1T were 75.9 and 67.2 mol%, respectively. The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain DNG5T to Agrococcus jejuensis DSM 22002T, A. jenensis JCM 9950T, A. baldri JCM 12132T and A. citreus JCM 12398T was 58.3, 43.9, 36.1 and 54.1%, respectively. The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain V3M1T to Micrococcus luteus CGMCC 1.2299T, M. antarcticus CGMCC 1.2373T and M. lylae CGMCC 1.2300T was 57.5, 45.4 and 39.0%, respectively. Combining phenotypic and genotypic traits, strain DNG5T represents a novel species of the genus Agrococcus, for which the name Agrococcus terreus sp. nov. is proposed, with DNG5T (=CGMCC 1.6960T =NBRC 104260T) as the type strain. Strain V3M1T represents a novel species of the genus Micrococcus, for which the name Micrococcus terreus sp. nov. is

  6. Lunatimonas lonarensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a haloalkaline bacterium of the family Cyclobacteriaceae with nitrate reducing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, T N R; Aditya, S; Bhumika, V; Kumar, P Anil

    2014-02-01

    Novel pinkish-orange pigmented, Gram-negative staining, half-moon shaped, non-motile, strictly aerobic strains designated AK24(T) and AK26 were isolated from water and sediment samples of Lonar Lake, Buldhana district, Maharahstra, India. Both strains were positive for oxidase, catalase and β-galactosidase activities. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C15:0 (41.5%), anteiso-C15:0 (9.7%), iso-C17:0 3OH (9.6%), iso-C17:1 ω9c (10.2%) and C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c/iso-C15:0 2OH (summed feature 3) (14.4%). The strains contained MK-7 as the major respiratory quinone, and phosphatidylethanolamine and five unidentified lipids as the polar lipids. Blast analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain AK24(T) showed that it was closely related to Aquiflexum balticum, with a pair-wise sequence similarity of 91.6%, as well as to Fontibacter ferrireducens, Belliella baltica and Indibacter alkaliphilus (91.3, 91.2 and 91.2% pair-wise sequence similarity, respectively), but it only had between 88.6 and 91.0% pair-wise sequence similarity to the rest of the family members. The MALDI-TOF assay reported no significant similarities for AK24(T) and AK26, since they potentially represented a new species. A MALDI MSP dendrogram showed close similarity between the two strains, but they maintained a distance from their phylogenetic neighbors. The genome of AK24(T) showed the presence of heavy metal tolerance genes, including the genes providing resistance to arsenic, cadmium, cobalt and zinc. A cluster of heat shock resistance genes was also found in the genome. Two lantibiotic producing genes, LanR and LasB, were also found in the genome of AK24(T). Strains AK24(T) and AK26 were very closely related to each other with 99.5% pair-wise sequence similarity. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the strains were members of the family Cyclobacteriaceae and they clustered with the genus Mariniradius, as well as with the genera Aquiflexum, Cecembia, Fontibacter, Indibacter, and Shivajiella

  7. Characterization and functional analysis of seven flagellin genes in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. Characterization of R. leguminosarum flagellins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambalo Dinah D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae establishes symbiotic nitrogen fixing partnerships with plant species belonging to the Tribe Vicieae, which includes the genera Vicia, Lathyrus, Pisum and Lens. Motility and chemotaxis are important in the ecology of R. leguminosarum to provide a competitive advantage during the early steps of nodulation, but the mechanisms of motility and flagellar assembly remain poorly studied. This paper addresses the role of the seven flagellin genes in producing a functional flagellum. Results R. leguminosarum strains 3841 and VF39SM have seven flagellin genes (flaA, flaB, flaC, flaD, flaE, flaH, and flaG, which are transcribed separately. The predicted flagellins of 3841 are highly similar or identical to the corresponding flagellins in VF39SM. flaA, flaB, flaC, and flaD are in tandem array and are located in the main flagellar gene cluster. flaH and flaG are located outside of the flagellar/motility region while flaE is plasmid-borne. Five flagellin subunits (FlaA, FlaB, FlaC, FlaE, and FlaG are highly similar to each other, whereas FlaD and FlaH are more distantly related. All flagellins exhibit conserved amino acid residues at the N- and C-terminal ends and are variable in the central regions. Strain 3841 has 1-3 plain subpolar flagella while strain VF39SM exhibits 4-7 plain peritrichous flagella. Three flagellins (FlaA/B/C and five flagellins (FlaA/B/C/E/G were detected by mass spectrometry in the flagellar filaments of strains 3841 and VF39SM, respectively. Mutation of flaA resulted in non-motile VF39SM and extremely reduced motility in 3841. Individual mutations of flaB and flaC resulted in shorter flagellar filaments and consequently reduced swimming and swarming motility for both strains. Mutant VF39SM strains carrying individual mutations in flaD, flaE, flaH, and flaG were not significantly affected in motility and filament morphology. The flagellar filament and the motility of 3841 strains

  8. Study the Stability of SSR Repeats of pEA29 Plasmid of the Casual Agent of Fire Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baghaee Ravari

    2016-02-01

    negative, catalase positive and non fluorescent on King's B. The biochemical tests for reduction of nitrate, tween 20 and growth at 36 °C were recorded negative. All E. amylovora strains induced the hypersensitive reaction (HR on tobacco and pelargonium leaves. All phenotypic tests were agreed with standard references. There is no variation in lab expermints. Pathogenicity assay were checked using immature pear fruit in two separate treatments. Inoculation caused water soaking, tissue necrosis and sometimes necrosis in pear samples. No symptoms were observed in the negative controls. There is no variation in this assay. It seems that in most cases, the pEA29 plasmid can modify synthesis of amylovoran, levansucrase and finally affect pathogenicity in the host plant with respect to the environment. All strains were check by agri strips (Bioreba, Switzeland, Reinach in lateral flow immune chromatography to confirm presence of E. amylovora. All strains of E. amylovora amplified a fragment of the expected size using primers A and B. The accuracy of the direct PCr was evaluated by nested PCR using primers AJ75/AJ76. The PCR products were visualized after electrophoresis on 1.2% agarose gels. A 3kb DNA ladder (Fermentas, Lithuania was used as a molecular size marker in all experiments. In order to chracterize SSR units in thi study, part of PstI fragment was amplified by RS1/Rs2 primers. The relevant variability found in the length of the this fragment was explained by a variation in the number of copies of a SSRs of 8 bp, GAATTACA. It is recorded 4 and 8 times in apple and rose plants respectively. Recording the SSRs of 4, 5 and 7 in other hosts including pear, hawthorn and quince may be indicated that under natural conditions, a mixture of E. amylovora strains with different SSR numbers can be caused fire blight. Frequent transffering of bacterial isolats to new nutrient agar medium did not change the SSR units ater three months. Among three testd tretments, keeping in cold