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Sample records for non-motile non-sporulating catalase-positive

  1. Anaerobic, non-sporulating, Gram-positive bacilli bacteraemia characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lau, Susanna KP; Woo, Patrick CY; Fung, Ami MY; Chan, King-man; Woo, Gibson KS; Yuen, Kwok-yung

    2004-01-01

    ...{at}hkucc.hku.hk Received June 30, 2004 Accepted August 31, 2004 Owing to the difficulties in identifying anaerobic, non-sporulating, Gram-positive bacilli in clinical microbiology laboratories, the epidemiology...

  2. Anaerobic, non-sporulating, Gram-positive bacilli bacteraemia characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Fung, Ami M Y; Chan, King-man; Woo, Gibson K S; Yuen, Kwok-yung

    2004-12-01

    Owing to the difficulties in identifying anaerobic, non-sporulating, Gram-positive bacilli in clinical microbiology laboratories, the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of disease of many of these bacteria have been poorly understood. The application of 16S rRNA gene sequencing in characterizing bacteraemia due to anaerobic, non-sporulating Gram-positive bacilli during a 4-year period is described. The first case of Olsenella uli bacteraemia, in a patient with acute cholangitis, is also reported. Among 165 blood culture isolates of anaerobic, Gram-positive bacilli, 75 were identified as Propionibacterium acnes by phenotypic tests and 21 as members of other anaerobic, non-sporulating Gram-positive bacilli by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Of these 96 isolates, 16 (17 %) were associated with cases of clinically significant bacteraemia, among which 10 (63 %) were caused by Eggerthella, four (25 %) by Lactobacillus and one (6 %) by each of Eubacterium tenue and O. uli. Five of the 10 Eggerthella isolates were Eggerthella lenta, whereas the other five belonged to two novel Eggerthella species, with Eggerthella hongkongensis being almost as prevalent as Eggerthella lenta. Underlying disease in the gastrointestinal tract, isolation of Eggerthella and Lactobacillus, and monomicrobial bacteraemia were associated with clinically significant bacteraemia, whereas isolation of P. acnes and polymicrobial bacteraemia were associated with pseudobacteraemia. Most patients with clinically significant bacteraemia had underlying diseases, with diseases in the gastrointestinal tract being most common. The overall mortality rate was 31 %. Immunocompromised patients with clinically significant bacteraemia due to anaerobic, non-sporulating, Gram-positive bacilli other than P. acnes should be treated with appropriate antibiotics. The unexpected frequency of isolation of Eggerthella from blood cultures and its association with clinically significant disease suggest that this genus is probably of

  3. Identification problems with sterile fungi, illustrated by a keratitis due to a non-sporulating Chaetomium-like species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod Mootha, V; Shahinpoor, P; Sutton, Deanna A; Xin, Lian; Najafzadeh, M J; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2012-05-01

    A 39-year-old farm worker was injured in her right eye by a piece of wire, which resulted in a corneal ulcer unresponsive to antibiotic treatment. The clinical appearance was that of a corneal infiltrate with feathery borders resembling fungal keratitis. Corneal scrapings were collected and the patient was started on natamycin 5% eye drops, fluconazole 0.3% eye drops, and oral fluconazole. A non-sporulating fungus was isolated from the samples. Based upon macroscopic and microscopic morphologic features, it was provisionally identified as a Papulaspora species due to the fact that members of this genus generally do not form diagnostically useful conidia. However, it was found through the use of ITS sequencing that the isolate clustered within the ascomycete genus Chaetomium. The sequence did not fully match with any sequences of available ex-type strains of Chaetomium, Thielavia and Papulaspora and hence might belong to an undescribed specie. However, without diagnostic morphological features the taxon cannot be introduced as a novel member of the genus Chaetomium. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to published standards. The corneal ulcer was successfully treated with six weeks of antifungal therapy.

  4. High diversity of non-sporulating moulds in respiratory specimens of immunocompromised patients: should all the species be reported when diagnosing invasive aspergillosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Alanio, Alexandre; Cabaret, Odile; Olivi, Martine; Foulet, Françoise; Cordonnier, Catherine; Costa, Jean-Marc; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2015-09-01

    Non-sporulating moulds (NSMs) isolated from respiratory specimens are usually discarded without further testing although they may have pathogenic effects in immunocompromised patients. The objective of this study was to determine the identity and frequency of NSMs in patients with haematological malignancies. We analysed the mycological results of 251 consecutive respiratory samples from 104 haematology patients. Yeast and sporulating moulds were identified at the genus/species level according to their phenotypic features. NSMs were identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. We detected 179 positive samples, of which 10.1% (18/179) were mixtures of moulds and 26.3% (47/179) were mixtures of moulds and yeast. We identified 142 moulds belonging to 11 different genera/species or groups, with Aspergillus fumigatus (n = 50), Penicillium spp. (n = 31) and NSM (n = 24) being the most frequently isolated species. Twenty-two NSMs were successfully sequenced: 18 were basidiomycetes and six were ascomycetes, corresponding to 16 different genera/species. NSMs were isolated with A. fumigatus in the same sample or in a subsequent sample in five patients with probable invasive aspergillosis. The conclusion is that the respiratory specimens of immunocompromised patients frequently contain very diverse mould species that may increase the virulence of pathogenic species. Reporting all mould species isolated when diagnosing invasive fungal infection could test this hypothesis.

  5. Predictive value of hypo-osmotic swelling test to identify viable non-motile sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WilliamM.Bucker

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To determine the predictive value of the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test to identify viable, non-motile sperm. Methods: Semen samples from 20 men with severe asthenozoospermia underwent traditional seminal analysis, eosin-nigrosin (EN) staining and the HOS test. A further EN stain was then pexformed on a HOS pre-treated aliquot and a total of 2000 further sperm examined. Results: The median sperm density was 5.1 million/mL (IQR 4.3-13.1) and the median motility was 3.0 % (IQR 0-7). Seven samples showed complete asthenozoospermia. Initial EN staining showed 59 % viability (range 48-69) despite the poor standard parameters and 47 % (range 33-61) in thecomplete asthenozoospermia subgroup. The HOS test showed 49.9 % reacted overall (range 40-59) and 41.7 %(range 22-61) in the complete asthenozoospermia subgroup. The combined HOSfEN stain showed the positive pre-dictive value of the HOS test to identify viable sperm was 84.2 % overall and 79.7 % in the complete asthenozoospermia subgroup. Conclusion: The HOS test can effectively predict sperm viability in patients with severe and complete asthenozoospermia. ( Asian J Andro12003 Sep; 5: 209-212)

  6. Identification of Specific Variations in a Non-Motile Strain of Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Originated from ATCC 27184 by Whole Genome Resequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qinglong; Chen, Gu; Wang, Yuling; Wei, Dong

    2015-10-12

    Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a widely used model organism in basic research and biofuel biotechnology application. Here, we report the genomic sequence of chromosome and seven plasmids of a glucose-tolerant, non-motile strain originated from ATCC 27184, GT-G, in use at Guangzhou. Through high-throughput genome re-sequencing and verification by Sanger sequencing, eight novel variants were identified in its chromosome and plasmids. The eight novel variants, especially the five non-silent mutations might have interesting effects on the phenotype of GT-G strains, for example the truncated Sll1895 and Slr0322 protein. These resequencing data provide background information for further research and application based on the GT-G strain and also provide evidence to study the evolution and divergence of Synechocystis 6803 globally.

  7. In-situ determination of the mechanical properties of crawling or non-motile bacteria by Atomic Force Microscopy under physiological conditions without immobilization

    CERN Document Server

    Dhahri, Samia; Marlière, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We present a new, non-perturbative, easy-to-apply method for AFM imaging of living bacteria in their genuine physiological liquid environment. No immobilization protocol, neither chemical nor mechanical, was needed. For the first time, the native gliding (crawling) movements of gram-negative filamentous Nostoc cyanobacteria, along the surface and at speeds up to 200 nm/s, were studied by AFM. With the AFM working in a fast approach/retract mode, no limitation in neither spatial resolution nor imaging rate was detected. Gram positive and non-motile Rhodococcus wratislaviensis bacteria were studied as well. From the approach curves, Young modulus and turgor pressure were measured for both strains and for different gliding speeds. Young modulus is ranging from 20 to 105MPa and turgor pressure from 40 to 310kPa depending on the bacterium and the gliding speed. For Nostoc, spatially limited zones with higher values of stiffness were observed. The related spatial period is much higher than the mean length of nodule...

  8. In-Situ Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Gliding or Non-Motile Bacteria by Atomic Force Microscopy under Physiological Conditions without Immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhahri, Samia; Ramonda, Michel; Marlière, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We present a study about AFM imaging of living, moving or self-immobilized bacteria in their genuine physiological liquid medium. No external immobilization protocol, neither chemical nor mechanical, was needed. For the first time, the native gliding movements of Gram-negative Nostoc cyanobacteria upon the surface, at speeds up to 900 µm/h, were studied by AFM. This was possible thanks to an improved combination of a gentle sample preparation process and an AFM procedure based on fast and complete force-distance curves made at every pixel, drastically reducing lateral forces. No limitation in spatial resolution or imaging rate was detected. Gram-positive and non-motile Rhodococcus wratislaviensis bacteria were studied as well. From the approach curves, Young modulus and turgor pressure were measured for both strains at different gliding speeds and are ranging from 20±3 to 105±5 MPa and 40±5 to 310±30 kPa depending on the bacterium and the gliding speed. For Nostoc, spatially limited zones with higher values of stiffness were observed. The related spatial period is much higher than the mean length of Nostoc nodules. This was explained by an inhomogeneous mechanical activation of nodules in the cyanobacterium. We also observed the presence of a soft extra cellular matrix (ECM) around the Nostoc bacterium. Both strains left a track of polymeric slime with variable thicknesses. For Rhodococcus, it is equal to few hundreds of nanometers, likely to promote its adhesion to the sample. While gliding, the Nostoc secretes a slime layer the thickness of which is in the nanometer range and increases with the gliding speed. This result reinforces the hypothesis of a propulsion mechanism based, for Nostoc cyanobacteria, on ejection of slime. These results open a large window on new studies of both dynamical phenomena of practical and fundamental interests such as the formation of biofilms and dynamic properties of bacteria in real physiological conditions. PMID:23593493

  9. In-situ determination of the mechanical properties of gliding or non-motile bacteria by atomic force microscopy under physiological conditions without immobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Dhahri

    Full Text Available We present a study about AFM imaging of living, moving or self-immobilized bacteria in their genuine physiological liquid medium. No external immobilization protocol, neither chemical nor mechanical, was needed. For the first time, the native gliding movements of Gram-negative Nostoc cyanobacteria upon the surface, at speeds up to 900 µm/h, were studied by AFM. This was possible thanks to an improved combination of a gentle sample preparation process and an AFM procedure based on fast and complete force-distance curves made at every pixel, drastically reducing lateral forces. No limitation in spatial resolution or imaging rate was detected. Gram-positive and non-motile Rhodococcus wratislaviensis bacteria were studied as well. From the approach curves, Young modulus and turgor pressure were measured for both strains at different gliding speeds and are ranging from 20±3 to 105±5 MPa and 40±5 to 310±30 kPa depending on the bacterium and the gliding speed. For Nostoc, spatially limited zones with higher values of stiffness were observed. The related spatial period is much higher than the mean length of Nostoc nodules. This was explained by an inhomogeneous mechanical activation of nodules in the cyanobacterium. We also observed the presence of a soft extra cellular matrix (ECM around the Nostoc bacterium. Both strains left a track of polymeric slime with variable thicknesses. For Rhodococcus, it is equal to few hundreds of nanometers, likely to promote its adhesion to the sample. While gliding, the Nostoc secretes a slime layer the thickness of which is in the nanometer range and increases with the gliding speed. This result reinforces the hypothesis of a propulsion mechanism based, for Nostoc cyanobacteria, on ejection of slime. These results open a large window on new studies of both dynamical phenomena of practical and fundamental interests such as the formation of biofilms and dynamic properties of bacteria in real physiological conditions.

  10. Detection of vanC1 and vanC2 Genes in an Enterococcal Isolate and vanC Genes in non-Motile Enterococcus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazaheri Nezhad Fard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background In recent decades, bacterial antibiotic resistance (especially in enterococci has become a significant problem for human and veterinary medicine. One of the most important antibiotic resistances in enterococci, vancomycin resistance, is encoded by van gene family. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate antibiotic resistance to vancomycin in enterococci and the genes responsible for this resistance. Materials and Methods Two-hundred and thirty enterococcal isolates from pigs (207 isolates, chickens (15 isolates and humans (eight isolates were phenotypically and genotypically tested for resistance to vancomycin by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The van genes were confirmed by gene sequencing. Results Of the total isolates, 19% were phenotypically resistant to vancomycin, while nearly 15% contained either vanC1 or vanC2 gene. One resistant E. casseliflavus isolate with pig origin (MIC > 8 μg/mL contained both vanC1 and vanC2 genes. Furthermore, one vanC1 was found in a sensitive E. faecalis isolate of pig origin (MIC ≤ 4 μg/mL and one vanC2 in a resistant E. faecium isolate of chicken origin (MIC > 32 μg/mL. These genes were not accompanied by other van genes. Other detected genes were vanA in 11 E. faecium isolates of chicken origin (MIC > 32 μg/mL. No vanB genes were found. Gene sequencing results showed 100% identity with GenBank reference genes. Conclusions The current report is the first report on the detection of vanC1 and vanC2 genes in one enterococcal species with pig origin. This report is important as it proves the horizontal transfer of various vanC genes to one species possibly due to the compatibility class of plasmids. Furthermore, detection of vanC genes in E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates is important as it suggests that resistance to vancomycin in non-motile enterococci can be encoded by several mechanisms.

  11. Xanthomarina gelatinilytica gen nov., sp nov., isolated from seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhumika, V.; Ravinder, K.; Sharma, G.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; AnilKumar, P.

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, yellow-pigmented, non-sporulating, non-motile bacterium, designated strain AK20T, was isolated from seawater collected from Kochi city, Kerala state, India Colonies on marine agar were circular...

  12. Catalase-positive microperoxisomes in rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscle fiber types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Danny A.; Bain, James L. W.; Ellis, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    The size, distribution, and content of catalase-reactive microperoxisomes were investigated cytochemically in three types of muscle fibers from the soleus and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of male rats. Muscle fibers were classified on the basis of the mitochondrial content and distribution, the Z-band widths, and the size and shape of myofibrils as the slow-twitch oxidative (SO), the fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (FOG), and the fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) fibers. It was found that both the EDL and soleus SO fibers possessed the largest microperoxisomes. A comparison of microperoxisome number per muscle fiber area or the microperoxisome area per fiber area revealed following ranking, starting from the largest number and the area-ratio values: soleus SO, EDL SO, EDL FOG, and EDL FG.

  13. Non-motile tetraploid spermatozoa of Misgurnus loach hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yan; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Psenicka, Martin; Saito, Taiju; Arai, Katsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    We have compared various properties of spermatozoa from the wild diploid male pond loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus to those from the interspecific male hybrid of the cross between a female M. anguillicaudatus and a male mud loach M. mizolepis. Our results show that spermatozoa from this interspecific hybrid had poor motility, low viability, abnormal morphology, a larger volume of mitochondrial mass per cell and higher ATP content of spermatozoa with tetraploid DNA content, and they were pres...

  14. Identification problems with sterile fungi, illustrated by a keratitis due to a non-sporulating Chaetomium-like species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinod Mootha, V.; Shahinpoor, P.; Sutton, D.A.; Xin, L.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2012-01-01

    A 39-year-old farm worker was injured in her right eye by a piece of wire, which resulted in a corneal ulcer unresponsive to antibiotic treatment. The clinical appearance was that of a corneal infiltrate with feathery borders resembling fungal keratitis. Corneal scrapings were collected and the

  15. Identification problems with sterile fungi, illustrated by a keratitis due to a non-sporulating Chaetomium-like species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinod Mootha, V.; Shahinpoor, P.; Sutton, D.A.; Xin, L.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2012-01-01

    A 39-year-old farm worker was injured in her right eye by a piece of wire, which resulted in a corneal ulcer unresponsive to antibiotic treatment. The clinical appearance was that of a corneal infiltrate with feathery borders resembling fungal keratitis. Corneal scrapings were collected and the pati

  16. Tsukamurella hongkongensis sp. nov. and Tsukamurella sinensis sp. nov., isolated from patients with keratitis, catheter-related bacteraemia and conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Jade L L; Tang, Ying; Wong, Samson S Y; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Huang, Yi; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Choi, Garnet K Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-01-01

    Three bacterial strains, HKU51T, HKU52T and HKU53, were isolated from a conjunctival swab, corneal scraping and blood culture of three patients in Hong Kong with conjunctivitis, keratitis and catheter-related bacteraemia, respectively. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, catalase-positive, non-sporulating and non-motile bacilli. The three strains had unique biochemical profiles that were distinguishable from those of closely related species of the genus Tsukamurella. Fatty acids, mycolic acids, cell-wall sugars and peptidoglycan analyses showed that they were typical of members of Tsukamurella. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed 100 % sequence identity between HKU52T and HKU53, and the two strains shared 99.5 % sequence identity with Tsukamurella sunchonensis JCM 15929T and Tsukamurella pseudospumae JCM 13375T; HKU51T shared 99.6 % sequence identity with Tsukamurella pulmonis CCUG 35732T. The DNA G+C contents of strains HKU51T, HKU52T and HKU53 were 70.9 ± 2.2, 71.3 ± 2.1 and 71.2 ± 2.3 mol% (mean ± sd; n = 3), respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the novel strains were distinct from other known species of the genus Tsukamurella ( ≤ 50.1 ± 3.7 % DNA-DNA relatedness); two of the isolates, HKU52T and HKU53, represented the same species ( ≥ 94.6 ± 5.6 % DNA-DNA relatedness), while the third isolate, HKU51T, represented another species. The novel species Tsukamurella hongkongensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate strains HKU52T and HKU53, with HKU52T ( = JCM 30715T = DSM 100208T) as the type strain; whilst another novel species, Tsukamurella sinensis sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate the third isolate, HKU51T ( = JCM 30714T = DSM 100207T), which is designated the type strain.

  17. Sedimentation of elongated non-motile prolate spheroids in homogenous isotropic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Ardekani, M Niazi; Brandt, L; Karp-Boss, L; Bearon, R N; Variano, E A

    2016-01-01

    Phytoplankton are the foundation of aquatic food webs. Through photosynthesis, phytoplankton draw down CO2 at magnitudes equivalent to forests and other terrestrial plants and convert it to organic material that is then consumed by other organisms of phytoplankton in higher trophic levels. Mechanisms that affect local concentrations and velocities are of primary significance to many encounter-based processes in the plankton including prey-predator interactions, fertilization and aggregate formation. We report results from simulations of sinking phytoplankton, considered as elongated spheroids, in homogenous isotropic turbulence to answer the question of whether trajectories and velocities of sinking phytoplankton are altered by turbulence. We show in particular that settling spheroids with physical characteristics similar to those of diatoms weakly cluster and preferentially sample regions of down-welling flow, corresponding to an increase of the mean settling speed with respect to the mean settling speed in ...

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of liquid non-sporulating Streptomyces coelicolor cultures demonstrates the existence of a complex differentiation comparable to that occurring in solid sporulating cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, Paula; Rodríguez-García, Antonio; López-García, María Teresa; Rioseras, Beatriz; Martín, Juan Francisco; Sánchez, Jesús; Manteca, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces species produce many clinically relevant secondary metabolites and exhibit a complex development that includes hyphal differentiation and sporulation in solid cultures. Industrial fermentations are usually performed in liquid cultures, conditions in which Streptomyces strains generally do not sporulate, and it was traditionally assumed that no differentiation took place. The aim of this work was to compare the transcriptomes of S. coelicolor growing in liquid and solid cultures, deepening the knowledge of Streptomyces differentiation. Microarrays demonstrated that gene expression in liquid and solid cultures were comparable and data indicated that physiological differentiation was similar for both conditions. Eighty-six percent of all transcripts showed similar abundances in liquid and solid cultures, such as those involved in the biosynthesis of actinorhodin (actVA, actII-4) and undecylprodigiosin (redF); activation of secondary metabolism (absR1, ndsA); genes regulating hydrophobic cover formation (aerial mycelium) (bldB, bldC, bldM, bldN, sapA, chpC, chpD, chpE, chpH, ramA, ramC, ramS); and even some genes regulating early stages of sporulation (wblA, whiG, whiH, whiJ). The two most important differences between transcriptomes from liquid and solid cultures were: first, genes related to secondary metabolite biosynthesis (CDA, CPK, coelichelin, desferrioxamine clusters) were highly up-regulated in liquid but not in solid cultures; and second, genes involved in the final stages of hydrophobic cover/spore maturation (chpF, rdlA, whiE, sfr) were up-regulated in solid but not in liquid cultures. New information was also provided for several non-characterized genes differentially expressed in liquid and solid cultures which might be regulating, at least in part, the metabolic and developmental differences observed between liquid and solid cultures.

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of liquid non-sporulating Streptomyces coelicolor cultures demonstrates the existence of a complex differentiation comparable to that occurring in solid sporulating cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Yagüe

    Full Text Available Streptomyces species produce many clinically relevant secondary metabolites and exhibit a complex development that includes hyphal differentiation and sporulation in solid cultures. Industrial fermentations are usually performed in liquid cultures, conditions in which Streptomyces strains generally do not sporulate, and it was traditionally assumed that no differentiation took place. The aim of this work was to compare the transcriptomes of S. coelicolor growing in liquid and solid cultures, deepening the knowledge of Streptomyces differentiation. Microarrays demonstrated that gene expression in liquid and solid cultures were comparable and data indicated that physiological differentiation was similar for both conditions. Eighty-six percent of all transcripts showed similar abundances in liquid and solid cultures, such as those involved in the biosynthesis of actinorhodin (actVA, actII-4 and undecylprodigiosin (redF; activation of secondary metabolism (absR1, ndsA; genes regulating hydrophobic cover formation (aerial mycelium (bldB, bldC, bldM, bldN, sapA, chpC, chpD, chpE, chpH, ramA, ramC, ramS; and even some genes regulating early stages of sporulation (wblA, whiG, whiH, whiJ. The two most important differences between transcriptomes from liquid and solid cultures were: first, genes related to secondary metabolite biosynthesis (CDA, CPK, coelichelin, desferrioxamine clusters were highly up-regulated in liquid but not in solid cultures; and second, genes involved in the final stages of hydrophobic cover/spore maturation (chpF, rdlA, whiE, sfr were up-regulated in solid but not in liquid cultures. New information was also provided for several non-characterized genes differentially expressed in liquid and solid cultures which might be regulating, at least in part, the metabolic and developmental differences observed between liquid and solid cultures.

  20. Implantation phaeohyphomycosis caused by a non-sporulating Chaetomium species. Phaeohyphomycose d’inoculation causée par une espèce non sporulante de Chaetomium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Najafzadeh, M.J.; Fata, A.; Naseri, A.; Saradeghi Keisarid, M.; Farahyarf, S.; Gangbakhsh, M.; Ziaee, M.; Dolatabadi, S.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 66-year-old Iranian woman with a phaeohyphomycotic cyst (approximately 3 × 2.5 cm in size) on the right lateral side of the neck. She had dysphagia and hoarseness, without any pain. She complained about discharge of black liquid on the skin and irritation. Histological examin

  1. Complete genome sequence of Leptotrichia buccalis type strain (C-1013-bT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Feng [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Rohde, Christine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

    2009-01-01

    Leptotrichia buccalis (Robin 1853) Trevisan 1879 is the type species of the genus, and is of phylogenetic interest because of its isolated location in the sparsely populated and neither taxonomically nor genomically adequately accessed family 'Leptotrichiaceae' within the phylum 'Fusobacteria'. Species of Leptotrichia are large, fusiform, non-motile, non-sporulating rods, which often populate the human oral flora. L. buccalis is anaerobic to aerotolerant, and saccharolytic. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the order 'Fusobacteriales' and no more than the second sequence from the phylum 'Fusobacteria'. The 2,465,610 bp long single replicon genome with its 2306 protein-coding and 61 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  2. Complete genome sequence of Olsenella uli type strain (VPI D76D-27CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Yasawong, Montri [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Pukall, Rudiger [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

    2010-01-01

    Olsenella uli (Olsen et al. 1991) Dewhirst et al. 2001 is the type species of the genus Olsenella, which belongs to the actinobacterial family Coriobacteriaceae. The species is of interest because it is frequently isolated from dental plaque in periodontitis patients and can cause primary endodontic infection. The species is a Gram-positive, non-motile and non-sporulating bacterium. The strain described in this study has been isolated from human gingival crevices in 1982. This is the first completed sequence of the genus Olsenella and the fifth sequence from the family Coriobacteriaceae. The 2,051,896 bp long genome with its 1,795 protein-coding and 55 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  3. Complete genome sequence of Leptotrichia buccalis type strain (C-1013-bT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Natalia; Gronow, Sabine; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Saunders, Liz; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff; Pitluck, Sam; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jefferies, Cynthia C.; Chain, Patrick; Rohde, Christine; Goker, Markus; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Leptotrichia buccalis (Robin 1853) Trevisan 1879 is the type species of the genus, and is of phylogenetic interest because of its isolated location in the sparsely populated and neither taxonomically nor genomically adequately accessed family 'Leptotrichiaceae' within the phylum 'Fusobacteria'. Species of Leptotrichia are large fusiform non-motile, non-sporulating rods, which often populate the human oral flora. L. buccalis is anaerobic to aerotolerant, and saccharolytic. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the order 'Fusobacteriales' and no more than the second sequence from the phylum 'Fusobacteria'. The 2,465,610 bp long single replicon genome with its 2306 protein-coding and 61 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  4. Complete genome sequence of Eggerthella lenta type strain (IPP VPI 0255T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pukall, Rudiger [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Birte, Abt [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Feng [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Meincke, Linda [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Sims, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brettin, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2009-01-01

    Eggerthella lenta (Eggerth 1935) Wade et al. 1999, emended W rdemann et al. 2009 is the type species of the genus Eggerthella, which belongs to the actinobacterial family Coriobacteriaceae. E. lenta is a Gram-positive, non-motile, non-sporulating pathogenic bacterium that can cause severe bacteremia. The strain described in this study has been isolated from a rectal tumor in 1935. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the genus Eggerthella, and the 3,632,260 bp long single replicon genome with its 3123 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  5. A Biosensor for the Detection of Catalase-positive Microorganisms in Food%生物传感法检测食品中的触酶阳性菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚冰; 刘晓芳; 柴春彦; 刘国艳

    2010-01-01

    目的:建立一种检测食品中触酶阳性菌的生物传感法.方法:在一次性丝网印刷电极上聚合辣根过氧化物酶制备检测食品中触酶阳性菌的生物酶传感器,将丝网印刷电极插入电极插口与电化学工作站相连,组装成检测触酶阳性菌的生物电化学传感仪,采用时间-电流法记录响应的结果.结果:对不同来源的食品,当触酶阳性菌菌落数达到104CFU/mL,即可检测到电流变化,检测所需时间根据样品中菌落数的不同而定,一般仅需1~3h即可推测出样品中原有触酶阳性菌含量,最长通过7h的增菌培养即可推测出含有0.1CFU/mL的样品.结论:用该方法检测食品中触酶阳性菌便捷、灵敏、准确,可发展成为一种快速检测食品中触酶阳性菌生物传感器.

  6. Complete genome sequence of Dyadobacter fermentans type strain (NS114T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Elke [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Feng [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kopitz, marcus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

    2009-01-01

    Dyadobacter fermentans (Chelius and Triplett, 2000) is the type species of the genus Dyadobacter. It is of phylogenetic interest because of its location in the Cytophagaceae, a very diverse family within the order Sphingobacteriales . D. fermentans has a mainly respiratory metabolism, stains Gram-negative, is non-motile and oxidase and catalase positive. It is characterized by the production of cell filaments in aging cultures, a flexirubin-like pigment and its ability to ferment glucose, which is almost unique in the aerobically living members of this taxonomically difficult family. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and its annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the sphingobacterial genus Dyadobacter, and this 6,967,790 bp long single replicon genome with its 5804 protein-coding and 50 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  7. Actinomadura Species: Laboratory Maintenance and Ribosome Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Dipesh; Chung, Nguyen Thanh; Rayamajhi, Vijay; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2017-02-06

    Actinomadura spp. are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-acid fast, non-motile actinomycetes. Some species of Actinomadura are associated with opportunistic infections in humans. However, many bioactive compounds with pharmaceutical applications can be isolated from various Actinomadura spp. This unit includes general protocols for the laboratory maintenance of Actinomadura spp., including growth in liquid medium, growth on solid agar, long-term storage, and generation of a higher producing strain by ribosome engineering. Actinomadura hibisca P157-2 is used as a prototype for explaining the considerations for efficient laboratory maintenance of Actinomadura spp. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Complete genome sequence of Dyadobacter fermentans type strain (NS114T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Elke; Lapidus, Alla; Chertkov, Olga; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Nolan, Matt; Chen, Feng; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Chain, Patrick; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Goker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Dyadobacter fermentans (Chelius MK and Triplett EW, 2000) is the type species of the genus Dyadobacter. It is of phylogenetic interest because of its location in the Cytophagaceae, a very diverse family within the order 'Sphingobacteriales'. D. fermentans has a mainly respiratory metabolism, stains Gram-negative, is non-motile and oxidase and catalase positive. It is characterized by the production of cell filaments in ageing cultures, a flexirubin-like pigment and its ability to ferment glucose, which is almost unique in the aerobically living members of this taxonomically difficult family. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the 'sphingobacterial' genus Dyadobacter, and this 6,967,790 bp long single replicon genome with its 5804 protein-coding and 50 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  9. Isolation and characterization of Klebsiella oxytoca strain degrading crude oil from a Tunisian off-shore oil field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamkha, Mohamed; Trabelsi, Yosra; Mnif, Sami; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-12-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative, mesophilic, moderately halotolerant, non-motile, and non-sporulated bacterium, designated strain BSC5 was isolated from an off-shore "Sercina" oil field, located near the Kerkennah island, Tunisia. Yeast extract was not required for growth. Phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain BSC5 revealed that it was related to members of the genus Klebsiella, being most closely related to the type strain of K. oxytoca (99% sequence similarity). Strain BSC5 was capable of using aerobically the crude oil as substrate growth. The growth of strain BSC5 on crude oil was followed by measuring the OD(600 nm) and by enumeration of viable cells at different culture's time. GC-MS analysis showed that strain BSC5 was capable of degrading a wide range of aliphatic hydrocarbons from C(13) to C(30) . The biodegradation rate for n -alkanes reached 44% and 75%, after 20 and 45 days of incubation, respectively. Addition of the synthetic surfactant, Tween 80, accelerated the crude oil degradation. The biodegradation rate for n -alkanes reached 61% and 98%, after 20 and 45 days of incubation, respectively. Moreover, three aromatic compounds, p -hydroxybenzoate, protocatechuate and gentisate, were metabolized completely by strain BSC5 after 24 h, under aerobic conditions.

  10. Olivibacter sitiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from alkaline olive-oil mill wastes in the region of Sitia, Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Fasseas, Constantinos; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2007-02-01

    A novel, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-sporulating, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from a viscous two-phase olive-oil mill waste ('alpeorujo') is described. The strain, designated AW-6T, is an obligate aerobe, forming irregular, pigmented creamy white colonies. The pH and temperature ranges for growth were pH 5-8 and 5-45 degrees C, with optimal pH and temperature for growth of pH 6-7 and 28-32 degrees C, respectively. Strain AW-6T was chemo-organotrophic and utilized mostly D+ -glucose, protocatechuate and D+ -xylose, followed by L-cysteine, D- -fructose, D+ -galactose, L-histidine, lactose, sorbitol and sucrose. Menaquinone-7 was detected in the respiratory chain of strain AW-6T. The major fatty acids of strain AW-6T were C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH, iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH and C(16 : 0). The closest phylogenetic relative of strain AW-6T was clone BIti35 (89.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), while Sphingobacterium thalpophilum DSM 11723T was the closest recognized relative within the Sphingobacteriaceae (88.2 % similarity). Strain AW-6T showed a low level of DNA-DNA relatedness to S. thalpophilum DSM 11723T (33.8-37.0 %). The DNA G+C content of strain AW-6T was 45.6 mol%. Physiological and chemotaxonomic data further confirmed the distinctiveness of strain AW-6T from members of the genera Sphingobacterium and Pedobacter. Thus, strain AW-6T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus within the family Sphingobacteriaceae, for which the name Olivibacter sitiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AW-6T =DSM 17696T=CECT 7133T).

  11. Alkanindiges hongkongensis sp. nov. A novel Alkanindiges species isolated from a patient with parotid abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Tse, Herman; Lau, Susanna K P; Leung, Kit-Wah; Woo, Gibson K S; Wong, Michelle K M; Ho, Chiu-Ming; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2005-06-01

    A bacterium was isolated from the abscess pus of a 72-year-old patient with Warthin's tumor and parotid abscess. The cells were aerobic, non-motile, Gram-negative but difficult to be destained, non-sporulating, coccobacillus. The bacterium grew poorly on sheep blood agar and MacConkey agar as non-hemolytic colonies of 0.5 mm in diameter after 24h of incubation at 37 degrees C in ambient air. Growth was enhanced by Tween 80. It produces catalase but not cytochrome oxidase. Sequencing of the cloned 16S rRNA PCR products of the bacterium revealed three different 16S rRNA gene sequences, with 12 - 31 bp differences among them. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the bacterium is closely related to Alkanindiges illinoisensis, with 5.0 - 5.9% differences between the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the bacterium and that of A. illinoisensis. Tryptophan auxotrophic strain of Acinetobacter trpE27 transformed with DNA extracted from the bacterium was unable to grow on tryptophan deficient medium, indicating that the bacterium was not a strain of Acinetobacter. The G+C content of the bacterium (mean +/-SD) was 46.9+4.3%. A new species, Alkanindiges hongkongensis sp. nov., is proposed, for which HKU9T is the type strain. Isolates with "small colonies" that are apparently Acinetobacter-like species should be carefully identified. Growth enhancement with aliphatic hydrocarbons should be looked for and 16S rRNA gene sequencing performed in order to find more potential cases of Alkanindiges infections, as well as to define the epidemiology, clinical spectrum, and outcome of infections associated with this genus.

  12. Erythrobacter pelagi sp. nov., a member of the family Erythrobacteraceae isolated from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, H.-x.

    2011-08-05

    A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-sporulating, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain UST081027-248(T), was isolated from seawater of the Red Sea. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain UST081027-248(T) fell within the genus Erythrobacter. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the novel strain and the type strains of Erythrobacter species ranged from 95.3% (with Erythrobacter gangjinensis) to 98.2% (with Erythrobacter citreus). However, levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain UST081027-248(T) and the type strains of closely related species were below 70%. Optimal growth of the isolate occurred in the presence of 2.0% NaCl, at pH 8.0-9.0 and at 28-36 degrees C. The isolate did not produce bacteriochlorophyll a. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C-17:1 omega 6c, summed feature 8 (C-18:1 omega 6c and/or C-18:1 omega 7c) and C-15:0 2-OH. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain UST081027-248(T) was 60.4 mol%. Phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness clearly indicated that strain UST081027-248(T) represents a novel species of the genus Erythrobacter, for which the name Erythrobacter pelagi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is UST081027-248(T) (=JCM 17468(T)=NRRL 59511(T)).

  13. Characterization of an Endophytic Bacterium G062 Isolate with Beneficial Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA AKHDIYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An endophytic bacterium isolate G062 was characterized base on its molecular genetic potents, morphology, physiology, and biochemistry reactions. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences of G062 showed the highest similarity to Paracoccus halophilus (98%. Detection of the phlD and prnC genes occurrence indicated that the bacterium had this antibiotic-like genes of Diacethylphloroglucinol (DAPG and pyrrolnitrin. The cells are rod shaped (0.59-0.89 x 1.85-3.3 µm, aerobic, Gram negative, non motile, non spore forming, positive catalase, positive oxydase, could reduce NO3 to N2, nitrogen fixing, producing siderophore and plant growth hormones-like compounds (IAA, Gibberellin, and zeatin, and solubilizing phosphate. The G062 isolate could grow on media containing 2.5% NaCl. Range of the temperature and pH growth were 15-40 and 5.0-9.5 oC, respectively. The bacterium did not cause red blood cells lysis. There was no hypersensitive response when it was injected into tobacco leaves, and it was not pathogenic against potato plantlets. Moreover, the bacterium promoted the growth of the potato plant and had high colonization ability. These results suggested that the bacterium had beneficial and good traits as biological agent candidate to promote potato plant growth.

  14. Roseomonas frigidaquae sp. nov., isolated from a water-cooling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Sun; Baik, Keun Sik; Park, Seong Chan; Rhee, Moon Soo; Oh, Hee-Mock; Seong, Chi Nam

    2009-07-01

    A non-motile, coccobacilli-shaped, pale-pink-pigmented bacterium, designated strain CW67(T), was isolated from a water-cooling system in Gwangyang, Republic of Korea. Cells were found to be Gram-negative, catalase-positive and oxidase-positive, the major fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega7c (43.6 %) and C(16 : 0) (15.8 %), the predominant respiratory lipoquinone was Q-10 and the DNA G+C content was 69.5 mol%. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that strain CW67(T) forms an evolutionary lineage within the radiation of the genus Roseomonas and that its closest relative is Roseomonas gilardii subsp. rosea MDA5605(T) (94.7 % sequence similarity). Evidence from this polyphasic study showed that strain CW67(T) could not be assigned to any recognized species. It therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Roseomonas frigidaquae sp. nov. is proposed, with CW67(T) (=KCTC 22211(T) =JCM 15073(T)) as the type strain.

  15. Isolation and identification of Nocardia asteroids complex isolated from thigh abscess in a patient with Behçet\\\\\\'s syndrome: the first report from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Saeed Eshraghi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nocardia species are Gram-positive, partially acid fast, non-motile, catalase positive, aerobic and saprophytic actinomycetes found all around the world. They invade the human body from the environment via trauma and respiratory tract and cause cutaneous, pulmonary and systemic diseases. They are able to grow in various media.The organisms opportunistically infect both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. Behcet's disease is an autoimmune disease and immunocompromised patient which may suitable host for Nocardia bacterium. The present study is the first case report of isolation of Nocardia from the thigh abscess in a patient with behcet’s disease from Iran.Case Presentation: A 39-year-old man with Behcet’s disease in August 2011 was admitted to Shariati hospital Tehran, with swelling and pain in the left flank and left thigh. Microscopic identification from direct microbiological slide of thigh abscess discharge demonstrated number of lymphocytes, neutrophils and macrophages foamy and white blood cells together with filamentous bacteria. Further microbiological characterization using phenotypic and antibiogram tests with disk diffusion method, demonstrated that the isolated bacterium is Nocardia asteroides complex. The bacteria were sensitive to ampicillin, vancomycin, ceftriaxone, amikacin and cotrimoxazole but it was resistant to clindamycin, erythromycin, penicillin G, cephalothin and gentamicin. The patient was treated with cotrimoxazole.Conclusion: Because of the high incidence and high mortality of Nocardia infection in immunocompromised cases, rapid detection and timely treatment for these patients is necessary.

  16. Arthrobacter cupressi sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Cupressus sempervirens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Ma, Yuchao; Yu, Huimin

    2012-11-01

    An actinobacterial strain, designated D48(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a cypress tree collected from Mianyang in Sichuan province, China. The strain was Gram-stain-positive, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative and non-motile, with lysine as the peptidoglycan diagnostic diamino acid and acetyl as the peptidoglycan acyl type. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H(2)); small amounts of MK-7(H(2)), MK-10(H(2)) and MK-6 were also present. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(17:0) and iso-C(16:0). The isolate underwent a rod-coccus morphological cycle, had a high DNA G+C content, was aerobic and grew between 12 and 37 °C (optimum, 28 °C). On the basis of the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses, 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons and DNA-DNA hybridization data, the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter cupressi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is D48(T) (=DSM 24664(T)=CGMCC 1.10783(T)).

  17. Desulfovibrio marrakechensis sp. nov., a 1,4-tyrosol-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamkh, Fatima; Spröer, Cathrin; Lemos, Paulo Costa; Besson, Stephane; El Asli, Abdel-Ghani; Bennisse, Rhizlane; Labat, Marc; Reis, Maria; Qatibi, Abdel-Illah

    2009-05-01

    A novel mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium, EMSSDQ(4)(T), was isolated from olive mill wastewater in the semi-arid region of Morocco (Marrakech). Cells were Gram-negative, catalase-positive, straight rods that were non-motile and non-spore-forming and contained cytochrome c(3) and desulfoviridin. The DNA G+C content was 65.1 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolate was a member of the genus Desulfovibrio with Desulfovibrio carbinoliphilus D41(T), Desulfovibrio alcoholivorans SPSN(T), Desulfovibrio fructosivorans JJ(T) and Desulfovibrio carbinolicus EDK82(T) as the most closely related strains with validly published names. In addition to the classical substrates used by Desulfovibrio species, the isolate oxidized 1,4-tyrosol, one of the most abundant phenolic compounds occurring in olive mill wastewater, to 4-hydroxyphenylacetate without ring cleavage. D. alcoholivorans SPSN(T) was also found to carry out this reaction. Under air, strain EMSSDQ(4)(T) exhibited limited growth on lactate and yeast extract in the absence of sulfate. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that the isolate represents a novel species, Desulfovibrio marrakechensis sp. nov. The type strain is EMSSDQ(4)(T) (=DSM 19337(T) =ATCC BAA-1562(T)).

  18. Psychromicrobium silvestre gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel actinobacterium isolated from alpine forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Peter; Zhang, De-Chao; Franca, Luís; Albuquerque, Luciana; da Costa, Milton S; Margesin, Rosa

    2016-11-21

    Two Gram-stain-variable, non-motile, catalase-positive and cytochrome c oxidase-negative bacteria, designated AK20-18T and AM20-54, were isolated from forest soil samples collected in the Italian Alps. Growth occurred at a temperature range of 5-30 °C, at pH 6-9 and in the presence of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains AK20-18T and AM20-54 was 100 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that AK20-18T had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strain of Arthrobacter psychrochitiniphilus (96.9 %). The cell-wall peptidoglycan structure of strain AK20-18T was of the type A3alpha L-Lys - L-Thr - L-Ala2 (A11.27). The whole-cell sugars were galactose, ribose and lower amounts of mannose. The major respiratory quinone of the two strains was menaquinone 9(H2) (MK-9 [H2]), whereas MK-10(H2) was a minor component. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and unknown glycolipids. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The genomic DNA G+C content was 59.9 mol%. Combined data of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analysis demonstrated that strains AK20-18T and AM20-54 represent a novel genus and species, for which the name Psychromicrobium silvestre gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Psychromicrobium silvestre is AK20-18T (DSM 102047T = LMG 29369 T).

  19. Rhodanobacter spathiphylli sp. nov., a gammaproteobacterium isolated from the roots of Spathiphyllum plants grown in a compost-amended potting mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Deborah; Van Trappen, Stefanie; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Ceustermans, An; Swings, Jean; Coosemans, Jozef; Ryckeboer, Jaak

    2006-08-01

    Three Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented strains were isolated from the rhizospheres of Spathiphyllum plants grown in a compost-amended potting mix. The strains showed biological control activity towards the root-rot plant pathogen Cylindrocladium spathiphylli, and were characterized to determine their taxonomic position. Cells of the strains were non-motile rods, and the strains were oxidase- and catalase-positive and unable to ferment most sugars tested. The three strains showed differences in growth temperature range, optimal growth temperature and some biochemical reactions. The majority of the fatty acids were branched, and large amounts of 15 : 0 iso and 17 : 1 iso omega9c were present. The 16S rRNA gene sequence (1,497 bp) of strain B39(T) showed the highest level of similarity (98.5 %) to that of Rhodanobacter fulvus IAM 15025(T), followed by Rhodanobacter lindaniclasticus LMG 18385(T) (96.0 %; strain no longer extant), Dyella koreensis CCUG 50883(T) (96.4 %), Dyella japonica DSM 16301(T) (96.3 %), Frateuria aurantia LMG 1558(T) (96.2 %) and Fulvimonas soli LMG 19981(T) (95.9 %). Less than 90 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was observed for other members of the Gammaproteobacteria. The mean DNA-DNA reassociation value for the three strains was 100 % and was 25 % when the strains were compared with DNA from R. fulvus LMG 23003(T). The strains had a mean DNA G+C content of 67.6 mol%. On the basis of their phylogenetic, genomic and phenotypic properties, the three strains represent a novel species within the genus Rhodanobacter, for which the name Rhodanobacter spathiphylli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain B39(T) (=LMG 23181(T)=DSM 17631(T)).

  20. Acinetobacter indicus sp. nov., isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane dump site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Jaya; Anand, Shailly; Jindal, Swati; Rajagopal, Raman; Lal, Rup

    2012-12-01

    The taxonomic position of a Gram-negative, non-motile, oxidase negative and catalase positive strain, A648(T), isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) dump site located in Lucknow, India, was ascertained by using a polyphasic approach. A comparative analysis of a partial sequence of the rpoB gene and the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain A648(T) belonged to the genus Acinetobacter. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain A648(T) and other closely related members (16S rRNA gene sequence similarity greater than 97%), namely Acinetobacter radioresistens DSM 6976(T), A. venetianus ATCC 31012(T), A. baumannii LMG 1041(T), A. parvus LMG 21765(T) A. junii LMG 998(T) and A. soli JCM 15062(T), were found to be less than 8%. The major cellular fatty acids of strain A648(T) were 18:1ω9c (19.6%), summed feature 3 (15.9%), 16:0 (10.6%) and 12:0 (6.4%). The DNA G+C content was 40.4 mol%. The polar lipid profile of strain A648(T) indicated the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, followed by phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The predominant polyamine of strain A648(T) was 1,3-diaminopropane and moderate amounts of putrescine, spermidine and spermine were also detected. The respiratory quinone consisted of ubiquinone with nine isoprene units (Q-9). On the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic comparisons with other members of the genus Acinetobacter, strain A648(T) is found to be a novel species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter indicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A648(T) ( = DSM 25388(T) = CCM 7832(T)).

  1. Identification of Serratia marcescens SE1 and determination of its Herbicide 2,2-dichloropropionate (2,2-DCP Degradation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel, E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The goal of the study is to isolate species of bacteria that capable of utilizing 2,2-dichloropropionic acid (2,2-DCP as sole carbon source from soil sample collected from surrounding lake water located in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor. Methodology and Results: Genomic DNA from bacterium SE1 was extracted and PCR amplification was carried out using universal primers, Fd1 (5’ - AGA GTT TGA TCC TGGCTC AG - 3’ and rP1 (5’- ACG GTC ATA CCT TGT TAC GAC TT - 3’ before sending for sequencing. The 16S rDNA nucleotide sequences were compared with Basic Local Alignment Search Tool nucleotide (BLASTn and further analyzed using phylogenetic tree of Neighbour-Joining method (MEGA 5. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SE1 strain clearly shared 97% homology to the genus of Serratia marcescens and therefore designated as Serratia marcescens sp. SE1. SE1 exhibited the ability to utilize 2,2-DCP as sole carbon source at 20 mM concentration with cell doubling time of 5 h and maximum chloride ion release of 38 μmolCl-/mL. This result suggests that the dehalogenase enzyme present in the bacteria has high affinity towards the substrate. Based on morphological and partial biochemical characteristics, strain SE1 was a non-motile Gram negative bacterium with red colonies, that gave a catalase positive reaction. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: A better understanding of dehalogenases enzyme produce by this S. marcescens sp. SE1 in general will be useful to be used as bioremediation tools for environmental management. This is the first reported case that Serratia sp. has the ability to degrade halogenated compound.

  2. Description of Tessaracoccus profundi sp.nov., a deep-subsurface actinobacterium isolated from a Chesapeake impact crater drill core (940 m depth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, K W; Cockell, C S; Voytek, M A; Gronstal, A L; Kjeldsen, K U

    2009-11-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated CB31(T), was isolated from a 940 m depth sample of a drilling core obtained from the Chesapeake meteor impact crater. The strain was isolated aerobically on R2A medium agar plates supplemented with NaCl (20 g l(-1)) and MgCl2 x 6 H2O (3 g l(-1)). The colonies were circular, convex, smooth and orange. Cells were slightly curved, rod-shaped in young cultures and often appeared in pairs. In older cultures cells were coccoid. Cells stained Gram-positive, were non-motile and did not form endospores. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was LL: -diaminopimelic acid. The polar lipids included phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidglycerol, four different glycolipids, two further phospholipids and one unidentified lipid. The dominant menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)) (70%). The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso C15:0 (83%). The DNA G + C content was 68 mol%. The strain grew anaerobically by reducing nitrate to nitrite or by fermenting glucose. It was catalase positive and oxidase negative. It grew between 10 and 45 degrees C, with an optimum between 35 and 40 degrees C. The pH range for growth was 5.7-9.3, with an optimum at pH 7.5. The closest phylogenetic neighbors based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identity were members of the genus Tessaracoccus (95-96% identity). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain CB31(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Tessaracoccus, for which we propose the name Tessaracoccus profundi sp. nov.. It is the first member of this genus that has been isolated from a deep subsurface environment. The type strain is CB31(T) (=NCIMB 14440(T) = DSM 21240(T)).

  3. Acinetobacter apis sp. nov., isolated from the intestinal tract of a honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pil Soo; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Joon Yong; Yun, Ji-Hyun; Hyun, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2014-08-01

    A novel Gram-negative, obligate aerobic, non-motile, and both coccobacillus- and bacillus-shaped bacterium, designated strain HYN18(T), was isolated from the intestinal tract of a honey bee (Apis mellifera). The isolate was oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Strain HYN18(T) showed optimum growth at 25°C, pH 6-7, and in the presence of 1% (w/v) NaCl in trypticase soy broth medium. The isolate was negative for hydrolyses of starch, casein, gelatin and urea, indole production from tryptone and hemolysis on sheep blood agar. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and rpoB gene sequence showed that strain HYN18(T) was most closely related to Acinetobacter nectaris SAP 763.2(T) and A. boissieri SAP 284.1(T) with 98.3% and 98.1% similarity (16S rRNA gene), respectively, and 84.4% similarity with Acinetobacter nectaris SAP 763.2(T) (rpoB gene). The major cellular fatty acids were summed features 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c /C16:1ω6c ), C12:0 and C16:0. The main isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-9 (Q-9). The polar lipids of strain HYN18(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified lipids, an unidentified phospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 40.6 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated less than 33 ± 10% relatedness to the closest phylogenetic species, Acinetobacter nectaris SAP 763.2(T). Thus, the phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic analyses indicate that strain HYN18(T) is a novel species within the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter apis is proposed. The type strain is HYN18(T) (=KACC 16906(T) =JCM 18575(T)).

  4. Streptomyces caldifontis sp. nov., isolated from a hot water spring of Tatta Pani, Kotli, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Arshia; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Khalid, Nauman; Osman, Ghenijan; Khan, Inam Ullah; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    A Gram-staining positive, non-motile, rod-shaped, catalase positive and oxidase negative bacterium, designated NCCP-1331(T), was isolated from a hot water spring soil collected from Tatta Pani, Kotli, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. The isolate grew at a temperature range of 18-40 °C (optimum 30 °C), pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum 7.0) and with 0-6 % NaCl (optimum 2 % NaCl (w/v)). The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain NCCP-1331(T) belonged to the genus Streptomyces and is closely related to Streptomyces brevispora BK160(T) with 97.9 % nucleotide similarity, followed by Streptomyces drosdowiczii NRRL B-24297(T) with 97.8 % nucleotide similarity. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain NCCP-1331(T) with S. brevispora KACC 21093(T) and S. drosdowiczii CBMAI 0498(T) were 42.7 and 34.7 %, respectively. LL-DAP was detected as diagnostic amino acid along with alanine, glycine, leucine and glutamic acid. The isolate contained MK-9(H8) as the predominant menaquinone. Major polar lipids detected in NCCP-1331(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and unidentified phospholipids. Major fatty acids were iso-C16: 0, summed feature 8 (18:1 ω7c/18:1 ω6c), anteiso-C15:0 and C16:0. The genomic DNA G + C content was 69.8 mol %. On the basis of phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analysis, it is concluded that strain NCCP-1331(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces caldifontis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NCCP-1331(T) (=KCTC 39537(T) = CPCC 204147(T)).

  5. Description of Tessaracoccus profundi sp.nov., a deep-subsurface actinobacterium isolated from a Chesapeake impact crater drill core (940 m depth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, K.W.; Cockell, C.S.; Voytek, M.A.; Gronstal, A.L.; Kjeldsen, K.U.

    2009-01-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated CB31T, was isolated from a 940 m depth sample of a drilling core obtained from the Chesapeake meteor impact crater. The strain was isolated aerobically on R2A medium agar plates supplemented with NaCl (20 g l-1) and MgCl2???6H 2O (3 g l-1). The colonies were circular, convex, smooth and orange. Cells were slightly curved, rod-shaped in young cultures and often appeared in pairs. In older cultures cells were coccoid. Cells stained Gram-positive, were non-motile and did not form endospores. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was ll-diaminopimelic acid. The polar lipids included phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidglycerol, four different glycolipids, two further phospholipids and one unidentified lipid. The dominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4) (70%). The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso C15:0 (83%). The DNA G + C content was 68 mol%. The strain grew anaerobically by reducing nitrate to nitrite or by fermenting glucose. It was catalase positive and oxidase negative. It grew between 10 and 45??C, with an optimum between 35 and 40??C. The pH range for growth was 5.7-9.3, with an optimum at pH 7.5. The closest phylogenetic neighbors based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identity were members of the genus Tessaracoccus (95-96% identity). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain CB31T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Tessaracoccus, for which we propose the name Tessaracoccus profundi sp. nov.. It is the first member of this genus that has been isolated from a deep subsurface environment. The type strain is CB31T (=NCIMB 14440T = DSM 21240T). ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  6. Frondihabitans cladoniiphilus sp. nov., an actinobacterium of the family Microbacteriaceae isolated from lichen, and emended description of the genus Frondihabitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Grube, Martin; Berg, Gabriele

    2011-12-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated strain CafT13(T), was isolated from the thallus of the reindeer lichen Cladonia arbuscula sampled in the Austrian Alps (Koralpe). The organism was aerobic, with rod- to irregular-shaped cells (often forming dense clusters of cells when grown in liquid medium), Gram-stain-positive, oxidase-negative, catalase-positive and non-motile. It was able to grow at 1 °C and at low to neutral pH, but not above 30 °C or at high pH. The peptidoglycan type was B2β with ornithine as the diagnostic diamino acid. The menaquinones were MK-7 and MK-8. The polar lipid profile comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids, three unidentified glycolipids and one unidentified aminolipid. The predominant fatty acids were C(18:1), C(14:0) 2-OH, C(17:1)ω9c, C(16:0) and anteiso-C(15:0). The mean DNA G+C content of strain CafT13(T) was 69.0±0.17 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain CafT13(T) belongs to the family Microbacteriaceae, within the genus Frondihabitans. The mean level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain CafT13(T) and the type strain of Frondihabitans australicus was 35.2±5.23%. The enzyme spectrum of strain CafT13(T) differentiated it from recognized species of the genus Frondihabitans. Based on molecular, chemotaxonomic and physiological data, strain CafT13(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Frondihabitans, for which the name Frondihabitans cladoniiphilus sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is CafT13(T) (=DSM 23273(T)=LMG 25550(T)).

  7. Bacillus thermotolerans sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium capable of reducing humus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guiqin; Zhou, Xuemei; Zhou, Shungui; Yang, Dehui; Wang, Yueqiang; Wang, Dingmei

    2013-10-01

    A novel thermotolerant bacterium, designated SgZ-8(T), was isolated from a compost sample. Cells were non-motile, endospore-forming, Gram-staining positive, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. The isolate was able to grow at 20-65 °C (optimum 50 °C) and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum 6.5-7.0), and tolerate up to 9.0 % NaCl (w/v) under aerobic conditions. Anaerobic growth occurred with anthraquinone-2,6-disulphonate (AQDS), fumarate and NO3(-) as electron acceptors. Phylogenetic analysis based on the16S rRNA and gyrB genes grouped strain SgZ-8(T) into the genus Bacillus, with the highest similarity to Bacillus badius JCM 12228(T) (96.2 % for 16S rRNA gene sequence and 83.5 % for gyrB gene sequence) among all recognized species in the genus Bacillus. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 49.3 mol%. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7) and the polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified phospholipid. The major cellular fatty acid was iso-C16 : 0. On the basis of its phenotypic and phylogenetic properties, chemotaxonomic analysis and the results of physiological and biochemical tests, strain SgZ-8(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2012108(T) = KACC 16706(T)) was designated the type strain of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus thermotolerans sp. nov. is proposed.

  8. Genome sequencing identifies Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov., isolated from a ranch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Bakker, Henk C; Manuel, Clyde S; Fortes, Esther D; Wiedmann, Martin; Nightingale, Kendra K

    2013-09-01

    Twenty Listeria-like isolates were obtained from environmental samples collected on a cattle ranch in northern Colorado; all of these isolates were found to share an identical partial sigB sequence, suggesting close relatedness. The isolates were similar to members of the genus Listeria in that they were Gram-stain-positive, short rods, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive; the isolates were similar to Listeria fleischmannii because they were non-motile at 25 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequencing for representative isolates and whole genome sequencing for one isolate was performed. The genome of the type strain of Listeria fleischmannii (strain LU2006-1(T)) was also sequenced. The draft genomes were very similar in size and the average MUMmer nucleotide identity across 91% of the genomes was 95.16%. Genome sequence data were used to design primers for a six-gene multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme. Phylogenies based on (i) the near-complete 16S rRNA gene, (ii) 31 core genes and (iii) six housekeeping genes illustrated the close relationship of these Listeria-like isolates to Listeria fleischmannii LU2006-1(T). Sufficient genetic divergence of the Listeria-like isolates from the type strain of Listeria fleischmannii and differing phenotypic characteristics warrant these isolates to be classified as members of a distinct infraspecific taxon, for which the name Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TTU M1-001(T) ( =BAA-2414(T) =DSM 25391(T)). The isolates of Listeria fleischmannii subsp. coloradonensis subsp. nov. differ from the nominate subspecies by the inability to utilize melezitose, turanose and sucrose, and the ability to utilize inositol. The results also demonstrate the utility of whole genome sequencing to facilitate identification of novel taxa within a well-described genus. The genomes of both subspecies of Listeria fleischmannii contained putative enhancin genes; the Listeria fleischmannii subsp

  9. Bacillus composti sp. nov. and Bacillus thermophilus sp. nov., two thermophilic, Fe(III)-reducing bacteria isolated from compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guiqin; Chen, Ming; Yu, Zhen; Lu, Qin; Zhou, Shungui

    2013-08-01

    Two novel thermophilic bacteria, designated SgZ-9(T) and SgZ-10(T), were isolated from compost. Cells of the two strains were catalase-positive, endospore-forming and Gram-staining-positive rods. Strain SgZ-9(T) was oxidase-positive and non-motile, and strain SgZ-10(T) was oxidase-negative and motile. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity for both strains SgZ-9(T) and SgZ-10(T) was observed with Bacillus fortis (97.5 % and 96.9 %, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SgZ-9(T) formed a cluster with B. fortis R-6514(T) and Bacillus fordii R-7190(T), and SgZ-10(T) formed a cluster with Bacillus farraginis R-6540(T). The DNA-DNA pairing studies showed that SgZ-9(T) displayed 41.6 % and 30.7 % relatedness to the type strains of B. fortis and B. fordii, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains SgZ-9(T) and SgZ-10(T) was 97.2 %, and the level of DNA-DNA relatedness between them was 39.2 %. The DNA G+C content of SgZ-9(T) and SgZ-10(T) was 45.3 and 47.9 mol%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed that both strains contained the menaquinone 7 (MK-7) as the predominant respiratory quinone. The major cellular fatty acids (>5 %) were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 in SgZ-9(T) and iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 in SgZ-10(T). Based on the phenotypic characteristics, chemotaxonomic features, DNA-DNA hybridization with the nearest phylogenetic neighbours and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, the two strains were determined to be two distinct novel species in the genus Bacillus, and the names proposed are Bacillus composti sp. nov. SgZ-9(T) ( = CCTCC AB2012109(T) = KACC 16872(T)) and Bacillus thermophilus sp. nov. SgZ-10(T) (CCTCC AB2012110(T) = KACC 16873(T)).

  10. Cell cycles and proliferation patterns in Haematococcus pluvialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Litao

    2016-09-01

    Most studies on Haematococcus pluvialis have been focused on cell growth and astaxanthin accumulation; far less attention has been paid to cell cycles and proliferation patterns. The purpose of this study was to clarify cell cycles and proliferation patterns in H. pluvialis microscopically using a camera and video recorder system. The complicated life history of H. pluvialis can be divided into two stages: the motile stage and the non-motile stage. All the cells can be classified into forms as follows: motile cell, non-motile cell, zoospore and aplanospore. The main cell proliferation, both in the motile phase and non-motile phase in H. pluvialis, is by asexual reproduction. Under normal growth conditions, a motile cell usually produces two, sometimes four, and exceptionally eight zoospores. Under unfavorable conditions, the motile cell loses its flagella and transforms into a non-motile cell, and the non-motile cell usually produces 2, 4 or 8 aplanospores, and occasionally 20-32 aplanospores, which further develop into non-motile cells. Under suitable conditions, the non-motile cell is also able to release zoospores. The larger non-motile cells produce more than 16 zoospores, and the smaller ones produce 4 or 8 zoospores. Vegetative reproduction is by direct cell division in the motile phase and by occasional cell budding in the non-motile phase. There is, as yet, no convincing direct evidence for sexual reproduction.

  11. Cell cycles and proliferation patterns in Haematococcus pluvialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Litao

    2017-09-01

    Most studies on Haematococcus pluvialis have been focused on cell growth and astaxanthin accumulation; far less attention has been paid to cell cycles and proliferation patterns. The purpose of this study was to clarify cell cycles and proliferation patterns in H. pluvialis microscopically using a camera and video recorder system. The complicated life history of H. pluvialis can be divided into two stages: the motile stage and the non-motile stage. All the cells can be classified into forms as follows: motile cell, nonmotile cell, zoospore and aplanospore. The main cell proliferation, both in the motile phase and non-motile phase in H. pluvialis, is by asexual reproduction. Under normal growth conditions, a motile cell usually produces two, sometimes four, and exceptionally eight zoospores. Under unfavorable conditions, the motile cell loses its flagella and transforms into a non-motile cell, and the non-motile cell usually produces 2, 4 or 8 aplanospores, and occasionally 20-32 aplanospores, which further develop into non-motile cells. Under suitable conditions, the non-motile cell is also able to release zoospores. The larger non-motile cells produce more than 16 zoospores, and the smaller ones produce 4 or 8 zoospores. Vegetative reproduction is by direct cell division in the motile phase and by occasional cell budding in the non-motile phase. There is, as yet, no convincing direct evidence for sexual reproduction.

  12. An improved colony-PCR method for filamentous fungi for amplification of pcr-fragments of several kilobases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeijl, C.M.J. van; Kamp, E.H.M. van de; Punt, P.J.; Selten, G.C.M.; Hauer, B.; Gorcom, R.F.M. van; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed to perform PCR directly on mycelial pellets or colonies treated with NOVOzym 234. The method allows rapid screening of large numbers of transformants of both sporulating and non-sporulating fungi for the presence of (co)transforming plasmid copies or for specific genetic

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15457-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1-281E1 in ... 46 4e-04 2 ( CV897533 ) PA054D6 mycelium, non-sporulating growth Phytopht... 40 6e-04 2 ( CT0... TTE00032408 Amplicon Express - Conjugative Form T... 46 1.2 1 ( CV944247 ) PU010D8 mycelium

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15312-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NBRP cDNA clone:rxlk58h14ex, 3' end. 52 0.035 1 ( CV900342 ) PB037C10 mycelium, sporulating growth Phytopht...hor... 52 0.035 1 ( CV895673 ) PA032E2 mycelium, non-sporulating growth Phytopht... 52 0.035 1 ( CV870377 )

  15. An improved colony-PCR method for filamentous fungi for amplification of pcr-fragments of several kilobases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeijl, C.M.J. van; Kamp, E.H.M. van de; Punt, P.J.; Selten, G.C.M.; Hauer, B.; Gorcom, R.F.M. van; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed to perform PCR directly on mycelial pellets or colonies treated with NOVOzym 234. The method allows rapid screening of large numbers of transformants of both sporulating and non-sporulating fungi for the presence of (co)transforming plasmid copies or for specific genetic modif

  16. Tetanus toxin : primary structure, expression in E. coli, and homology with botulinum toxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisel, Ulrich; Jarausch, Wolfgang; Goretzki, Karin; Henschen, Agnes; Engels, Joachim; Weller, Ulrich; Hudel, Martina; Habermann, Ernst; Niemann, Heiner; Rott, R.

    1986-01-01

    A pool of synthetic oligonucleotides was used to identify the gene encoding tetanus toxin on a 75-kbp plasmid from a toxigenic non-sporulating strain of Clostridium tetani. The nucleotide sequence contained a single open reading frame coding for 1315 amino acids corresponding to a polypeptide with a

  17. An improved colony-PCR method for filamentous fungi for amplification of pcr-fragments of several kilobases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeijl, C.M.J. van; Kamp, E.H.M. van de; Punt, P.J.; Selten, G.C.M.; Hauer, B.; Gorcom, R.F.M. van; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed to perform PCR directly on mycelial pellets or colonies treated with NOVOzym 234. The method allows rapid screening of large numbers of transformants of both sporulating and non-sporulating fungi for the presence of (co)transforming plasmid copies or for specific genetic modif

  18. Tetanus toxin : primary structure, expression in E. coli, and homology with botulinum toxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisel, Ulrich; Jarausch, Wolfgang; Goretzki, Karin; Henschen, Agnes; Engels, Joachim; Weller, Ulrich; Hudel, Martina; Habermann, Ernst; Niemann, Heiner; Rott, R.

    1986-01-01

    A pool of synthetic oligonucleotides was used to identify the gene encoding tetanus toxin on a 75-kbp plasmid from a toxigenic non-sporulating strain of Clostridium tetani. The nucleotide sequence contained a single open reading frame coding for 1315 amino acids corresponding to a polypeptide with a

  19. Chryseobacterium indologenes Septicemia in an Infant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aydin Teke, Turkan; Oz, Fatma Nur; Metin, Ozge; Bayhan, Gulsum Iclal; Gayretli Aydin, Zeynep Gökce; Oguz, Melek; Tanir, Gonul

    2014-01-01

    ... Chryseobacterium indologenes is nonmotile, catalase-positive, oxidase-positive, indole-positive, non-glucose-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli. It is not a component of human flora although it is ...

  20. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mahdi

    In this study, a gram negative, non- motile short rod-shaped and heavy metal resistant bacterial strain was isolated from ... Anemia has also been observed ..... isolated from root nodule of Lespedeza cuneata in gold mine tailings in China.

  1. Disease: H01068 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Haemophilus aphrophilus) is a capnophilic, fermentative, non-motile, gram-negative coccobacillus that is part of the indiginous micro...biota of the human oropharynx. Infections with this bacterium are infrequent. It ha

  2. Growth responses of Escherichia coli and Myxococcus xanthus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteria colonize surfaces responding to the physicochemical properties of substrates. ... non-motile E. coli, and Myxococcus xanthus, cultured on semi-solid agar substrates containing different amounts of nutrient and agar. ... Article Metrics.

  3. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7, an indigenous root endophyte from olive (Olea europaea L.) and effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium dahliae

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 is a native endophyte of olive roots. Previous studies have shown this motile, Gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium is an effective biocontrol agent against the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, the causal agent of one of the most devastating diseases for olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivation. Here, we announce and describe the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 consisting of a circular chromosome of 6,136,735 bp that...

  4. A dark strain in the Fusarium solani species complex isolated from primary subcutaneous sporotrichioid lesions associated with traumatic inoculation via a rose bush thorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarcioglu, A Serda; Summerbell, Richard C; Sutton, Deanna A; Yücell, Ayhan; Sarikaya, Ebru; Kaner, Gültekin; Iscimen, Aydin; Altas, Kemal

    2010-02-01

    Fusarium species are hyaline hyphomycetes widely distributed in nature and documented agents of both superficial and systemic infections in humans. In this paper, we report a darkly-pigmented and initially non-sporulating isolate in the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) causing a post-traumatic sporotrichoid infection in an otherwise healthy, male patient. Sequencing of multiple loci showed that the isolate represented an otherwise unknown lineage, possibly corresponding to a separate species, within the multi-species F. solani complex. In prolonged culture, the non-sporulating isolate produced revertant wild-type subcultures with typical Fusarium conidiation. This suggests that the original dense, dark, non-sporulating isolate was a host-adapted form selected in vivo for characters compatible with human pathogenicity. The production of such forms by Fusarium species is increasingly recognized now that sequencing has allowed the identification of highly atypical isolates. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of the isolate was investigated against seven conventional and two newly approved antifungal agents. The isolate showed in vitro resistance to amphotericin B, but appeared susceptible to itraconazole and terbinafine. A cure was ultimately achieved with combined terbinafine/itraconazole therapy with prolonged itraconazole follow-up therapy.

  5. Alternative sigma factor σH activates competence gene expression in Lactobacillus sakei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Solveig

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative sigma factors trigger various adaptive responses. Lactobacillus sakei, a non-sporulating meat-borne bacterium, carries an alternative sigma factor seemingly orthologous to σH of Bacillus subtilis, best known for its contribution to the initiation of a large starvation response ultimately leading to sporulation. As the role of σH-like factors has been little studied in non-sporulating bacteria, we investigated the function of σH in L. sakei. Results Transcription of sigH coding for σH was hardly affected by entry into stationary phase in our laboratory conditions. Twenty-five genes potentially regulated by σH in L. sakei 23 K were revealed by genome-wide transcriptomic profiling of sigH overexpression and/or quantitative PCR analysis. More than half of them are involved in the synthesis of a DNA uptake machinery linked to genetic competence, and in DNA metabolism; however, σH overproduction did not allow detectable genetic transformation. σH was found to be conserved in the L. sakei species. Conclusion Our results are indicative of the existence of a genetic competence state activated by σH in L. sakei, and sustain the hypothesis that σH-like factors in non sporulating Firmicutes share this common function with the well-known ComX of naturally transformable streptococci.

  6. Characterization of Francisella sp., GM2212, the first Francisella isolate from marine fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottem, Karl F; Nylund, Are; Karlsbakk, Egil

    2007-01-01

    from F. tularensis and F. philomiragia. GM2212(T) is catalase-positive, indole positive, oxidase-negative, do not produce H(2)S in Triple Sugar Iron agar, and does not hydrolyze gelatin, is resistant to erythromycin and susceptible to ceftazidime, the latter five characteristics separating it from F...

  7. Aliidiomarina haloalkalitolerans sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from coastal surface seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, T.N.R.; Nupur; AnilKumar, P.

    –4 mm in diameter, creamish and rose with entire margin. Growth occurred at 10–40 degrees C, 0.5–12% (w/v) NaCl and pH of 7–11. Strain AK5 sup(T) was oxidase and catalase positive. The fatty acids were dominated by iso-branched saturated and unsaturated...

  8. Recombinant expression of a putative prophage amidase cloned from the genome of Listeria monocytogenes that lyses the bacterium and its biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, non-sporeforming, catalase-positive rod that is a major bacterial food-borne disease agent, causing listeriosis. Listeria can be associated with uncooked meats including poultry, uncooked vegetables, soft cheeses and unpasteurized milk. The bacterium can be...

  9. Lysinibacillus louembei sp. nov., a spore-forming bacterium isolated from Ntoba Mbodi, alkaline fermented leaves of cassava from the Republic of the Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouoba, Labia Irène I.; Mbozo, Alain B. Vouidibio; Thorsen, Line;

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the microbial diversity of Ntoba Mbodi, an African food made from the alkaline fermentation of cassava leaves, revealed the presence of a Gram-positive, catalase-positive, aerobic, motile and rod-shaped endospore-forming bacterium (NM73) with unusual phenotypic and genotypic...

  10. Involvement of bacterial migration in the development of complex multicellular structures in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Mikkel; Aaes-Jorgensen, A.; Molin, Søren

    2003-01-01

    development, we have performed an investigation with time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy of biofilms formed by various combinations of colour-coded P. aeruginosa wild type and motility mutants. We show that mushroom-shaped multicellular structures in P. aeruginosa biofilms can form in a sequential...... process involving a non-motile bacterial subpopulation and a migrating bacterial subpopulation. The non-motile bacteria form the mushroom stalks by growth in certain foci of the biofilm. The migrating bacteria form the mushroom caps by climbing the stalks and aggregating on the tops in a process which...

  11. Involvement of bacterial migration in the development of complex multicellular structures in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Mikkel; Aaes-Jorgensen, A.; Molin, Søren;

    2003-01-01

    development, we have performed an investigation with time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy of biofilms formed by various combinations of colour-coded P. aeruginosa wild type and motility mutants. We show that mushroom-shaped multicellular structures in P. aeruginosa biofilms can form in a sequential...... process involving a non-motile bacterial subpopulation and a migrating bacterial subpopulation. The non-motile bacteria form the mushroom stalks by growth in certain foci of the biofilm. The migrating bacteria form the mushroom caps by climbing the stalks and aggregating on the tops in a process which...

  12. Enhanced diffusion of non-swimmers in a 3D bath of motile bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Jepson, A; Schwarz-Linek, J; Morozov, A; Poon, W C K

    2013-01-01

    We show using differential dynamic microscopy that the diffusive motion of non-motile cells in a three-dimensional population of motile E. coli is enhanced by an amount that is strictly proportional to the active cell flux. While non-motile mutants without flagella and mutants with paralysed flagella have quite different thermal diffusivities and therefore hydrodynamic radii, their diffusivities are enhanced to the same extent by swimmers in the regime of cell densities explored here. Integrating the motion of non-swimmers caused by swimmers with finite persistence-length trajectories predicts quantitatively the observed linear dependence of enhanced diffusivity and active cell flux.

  13. Prey detection in a cruising copepod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Sanne; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Small cruising zooplankton depend on remote prey detection and active prey capture for efficient feeding. Direct, passive interception of prey is inherently very inefficient at low Reynolds numbers because the viscous boundary layer surrounding the approaching predator will push away potential prey....... Yet, direct interception has been proposed to explain how rapidly cruising, blind copepods feed on non-motile phytoplankton prey. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism for prey detection in a cruising copepod, and describe how motile and non-motile prey are discovered by hydromechanical and tactile...

  14. Prey detection in a cruising copepod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Sanne; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Small cruising zooplankton depend on remote prey detection and active prey capture for efficient feeding. Direct, passive interception of prey is inherently very inefficient at low Reynolds numbers because the viscous boundary layer surrounding the approaching predator will push away potential prey....... Yet, direct interception has been proposed to explain how rapidly cruising, blind copepods feed on non-motile phytoplankton prey. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism for prey detection in a cruising copepod, and describe how motile and non-motile prey are discovered by hydromechanical and tactile...

  15. The chemical-in-plug bacterial chemotaxis assay is prone to false positive responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Mandy J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical-in-plug assays are commonly used to study bacterial chemotaxis, sometimes in the absence of stringent controls. Results We report that non-chemotactic and non-motile mutants in two distinct bacterial species (Shewanella oneidensis and Helicobacter pylori show apparent zones of accumulation or clearing around test plugs containing potential attractants or repellents, respectively. Conclusions Our results suggest that the chemical-in-plug assay should be used with caution, that non-motile or non-chemotactic mutants should be employed as controls, and that results should be confirmed with other types of assays.

  16. The effect of foliar fungicides on the mycoflora of seeds of Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Błaszkowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three foliar fungicides. i.e., Bayloton 25 WP, Dithane M-45, and Funaben K. on the mycoflora associated with the seeds of spring Triticum aestivum cv. Kolibri cultivated in the field was investigated. The fungicide which highly reduced the number of both fungal colonies and species was Funaben K. Of the fungi most frequently occurring. Only Funaben K applied on the seeds reduced the proportion of seeds with Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium spp.. and Septoria nodorum. In contrast. seeds from plants traeted with Funaben K harboured significantly more colonies of non-sporulating fungi.

  17. Fusobacterium canifelinum sp. nov., from the oral cavity of cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Georg; Citron, Diane M; Mutters, Reinier; Jang, Spencer; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2004-08-01

    Fourteen strains of Gram-negative, anaerobic, fluoroquinolone-resistant, non-sporulating rods were isolated from various infections in cats and dogs, as well as from wounds in humans after cat- or dog-bites. These strains were characterized by sequencing of the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, 16S rDNA, DNA-DNA hybridization, phylogenetic analysis, and phenotypic tests. The results indicate that the novel strains belong to a distinct species, closely related to Fusobacterium nucleatum. The species Fusobacterium canifelinum sp. nov. is proposed, with strain ATCC BAA 689T as the type strain.

  18. Gordonia polyisoprenivorans from groundwater contaminated with landfill leachate in a subtropical area: characterization of the isolate and exopolysaccharide production Gordonia polyisoprenivorans de águas subterrâneas contaminadas por chorume, em região subtropical: caracterização da linhagem e produção de exopolissacarídeos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fusconi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Gordonia sp. (strain Lc, from landfill leachate-contaminated groundwater was characterized by polyphasic taxonomy and studied for exopolysaccharide (EPS production. The cells were Gram-positive, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative and non-motile. The organism grew both aerobically and, in anoxic environment, in the presence of NaNO3. Rods occured singly, in pairs or in a typical coryneform V-shaped. The organism had morphological, physiological and chemical properties consistent with its assignment to the genus Gordonia and mycolic and fatty acid pattern that corresponded to those of G. polyisoprenivorans DSM 44302T. The comparison of the sequence of the first 500 bases of the 16S rDNA of strain Lc gave 100% similarity with the type strain of Gordonia polyisoprenivorans DSM 44302T. Experiments conducted in anaerobic conditions in liquid E medium with either glucose or sucrose as the main carbon source showed that sucrose did not support the growth of Lc strain and that on glucose the maximum specific growth rate was 0.17h-1, representing a generation time of approximately 4 hours. On glucose, a maximum of total EPS was produced during the exponential phase (126.17 ± 15.63 g l-1. The production of free EPS exceeded that of capsular and the free/capsular EPS ratio increased from 1.9 during the exponential phase to 7.8 during the stationary phase. At present, six strains of G. polyisoprenivorans have been isolated from various environments. Lc is the sixth strain of G. polyisoprenivorans described, the second strain detected in the landfill leachate-contaminated groundwater and the first that is being studied for EPS production.Uma linahgem de Gordonia sp. (linhagem Lc, proveniente de águas subterrâneas contaminadas por chorume, foi caracterizada por taxonomia polifásica e estudada quanto à produção de exopolissacarídeos (EPS. As células, bastonetes agregados, isolados ou aos pares em formato de V, típico de bact

  19. Vitellibacter nionensis sp. nov., isolated from shallow water hydrothermal vent of Espalamaca, Azores.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajasabapathy, R.; Mohandass, C.; Yoon, J.-H.; Dastager, S.G.; Liu, Q.; Khieu, T.-N.; Son, C.K.; Li, W.-J.; Colaco, A.

    A novel, Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped yellow pigmented bacterium, designated VBW088T was isolated from shallow water hydrothermal vent of Espalamaca, Azores. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain VBW088...

  20. Bryocella elongata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dedysh, S.N.; Kulichevskaya, I.S.; Serkebaeva, Y.M.; Mityaeva, M.A.; Sorokin, V.V.; Suzina, N.E.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    An aerobic, pink-pigmented, chemo-organotrophic bacterium, designated strain SN10(T), was isolated from a methanotrophic enrichment culture obtained from an acidic Sphagnum peat. This isolate was represented by Gram-negative, non-motile rods that multiply by normal cell division and form rosettes. S

  1. Nitrolancea hollandica gen. nov., sp. nov., a chemolithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacterium isolated from a bioreactor belonging to the phylum Chloroflexi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Vejmelkova, D.; Lücker, S.; Streshinskaya, G.M.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damste, J.S.; Kleerbezem, R.; van Loosdrecht, M.; Muyzer, G.; Daims, H.

    2014-01-01

    A novel nitrite-oxidizing bacterium (NOB), strain LbT, was isolated from a nitrifying bioreactor with a high loading of ammonium bicarbonate in a mineral medium with nitrite as the energy source. The cells were oval (lancet-shaped) rods with pointed edges, non-motile, Gram-positive (by staining and

  2. Cerebellar abscess and meningitis, caused by Shewanella putrefaciens and Klebsiella pneumoniae, associated with chronic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Gurdal; Aydin, Kemalettin; Bektas, Devrim; Caylan, Rahmet; Caylan, Refik; Koksal, Iftihar

    2007-11-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens is a facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, Gram-negative, non-fermentative bacterium. It is found in various environments and has been isolated worldwide. S. putrefaciens is a rare cause of brain abscesses and meningitis. This is a case report of a cerebellar abscess and meningitis caused by Shewanella putrefaciens and Klebsiella pneumoniae in a river trap fisherman.

  3. Microbacter margulisiae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel propionigenic bacterium isolated from sediments of an acid rock drainage pond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Andrea, I.; Luis Sanz, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    A novel anaerobic propionigenic bacterium, strain ADRIT, was isolated from sediment of an acid rock drainage environment (Tinto River, Spain). Cells were small (0.4-0.6 x 1-1.7 µm), non-motile and non-spore forming rods. Cells possessed a Gram-negative cell wall structure and were vancomycin resista

  4. Characterisation of geographically and temporally diverse Yersinia ruckeri isolates: evidence that UK and mainland European biotype 2 isolates represent different clonal groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been increased reports of outbreaks of Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM) caused by Yersinia ruckeri in previously-vaccinated salmonids in Europe, with some of these outbreaks attributed to emergent non-motile, Tween 80 negative, biotype 2 isolates. To gain information about their likely orig...

  5. Polyphasic taxonomic approach in the description of Alishewanella fetalis gen. nov., sp nov., isolated from a human foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Venkateswaran, K.; Christensen, H.

    2000-01-01

    A taxonomically unique bacterium is described on the basis of a physiological and biochemical characterization, fatty acid profiling and sequence analyses of 16S rRNA and gyrase B (gyrB) genes. This non-motile, non-fermentative bacterium was isolated from a human foetus in Uppsala, Sweden, and or...

  6. Regulation of flagellum biosynthesis within the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yersinia ruckeri, a Gram negative Enterobacterium, is the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease (ERM) within farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). There has been an increase of ERM outbreaks in previously vaccinated trout caused by a recently emerged, non-motile variant of Y. r...

  7. Flagellar regulation in Yersinia ruckeri during infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gram-negative Enterobacterium Yersinia ruckeri is the etiologic agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM), a septicemia affecting primarily farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the prevalence of non-motile variants of Y. ruckeri a...

  8. Flagella biosynthesis and regulation by the Rcs pathway within the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri during infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gram-negative Enterobacterium Yersinia ruckeri is the etiologic agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM) within farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the prevalence of non-motile variants of Y. ruckeri and the appearance of these ...

  9. Paludibaculum fermentans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulichevskaya, I.S.; Suzina, N.E.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2014-01-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, non-pigmented and non-spore-forming bacterium was isolated from a littoral wetland of a boreal lake located in Valaam Island, Northern Russia, and designated strain P105T. Cells of this isolate are Gram-negative, non-motile rods coated by S-layers with p2 lattice symmetry.

  10. Preliminary studies On the colonial form of Cylindrotheca sp. (Bacillariophyceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.R.Li; B.Z.Bian

    1986-01-01

    From a stock culture of Cylindrotheca sp., non-motile colony-forming cells were observed and isolated.Colony-forming cells produced both single cells and colony-forming cells in liquid medla.the rate of single cell production varied among clones.

  11. A novel case of Raoultella planticola urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D S; Asare, K; Lyons, M; Hofinger, D M

    2013-02-01

    Raoultella species are Gram-negative, non-motile bacilli primarily considered to be environmental bacteria (Bagley et al.; Curr Microbiol 6:105-109, 1981). R. planticola has rarely been documented as a cause of human infections and has never been reported to cause urinary tract infections. We report the first case of R. planticola cystitis.

  12. A Case of Pneumonia Caused by Raoultella planticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Jun; Jung, Eun Jung; Seong, Ji Seok; Woo, Yong Moon; Jeong, Beom Jin; Kang, Yeong Mo; Lee, Eun

    2016-01-01

    Raoultella species are gram-negative, non-motile, aerobic bacilli that are primarily considered as environmental bacteria. Raoultella planticola is reportedly a rare cause of human infections. Also, the definite pathological mechanism of Raoultella planticola is currently unknown. We report a case of pneumonia caused by Raoultella planticola.

  13. Streptococcus caviae sp. nov., isolated from Guinea pig faecal samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; Hilderink, Loes J.; Oost, van der John; Vos, de Willem M.; Plugge, Caroline M.

    2017-01-01

    A novel cellobiose-degrading and lactate-producing bacterium, strain Cavy grass 6T, was isolated from faecal samples of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Cells of the strain were ovalshaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming, Gram-stain-positive and facultatively anaerobic. The strain gr at 2

  14. Yersinia ruckeri biotype 2 isolates from mainland Europe and the UK likely represent different clonal groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wheeler, Richard W.; Davies, Robert L.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2009-01-01

    There have been increased reports of outbreaks of enteric redmouth disease (ERM) caused by Yersinia ruckeri in previously vaccinated salmonids in Europe, with some of these outbreaks being attributed to emergent non-motile, Tween 80-negative, biotype 2 isolates. To gain information about their li...

  15. Arthrobacter enclensis sp. nov., isolated from sediment sample

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dastager, S.G.; Qin, L.; Tang, S.K.; Krishnamurthi, S.; Lee, J.C.; Li, W.J.

    A novel bacterial strain designated as NIO-1008(T) was isolated from marine sediments sample in Chorao Island India. Cells of the strains were gram positive and non-motile, displayed a rod-coccus life cycle and formed cream to light grey colonies...

  16. Antibiosis plays a role in the context of direct interaction during antagonism of Paenibacillus polymyxa towards Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, J; Sanders, M; Gorris, L G; Smid, E J

    1999-01-01

    Interaction of Fusarium oxysporum and Paenibacillus polymyxa starts with polar attachment of bacteria to the fungal hyphae followed by the formation of a large cluster of non-motile cells embedded in an extracellular matrix in which the bacteria develop endospores. Enumeration of fungal viable count

  17. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus xylosus: technological potential for use in fermented sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela Maria Fiorentini; Maristela Cortez Sawitzki; Teresinha Marisa Bertol; Fábio Cristiano Angonesi Brod; Márcia Regina Pelisser; Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi; Ernani Sebastião Sant'Anna

    2009-01-01

    Micrococcaceae strains are applied to fermented sausage as starter cultures, where several members of this family are naturally found. The aim of the present work was to isolate and characterize Staphylococcus xylosus from artisanal sausages produced in South Region of Brazil. From 89 isolates presenting catalase positive and coagulase negative activities, 25 strains were selected for phenotypic characterization. Nine strains identified as Staphylococcus xylosus by API-STAPH were evaluated fo...

  18. Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a Previously Healthy 13-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H. Rayment

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a rare, polygenic primary immunodeficiency. In this case report, we describe a previously healthy 13-year-old boy who presented with multifocal pulmonary aspergillosis and was subsequently diagnosed with an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease. CGD has a variable natural history and age of presentation and should be considered when investigating a patient with recurrent or severe infections with catalase-positive organisms.

  19. Microbial Quality and Direct PCR Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Nonpathogenic Staphylococci from Artisanal Low-Acid Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Aymerich, T.; B. Martín; Garriga, M.; Hugas, M

    2005-01-01

    Detection of six species of lactic acid bacteria and six species of gram-positive catalase-positive cocci from low-acid fermented sausages (fuets and chorizos) was assessed by species-specific PCR. Without enrichment, Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus were detected in 11.8% of the samples, and Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus xylosus were detected in 17.6%. Enriched samples allowed the detection of L. sakei and S. xylosus in all of the samples (100%) and of Enterococcus...

  20. Post-ERCP bacteremia caused by Alcaligenes xylosoxidans in a patient with pancreas cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akcay Korhan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alcaligenes xylosoxidans is an aerobic, motile, oxidase and catalase positive, nonfermentative Gram negative bacillus. This bacterium has been isolated from intestine of humans and from various hospital or environmental water sources. A.xylosoxidans is both waterborne and results from the poor-hygienic conditions healthcare workers are in. In this case report, the bacteremia which appeared in a patient with pancreas cancer after ERCP was described.

  1. Eimeria auratae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) infecting the lizard Mabuya aurata in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyousif, M S; AL-Rasheid, K A

    2001-03-01

    Eimeria auratae n. sp. was described from the gall bladder of the lizard Mabuya aurata collected at Al-Hofuf village, eastern region, Saudi Arabia. Morphology of sporulated as well as non-sporulated oocysts were studied. Sporulated oocysts were ellipsoidal 22-31.5x13.5-21.8 (27.7x18.5) microm with smooth brownish-yellow bilayered wall, 1.1 (0.9-1.3) microm. Micropyle, polar granule and oocyst residuum were absent. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal 10.5-12.8x7.5-9 (11.8x8.5) microm. Sporocyst residuum was present but Stieda body was absent. Sporozoites were crescent-shaped, blunt at one end and slightly tapered at the other. Eimeria species from Scincidae were compared.

  2. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7, an indigenous root endophyte from olive (Olea europaea L.) and effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Pedro Manuel; Ruano-Rosa, David; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Prieto, Pilar; Ramos, Cayo; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 is a native endophyte of olive roots. Previous studies have shown this motile, Gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium is an effective biocontrol agent against the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, the causal agent of one of the most devastating diseases for olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivation. Here, we announce and describe the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 consisting of a circular chromosome of 6,136,735 bp that encodes 5,567 protein-coding genes and 88 RNA-only encoding genes. Genome analysis revealed genes predicting factors such as secretion systems, siderophores, detoxifying compounds or volatile components. Further analysis of the genome sequence of PICF7 will help in gaining insights into biocontrol and endophytism.

  3. Comparative structural and functional analysis of genes encoding pectin methylesterases in Phytophthora spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingora, Christina; Ewer, Jason; Ospina-Giraldo, Manuel

    2014-03-15

    We have scanned the Phytophthora infestans, P. ramorum, and P. sojae genomes for the presence of putative pectin methylesterase genes and conducted a sequence analysis of all gene models found. We also searched for potential regulatory motifs in the promoter region of the proposed P. infestans models, and investigated the gene expression levels throughout the course of P. infestans infection on potato plants, using in planta and detached leaf assays. We found that genes located on contiguous chromosomal regions contain similar motifs in the promoter region, indicating the possibility of a shared regulatory mechanism. Results of our investigations also suggest that, during the pathogenicity process, the expression levels of some of the analyzed genes vary considerably when compared to basal expression observed in in vitro cultures of non-sporulating mycelium. These results were observed both in planta and in detached leaf assays.

  4. Production of extracellular protease and glucose uptake in Bacillus clausii in steady-state and transient continuous cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Torben; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    for product formation. The dynamics of the production of Savinuse(R) were studied during step changes in the dilution rate. During a step down in the dilution rate the specific production rate decreased immediately until it reached a new steady value. During a step-up an initial cease in the production rate...... was observed, but when glucose stopped to accumulate the production rate was regained. The glucose uptake was further investigated when chemostat cultures growing at different dilution rates were exposed to glucose pulses. The maximal glucose uptake capacity was found to be dependent on the initial specific......The production of the extracellular alkaline protease Savinase(R) (EC 3.4.21.62) and glucose uptake in a non-sporulating strain of Bacillus clausii were investigated by analysing steady-state and transients during continuous cultivations. The specific production rate was found to have an optimum...

  5. Activity of Imipenem against Klebsiella pneumoniae Biofilms In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Gram - negative bacilli causing infections in intensive care unit pa- tients in the United States between 1993 and 2004. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:3352–3359...Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram - negative , encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped opportunistic pathogen. This organism can cause a wide range of...approximately 15% of the Gram - negative infections (2). Clinical data from the burn center at the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research/Brooke Army Medical

  6. Studies on methanogenic consortia associated with mangrove sediments of Ennore.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ahila, N.K.; Kannapiran, E.; Ravindran, J.; Ramkumar, V.S.

    of Avicennia marina (AmP7) and near shore region (SSS8). The collected samples were transferred into serum bottles, sealed immediately with butyl rubber stopper and aluminium crimps using sealing machine, transported to the laboratory in ice packs... observed viz., cocci, cocci in clusters, rods of different sizes (slender long, stout, small). All the cells were Gram positive. The cocci were non-motile and the rods were motile. All the cells emitted blue green fluorescence when viewed under...

  7. Effects of Nonequilibrium Plasmas on Eukaryotic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    with cellulosic plates under their cell membrane, the diatom C. hystrix has a siliceous cell wall and organic layer, while A. sanguinea is an...unarmored (naked) dinoflagellate, i.e. without the cellulosic plates (see SEM micrographs below). Some non-motile cells recovered their motility and...formed a somewhat reticulate or porous structure as a cell covering. In the A. sanguinea sample where pH was adjusted to 3.0 (corresponds to the pH

  8. Genomic analysis reveals key aspects of prokaryotic symbiosis in the phototrophic consortium "Chlorochromatium aggregatum"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhenfeng; Müller, Johannes; Li, Tao;

    2013-01-01

    'Chlorochromatium aggregatum' is a phototrophic consortium, a symbiosis that may represent the highest degree of mutual interdependence between two unrelated bacteria not associated with a eukaryotic host. 'Chlorochromatium aggregatum' is a motile, barrel-shaped aggregate formed from a single cell...... of "Candidatus Symbiobacter mobilis," a polarly flagellated, non-pigmented, heterotrophic bacterium, which is surrounded by approximately 15 epibiont cells of Chlorobium chlorochromatii, a non-motile photolithoautotrophic green sulfur bacterium....

  9. The first case report of Raoultella planticola liver abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaula, Sujata; Shahrrava, Anahita; Al Zoubi, Moamen; Malow, James

    2016-01-01

    Raoultella species are a group of gram-negative, non-motile bacilli commonly isolated from the environment. The group was considered a member of the genus Klebsiella until the late 1990s. Raoultella planticola is a rare cause of human infections. We report the first case of liver abscess caused by this organism. The patient was successfully treated with appropriate antimicrobials combined with operative drainage.

  10. The first case report of Raoultella planticola liver abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Sitaula, M.D

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raoultella species are a group of gram-negative, non-motile bacilli commonly isolated from the environment. The group was considered a member of the genus Klebsiella until the late 1990s. Raoultella planticola is a rare cause of human infections. We report the first case of liver abscess caused by this organism. The patient was successfully treated with appropriate antimicrobials combined with operative drainage.

  11. Occurrence of Pathogenic Bacteria in Traditional Millet-Based Fermented Gruels for Young Children in West Africa: Ben-Saalga and Ben-Kida in Ouagadougou (Burkina-Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akaki David

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate microbiological quality of traditionally millet-based fermented gruels consumed as weaning foods at different stages of the processes as prepared at household level in Ouagadougou, capital of Burkina Faso in 2004, February to May. Our methodology is based on the use of traditional enumeration of four categories of micro-organisms like the enterobacteria that cause fecal contaminations, staphylococcal for the hygiene of producers, Bacillus as cereals contaminant and diarrhea and vomiting agents for young children; Clostridium like telluric agents. These enumerations were coupled with the identification of the characteristic colonies. Fermentation followed by sufficient cooking remains a good means of reduction of the microbial population, especially non-sporulated micro-organisms. MC agar count at 35ºC went from 4.0×106 cfu/mL (before fermentation to 1.9×105 cfu/mL (after fermentation to reach zero values. On BP agar at 35ºC, the count was 5.1×105 cfu/mL (before fermentation, 2.3×105 cfu/mL (after fermentation and 7.2×104 cfu/mL (after cooking. On MYP agar at 35ºC, the results are as follows: 9.9×106 cfu/mL (before fermentation, 1.0×107 cfu/mL (after fermentation and 1.6×103 cfu/mL (after cooking. Finally, we obtained on TSC agar at 46ºC about 4.1×106 cfu/mL (before fermentation, 2.7×107 cfu/mL (after fermentation and 8.0×103 cfu/mL (after cooking. Identifications showed a strong presence of sporulated germs and non-sporulated acid tolerant germs especially after cooking. These results show how difficult these types of germs are to eliminate.

  12. Noncontiguous finished genome sequence and description of Gabonia massiliensis gen. nov., sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mourembou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Culturomics coupled with taxonogenomics is currently used to isolate and characterize new bacteria. Here we describe the features and complete genome sequence of Gabonia massiliensis strain GM3, an anaerobic Gram negative, non-spore-forming and catalase-positive bacillus isolated from a stool specimen of a healthy Gabonese male youth. Belonging to a new genus called Gabonia, it exhibits a genome of 4 261 752 bp including 37.9% GC content and 3,288 predicted genes.

  13. Emended description of Campylobacter sputorum and revision of its infrasubspecific (biovar) divisions, including C-sputorum biovar paraureolyticus, a urease-producing variant from cattle and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, S.L.W.; Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.;

    1998-01-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study of 15 bovine and human strains assigned to the catalase-negative, urease-positive campylobacter (CNUPC) group identified these bacteria as a novel, ureolytic biovar of Campylobacter sputorum for which we propose the name C. sputorum bv. paraureolyticus: suitable...... should be revised to include by. sputorum for catalase-negative strains; by. fecalis for catalase-positive strains; and by. paraureolyticus for urease-positive strains. Strains classified previously as by. bubulus should be reclassified as by. sputorum. The species description of C. sputorum is revised...

  14. Successful Treatment of Fungal Osteomyelitis with Voriconazole in a Patient with CGD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Oaji

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is an immunodeficiency affecting phagocytic leukocytes. Defective respiratory burst mechanism renders the affected patients to be susceptible to catalase positive microorganisms. With the great successes in antibacterial prophylaxis and therapy, fungal infections are a persistent problem. Invasive aspergillosis is the most important cause of mortality in CGD. Case Presentation: We describe a nine year-old boy with CGD who presented with aspergillus induced skull osteomyelitis. He was successfully treated with voriconazole after initial failure of amphotericin B therapy. Conclusion: Currently, newer triazoles are recommended as initial therapy for invasive aspergillosis in immunodeficiency states such as CGD.

  15. Serologic response of vaccinated cattle to strains of Moraxella bovis isolated during epizootics of keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, G W; Hughes, D E; Booth, G D

    1978-01-01

    In studies to determine whether there were antigenic differences between strains (isolates) of Moraxella bovis, the sera from vaccinated calves were tested with isolates of M bovis while the calves were experiencing epizootics of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Before the epizootics of IBK, the calves were intramuscularly vaccinated with a formalin-killed autogenous M bovis bacterin. During the epizootics, the eyes were examined by cultural technique, and isolates which were obtained were categorized by catalase activity, source (diseased or nondiseased eyes), and reactivity with the various sera. The serum reactivity of the isolates was compared with that of the vaccinal strain. The vaccinal strain and 8 of the 1 5 selected isolates obtained during the 1974 epizootic were catalase negative. Seven of the 15 isolates from the 1974 epizootic and all of the selected isolates from the 1975 epizootic were catalase positive. A significantly higher (P less than 0.01) percentage of calf sera were serologically reactive with the vaccinal strain and other catalase-negative isolates (45.0%) than with catalase-positive isolates (34.8%). The results, although not definitive, suggest that there may be antigenic differences among strains of M bovis. These differences should be considered when cattle are vaccinated against IBK under natural conditions of exposure.

  16. The effects of temperature and motility on the advective transport of a deep subsurface bacteria through saturated sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaulou, D.R. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Replicate column experiments were done to quantify the effects of temperature and bacterial motility on advective transport through repacked, but otherwise unaltered, natural aquifer sediment. The bacteria used in this study, A0500, was a flagellated, spore-forming rod isolated from the deep subsurface at DOE`s Savannah River Laboratory. Motility was controlled by turning on flagellar metabolism at 18{degrees}C but off at 40{degrees}C. Microspheres were used to independently quantify the effects of temperature on the sticking efficiency ({alpha}), estimated using a steady-state filtration model. The observed greater microsphere removal at the higher temperature agreed with the physical-chemical model, but bacteria removal at 18{degrees}C was only half that at 4{degrees}C. The sticking efficiency for non-motile A0500 (4{degrees}C) was over three times that of the motile A0500 (18{degrees}C), 0.073 versus 0.022 respectively. Analysis of complete breakthrough curves using a non-steady, kinetically limited, transport model to estimate the time scales of attachment and detachment suggested that motile A 0500 bacteria traveled twice as far as non-motile A 0500 bacteria before becoming attached. Once attached, non-motile colloids detached on the time scale of 9 to 17 days. The time scale for detachment of motile A0500 bacteria was shorter, 4 to 5 days. Results indicate that bacterial attachment was reversible and detachment was enhanced by bacterial motifity. The kinetic energy of bacterial motility changed the attachment-detachment kinetics in favor of the detached state. The chemical factors responsible for the enhanced transport are not known. However, motility may have caused weakly held bacteria to detach from the secondary minimum, and possibly from the primary minimum, as described by DLVO theory.

  17. Artificial oocyte activation in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles using testicular sperm in human in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee Jung; Lee, Sun-Hee; Park, Yong-Seog; Lim, Chun Kyu; Ko, Duck Sung; Yang, Kwang Moon; Park, Dong-Wook

    2015-06-01

    Artificial oocyte activation (AOA) is an effective method to avoid total fertilization failure in human in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. AOA performed using a calcium ionophore can induce calcium oscillation in oocytes and initiate the fertilization process. We evaluated the usefulness of AOA with a calcium ionophore in cases of total fertilization failure in previous cycles and in cases of severe male factor infertility patients with non-motile spermatozoa after pentoxifylline (PF) treatment. The present study describes 29 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-AOA cycles involving male factor infertility at Cheil General Hospital from January 2006 to June 2013. Patients were divided into two groups (control, n=480; AOA, n=29) depending on whether or not AOA using a calcium ionophore (A23187) was performed after testicular sperm extraction-ICSI (TESE-ICSI). The AOA group was further split into subgroups according to sperm motility after PF treatment: i.e., motile sperm-injected (n=12) and non-motile sperm-injected (n=17) groups (total n=29 cycles). The good embryo rate (52.3% vs. 66.9%), pregnancy rate (20.7% vs. 52.1%), and delivery rate (10.3% vs. 40.8%) were lower in the PF/AOA group than in the control group. When evaluating the effects of restoration of sperm motility after PF treatment on clinical outcomes there was no difference in fertilization rate (66.6% vs. 64.7% in non-motile and motile sperm, respectively), pregnancy rate (17.6% vs. 33.3%), or delivery rate (5.9% vs. 16.7%) between the two groups. We suggest that oocyte activation is a useful method to ensure fertilization in TESE-ICSI cycles regardless of restoration of sperm motility after PF treatment. AOA may be useful in selected patients who have a low fertilization rate or total fertilization failure.

  18. Isolasi dan karakterisasi bakteri berpotensi probiotik pada ikan kembung (Rastrelliger sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Dewi Safrida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics bacteria are beneficial microbes to improve microbial balance in the digestive tract. The objective of the research was to isolate and characterize of potential probiotic bacteria in mackerel fish (Rastrelliger sp.. The research was done from April to August 2012 at Laboratory of Microbiology Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh. Isolation and characterization used dilution and scratches quadrant methods. The result showed that there were five potential isolates of probiotic bacteria varied morphological colony and cell. The isolate have circular form (100%, entire margin (80%, flat (60%, cream color (40%, gram positive bacteria (80%, coccus shape (100% and non motile (60%. Keywords: Probiotics,

  19. Large Scale 7436-bp Deletions in Human Sperm Mitochondrial DNA with Spermatozoa Dysfunction and Male Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambulkar, Prafulla S; Waghmare, Jwalant E; Chaudhari, Ajay R; Wankhede, Vandana R; Tarnekar, Aaditya M; Shende, Moreshwar R; Pal, Asoke K

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA are essential to sperm motility and fertility. It controls growth, development and differentiation through oxidation energy supply. Mitochondrial (mtDNA) deletions or mutation are frequently attributed to defects of sperm motility and finally these deletions lead to sperm dysfunction and causes infertility in male. To investigate the correlation between large scale 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA and non-motility of sperm in asthenozoospermia and Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) infertile men. The present prospective study was carried out in Human Genetic Division, Department of Anatomy, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram from June 2014 to July 2016. We have studied 110 asthenozoospermia and OAT infertile men whose semen profile indicated abnormal motility and 50 normal fertile controls. Of 110 infertile men, 70 had asthenozoospermia and 40 had OAT. Fractionations of spermatozoa were done in each semen sample on the basis of their motility by percoll gradients discontinuous technique. Long-range PCR was used for detection of 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA and was confirmed by primer shift technique. Overall eight subjects (8/110; 7.2%) of which six (6/70; 8.57%) asthenozoospermia and two (2/40; 5%) OAT had shown deletions of 7436-bp. In 40% percoll fraction had more non-motile spermatozoa than 80% percoll fraction. The non-motile spermatozoa in 40% percoll fractions showed more mtDNA deletions (7.2%) than the motile spermatozoa in 80% percoll fraction (2.7%). The sequencing of flanking regions of deleted mtDNA confirmed 7436-bp deletions. Interestingly, no deletions were found in control subjects. Though, the frequency of 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA was low in infertile cases but meaningful indications were there when results were compared with controls. It is indicated that large scale deletions 7436-bp of mtDNA is associated with abnormal sperm motility. The 7436-bp deletions of mtDNA in spermatozoa

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Empedobacter (Formerly Wautersiella) falsenii comb. nov. Wf282, a Strain Isolated from a Cervical Neck Abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Traglia, German Matias; Dixon, Chelsea; Chiem, Kevin; Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Montaña, Sabrina Daiana; Merino, Cindy; Mussi, María Alejandra; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.; Iriarte, Andrés; Vay, Carlos; Ramirez, Maria Soledad

    2015-01-01

    Wautersiella falsenii was first described in the year 2006 by Kampfer et al. (1). This genus phenotypically resembles members of the genera Chryseobacterium and Empedobacter. W. falsenii is a non-motile, gram-negative rod that grows aerobically at 20, 30 and 37 °C on standard media such as tryptic soy agar or blood agar. The Wf282 genome sequence could lead us to clarify the role and importance of this particular species as a nosocomial pathogen and permit us to compare the genome content of ...

  1. Nematic order by elastic interactions and cellular rigidity sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, B. M.; Safran, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    We predict spontaneous nematic order in an ensemble of active force generators with elastic interactions as a minimal model for early nematic alignment of short stress fibers in non-motile, adhered cells. Mean-field theory is formally equivalent to Maier-Saupe theory for a nematic liquid. However, the elastic interactions are long-ranged (and thus depend on cell shape and matrix elasticity) and originate in cell activity. Depending on the density of force generators, we find two regimes of cellular rigidity sensing for which orientational, nematic order of stress fibers depends on matrix rigidity either in a step-like manner or with a maximum at an optimal rigidity.

  2. Severe Rhodococcus equi pneumonia: case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Gaub, J

    1991-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an aerobic, gram-positive, non-motile pleomorphic bacillus infecting immunocompromised patients. Forty-nine cases of Rhodococcus equi infection have been reported, mainly in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A case in which Rhodococcus equi caused...... severe pulmonary infection, the most common presentation, is described. Clinically, patients have symptoms of pneumonia with hemoptysis as a prominent feature. X-ray will often show a cavitating upper-lobe infiltrate, resembling infection with mycobacteria. Rhodococcus equi is easily cultured from blood......-term antibiotic treatment with erythromycin plus rifampicin, or vancomycin in combination with either of these antibiotics....

  3. Behaviour and Biological Control of Bacteriocin-Producing Leuconostocs Associated with Spoilage of Vacuum-Packaged Sucuk

    OpenAIRE

    OSMANAĞAOĞLU, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    Non-motile, Gram-positive and catalase-negative anaerobic Leuconostoc sp. were found to be involved in the spoilage of vacuum-packaged refrigerated sucuk samples. The spoilage was associated with an accumulation of large quantities of foul-smelling gas and purge in the bag and loss of colour and texture in the meat. Many of these isolates produce bacteriocins, to which the predominant Gram-positive bacteria normally found in these products are sensitive. As the leuconostocs grew at low temper...

  4. Effect of microtubule-associated protein tau in dynamics of single-headed motor proteins KIF1A

    CERN Document Server

    Sparacino, J; Lamberti, P W

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular transport based on molecular motors and its regulation are crucial to the functioning of cells. Filamentary tracks of the cells are abundantly decorated with non-motile microtubule-associated proteins, such as tau. Motivated by experiments on kinesin-tau interactions [Dixit et al. Science 319, 1086 (2008)] we developed a stochastic model of interacting single-headed motor proteins KIF1A that also takes into account the interactions between motor proteins and tau molecules. Our model reproduce experimental observations and predicts significant effects of tau on bound time and run length which suggest an important role of tau in regulation of kinesin-based transport.

  5. Sedimentation and gravitational instability of Escherichia coli Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douarche, Carine; Salin, Dominique; Collaboration between Laboratory FAST; LPS Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    The successive run and tumble of Escherichia coli bacteria provides an active matter suspension of rod-like particles with a large swimming diffusion. As opposed to inactive elongated particles, this diffusion prevents clustering and instability in the gravity field. We measure the time dependent E . coli concentration profile during their sedimentation. After some hours, due to the dioxygen consumption, a motile / non-motile front forms leading to a Rayleigh-Taylor type gravitational instability. Analyzing both sedimentation and instability in the framework of active particle suspensions, we can measure the relevant bacteria hydrodynamic characteristics such as its single particle sedimentation velocity and its hindrance volume.

  6. Large Scale 7436-bp Deletions in Human Sperm Mitochondrial DNA with Spermatozoa Dysfunction and Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambulkar, Prafulla S.; Waghmare, Jwalant E.; Chaudhari, Ajay R.; Wankhede, Vandana R.; Tarnekar, Aaditya M.; Shende, Moreshwar R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA are essential to sperm motility and fertility. It controls growth, development and differentiation through oxidation energy supply. Mitochondrial (mtDNA) deletions or mutation are frequently attributed to defects of sperm motility and finally these deletions lead to sperm dysfunction and causes infertility in male. Aim To investigate the correlation between large scale 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA and non-motility of sperm in asthenozoospermia and Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) infertile men. Materials and Methods The present prospective study was carried out in Human Genetic Division, Department of Anatomy, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram from June 2014 to July 2016. We have studied 110 asthenozoospermia and OAT infertile men whose semen profile indicated abnormal motility and 50 normal fertile controls. Of 110 infertile men, 70 had asthenozoospermia and 40 had OAT. Fractionations of spermatozoa were done in each semen sample on the basis of their motility by percoll gradients discontinuous technique. Long-range PCR was used for detection of 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA and was confirmed by primer shift technique. Results Overall eight subjects (8/110; 7.2%) of which six (6/70; 8.57%) asthenozoospermia and two (2/40; 5%) OAT had shown deletions of 7436-bp. In 40% percoll fraction had more non-motile spermatozoa than 80% percoll fraction. The non-motile spermatozoa in 40% percoll fractions showed more mtDNA deletions (7.2%) than the motile spermatozoa in 80% percoll fraction (2.7%). The sequencing of flanking regions of deleted mtDNA confirmed 7436-bp deletions. Interestingly, no deletions were found in control subjects. Conclusion Though, the frequency of 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA was low in infertile cases but meaningful indications were there when results were compared with controls. It is indicated that large scale deletions 7436-bp of mtDNA is associated with abnormal

  7. Bacteria transport through porous media. Annual report, December 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1986-09-01

    The following five chapters in this report have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base: (1) theoretical model of convective diffusion of motile and non-motile bacteria toward solid surfaces; (2) interfacial electrochemistry of oxide surfaces in oil-bearing sands and sandstones; (3) effects of sodium pyrophosphate additive on the ''huff and puff''/nutrient flooding MEOR process; (4) interaction of Escherichia coli B, B/4, and bacteriophage T4D with Berea sandstone rock in relation to enhanced oil recovery; and (5) transport of bacteria in porous media and its significance in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

  8. Tessaracoccus massiliensis sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from the human gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Seck

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new Actinobacterium, designated Tessaracoccus massiliensis type strain SIT-7T (= CSUR P1301 = DSM 29060, have been isolated from a Nigerian child with kwashiorkor. It is a facultative aerobic, Gram positive, rod shaped, non spore-forming, and non motile bacterium. Here, we describe the genomic and phenotypic characteristics of this isolate. Its 3,212,234 bp long genome (1 chromosome, no plasmid exhibits a G+C content of 67.81% and contains 3,058 protein-coding genes and 49 RNA genes.

  9. Acute Raoultella planticola cystitis in a child with rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong Hyung; Ahn, Yo Han; Chun, Jong In; Park, Hyeon Jin; Park, Byung-Kiu

    2015-10-01

    Raoultella planticola is a Gram-negative, non-motile, aerobic bacillus. It is an environmental bacteria found in soil and water, and a very rare cause of local or systemic infection in humans. Although some adult cases of R. planticola infection have been reported, childhood local or systemic infection caused by R. planticola is very rare. Reported herein is a rare case of acute cystitis due to R. planticola in a 16-month-old boy with rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder neck, and a review of the literature.

  10. Identification of lactic acid bacteria from spoilage associations of cooked and brined shrimps stored under modified atmosphere between 0 degrees C and 25 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Vancanneyt, M.; Vilalta, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate spoilage and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from spoilage associations of cooked and brined shrimps stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 0, 5, 8, 15 and 25degreesC. Methods and Results: Bacterial isolates (102) from spoilage associations of cooked and brined...... to chemical changes in spoiled products. Carnobacterium divergens , a non-motile Carnobacterium sp. nov. and Lactobacillus curvatus were the LAB species observed in spoilage associations of products stored at 0degreesC, 5degreesC and 8degreesC. Conclusions: Enterococcus spp. and Carnobacterium spp. were...

  11. Endophytic fungi from the uncultivated apple tree, Malustoringoides (Rehd.)Hughes: isolation, identification and bioactivity%变叶海棠内生真菌的分离,鉴定及活性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡光华; 林燕; 胡海清; 韩贺东; 王晓玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 分离鉴定变叶海棠中内生真菌,并检验其抗病原真菌,抗肿瘤,抑制蛋白酶活性.方法 传统形态学和现代分子生物学方法鉴定菌种,采用杯碟法,MTT法,和BRpNA法测试真菌活性.结果 内生真菌按形态学归为26类,其中Non-sporulating(27.0%),Alternaria(18.0%),Cladosporlum(12.8%),Pestalotlopsis(7.6%),Fusarlum(6.2%),Aspergillus(6.2%),Cunninghamella(4.7%)是主要群落.通过对ITS rDNA测序,确定了有活性Non-sporulating的种属.活性测试结果显示15.6%的菌株对至少一种植物病原菌有活性,1.4%和2.4%的菌株分别具有细胞毒和蛋白酶抑制活性.结论 变叶海棠内生真菌有很大的利用价值,本研究对其进行了首次系统的分离、鉴定和活性筛选工作.%Objective To isolate and identify endophytic fungi from Malustoringoides (Rehd.) Hughes, and to detect cytotoxicity, protease inhibition and antifungal activities of their crude extracts. Methods Fungal identification was carried out by means of traditional and molecular methods. Fungal activities were tested by double layer technique, MTT and BRpNA method. Result A total of 211 endophytic fungi were isolated from uncultivated apple trees, Malustoringoides (Rehd.) Hughes. Of the 26 taxa obtained, Non-sporulating(27 .0%), Alternaria(18.0%), Cladosporlum (12.8%), Pestalotlopsis(7.6%), Fusarlum(6.2%), Aspergillus(6.2%), Cunninghamella (4.7%) were dominant. Genuses of non-sporating were confirmed by the sequence of ITS rDNA, which have activities. The results of the bioactivity test showed that 15.6% of the endophytic fungi displayed inhibition against at least one plant pathogenic fungi, and 1.4% and 2.4% showed cytotoxicity and protease inhibition, respectively. Conclusion Endophytic fungi from the uncultivated apple tree, Malus toringoides (Rehd.) Hughes had biggish value in use, and was the first reported about their isolation, identification and bioactivity.

  12. Characterization of Microbulbifer strain CMC-5, a new biochemical variant of Microbulbifer elongatus type strain DSM6810T isolated from decomposing seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnadula, RaviChand; Verma, Pankaj; Shouche, Yogesh S; Ghadi, Sanjeev C

    2009-12-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore forming, non-motile and moderate halophilic bacteria designated as strain CMC-5 was isolated from decomposing seaweeds by enrichment culture. The growth of strain CMC-5 was assessed in synthetic seawater-based medium containing polysaccharide. The bacterium degraded and utilized agar, alginate, carrageenan, xylan, carboxymethyl cellulose and chitin. The strain was characterized using a polyphasic approach for taxonomic identification. Cellular fatty acid analysis showed the presence of iso-C(15:0) as major fatty acid and significant amounts of iso-C(17:1x9c) and C(18:1x7c). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence indicated that strain CMC-5 is phylogenetically related to Microbulbifer genus and 99% similar to type strain Microbulbifer elongatus DSM6810T. However in contrast to Microbulbifer elongatus DSM6810T, strain CMC-5 is non-motile, utilizes glucose, galactose, inositol and xylan, does not utilize fructose and succinate nor does it produce H2S. Further growth of bacterial strain CMC-5 was observed when inoculated in seawater-based medium containing sterile pieces of Gracilaria corticata thalli. The bacterial growth was associated with release of reducing sugar in the broth suggesting its role in carbon recycling of polysaccharides from seaweeds in marine ecosystem.

  13. Viral video: Live imaging of virus-host encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kwangmin; Guasto, Jeffrey S.; Cubillos-Ruiz, Andres; Chisholm, Sallie W.; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Stocker, Roman

    2014-11-01

    Viruses are non-motile infectious agents that rely on Brownian motion to encounter and subsequently adsorb to their hosts. Paradoxically, the viral adsorption rate is often reported to be larger than the theoretical limit imposed by the virus-host encounter rate, highlighting a major gap in the experimental quantification of virus-host interactions. Here we present the first direct quantification of the viral adsorption rate, obtained using live imaging of individual host cells and viruses for thousands of encounter events. The host-virus pair consisted of Prochlorococcus MED4, a 800 nm small non-motile bacterium that dominates photosynthesis in the oceans, and its virus PHM-2, a myovirus that has a 80 nm icosahedral capsid and a 200 nm long rigid tail. We simultaneously imaged hosts and viruses moving by Brownian motion using two-channel epifluorescent microscopy in a microfluidic device. This detailed quantification of viral transport yielded a 20-fold smaller adsorption efficiency than previously reported, indicating the need for a major revision in infection models for marine and likely other ecosystems.

  14. Cryptic speciation and community structure of Herpotrichia juniperi, the causal agent of brown felt blight of conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Miriam; Grünig, Christoph R; Holdenrieder, Ottmar; Sieber, Thomas N

    2009-08-01

    Conifer twigs showing brown felt blight were collected along 100-m long transects at the timberline in the Swiss Alps and single-hyphal-tip cultures were prepared. Forty-seven of the sequenced 48 strains were Herpotrichia juniperi based on sequence comparisons of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS). A non-sporulating strain was tentatively identified as another, undescribed Herpotrichia species. Herpotrichia coulteri was not isolated. Most strains were from Juniperus communis var. saxatilis, the rest from Picea abies and Pinus mugo. Each twig was colonized by a different genotype as revealed by ISSR-PCR fingerprinting. More than one clone was present on some needles and twigs. Thus, importance of vegetative mycelial growth for dispersal seems to be limited to the spread of the disease to twigs of the same tree or of immediately adjacent trees, and, consequently, dispersal occurs mainly by ascospores. The H. juniperi strains could be assigned to five distinct groups based on the ISSR-PCR data. The strains from P. abies formed one of these groups but the other groups did not correlate with either host, transect or position along the transects. Multi-locus analysis based on beta-tubulin, elongation factor 1-alpha and ITS sequences confirmed the subdivision into five groups. Population differentiation among groups was distinct with N(ST) values varying between 0.545 and 0.895. H. juniperi seems to be composed of several cryptic species, one of them specific to P. abies.

  15. Mycoflora and aflatoxigenic species in derivatives of milled rice

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    LIMA Carlos A. P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty samples of rough rice stored for 6, 12 and 24 months in government authorized warehouses of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were simultaneously collected. After milling of the product, 90 samples (30 of polished rice, 30 of rice bran and 30 of rice hull were evaluated for their mycoflora, aflatoxigenic species and aflatoxin contamination. The following fungi, listed in decreasing order of frequency, were isolated on Potato-Dextrose Agar: Aspergillus spp., Nigrospora spp., Penicillium spp.; Fusarium spp.; Mucor spp.; Cladosporium spp.; Trichosporon spp. and non-sporulated fungi. The degree of fungal contamination (colony forming units per gram of product was lowest in polished rice, increasing progressively in samples of rice bran and rice hull. Among the Aspergillus species, A. flavus and A. candidus were isolated most frequently. Of the A. flavus isolates, 52.6% strains were found to be toxigenic and produced only Group B aflatoxins. Analysis of the 90 samples did not reveal the presence of aflatoxins in the rice derivatives.

  16. Monitoring of fungal spores in the indoor air of preschool institution facilities in Novi Sad

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    Novaković Milana S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal spores can cause a range of health problems in humans such as respiratory diseases and mycotoxicoses. Since children are the most vulnerable, the presence of fungal spores in the facilities of preschool and school institutions should be investigated readily. In order to estimate air contamination by fungal spores, air sampling was conducted in eight facilities of the preschool institution in Novi Sad during February and March, 2007. Sedimentation plate method was used for the detection of viable fungal spores, mostly being members of subdv. Deuteromycota (Fungi imperfecti. In 32 samples a total of 148 colonies were developed, among which five genera were identified: Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Acremonium while non-sporulating fungal colonies were labeled as sterile mycelia. Most frequently recorded genera were Penicillium with 46 colonies and Cladosporium with 44 colonies. The genera Aspergillus and Alternaria were represented with 3 colonies each and Acremonium with only 1 colony. The greatest number of colonies emerged in the samples from the day care facilities “Vendi” (58 colonies and “Panda” (49 colonies. Most diverse samples were obtained from the day care center “Zvončica”, with presence of all identified genera. These results showed notable presence of fungal spores in the indoor air of Preschool institution facilities and indicated the need for further, more complete seasonal research. Obtained information is considered useful for the evaluation of potential mycofactors that endanger health of children. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43002

  17. Consumption of atmospheric hydrogen during the life cycle of soil-dwelling actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Laura K; Rao, Deepa; Bosak, Tanja; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Tada, Kendall R; Hansel, Colleen M; Ono, Shuhei; Prinn, Ronald G

    2014-06-01

    Microbe-mediated soil uptake is the largest and most uncertain variable in the budget of atmospheric hydrogen (H2 ). The diversity and ecophysiological role of soil microorganisms that can consume low atmospheric abundances of H2 with high-affinity [NiFe]-hydrogenases is unknown. We expanded the library of atmospheric H2 -consuming strains to include four soil Harvard Forest Isolate (HFI) Streptomyces spp., Streptomyces cattleya and Rhodococcus equi by assaying for high-affinity hydrogenase (hhyL) genes and quantifying H2 uptake rates. We find that aerial structures (hyphae and spores) are important for Streptomyces H2 consumption; uptake was not observed in S. griseoflavus Tu4000 (deficient in aerial structures) and was reduced by physical disruption of Streptomyces sp. HFI8 aerial structures. H2 consumption depended on the life cycle stage in developmentally distinct actinobacteria: Streptomyces sp. HFI8 (sporulating) and R. equi (non-sporulating, non-filamentous). Strain HFI8 took up H2 only after forming aerial hyphae and sporulating, while R. equi only consumed H2 in the late exponential and stationary phase. These observations suggest that conditions favouring H2 uptake by actinobacteria are associated with energy and nutrient limitation. Thus, H2 may be an important energy source for soil microorganisms inhabiting systems in which nutrients are frequently limited.

  18. High-level intracellular expression of heterologous proteins in Brevibacillus choshinensis SP3 under the control of a xylose inducible promoter

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    D’Urzo Nunzia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In past years research has focused on the development of alternative Gram positive bacterial expression systems to produce industrially relevant proteins. Brevibacillus choshinensis is an easy to handle non-sporulating bacterium, lacking extracellular proteases, that has been already shown to provide a high level of recombinant protein expression. One major drawback, limiting the applicability of the Brevibacillus expression system, is the absence of expression vectors based on inducible promoters. Here we used the PxylA inducible promoter, commonly employed in other Bacillae expression systems, in Brevibacillus. Results Using GFP, α-amylase and TcdA-GT as model proteins, high level of intracellular protein expression (up to 250 mg/L for the GFP was achieved in Brevibacillus, using the pHis1522 vector carrying the B. megaterium xylose-inducible promoter (PxylA. The GFP expression yields were more than 25 fold higher than those reported for B. megaterium carrying the same vector. All the tested proteins show significant increment in their expression levels (2-10 folds than those obtained using the available plasmids based on the P2 constitutive promoter. Conclusion Combining the components of two different commercially available Gram positive expression systems, such as Brevibacillus (from Takara Bio and B. megaterium (from Mobitec, we demonstrate that vectors based on the B. megaterium PxylA xylose inducible promoter can be successfully used to induce high level of intracellular expression of heterologous proteins in Brevibacillus.

  19. TECHNOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: THE IMPORTANCE OF THESE MICROORGANISMS FOR FOOD

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    Amanda de Souza Motta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eacters of coccus or rods Gram-positive, catalase negative, non-sporulating, which produce lactic acid as the major end product during the fermentation of carbohydrates. When applied on food, provides beneficial effects to consumers through its functional and technological properties. With this the present review article, explore the potential application of lactic acid bacteria in food. The following genera are considered the principal lactic acid bacteria: Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus and Weissella. These cultures have been used as starter or adjunct cultures for the fermentation of foods and beverages due to their contributions to the sensorial characteristics of these products and by microbiological stability. Their probiotic properties have also been investigated. More recent studies by indigenous cultures have received increased attention in light of the search for isolated cultures of a given raw material and a certain region. These microorganisms are being investigated for its functional and technological potential that may be applied in product development with its own characteristics and designation of origin. Those properties will be discussed in the present review in order to highlight the performance of these bacteria and the high degree of control over the fermentation process and standardization of the final product. The use of autochthonous cultures will be considered due the increase of studies of new cultures of lactic acid bacteria isolated of milk and meat of distinct products.

  20. Dark septate endophyte (DSE) fungi isolated from metal polluted soils: their taxonomic position, tolerance, and accumulation of heavy metals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujie; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Maojun; Shi, Xiaodong; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2008-12-01

    To understand the possible role of the plant root associated fungi on metal tolerance, their role in the uptake of heavy metals and the potential transfer of these metal ions to the plant, three strains of dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi were isolated from a waste smelter site in southwest China, and one strain was isolated from a non-contaminated site. According to molecular phylogenetic analysis of the ITS 1-5.8S rDNA-ITS 2 gene regions and morphological characteristics, one is identified as Exophiala pisciphila, and the other three are non-sporulating fungi under the experiment condition with the nearest phylogenetic affinities to the Thysanorea papuana strain EU041814. Tolerance and accumulation abilities of the three DSE strains for metals were investigated in liquid culture. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of Pb, Zn, and Cd were determined. It was demonstrated that the tolerance of the DSE strains varied between metal species and strains. The E. pisciphila strain is able to accumulate lead and cadmium over 20% and 5% of dry weight of biomass, respectively. Partial of the sequestrated metals can be washed with CaCh. Morphological and enzyme activity changes taking place in the presence of excessive Pb, Cd, and/or Zn also indicate that the mechanism of heavy metal tolerance and accumulation of the DSE strains would be a complex process. The findings indicated promising tolerance and accumulation of the DSE strains with potential values in metal cycling and restoration of soil and water system.

  1. Interspecific metabolic diversity of root-colonizing endophytic fungi revealed by enzyme activity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Dániel G; Kovács, Gábor M

    2016-12-01

    Although dark septate endophytes (DSE) represent a worldwide dispersed form group of root-colonizing endophytic fungi, our knowledge on their role in ecosystem functioning is far limited. In this study, we aimed to test if functional diversity exists among DSE fungi representing different lineages of root endophytic fungal community of semiarid sandy grasslands. To address this question and to gain general information on function of DSE fungi, we adopted api-ZYM and BioLog FF assays to study those non-sporulating filamentous fungi and characterized the metabolic activity of 15 different DSE species. Although there were striking differences among the species, all of the substrates tested were utilized by the DSE fungi. When endophytes characteristic to grasses and non-grass host plants were separately considered, we found that the whole substrate repertoire was used by both groups. This might illustrate the complementary functional diversity of the communities root endophytic plant-associated fungi. The broad spectra of substrates utilized by these root endophytes illustrate the functional importance of their diversity, which can play role not only in nutrient mobilization and uptake of plants from with nutrient poor soils, but also in general plant performance and ecosystem functioning.

  2. Physarum polycephalum mutants in the photocontrol of sporulation display altered patterns in the correlated expression of developmentally regulated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rätzel, Viktoria; Ebeling, Britta; Hoffmann, Xenia-Katharina; Tesmer, Jens; Marwan, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    Physarum polycephalum is a lower eukaryote belonging to the amoebozoa group of organisms that forms macroscopic, multinucleate plasmodial cells during its developmental cycle. Plasmodia can exit proliferative growth and differentiate by forming fruiting bodies containing mononucleate, haploid spores. This process, called sporulation, is controlled by starvation and visible light. To genetically dissect the regulatory control of the commitment to sporulation, we have isolated plasmodial mutants that are altered in the photocontrol of sporulation in a phenotypic screen of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenized cells. Several non-sporulating mutants were analyzed by measuring the light-induced change in the expression pattern of a set of 35 genes using GeXP multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with RNA isolated from individual plasmodial cells. Mutants showed altered patterns of differentially regulated genes in response to light stimulation. Some genes clearly displayed pairwise correlation in terms of their expression level as measured in individual plasmodial cells. The pattern of pairwise correlation differed in various mutants, suggesting that different upstream regulators were disabled in the different mutants. We propose that patterns of pairwise correlation in gene expression might be useful to infer the underlying gene regulatory network. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  3. Mild Nutrient Starvation Triggers the Development of a Small-Cell Survival Morphotype in Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mu-Lu; Gengenbacher, Martin; Dick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria, generally believed to be non-sporulating, are well known to survive shock starvation in saline for extended periods of time in a non-replicating state without any apparent morphological changes. Here, we uncover that mycobacteria can undergo cellular differentiation by exposing Mycobacterium smegmatis to mild starvation conditions. Traces of various carbon sources in saline triggered the development of a novel small resting cell (SMRC) morphotype. Development of SMRCs could also be observed for other mycobacteria, suggesting evolutionary conservation of this differentiation pathway. Fluorescence microscopic analyses showed that development of SMRCs progresses via septated, multi-nucleoided cell intermediates, which divide to generate mono-nucleoided SMRCs. Intriguingly, saline shock-starved large resting cells (LARCs), which did not show cell size or surface changes when observed by scanning electron microscopy, remodeled their internal structure to septated, multi-nucleoided cells, similar to the intermediates seen during differentiation to SMRCs. Our results suggest that mycobacteria harbor a starvation-induced differentiation program in which at first septated, multi-nucleoided cells are generated. Under zero-nutrient conditions bacteria terminate development at this stage as LARCs. In the presence of traces of a carbon source, these multi-nucleoided cells continue differentiation into mono-nucleoided SMRCs. Both SMRCs and LARCs exhibited extreme antibiotic tolerance. SMRCs showed increased long-term starvation survival, which was associated with the presence of lipid inclusion bodies.

  4. Molecular identification of Schizophyllum commune as a cause of allergic fungal sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Eun Jeong; Shin, Jong Hee; Lim, Sang Chul; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2012-09-01

    Schizophyllum commune, a basidiomycetous fungus, rarely causes disease in humans. We report a rare case of allergic fungal sinusitis caused by S. commune in a 14-yr-old girl. The patient presented with nasal obstruction and a purulent nasal discharge. Materials obtained during endoscopic surgery of the frontal recess revealed allergic mucin and a few fungal hyphae. A potato dextrose agar (PDA) culture from the allergic mucin yielded a rapidly growing white woolly mold. Although no distinctive features including hyphae bearing spicules or a clamp connection were present, the case isolate disclosed compatible mycological features including growth at 37℃, susceptibility to cycloheximide, and production of a tart and disagreeable smell. S. commune was confirmed by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 regions of the 26S ribosomal DNA. We believe this is the first report of allergic fungal sinusitis caused by S. commune in Korea. Moreover, this report highlights the value of gene sequencing as an identification tool for non-sporulating isolates of S. commune.

  5. [Study of the role of Clostridium perfringens in bovine enterotoxemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteca, C; Daube, G; Mainil, J

    1999-01-01

    Bovine enterotoxaemia is an acute to peracute syndrome occurring mainly in calves and characterized by the sudden or very rapid death of the calf, with colics, convulsions and nervous disorders as clinical signs, if any. The most pronounced lesion is a necrohaemorrhagic enteritis of the jejunum, the ileum, and sometimes the colon. Suckling beef calves are the most frequently affected ones. In 67% of the 78 field cases investigated, some kind of stress was observed 24 to 36 hours prior to the death: change in diet or pasture, vaccination... The most frequently isolated bacteria, and the one isolated in highest numbers, was non-sporulated non-enterotoxigenic toxinotype A Clostridium perfringens. Reproduction of the lesions was successful in a ligated intestinal loop assay in one calf with a few of these strains, more especially with one of them, which was shown later to produce another recently described toxin, the beta 2 toxin. A role for this beta 2 toxin in bovine enterotoxaemia is thus speculated for future research.

  6. Molecular Identification of Schizophyllum commune as a Cause of Allergic Fungal Sinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Eun Jeong; Lim, Sang Chul; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2012-01-01

    Schizophyllum commune, a basidiomycetous fungus, rarely causes disease in humans. We report a rare case of allergic fungal sinusitis caused by S. commune in a 14-yr-old girl. The patient presented with nasal obstruction and a purulent nasal discharge. Materials obtained during endoscopic surgery of the frontal recess revealed allergic mucin and a few fungal hyphae. A potato dextrose agar (PDA) culture from the allergic mucin yielded a rapidly growing white woolly mold. Although no distinctive features including hyphae bearing spicules or a clamp connection were present, the case isolate disclosed compatible mycological features including growth at 37℃, susceptibility to cycloheximide, and production of a tart and disagreeable smell. S. commune was confirmed by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 regions of the 26S ribosomal DNA. We believe this is the first report of allergic fungal sinusitis caused by S. commune in Korea. Moreover, this report highlights the value of gene sequencing as an identification tool for non-sporulating isolates of S. commune. PMID:22950076

  7. Sporulation genes associated with sporulation efficiency in natural isolates of yeast.

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    Parul Tomar

    Full Text Available Yeast sporulation efficiency is a quantitative trait and is known to vary among experimental populations and natural isolates. Some studies have uncovered the genetic basis of this variation and have identified the role of sporulation genes (IME1, RME1 and sporulation-associated genes (FKH2, PMS1, RAS2, RSF1, SWS2, as well as non-sporulation pathway genes (MKT1, TAO3 in maintaining this variation. However, these studies have been done mostly in experimental populations. Sporulation is a response to nutrient deprivation. Unlike laboratory strains, natural isolates have likely undergone multiple selections for quick adaptation to varying nutrient conditions. As a result, sporulation efficiency in natural isolates may have different genetic factors contributing to phenotypic variation. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the genetically and environmentally diverse SGRP collection, we have identified genetic loci associated with sporulation efficiency variation in a set of sporulation and sporulation-associated genes. Using two independent methods for association mapping and correcting for population structure biases, our analysis identified two linked clusters containing 4 non-synonymous mutations in genes - HOS4, MCK1, SET3, and SPO74. Five regulatory polymorphisms in five genes such as MLS1 and CDC10 were also identified as putative candidates. Our results provide candidate genes contributing to phenotypic variation in the sporulation efficiency of natural isolates of yeast.

  8. Botrytis caroliniana, a new species isolated from blackberry in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingpeng; Kerrigan, Julia; Chai, Wenxuan; Schnabel, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Blackberry fruits symptomatic for gray mold were collected from three commercial blackberry fields in northwestern South Carolina. Single-spore isolates were generated and two distinct phenotypes were discovered in each location; one sporulated on PDA and one did not. One isolate of each phenotype and location (six isolates total) were selected for in depth molecular and morphological characterization. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit II (RPB2) coding sequence alignment revealed Botrytis cinerea as the sporulating phenotype and a new yet undescribed species as the non-sporulating phenotype. The new Botrytis sp., described herein as Botrytis caroliniana, was most closely related genetically to B. fabiopsis and B. galanthina, the causal agents of gray mold disease of broad bean and snowdrop, respectively. It produces smaller conidia than either B. fabiopsis or B. galanthina, and sequence analysis of genes encoding necrosis and ethylene-inducing proteins (NEPs) also indicated that the Botrytis isolates represent a separate and distinct species. The new species is pathogenic on blackberry fruits and broad bean leaves, which distinguishes it further from B. galanthina. The new species formed white to pale gray colonies with short, tufted aerial mycelium and produced black sclerotia on PDA at 20 C. To our knowledge this is only the third Botrytis species discovered to cause disease on blackberry in the United States.

  9. The Heat Resistance of Microbial Cells Represented by D Values Can be Estimated by the Transition Temperature and the Coefficient of Linear Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Koichi; Kogure, Akinori; Deuchi, Keiji; Kuwana, Ritsuko; Takamatsu, Hiromu; Ito, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    We previously developed a method for evaluating the heat resistance of microorganisms by measuring the transition temperature at which the coefficient of linear expansion of a cell changes. Here, we performed heat resistance measurements using a scanning probe microscope with a nano thermal analysis system. The microorganisms studied included six strains of the genus Bacillus or related genera, one strain each of the thermophilic obligate anaerobic bacterial genera Thermoanaerobacter and Moorella, two strains of heat-resistant mold, two strains of non-sporulating bacteria, and one strain of yeast. Both vegetative cells and spores were evaluated. The transition temperature at which the coefficient of linear expansion due to heating changed from a positive value to a negative value correlated strongly with the heat resistance of the microorganism as estimated from the D value. The microorganisms with greater heat resistance exhibited higher transition temperatures. There was also a strong negative correlation between the coefficient of linear expansion and heat resistance in bacteria and yeast, such that microorganisms with greater heat resistance showed lower coefficients of linear expansion. These findings suggest that our method could be useful for evaluating the heat resistance of microorganisms.

  10. Milk microbiological profile of four dairy farms from São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Adna Crisleia Rodrigues Monção

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern in milk quality, milk production, and in animals’ welfare is in constant increase. Mastitis is recognized as the main disease affecting dairy animals because of changing in milk composition and reduction in milk production. In Brazil, the highest incidence of mastitis is related to infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk produced by 60 cows from four dairy farms (15 cows/farm located at Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Milk samples from each teat were collected fortnight in sterile tubes, previously identified, during two months. In each herd 240 samples were obtained, except on the farm A, where an extra collection was done, in a total amount of 300 samples. On the farm A, the sampling was done in a period of transition between the dry and rainy season. On the farm B, samples were collected mostly in the season of high temperatures. On the farm C the collections were made over a period of heat and humidity. On the farm D, on a period of warmer temperatures and reduced rainfall. The isolation and identification of microorganisms were conducted at Laboratory of Milk Quality from Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, São Paulo, Brazil. Aliquots of 100 mL of milk were grown on plates with 5% sheep blood agar. After incubation, they were used for the production of catalase and Gram stain. Gram positive and catalase positive samples were classified as Corynebacterium spp. (Coryne.. Gram positive cocci and catalase negative samples were classified as Streptococcus spp. (Strepto.. Milk were then proceeded to coagulase test in rabbit plasma. Gram-positive cocci, catalase positive and coagulase-negative were classified as Staphylococcus coagulase-negative (SCN. Gram positive, catalase positive and coagulase positive samples were subsequently subjected to biochemical tests: mannitol salt agar, maltose, trehalose, and acetoin production. Strains that were positive for these tests were

  11. Simplification of a complex microbial antilisterial consortium to evaluate the contribution of its flora in uncooked pressed cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callon, Cécile; Saubusse, Marjorie; Didienne, Robert; Buchin, Solange; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2011-02-28

    A complex microbial consortium derived from raw milk and composed of populations classified in 4 groups (lactic acid bacteria (A), Gram positive catalase positive bacteria (B), Gram negative bacteria (C) and yeasts (D)) can contribute to the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in the core of an uncooked pressed cheese. To identify what groups may be involved in the inhibition, the consortium was simplified by successively omitting one group at a time. Pasteurized milk was inoculated with these more or less complex consortia and their effects on L. monocytogenes count, pH, acids and volatile compounds in the core of uncooked pressed cheese were evaluated. The growth of L. monocytogenes was the highest in cheeses prepared with pasteurized milk and only St. thermophilus. Inhibition in other cheeses was expressed by comparison with growth in these ones. All the consortia containing both lactic acid bacteria (group A) and Gram positive catalase positive bacteria (group B)--ABCD, ABD, ABC, AB--were more inhibitory than those containing lactic acid bacteria on its own (A) or associated only with yeasts (AD) or/and Gram negative (ADC). Consortia without lactic acid bacteria were weakly inhibitory or had no effect. Gram positive catalase positive bacteria alone were not inhibitory although most of the species became established in the cheeses. The Lactobacillus population (Lb. casei, Lb. plantarum, Lb. curvatus and Lb. farciminis) was predominant in cheeses (9 log CFU/g) with a higher count than Leuconostoc (7 log CFU/g) and Enterococcus (7 log CFU/g). Lactobacillus counts were negatively correlated with those of L. monocytogenes (r=-0.84 at 18 days) and with the level of D-lactic acid. There was no correlation between L. monocytogenes and Leuconostoc or Enterococcus counts. Complex consortium ABCD and AB not only had a stronger inhibitory power in cheeses than consortium AD, they were also associated with the highest levels of L-lactic and acetic acids. All cheeses

  12. Effect of the inoculation of a starter culture and vacuum packaging (during resting stage) on the appearance and some microbiological and physicochemical parameters of dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Molinero, F; Arnau, J

    2008-05-01

    The effect of the inoculation of a starter culture and vacuum packaging (during the resting stage) on dry-cured ham appearance, microbiological and physicochemical parameters was studied. Half of the 36 processed hams were inoculated, after salting, with a commercial starter culture containing lactic-acid bacteria, Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci and yeasts. 18 hams per group (inoculated and non-inoculated) remained vacuum packaged during resting. Microbiological analyses were carried out on the lean surface during processing, on subcutaneous fat tissue at the drying stage and on lean tissue in the finished product. Appearance was evaluated during processing. Physicochemical analyses (NaCl, H(2)O, proteolysis index, a(w)) were done on Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris in the final product. Inoculation caused a reduction of mould growth and oil drip. Vacuum packaging induced increased proteolysis and increases in all microbial counts and a reduction of oil drip, mould growth and weight loss during processing.

  13. Bacteremia Due to Arthrobacter creatinolyticus in an Elderly Diabetic Man with Acute Cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kei; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Nagamatsu, Maki; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Mawatari, Momoko; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Tamura, Saeko; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-03-24

    An 87-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetic mellitus presented with fever, bedsores, and elevated hepatobiliary enzyme levels. He was diagnosed with bacteremia with acute cholangitis due to Arthrobacter species, which are Gram-positive, aerobic, catalase-positive, coryneform bacteria belonging to the family Microbacteriaceae. Doripenem and subsequencial sulbactam/ampicillin treatment were used for the acute cholangitis, and the bacteremia was treated with a 2-week course of vancomycin. The bacteremia was misidentified by the phenotyping assay (API Coryne test), but was identified as Arthrobacter creatinolyticus by 16S rRNA and matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a human case of A. creatinolyticus bacteremia.

  14. Central Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection with Kocuria kristinae in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Eichiro; Yaoita, Hisao; Ichinoi, Natsuko; Sakamoto, Osamu; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to K. kristinae in a young adult with propionic acidemia undergoing periodic hemodialysis. The patient had a central venous catheter implanted for total parenteral nutrition approximately 6 months prior to the onset of symptoms because of repeated acute pancreatitis. K. kristinae was isolated from two sets of blood cultures collected from the catheter. Vancomycin followed by cefazolin for 16 days and 5-day ethanol lock therapy successfully eradicated the K. kristinae bacteremia. Although human infections with this organism appear to be rare and are sometimes considered to result from contamination, physicians should not underestimate its significance when it is isolated in clinical specimens. PMID:28194286

  15. Studies on Siderophore and Pigment Produced by an Adhered Bacterial Strain Halobacillus trueperi MXM-16 from the Mangrove Ecosystem of Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharangate-Lad, Amrita; Bhosle, Saroj

    2016-12-01

    Mangroves are unique ecosystems in the coastal tropical and subtropical regions of the Earth. The fluctuation in salinity due to tidal action results in a prolific population of adhered halophilic and halotolerant bacteria in this ecosystem. In this study, a pigment producing adhered bacterial strain Halobacillus trueperi MXM-16 was isolated from mangrove plant litter of Goa. This strain was moderately halophilic, Gram positive rod, catalase positive and capable of utilizing sodium benzoate as a source of carbon. H. trueperi MXM-16, produced a siderophore that was hydroxamate in nature. The non-diffusible yellow pigment was a carotenoid and HPLC studies revealed a peak that was indicative of astaxanthin as one of the component. Further studies on the pigment exhibited its ability to chelate iron from the chrome azurol sulphonate medium behaving as an additional mechanism for iron acquisition.

  16. Pulmonary Infection Caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans in a Patient with Carcinoma of Epiglottis: A Rare Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Priyamvada

    2014-05-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an aerobic, motile, oxidase and catalase positive, non-fermenting, gram negative bacillus. It is an opportunistic pathogen which is responsible for various nosocomial and community-acquired infections. However, there are only very few reports of pulmonary infections caused by this bacterium in cancer patients. We are presenting a case of a patient with carcinoma of epiglottis, who developed pulmonary infection caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans. According to the available literature, this is the first case of pulmonary infection caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans, which was detected in a cancer patient in India. Since Achromobacter xylosoxidans demonstrates resistance to many classes of antimicrobials, vigilant and efficient microbiological work-ups and surveillances are needed, to diagnose infections caused by this rare pathogen in clinical settings.

  17. Chronic Granulomatous Disease Presenting as Aseptic Ascites in a 2-Year-Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Moreau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a rare inherited immunodeficiency syndrome that results from abnormal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase function. This defect leads to recurrent catalase-positive bacterial and fungal infections as well as associated granuloma formation. We review the case of a 2-year-old boy who presented with ascites and fever of an unknown origin as manifestations of CGD. Cultures were negative for infection throughout his course, and CGD was suspected after identification of granulomas on peritoneal biopsy. Genetic testing revealed a novel mutation in the CYBB gene underlying his condition. This paper highlights the importance of considering CGD in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and ascites in children.

  18. High-quality genome sequence and description of Paenibacillus dakarensis sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Lo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Strain FF9T was isolated in Dakar (Senegal from a blood-culture taken from a 16-month-old child. MALDI-TOF analysis did not allow for identification. After sequencing, strain FF9T exhibited 98.18% similarity with the 16SrRNA sequence of Paenibacillus uliginis. A polyphasic study of phenotypic and genomic analyses showed that strain FF9T is Gram variable, catalase-positive, and presents a genome of 4,569,428 bp (one chromosome but no plasmid with 4,427genes (4,352 protein-coding and 75 RNA genes (including 3 rRNA operons. The G+C content is 45.7%. On the basis of these genomic and phenotypic data analyses, we propose the creation of Paenibacillus dakarensis strain FF9T.

  19. Microvirga massiliensis sp. nov., the human commensal with the largest genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Aurélia; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Azza, Saïd; Robert, Catherine; Mouelhi, Donia; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

    2016-04-01

    Microvirga massiliensis sp. nov. strain JC119(T) is a bacteria isolated in Marseille from a stool sample collected in Senegal. The 16S rRNA (JF824802) of M. massiliensis JC119(T) revealed 95% sequence identity with Microvirga lotononidis WSM3557(T) (HM362432). This bacterium is aerobic, gram negative, catalase positive, and oxidase negative. The draft genome of M. massiliensis JC119(T) comprises a 9,207,211-bp-long genome that is the largest bacterial genome of an isolate in humans. The genome exhibits a G+C content of 63.28% and contains 8685 protein-coding genes and 77 RNA genes, including 21 rRNA genes. Here, we describe the features of M. massiliensis JC119(T), together with the genome sequence information and its annotation.

  20. Phylogenetic diversity of culturable bacteria in surface seawater from the Drake Passage, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Xing, Mengxin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Jiancheng; Sun, Mi

    2016-09-01

    The Drake Passage is located between the Antarctic Peninsula and Tierra del Fuego in the south of South America. Surface seawater samples were collected at seven sites in the Drake Passage during the austral summer of 2012. The 16S rRNA sequences were analyzed from 187 isolated bacterial strains. Three phyla, 29 genera and 56 species were identified. The three phyla were Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria; the Proteobacteria included α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. γ-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were the dominant class or phyla in terms of quantity and species. Gram-positive bacteria (Actinobacteria and Firmicutes) accounted for 57.8% of all types identified. There were nine dominant genera, including Curtobacterium, Staphylococcus, and Halomonas, and 14 dominant species including Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Curtobacterium pusillum, and Staphylococcus sciuri. Of the strains identified, 87.2% were catalase positive or weakly positive.

  1. Effect of radiation-induced xerostomia on the human oral microflora. Report no. 12 (final), 1 Jul 1971-30 Jun 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreizen, S.; Brown, L.R.

    1976-06-30

    The caries-conducive impact of xerostomia was studied in 42 irradiated cancer patients. The radiation-induced xerostomia was paralleled by changes in the physical, microbial, biochemical, immunologic and dietary parameters of cariogenicity that collectively comprised an overwhelming caries challenge. Microbiologically, significant xerostomia-related increases in Strep. mutans, lactobacilli, staphylococci, yeasts and catalase-positive diphtheroids were accompanied by decreases in Strep. sanguis, bacteroides and fusobacteria in each of the 5 microenvironments tested. The scanty xerostomic saliva contained greater amounts of Na(+), Cl(-), Ca(++), Mg(++), Prot(-), lysozyme, IgA and IgG and considerably less HCO3(-). The increased concentrations of caries protective electrolytes and immunoproteins were negated by huge reductions in total daily saliva output. The xerostomia created caries challenge was almost completely neutralized by a preventive program of daily topical NaF applications and strict oral hygiene. (GRA)

  2. CINETIQUE DE LA BIODEGRADATION DU m-CRESOL PAR LE MICROBIOTE DES EAUX USEES DE LA VILLE DE CONSTANTINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A DAFFRI

    2008-06-01

    La purification des souches bactériennes dominantes a permis de sélectionner 6 souches bactériennes d’aspects macroscopiques différents. L’observation microscopique à l’état frais et la coloration de Gram révèlent qu’elles sont toutes à Gram négatif, que 5 sont des coques et 1 seule est un bacille. L’examen du type respiratoire et la mise en évidence de la cytochrome oxydase et de la catalase montrent que les 6 souches sont aérobies microaerophiles, oxydase positive et catalase positive. Leur identification est en cours de finalisation.

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF QUATERNARY AMMONIUM RESISTANT BACTERIA FROM A FINE PAPERMACHINE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hweig Wang; ChiYu Huang; ChunHan Ko

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the biocide effect of quaternary ammonium chloride (QAC), a whitewater sample was taken from a fine papermachine headbox. By plate spreading method, 51 strains of facultative anaerobe were isolated morphologically. Then the strains were separately transferred to basal medium and were incubated before the beginning of log phase. To identify strains with different QAC resistance, 30-120 ppm of N-Alkyl-benzyl-dimethyl ammonium chloride were added to basal medium.Biocide effect was investigated by comparison of bacterial growth, which can be monitored by 600 nm light absorbance of basal medium suspension. Among 51 strains, only 2 strains can Survive for QAC concentration up to 120 ppm. API20E aud 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique were applied to identify two strains with highest (120 ppm)QAC resistance. One strain (HB22)was identified as Morganella morganii. HB22 can resist QAC concentration up to 150 ppm. HB22 is Gram-negative rod, motile with flagella, catalase positive, oxidase negative, Indole positive, H2S production negative, facultative anaerobe. HB22 has optimum growth condition of 35℃ and pH 7.0.HB22 can catabolize only glucose and D (+)-Mannose.The other (HB45) was identified with high similarity among Pseudomonas cf. monteili or Pseudomonas mosselii or Pseudomonas putida. HB45 can resist QAC concentration up to 200 ppm.HB45 is Gram-negative rod, motile with flagella,catalase positive, oxidase negative, Indole negative,H2S production negative, aerobe. HB45 has optimum growth condition of 30℃ and pH 7.4. HB45 can catabolize L-Arabinose, L(+)-Rhanmose, D (+)-Mannose, Glucose, Glycerol, Lactose, Maltose,Raffmose, Xylose, Cellulose and Xylan. The implication of this work to paper industry is also discussed.

  4. Comparison of periodontal pathogens between cats and their owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booij-Vrieling, H E; van der Reijden, W A; Houwers, D J; de Wit, W E A J; Bosch-Tijhof, C J; Penning, L C; van Winkelhoff, A J; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2010-07-29

    The periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are strongly associated with periodontal disease and are highly prevalent in humans with periodontitis. Porphyromonas and Tannerella spp. have also been isolated from the oral cavity of cats. The oral microflora in animals was compared with those in humans in earlier studies, but no studies are available on the comparison of the oral microflora from pets and their respective owners. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of these bacteria in the oral microflora of cats and their owners, since animal to human transmission, or vice versa, of oral pathogens could have public health implications. This study investigated the prevalence of Porphyromonas gulae, P. gingivalis, and T. forsythia in the oral microflora of cats and their owners, using culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All Porphyromonas isolates from cats (n=64) were catalase positive, whereas the Porphyromonas isolates from owners (n=7) were catalase negative, suggesting that the isolates from cats were P. gulae whereas those from the owners were P. gingivalis. T. forsythia was recovered from both cats (n=63) and owners (n=31); the proportion of T. forsythia relative to the total CFU was higher in cats with periodontitis than in cats without periodontal disease. Genotyping of T. forsythia isolates (n=54) in six cat/owner couples showed that in one cat/owner couple the T. forsythia isolates (n=6) were identical. These T. forsythia isolates were all catalase positive, which led us to hypothesize that transmission from cats to owners had occurred and that cats may be a reservoir of T. forsythia.

  5. Horizontal and vertical movement of Pseudomonas fluorescens toward exudate of Macrophomina phaseolina in soil: influence of motility and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tanuja; Srivastava, Alok K; Arora, Dilip K

    2002-01-01

    The role of motility and cell surface hydrophobicity in transport and dispersal of Pseudomonas fluorescens strains LAM1-hydrophilic, LAM2-hydrophobic and LAM(NM) (non-motile mutant of LAM2) under different soil conditions was studied. Maximum adhesion was recorded for LAM2 in clay loam (70%), followed by sandy loam (68%) and sandy soil (40%). Vertical migration of P fluorescens isolates in soils was recorded at 5 and 25 cm flow of wafer or M. phaseolina exudate. In all the treatments, LAM1 exhibited maximum migration followed, by LAM2 and LAM(NM). The rate of migration of such isolates was lowered in water irrigated soils compared to those irrigated with M. phaseolina exudate. In sandy soil, cells of LAM1 migrated up to 13 cm in comparison to LAM2 (11 cm) and LAN(NM) (9 cm) at 5 cm flow of fungal exudate. Population of LAM1, LAM2 and LAM(NM) was 5.7, 5.68 and 5.61 log cfu g(-1) soil at 1 cm depth, but it decreased to 2.56, 2.21 and 1.99 log cfu during migration up to 11 cm in sandy soil at 5 cm flow of fungal exudate. Greater motility was observed in sandy soil irrigated with water or fungal exudate, followed by sandy loam and clay loam. In general, filtration coefficient (lambda) of P. fluorescens was higher in soils irrigated with 5 cm of water or exudate than with 25 cm of irrigation. The horizontal movement of P. fluorescens strains in sandy soil adjusted at different psi m showed marked reduction with decrease in psi m. The non-motile LAN(NM) did not show chemotactic response and migrated up to a maximum of 3 mm in saturated soils (0 kPa). After 96 h, LAM1 and LAM2 migrated upto 35 and 29 mm respectively in sandy soil. Motile isolates had significantly greater colonization of M. phaseolina sclerotia over the non-motile mutant.

  6. A Rare Case of Soft-Tissue Infection Caused by Raoultella planticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina O' Connell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Raoultella species are Gram-negative, non-motile bacilli primarily considered to be environmental bacteria. Raoultella planticola is a rare cause of human infections. We report a case of serious soft-tissue infection in a young male tiler who presented with cellulitis of his left thumb. He had sustained a crush injury to his left thumb 10 days earlier in a soiled environment. He noted a minor break in the skin and he washed the wound out with running water. One week later, he experienced pain, erythema, and swelling of his thumb and attended his general practitioner who prescribed oral flucloxacillin and penicillin V. Despite this treatment, he noticed progressive erythema and swelling of his thumb requiring hospital admission 3 days later. He underwent washout and debridement of his thumb. Tissue obtained intraoperatively cultured Raoultella planticola. He was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics including ciprofloxacin and made a full and rapid recovery.

  7. Genetic variability of Euglena agilis (Euglenophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Zakryś

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 of extrachromosomal rDNA and the chloroplast SSU rDNA sequence analysis presented here confirmed elevated genetic polymorphism revealed earlier by RFLP and RAPD for seven clones of the cosmopolitan species - Euglena agilis Carter. High diversity among these clonal strains was not reflected by morphological criteria, with the exception of the only one character - the ability of the cell in its non-motile dividing states (palmella to produce mucus and form a slimy envelope. Evolutionary adaptation as formation of slimy envelope may be attributed to different survival strategy of the species by which it adapts to life in a highly variable environment.

  8. The first case of Raoultella terrigena infection in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Tayfur; Köroğlu, Mehmet; Özbek, Ahmet; Hafizoğlu, Taner; Altındiş, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Raoultella terrigena, formerly known as Klebsiella terrigena is Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobic, encapsulated bacilli and is a very rare cause of infections in humans. Until now, only two cases of actual clinical infection caused by R. terrigena were reported in adults. This report is the first case of neonatal infection with this microorganism, which was isolated from the urinary tract of a premature newborn followed in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Vitek 2® automated system had identified the bacteria as R. planticola. The result was duplicated with a new urine sample. Although Vitek 2® automated system identified the isolates as R. planticola, 16S rRNA sequencing and blast analysis of the bacterium had figured out that the bacterium was R. terrigena with 92% identicality. The bacterium was resistant to empirically given antibiotics, ampicillin and gentamicin. The patient was successfully treated with cephaperazone/ sulbactam according to antimicrobial susceptibility test result.

  9. Entrainment dominates the interaction of microalgae with micron-sized objects

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanneret, Raphaël; Polin, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The incessant activity of swimming microorganisms has a direct physical effect on surrounding microscopic objects, leading to enhanced diffusion far beyond the level of Brownian motion with possible influences on the spatial distribution of non-motile planktonic species and particulate drifters. Here we study in detail the effect of eukaryotic flagellates, represented by the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, on microparticles. Macro- and micro-scopic experiments reveal that microorganism-colloid interactions are dominated by rare close encounters leading to large displacements through direct entrainment. Simulations and theoretical modelling show that the ensuing particle dynamics can be understood in terms of a simple jump-diffusion process, combining standard diffusion with Poisson-distributed jumps. This heterogeneous dynamics is likely to depend on generic features of the near-field of swimming microorganisms with front-mounted flagella.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Rhodothermus marinus type strain (R-10T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Feng [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Sims, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Meincke, Linda [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Sproer, Cathrin [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2009-01-01

    Rhodothermus marinus Alfredsson et al. 1995 is the type species of the genus and is of phylogenetic interest because the Rhodothermaceae represent the deepest lineage in the phylum Bacteroidetes. R. marinus R-10T is a Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterium isolated from marine hot springs off the coast of Iceland. Strain R-10T is strictly aerobic and requires slightly halophilic conditions for growth. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the genus Rhodothermus, and only the second sequence from members of the family Rhodothermaceae. The 3,386,737 bp genome (including a 125 kb plasmid) with its 2914 protein-coding and 48 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  11. Complete genome sequence of the termite hindgut bacterium Spirochaeta coccoides type strain (SPN1 T ), reclassification in the genus Sphaerochaeta as Sphaerochaeta coccoides comb. nov. and emendations of the family Spirochaetaceae and the genus Sphaerochaeta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abt, Birte [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Scheuner, Carmen [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2012-01-01

    Spirochaeta coccoides Droege et al. 2006 is a member of the genus Spirochaeta Ehrenberg 1835, one of the oldest named genera within the Bacteria. S. coccoides is an obligately anaerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, spherical bacterium that was isolated from the hindgut contents of the termite Neotermes castaneus. The species is of interest because it may play an important role in the digestion of breakdown products from cellulose and hemicellulose in the termite gut. Here we provide a taxonomic re-evaluation for strain SPN1{sup T}, and based on physiological and genomic characteristics, we propose its reclassification as a novel species in the genus Sphaerochaeta, a recently published sister group of the Spirochaeta. The 2,227,296 bp long genome of strain SPN1{sup T} with its 1,866 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  12. Aggregation Patterns in Stressed Bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Tsimring, L S; Aranson, I S; Ben-Jacob, E; Cohen, I; Shochet, O; Tsimring, Lev; Levine, Herbert; Aranson, Igor; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Cohen, Inon; Shochet, Ofer

    1995-01-01

    We study the formation of spot patterns seen in a variety of bacterial species when the bacteria are subjected to oxidative stress due to hazardous byproducts of respiration. Our approach consists of coupling the cell density field to a chemoattractant concentration as well as to nutrient and waste fields. The latter serves as a triggering field for emission of chemoattractant. Important elements in the proposed model include the propagation of a front of motile bacteria radially outward form an initial site, a Turing instability of the uniformly dense state and a reduction of motility for cells sufficiently far behind the front. The wide variety of patterns seen in the experiments is explained as being due the variation of the details of the initiation of the chemoattractant emission as well as the transition to a non-motile phase.

  13. Complete genome sequence of Coraliomargarita akajimensis type strain (04OKA010-24T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Abt, Birte; Brambilla, Evelyne; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Desphande, Shweta; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Woyke, Tanja; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Held, Brittany; Brettin, Thomas; Tapia, Roxanne; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Liolios, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia D.; Rohde, Manfred; G& #246; ker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2010-06-25

    Coraliomargarita akajimensis Yoon et al. 2007 the type species of the genus Coraliomargarita. C. akajimensis is an obligately aerobic, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile, spherical bacterium which was isolated from seawater surrounding the hard coral Galaxea fascicularis. C. akajimensis organism is of special interest because of its phylogenetic position in a genomically purely studied area in the bacterial diversity. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Puniceicoccaceae. The 3,750,771 bp long genome with its 3,137 protein-coding and 55 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  14. Campylobacter jejuni PflB is required for motility and colonisation of the chicken gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Alpa; Jones, Michael A; Maskell, Duncan J; Grant, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Although the mechanisms by which C. jejuni causes disease are not completely understood, the presence of functional flagella appears to be required for colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. Therefore much attention has been given to understanding the synthesis and role of flagella in C. jejuni. In this study we report insights into the function of PflB that is essential for Campylobacter motility. We have explored the function of this gene by constructing deletion mutants in C. jejuni strains NCTC11168 and M1, in the genes cj0390 and CJM1_0368, respectively. The mutants were non-motile yet assembled flagella that appeared structurally identical to the wild type. Furthermore the protein is required for C. jejuni colonisation of caeca in a two-week old chicken colonisation model.

  15. 志贺菌致病的分子机制%Molecular mechanism of pathogenicity of Shigella spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师润; 陈陆; 王川庆

    2012-01-01

    志贺菌是肠道内致病菌,无鞭毛不能运动,侵袭过程依靠T3SS分泌的效应分子.本文就志贺菌T3SS、参与侵袭过程的效应分子以及相应的致病机制作一综述.%Shigella spp. is an intestinal pathogenic bacteria without flagellum and non motile. Invasive process depends on effector molecules secreted by T3SS. In this paper, T3SS of Shigella spp. , effector molecules involved in the invasive process and the corresponding pathogenic mechanism are reviewed.

  16. Complete genome sequence of Kangiella koreensis type strain (SW-125T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lapidus, Alla L. [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Nolan, Matt [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Tice, Hope [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Cheng, Jan-Fang [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Lucas, Susan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Chen, Feng [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Chen, Amy [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Palaniappan, Krishna [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Tindall, Brian [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Bristow, James [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Eisen, Jonathan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Markowitz, Victor [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California

    2009-11-01

    Kangiella koreensis (Yoon et al. 2004) is the type species of the genus and is of phylogenetic interest because of the very isolated location of the genus Kangiella in the gammaproteobac-terial order Oceanospirillales. K. koreensis SW-125T is a Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterium isolated from tidal flat sediments at Daepo Beach, Yellow Sea, Ko-rea. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome se-quence, and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence from the genus Kangiel-la and only the fourth genome from the order Oceanospirillales. This 2,852,073 bp long sin-gle replicon genome with its 2647 protein-coding and 48 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  17. Complete genome sequence of Beutenbergia cavernae type strain (HKI 0122T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Pukall, Rudiger [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Abt, Birte [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Feng [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brettin, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2009-01-01

    Beutenbergia cavernae (Groth et al. 1999) is the type species of the genus and is of phyloge-netic interest because of its isolated location in the actinobacterial suborder Micrococcineae. B. cavernae HKI 0122T is a Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterium isolated from a cave in Guangxi (China). B. cavernae grows best under aerobic conditions and shows a rod-coccus growth cycle. Its cell wall peptidoglycan contains the diagnostic L-lysine L-glutamate interpeptide bridge. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first completed genome se-quence from the poorly populated micrococcineal family Beutenbergiaceae, and this 4,669,183 bp long single replicon genome with its 4225 protein-coding and 53 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  18. A Model for the Force Exerted on a Primary Cilium by an Optical Trap and the Resulting Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Lofgren

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cilia are slender flexible structures extending from the cell body; genetically similar to flagella. Although their existence has been long known, the mechanical and functional properties of non-motile (“primary” cilia are largely unknown. Optical traps are a non-contact method of applying a localized force to microscopic objects and an ideal tool for the study of ciliary mechanics. We present a method to measure the mechanical properties of a cilium using an analytic model of a flexible, anchored cylinder held within an optical trap. The force density is found using the discrete-dipole approximation. Utilizing Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, we then integrate this force density and numerically obtain the equilibrium deformation of the cilium in response to an optical trap. The presented results demonstrate that optical trapping can provide a great deal of information and insight about the properties and functions of the primary cilium.

  19. Effect of glucose on Treponema denticola cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, J D; Lux, R; Shi, W; Charon, N W; Dasanayake, A

    2008-06-01

    Treponema denticola inhabits the oral subgingival environment and is part of a proteolytic benzoyl-dl-arginine-naphthylamide-positive 'red complex' associated with active periodontal disease. Spirochetes have a unique form of chemotactic motility that may contribute to their virulence. Chemotaxis is essential for efficient nutrient-directed translocation. We examined the effect of glucose on T. denticola cell velocity, expression of periplasmic flagella proteins, and chemotaxis, e.g. translocation into capillary tubes. The presence of glucose did not significantly effect T. denticola cell velocity in high viscosity conditions nor did it alter periplasmic flagella protein expression. The addition of glucose to capillary tubes resulted in greater numbers of T. denticola cells in tubes containing glucose. A non-motile mutant did not migrate into capillary tubes containing glucose. These results are consistent with a chemotactic response to glucose that is motility dependent.

  20. Microbiology of Brucella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percin, Duygu

    2013-04-01

    The genus Brucella is a member of family Brucellaceae and includes ten species which are small, non-motile, non-sporing, aerobic, gram-negative intracellular coccobacilli. They are catalase, oxidase and urea positive bacteria. Members of the genus can grow on enriched media like blood agar or chocolate agar. Identification in species level can be done by agglutination with monospecific serum, cultivating the strains in the presence of dyes and/or with PCR methods. Antigenic structure of the Brucella is composed of surface, intracellular, and in vivo antigens. Thanks to various virulence factors that act as metabolic regulators, Brucella strains can protect themselves from immune system of the host, adapt easily to different environmental conditions, and multiply intracellular. Classification, epidemiological features, isolation and identification, antigenic structure and virulence factors of Brucella species along with the discussion of very few patents associated with Brucellosis have been reviewed in this paper.

  1. Mechanically driven growth of quasi-two dimensional microbial colonies

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, F D C; Marenduzzo, D; Waclaw, B

    2013-01-01

    We study colonies of non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria growing on solid substrates. In our model, bacteria interact purely mechanically, by pushing each other away as they grow, and consume a diffusing nutrient. We show that mechanical interactions control the velocity and shape of the advancing front, which leads to features that cannot be captured by established Fisher-Kolmogorov models. In particular, we find that the velocity depends on the elastic modulus of bacteria or their stickiness to the surface. Interestingly, we predict that the radius of an incompressible, strictly two-dimensional colony cannot grow linearly in time. Importantly, mechanical interactions can also account for the nonequilibrium transition between circular and branching colonies, often observed in the lab.

  2. Characterization of Francisella species isolated from the cooling water of an air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Quan; Li, Xunde; Qu, Pinghua; Hou, Shuiping; Li, Juntao; Atwill, Edward R; Chen, Shouyi

    2015-01-01

    Strains of Francisella spp. were isolated from cooling water from an air conditioning system in Guangzhou, China. These strains are Gram negative, coccobacilli, non-motile, oxidase negative, catalase negative, esterase and lipid esterase positive. In addition, these bacteria grow on cysteine-supplemented media at 20 °C to 40 °C with an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the genus Francisella. Biochemical tests and phylogenetic and BLAST analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB and sdhA genes indicated that one strain was very similar to Francisella philomiragia and that the other strains were identical or highly similar to the Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov. strain 08HL01032 we previously described. Biochemical and molecular characteristics of these strains demonstrated that multiple Francisella species exist in air conditioning systems.

  3. Roseomonas aquatica sp. nov., isolated from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Virginia; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; García, Maria Teresa; Ventosa, Antonio

    2006-10-01

    Strain TR53(T), a Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming and strictly aerobic coccobacillus, isolated from the drinking water distribution system of Seville, Spain, was subjected to polyphasic taxonomic analysis using a combination of phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic features. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain TR53(T) had highest similarity to members of the genus Roseomonas, with sequence similarity values between 95.7 % (to Roseomonas genomospecies 5 strain ATCC 49960) and 94.0 % (to Roseomonas gilardii subsp. rosea ATCC 49956(T)). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequence data and DNA G+C content (68.6 mol%), strain TR53(T) represents a novel species of the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas aquatica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Roseomonas aquatica is TR53(T) (=CECT 7131(T)=JCM 13556(T)).

  4. Complete genome sequence of the termite hindgut bacterium Spirochaeta coccoides type strain (SPN1T), reclassification in the genus Sphaerochaeta as Sphaerochaeta coccoides comb. nov. and emendations of the family Spirochaetaceae and the genus Sphaerochaeta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abt, Birte; Han, Cliff; Scheuner, Carmen; Lu, Megan; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxane; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Gronow, Sabine; Goker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Detter, John C.

    2012-05-25

    Spirochaeta coccoides Dröge et al. 2006 is a member of the genus Spirochaeta Ehrenberg 1835, one of the oldest named genera within the Bacteria. S. coccoides is an obligately anaerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, spherical bacterium that was isolated from the hindgut contents of the termite Neotermes castaneus. The species is of interest because it may play an important role in the digestion of breakdown products from cellulose and hemicellulose in the termite gut. Here we provide a taxonomic re-evaluation for strain SPN1T, and based on physiological and genomic characteristics, we propose its reclassification as a novel species in the genus Sphaerochaeta, a recently published sister group of the Spirochaeta. The 2,227,296 bp long genome of strain SPN1T with its 1,866 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the GenomicEncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  5. Characterization of membrane protein trafficking and cellular signaling at the primary cilium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Johanne Bay

    , diabetes and tumorigenesis. A specialized gate at the proximal end of the cilium, the transition zone, maintains the specific ciliary protein composition as well as a specialized membrane lipid structure. This dissertation includes two reviews on ciliary signaling (articles I and II) as well as two......Primary cilia are microtubule-based, non-motile, sensory organelles emerging in a single copy from the surface of most quiescent cells in vertebrates. They emanate from the centrosomal mother centriole and are assembled and maintained by a bidirectional transport process termed intraflagellar...... transport. Specific receptors, ion channels and downstream signaling components are localized along the cilium-centrosome axis, enabling the cilium to function as a hot spot for the balanced coordination of multiple signaling pathways to control cell cycle entry, differentiation and migration during...

  6. Multimodal Microfluidic Platform for Controlled Culture and Analysis of Unicellular Organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Tao; Smallwood, Chuck R.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Pomraning, Kyle R.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Baker, Scott E.; Evans, James E.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2017-09-19

    Modern live-cell imaging approaches permit real-time visualization of biological processes, yet limitations exist for unicellular organism isolation, culturing and long-term imaging that preclude fully understanding how cells sense and respond to environmental perturbations and the link between single-cell variability and whole-population dynamics. Here we present a microfluidic platform that provides fine control over the local environment with the capacity to replace media components at any experimental time point, and provides both perfused and compartmentalized cultivation conditions depending on the valve configuration. The functionality and flexibility of the platform were validated using both bacteria and yeast having different sizes, motility and growth media. The demonstrated ability to track the growth and dynamics of both motile and non-motile prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms emphasizes the versatility of the devices, which with further scale-up should enable studies in bioenergy and environmental research.

  7. Identification and classification of Cronobacter spp. isolated from powdered food in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Young-Duck; Ryu, Tae-Wha; Chang, Hyo-Ihl

    2010-04-01

    Cronobacter is a major food-borne pathogen in powdered infant formula and can lead to serious developmental aftereffect and death to infants. The contamination of Cronobacter may be a high risk for the powdered foods. To isolate and identify Korean Cronobacter from the powdered foods such as powdered infant formula and Saengsik, conventional culture method, rapid identification system, PCR, 16S rDNA sequencing were performed. As the results of isolation, seven Cronobacter were isolated from seven out of 102 powdered infant formulas and 41 Cronobacter were isolated from 41 out of 86 Saengsiks. Forty eight Cronobacter isolates were identified into C.sakazakii and C.dublenisis by 16s rDNA sequence analysis. Almost the isolates were C.sakazakii and 13% of the isolates were C. dublinesis. One fourth of the C.sakazakii showed different biochemical characteristics of negative nitrate reduction and non-motility activities with the other strains reported previously.

  8. The life-cycle of Emiliania huxleyi: A brief review and a study of relative ploidy levels analysed by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. C.; Course, P. A.; Tarran, G. A.

    1996-10-01

    Emiliania huxleyi exists in several principal forms including the familiar coccolith-bearing C-cell, non-motile naked N-cells, and scale-bearing swarmers (S-cells), but the relationships between these cells are unclear. Flow cytometric analyses have been undertaken on whole cells using fluorochrome staining of the DNA in order to determine the relative DNA content and the relative GC content of the S- and C-cells of selected clones. Results showed that the DNA complement of the S-cells was half that of the C-cells and the two cell types are, therefore, haploid and diploid relative to each other. The S-cells may, therefore, represent a gametic stage, though processes such as sexual fusion and meiosis have not been observed.

  9. Complete genome sequence of Catenulispora acidiphila type strain (ID 139908T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Rio, Tijana GlavinaDel; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Chain, Patrick; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jefferies, Cynthia C.; Chertkov, Olga; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff; Ali, Zahid; Tindall, Brian J.; Goker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Catenulispora acidiphila Busti et al. 2006 is the type species of the genus Catenulispora, and is of interest because of the rather isolated phylogenetic location of the genomically little studied suborder Catenulisporineae within the order Actinomycetales. C. acidiphilia is known for its acidophilic, aerobic lifestyle, but can also grow scantly under anaerobic conditions. Under regular conditions C. acidiphilia grows in long filaments of relatively short aerial hyphae with marked septation. It is a free living, non motile, Gram-positive bacterium isolated from a forest soil sample taken from a wooded area in Gerenzano, Italy. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the actinobacterial family Catenulisporaceae, and the 10,467,782 bp long single replicon genome with its 9056 protein-coding and 69 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  10. High-quality genome sequence and description of Chryseobacterium senegalense sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Lo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Strain FF12T was isolated from the mouth of a West African lungfish (Protopterus annectens in Senegal. MALDI-TOF-MS did not provide any identification. This strain exhibited a 97.97% 16S rRNA sequence identity with Kaistella flava. Using a polyphasic study including phenotypic and genomic analyses, strain FF12T is Gram-negative, aero-anaerobic, oxidase-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, and exhibited a genome of 4,397,629 bp with a G+C content of 35.1% that coded 4,001 protein-coding and 55 RNA genes. On the basis of these data, we propose the creation of Chryseobacterium senegalense strain FF12T.

  11. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence and description of Streptococcus varani sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bakour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Strain FF10T (= CSUR P1489 = DSM 100884 was isolated from the oral cavity of a lizard (Varanus niloticus in Dakar, Senegal. Here we used a polyphasic study including phenotypic and genomic analyses to describe the strain FF10T. Results support strain FF10T being a Gram-positive coccus, facultative anaerobic bacterium, catalase-negative, non-motile and non-spore forming. The sequenced genome counts 2.46 Mb with one chromosome but no plasmid. It exhibits a G+C content of 40.4% and contains 2471 protein-coding and 45 RNA genes. On the basis of these data, we propose the creation of Streptococcus varani sp. nov.

  12. Characterization of Francisella species isolated from the cooling water of an air conditioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Gu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Strains of Francisella spp. were isolated from cooling water from an air conditioning system in Guangzhou, China. These strains are Gram negative, coccobacilli, non-motile, oxidase negative, catalase negative, esterase and lipid esterase positive. In addition, these bacteria grow on cysteine-supplemented media at 20 °C to 40 °C with an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belong to the genus Francisella. Biochemical tests and phylogenetic and BLAST analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB and sdhA genes indicated that one strain was very similar to Francisella philomiragia and that the other strains were identical or highly similar to the Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov. strain 08HL01032 we previously described. Biochemical and molecular characteristics of these strains demonstrated that multiple Francisella species exist in air conditioning systems.

  13. Severe Rhodococcus equi pneumonia: case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Gaub, J

    1991-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an aerobic, gram-positive, non-motile pleomorphic bacillus infecting immunocompromised patients. Forty-nine cases of Rhodococcus equi infection have been reported, mainly in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A case in which Rhodococcus equi caused...... severe pulmonary infection, the most common presentation, is described. Clinically, patients have symptoms of pneumonia with hemoptysis as a prominent feature. X-ray will often show a cavitating upper-lobe infiltrate, resembling infection with mycobacteria. Rhodococcus equi is easily cultured from blood...... or sputum on standard media, but is frequently regarded as a contaminant. Mortality from Rhodococcus equi pneumonia is high (25%) and early surgical intervention has been recommended. Based on this review, the benefit of surgery seems dubious, whereas good results have been obtained using long...

  14. High quality draft genome sequence of Brachymonas chironomi AIMA4(T) (DSM 19884(T)) isolated from a Chironomus sp. egg mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviad, Sivan; Lapidus, Alla; Han, James; Haynes, Matthew; Reddy, Tbk; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia N; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Lang, Elke; Rohde, Manfred; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Brachymonas chironomi strain AIMA4(T) (Halpern et al., 2009) is a Gram-negative, non-motile, aerobic, chemoorganotroph bacterium. B. chironomi is a member of the Comamonadaceae, a family within the class Betaproteobacteria. This species was isolated from a chironomid (Diptera; Chironomidae) egg mass, sampled from a waste stabilization pond in northern Israel. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences placed strain AIMA4(T) in the genus Brachymonas. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The DNA GC content is 63.5%. The chromosome length is 2,509,395 bp. It encodes 2,382 proteins and 68 RNA genes. Brachymonas chironomi genome is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes (KMG) project.

  15. High-quality draft genome sequence of the Thermus amyloliquefaciens type strain YIM 77409(T) with an incomplete denitrification pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, En-Min; Murugapiran, Senthil K; Mefferd, Chrisabelle C; Liu, Lan; Xian, Wen-Dong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Ming, Hong; Yu, Tian-Tian; Huntemann, Marcel; Clum, Alicia; Pillay, Manoj; Palaniappan, Krishnaveni; Varghese, Neha; Mikhailova, Natalia; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T B K; Ngan, Chew Yee; Daum, Chris; Shapiro, Nicole; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Spunde, Alexander; Kyrpides, Nikos; Woyke, Tanja; Li, Wen-Jun; Hedlund, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    Thermus amyloliquefaciens type strain YIM 77409(T) is a thermophilic, Gram-negative, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium isolated from Niujie Hot Spring in Eryuan County, Yunnan Province, southwest China. In the present study we describe the features of strain YIM 77409(T) together with its genome sequence and annotation. The genome is 2,160,855 bp long and consists of 6 scaffolds with 67.4 % average GC content. A total of 2,313 genes were predicted, comprising 2,257 protein-coding and 56 RNA genes. The genome is predicted to encode a complete glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle. Additionally, a large number of transporters and enzymes for heterotrophy highlight the broad heterotrophic lifestyle of this organism. A denitrification gene cluster included genes predicted to encode enzymes for the sequential reduction of nitrate to nitrous oxide, consistent with the incomplete denitrification phenotype of this strain.

  16. High quality draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium ulceribovis type strain IMMIB-L1395(T) (DSM 45146(T)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Atteyet F; Lapidus, Alla; Han, James; Reddy, T B K; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium ulceribovis strain IMMIB L-1395(T) (= DSM 45146(T)) is an aerobic to facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile rod-shaped bacterium that was isolated from the skin of the udder of a cow, in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. The cell wall of C. ulceribovis contains corynemycolic acids. The cellular fatty acids are those described for the genus Corynebacterium, but tuberculostearic acid is not present. Here we describe the features of C. ulceribovis strain IMMIB L-1395(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 2,300,451 bp long genome containing 2,104 protein-coding genes and 54 RNA-encoding genes and is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes (KMG) project.

  17. Genome sequence of the pink-pigmented marine bacterium Loktanella hongkongensis type strain (UST950701-009P(T)), a representative of the Roseobacter group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Stanley Ck; Riedel, Thomas; Fiebig, Anne; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Petersen, Jörn; Ivanova, Natalia N; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Göker, Markus; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Loktanella hongkongensis UST950701-009P(T) is a Gram-negative, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium isolated from a marine biofilm in the subtropical seawater of Hong Kong. When growing as a monospecies biofilm on polystyrene surfaces, this bacterium is able to induce larval settlement and metamorphosis of a ubiquitous polychaete tubeworm Hydroides elegans. The inductive cues are low-molecular weight compounds bound to the exopolymeric matrix of the bacterial cells. In the present study we describe the features of L. hongkongensis strain DSM 17492(T) together with its genome sequence and annotation and novel aspects of its phenotype. The 3,198,444 bp long genome sequence encodes 3104 protein-coding genes and 57 RNA genes. The two unambiguously identified extrachromosomal replicons contain replication modules of the RepB and the Rhodobacteraceae-specific DnaA-like type, respectively.

  18. Cavitary pneumonia secondary to Tsukamurella in an AIDS patient. First case and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Maria Luisa; Espinoza, Luis; Abbo, Lilian

    2004-07-01

    Tsukamurella is a Gram-positive, variable rod-shaped, weakly acid-alcohol-fast, non motile, aerobic bacterium that belongs to the genus Rhodococcus. Tsukamurella has been reported as a cause of infections in humans with immunosuppression and indwelling foreign bodies. It has also been isolated in one patient with AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) as a saprophytic organism. Optimal management of infections secondary to this micro-organism is still uncertain due to the paucity of cases. The combination of a beta-lactam and an aminoglycoside, along with removal of medical devices, appear to be the treatment of choice. We report the case of an AIDS patient who presented with multiple lung cavitary lesions secondary to Tsukamurella. This is the first case reported of Tsukamurella as a pathogenic agent in an AIDS patient. We also propose a successful oral antibiotic regimen with fluoroquinolone and rifampin to treat infections secondary to this uncommon micro-organism.

  19. First case report of a human sepsis involving a recently identified anaerobic agent: Bacteroides faecis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Bouvet, P; Petitpas, F; Jayle, C; Legeay, C; Sautereau, J; Michaud, A; Burucoa, C; Plouzeau, C

    2016-12-01

    Up until now, Bacteroides faecis, a Gram-negative, anaerobic, non-motile, nonsporeforming rod has been principally described as a commensal microbe isolated from the feces of healthy adults. We report the first case of human Bacteroides faecis sepsis after removal of suspected post-colonic ischemia colonized epicardic electrodes. Electrodes and blood cultures both grew Gram-negative anaerobic rods but usual phenotypic methods and 16S rARN gene sequencing failed to ensure its species identification. B. faecis was finally identified using hsp60 gene sequencing. Because this species is not well-known and is difficult to identify, it may have been overlooked or misidentified in previous studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fundamental connections between models of active suspensions and transversely-isotropic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Holloway, Craig R; Smith, David J; Green, J Edward F; Clarke, Richard J; Dyson, Rosemary J

    2016-01-01

    Suspensions of self-motile, elongated particles are a topic of significant current interest, exemplifying a form of `active matter'. Examples include self-propelling bacteria, algae and sperm, and artificial swimmers. Ericksen's model of a transversely-isotropic fluid [J. L. Ericksen, Colloid Polym. Sci. 173(2):117-122 (1960)] treats suspensions of non-motile particles as a continuum with an evolving preferred direction; this model describes fibrous materials as diverse as extracellular matrix, textile tufts and cellulose microfibres. Director-dependent effects are incorporated through a modified stress tensor with four viscosity-like parameters. By making fundamental connections with recent models for active suspensions, we establish how these viscosity-like parameters relate to the solvent viscosity, volume fraction of particles and their aspect ratio. This comparison reveals previously neglected components of the stress tensor that significantly alter the rheology; these components should be included in mo...

  1. Cilia and ciliopathies:From Chlamydomonas and beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The biological function of motile cilia/flagella has long been recognized. The non-motile primary cilium, once regarded as a vestigial organelle, however, has been found recently to play unexpected roles in mammalian physiology and development. Defects in cilia have profound impact on human health. Diseases related to cilia, collectively called ciliopathies include male infertility, primary cilia dyskinesia, renal cyst formation, blindness, polydactyly, obesity, hypertension, and even mental retardation. Our current understanding of cilia and ciliopathies has been fueled by basic research employing various model organisms including Chlamydomonas, a unicellular green alga. This review article provides a general introduction to the cell biology of cilia and an overview of various cilia-related diseases.

  2. Influence of the nano-micro structure of the surface on bacterial adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Díaz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials failures are frequently associated to the formation of bacterial biofilms on the surface. The aim of this work is to study the adhesion of non motile bacteria streptococci consortium and motile Pseudomonas fluorescens. Substrates with micro and nanopatterned topography were used. The influence of surface characteristics on bacterial adhesion was investigated using optical and epifluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Results showed an important influence of the substratum nature. On microrough surfaces, initial bacterial adhesion was less significant than on smooth surfaces. In contrast, nanopatterned samples showed more bacterial attachment than the smooth control. It was also noted a remarkable difference in morphology, orientation and distribution of bacteria between the smooth and the nanostructured substrate. The results show the important effect of substratum nature and topography on bacterial adhesion which depended on the relation between roughness characteristics dimensions and bacterial size.

  3. Directed swimming of nanoscale swimmers in an array of posts with non-circular section: modelling and shape optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiajun; Shelley, Michael

    2016-11-01

    It has been shown experimentally that swimming of nanoscale rod-like bi-metallic swimmers can be biased and guided by an array of teardrop shaped posts in the solution, giving rise to a statistically directed motion in long time. This could be useful in many applications like concentrating nanoswimmers, or separating them from non-motile particles. We pose a model to study such directed swimming, taking into account the absorption and desorption of the swimmers to the vertical walls of posts. We emphasize the role of varying curvature along the circumference of a single post on the absorption and desorption. In seeking to enhance directed swimming, we apply shape optimization to find how we can design, based on experimental data, better posts which have higher efficiency of transporting swimmers. This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Award Number DMS-1463962.

  4. Complete genome sequence of Beutenbergia cavernae type strain (HKI 0122T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, Miriam; Pukall, Rudiger; Abt, Birte; Goker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Tice, Hope; Copeland, Alex; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Nolan, Matt; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jefferies, Cynthia C.; Saunders, Elizabeth; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff; Chain, Patrick; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Lapidus, Alla

    2009-05-20

    Beutenbergia cavernae (Groth et al. 1999) is the type species of the genus and is of phylogenetic interest because of its isolated location in the actinobacterial suborder Micrococcineae. B. cavernae HKI 0122T is a Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterium isolated from a cave in Guangxi (China). B. cavernae grows best under aerobic conditions and shows a rod-coccus growth cycle. Its cell wall peptidoglycan contains the diagnostic L-lysine - L-glutamate interpeptide bridge. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence from the poorly populated micrococcineal family Beutenbergiaceae, and this 4,669,183 bp long single replicon genome with its 4225 protein-coding and 53 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  5. Complete genome sequence of Weeksella virosa type strain (9751T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Elke [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Kopitz, marcus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Tindall, Brian [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2011-01-01

    Weeksella virosa Holmes et al. 1987 is the sole member and type species of the genus Weeksella which belongs to the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes. Twenty-nine isolates, collected from clinical specimens provided the basis for the taxon description. While the species seems to be a saprophyte of the mucous membranes of healthy man and warm-blooded animals a causal relationship with disease has been reported in a few instances. Except for the ability to produce indole and to hydrolyze Tween and proteins such as casein and gelatin, this aerobic, non-motile, non-pigmented bacterial species is metabolically inert in most traditional biochemical tests. The 2,272,954 bp long genome with its 2,105 protein-coding and 76 RNA genes consists of one circular chromosome and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  6. Bifidobacterium aquikefiri sp. nov., isolated from water kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, David; Cnockaert, Margo; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-01-05

    A novel Bifidobacterium, strain LMG 28769T, was isolated from a household water kefir fermentation process. The cells were Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, catalase-negative, oxidase-negative, and facultatively anaerobic short rods. Analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed Bifidobacterium crudilactis and Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum (97.4 % and 97.1 % similarity towards the respective type strain sequences) as nearest phylogenetic neighbors. Its assignment to the genus Bifidobacterium was confirmed by the presence of fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (F6PPK) activity. Analysis of the hsp60 gene sequence revealed a very low similarity with nucleotide sequences in the NCBI nucleotide database. The genotypic and phenotypic analyses allowed to differentiate strain LMG 28769T from all established Bifidobacterium species. Strain LMG 28769T (= CCUG 67145T = R-54638T) therefore represents a new species, for which the name Bifidobacterium aquikefiri sp. nov. is proposed.

  7. Identification of lactic acid bacteria from spoilage associations of cooked and brined shrimps stored under modified atmosphere between 0 degrees C and 25 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Vancanneyt, M.; Vilalta, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate spoilage and identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from spoilage associations of cooked and brined shrimps stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 0, 5, 8, 15 and 25degreesC. Methods and Results: Bacterial isolates (102) from spoilage associations of cooked and brined...... MAP shrimps were characterized by phenotypic tests and identified as lactic acid bacteria (78 isolates), other Gram-positive bacteria (13 isolates) and Gram-negative bacteria (11 isolates). A selection of 48 LAB isolates were further characterized and identified by phenotypic tests and SDS...... to chemical changes in spoiled products. Carnobacterium divergens , a non-motile Carnobacterium sp. nov. and Lactobacillus curvatus were the LAB species observed in spoilage associations of products stored at 0degreesC, 5degreesC and 8degreesC. Conclusions: Enterococcus spp. and Carnobacterium spp. were...

  8. A Rare Case of Soft-Tissue Infection Caused by Raoultella planticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Connell, Karina; Kelly, Jack; Niriain, Una

    2010-01-01

    Raoultella species are Gram-negative, non-motile bacilli primarily considered to be environmental bacteria. Raoultella planticola is a rare cause of human infections. We report a case of serious soft-tissue infection in a young male tiler who presented with cellulitis of his left thumb. He had sustained a crush injury to his left thumb 10 days earlier in a soiled environment. He noted a minor break in the skin and he washed the wound out with running water. One week later, he experienced pain, erythema, and swelling of his thumb and attended his general practitioner who prescribed oral flucloxacillin and penicillin V. Despite this treatment, he noticed progressive erythema and swelling of his thumb requiring hospital admission 3 days later. He underwent washout and debridement of his thumb. Tissue obtained intraoperatively cultured Raoultella planticola. He was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics including ciprofloxacin and made a full and rapid recovery.

  9. Light enhanced the accumulation of total fatty acids (TFA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in a newly isolated heterotrophic microalga Crypthecodinium sp. SUN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongzhe; Zhang, Zhao; Mao, Xuemei; Wu, Tao; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, light illumination was found to be efficient in elevating the total fatty acid content in a newly isolated heterotrophic microalga, Crypthecodinium sp. SUN. Under light illumination, the highest total fatty acid and DHA contents were achieved at 96h as 24.9% of dry weight and 82.8mgg(-1) dry weight, respectively, which were equivalent to 1.46-fold and 1.68-fold of those under the dark conditions. The elevation of total fatty acid content was mainly contributed by an increase of neutral lipids at the expense of starches. Moreover, light was found to alter the cell metabolism and led to a higher specific growth rate, higher glucose consumption rate and lower non-motile cell percentage. This is the first report that light can promote the total fatty acids accumulation in Crypthecodinium without growth inhibition.

  10. Entrainment dominates the interaction of microalgae with micron-sized objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanneret, Raphaël; Pushkin, Dmitri O.; Kantsler, Vasily; Polin, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The incessant activity of swimming microorganisms has a direct physical effect on surrounding microscopic objects, leading to enhanced diffusion far beyond the level of Brownian motion with possible influences on the spatial distribution of non-motile planktonic species and particulate drifters. Here we study in detail the effect of eukaryotic flagellates, represented by the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, on microparticles. Macro- and microscopic experiments reveal that microorganism-colloid interactions are dominated by rare close encounters leading to large displacements through direct entrainment. Simulations and theoretical modelling show that the ensuing particle dynamics can be understood in terms of a simple jump-diffusion process, combining standard diffusion with Poisson-distributed jumps. This heterogeneous dynamics is likely to depend on generic features of the near-field of swimming microorganisms with front-mounted flagella.

  11. Pricia antarctica gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, isolated from Antarctic intertidal sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; Zeng, Yin-Xin; Sun, Kun; Chen, Bo

    2012-09-01

    A yellow-coloured, rod-shaped, Gram-reaction- and Gram-staining-negative, non-motile and aerobic bacterium, designated strain ZS1-8(T), was isolated from a sample of sandy intertidal sediment collected from the Antarctic coast. Flexirubin-type pigments were absent. In phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain ZS1-8(T) formed a distinct phyletic line and the results indicated that the novel strain should be placed in a new genus within the family Flavobacteriaceae. In pairwise comparisons between strain ZS1-8(T) and recognized species, the levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were all antarctica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is ZS1-8(T) (= JCM 17291(T) = DSM 23421(T)).

  12. Mechanisms of Intracellular Chlamydiae Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukic Ruzica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are Gram-negative, non-motile, obligate intracellular, and spherically shaped bacteria with a diameter of 0.2-1.5 μm. Chlamydiae are present in several different morphological forms: the elementary body, the reticular body, and in the last several years, there has been the observation of a third form known as the persistent or atypical form. The intracellular localization of Chlamydia provides a unique replication cycle that occurs inside a membrane-surrounded vacuole in the host cell cytoplasm and is significantly different from the method of multiplication of other microorganisms. Chlamydiae are capable of manipulating different signalling pathways inside the infected cell, thus avoiding the host immune response. This ensures intracellular multiplication, survival, and long-term persistence of Chlamydiae. There are two basic means of achieving this persistence: inhibition of apoptosis and manipulation of NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B-mediated signals in the host.

  13. Identification and functional characterization of pfm, a novel gene involved in swimming motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fang; Li, Yingli; Xu, Haijing; Xia, Huiming; Yin, Tengfei; Yao, Hongming; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Xiuming; Bai, Yanling; Jin, Shouguang; Qiao, Mingqiang

    2007-10-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important opportunistic pathogen, has a single polar flagellum which is an important virulence and colonization factor by providing swimming motility. This paper describes the functional characterization of a novel gene pfm (PA2950) of P. aeruginosa. The pfm encodes a protein that is similar to a number of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases of other bacterial species. Mutation of this gene results in a defect in swimming motility which can be completed back to that of wild type by a plasmid containing the pfm. Interestingly, the pfm mutant possesses an intact flagellum which does not rotate, thus giving rise to a non-motile phenotype. The pfm gene is encoded on an operon together with two upstream genes which code for electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF). Yeast two-hybrid tests indicated that the PFM interacts with the ETF, suggesting that the putative dehydrogenase (PFM) is involved in energy metabolism that is critical for the rotation of flagellum in P. aeruginosa.

  14. Application of molecular methods for identification of strains classified as Salmonella enterica serovar 6, 7/-/- by conventional serotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadfield, M. S.; Christensen, J. P.; Madsen, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    An increased prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee (6, 7: z(29):-) was observed in broiler flocks in Denmark in 1994 and a parallel increase in the prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar 6, 7:-:- was demonstrated, albeit at a lower level. Plasmid profiling and ribotyping revealed...... similar genotypes and it was speculated that serovar 6, 7:-:- could represent a non-motile variant of Salmonella Tennessee. Re-testing of the Salmonella 6, 7:-:- isolates demonstrated the presence of flagella through positive motility. All isolates but one demonstrated motility using both tube tests...... and light microscopy of overnight broth cultures. Molecular characterization indicated that all but two isolates previously classified as Salmonella 6, 7:-:, were isolates of Salmonella Tennessee and Salmonella Infantis, exhibiting reduced motility. Re-serotyping and multiplex polymerase chain reaction...

  15. First report of Wautersiella falsenii genomovar 2 isolated from the respiratory tract of an immunosuppressed man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesira Giordano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wautersiella falsenii is a Gram-negative, non-motile rod, which grows aerobically on common isolation media and is the only acknowledged species among the genus Wautersiella. Two genomovars, namely 1 and 2, phenotypically indistinguishable but genotypically different, are described. To date, few case reports detailing the clinical disease associated with W. falsenii have been reported, all describing localized infection. To our knowledge, this study reports the first isolation of W. falsenii genomovar 2 from a respiratory sample of an immunosuppressed man. Our hypothesis is that the patient was harboring W. falsenii genomovar 2 and both the immunosuppression and the antimicrobial treatments provided a chance for this organism to emerge. The clinical significance of this result is yet to be evaluated. Although infection with W. falsenii remains rare, this bacterium should not be underestimated mainly because of its natural resistance to many available antimicrobials.

  16. Lactobacillus futsaii sp. nov., isolated from fu-tsai and suan-tsai, traditional Taiwanese fermented mustard products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shiou-Huei; Kudo, Yuko; Tsai, Ying-Chieh; Watanabe, Koichi

    2012-03-01

    Three Gram-stain-positive strains were isolated from fermented mustard and were rod-shaped, non-motile, asporogenous, facultatively anaerobic, homofermentative and did not exhibit catalase activity. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA gene sequences demonstrated that the novel strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the type strains of Lactobacillus crustorum (98.7% similarity), Lactobacillus farciminis (98.9%) and Lactobacillus mindensis (97.9%) were the closest neighbours. However, DNA-DNA reassociation values with these strains were less than 50%. Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus futsaii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is YM 0097(T) (=JCM 17355(T)=BCRC 80278(T)).

  17. In vitro and comparative study on the extracellular enzyme activity of molds isolated from keratomycosis and soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arumugam; Mythili; Yendranbam; Randhir; Babu; Singh; Ravindran; Priya; Anamangadan; Shafeeq; Hassan; Palanisamy; Manikandan; Kanesan; Panneerselvam; Venkatapathy; Narendran; Coimbatore; Subramanian; Shobana

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To isolate and identify the molds involved in mycotic keratitis; to isolate corresponding species from soil samples; to compare the extracellular enzyme activity indices of the molds isolated from keratitis cases and the corresponding soil isolates.METHODS:The specimens were collected from the target patients attending the microbiology laboratory of tertiary eye hospital in Coimbatore, Tamilnadu state,India. The isolates were subjected for identification based on the growth on solid media, direct microscopy and lacto phenol cotton blue wet mount preparation.Extracellular enzymes such as lipase, deoxyribonuclease(DNase), α-amylase, protease, cellulase and pectinase produced by the fungal isolates were screened on solid media supplemented with the corresponding substrates.Based on growth and zone diameter, the enzyme activity indices were calculated and were compared with that of the soil fungal isolates.RESULTS:A total of 108 clinical samples were collected from a tertiary eye care hospital and out of which 60 fungal isolates were obtained. Among these,Fusarium spp.(n =30), non sporulating molds(n =9),Aspergillus flavus(n =6), Bipolaris spp.(n =6),Exserohilum spp.(n =4), Curvularia spp.(n =3),Alternaria spp.(n =1) and Exophiala spp.(n =1) were identified and designated as FS1-30, NSM1-9, AF1-6,BS1-6, ES1-4, CS1-3, AS1 and EX1, respectively. For comparative analysis, soil samples were also collected from which, one isolate of each Fusarium spp.,Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris spp., Exserohilum spp., and Curvularia spp., respectively were selected. Highest lipase activity was seen in corneal isolate NSM2(EAI= 2.14).The DNase activity was higher in NSM9(EAI =1.88). In case of protease, Fusarium spp.(FS9) had prominent enzyme activity index of 1.38; α-amylase activity was also superior in corneal isolate FS13 with EAI of 1.63 when compared to other isolates. The enzyme activity index for cellulase was also noted to be higher in corneal isolates i.e. NSM7 with EAI of

  18. Diel vertical migration of phytoplankton and heterotrophic flagellates in the Gulf of Riga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olli, Kalle

    1999-12-01

    Vertical distribution of a phototrophic ciliate ( Mesodinium rubrum), autotrophic dinoflagellates ( Peridiniella catenata, Heterocapsa rotundata, Dinophysis acuminata), a cryptomonad ( Teleaulax sp.), a filamentous cyanobacterium ( Aphanizomenon flos-aquae), a non-motile chlorophyte ( Monoraphidium sp.) and two heterotrophic dinoflagellates were studied during two diel periods in spring (May 1-2 and 27-28, 1995) and summer (June 26-27 and July 6-7, 1994) in the southern part of the Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea. The two seasons, corresponding to the vernal bloom and summer stage, differed considerably with respect to phytoplankton community, hydrography and vertical distribution of the species. In spring the cells stayed in the upper mixed layer above a strong thermocline at 12-15 m depth, and changes in the vertical distribution were related to surface avoidance in the middle of the day. By using correspondence analysis, the vertical distribution of all the motile species were shown to differ significantly from the non-motile Monoraphidium, but not from each other. The vertical migration was reflected in a higher variability in the depth distribution patterns of the motile species, compared to Monoraphidium. In summer 1994, Aphanizomenon, Dinophysis and Teleaulax showed similar depth distribution patterns during the first period, but different from Mesodinium and the heterotrophic dinoflagellates, while during the second period all the autotrophic species had a species specific depth distribution pattern. Me. rubrum revealed a considerably different depth distribution between the two seasons, characterised by surface accumulation in spring and relatively uniform depth distribution over the whole sampling range (0-30 m) in summer. The results demonstrate different vertical niche separation strategies between species.

  19. Characterization of pro-inflammatory flagellin proteins produced by Lactobacillus ruminis and related motile Lactobacilli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Anne Neville

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus ruminis is one of at least twelve motile but poorly characterized species found in the genus Lactobacillus. Of these, only L. ruminis has been isolated from mammals, and this species may be considered as an autochthonous member of the gastrointestinal microbiota of humans, pigs and cows. Nine L. ruminis strains were investigated here to elucidate the biochemistry and genetics of Lactobacillus motility. Six strains isolated from humans were non-motile while three bovine isolates were motile. A complete set of flagellum biogenesis genes was annotated in the sequenced genomes of two strains, ATCC25644 (human isolate and ATCC27782 (bovine isolate, but only the latter strain produced flagella. Comparison of the L. ruminis and L. mali DSM20444(T motility loci showed that their genetic content and gene-order were broadly similar, although the L. mali motility locus was interrupted by an 11.8 Kb region encoding rhamnose utilization genes that is absent from the L. ruminis motility locus. Phylogenetic analysis of 39 motile bacteria indicated that Lactobacillus motility genes were most closely related to those of motile carnobacteria and enterococci. Transcriptome analysis revealed that motility genes were transcribed at a significantly higher level in motile L. ruminis ATCC27782 than in non-motile ATCC25644. Flagellin proteins were isolated from L. ruminis ATCC27782 and from three other Lactobacillus species, while recombinant flagellin of aflagellate L. ruminis ATCC25644 was expressed and purified from E. coli. These native and recombinant Lactobacillus flagellins, and also flagellate L. ruminis cells, triggered interleukin-8 production in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells in a manner suppressed by short interfering RNA directed against Toll-Like Receptor 5. This study provides genetic, transcriptomic, phylogenetic and immunological insights into the trait of flagellum-mediated motility in the lactobacilli.

  20. Phytoplankton can actively diversify their migration strategy in response to turbulent cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anupam; Carrara, Francesco; Stocker, Roman

    2017-03-01

    Marine phytoplankton inhabit a dynamic environment where turbulence, together with nutrient and light availability, shapes species fitness, succession and selection. Many species of phytoplankton are motile and undertake diel vertical migrations to gain access to nutrient-rich deeper layers at night and well-lit surface waters during the day. Disruption of this migratory strategy by turbulence is considered to be an important cause of the succession between motile and non-motile species when conditions turn turbulent. However, this classical view neglects the possibility that motile species may actively respond to turbulent cues to avoid layers of strong turbulence. Here we report that phytoplankton, including raphidophytes and dinoflagellates, can actively diversify their migratory strategy in response to hydrodynamic cues characteristic of overturning by Kolmogorov-scale eddies. Upon experiencing repeated overturning with timescales and statistics representative of ocean turbulence, an upward-swimming population rapidly (5-60 min) splits into two subpopulations, one swimming upward and one swimming downward. Quantitative morphological analysis of the harmful-algal-bloom-forming raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo together with a model of cell mechanics revealed that this behaviour was accompanied by a modulation of the cells’ fore-aft asymmetry. The minute magnitude of the required modulation, sufficient to invert the preferential swimming direction of the cells, highlights the advanced level of control that phytoplankton can exert on their migratory behaviour. Together with observations of enhanced cellular stress after overturning and the typically deleterious effects of strong turbulence on motile phytoplankton, these results point to an active adaptation of H. akashiwo to increase the chance of evading turbulent layers by diversifying the direction of migration within the population, in a manner suggestive of evolutionary bet-hedging. This migratory

  1. Mutation of Growth Arrest Specific 8 Reveals a Role in Motile Cilia Function and Human Disease.

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    Wesley R Lewis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ciliopathies are genetic disorders arising from dysfunction of microtubule-based cellular appendages called cilia. Different cilia types possess distinct stereotypic microtubule doublet arrangements with non-motile or 'primary' cilia having a 9+0 and motile cilia have a 9+2 array of microtubule doublets. Primary cilia are critical sensory and signaling centers needed for normal mammalian development. Defects in their structure/function result in a spectrum of clinical and developmental pathologies including abnormal neural tube and limb patterning. Altered patterning phenotypes in the limb and neural tube are due to perturbations in the hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway. Motile cilia are important in fluid movement and defects in motility result in chronic respiratory infections, altered left-right asymmetry, and infertility. These features are the hallmarks of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, OMIM 244400. While mutations in several genes are associated with PCD in patients and animal models, the genetic lesion in many cases is unknown. We assessed the in vivo functions of Growth Arrest Specific 8 (GAS8. GAS8 shares strong sequence similarity with the Chlamydomonas Nexin-Dynein Regulatory Complex (NDRC protein 4 (DRC4 where it is needed for proper flagella motility. In mammalian cells, the GAS8 protein localizes not only to the microtubule axoneme of motile cilia, but also to the base of non-motile cilia. Gas8 was recently implicated in the Hh signaling pathway as a regulator of Smoothened trafficking into the cilium. Here, we generate the first mouse with a Gas8 mutation and show that it causes severe PCD phenotypes; however, there were no overt Hh pathway phenotypes. In addition, we identified two human patients with missense variants in Gas8. Rescue experiments in Chlamydomonas revealed a subtle defect in swim velocity compared to controls. Further experiments using CRISPR/Cas9 homology driven repair (HDR to generate one of these human missense

  2. Biochemical and molecular heterogeneity among isolates of Yersinia ruckeri from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) in North West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yidan; Runge, Martin; Michael, Geovana Brenner; Schwarz, Stefan; Jung, Arne; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2013-10-21

    Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM), caused by Yersinia ruckeri, is one of the most important infectious diseases in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture in Europe. More recently, non-motile vaccine resistant isolates appear to have evolved and are causing disease problems throughout Europe, including Germany. The aim of this study was to analyse the variation of biochemical and molecular characteristics of Y. ruckeri isolates collected in north west Germany as a basis for strain differentiation. The isolates originated mainly from rainbow trout and were characterised by biochemical profiling, 16S rDNA sequencing, repetitive sequence-based PCRs, including (GTG)5-PCR, BOX-PCR, ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In total, 83 isolates were characterised, including 48 isolates collected during a field study in north west Germany. All isolates were confirmed as Y. ruckeri by the API 20E system. Five isolates were additionally confirmed as Y. ruckeri by Y. ruckeri-specific PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. Only 17 isolates hydrolyzed Tween 80/20. Sixty-six isolates (79.5%) were non-motile. Two different patterns were obtained by REP-PCR, five patterns by ERIC-PCR, four patterns by (GTG)5-PCR and three patterns by BOX-PCR. NotI-directed PFGE resulted in 17 patterns that differed from each other by 25-29 fragments. Isolates from the field study clustered together as PFGE type C. According to the results of API 20E, repetitive sequence-based PCRs and PFGE, these isolates could be subdivided into 27 different groups. The detailed molecular and phenotypic characterisation scheme developed in this study could be used to help trace the dissemination of Y. ruckeri isolates, and thus may represent part of improved disease monitoring plans in the future.

  3. Reductive nitrosylation of Methanosarcina acetivorans protoglobin: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it [Laboratorio Interdipartimentale di Microscopia Elettronica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 79, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Istituto di Biochimica delle Proteine, CNR, Via Pietro Castellino 111, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Pesce, Alessandra [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Nardini, Marco; Bolognesi, Martino [Dipartimento di Bioscienze, Università di Milano, Via Celoria 26, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ciaccio, Chiara; Coletta, Massimo [Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Medicina Traslazionale, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario di Ricerca in Chimica dei Metalli nei Sistemi Biologici, Piazza Umberto I 1, I-70121 Bari (Italy); Dewilde, Sylvia [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► Methanosarcina acetivorans is a strictly anaerobic non-motile methane-producing Archaea. ► M. acetivorans protoglobin binds preferentially O{sub 2} rather than CO. ► Reductive nitrosylation of ferric M. acetivorans protoglobin. ► Nitrosylation of ferrious M. acetivorans protoglobin. ► M. acetivorans protoglobin is a scavenger of RNS and ROS. -- Abstract: Methanosarcina acetivorans is a strictly anaerobic non-motile methane-producing Archaea expressing protoglobin (Pgb) which might either facilitate O{sub 2} detoxification or act as a CO sensor/supplier in methanogenesis. Unusually, M. acetivorans Pgb (MaPgb) binds preferentially O{sub 2} rather than CO and displays anticooperativity in ligand binding. Here, kinetics and/or thermodynamics of ferric and ferrous MaPgb (MaPgb(III) and MaPgb(II), respectively) nitrosylation are reported. Data were obtained between pH 7.2 and 9.5, at 22.0 °C. Addition of NO to MaPgb(III) leads to the transient formation of MaPgb(III)–NO in equilibrium with MaPgb(II)–NO{sup +}. In turn, MaPgb(II)–NO{sup +} is converted to MaPgb(II) by OH{sup −}-based catalysis. Then, MaPgb(II) binds NO very rapidly leading to MaPgb(II)–NO. The rate-limiting step for reductive nitrosylation of MaPgb(III) is represented by the OH{sup −}-mediated reduction of MaPgb(II)–NO{sup +} to MaPgb(II). Present results highlight the potential role of MaPgb in scavenging of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species.

  4. Tindallia texcoconensis sp. nov., a new haloalkaliphilic bacterium isolated from lake Texcoco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazard, Didier; Badillo, Claudia; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Thomas, Pierre; Roldan, Teresa; Tholozan, Jean-Luc; Ollivier, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    A new alkaliphilic and moderately halophilic, strictly anaerobic, fermentative bacterium (strain IMP-300(T)) was isolated from a groundwater sample in the zone of the former soda lake Texcoco in Mexico. Strain IMP-300(T) was Gram-positive, non-sporulated, motile and rod-shaped. It grew within a pH range from 7.5 to 10.5, and an optimum at 9.5. The organism was obligately dependent on the presence of sodium salts. Growth showed an optimum at 35 degrees C with absence of growth above 45 degrees C. It fermented peptone and a few amino acids, preferentially arginine and ornithine, with production of acetate, propionate, and ammonium. Its fatty acid pattern was mainly composed of straight chain saturated, unsaturated, and cyclopropane fatty acids. The G + C content of genomic DNA was 40.0 mol%. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the new isolate belongs to the genus Tindallia, in the low G + C Gram-positive phylum. Phylogenetically, strain IMP-300(T) has Tindallia californiensis, as closest relative with a 97.5% similarity level between their 16S rDNA gene sequences, but the DNA-DNA re-association value between the two DNAs was only 42.2%. On the basis of differences in genotypic, phenotypic, and phylogenetic characteristics, strain IMP-300(T) is proposed as a new species of the genus Tindallia, T. texcoconensis sp. nov. (type strain IMP-300(T ) = DSM 18041(T) = JCM 13990(T)).

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomales, Zygomycota of the Bledowska Desert, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Błaszkowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; Glomales, Zygomycetes associated with plants growing in sand dune soils of the Blędowska Desert, Poland, was investigated in 1995-1997. A total of 134 mixtures of soils and roots were sampled. The mixtures represented 26 plant species in 14 families and one unrecognized plant. Spores of AMF were found in 118 soil-root mixtures. The AMF spore populations comprised 20 described species of the genera Acaulospora, Gigaspora, Glomus and Scutellospora, as well as two undescribed morphospecies of the genus Glomus. The AMF most frequently occurring in the field-collected soils were members of the genus Scutellospora The AMF spore populations comprised 20 described species in the genera Acaulospora, Gigaspora, Glomus and Scutellospora, as well as two undescribed morpho-species of the genus Glomus. The fungal species most frequently and numerously found was Scutellospora armeniaca. The fungi relatively frequently present also were A. rugosa, A. lacunosa, G. aggregatum, an undescribed Glomus 142 and Sc. dipurpurescens. The overall spore abundance of AMF averaged 69.1 and ranged from 0 to 837 in 100 g dry soil. The highest abundance of spores occurred among roots of the families Cupressaceae, followed by the Rosaceae, Asteraceae and Poaceae. Of the plant species investigated two and more times, most spores harboured Juniperus communis. The overall average species richness was 2.4 and ranged from 0 to 6 in 100 g dry soil. Of the plant species sampled at lest two times, the highest average species diversity was found in the root zone of Salix arenaria. The plant species that hosted the highest overall number of species of AMF was Festuca rubra. Trap pot cultures with soilroot mixtures collected in 1997 revealed 10 species of AMF that were not found in field soils sampled in the same year. This suggests that a great part of AMF of Błędowska Desert is represented by rarely or non-sporulating species.

  6. Honey characteristics after extraction and half-year storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Kňazovická

    2015-12-01

    the nectar of plants, but non-sporulating microorganisms die in the ripe honey.

  7. The metabolic network of Clostridium acetobutylicum: Comparison of the approximate Bayesian computation via sequential Monte Carlo (ABC-SMC) and profile likelihood estimation (PLE) methods for determinability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Graeme J; King, John R

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum is an anaerobic endospore-forming species which produces acetone, butanol and ethanol via the acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation process, leading to biofuels including butanol. In previous work we looked to estimate the parameters in an ordinary differential equation model of the glucose metabolism network using data from pH-controlled continuous culture experiments. Here we combine two approaches, namely the approximate Bayesian computation via an existing sequential Monte Carlo (ABC-SMC) method (to compute credible intervals for the parameters), and the profile likelihood estimation (PLE) (to improve the calculation of confidence intervals for the same parameters), the parameters in both cases being derived from experimental data from forward shift experiments. We also apply the ABC-SMC method to investigate which of the models introduced previously (one non-sporulation and four sporulation models) have the greatest strength of evidence. We find that the joint approximate posterior distribution of the parameters determines the same parameters as previously, including all of the basal and increased enzyme production rates and enzyme reaction activity parameters, as well as the Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters for glucose ingestion, while other parameters are not as well-determined, particularly those connected with the internal metabolites acetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA. We also find that the approximate posterior is strongly non-Gaussian, indicating that our previous assumption of elliptical contours of the distribution is not valid, which has the effect of reducing the numbers of pairs of parameters that are (linearly) correlated with each other. Calculations of confidence intervals using the PLE method back this up. Finally, we find that all five of our models are equally likely, given the data available at present. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analysis revealed genetic characteristics related to solvent formation and xylose utilization in Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shengyue

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium acetobutylicum, a gram-positive and spore-forming anaerobe, is a major strain for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol. But a previously isolated hyper-butanol producing strain C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 does not produce spores and has greater capability of solvent production, especially for butanol, than the type strain C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Results Complete genome of C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing. Genomic comparison with ATCC 824 identified many variations which may contribute to the hyper-butanol producing characteristics in the EA 2018 strain, including a total of 46 deletion sites and 26 insertion sites. In addition, transcriptomic profiling of gene expression in EA 2018 relative to that of ATCC824 revealed expression-level changes of several key genes related to solvent formation. For example, spo0A and adhEII have higher expression level, and most of the acid formation related genes have lower expression level in EA 2018. Interestingly, the results also showed that the variation in CEA_G2622 (CAC2613 in ATCC 824, a putative transcriptional regulator involved in xylose utilization, might accelerate utilization of substrate xylose. Conclusions Comparative analysis of C. acetobutylicum hyper-butanol producing strain EA 2018 and type strain ATCC 824 at both genomic and transcriptomic levels, for the first time, provides molecular-level understanding of non-sporulation, higher solvent production and enhanced xylose utilization in the mutant EA 2018. The information could be valuable for further genetic modification of C. acetobutylicum for more effective butanol production.

  9. In vitro susceptibility of filamentous fungi from mycotic keratitis to azole drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobana, C S; Mythili, A; Homa, M; Galgóczy, L; Priya, R; Babu Singh, Y R; Panneerselvam, K; Vágvölgyi, C; Kredics, L; Narendran, V; Manikandan, P

    2015-03-01

    The in vitro antifungal activities of azole drugs viz., itraconazole, voriconazole, ketoconazole, econazole and clotrimazole were investigated in order to evaluate their efficacy against filamentous fungi isolated from mycotic keratitis. The specimen collection was carried out from fungal keratitis patients attending Aravind eye hospital and Post-graduate institute of ophthalmology, Coimbatore, India and was subsequently processed for the isolation of fungi. The dilutions of antifungal drugs were prepared in RPMI 1640 medium. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined and MIC50 and MIC90 were calculated for each drug tested. A total of 60 fungal isolates were identified as Fusarium spp. (n=30), non-sporulating moulds (n=9), Aspergillus flavus (n=6), Bipolaris spp. (n=6), Exserohilum spp. (n=4), Curvularia spp. (n=3), Alternaria spp. (n=1) and Exophiala spp. (n=1). The MICs of ketoconazole, clotrimazole, voriconazole, econazole and itraconazole for all the fungal isolates ranged between 16 μg/mL and 0.03 μg/mL, 4 μg/mL and 0.015 μg/mL, 8 μg/mL and 0.015 μg/mL, 8 μg/mL and 0.015 μg/mL and 32 μg/mL and 0.06 μg/mL respectively. From the MIC50 and MIC90 values, it could be deciphered that in the present study, clotrimazole was more active against the test isolates at lower concentrations (0.12-5 μg/mL) when compared to other drugs tested. The results suggest that amongst the tested azole drugs, clotrimazole followed by voriconazole and econazole had lower MICs against moulds isolated from mycotic keratitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Distribution and prevalence of crown rot pathogens affecting wheat crops in southern Chile

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    Ernesto Moya-Elizondo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot pathogens are associated with higher losses for wheat crop farmers, but information about the distribution and prevalence of these pathogens in Chile is inadequate. Distribution and prevalence of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crown rot pathogens were examined in a survey of 48 commercial fields from December 2011 to February 2012 in southern Chile. These fields were located between Collipulli (37°56'00" S; 72°26'39" W and Purranque (40°50'30" S; 73°22'03" W. Severity of crown rot disease was determined through visual assessment of the first internode of 20 tillers obtained from each field. Incidence of crown rot pathogens per field was determined by plating the 20 tillers on Petri plates with 20% potato dextrose agar amended with lactic acid (aPDA medium. Resulting fungal colonies from monoxenic culture were identified by morphological or molecular-assisted identification. Severity of crown rot varied between 11.3% and 80% for individual fields. Culture plate analysis showed 72.2% of stems were infected with some fungus. Fusarium avenaceum, F. graminearum, and F. culmorum, pathogens associated with Fusarium crown rot disease were isolated from 13.5% of tillers. Gaeumannomyces graminis, causal agent of take-all disease in cereals, was isolated from 11.1% of culms. Phaeosphaeria sp., an endophyte and possibly a non-pathogenic fungus, was isolated from 13.9% of tillers. Pathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia spp. and Microdochium nivale, other saprophyte, and several unidentified non-sporulating fungi were isolated at frequencies lower than 3% of the total. Fusarium crown rot and take-all were the most prevalent and distributed crown rot diseases present in wheat crops in southern Chile.

  11. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analysis revealed genetic characteristics related to solvent formation and xylose utilization in Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Clostridium acetobutylicum, a gram-positive and spore-forming anaerobe, is a major strain for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol. But a previously isolated hyper-butanol producing strain C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 does not produce spores and has greater capability of solvent production, especially for butanol, than the type strain C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Results Complete genome of C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing. Genomic comparison with ATCC 824 identified many variations which may contribute to the hyper-butanol producing characteristics in the EA 2018 strain, including a total of 46 deletion sites and 26 insertion sites. In addition, transcriptomic profiling of gene expression in EA 2018 relative to that of ATCC824 revealed expression-level changes of several key genes related to solvent formation. For example, spo0A and adhEII have higher expression level, and most of the acid formation related genes have lower expression level in EA 2018. Interestingly, the results also showed that the variation in CEA_G2622 (CAC2613 in ATCC 824), a putative transcriptional regulator involved in xylose utilization, might accelerate utilization of substrate xylose. Conclusions Comparative analysis of C. acetobutylicum hyper-butanol producing strain EA 2018 and type strain ATCC 824 at both genomic and transcriptomic levels, for the first time, provides molecular-level understanding of non-sporulation, higher solvent production and enhanced xylose utilization in the mutant EA 2018. The information could be valuable for further genetic modification of C. acetobutylicum for more effective butanol production. PMID:21284892

  12. Tolerance Induction of Temperature and Starvation with Tricalcium Phosphate on Preservation and Sporulation in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Detected by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokh Esfahani, Samaneh; Emtiazi, Giti; Shafiei, Rasoul; Ghorbani, Najmeh; Zarkesh Esfahani, Seyed Hamid

    2016-09-01

    The Bacillus species have many applications in the preparation of various enzymes, probiotic, biofertilizer, and biomarkers for which the survival of resting cells and spore formation under different conditions are important. In this study, water and saline along with different mineral substances such as calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, and silica were used for the detection of survival and preservation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The results showed intensive death of resting cells at 8 °C, but significant survival at 28 °C after one month. However, preservation by minerals significantly decreased the rate of death and induced sporulation at both the temperatures. The resting cells were maintained at room temperature (about 60 % of the initial population survived after a month) in the presence of tricalcium phosphate. The results showed that temperature has more effect on sporulation compare with starvation. The sporulation in normal saline at 28 °C was 70 times more than that at 8 °C; meanwhile, addition of tricalcium phosphate increases sporulation by 90 times. Also, the FTIR data showed the interaction of tricalcium phosphate with spores and resting cells. The discrimination of sporulation from non-sporulation state was performed by nucleic acid staining with thiazole orange and detected by flow cytometry. The flow cytometric studies confirmed that the rates of sporulation in pure water were significantly more at 28 °C. This is the first report on the detection of bacterial spore with thiazole orange by flow cytometry and also on the interaction of tricalcium phosphate with spores by FTIR analyses.

  13. Marinobacter xestospongiae sp. nov., isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, O. O.

    2011-10-14

    A Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-sporulating, rod-shaped and slightly halophilic bacterial strain, designated UST090418-1611(T), was isolated from the marina sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain UST090418-1611(T) in the family Alteromonadaceae with the closest relationship to the genus Marinobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the strain and the type strains of recognized Marinobacter species ranged from 92.9 to 98.3%. Although strain UST090418-1611(T) shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Marinobacter mobilis CN46(T), M. zhejiangensis CN74(T) and M. sediminum R65(T) (98.3, 97.4 and 97.3%, respectively), the relatedness of the strain to these three strains in DNA DNA hybridization was only 58, 56 and 33%, respectively, supporting the novelty of the strain. In contrast to most strains in the genus Marinobacter, strain UST090418-1611(T) tolerated only 6% (w/v) NaCl, and optimal growth occurred at 2.0% (w/v) NaCl, pH 7.0-8.0 and 28-36 degrees C. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C-12:0 3-OH, C-16:0, C-12:0 and summed feature 3 (C-16.1 omega 6c and/or C-16:1 omega 7c) The genomic DNA G+C content was 57.1 mol%. Based on the physiological, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics presented in this study, we suggest that the strain represents a novel species in the genus Marinobacter, for which the name Marinobacter xestospongiae sp. nov. is proposed, with UST090418-1611(T) (=JCM 17469(T) =NRRL B-59512(T)) as the type strain.

  14. Iodidimonas muriae gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic iodide-oxidizing bacterium isolated from brine of a natural gas and iodine recovery facility, and proposals of Iodidimonadaceae fam. nov., Iodidimonadales ord. nov., Emcibacteraceae fam. nov. and Emcibacterales ord. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Takao; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kamagata, Yoichi; Amachi, Seigo

    2016-12-01

    A chemo-organotrophic iodide (I-)-oxidizing bacterial strain, C-3T, isolated from natural gas brine of an iodine recovery facility in Kujukuri, Chiba, Japan, was characterized for representation of a novel species in the class Alphaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the nearest neighbours of strain C-3T were members of the genera Eilatimonas, Kordiimonas, Rhodothalassium and Temperatibacter with 88-91 % sequence similarity. Cells of strain C-3T were aerobic, Gram-staining-negative, non-sporulating and rod-shaped (1.3-3.6 µm in length). Strain C-3T grew optimally at 30 °C, pH 7.5 and with 3 % NaCl (w/v). Iodide oxidation to form molecular iodine (I2) was a unique trait for strain C-3T, whereas the strain did not utilize iodide as a sole electron donor for chemolithoautotrophic growth. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-10. The major cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 1ω5c. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and unidentified aminolipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 58.5 mol%. Iodide oxidation and the major cellular fatty acids composition distinguished strain C-3T from phylogenetically related bacteria. On the basis of the phenotypic features and the phylogenetic position, a novel genus and species are proposed for strain C-3T (=JCM 17843T=LMG 28660T), to be named Iodidimonas muriae gen. nov., sp. nov. We also propose to place the distinct sublineages of the genera Iodidimonasgen. nov. and Emcibacter in the orders Iodidimonadales ord. nov. and Emcibacterales ord. nov., respectively, because these genera are located far apart from the order Kordiimonadales and form the distinct lineage in the class Alphaproteobacteria.

  15. Pigmentiphaga aceris sp. nov., isolated from tree sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Dong

    2017-09-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative bacterial strains, SAP-32T and SAP-36, were isolated from sap drawn from the Acer pictum from Mount Halla in Jeju, Republic of Korea. The organisms were strictly aerobic, non-sporulating, motile rods and showed growth at 10-30 °C, pH 7-8 and with 0-2 % NaCl. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The predominant fatty acids were C16 : 0, cyclo-C17 : 0, summed feature 3 and C18 : 0. The polar lipids contained phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophosphoglycolipid, an unknown glycolipid, an unknown phospholipid and two unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 64.4 mol%. The results of phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that SAP-32T and SAP-36 formed a distinct cluster with members of the genus Pigmentiphaga within the family Alcaligenaceae. Both strains showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 100 % to each other. The closest relatives of the isolates were Pigmentiphaga daeguensis (97.08 % sequence similarity), Pigmentiphaga kullae (97.01 %) and Pigmentiphaga litoralis (96.73 %). On the basis of data from phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, SAP-32T (=KCTC 52619T=DSM 104039T) and SAP-36 (=KCTC 52620=DSM 104072) represent members of a novel species of the genus Pigmentiphaga, for which the name Pigmentiphaga aceris sp. nov. is proposed.

  16. Buried in time: culturable fungi in a deep-sea sediment core from the Chagos Trench, Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghukumar, Chandralata; Raghukumar, Seshagiri; Sheelu, G.; Gupta, S. M.; Nagender Nath, B.; Rao, B. R.

    2004-11-01

    The recovery of culturable microorganisms from ancient materials, ranging from a few thousand to several million years old, has generated interest in the long-term survival capabilities of micrororganisms. We report the occurrence of such paleobes for the first time from a deep-sea sediment core obtained from a depth of 5904 m from the Chagos trench in the Indian Ocean. Culturable fungi, direct counts of bacteria, age of the sediments based on the radiolarian assemblage, total organic carbon, Eh and CaCO3 were determined in these sediments. Culturable fungi were obtained from subsections up to 370 cm depth. The age of the sediments from which fungi were isolated was estimated to range from>0.18 to 0.43 million years (Ma), being the oldest recorded age for recovery of culturable fungi. Colony forming units of fungi ranged from 69 to 2493 g-1 dry weight sediment with a maximum abundance recorded at 160 cm depth of the core, corresponding to ∼0.18 Ma. Bacterial numbers in the core showed oscillations corresponding to cycles of approximately 100 ka (kilo years). The fungi comprised non-sporulating forms and a sporulating form identified to be Aspergillus sydowii. Germination of spores of A. sydowii at 100, 300 and 500 bar hydrostatic pressures at 5 °C confirmed its barotolerance and its nativity to deep-sea sediments. We propose that deep-sea sediments are a source of paleobes, which could be useful in studies on palaeoclimate, long-term microbial survival and biotechnology.

  17. Airborne fungi in the region of Cubatão, São Paulo State, Brazil Fungos anemófilos da região de Cubatão, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Iracema H. Schoenlein-Crusius

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available From March/1993 to March/1995, airborne fungi were isolated from the "Vale do Rio Moji" (highly affected by the air pollution caused by fertilizer industries, steel works, cement factories and chemical products industries, among others and from the "Vale do Rio Pilões" (less affected by the air pollution, both in the municipality of Cubatão, São Paulo State, Brazil, by exposing Petri dishes with potato dextrose agar medium, placed one meter from the ground, during 5 min. After 5 days of incubation at 20ºC, the colonies of the fungi were purified and identified, resulting in the identification of 39 taxa, three unidentified strains of Fusarium and non-sporulating cultures. A total of 28 taxa, one unidentified strain of Fusarium and non-sporulating fungi (71 records were isolated in the "Vale do Rio Moji" and 29 taxa, two unidentified strains of Fusarium and non-sporulating fungi (72 records in the "Vale do Rio Pilões. The airborne mycota of the higher polluted site presented 17 common, 12 rare and only one constant fungal species. In the other site, the airborne mycota was composed by 19 common, 10 rare and two constant fungal species. Among the obtained fungi, at least 12 taxa were reported as opportunistic fungi, 26 have been mentioned related to plant diseases and eight have been associated to allergy problems. The similarity Index of Sörensen between the mycotas, corresponding to 58%, may be considered low, and is probably justified by the air pollution, that mainly distinguish the two studied areas.De março/1993 a março/1995, foram isolados fungos anemófilos no Vale do Rio Moji (afetada pela poluição aérea causada por indústrias de fertilizantes, metalúrgicas, fábricas de cimento e indústrias de produtos químicos, entre outras e no Vale do Rio Pilões (área menos afetada pela poluição aérea, no município de Cubatão, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, expondo placas-de-Petri, contendo meio de batata-dextrose-ágar, durante

  18. Texcoconibacillus texcoconensis gen. nov., sp. nov., alkalophilic and halotolerant bacteria isolated from soil of the former lake Texcoco (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Romero, Erick; Coutiño-Coutiño, María de los Angeles; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; López-Ramírez, María Patricia; Marsch, Rodolfo; Dendooven, Luc

    2013-09-01

    A novel Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium, designated 13CC(T) was isolated from soil of the former lake Texcoco. The strain was aerobic, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. It grew at salinities of 0-26% (w/v) NaCl with an optimum at 9-16% (w/v) NaCl. The cells contain peptidoglycan type A1γ, A1γ' with glycine instead of l-alanine and three variations of peptidoglycan type A4γ. The only quinone detected was MK-7. The major fatty acid was anteiso-C(15:0). The polar lipids fraction consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and three different phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 37.5 mol%. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain 13CC(T) was closely related to members of the genus Bacillus and shared 92.35% similarity with Bacillus agaradhaerens, 92.28% with Bacillus neizhouensis and 92.21% with Bacillus locisalis. It is proposed based on the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic analyses that the novel isolate should be classified as a representative of a new genus and novel species, for which the name Texcoconibacillus texcoconensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Texcoconibacillus texcoconensis is 13CC(T) ( =JCM 17654(T) =DSM 24696(T)).

  19. Effect of the inoculation of a starter culture and vacuum packaging during the resting stage on sensory traits of dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Molinero, F; Arnau, J

    2008-12-01

    The effects of the inoculation of a mixed starter culture and vacuum packaging (during resting stage) on odour, appearance, texture and flavour of dry-cured ham were studied. After salting, half of the 36 processed hams were inoculated with a commercial starter culture containing lactic-acid bacteria, Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci and yeasts. Nine hams per group (inoculated and non-inoculated) remained vacuum-packaged during resting. External odour during the process, as well as appearance of the cut surface, texture and flavour on semimembranosus and biceps femoris of the final product were assessed. Vacuum packaging during resting caused an increase in white film and feedstuff flavour, as well as a decrease in aged flavour, hardness, fibrousness and overall liking. The use of the starter culture brought about an increase in feedstuff flavour, a decrease in sweetness, aged flavour, nutty flavour and overall liking and, only in vacuum-packaged hams, the development of a floral flavour, but had no significant effect on texture descriptors. The starter culture studied is considered inappropriate for the production of traditional Spanish dry-cured ham regardless of the type of resting used.

  20. Agreement Between Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition and Taxometric Classification of Gram-Positive Cocci1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, L. G.; Hill, L. R.

    1965-01-01

    Silvestri, L. G. (Università Statale, Milan, Italy), and L. R. Hill. Agreement between deoxyribonucleic acid base composition and taxometric classification of gram-positive cocci. J. Bacteriol. 90:136–140. 1965.—It had been previously proposed, from taxometric analyses, that gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci be divided into two subgroups. Thirteen strains, representative of both subgroups, were examined for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base composition, determined from melting temperatures. Per cent GC (guanine + cytosine/total bases) values fell into two groups: 30.8 to 36.5% GC and 69 to 75% GC. Strains with low per cent GC values belonged to the Staphylococcus aureus–S. saprophyticus–S. lactis taxometric subgroups, and those with high per cent GC values belonged to the S. roseus–S. afermentans subgroup. The hypothetical nature of any classification is emphasized, and, in the present work, the hypothesis derived from taxometric analyses of division into two subgroups is confirmed by the study of DNA base ratios. The two subgroups correspond, respectively, to the genera Staphylococcus and Micrococcus. PMID:16562008

  1. Assessing Market-Sold Remedies in Lomé (Togo for Hygienic Quality

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    Comlan de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional concoctions sold in marketplaces are always assumed to be safe and efficient; however, they can be potentially toxic because of poor hygienic practices in plant processing or storage. The present study aimed to assess for the microbial quality of market-sold vegetable drugs in Lomé. Thus, a total of 209 plant remedies were collected in marketplaces and analysed for the presence of total aerobic bacteria, total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, sulphite reducing bacteria, and yeast and moulds according to the French Association of Normalisation (AFNOR guidelines. The results revealed that all formulations were contaminated by several microorganisms, excepted alcohol-based mixtures. According to AFNOR limits nonconform drugs were according to total aerobic bacteria (86.96% powders, 81.82% capsules, 66.67% tisanes, and 42.11% decoctions; to total coliforms (9.10% capsules, 8.70% powders and 1.75% decoction; to yeasts and moulds (77.78% ointments, 40% calcined powders, 36.36% capsules, and 23.91% powders. The microbiological analysis revealed that the majority of contaminating bacteria were gram positive catalase positive and oxidase positive bacilli. Quality control studies on market-sold remedies are currently needed to evaluate the microbial risk in consuming these products and they may allow the standardisation of plant processing and storage.

  2. Emerging infections: Shewanella - A series of five cases

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    Krishna Kanchan Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Shewanella spp. are unusual cause of disease in humans; however, reports of Shewanella infections have been increasing. Shewanella is a ubiquitous organism that has been isolated from many foods, sewage, and both from fresh and salt water. Earlier it was named as Pseudomonas putrefaciens or Shewanella putrefaciens. There are several reports describing this organism causing human infections such as cellulitis, abscesses, bacteremia, wound infection, etc. It is oxidase and catalase-positive non-fermenter gram-negative rod that produces hydrogen sulfide. Aims : The study was conducted to identify Shewanella spp., which was wrongly reported as Pseudomonas spp. Materials and Methods : Clinical samples were cultured as per standard clinical laboratory procedure. We tested the non-lactose-fermenting colonies for oxidase positivity. Oxidase-positive colony was inoculated in triple sugar iron slant (TSI to know the hydrogen sulfide production. Hydrogen sulfide positive colonies were further tested for citrate, urease, indole, and amino acid decarboxylation and acid and gas production from sugars. Results : Five isolates identified as Pseudomonas spp. during preliminary testing were proved to be Shewanella spp. on further testing. Conclusions : It will help in better understanding the epidemiology, pathogenesis and risk factors associated with these and prevention of the rare pathogenic organisms.

  3. Arthrobacter equi sp. nov., isolated from veterinary clinical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, A F; Spröer, C; Siering, C; Hupfer, H; Schumann, P

    2011-09-01

    A Gram-positive-staining, catalase-positive, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, strain IMMIB L-1606(T), isolated from genital swabs of a horse, was characterized using a polyphasic approach. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the organism was related to members of the genus Arthrobacter, displaying sequence similarities of 93.5-99.1 % with the type strains of recognized species of the genus. Cell-wall analysis revealed peptidoglycan type A3α L-Lys-L-Ser-L-Thr-L-Ala. DNA-DNA hybridization data and biochemical characterization of strain IMMIB L-1606(T) enabled the isolate to be differentiated genotypically and phenotypically from phylogenetically closely related species of the genus Arthrobacter. Therefore, it is concluded that strain IMMIB L-1606(T) represents a novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter equi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Arthrobacter equi sp. nov. is IMMIB L-1606(T) ( = DSM 23395(T) = CCUG 59597(T)).

  4. [Micrococcus sp.--the pathogen of leaf necrosis of horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.) in Kiev].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, L M; Makhinia, L V; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2013-01-01

    A group of phytopathogenic bacteria was isolated from patterns of drying horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.), which grow in Kyiv. The properties of slowly growing, highly aggressive microorganisms have been described in the paper. They grow up on the 8-10th day after sowing. The investigated microorganisms form very small (0.5-1 mm in diameter) colonies on the potato agar. Bacteria are protuberant, shining, smooth with flat edges, they are pale yellow, yellow, or pink. The bacteria are Gram-positive, spherical, are disposed in smears singly, in pairs, as accumulations, or netting. They are aerobes, do not form spores, are not mobile. They are inert in respect of different sources of carbon. They reduce nitrates, do not dilute gelatin, do not hydrolyze starch, do not release hydrogen sulphide and indole. The bacteria are catalase-positive, oxidase-negative. They do not cause potato and carrot rot. They lose quickly their viability under the laboratory conditions. The saturated acids C 14:0; C 15:0; C16:0; C18:0 have been revealed in the composition of cellular fatty acids. Microorganisms are identified as Micrococcus sp. Under artificial inoculation this highly aggressive pathogen causes drying of the horse-chestnut buds and necrosis, which occupies 1/3-1/2 of the leaf plate. A wide zone of chlorosis, surrounding necrosis, may occupy the whole leaf surface. The infected leaves use to twist up from the top (apex) or along a midrib and to dry.

  5. Isolation and identification of Bacillus spp. from compost material, compost and mushroom casing soil active against Trichoderma spp.

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    Stanojević Olja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of bacteria was carried out from samples of straw and chicken manure, compost at various stages of the composting process and casing soil used for growing button mushrooms. A preliminary screening of 108 bacterial isolates for antagonistic activity against Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum showed that 23 tested isolates inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungus. Further screening with four indicator isolates of fungi revealed that all 23 bacterial isolates inhibited the growth of T. aggressivum f. europaeum, T. harzianum and T. koningii, while only 13 isolates inhibited the growth of T. atroviride. T. aggressivum f. europaeum proved to be the most sensitive, with many bacterial isolates generating a high percentage of growth inhibition. Only two bacterial isolates (B-129 and B-268 were successful in inhibiting the growth of all 4 tested pathogens. All 23 bacterial isolates were characterized as Gram-positive and catalase-positive and were subjected to molecular identification based on the partial sequence, the hypervariant region of the 16S rDNA. It was shown that the obtained bacterial strains belong to Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis and B. pumilus species. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31043 i br. 173026

  6. Antibiotic resistance of Shewanella putrefaciens isolated from shellfish collected from the West Sea in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Ho; Shin, YuJin; Jeon, HanEul; Choi, Jae-Ho; Jeong, SuYeon; So, Jae-Seong

    2013-11-15

    In this study, we isolated and characterized Shewanella putrefaciens from shellfish harvested from the West Sea in Korea. For the initial isolation of S. putrefaciens, LB agar plates supplemented with ferrous sulfate and sodium thiosulfate were inoculated with shellfish homogenates, incubated for 24h, and then black colonies were selected. Gram-negative and catalase-positive colonies were subsequently confirmed by PCR assays and API 20E kit test system. The Shewanella-specific 16S rRNA and gyrB genes were used to design S. putrefaciens-specific PCR primers. From 6 species of shellfish tested, 24 S. putrefaciens strains were isolated. These 24 isolates had the following profiles of resistance against 16 antibiotics: all the isolates were resistant to cephalothin and vancomycin and 95.8% were resistant to ampicillin. Here, we report the isolation of S. putrefaciens from shellfish and our results point to a new possible route for exposing healthy individuals to S. putrefaciens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Iatrogenic hemolytic anemia and endocarditis in New Zealand white rabbits secondary to Achromobacter xylosoxidans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sarah O; Artwoh, James E; Fortman, Jeffrey D; Pogwizd, Steven; Jeanes, Jodi; Koske, Sarah; Pinkerton, Marie E; Haschek, Wanda M; Messick, Joanne

    2007-11-01

    During a 3-mo period, 9 of the 15 New Zealand White rabbits used in a heart failure study developed a hemolytic anemia. The heart failure model involved the creation of an aortic insufficiency (AI) followed 2 to 6 wk later by the creation of an aortic stenosis (AS). None of the 9 animals that developed hemolytic anemia responded to medical management, and 6 of the 9 were euthanized for humane concerns. Necropsies and blood cultures were performed on all anemic animals; 7 of these cultures yielded growth of Achromobacter xylosoxidans. In addition, cultures from the heart valves of 2 rabbits yielded growth of Achromobacter xylosoxidans. We presume that the endocarditis caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans led to the mechanical damage of red blood cells (RBCs) and subsequent intravascular hemolysis or splenic destruction of damaged RBCs, resulting in a severe, regenerative hemolytic anemia. Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an aerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-positive, gram-negative bacillus. This organism is an environmentally resistant and opportunistic bacterium that typically inhabits aqueous environments. Microbial samples from the investigator's laboratory and equipment were collected to identify the source of the bacteria. A pressure transducer and bag of intravenous fluid were identified as sources of contamination.

  8. Infections associated with chronic granulomatous disease: linking genetics to phenotypic expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Josef; Wolach, Ofir; Gavrieli, Ronit; Wolach, Baruch

    2012-08-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited primary immunodeficiency characterized by the absence or malfunction of the NADPH oxidase in phagocytic cells. As a result, there is an impaired ability to generate superoxide anions and the subsequent reactive oxygen intermediates. Consequently, CGD patients suffer from two clinical manifestations: recurrent, life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections and excessive inflammatory reactions leading to granulomatous lesions. Although the genotype of CGD was linked to the phenotypic expression of the disease, this connection is still controversial and poorly understood. Certain correlations were reported, but the clinical expression of the disease is usually unpredictable, regardless of the pattern of inheritance. CGD mainly affects the lungs, lymph nodes, skin, GI tract and liver. Patients are particularly susceptible to catalase-positive microorganisms, including Staphyloccocus aureus, Nocardia spp. and Gram-negative bacteria, such as Serratia marcescens, Burkholderia cepacea and Salmonella spp. Unusually, catalase-negative microorganisms were reported as well. New antibacterial and antimycotic agents considerably improved the prognosis of CGD. Therapy with IFN-γ is still controversial. Bone marrow stem cell transplantation is currently the only curative treatment and gene therapy needs further development. In this article, the authors discuss the genetic, functional and molecular aspects of CGD and their impact on the clinical expression, infectious complications and the hyperinflammatory state.

  9. Porphyrobacter mercurialis sp. nov., isolated from a stadium seat and emended description of the genus Porphyrobacter

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    David A. Coil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, pleomorphic yellow-orange bacterial strain was isolated from a stadium seat. Strain CoronadoT falls within the Erythrobacteraceae family and the genus Porphyrobacter based on 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis. This strain has Q-10 as the predominant respiratory lipoquinone, as do other members of the family. The fatty acid profile of this strain is similar to other Porphyrobacter, however CoronadoT contains predominately C18:1ω7cis and C16:0, a high percentage of the latter not being observed in any other Erythrobacteraceae. This strain is catalase-positive and oxidase-negative, can grow from 4 to 28 °C, at NaCl concentrations 0.1–1.5%, and at pH 6.0–8.0. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic data presented in this study, strain CoronadoT represents a novel species in the Porphyrobacter genus for which the name Porphyrobacter mercurialis sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is CoronadoT (=DSMZ 29971, =LMG 28700.

  10. Characterization of 15 selected coccal bacteria isolated from Antarctic rock and soil samples from the McMurdo-Dry Valleys (South-Victoria Land)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, J.; Hirsch, P.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Approximately 1500 cultures of microorganisms were isolated from rocks and soils of the Ross Desert (McMurdo-Dry Valleys). From these, 15 coccoid strains were chosen for more detailed investigation. They were characterized by morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomical properties. All isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-positive and nonmotile. Six strains showed red pigmentation and could be identified as members of the genera Micrococcus (M. roseus, M. agilis) or Deinococcus. In spite of their coccoid morphology, the remaining nine strains had to be associated with coryneform bacteria (Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium), because of their cell wall composition and G+C ratios. Most of the strains were psychrotrophic, but one strain was even obligately psychrophilic, with a temperature maximum below 20 degrees C. Red cocci had in vitro pH optima above 9.0 although they generally originated from acid samples. Most isolates showed a preference for sugar alcohols and organic acids, compounds which are commonly known to be released by lichens, molds and algae, the other components of the cryptoendolithic ecosystem. These properties indicate that our strains are autochthonous members of the natural Antarctic microbial population.

  11. A method for the rapid detection and identification of halo blight pathogen on common bean

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    Popović Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A diagnostic method based on nested-PCR, followed by ELISA and conventional bacteriology tests, for the rapid and reliable detection of halo blight pathogen Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola (Psp collected from infected bean leaves and seeds is described. Psp formed white, small and flat colonies on nutrient agar medium, creamy white, flat and circular on Milk-Tween agar medium and light yellow, convex and shiny on modified sucrose peptone agar medium. Eighteen Gram-negative, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative strains were subjected to nested PCR with primers P 5.1/P 3.1 and P 5.2/P 3.2, which directed the amplification of the 450 bp target DNA fragment in all tested strains. According to the results of DAS- and PTA-ELISA with respect to reactivity to specific antibodies, all analyzed strains belonged to Psp bacterium. Pathogenicity was tested on bean pods and cotyledon leaves, on which greasy spots were formed. Psp did not cause hypersensitive reaction on the leaves of tobacco and geranium. Strains produced levan, fluorescent pigment, oxidative metabolism of glucose, did not reduce nitrate, did not produce indole and H2S, did not hydrolyze starch, gelatin and esculin; they produced acid from glucose, mannose, sucrose and glycerol, and did not produce acid from maltose, starch, esculin, dulcite, sorbitol, inositol and erythritol.

  12. Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis sp. nov., isolated from soil at a coal gasification site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S M; Johnsen, K; Sørensen, J; Nielsen, P; Jacobsen, C S

    2000-11-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic characterization indicated that a group of 29 closely related phenanthrene-degrading bacteria from a coal gasification site in Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark, belonged to the genus Pseudomonas. The strains were isolated at two sampling occasions 2 years apart. The isolates were phenotypically different from any known species of the genus Pseudomonas and were therefore subject to further identification. Colonies were smooth and pale yellowish and did not produce pigments fluorescent in UV light when grown on King's B agar. Cells were rod-shaped, approximately 0.5-0.8 x 1.5-3.0 microm, and grew at 4 and 30 degrees C, but not 37 degrees C. The bacteria were oxidase- and catalase-positive, accumulated poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and denitrified, but did not utilize D-xylose. The mean G+C content was 59.6 mol%. Phenotypic data and 16S rDNA sequence data information for Pseudomonas amygdali and Pseudomonas corrugata, and 16S rDNA sequence data for Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas syringae showed close relationships to these strains. However, DNA-DNA hybridization data showed that the isolates belong to a new species, for which the name Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JAJ28T (DSM 13022T).

  13. Bacillus cecembensis sp. nov., isolated from the Pindari glacier of the Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G S N; Uttam, Anarasi; Shivaji, S

    2008-10-01

    Strain PN5(T) is a Gram-positive, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, peritrichously flagellated bacterium that was isolated from the Pindari glacier using nutrient agar medium. Cells of PN5(T) are catalase-positive and oxidase-negative and contain lysine, glutamic acid and alanine in the peptidoglycan (peptidoglycan type A4alpha). Further, the cells are characterized by the presence of iso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 1) as the predominant fatty acids and MK-7 as the isoprenoid quinone. Based on the above characteristics, strain PN5(T) was assigned to the genus Bacillus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain PN5(T) clustered with the type strain of Bacillus silvestris with a sequence similarity of 97.2 %. DNA-DNA hybridization between PN5(T) and B. silvestris DSM 12223(T) resulted in a relatedness of only 15 %, clearly indicating that strain PN5(T) represents a novel species. Further, PN5(T) was different from B. silvestris with respect to various phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics. Therefore, strain PN5(T) is identified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus cecembensis sp. nov. is proposed. Bacillus cecembensis is unique among psychrotolerant Bacillus species in containing l-Lys-d-Glu in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The type strain is PN5(T) (=LMG 23935(T) =MTCC9127(T) =JCM 15113(T)).

  14. Microbial analyses of traditional Italian salami reveal microorganisms transfer from the natural casing to the meat matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisacane, Vincenza; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Puglisi, Edoardo; Dallolio, Giuliano; Rebecchi, Annalisa

    2015-08-17

    In this study the bacterial biodiversity, during the maturation process of traditional sausages (Salame Mantovano), produced with two different kinds of casing (hog middle or "Crespone" and hog bung or "Gentile"), was investigated by means of culture-dependent and -independent methods. In order to assess the natural variability linked to the type of casing used in production, the ingredients, as well as ripening conditions, were identical in both productions. The aim of the study was to understand the contribution of casing microflora during sausage ripening by identifying the dominant species and strains. The bacterial ecology of casings and salami at different ripening stages, as determined by plating, revealed higher staphylococci and enterococci counts for Gentile casing and for the entire ripening period of the salami studied. After molecular identification of 219 Lactobacilli and 225 cocci gram positive catalase positive (GPCP) isolates, the species most frequently isolated were Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Some L. sakei and S. saprophyticus strains, coming from casing, were also found in the salami at different times of ripening. A richer biodiversity was only detected at the beginning of maturation. We also report the first detection, by PCR-DGGE method, of Arcobacter marinus and Brochothrix thermosphacta species in casings and Kokuria salsicia in fresh sausage. Results suggesting that casing can be an important source of bacteria during natural fermentation when starter cultures are not used.

  15. [A new species of the genus Phenylobacterium for the degradation of LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Na; Xiao, Changsong; Ying, Qifeng; Ji, Shulan

    2003-02-01

    A strain GZ6 that can biodegrade LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonate) is identified. It is aerobic gram-negative rod or short-rod (0.5 to 0.8 by 1.0 to 2.0 Mm). It is mobile with a single polar flagellum. Optimum growth occurred at 30 degrees C and pH7.0. It is catalase positive, urease positive, and arginine decarboxylase positive. All the other physiological and biochemical tests performed were negative. It utilizes the xenobiotic compounds chloridazon, antipyrin and LAS as sole carbon sources. Most sugars, alcohols, and carboxylic acids are not utilized. It has Q-10 as the major quinone. The main cell fatty acids are Sum7, C16:0 and Sum4. The DNA G + C mol % content is 70.10. A phylogenic tree was constructed on the basis of 16S rDNA sequences. It showed that the previously known member of the genus Phenylobacterium, Phenylobacterium mobile DSM1986T, is the nearest neighbor to strain GZ6. The level of binary sequence similarity between them is 97.49%. And the DNA-DNA relatedness is 40%. These genetic analysis and their morphological difference show that they are different species of Phenylobacterium. A new species, Phenylobacterium mobile sp. nov., has been proposed.

  16. Bacillus thermophilum sp. nov., isolated from a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jia; Yang, Guiqin; Wen, Junlin; Yu, Zhen; Zhou, Shungui; Liu, Zhi

    2014-09-01

    A novel thermophilic, Gram-staining positive bacterium, designated DX-2(T), was isolated from the anode biofilm of a microbial fuel cell. Cells of the strain were oxidase positive, catalase positive, facultative anaerobic, motile rods. The isolate grew at 30-60 °C (optimum 50 °C) and pH 5-9 (optimum pH 8-8.5). The pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities showed that strain DX-2(T) was most closely related to Bacillus fumarioli LMG 17489(T) (96.2 %), B. firmus JCM 2512(T) (96.0 %) and B. foraminis DSM 19613(T) (95.7 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DX-2(T) formed a cluster with B. smithii (95.5 %) and B. infernus (94.9 %). The genomic G+C content of DX-2(T) was 43.7 mol%. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and unknown phospholipids. The major cellular fatty acid was iso-C16:0. Based on its phenotypic characteristics, chemotaxonomic features, and results of phylogenetic analysis, the strain was identified to represent a distinct novel species in the genus Bacillus, and the name proposed is B. thermophilum sp. nov. The type strain is DX-2(T) (=CCTCC AB2012194(T) = KCTC 33128(T)).

  17. Bacillus kochii sp. nov., isolated from foods and a pharmaceuticals manufacturing site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Herbert; Schmidt, Verena; Wenning, Mareike; Scherer, Siegfried

    2012-05-01

    Three Gram-staining-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, catalase-positive, endospore-forming rods, designated WCC 4582(T), WCC 4581 and WCC 4583, were isolated from two different food sources and a pharmaceuticals production site. The three isolates were highly similar in their 16S rRNA gene sequences (100 % similarity) and groEL sequences (99.2-100 % similarity), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic fingerprints and other features tested. The isolates were most closely related to Bacillus horneckiae; the isolates and the type strain of B. horneckiae shared 97.6 % and 89.6 % 16S rRNA gene and groEL sequence similarities, respectively. The organisms grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7 and in the presence of 0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of WCC 4582(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid (A1γ) and the genomic DNA G+C content was 36.4 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain WCC 4582(T) and B. horneckiae NRRL B-59162(T) was 17 %. The three isolates are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus kochii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WCC 4582(T) ( = DSM 23667(T) = CCUG 59877(T) = LMG 25855(T)).

  18. Epidemiology and antibiotic sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in children in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Krisztina; Tóthpál, Adrienn; Kardos, Szilvia; Dobay, Orsolya

    2017-02-21

    The aim of this study was to assess the Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage rate in healthy children all over Hungary and to specify some risk factors, the antibiotic resistance patterns of the bacteria, and their genetic relatedness. In total, 878 children (aged 3-6 years) were screened at 21 day-care centers in 16 different cities in Hungary, between February 2009 and December 2011. Samples taken from both nostrils were cultured on blood agar, and suspected S. aureus isolates were identified by β-hemolysis, catalase positivity, clump test, and nucA PCR. Methicillin-resistant strains were screened by mecA and mecC PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by agar dilution or gradient test strips. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used for genotyping. S. aureus carriage rate was found to be 21.3%, which correlates well with international data. We found no statistically significant correlation between the gender or the sibling status and S. aureus carriage. All isolates were sensitive to oxacillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and mupirocin. The resistance rates for erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline were 7.5%, 0.5%, 1.1%, 3.7%, and 4.3%, respectively. The isolates showed very high genetic diversity. In summary, carried S. aureus isolates are more sensitive to antibiotics compared with clinical isolates in Hungary, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage rate is very low yet.

  19. Killing of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by the human neutrophil myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaki, K T; Wilson, M E; Genco, R J

    1986-07-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a facultative gram-negative coccobacillus associated with periodontal disease and nonoral infections. This organism is resistant to serum bactericidal mechanisms but is nevertheless killed by human neutrophils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Most of the killing attributable to oxidative mechanisms is inhibited by sodium cyanide, which suggests that the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride (MPO-H2O2-Cl-) system may be a key factor in the oxidative killing process. In this report, we examine whether the isolated MPO-H2O2-Cl- system is bactericidal against A. actinomycetemcomitans. We found that three major chromatographic forms of MPO were capable of killing A. actinomycetemcomitans at sublethal concentrations of H2O2 and that both catalase-positive and catalase-negative strains of this organism were sensitive to killing by the MPO-H2O2-Cl- system. We conclude that the isolated MPO-H2O2-Cl- system is bactericidal for A. actinomycetemcomitans independent of other neutrophil granule constituents and may be an important component of the oxygen-dependent bactericidal activity of the neutrophil with respect to this periodontopathic organism.

  20. [A case of catheter-related bacteremia of Tsukamurella pulmonis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyoeun Eun; Sung, Heungsup; Baek, Seung Mi; Namgung, Seung; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Yong Gyun; Lee, Gyu Hyung

    2009-02-01

    Tsukamurella pulmonis is an aerobic actinomycete. We report a catheter-related bacteremia of T. pulmonis. A 39 yr-old male with ALL was hospitalized to receive bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Although the patient developed a high fever at the 7th hospital day (HD), it subsided with vancomycin treatment, and he received BMT at 9th HD. Fever resurged at 16th HD despite sustained treatment with vancomycin, meropenem, and amphotericin B, but subsided with removal of Hickman catheter (HC) at 19th HD. Three sets of blood cultures comprising one from the HC and two from venipunctures were taken at 7th, 16th, and 19th HD, and the distal tip of the HC was also cultured. The aerobic vials of all 3 HC-withdrawn blood cultures and one peripheral blood culture taken at 19HD and the HC tip culture grew long, straight, thin gram-positive rods that were positive on modified Kinyoun stain. This organism showed tiny, rough, grey colonies after 3-day incubation and grew to large flat colonies when incubation was extended. It was catalase-positive, urease-positive, and alkaline-slant/alkaline-deep on triple sugar iron agar, and hydrolyzed hypoxanthine. The sequence of 1,296 base pairs of 16S rRNA of this organism showed a 100.0% homology with the published sequence of T. pulmonis DSM 44142T. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. pulmonis bacteremia in Korea.

  1. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Xanthomonas campestris strains isolated from cabbage, kale and broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc isolated from cabbage, kale and broccoli were identified according to their pathogenicity, phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Pathogenicity was confirmed by the injection method with a hypodermic syringe into the mesophilic tissue of cabbage leaves. All strains were Gramnegative, aerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, grew at 35°C, produced levan, H2S and indole, did not reduce nitrate, hydrolyzed Tween 80, starch, gelatin and esculin and did not show tolerance to 0.1 and 0.02% TTC. The strains produced acid from d-arabinose, arginine, dulcitol, galactose, d-glucose, maltose, mannose, sorbitol, sucrose and xylose. The genetic characterization was based on the sequence analyses of 16S rDNA and ERIC and BOX PCR. Strains of different pathovars were also used to compare PCR resulting patterns. BOX-PCR of the strains from kale and broccoli, obtained using (GTG5 primer, yielded patterns with a high similarity level to pathovar reference strain Xcc. The strains from cabbage yielded BOX and ERIC product patterns, distinguishing them from the other tested strains and reference strains. 16S rDNA of the representative strains was closely related to Xcc strain ATCC 33913. ERIC PCR and BOX using (GTG5 primer generated different Xcc patterns and were effective in distinguishing strains from different plant hosts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43010 i br. III46007

  2. Isolation and identification of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus from a laboratory-breeding mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To analysis and identify a bacterium strain isolated from laboratory breeding mouse far away from a hospital. Methods:Phenotype of the isolate was investigated by conventional microbiological methods, including Gram-staining, colony morphology, tests for haemolysis, catalase, coagulase, and antimicrobial susceptibility test. The mecA and 16S rRNA genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. The base sequence of the PCR product was compared with known 16S rRNA gene sequences in the GenBank database by phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignment. Results:The isolate in this study was a gram positive, coagulase negative, and catalase positive coccus. The isolate was resistant to oxacillin, methicillin, penicillin, ampicillin, cefazolin, ciprofloxacin erythromycin, et al. PCR results indicated that the isolate was mecA gene positive and its 16S rRNA was 1 465 bp. Phylogenetic analysis of the resultant 16S rRNA indicated the isolate belonged to genus Saphylococcus, and multiple sequence alignment showed that the isolate was Saphylococcus haemolyticus with only one base difference from the corresponding 16S rRNA deposited in the GenBank. Conclusions:16S rRNA gene sequencing is a suitable technique for non-specialist researchers. Laboratory animals are possible sources of lethal pathogens, and researchers must adapt protective measures when they manipulate animals.

  3. Pseudomonas granadensis sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from the Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama Natural Park, Granada, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Javier; García-López, Marina; Bills, Gerald F; Genilloud, Olga

    2015-02-01

    During the course of screening bacterial isolates as sources of as-yet unknown bioactive compounds with pharmaceutical applications, a chemo-organotrophic, Gram-negative bacterium was isolated from a soil sample taken from the Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama Natural Park, Granada, Spain. Strain F-278,770(T) was oxidase- and catalase-positive, aerobic, with a respiratory type of metabolism with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, non-spore-forming and motile by one polar flagellum, although some cells had two polar flagella. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD genes revealed that strain F-278,770(T) belongs to the Pseudomonas koreensis subgroup (Pseudomonas fluorescens lineage), with Pseudomonas moraviensis, P. koreensis, P. baetica and P. helmanticensis as its closest relatives. Chemotaxonomic traits such as polar lipid and fatty acid compositions and G+C content of genomic DNA corroborated the placement of strain F-278,770(T) in the genus Pseudomonas. DNA-DNA hybridization assays and phenotypic traits confirmed that this strain represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas granadensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is F-278,770(T) ( = DSM 28040(T) = LMG 27940(T)).

  4. Pseudomonas soli sp. nov., a novel producer of xantholysin congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Javier; García-López, Marina; Carmona, Cristina; Sousa, Thiciana da S; de Pedro, Nuria; Cautain, Bastien; Martín, Jesús; Vicente, Francisca; Reyes, Fernando; Bills, Gerald F; Genilloud, Olga

    2014-09-01

    A chemoorganotrophic Gram-negative bacterium was isolated by means of a diffusion sandwich system from a soil sample from the Sierra Nevada National Park, Spain. Strain F-279,208(T) was oxidase and catalase positive, strictly aerobic, non-spore-forming and motile by single polar flagellum. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD genes revealed that strain F-279,208(T) belongs to the Pseudomonas putida group with Pseudomonas mosselii and Pseudomonas entomophila as its closest relatives. DNA-DNA hybridization assays and phenotypic traits confirmed that this strain belongs to a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is F-279,208(T) (=DSM 28043(T)=LMG 27941(T)), and during fermentation it produces xantholysins, a family of lipodepsipeptides. The major compound, xantholysin A, showed an interesting activity in a RCC4 kidney tumor cell line with inactivation of VHL linked with the HIF pathway, without any cytotoxic effects against other human tumor cell lines tested including, liver, pancreas and breast.

  5. Reactions of Ferrous Coproheme Decarboxylase (HemQ) with O2 and H2O2 Yield Ferric Heme b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Bennett R; Celis, Arianna I; Shisler, Krista; Rodgers, Kenton R; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S; DuBois, Jennifer L

    2017-01-10

    A recently discovered pathway for the biosynthesis of heme b ends in an unusual reaction catalyzed by coproheme decarboxylase (HemQ), where the Fe(II)-containing coproheme acts as both substrate and cofactor. Because both O2 and H2O2 are available as cellular oxidants, pathways for the reaction involving either can be proposed. Analysis of reaction kinetics and products showed that, under aerobic conditions, the ferrous coproheme-decarboxylase complex is rapidly and selectively oxidized by O2 to the ferric state. The subsequent second-order reaction between the ferric complex and H2O2 is slow, pH-dependent, and further decelerated by D2O2 (average kinetic isotope effect of 2.2). The observation of rapid reactivity with peracetic acid suggested the possible involvement of Compound I (ferryl porphyrin cation radical), consistent with coproheme and harderoheme reduction potentials in the range of heme proteins that heterolytically cleave H2O2. Resonance Raman spectroscopy nonetheless indicated a remarkably weak Fe-His interaction; how the active site structure may support heterolytic H2O2 cleavage is therefore unclear. From a cellular perspective, the use of H2O2 as an oxidant in a catalase-positive organism is intriguing, as is the unusual generation of heme b in the Fe(III) rather than Fe(II) state as the end product of heme synthesis.

  6. Sequence Variations in the Flagellar Antigen Genes fliCH25 and fliCH28 of Escherichia coli and Their Use in Identification and Characterization of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC O145:H25 and O145:H28.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Beutin

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC serogroup O145 is regarded as one of the major EHEC serogroups involved in severe infections in humans. EHEC O145 encompasses motile and non-motile strains of serotypes O145:H25 and O145:H28. Sequencing the fliC-genes associated with the flagellar antigens H25 and H28 revealed the genetic diversity of the fliCH25 and fliCH28 gene sequences in E. coli. Based on allele discrimination of these fliC-genes real-time PCR tests were designed for identification of EHEC O145:H25 and O145:H28. The fliCH25 genes present in O145:H25 were found to be very similar to those present in E. coli serogroups O2, O100, O165, O172 and O177 pointing to their common evolution but were different from fliCH25 genes of a multiple number of other E. coli serotypes. In a similar way, EHEC O145:H28 harbor a characteristic fliCH28 allele which, apart from EHEC O145:H28, was only found in enteropathogenic (EPEC O28:H28 strains that shared some common traits with EHEC O145:H28. The real time PCR-assays targeting these fliCH25[O145] and fliCH28[O145] alleles allow better characterization of EHEC O145:H25 and EHEC O145:H28. Evaluation of these PCR assays in spiked ready-to eat salad samples resulted in specific detection of both types of EHEC O145 strains even when low spiking levels of 1-10 cfu/g were used. Furthermore these PCR assays allowed identification of non-motile E. coli strains which are serologically not typable for their H-antigens. The combined use of O-antigen genotyping (O145wzy and detection of the respective fliCH25[O145] and fliCH28[O145] allele types contributes to improve identification and molecular serotyping of E. coli O145 isolates.

  7. Sequence Variations in the Flagellar Antigen Genes fliCH25 and fliCH28 of Escherichia coli and Their Use in Identification and Characterization of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O145:H25 and O145:H28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutin, Lothar; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serogroup O145 is regarded as one of the major EHEC serogroups involved in severe infections in humans. EHEC O145 encompasses motile and non-motile strains of serotypes O145:H25 and O145:H28. Sequencing the fliC-genes associated with the flagellar antigens H25 and H28 revealed the genetic diversity of the fliCH25 and fliCH28 gene sequences in E. coli. Based on allele discrimination of these fliC-genes real-time PCR tests were designed for identification of EHEC O145:H25 and O145:H28. The fliCH25 genes present in O145:H25 were found to be very similar to those present in E. coli serogroups O2, O100, O165, O172 and O177 pointing to their common evolution but were different from fliCH25 genes of a multiple number of other E. coli serotypes. In a similar way, EHEC O145:H28 harbor a characteristic fliCH28 allele which, apart from EHEC O145:H28, was only found in enteropathogenic (EPEC) O28:H28 strains that shared some common traits with EHEC O145:H28. The real time PCR-assays targeting these fliCH25[O145] and fliCH28[O145] alleles allow better characterization of EHEC O145:H25 and EHEC O145:H28. Evaluation of these PCR assays in spiked ready-to eat salad samples resulted in specific detection of both types of EHEC O145 strains even when low spiking levels of 1–10 cfu/g were used. Furthermore these PCR assays allowed identification of non-motile E. coli strains which are serologically not typable for their H-antigens. The combined use of O-antigen genotyping (O145wzy) and detection of the respective fliCH25[O145] and fliCH28[O145] allele types contributes to improve identification and molecular serotyping of E. coli O145 isolates. PMID:26000885

  8. Sequence Variations in the Flagellar Antigen Genes fliCH25 and fliCH28 of Escherichia coli and Their Use in Identification and Characterization of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O145:H25 and O145:H28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutin, Lothar; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serogroup O145 is regarded as one of the major EHEC serogroups involved in severe infections in humans. EHEC O145 encompasses motile and non-motile strains of serotypes O145:H25 and O145:H28. Sequencing the fliC-genes associated with the flagellar antigens H25 and H28 revealed the genetic diversity of the fliCH25 and fliCH28 gene sequences in E. coli. Based on allele discrimination of these fliC-genes real-time PCR tests were designed for identification of EHEC O145:H25 and O145:H28. The fliCH25 genes present in O145:H25 were found to be very similar to those present in E. coli serogroups O2, O100, O165, O172 and O177 pointing to their common evolution but were different from fliCH25 genes of a multiple number of other E. coli serotypes. In a similar way, EHEC O145:H28 harbor a characteristic fliCH28 allele which, apart from EHEC O145:H28, was only found in enteropathogenic (EPEC) O28:H28 strains that shared some common traits with EHEC O145:H28. The real time PCR-assays targeting these fliCH25[O145] and fliCH28[O145] alleles allow better characterization of EHEC O145:H25 and EHEC O145:H28. Evaluation of these PCR assays in spiked ready-to eat salad samples resulted in specific detection of both types of EHEC O145 strains even when low spiking levels of 1-10 cfu/g were used. Furthermore these PCR assays allowed identification of non-motile E. coli strains which are serologically not typable for their H-antigens. The combined use of O-antigen genotyping (O145wzy) and detection of the respective fliCH25[O145] and fliCH28[O145] allele types contributes to improve identification and molecular serotyping of E. coli O145 isolates.

  9. Disruption of Mks1 localization to the mother centriole causes cilia defects and developmental malformations in Meckel-Gruber syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Cheng; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Francis, Deanne; Yu, Qing; SanAgustin, Jovenal T; Francis, Richard; Tansey, Terry; Henry, Charisse; Wang, Baolin; Lemley, Bethan; Pazour, Gregory J; Lo, Cecilia W

    2011-01-01

    Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS) is a recessive disorder resulting in multiple birth defects that are associated with mutations affecting ciliogenesis. We recovered a mouse mutant with a mutation in the Mks1 gene (Mks1(del64-323)) that caused a 260-amino-acid deletion spanning nine amino acids in the B9 domain, a protein motif with unknown function conserved in two other basal body proteins. We showed that, in wild-type cells, Mks1 was localized to the mother centriole from which the cilium was generated. However, in mutant Mks1(del64-323) cells, Mks1 was not localized to the centriole, even though it maintained a punctate distribution. Resembling MKS patients, Mks1 mutants had craniofacial defects, polydactyly, congenital heart defects, polycystic kidneys and randomized left-right patterning. These defects reflected disturbance of functions subserved by motile and non-motile cilia. In the kidney, glomerular and tubule cysts were observed along with short cilia, and cilia were reduced in number to a near-complete loss. Underlying the left-right patterning defects were fewer and shorter nodal cilia, and analysis with fluorescent beads showed no directional flow at the embryonic node. In the cochlea, the stereocilia were mal-patterned, with the kinocilia being abnormally positioned. Together, these defects suggested disruption of planar cell polarity, which is known to regulate node, kidney and cochlea development. In addition, we also showed that Shh signaling was disrupted. Thus, in the neural tube, the floor plate was not specified posteriorly even as expression of the Shh mediator Gli2 increased. By contrast, the Shh signaling domain was expanded in the anterior neural tube and anterior limb bud, consistent with reduced Gli3-repressor (Gli3R) function. The latter probably accounted for the preaxial digit duplication exhibited by the Mks1(del64-323) mutants. Overall, these findings indicate that centriole localization of Mks1 is required for ciliogenesis of motile and

  10. Disruption of Mks1 localization to the mother centriole causes cilia defects and developmental malformations in Meckel-Gruber syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Cui

    2011-01-01

    Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS is a recessive disorder resulting in multiple birth defects that are associated with mutations affecting ciliogenesis. We recovered a mouse mutant with a mutation in the Mks1 gene (Mks1del64-323 that caused a 260-amino-acid deletion spanning nine amino acids in the B9 domain, a protein motif with unknown function conserved in two other basal body proteins. We showed that, in wild-type cells, Mks1 was localized to the mother centriole from which the cilium was generated. However, in mutant Mks1del64-323 cells, Mks1 was not localized to the centriole, even though it maintained a punctate distribution. Resembling MKS patients, Mks1 mutants had craniofacial defects, polydactyly, congenital heart defects, polycystic kidneys and randomized left-right patterning. These defects reflected disturbance of functions subserved by motile and non-motile cilia. In the kidney, glomerular and tubule cysts were observed along with short cilia, and cilia were reduced in number to a near-complete loss. Underlying the left-right patterning defects were fewer and shorter nodal cilia, and analysis with fluorescent beads showed no directional flow at the embryonic node. In the cochlea, the stereocilia were mal-patterned, with the kinocilia being abnormally positioned. Together, these defects suggested disruption of planar cell polarity, which is known to regulate node, kidney and cochlea development. In addition, we also showed that Shh signaling was disrupted. Thus, in the neural tube, the floor plate was not specified posteriorly even as expression of the Shh mediator Gli2 increased. By contrast, the Shh signaling domain was expanded in the anterior neural tube and anterior limb bud, consistent with reduced Gli3-repressor (Gli3R function. The latter probably accounted for the preaxial digit duplication exhibited by the Mks1del64-323 mutants. Overall, these findings indicate that centriole localization of Mks1 is required for ciliogenesis of motile and non-motile

  11. Cannibalism by Bacillus subtilis and applications in biological control%枯草芽孢杆菌同种相食现象及生防应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘娟萍; 杨明欣

    2015-01-01

    枯草芽孢杆菌分泌的抗菌物质在植物病害防治方面具有重要作用。在芽孢形成初期阶段,枯草芽孢杆菌通过“同种相食”(Cannibalism)推迟芽孢形成:准备形成芽孢的细胞产生并释放细菌毒素skf和sdp,杀死未形成芽孢的同类细胞,死亡细胞释放的营养可供准备形成芽孢的细胞利用,导致芽孢形成推迟。细菌毒素skf和sdp具有广谱杀菌性。综述“同种相食”的基因调控机制,该过程中新型毒素的产生及免疫机制,“同种相食”生物意义及毒素skf、sdp在生物防治应用前景。对于枯草芽孢杆菌生物防治制剂开发具有实际意义。%Antibacterial compounds, produced by Bacillus subtilis, play a vital role in biological control of plant diseases. During the early stages of sporulation, B. subtilis can delay the commitment to sporulation by "Cannibalism". Sporulating cells produce toxins skf and sdp to kill the non-sporulating sister cells. The nutrients released by the dead cells can be used for the growth of sporulating cells, which results in the delay of sporulation. skf and sdp are broad-spectrum antibacterial toxics. This review outlines the genetic regulation of "Cannibalism", the production of novel antibacterial toxins in"Cannibalism", immunity mechanisms to these toxins, the biological significance of cannibalism, and the application prospects of skf and sdp in biological control.

  12. Cannibalism by Bacillus subtilis and applications in biological control%枯草芽孢杆菌同种相食现象及生防应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘娟萍; 杨明欣

    2014-01-01

    枯草芽孢杆菌分泌的抗菌物质在植物病害防治方面具有重要作用。在芽孢形成初期阶段,枯草芽孢杆菌通过“同种相食”(Cannibalism)推迟芽孢形成:准备形成芽孢的细胞产生并释放细菌毒素skf和sdp,杀死未形成芽孢的同类细胞,死亡细胞释放的营养可供准备形成芽孢的细胞利用,导致芽孢形成推迟。细菌毒素skf和sdp具有广谱杀菌性。综述“同种相食”的基因调控机制,该过程中新型毒素的产生及免疫机制,“同种相食”生物意义及毒素skf、sdp在生物防治应用前景。对于枯草芽孢杆菌生物防治制剂开发具有实际意义。%Antibacterial compounds, produced by Bacillus subtilis, play a vital role in biological control of plant diseases. During the early stages of sporulation, B. subtilis can delay the commitment to sporulation by "Cannibalism". Sporulating cells produce toxins skf and sdp to kill the non-sporulating sister cells. The nutrients released by the dead cells can be used for the growth of sporulating cells, which results in the delay of sporulation. skf and sdp are broad-spectrum antibacterial toxics. This review outlines the genetic regulation of "Cannibalism", the production of novel antibacterial toxins in"Cannibalism", immunity mechanisms to these toxins, the biological significance of cannibalism, and the application prospects of skf and sdp in biological control.

  13. The use of the rare UUA codon to define "expression space" for genes involved in secondary metabolism, development and environmental adaptation in streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Keith F; Chandra, Govind

    2008-02-01

    In Streptomyces coelicolor, bldA encodes the only tRNA for a rare leucine codon, UUA. This tRNA is unnecessary for growth, but is required for some aspects of secondary metabolism and morphological development, as revealed by the phenotypes of bldA mutants in diverse streptomycetes. This article is a comprehensive review of out understanding of this unusual situation. Based on information from four sequenced genomes it now appears that, typically, about 2 approximately 3% of genes in any one streptomycete contain a TTA codon, most having been acquired through species-specific horizontal gene transfer. Among the few widely conserved TTA-containing genes, mutations in just one, the pleiotropic regulatory gene adpA, give an obvious phenotype: such mutants are defective in aerial growth and sporulation, but vary in the extent of their impairment in secondary metabolism in different streptomycetes. The TTA codon in adpA is largely responsible for the morphological phenotype of a bldA mutant of S. coelicolor. AdpA-dependent targets include several genes involved in the integrated action of extracellular proteases that, at least in some species, are involved in the conversion of primary biomass into spores. The effects of bldA mutations on secondary metabolism are mostly attributable to the presence of TTA codons in pathway-specific genes, particularly in transcriptional activator genes. This is not confined to S. coelicolor-it is true for about half of all known antibiotic biosynthetic gene sets from streptomycetes. Combined microarray and proteomic analysis of liquid (and therefore non-sporulating) S. coelicolor bldA mutant cultures revealed effects of the mutation during rapid growth, during transition phase, and in stationary phase. Some of these effects may be secondary consequences of changes in the pattern of ppGpp accumulation. It is argued that the preferential accumulation of the bldA tRNA under conditions in which growth is significantly constrained has evolved

  14. Microbiological evaluation of infected root canals and their correlation with pain

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    Nadine Luísa Soares de Lima Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the endodontic microbiota of human teeth without pulp vitality presenting radiographically visible periapical lesions and its correlation with pre- and postoperative pain symptomatology. Material and methods: Sixteen young adult patients, both genders, aging from 18 to 45 years, presenting 21 single-rooted teeth with pulp necrosis and needing endodontic treatment were selected in the multidisciplinary clinic at the University of Fortaleza (UNIFOR. After crown surgical access, the ��������������root canals were embedded with 0.9% saline solution and the material from root canals was collected ���������������������������������������������� withhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhsterile paper point. The paper points were placed into Stuart transport medium and sent to the microbiology laboratory of the University of Fortaleza. Isolation and identification of bacteria were made by culture technique. The cleaning and shaping of root canals was performed by ��������������� ����� ���������������������������� crown-down technique..............................Intra-canal medication comprised calcium hydroxide mixed with chlorhexidine and after 14 days the canals were filled. Patients were asked about the occurrence of pain before treatment and 24 hours after cleaning and shaping procedures. Results: The most prevalent microbial group was Streptococcus sp. followed by Fusobacterium nucleatum, although Gram-positive cocci, non-sporulating Gram-positive bacilli, Gram-negative bacilli, pigmented Gram-negative bacilli, Veillonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas sp. were also frequently isolated. Conclusion: According to the results, it can be concluded that Fusobacterium

  15. Profundibacterium mesophilum gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member in the family Rhodobacteraceae isolated from deep-sea sediment in the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, PokYui

    2012-06-08

    A slow-growing, strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, coccus bacterial strain, designated KAUST100406-0324T, was isolated from sea-floor sediment collected from the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. The catalase- and oxidase-positive strain was non-sporulating and only slightly halophilic. Optimum growth occurred at 20-25 °C and at pH values ranging from 7.0 to 8.0. The major cellular fatty acids of the strain were unsaturated C18: 1ω6c and/or C18:1ω7c, C18:1ω7c 11-methyl and C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified phospholipids. Ubiquinone 10 was the predominant lipoquinone. The DNA G+C content of strain KAUST100406-0324T was 64.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the novel strain belonged to the family Rhodobacteraceae of the class Alphaproteobacteria but formed a distinct evolutionary lineage from other bacterial species with validly published names. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the novel strain was distantly related, but formed a monophyletic cluster with, those of bacteria from two moderately halophilic genera, Hwanghaeicola and Maribius. The similarity of the sequence between the novel strain KAUST100406-0324T and the type strains Hwanghaeicola aestuarii Y26T (accession number FJ230842), Maribius pelagius B5-6T (DQ514326) and Maribius salinus CL-SP27T (AY906863) were 94.5 %, 95.2 % and 95.3 %, respectively. Based on the physiological, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics presented in this study, we propose that this strain represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name of Profundibacterium mesophilum gen. nov., sp. nov. was proposed, with KAUST100406-0324T (= JCM 17872T = NRRL B-59665T) as the type strain. © 2013 IUMS.

  16. Diphtheroids-Important Nosocomial Pathogens

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    Chandran, Reshmi; Puthukkichal, Dinju Raj; Mangalore, Shashidhar Kotian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diphtheroids are defined as aerobic, non-sporulating, pleomorphic Gram-positive bacilli which are more uniformly stained than Corynebacterium diphtheriae, lack the metachromatic granules and are arranged in a palisade manner. They are usually commensals of the skin and mucous membranes. They differ from C.diphtheriae in biochemical rea-ctions as well as in toxin production. Since, they are usually found as commensals on the skin, they are often considered as mere contaminants when isolated from clinical samples. However, there are increasing reports of these organisms being associated with various infections. Hence, we felt the need to study the common species associated with infections and know the properties of these organisms which are otherwise considered as mere laboratory contaminants. Aim To identify the various species of diphtheroids isolated as pure growth from clinical specimens whose Gram’s smear revealed numerous inflammatory cells with Gram positive bacilli and had clinical evidence. Materials and Methods A total of 100 isolates of Gram-positive bacilli from 16,242 clinical samples received in the Microbiology Department of Kasturba Medical College were considered for this study from Dec 2013-Dec 2014. Gram-positive bacilli which were seen in the smear along with pus cells, isolated as pure growth and reported as “Corynebacterium spp having clinical significance” were taken for this study while those which were reported as ‘Probable skin contaminants’ were excluded from this study. Species identification of Gram-positive bacilli was done by biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Biofilm production was done by the microtitre plate method of O’Toole and Kolter and statistical analysis was done by using proportion test and Chi-square test. Results Various species of diphtheroids were isolated from different clinical specimens. C. pseudotuberculosis, C. renale, C

  17. Insights in metabolism and toxin production from the complete genome sequence of Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Holger; Gottschalk, Gerhard

    2004-04-01

    The decryption of prokaryotic genome sequences progresses rapidly and provides the scientific community with an enormous amount of information. Clostridial genome sequencing projects have been finished only recently, starting with the genome of the solvent-producing Clostridium acetobutylicum in 2001. A lot of attention has been devoted to the genomes of pathogenic clostridia. In 2002, the genome sequence of C. perfringens, the causative agent of gas gangrene, has been released. Currently in the finishing stage and prior to publication are the genomes of the foodborne botulism-causing C. botulinum and of C. difficile, the causative agent of a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Our team sequenced the genome of neuropathogenic C. tetani, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium predominantly found in the soil. In deep wound infections it occasionally causes spastic paralysis in humans and vertebrate animals, known as tetanus disease, by the secretion of potent neurotoxin, designated tetanus toxin. The toxin blocks the release of neurotransmitters from presynaptic membranes of interneurons of the spinal cord and the brainstem, thus preventing muscle relaxation. Fortunately, this disease is successfully controlled through immunization with tetanus toxoid, a formaldehyde-treated tetanus toxin, but nevertheless, an estimated 400,000 cases still occur each year, mainly of neonatal tetanus. The World Health Organization has stated that neonatal tetanus is the second leading cause of death from vaccine preventable diseases among children worldwide. This minireview focuses on an analysis of the genome sequence of C. tetani E88, a vaccine production strain, which is a toxigenic non-sporulating variant of strain Massachusetts. The genome consists of a 2,799,250 bp chromosome encoding 2618 open reading frames. The tetanus toxin is encoded on a 74,082 kb plasmid, containing 61 genes. Additional virulence-related factors as well as an

  18. Discrimination of Spore-Forming Bacilli Using spoIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; LaDuc, Myron; Stuecker, Tara

    2009-01-01

    A method of discriminating between spore-forming and non-spore-forming bacteria is based on a combination of simultaneous sporulation-specific and non-sporulation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reactions (Q-PCRs). The method was invented partly in response to the observation that for the purposes of preventing or reducing biological contamination affecting many human endeavors, ultimately, only the spore-forming portions of bacterial populations are the ones that are problematic (or, at least, more problematic than are the non-spore-forming portions). In some environments, spore-forming bacteria constitute small fractions of the total bacterial populations. The use of sporulation-specific primers in Q-PCR affords the ability to assess the spore-forming fraction of a bacterial population present in an environment of interest. This assessment can provide a more thorough and accurate understanding of the bacterial contamination in the environment, thereby making it possible to focus contamination- testing, contamination-prevention, sterilization, and decontamination resources more economically and efficiently. The method includes the use of sporulation-specific primers in the form of designed, optimized deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oligonucleotides specific for the bacterial spoIVA gene (see table). [In "spoIVA," "IV" signifies Roman numeral four and the entire quoted name refers to gene A for the fourth stage of sporulation.] These primers are mixed into a PCR cocktail with a given sample of bacterial cells. A control PCR cocktail into which are mixed universal 16S rRNA primers is also prepared. ["16S rRNA" denotes a ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence that is common to all organisms.] Following several cycles of heating and cooling according to the PCR protocol to amplify amounts of DNA molecules, the amplification products can be analyzed to determine the types of bacterial cells present within the samples. If the amplification product is strong

  19. Rel Is Required for Morphogenesis of Resting Cells in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mu-Lu; Chan, Chuu Ling; Dick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Recently we showed that upon transfer of growing Mycobacterium smegmatis into saline, the bacilli exited the canonical cell division cycle and formed septated multi-nucleoided cells. Under shock starvation (i.e., in saline without any carbon source), differentiation terminated at this stage with internally remodeled Large Resting Cells (LARCs). Whereas under gentle starvation (i.e., in saline with trace amounts of a carbon source), the septated multi-nucleoided bacilli completed cell division and separated into mono-nucleoided Small Resting Cells (SMRCs). This demonstrated that the non-sporulating mycobacteria are in fact capable of forming morphologically differentiated resting cells when exposed to starvation. Depending on the specific starvation conditions they can form two different resting cell types, LARCs or SMRCs, which share a common cellular differentiation pathway. The mRNA encoding the (p)ppGpp synthetase Rel was found to be transiently upregulated immediately upon starvation under both conditions, suggesting a role for the stringent response factor in both LARC and SMRC development. Here, we disrupted Rel function by generating two types of mutant M. smegmatis strains: a rel nonsense mutant (relE4TAG) in which translation is prematurely terminated at codon 4, and a rel deletion mutant (Δrel) in which the entire coding sequence was deleted. Both mutants showed identical phenotypes: sparse septum formation, less DNA compaction, and failure in formation of both the septated multi-nucleoided LARCs and the small-cell morphotype SMRC under starvation conditions. All phenotypes were rescued through the introduction of a wild-type copy of rel. Therefore, we conclude that loss-of-function mutations in rel block the development of both LARCs and SMRCs by preventing the first morphogenetic step in mycobacterial resting cell development, the formation of septated multi-nucleoided cells. Interestingly, in contrast to Rel’s role in most other bacteria, starvation

  20. Rel is required for morphogenesis of resting cells in Mycobacterium smegmatis

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    Mu-Lu Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently we showed that upon transfer of growing Mycobacterium smegmatis into saline, the bacilli exited the canonical cell division cycle and formed septated multi-nucleoided cells. Under shock starvation (i.e. in saline without any carbon source, differentiation terminated at this stage with internally remodeled Large Resting Cells, LARCs. Whereas under gentle starvation (i.e. in saline with trace amounts of a carbon source, the septated multi-nucleoided bacilli completed cell division and separated into mono-nucleoided Small Resting Cells, SMRCs. This demonstrated that the non-sporulating mycobacteria are in fact capable of forming morphologically differentiated resting cells when exposed to starvation. Depending on the specific starvation conditions they can form two different resting cell types, LARCs or SMRCs, which share a common cellular differentiation pathway. The mRNA encoding the (pppGpp synthetase Rel was found to be transiently upregulated immediately upon starvation under both conditions, suggesting a role for the stringent response factor in both LARC and SMRC development. Here, we disrupted Rel function by generating two types of mutant M. smegmatis strains: a rel nonsense mutant (relE4TAG in which translation is prematurely terminated at codon 4, and a rel deletion mutant (△rel in which the entire coding sequence was deleted. Both mutants showed identical phenotypes: sparse septum formation, less DNA compaction and failure in formation of both the septated multi-nucleoided LARCs and the small-cell morphotype SMRC under starvation conditions. All phenotypes were rescued through the introduction of a wild-type copy of rel. Therefore, we conclude that loss-of-function mutations in rel block the development of both LARCs and SMRCs by preventing the first morphogenetic step in mycobacterial resting cell development, the formation of septated multi-nucleoided cells. Interestingly, in contrast to Rel’s role in most other bacteria

  1. Isolation and molecular detection of Pasteurella multocida Type A from naturally infected chickens, and their histopathological evaluation in artificially infected chickens in Bangladesh

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    Sayedun Nahar Panna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida type A is the etiologic agent of fowl cholera, a highly contagious and fatal disease of chickens. The present research work was performed for the isolation, identification and molecular detection of P. multocida Type A from chickens. Liver, heart and spleen of suspected dead chicken (n=35 were collected from Gazipur and Pabna districts in Bangladesh. The targeted bacteria from the samples were isolated, identified and characterized based on their morphology, staining, cultural, biochemical characters, pathogenicity test, histopathological study and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. The P. multocida organism was isolated from 11.42% (n=4/35 samples. The organisms were gram negative, non-spore forming rod, non-motile, occurring singly or pairs in Gram staining, whereas in Leishman's stain, bipolar shaped organisms were observed. All the isolates were found positive for oxidase and catalase tests, produced indole, and fermented glucose, mannitol and sucrose. Necrotic foci in liver and congestion with hemorrhages in heart were found on necropsy. After pathogenicity test, the pathological changes were reconfirmed by histopathology depicting congestion, hemorrhage and lymphocyte infiltration in heart, liver and spleen tissues. In type specific PCR reaction, the organisms were confirmed as P. multocida Type A. In conclusion, P. multocida type A is prevalent among poultry in the studied regions; thus, care must be taken to control of the disease. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 338-345

  2. Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report

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    IP da Costa

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 (78.9% were in larval form and 22 (21.1% were nymphs; the only adult (0.8% was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.

  3. Spread and change in stress resistance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 on fungal colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ken-Ichi; Kobayashi, Naoki; Watanabe, Maiko; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Kumagai, Susumu; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-11-01

    To elucidate the effect of fungal hyphae on the behaviour of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, the spread and change in stress resistance of the bacterium were evaluated after coculture with 11 species of food-related fungi including fermentation starters. Spread distances of STEC O157 varied depending on the co-cultured fungal species, and the motile bacterial strain spread for longer distances than the non-motile strain. The population of STEC O157 increased when co-cultured on colonies of nine fungal species but decreased on colonies of Emericella nidulans and Aspergillus ochraceus. Confocal scanning microscopy visualization of green fluorescent protein-tagged STEC O157 on fungal hyphae revealed that the bacterium colonized in the water film that existed on and between hyphae. To investigate the physiological changes in STEC O157 caused by co-culturing with fungi, the bacterium was harvested after 7 days of co-culturing and tested for acid resistance. After co-culture with eight fungal species, STEC O157 showed greater acid resistance compared to those cultured without fungi. Our results indicate that fungal hyphae can spread the contamination of STEC O157 and can also enhance the stress resistance of the bacteria. © 2013 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Gambierdiscus balechii sp. nov (Dinophyceae), a new benthic toxic dinoflagellate from the Celebes Sea (SW Pacific Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Santiago; Rodríguez, Francisco; Riobó, Pilar; Bravo, Isabel

    2016-09-01

    A new benthic toxic dinoflagellate is described from the Celebes Sea. Gambierdiscus balechii sp. nov. was isolated from seaweeds growing in tidal ponds. Its morphology was studied by means of LM and SEM; G. balechii has a very ornamented theca, a hatchet shaped second apical plate, a narrow second antapical plate and an asymmetrical third precigular plate, a unique combination of characters among Gambierdiscus species. It has a very wide size range with widths from 36 to 88μm. Phylogenetic analyses of two G. balechii strains, based on LSU rRNA (D8-D10) and partial SSUrRNA sequences confirmed that these clustererd in its' own group, separated from the rest of Gambierdiscus species and with G. pacificus, G. belizeanus and G. scabrosus as its closest relatives. Thecate cysts are described from culture as non motile vegetative-like cells which germinated after being isolated and transferred to fresh medium. Mouse tests showed that this species is toxic and hence it is a potential cause of ciguatera in the Celebes Sea.

  5. In vitro killing assays of antisera antibody sheep post-infected with Fasciola gigantica with the presence of macrophages cells against homologous and heterologous liver flukes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E Estuningsih

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The previous artificial infection known that the Indonesian Thin Tail (ITT sheep was resistance against the liver fluke of Fasciola gigantica, the resistances occurred in the early infection. In order to observe the immune resistance, some in vitro studies were undertaken in the laboratory, to assay the ability of the antisera antibody of ITT sheep post-infected with F. gigantica, with the presence of macrophages cells in killing the homologous and heterologous liver flukes. The viability of liver flukes were observed within 24-72 hours of incubation period by observing their motility (motile flukes were designated live and non-motile once were death. The results showed that after 72 hours incubation, the motilities of the Newly Excysted Juvenile (NEJ of F. gigantica incubated with the presence of post-infected sera and macrophages cells solution were significantly lower (P0.05. It seems that the occurrence of homologous antibody to the antigens is very important in the development of killing mechanism. The absence of homologous antibody did not reduce the number of flukes or the ability of macrophages cells in killing F. hepatica was not apparent.

  6. Draft genome sequence of Lampropedia cohaerens strain CT6(T) isolated from arsenic rich microbial mats of a Himalayan hot water spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Charu; Mahato, Nitish K; Rani, Pooja; Singh, Yogendra; Kamra, Komal; Lal, Rup

    2016-01-01

    Lampropedia cohaerens strain CT6(T), a non-motile, aerobic and coccoid strain was isolated from arsenic rich microbial mats (temperature ~45 °C) of a hot water spring located atop the Himalayan ranges at Manikaran, India. The present study reports the first genome sequence of type strain CT6(T) of genus Lampropedia cohaerens. Sequencing data was generated using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and assembled with ABySS v 1.3.5. The 3,158,922 bp genome was assembled into 41 contigs with a mean GC content of 63.5 % and 2823 coding sequences. Strain CT6(T) was found to harbour genes involved in both the Entner-Duodoroff pathway and non-phosphorylated ED pathway. Strain CT6(T) also contained genes responsible for imparting resistance to arsenic, copper, cobalt, zinc, cadmium and magnesium, providing survival advantages at a thermal location. Additionally, the presence of genes associated with biofilm formation, pyrroloquinoline-quinone production, isoquinoline degradation and mineral phosphate solubilisation in the genome demonstrate the diverse genetic potential for survival at stressed niches.

  7. Cell migration is another player of the minute virus of mice infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcin, Pierre O.; Panté, Nelly, E-mail: pante@zoology.ubc.ca

    2014-11-15

    The parvovirus minute virus of mice, prototype strain (MVMp), preferentially infects and kills cancer cells. This intrinsic MVMp oncotropism may depend in part on the early stages of MVMp infection. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the early events of MVMp infection in mouse LA9 fibroblasts and a highly invasive mouse mammary tumor cell line derived from polyomavirus middle T antigen-mediated transformation. Using a combination of fluorescence and electron microscopy, we found that various parameters of the cell migration process affect MVMp infection. We show that, after binding to the plasma membrane, MVMp particles rapidly cluster at the leading edge of migrating cells, which exhibit higher levels of MVMp uptake than non-motile cells. Moreover, promoting cell migration on a fibronectin matrix increased MVMp infection, and induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition allowed MVMp replication in non-permissive epithelial cells. Hence, we propose that cell migration influences the early stages of MVMp infection. - Highlights: • We document early steps of MVMp infection. • We report that a fibronectin matrix promotes MVMp infection. • We show that cellular migration plays a role in MVMp uptake. • We show that epithelial–mesenchymal transition allows MVMp replication.

  8. The RNA-binding protein CsrA plays a central role in positively regulating virulence factors in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Veronica; Lee, Jae Hoon; Zhao, Youfu

    2016-11-15

    The GacS/GacA two-component system (also called GrrS/GrrA) is a global regulatory system which is highly conserved among gamma-proteobacteria. This system positively regulates non-coding small regulatory RNA csrB, which in turn binds to the RNA-binding protein CsrA. However, how GacS/GacA-Csr system regulates virulence traits in E. amylovora remains unknown. Results from mutant characterization showed that the csrB mutant was hypermotile, produced higher amount of exopolysaccharide amylovoran, and had increased expression of type III secretion (T3SS) genes in vitro. In contrast, the csrA mutant exhibited complete opposite phenotypes, including non-motile, reduced amylovoran production and expression of T3SS genes. Furthermore, the csrA mutant did not induce hypersensitive response on tobacco or cause disease on immature pear fruits, indicating that CsrA is a positive regulator of virulence factors. These findings demonstrated that CsrA plays a critical role in E. amylovora virulence and suggested that negative regulation of virulence by GacS/GacA acts through csrB sRNA, which binds to CsrA and neutralizes its positive effect on T3SS gene expression, flagellar formation and amylovoran production. Future research will be focused on determining the molecular mechanism underlying the positive regulation of virulence traits by CsrA.

  9. Salmonella infection in healthy pet reptiles: Bacteriological isolation and study of some pathogenic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Chemaly, Marianne; Cerri, Domenico; Gall, Françoise Le; Ebani, Valentina Virginia

    2016-06-01

    The fecal samples from 213 captive reptiles were examined, and 29 (13.61%) Salmonella enterica isolates were detected: 14/62 (22.58%) from chelonians, 14/135 (10.37%) from saurians, and 1/16 (6.25%) from ophidians. The isolates were distributed among 14 different serotypes: Miami, Ebrie, Hermannsweder, Tiergarten, Tornov, Pomona, Poona, Goteborg, Abaetetube, Nyanza, Kumasi, Typhimurium, 50:b:z6, 9,12:z29:1,5, and a non-motile serotype with antigenic formula 1,4,[5],12:-:-. Salmonella typhimurium and 50:b:z6 isolates showed the spv plasmid virulence genes, responsible of the capability to induce extra-intestinal infections. In some cases, pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed different profiles for the strains of the same serotypes, showing different origins, whereas a common source of infection was supposed when one pulsotype had been observed for isolates of a serovar. Twenty-seven (93.10%) isolates showed resistance to one or more antibiotics. Ceftazidime was active to all the tested isolates, whereas the highest percentages of strains were no susceptible to tigecycline (93.10%), streptomycin (89.66%), and sulfonamide (86.21%).

  10. [Post-operative bacteremia caused by multidrug-resistant Aerococcus viridans in a patient with gall bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin Koruk, Süda; Bayraktar, Mehmet; Ozgönül, Abdullah; Tümer, Seray

    2010-01-01

    Aerococcus viridans is a gram-positive, catalase and oxidase negative, microaerophylic and non-motile coccus which is rarely associated with human infections such as endocarditis, meningitis, artritis and bacteremia. We report a case of bacteremia due to A. viridans in a 61-years-old man with malignant gall bladder neoplasm. The patient underwent a surgical operation and on the 5th day of operation he had severe abdominal pain, vomiting, high fever and discharge from operation site. He was transferred to intensive care unit and blood cultures were obtained. Piperacillin-tazobactam was initiated as empirical therapy. Blood cultures performed in Bactec system (Becton Dickinson, USA) yielded catalase negative, gram-positive cocci in tetrads. The isolate was pyrrolidonyl aminopeptidase (PYR) positive and produced alfa-hemolysis on sheep blood agar. These cocci were identified as A. viridans by Vitek 2 Compact System (BioMerieux, France) and identification was confirmed by using mini API System (BioMerieux, France). Antibiotic susceptibility testing performed with Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method revealed that the isolate was susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline and vancomycin and resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, clindamycin and amikacin. The patient was successfully treated with vancomycin (2 x 1 g/day) and completely recovered without complication. In conclusion, A. viridans should be suspected as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients and these patients should be treated according to the antibiotic susceptibility test results.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter species in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Nazar M; Osman, Amani A; Haimour, Waleed O; Sarhan, Mohammed A A; Mohammed, Mohammed N; Zyad, Eyhab M; Al-Ghtani, Abdalla M

    2013-03-15

    This study aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of antibiotics towards nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter species. The study took place during the period Dec. 2011- Dec. 2012 at Assir Central Hospital in collaboration with the department of microbiology, college of medicine, King Khalid University, Abha. A prospective study involving 150 patients presented with nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter species detected by bacteriological tests; direct microscopy, culture in blood agar media, fermentation test in MacConkey media and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) for antibiotics sensitivity using Muller Hinton media and Chemical test using API 20. A 150 nosocomial infections in this study showed gram-negative coccobacilli, non motile, glucose-negative fermentor and oxidase negative. All isolates showed 100% sensitivity to: Imipramine, Meropenem, Colistin. From the rest of tested antibiotics the higher resistant ones were; Nitrofurantoin 87% and Cefoxitin 85%. The least resistant antibiotics; Imipenem 3% and Ticarcillin 7%. While variable resistance in the rest of tested antimicrobials. A 47 patients (31.3%) have used antibiotics prior to this study. The high rate of usage occurred in elder patients. The frequency of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus baumannii complex multi-drugs resistance ABCMDR is rising including almost all commonly used antibiotics. Only few antibiotics exert 100% sensitivity towards these bacteria.

  12. Actinotalea ferrariae sp. nov., isolated from an iron mine, and emended description of the genus Actinotalea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanzhi; Chen, Fang; Dong, Kun; Wang, Gejiao

    2013-09-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain CF5-4(T), was isolated from iron mining powder. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis grouped strain CF5-4(T) in a single cluster with Actinotalea fermentans DSM 3133(T) (97.6% similarity). The major fatty acids (>5%) of strain CF5-4(T) were anteiso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(15:1) A, C(16:0), iso-C(16:0), iso-C(15:0) and anteiso-C(17:0). The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-10(H₄) and the genomic DNA G+C content was 74.7 mol%. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and one unidentified phosphoglycolipid. The peptidoglycan type of strain CF5-4(T) was A4β, containing L-Orn-D-Ser-D-Asp. The cell-wall sugars were rhamnose, fucose, mannose and galactose. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization in combination with the comparison of phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics among strain CF5-4(T) and related micro-organisms revealed that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Actinotalea, for which the name Actinotalea ferrariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CF5-4(T) ( =KCTC 29134(T) =CCTCC AB2012198(T)).

  13. Epitope selection to male specific antigens for sex selection in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Azarm Akhavien; Tetro, Jason A; Filion, Lionel G

    2011-04-01

    Immunological approaches to gender selection have been contemplated since the discovery of the family of male-specific H-Y antigens found only on the surface of male cells. H-Y antigens are able to elicit an immune reaction when cells or tissues from a male donor are grafted to a female recipient. We describe here the development and testing of an inexpensive approach using polyclonal antibodies against four specific H-Y outer membrane proteins male enhanced antigen 1 (MEA 1), male enhanced antigen 2 (MEA 2), sex determining region Y (SRY) and testis determining factor (TDF). Epitopes based on hydrophilic primary sequences of the proteins were synthesized, N-terminal biotin-labeled, linked to streptavidin and mixed with a Ribi adjuvant prior to immunization in rabbits. The antiserum was tested to determine affinity to swine spermatozoa using anti-motility, flow cytometry and motility and sedimentation chambers. Fluorescent microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to identify the percentage of motile spermatozoa that contained the Y chromosome. We found that the polyclonal antibodies had high affinity to the spermatozoa leading to a cessation of motility. Furthermore, the majority of these non-motile spermatozoa contained the Y chromosome. We conclude that the use of polyclonal antiserum against synthetic H-Y peptide antigens may be an inexpensive and simple means to inhibit the motility of swine spermatozoa bearing the Y chromosome.

  14. Molecular characterization of Pasteurella multocida strains from cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenner Sánchez-Enamorado

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurellosis is a disease caused by Pasteurella multocida bacterium, which affects a variety of domestic and wild animals. P. multocida is a Gram negative, non-motile, and facultative anaerobic cocobacillus, from genus Pasteurella. Genotyping methods are useful to improve the limitations of the traditional phenotyping methods. The aim of this paper was to determine the genetic relationship between P. multocida strains B1, B2 and B3, proposed as vaccine candidates. The strains came from the culture collection of the Viral and Bacterial Vaccine Producing Enterprise, LABIOFAM (acronym in Spanish, and were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction and pulsed field electrophoresis. It was confirmed that the three strains belonged to P. multocida species, capsular type A multocida subspecies. It was also proved that B1 and B3 strains are genetically indistinguishable, and that B2 had a 91% of similarity with B1 and B3. Results obtained by the identification and classification of these strains will permit the development of vaccines against P. multocida

  15. Calcium signaling and the MAPK cascade are required for sperm activation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyu; Wang, Bin; He, Ruijun; Zhao, Yanmei; Miao, Long

    2014-02-01

    In nematode, sperm activation (or spermiogenesis), a process in which the symmetric and non-motile spermatids transform into polarized and crawling spermatozoa, is critical for sperm cells to acquire fertilizing competence. SPE-8 dependent and SPE-8 independent pathways function redundantly during sperm activation in both males and hermaphrodites of Caenorhabditis elegans. However, the downstream signaling for both pathways remains unclear. Here we show that calcium signaling and the MAPK cascade are required for both SPE-8 dependent and SPE-8 independent sperm activation, implying that both pathways share common downstream signaling components during sperm activation. We demonstrate that activation of the MAPK cascade is sufficient to activate spermatids derived from either wild-type or spe-8 group mutant males and that activation of the MAPK cascade bypasses the requirement of calcium signal to induce sperm activation, indicating that the MAPK cascade functions downstream of or parallel with the calcium signaling during sperm activation. Interestingly, the persistent activation of MAPK in activated spermatozoa inhibits Major Sperm Protein (MSP)-based cytoskeleton dynamics. We demonstrate that MAPK plays dual roles in promoting pseudopod extension during sperm activation but also blocking the MSP-based, amoeboid motility of the spermatozoa. Thus, though nematode sperm are crawling cells, morphologically distinct from flagellated sperm, and the molecular machinery for motility of amoeboid and flagellated sperm is different, both types of sperm might utilize conserved signaling pathways to modulate sperm maturation.

  16. Spirosoma spitsbergense sp. nov. and Spirosoma luteum sp. nov., isolated from a high Arctic permafrost soil, and emended description of the genus Spirosoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai; Herbert, Rodney Andrew; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard

    2009-01-01

    Two pigmented, Gram-negative, non-motile, pleomorphic rod-shaped bacteria (strains SPM-9T and SPM-10T) were isolated from a permafrost soil collected from the Adventdalen valley, Spitsbergen, northern Norway. A third isolate (strain M5-H2) was recovered from the same soil sample after the sample...... of the genus Spirosoma. 16S rRNA gene sequence data indicated that the three isolates could be divided into two clusters: (i) strain SPM-9T and (ii) strains SPM-10T and M5-H2. This grouping was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization experiments. Strains SPM-9T and SPM-10T exhibited 92 % 16S rRNA gene sequence...... similarity to both Spirosoma linguale LMG 10896T and Spirosoma rigui WPCB 118T. The major fatty acids present in all three isolates were summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15:0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1 7c; 43.0-48.2 % of the total), C16 : 1 5c (19.1-21.3 %), C16 : 0 (6.7-7.3 %), iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (4...

  17. Lactobacillus arizonensis sp. nov., isolated from jojoba meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, J L; Nakamura, L K; Abbott, T P; Peterson, R E

    2000-09-01

    Five strains of simmondsin-degrading, lactic-acid-producing bacteria were isolated from fermented jojoba meal. These isolates were facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, homofermentative, rod-shaped organisms. They grew singly and in short chains, produced lactic acid but no gas from glucose, and did not exhibit catalase activity. Growth occurred at 15 and 45 degrees C. All strains fermented cellobiose, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-glucose, lactose, maltose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, melibiose, D-ribose, salicin, D-sorbitol, sucrose and trehalose. Some strains fermented L-(-)-arabinose and L-rhamnose. D-Xylose was not fermented and starch was not hydrolysed. The mean G+C content of the DNA was 48 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA established that the isolates were members of the genus Lactobacillus. DNA reassociation of 45% or less was obtained between the new isolates and the reference strains of species with G+C contents of about 48 mol%. The isolates were differentiated from other homofermentative Lactobacillus spp. on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence divergence, DNA relatedness, stereoisomerism of the lactic acid produced, growth temperature and carbohydrate fermentation. The data support the conclusion that these organisms represent strains of a new species, for which the name Lactobacillus arizonensis is proposed. The type strain of L. arizonensis is NRRL B-14768T (= DSM 13273T).

  18. Evaluation of trend in semen analysis for 11 years in subjects attending a fertility clinic in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Marimuthu; M.C.Kapilashrami; M.M.Misro; G.Singh

    2003-01-01

    Aim: The data on semen analysis of subjects attending the Fertility Clinic at NIHFW (National Institute of Health and Family Welfare) Munirka, New Delhi for the last 11 years were analyzed to verify the claims and speculations on declining sperm counts in men. Methods: Approximately 10 % of the records every year starting from 1990 to 2000 (numbering 1176 in total) were randomly selected for analysis. Subjects with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia were excluded from analysis. Results: The average age of the men attending the infertility clinic was 31.2 years. The average semen volume and sperm count were found to be (2.6 ± 0.1) mL and (60.6 ±0.9)× 106/ml., respectively. No significant decline in sperm counts was observed in anyyear during the entire studyperiod. Only 1.8 % of the total number of sperm counts in the random sampling were less then 20×106/mL. On the basis of WHO criteria on motility, the total percentage of non-progressive and non-motile sperm in the ejaculate was higher (63 %) as compared to the combined categories of slow and rapid linear progressive. Conclusion: The present study has confmned similar findings from other different countries that declining sperm counts in humans is not a global phenomenon. ( Asian J Androl 2003 Sep; 5: 221-225)

  19. Complete genome sequence of Streptobacillus moniliformis type strain (9901T)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Matt; Gronow, Sabine; Lapidus, Alla; Ivanova, Natalia; Copeland, Alex; Lucas, Susan; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Chen, Feng; Tice, Hope; Pitluck, Sam; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Sims, David; Meincke, Linda; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Brettin, Thomas; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Ovchinikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia D.; Rohde, Manfred; Spröer, Cathrin; Göker, Markus; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Chain, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Streptobacillus moniliformis Levaditi et al. 1925 is the type and sole species of the genus Streptobacillus, and is of phylogenetic interest because of its isolated location in the sparsely populated and neither taxonomically nor genomically much accessed family 'Leptotrichiaceae' within the phylum Fusobacteria. The 'Leptotrichiaceae' have not been well characterized, genomically or taxonomically. S. moniliformis,is a Gram-negative, non-motile, pleomorphic bacterium and is the etiologic agent of rat bite fever and Haverhill fever. Strain 9901T, the type strain of the species, was isolated from a patient with rat bite fever. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is only the second completed genome sequence of the order Fusobacteriales and no more than the third sequence from the phylum Fusobacteria. The 1,662,578 bp long chromosome and the 10,702 bp plasmid with a total of 1511 protein-coding and 55 RNA genes are part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. PMID:21304670

  20. Complete genome sequence of Streptobacillus moniliformis type strain (9901T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gronow, Sabine [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Feng [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Sims, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Meincke, Linda [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Sproer, Cathrin [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2009-01-01

    Streptobacillus moniliformis Levaditi et al. 1925 is the sole and type species of the genus, and is of phylogenetic interest because of its isolated location in the sparsely populated and neither taxonomically nor genomically much accessed family 'Leptotrichiaceae' within the phylum 'Fusobacteria'. S. moniliformis, a Gram-negative, non-motile and pleomorphic bacterium, is the etiologic agent of rat bite fever and Haverhill fever. Strain 9901T, the type strain of the species, was isolated from a patient with rat bite fever. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is only the second completed genome sequence of the order 'Fusobacteriales' and no more than the third sequence from the phylum 'Fusobacteria'. The 1,662,578 bp long chromosome and the 10,702 bp plasmid with a total of 1511 protein-coding and 55 RNA genes are part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  1. Transition of Plasmodium sporozoites into liver stage-like forms is regulated by the RNA binding protein Pumilio

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes-Santos, Carina S. S.

    2011-05-19

    Many eukaryotic developmental and cell fate decisions that are effected post-transcriptionally involve RNA binding proteins as regulators of translation of key mRNAs. In malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.), the development of round, non-motile and replicating exo-erythrocytic liver stage forms from slender, motile and cell-cycle arrested sporozoites is believed to depend on environmental changes experienced during the transmission of the parasite from the mosquito vector to the vertebrate host. Here we identify a Plasmodium member of the RNA binding protein family PUF as a key regulator of this transformation. In the absence of Pumilio-2 (Puf2) sporozoites initiate EEF development inside mosquito salivary glands independently of the normal transmission-associated environmental cues. Puf2- sporozoites exhibit genome-wide transcriptional changes that result in loss of gliding motility, cell traversal ability and reduction in infectivity, and, moreover, trigger metamorphosis typical of early Plasmodium intra-hepatic development. These data demonstrate that Puf2 is a key player in regulating sporozoite developmental control, and imply that transformation of salivary gland-resident sporozoites into liver stage-like parasites is regulated by a post-transcriptional mechanism. 2011 Gomes-Santos et al.

  2. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors and Photoprotection during Cell Transformation and Astaxanthin Accumulation in Haematococcus pluvialis Grown Outdoors in Tubular Photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Litao; Su, Fang; Zhang, Chunhui; Gong, Fengying; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-12-26

    The cell transformation from green motile cells to non-motile cells and astaxanthin accumulation can be induced in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis cultured outdoors. In the initial 3 d of incubation (cell transformation phase), light absorption and photosynthetic electron transport became more efficient. After five days of incubation (astaxanthin accumulation phase), the light absorption per active reaction center (ABS/RC) increased, but the efficiency of electron transport (ψo) and the quantum yield of electron transport (φEo) decreased with increased time, indicating that the capacity of photosynthetic energy utilization decreased significantly during astaxanthin accumulation, leading to an imbalance between photosynthetic light absorption and energy utilization. It would inevitably aggravate photoinhibition under high light, e.g., at midday. However, the level of photoinhibition in H. pluvialis decreased as the incubation time increased, which is reflected by the fact that Fv/Fm determined at midday decreased significantly in the initial 3 d of incubation, but was affected very little after seven days of incubation, compared with that determined at predawn. This might be because the non-photochemical quenching, plastid terminal oxidase, photosystem I cyclic electron transport, defensive enzymes and the accumulated astaxanthin can protect cells against photoinhibition.

  3. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors and Photoprotection during Cell Transformation and Astaxanthin Accumulation in Haematococcus pluvialis Grown Outdoors in Tubular Photobioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litao Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cell transformation from green motile cells to non-motile cells and astaxanthin accumulation can be induced in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis cultured outdoors. In the initial 3 d of incubation (cell transformation phase, light absorption and photosynthetic electron transport became more efficient. After five days of incubation (astaxanthin accumulation phase, the light absorption per active reaction center (ABS/RC increased, but the efficiency of electron transport (ψo and the quantum yield of electron transport (φEo decreased with increased time, indicating that the capacity of photosynthetic energy utilization decreased significantly during astaxanthin accumulation, leading to an imbalance between photosynthetic light absorption and energy utilization. It would inevitably aggravate photoinhibition under high light, e.g., at midday. However, the level of photoinhibition in H. pluvialis decreased as the incubation time increased, which is reflected by the fact that Fv/Fm determined at midday decreased significantly in the initial 3 d of incubation, but was affected very little after seven days of incubation, compared with that determined at predawn. This might be because the non-photochemical quenching, plastid terminal oxidase, photosystem I cyclic electron transport, defensive enzymes and the accumulated astaxanthin can protect cells against photoinhibition.

  4. Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov., an anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott [ORNL; Elkins, James G [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Keller, Martin [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Allman, Steve L [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    A novel, obligately anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, designated OB47T, was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA. The isolate was a non-motile, non-spore forming, Gram-positive rod approximately 2 m long by 0.2 m wide and grew at temperatures between 55-85oC with the optimum at 78oC. The pH range for growth was 6.0-8.0 with values of near 7.0 being optimal. Growth on cellobiose produced the fastest specific growth rates at 0.75 hr-1. The organism also displayed fermentative growth on glucose, maltose, arabinose, fructose, starch, lactose, mannose, sucrose, galactose, xylose, arabinogalactan, Avicel, xylan, filter paper, processed cardboard, pectin, dilute acid-pretreated switchgrass and Populus. OB47T was unable to grow on mannitol, fucose, lignin, Gelrite, acetate, glycerol, ribose, sorbital, carboxymethylcellulose and casein. Yeast extract stimulated growth and thiosulfate, sulfate, nitrate, and sulfur were not reduced. Fermentation end products were mainly acetate, H2, and CO2 although lactate and ethanol were produced in 5 l batch fermentations. The G+C content of the DNA was 35 mol% and sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene placed OB47T within the genus Caldicellulosiruptor. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, the isolate is proposed to be designated Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov. and OB47T is the type stain (ATCC = ____, JCM = ____).

  5. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells as an efficient system for harvesting microalgal cells, lipid production and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, Digby; Taha, Mohamed; Miranda, Ana F; Kadali, Krishna; Stevenson, Trevor; Ball, Andrew S; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2014-01-01

    The challenges which the large scale microalgal industry is facing are associated with the high cost of key operations such as harvesting, nutrient supply and oil extraction. The high-energy input for harvesting makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible and can account for up to 50% of the total cost of biofuel production. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells is getting increasing attention because of high efficiency of bio-flocculation of microalgal cells with no requirement for added chemicals and low energy inputs. Moreover, some fungal and microalgal strains are well known for their exceptional ability to purify wastewater, generating biomass that represents a renewable and sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. We have screened the flocculation efficiency of the filamentous fungus A. fumigatus against 11 microalgae representing freshwater, marine, small (5 µm), large (over 300 µm), heterotrophic, photoautotrophic, motile and non-motile strains. Some of the strains are commercially used for biofuel production. Lipid production and composition were analysed in fungal-algal pellets grown on media containing alternative carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources contained in wheat straw and swine wastewater, respectively. Co-cultivation of algae and A. fumigatus cells showed additive and synergistic effects on biomass production, lipid yield and wastewater bioremediation efficiency. Analysis of fungal-algal pellet's fatty acids composition suggested that it can be tailored and optimised through co-cultivating different algae and fungi without the need for genetic modification.

  6. Schrödinger’s Cheshire Cat: Are Haploid Emiliania huxleyi Cells Resistant to Viral Infection or Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon J. Mordecai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Emiliania huxleyi is the main calcite producer on Earth and is routinely infected by a virus (EhV; a double stranded DNA (dsDNA virus belonging to the family Phycodnaviridae. E. huxleyi exhibits a haplodiploid life cycle; the calcified diploid stage is non-motile and forms extensive blooms. The haploid phase is a non-calcified biflagellated cell bearing organic scales. Haploid cells are thought to resist infection, through a process deemed the “Cheshire Cat” escape strategy; however, a recent study detected the presence of viral lipids in the same haploid strain. Here we report on the application of an E. huxleyi CCMP1516 EhV-86 combined tiling array (TA that further confirms an EhV infection in the RCC1217 haploid strain, which grew without any signs of cell lysis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and PCR verified the presence of viral RNA in the haploid cells, yet indicated an absence of viral DNA, respectively. These infected cells are an alternative stage of the virus life cycle deemed the haplococcolithovirocell. In this instance, the host is both resistant to and infected by EhV, i.e., the viral transcriptome is present in haploid cells whilst there is no evidence of viral lysis. This superimposed state is reminiscent of Schrödinger’s cat; of being simultaneously both dead and alive.

  7. Bacillus bogoriensis sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic, halotolerant bacterium isolated from a Kenyan soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Virginia A; Delgado, Osvaldo D; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Mattiasson, Bo

    2005-03-01

    Strain LBB3(T) isolated from Bogoria soda lake in Kenya is an alkaliphilic, Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, non-motile, spore-forming bacterium. It was identified as a member of the genus Bacillus on the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses. The organism grows optimally at 37 degrees C and pH 10. The G+C content of the genomic DNA is 37.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 95 and 96 % sequence similarity with Bacillus pseudofirmus (DSM 8715(T)) and Bacillus alcalophilus (DSM 485(T)), respectively. Furthermore, DNA-DNA hybridization against these two Bacillus species showed 39.0 and 55.5 % similarity, respectively. Based on our observations, strain LBB3(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus bogoriensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of B. bogoriensis is LBB3(T) (=ATCC BAA-922(T)=LMG 22234(T)).

  8. Role of flgA for Flagellar Biosynthesis and Biofilm Formation of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo-Sung; Park, Changwon; Kim, Yun-Ji

    2015-11-01

    The complex roles of flagella in the pathogenesis of Campylobacter jejuni, a major cause of worldwide foodborne diarrheal disease, are important. Compared with the wild-type, an insertional mutation of the flgA gene (cj0769c) demonstrated significant decrease in the biofilm formation of C. jejuni NCTC11168 on major food contact surfaces, such as polystyrene, stainless steel, and borosilicate glass. The flgA mutant was completely devoid of flagella and non-motile whereas the wild-type displayed the full-length flagella and motility. In addition, the biofilm formation of the wild-type was inversely dependent on the viscosity of the media. These results support that flagellar-mediated motility plays a significant role in the biofilm formation of C. jejuni NCTC11168. Moreover, our adhesion assay suggests that it plays an important role during biofilm maturation after initial attachment. Furthermore, C. jejuni NCTC11168 wild-type formed biofilm with a net-like structure of extracellular fiber-like material, but such a structure was significantly reduced in the biofilm of the flgA mutant. It supports that the extracellular fiber-like material may play a significant role in the biofilm formation of C. jejuni. This study demonstrated that flgA is essential for flagellar biosynthesis and motility, and plays a significant role in the biofilm formation of C. jejuni NCTC11168.

  9. Host adaption to the bacteriophage carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Kelly J; Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L; Connerton, Ian F

    2015-01-01

    The carrier state of the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni represents an alternative life cycle whereby virulent bacteriophages can persist in association with host bacteria without commitment to lysogeny. Host bacteria exhibit significant phenotypic changes that improve their ability to survive extra-intestinal environments, but exhibit growth-phase-dependent impairment in motility. We demonstrate that early exponential phase cultures become synchronised with respect to the non-motile phenotype, which corresponds with a reduction in their ability to adhere to and invade intestinal epithelial cells. Comparative transcriptome analyses (RNA-seq) identify changes in gene expression that account for the observed phenotypes: downregulation of stress response genes hrcA, hspR and per and downregulation of the major flagellin flaA with the chemotactic response signalling genes cheV, cheA and cheW. These changes present mechanisms by which the host and bacteriophage can remain associated without lysis, and the cultures survive extra-intestinal transit. These data provide a basis for understanding a critical link in the ecology of the Campylobacter bacteriophage.

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF THE BACTERIUM TOMATO STEM CANKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goner A. Shaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseased tomato samples were collected from green house was evaluated for isolation, pathogenicity and biochemical tests. The symptoms of the infected tomato plants were as sudden wilting after curled on leaves and necrotic streak regions developed at the crown and base of the stem and the cavities deepen and expand up and down, brown discoloration and necrosis occurring on xylem and phloem vasculer. All of ages of tomato plant were susceptible to bacteria when the weather condition favorable and immediately, seen collapse symptom on tomato plant at once fail and die. The bacterium was isolated from diseased plant in all regions on nutrient Agar; a yellow bacterium was isolated from infected tomato plant in green houses and fields in Abu-Ghraib, Rashiedia and Qanat Al-Geiaysh nurseries in Baghdad provinces of Iraq. The bacterium was found gram positive, rod-shaped, non-motile and capable an aerobic growth and based on the morphological and biochemical characteristics revealed that this bacterium belongs to: Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. (smith pathogenicity and hypersensitivity of the bacterium Cmm showed the disease index were 18.33, 6.66, 16.66, 5, 0% for tomato seedlings were inoculated treatments as the wounding roots, without wounding roots, crown of the stem, petiole and control respectively.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Catenulispora acidiphila type strain (ID 139908T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Feng [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ali, Zahid [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Tindall, Brian [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

    2009-01-01

    Catenulispora acidiphila Busti et al. 2006 is the type species of the genus Catenulispora, and is of interest because of the rather isolated phylogenetic location it occupies within the scarcely explored suborder Catenulisporineae of the order Actinomycetales. C. acidiphilia is known for its acidophilic, aerobic lifestyle, but can also grow scantly under anaerobic condi-tions. Under regular conditions, C. acidiphilia grows in long filaments of relatively short aerial hyphae with marked septation. It is a free living, non motile, Gram-positive bacterium iso-lated from a forest soil sample taken from a wooded area in Gerenzano, Italy. Here we de-scribe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and anno-tation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the actinobacterial family Catenulispo-raceae, and the 10,467,782 bp long single replicon genome with its 9056 protein-coding and 69 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  12. Pisciglobus halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from fish sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasupawat, Somboon; Thongsanit, Jaruwan; Thawai, Chitti; Lee, Keun Chul; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2011-07-01

    Two strains of Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, tetrad-forming cocci, C01(T) and C02, were isolated in Thailand from fish sauce. They were facultatively anaerobic, non-motile and non-spore-forming bacteria. These strains produced l-lactic acid from glucose. They grew at pH 5.0-9.0, at 15-40 °C and in the presence of 10 % (w/v) NaCl. The dominant fatty acid was C(18 : 1)ω9c. The DNA G+C contents of strains C01(T) and C02 were 38.6 and 38.7 mol%, respectively. Strain C01(T) was related most closely to Desemzia incerta DSM 20581(T), with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 96.9 %. The strains could be distinguished clearly from D. incerta DSM 20581(T) based on cell morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics and low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness. On the basis of the data presented, strains C01(T) and C02 are considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the Bacillus-Lactobacillus cluster, for which the name Pisciglobus halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pisciglobus halotolerans is C01(T) ( = KCTC 13150(T)  = TISTR 1958(T)  = PCU 316(T)).

  13. Qualitative, Biochemical and Nanoparticle-Antimicrobial Analysis of Lactobacillus SPS screened from the various milk and curd samples of southern Tamilnadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Malathi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To study probiotic microbes like lactobacillus species were isolated from various milk and curd samples was collected from different places such as vellore , kannamangalam , gudiyatham. Which were subjected to screening and characterized and examined for the presence of probiotic properties of lactobacillus. Lactobacillus is a genus of lactic acid bacteria and It’s a group of regular,non-sporing, gram positive bacteria,rod shaped,non-motile and absence of catalase enzyme. Milk and curd samples is an important culture media for lactobacillus. Analysis for quality of milk and curd samples by mbrt test. To detect various adulterants present in milk by using specific biochemical test. The main aim of this study to isolates were obtained by growing on de man rogosa and sharpe[MRS] Agar medium. Lactobacillus was isolated for the production of silver nanoparticles was monitered by UV-spectroscopic analysis.The peak was observed between 400-450nm indicating this presence. Finally the antibacterial activity of nanoparticles were checked against lactobacillus.

  14. Cyclic diguanylate signaling in Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Erin B; Tamayo, Rita

    2016-09-01

    The nucleotide second messenger 3'-5' cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a central regulator of the transition between motile and non-motile lifestyles in bacteria, favoring sessility. Most research investigating the functions of c-di-GMP has focused on Gram-negative species, especially pathogens. Recent work in Gram-positive species has revealed that c-di-GMP plays similar roles in Gram-positives, though the precise targets and mechanisms of regulation may differ. The majority of bacterial life exists in a surface-associated state, with motility allowing bacteria to disseminate and colonize new environments. c-di-GMP signaling regulates flagellum biosynthesis and production of adherence factors and appears to be a primary mechanism by which bacteria sense and respond to surfaces. Ultimately, c-di-GMP influences the ability of a bacterium to alter its transcriptional program, physiology and behavior upon surface contact. This review discusses how bacteria are able to sense a surface via flagella and type IV pili, and the role of c-di-GMP in regulating the response to surfaces, with emphasis on studies of Gram-positive bacteria.

  15. Defluviitoga tunisiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a mesothermic and anaerobic whey digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hania, Wajdi; Godbane, Ramzi; Postec, Anne; Hamdi, Moktar; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2012-06-01

    Strain SulfLac1(T), a thermophilic, anaerobic and slightly halophilic, rod-shaped bacterium with a sheath-like outer structure (toga), was isolated from a whey digester in Tunisia. The strain's non-motile cells measured 3-30×1 µm and appeared singly, in pairs or as long chains. The novel strain reduced thiosulfate and elemental sulfur, but not sulfate or sulfite, into sulfide. It grew at 37-65 °C (optimum 55 °C), at pH 6.5-7.9 (optimum pH 6.9) and with 0.2-3 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0.5 %). The G+C content of the strain's genomic DNA was 33.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SulfLac1(T) was most closely related to Petrotoga mobilis (91.4 % sequence similarity). Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic evidence, strain SulfLac1(T) represents a novel species of a new genus within the order Thermotogales, for which the name Defluviitoga tunisiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is SulfLac1(T) ( = DSM 23805(T) = JCM 17210(T)).

  16. No jacket required--new fungal lineage defies dress code: recently described zoosporic fungi lack a cell wall during trophic phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Timothy Y; Berbee, Mary L

    2012-02-01

    Analyses of environmental DNAs have provided tantalizing evidence for "rozellida" or "cryptomycota", a clade of mostly undescribed and deeply diverging aquatic fungi. Here, we put cryptomycota into perspective through consideration of Rozella, the only clade member growing in culture. This is timely on account of the publication in Nature of the first images of uncultured cryptomycota from environmental filtrates, where molecular probes revealed non-motile cyst-like structures and motile spores, all lacking typical fungal chitinous cell walls. Current studies of Rozella can complement these fragmentary observations from environmental samples. Rozella has a fungal-specific chitin synthase and its resting sporangia have walls that appear to contain chitin. Cryptomycota, including Rozella, lack a cell wall when absorbing food but like some other fungi, they may have lost their "dinner jacket" through convergence. Rather than evolutionary intermediates, the cryptomycota may be strange, divergent fungi that evolved from an ancestor with a nearly complete suite of classical fungal-specific characters. Copyright © 2012 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Ruthenibacterium lactatiformans gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, lactate-producing member of the family Ruminococcaceae isolated from human faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkoporov, Andrei N; Chaplin, Andrei V; Shcherbakova, Victoria A; Suzina, Natalia E; Kafarskaia, Lyudmila I; Bozhenko, Vladimir K; Efimov, Boris A

    2016-08-01

    Two novel strains of Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacteria were isolated from the faeces of healthy human subjects. The strains, designated as 585-1T and 668, were characterized by mesophilic fermentative metabolism, production of d-lactic acid, succinic acid and acetic acid as end products of d-glucose fermentation, prevalence of C18 : 1ω9, C18 : 1ω9 aldehyde, C16 : 0 and C16 : 1ω7c fatty acids, presence of glycine, glutamic acid, lysine, alanine and aspartic acid in the petidoglycan peptide moiety and lack of respiratory quinones. Whole genome sequencing revealed the DNA G+C content was 56.4-56.6 mol%. The complete 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains shared 91.7/91.6 % similarity with Anaerofilum pentosovorans FaeT, 91.3/91.2 % with Gemmiger formicilis ATCC 27749T and 88.9/88.8 % with Faecalibacterium prausnitzii ATCC 27768T. On the basis of chemotaxonomic and genomic properties it was concluded that the strains represent a novel species in a new genus within the family Ruminococcaceae, for which the name Ruthenibacterium lactatiformans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Ruthenibacterium lactatiformans is 585-1T (=DSM 100348T=VKM B-2901T).

  18. Hardy Bacterium Isolated From Two Geographically Distinct Spacecraft Assembly Cleanroom Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisham-payan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Schwendner, Petra; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Earlier studies have confirmed that a tenacious hardy bacterial population manages to persist and survive throughout a spacecraft assembly process. The widespread detection of these organisms underscores the challenges in eliminating them completely. Only comprehensive and repetitive microbial diversity studies of geographically distinct cleanroom facilities will bolster the understanding of planetary protection relevant microbes. Extensive characterizations of the physiological traits demonstrated by cleanroom microbes will aid NASA in gauging the forward contamination risk that hardy bacteria (such as Tersicoccus phoenicis) pose to spacecraft. This study reports on the isolation and identification of two gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterial strains from the spacecraft assembly facilities at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA and Centre Spatial Guyanais, Kourou, French Guiana. DNA-DNA relatedness values between the novel strains indicates that these novel strains were indeed members of a same species. Phylogenetic evidence derived from a 16S ribosomal DNA analysis indicated that both the novel strains are less closely related to all other Arthrobacter species.

  19. Roseomonas riguiloci sp. nov., isolated from wetland freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Keun Sik; Park, Seong Chan; Choe, Han Na; Kim, Se Na; Moon, Jae-Hak; Seong, Chi Nam

    2012-12-01

    A non-motile, coccobacillus-shaped and pink pigmented bacterium, designated strain 03SU10-P(T), was isolated from wetland freshwater (Woopo wetland, Republic of Korea). Cells were Gram reaction-negative and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The major fatty acids (>10% of total) were C(18:1)ω7c and summed feature 3 (iso-C(15:0) 2-OH and/or C(16:1)ω7c). The predominant respiratory lipoquinone was Q-10. The DNA G+C content was 68 mol%. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and an unknown aminolipid. Spermidine, putrescine and 1,3-diaminopropane were the major polyamines. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that strain 03SU10-P(T) formed an evolutionary lineage within the radiation enclosing the members of the genus Roseomonas. The nearest neighbour to the novel strain was Roseomonas stagni HS-69(T) (96.3% gene sequence similarity). The evidence provided by the polyphasic taxonomic approach used in this study indicated that strain 03SU10-P(T) could not be assigned to any recognized species; therefore a novel species is proposed, Roseomonas riguiloci sp. nov., with 03SU10-P(T) ( = KCTC 23339(T) = JCM 17520(T)) as the type strain.

  20. Roseomonas musae sp. nov., a new bacterium isolated from a banana phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutaratat, Pumin; Srisuk, Nantana; Duangmal, Kannika; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Muramatsu, Yuki; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi

    2013-03-01

    A Gram-negative, coccobacilli, non-spore forming and non-motile bacterium, designated PN1(T), was isolated from a banana leaf collected in Mattra island, Thailand. This isolate was observed to grow optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0, and to grow with 0-3 % NaCl. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain PN1(T) is closely related to members of the genus Roseomonas, exhibiting the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Roseomonas aestuarii JC17(T) (96.5 %). The DNA G + C content of strain PN1(T) was determined to be 69.7 mol %. Based on physiological and biochemical tests, and genotypic differences between strain PN1(T) and the validly named species of the genus Roseomonas, it is proposed that the strain be classified as a new species of Roseomonas for which the name Roseomonas musae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PN1(T) (= BCC 44863(T) = NBRC 107870(T)).

  1. Characteristics of a pink-pigmented bacterium isolated from biofilm in a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Goto, Keiichi; Kato, Yuko; Saitou, Keiko; Sugiyama, Jun-ichi; Hara, Motonobu; Yoshida, Shin-ichi; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2007-01-01

    Strain K-20, a Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming and strictly aerobic rod, which produces a pale pink pigment, was isolated from biofilm in a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan. The taxonomic feature of the strain was studied using phenotypic tests and phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain was related to Roseomonas gilardii subsp. rosea, Roseomonas gilardii subsp. gilardii, Roseomonas cervicalis and Roseomonas mucosa at 94.3-94.6 sequence similarities. Growth occurred at 25-40 C and pH 5.0-10.0, optimal at 35 C and pH 7.0. Growth did not occur in the presence of >or=2% NaCl. The API 20NE identification system gave a positive result for urease, L-arabinose, potassium gluconate, adipic acid, malic acid and trisodium citrate (API code number 0201465). The predominant fatty acids of strain K-20 were C18:1Delta11 (50.8%) and C16:1 (17.2%). Cells contained ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) as the major quinone and the G+C content was 72.0 mol%. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was assumed that strain K-20 (=JCM 14634) is a novel species of the genus Roseomonas.

  2. Roseomonas vinacea sp. nov., a Gram-negative coccobacillus isolated from a soil sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Qin; Yu, Li-Yan; Wang, Dong; Liu, Hong-Yu; Sun, Cheng-Hang; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Yue-Qin; Li, Wen-Jun

    2008-09-01

    Strain CPCC 100056(T), which was isolated from a soil sample collected from the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China, was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The organism was coccobacillus-shaped, non-motile and formed vinaceous colonies on ISP2 agar medium. The respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10. The major fatty acids were C(18:1)omega7c and C(16:1)omega7c and/or C(16:1)omega6c. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 67.3 mol%. A comparison of sequences in GenBank revealed that strain CPCC 100056(T) exhibited highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (84.5-95.5%) with Roseomonas species. Strain CPCC 100056(T) could be distinguished from all Roseomonas species with validly published names by differences in phenotypic and genotypic properties. In view of the combined phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain CPCC 100056(T) should be classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Roseomonas, Roseomonas vinacea sp. nov.; the type strain is CPCC 100056(T) (=KCTC 22045(T) =CCM 7468(T)).

  3. Roseomonas aceris sp. nov. isolated from a mono maple tree in the Shirakami Mountains in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonouchi, Akio; Tazawa, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    A novel bacterial strain belonging to the genus Roseomonas was isolated from the trunk surface of a mono maple (Acer mono) tree growing in the Shirakami Mountains. The strain, designated R-1(T), was Gram-negative, non-motile, and oval-rod, and formed reddish colonies on agar plates, as has previously been described for Roseomonas species. Although motility was not observed, cells were peritrichously flagellated. Strain R-1(T) preferred organic acids over carbohydrates as growth substrates. The major cellular fatty acid was C₁₈:₁ ω7c (48.79%). Ubiquinone-10 was the major respiratory quinone. Strain R-1(T) demonstrated the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Roseomonas pecuniae N75(T) (96.9%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that strain R-1(T) was a member of the genus Roseomonas and formed a cluster with R. pecuniae N75(T). DNA-DNA hybridization between strain R-1(T) and R. pecuniae N75(T) yielded 21.7% relatedness. On the basis of its phenotypic, phylogenetic, and chemotaxonomic char-acteristics, strain R-1(T) represents a novel species within the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas aceris sp. nov. has been proposed. The type strain is R-1(T) (NBRC 109410(T) = DSM 26554 (T)).

  4. Roseomonas terrae sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kang, So-Jung; Oh, Hyun Woo; Oh, Tae-Kwang

    2007-11-01

    A Gram-negative, non-motile, coccobacilli-shaped bacterium, DS-48T, was isolated from soil from Dokdo, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by means of a polyphasic study. Strain DS-48T grew optimally at 25 degrees C and pH 7.0-8.0 in the presence of 0.5% (w/v) NaCl. It contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18:1omega7c and C18:1 2-OH as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 69.3 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DS-48T fell within the genus Roseomonas, clustering with Roseomonas lacus TH-G33T (at a bootstrap confidence level of 100%). The levels of similarity between the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain DS-48T and those of the type strains of recognized Roseomonas species were in the range 93.2-98.0%. DNA-DNA relatedness data and differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic distinctiveness of DS-48T, revealed that this strain differs from recognized Roseomonas species. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic data, therefore, strain DS-48T represents a novel species within the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas terrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DS-48T (=KCTC 12874T=JCM 14592T).

  5. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells as an efficient system for harvesting microalgal cells, lipid production and wastewater treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digby Wrede

    Full Text Available The challenges which the large scale microalgal industry is facing are associated with the high cost of key operations such as harvesting, nutrient supply and oil extraction. The high-energy input for harvesting makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible and can account for up to 50% of the total cost of biofuel production. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells is getting increasing attention because of high efficiency of bio-flocculation of microalgal cells with no requirement for added chemicals and low energy inputs. Moreover, some fungal and microalgal strains are well known for their exceptional ability to purify wastewater, generating biomass that represents a renewable and sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. We have screened the flocculation efficiency of the filamentous fungus A. fumigatus against 11 microalgae representing freshwater, marine, small (5 µm, large (over 300 µm, heterotrophic, photoautotrophic, motile and non-motile strains. Some of the strains are commercially used for biofuel production. Lipid production and composition were analysed in fungal-algal pellets grown on media containing alternative carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources contained in wheat straw and swine wastewater, respectively. Co-cultivation of algae and A. fumigatus cells showed additive and synergistic effects on biomass production, lipid yield and wastewater bioremediation efficiency. Analysis of fungal-algal pellet's fatty acids composition suggested that it can be tailored and optimised through co-cultivating different algae and fungi without the need for genetic modification.

  6. Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, I P da; Bonoldi, V L N; Yoshinari, N H

    2002-07-01

    A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris) - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus) captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 (78.9%) were in larval form and 22 (21.1%) were nymphs; the only adult (0.8%) was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.

  7. Thioclava arenosa sp. nov., isolated from sea sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongphrom, Chutimon; Kim, Jong-Hwa; Bora, Nagamani; Kim, Wonyong

    2017-06-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobe bacterial strain, designated CAU 1312T, was isolated from sea sand of Eurwangri beach, South Korea. The strain's taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. CAU 1312T grew at temperatures from 20 to 40 °C, in the range of pH 6.0-9.0 and at salinities from 1-4 % (w/v). The results of phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that CAU 1312T represented a member of the genus Thioclava and was most closely related to Thioclava atlantica 13D2W-2T (similarity 96.53 %). The strain contained Q-10 as the predominant menaquinone and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/ω6c) as the major fatty acid. The polar lipids of CAU 1312T consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, two aminophospholipids, a phosphoglycolipid, and two unidentified phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 64.7 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties and phylogenetic inference, CAU 1312T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Thioclava, for which the name Thioclava arenosa sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CAU 1312T(=KCTC 52190T=NBRC 111989T).

  8. Isolation and characterization of novel S-equol-producing bacteria from brines of stinky tofu, a traditional fermented soy food in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiru, Yasuhiro; Ueno, Tomomi; Uchiyama, Shigeto

    2013-12-01

    Six strains capable of transforming daidzein to S-equol were isolated from the fermented brines of stinky tofu purchased in Taiwan. Daidzein was completely converted into S-equol within 24h of incubation in five strains. All the strains were gram-positive, rod-shaped, obligately anaerobic, non-motile, and non-spore-forming. In a phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the strains distributed into three groups in the family Coriobacteriaceae. SNR40-432 (Group I) showed 98.6% 16S rRNA gene similarity and 48-49% DNA-DNA relatedness with Paraeggerthella hongkongensis HKU10(T), suggesting the possibility that SNR40-432 represents a new species in the genus Paraeggerthella. SNR48-44 (Group II) and SNR44-10, SNR45-571, SNR46-41, SNR48-350 (Group III) showed a maximum of 92.2 and 92.1% 16S rRNA gene similarities with Eggerthella sinensis HKU14(T) and Eggerthella lenta JCM9979(T), respectively, which denotes that each group may represent a novel genus and species in the family Coriobacteriaceae. This is the first report isolating equol-producing bacteria from food.

  9. Insights into the microstructures of hygroscopic movement in plant seed dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaum, Rivka; Abraham, Yael

    2014-06-01

    As non-motile organisms, plants develop means to spread their progenies. Hygroscopic movement is a very common mechanism employed in seed dispersal. This type of movement is created when the tissue desiccates and the cell walls dry and shrink. A contraction force develops, the direction and strength of which depends on the architecture of the tissue. This force may be utilized for a simple release of seeds, their catapultion, and for pushing seeds along the soil to a germination locus. We review the formation of a bend, a twist and a coil within various dispersal apparatuses as a reaction to the dehydration of the tissue. We compare the microscopic structures of hygroscopic devices supporting slow or fast movement, adaptations to dry or wet climates, and single use versus repeated movement. We discuss the development of the disconnecting tissues in relation to the development of a hygroscopic mechanism. As plant cultivation is dependent on seed dispersal control, we demonstrate that during the domestication of sesame and wheat, seed dispersal is avoided not due to a defective hygroscopic tissue, but rather a missing dehiscence tissue. Seed dispersal is a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants. Thus, hygroscopic movement plays a central part in plant ecology and agriculture.

  10. Validation of a Tn5 transposon mutagenesis system for Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus through characterization of a flagellar mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouws, Luc F M; Simões-Araújo, Jean L; Hemerly, Adriana S; Baldani, José I

    2008-04-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium, which was originally isolated from the interior of sugarcane plants. The genome of strain PAL5 of G. diazotrophicus has been completely sequenced and a next step is the functional characterization of its genes. The aim of this study was to establish an efficient mutagenesis method, using the commercial Tn5 transposon EZ::Tn5Tnp Transposome (Epicentre). Up to 1 x 10(6) mutants per microgram of transposome were generated in a single electroporation experiment. Insertion-site flanking sequences were amplified by inverse PCR and sequenced for 31 mutants. For ten of these mutants, both insertion flanks could be identified, confirming the 9 bp duplication that is typical for Tn5 transposition. Insertions occurred in a random fashion and were genetically stable for at least 50 generations. One mutant had an insertion in a homolog of the flagellar gene flgA, and was therefore predicted to be affected in flagella-dependent traits and used to validate the applied mutagenesis methodology. This mutant lacked flagella and was non-motile on soft agar. Interestingly, it was also strongly affected in the ability to form biofilm on glass wool.

  11. Lactobacillus furfuricola sp. nov., isolated from Nukadoko, rice bran paste for Japanese pickles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisawa, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Naoto; Kitahara, Maki; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Okada, Sanae

    2014-08-01

    Two strains of lactic acid bacteria, Nu27(T) and Nu29, were isolated from Nukadoko, rice bran paste for Japanese pickles. The isolates were Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, catalase-negative, non-motile and facultatively anaerobic lactic acid bacteria. The isolates showed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. The closest relatives to strain Nu27(T) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were Lactobacillus versmoldensis KU-3(T) (98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Lactobacillus nodensis iz4b(T) (96.3%) and Lactobacillus tucceti CECT 5290(T) (97.2%). DNA-DNA relatedness values revealed genotype separation of the two isolates from the above three species. Based on the physiological, biochemical and genotypic characteristics provided, the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which name is Lactobacillus furfuricola proposed. The type strain is Nu 27(T) ( = JCM 18764(T) = NRIC 0900(T) = DSM 27174(T)).

  12. Direct recording and molecular identification of the calcium channel of primary cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaen, Paul G.; Delling, Markus; Vien, Thuy N.; Clapham, David E.

    2013-12-01

    A primary cilium is a solitary, slender, non-motile protuberance of structured microtubules (9+0) enclosed by plasma membrane. Housing components of the cell division apparatus between cell divisions, primary cilia also serve as specialized compartments for calcium signalling and hedgehog signalling pathways. Specialized sensory cilia such as retinal photoreceptors and olfactory cilia use diverse ion channels. An ion current has been measured from primary cilia of kidney cells, but the responsible genes have not been identified. The polycystin proteins (PC and PKD), identified in linkage studies of polycystic kidney disease, are candidate channels divided into two structural classes: 11-transmembrane proteins (PKD1, PKD1L1 and PKD1L2) remarkable for a large extracellular amino terminus of putative cell adhesion domains and a G-protein-coupled receptor proteolytic site, and the 6-transmembrane channel proteins (PKD2, PKD2L1 and PKD2L2; TRPPs). Evidence indicates that the PKD1 proteins associate with the PKD2 proteins via coiled-coil domains. Here we use a transgenic mouse in which only cilia express a fluorophore and use it to record directly from primary cilia, and demonstrate that PKD1L1 and PKD2L1 form ion channels at high densities in several cell types. In conjunction with an accompanying manuscript, we show that the PKD1L1-PKD2L1 heteromeric channel establishes the cilia as a unique calcium compartment within cells that modulates established hedgehog pathways.

  13. Anthrax: A disease of biowarfare and public health importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Bioterrorism has received a lot of attention in the first decade of this century. Biological agents are considered attractive weapons for bioterrorism as these are easy to obtain, comparatively inexpensive to produce and exhibit widespread fear and panic than the actual potential of physical damage. Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), the etiologic agent of anthrax is a Gram positive, spore forming, non-motile bacterium. This is supposed to be one of the most potent BW agents because its spores are extremely resistant to natural conditions and can survive for several decades in the environment. B. anthracis spores enter the body through skin lesion (cutaneous anthrax), lungs (pulmonary anthrax), or gastrointestinal route (gastrointestinal anthrax) and germinate, giving rise to the vegetative form. Anthrax is a concern of public health also in many countries where agriculture is the main source of income including India. Anthrax has been associated with human history for a very long time and regained its popularity after Sept 2001 incidence in United States. The present review article describes the history, biology, life cycle, pathogenicity, virulence, epidemiology and potential of B. anthracis as biological weapon. PMID:25610847

  14. Evaluation of Isfahan Inhabitant Attitude About Brucellosis and Common its Herbal Treatment

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    Ghomashlooyan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Brucellosis, also called Malta fever, is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions. Brucella species are small, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped (coccobacilli bacteria. Objectives The aim of this study is to perform an evaluation of Isfahan inhabitant attitude about brucellosis and its common herbal treatment. Patients and Methods This evaluation was a simple random sample study, which was carried out on 162 people in the city of Isfahan, Iran, by means of questionnaires. The data was analyzed using SPSS for Windows (Version 21.0. Results Of 162 people that were interviewed, 90 (55.6% patients were male and the other were female. Of these, 74 (45.7% patients were single and 88 (54.3% were married. Forty-three (26.5% participants lived in the city. The average age of participants was 11.51 ± 29.11 years. There is no significant relationship between age, gender, education level, residence, and people familiar with the disease brucellosis, herbal treatment for brucellosis (P > 0.05. Conclusions Our data suggest that the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of people in Isfahan, Iran, show no relationship with the attitude of individuals regarding brucellosis and towards common herbal treatments for the disease.

  15. Rhodobacter changlensis sp. nov., a psychrotolerant, phototrophic alphaproteobacterium from the Himalayas of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil Kumar, P; Srinivas, T N R; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2007-11-01

    A Gram-negative, non-motile, oval to rod-shaped, psychrotolerant, phototrophic, purple non-sulfur bacterium (designated strain JA139T) was isolated from a snow sample from Changla Pass in the Indian Himalayas. Strain JA139T had vesicular-type intracytoplasmic membrane structures and contained bacteriochlorophyll a and most probably spheroidene-like carotenoids. Biotin, niacin and thiamine were required for growth of strain JA139T. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain clustered with species of the genus Rhodobacter but was distinctly separate from all recognized members of the family Rhodobacteraceae. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic differences observed between strain JA139T and recognized Rhodobacter species, strain JA139T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus, for which the name Rhodobacter changlensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JA139T (=DSM 18774T=CCUG 53722T=JCM 14338T).

  16. Effects of Cryopreservation on the Ultrastructure of Human Testicular Sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate effects of cryopreservation on changes of the ultrastructure of human testicular sperm and evaluate the efficacy of cryopreserving testicular tissue as a source of sperm for assisted reproduction.Methods Testicular biopsy tissues were obtained from infertile patients (n=12) with obstructive azoospermia and cryopreserved. Testicular sperm motility was observed after in vitro culture procedure. The ultrastructure of testicular sperm (n=6) was examined by transmission electron microscope.Results After cryopreservation, 10 biopsy tissues frozen revealed motile sperm, and 2samples showed non-motile sperm. Some testicular sperm in frozen-thawed group had normal morphology in fine structures. Sperm head in frozen-thawed tissue showed a proportion of nuclei with more electron-dense granules of chromatin. In a few frozen-thawed sperm heads, formation of vesicles and degeneration were observed.The frozen-thawed testicular sperm frequently showed swollen or/and ruptured of the plasma membrane and acrosome membranes.Conclusion Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is simple and efficacious for testicular sperm extraction. And the freezing-thawing procedure of testicular tissue causes damage to ultrastructural morphology of human testicular sperm.

  17. Characterization and Testing the Efficiency of Acinetobacter baumannii Phage vB-GEC_Ab-M-G7 as an Antibacterial Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ia Kusradze

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is a gram-negative, non-motile bacterium that, due to its multidrug resistance, has become a major nosocomial pathogen .The increasing number of multidrug resistant (MDR strains has renewed interest in phage therapy. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of phage administration in Acinetobacter baumannii wound infections in an animal model to demonstrate phage therapy as non-toxic, safe and alternative antibacterial remedy. Using classical methods for the study of bacteriophage properties, we characterized phage vB-GEC_Ab-M-G7 as a dsDNA myovirus with a 90kb genome size. Important characteristics of vB-GEC_Ab-M-G7include a short latent period and large burst size, wide host range, resistance to chloroform and thermal and pH stability. In a rat wound model, phage application effectively decreased the number of bacteria isolated from the wounds of successfully treated animals. This study highlights the effectiveness of the phage therapy and provides further insight into treating infections caused by MDR strains using phage administration.

  18. Streptomyces polyantibioticus sp. nov., isolated from the banks of a river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roes-Hill, Marilize; Meyers, Paul R

    2009-06-01

    As part of an antibiotic-screening programme, an actinomycete, designated strain SPR(T), was isolated from soil collected from the banks of the Umgeni River, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. The isolate produced branching vegetative mycelia with sporangiophores bearing sporangia developing at a late stage of growth. The sporangia contained smooth, almond-shaped, non-motile spores. Strain SPR(T) exhibited antibiosis against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including Enterococcus faecium VanA (a vancomycin-resistant strain), Mycobacterium aurum A+ and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of the strain, with the exception of the phospholipid pattern, corresponded with those of the members of the family Streptomycetaceae Waksman and Henrici 1943. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA genes showed that the strain was closely related to members of the genus Streptomyces, which supports its classification in the family Streptomycetaceae. Thus strain SPR(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces polyantibioticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SPR(T) (=DSM 44925(T)=NRRL B-24448(T)).

  19. Blautia massiliensis sp. nov., isolated from a fresh human fecal sample and emended description of the genus Blautia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Guillaume A; Pham, Thao; Ndongo, Sokhna; Traore, Sory Ibrahima; Dubourg, Grégory; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Michelle, Caroline; Armstrong, Nicholas; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier; Million, Matthieu

    2017-02-01

    The strain GD9(T) is the type strain of the newly proposed species Blautia massiliensis sp. nov., belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae. It was isolated from a fresh stool sample collected from a healthy human using the culturomics strategy. Cells are Gram-negative rods, oxygen intolerant, non-motile and non-spore forming. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that strain GD9(T) was closely related to Blautia luti, with a 97.8% sequence similarity. Major fatty acids were C14:0 (19.8%) and C16:0 (53.2%). Strain GD9(T) exhibits a genome of 3,717,339 bp that contains 3,346 protein-coding genes and 81 RNAs genes including 63 tRNAs. The features of this organism are described here, with its complete genome sequence and annotation. Compared with other Blautia species which are Gram positive, the strain was Gram negative justifying an emended description of the genus Blautia.

  20. Role of streams in myxobacteria aggregate formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiskowski, Maria A.; Jiang, Yi; Alber, Mark S.

    2004-10-01

    Cell contact, movement and directionality are important factors in biological development (morphogenesis), and myxobacteria are a model system for studying cell-cell interaction and cell organization preceding differentiation. When starved, thousands of myxobacteria cells align, stream and form aggregates which later develop into round, non-motile spores. Canonically, cell aggregation has been attributed to attractive chemotaxis, a long range interaction, but there is growing evidence that myxobacteria organization depends on contact-mediated cell-cell communication. We present a discrete stochastic model based on contact-mediated signaling that suggests an explanation for the initialization of early aggregates, aggregation dynamics and final aggregate distribution. Our model qualitatively reproduces the unique structures of myxobacteria aggregates and detailed stages which occur during myxobacteria aggregation: first, aggregates initialize in random positions and cells join aggregates by random walk; second, cells redistribute by moving within transient streams connecting aggregates. Streams play a critical role in final aggregate size distribution by redistributing cells among fewer, larger aggregates. The mechanism by which streams redistribute cells depends on aggregate sizes and is enhanced by noise. Our model predicts that with increased internal noise, more streams would form and streams would last longer. Simulation results suggest a series of new experiments.

  1. Methanohalophilus levihalophilus sp. nov., a slightly halophilic, methylotrophic methanogen isolated from natural gas-bearing deep aquifers, and emended description of the genus Methanohalophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Taiki; Yoshioka, Hideyoshi; Mochimaru, Hanako; Meng, Xian-Ying; Muramoto, Yoshiyuki; Usami, Jun; Ikeda, Hidefumi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Sakata, Susumu

    2014-06-01

    A mesophilic, slightly halophilic, obligately methylotrophic, methanogenic archaeon, designated strain GTA13(T), was isolated from natural gas-bearing confined aquifers in the Minami-Kanto gas field, Japan. The cells were non-motile, slightly irregular cocci, 0.7-1.0 µm in diameter and occurred singly, in pairs or as small aggregates. The cells grew with tri- or dimethylamine but not with H2/CO2, formate, acetate, methanol or dimethyl sulphide. Vitamins, sodium and magnesium were required for growth. Optimal growth occurred at pH 7.0-7.5, 35 °C, 0.35-0.40 M NaCl and 15-50 mM MgCl2. The NaCl range for growth was 0.2-1.3 M. The DNA G+C content was 43.7 mol%. Strain GTA13(T) showed highest levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF-1(T) (96.4% sequence similarity) and Methanohalophilus halophilus DSM 3094(T) (96.0%). On the basis of physiological and phylogenetic features, strain GTA13(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Methanohalophilus, for which the name Methanohalophilus levihalophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GTA13(T) ( = NBRC 110099(T) = DSM 28452(T)). An emended description of the genus Methanohalophilus is also proposed.

  2. Methanobacterium subterraneum sp. nov., a new alkaliphilic, eurythermic and halotolerant methanogen isolated from deep granitic groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikova, S; Macario, A J; Pedersen, K

    1998-04-01

    Deep subterranean granitic aquifers have not been explored regarding methanogens until now. Three autotrophic methane-producing Archaea were isolated from deep granitic groundwater at depths of 68, 409 and 420 m. These organisms were non-motile, small, thin rods, 0.1-0.15 micron in diameter, and they could use hydrogen and carbon dioxide or formate as substrates for growth and methanogenesis. One of the isolates, denoted A8p, was studied in detail. It grew with a doubling time of 2.5 h under optimal conditions (20-40 degrees C, pH 7.8-8.8 and 0.2-1.2 M NaCl). Strain A8p is eurythermic as it grew between 3.6 and 45 degrees C. It was resistant to up to 20 mg bacitracin l-1. The G + C content was 54.5 mol%, as determined by thermal denaturation. Phylogenetic studies based upon 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons placed the isolate A8p in the genus Methanobacterium. Phenotypic and phylogenetic characters indicate that the alkaliphilic, halotolerant strain A8p represents a new species. We propose the name Methanobacterium subterraneum for this species, and strain A8p (= DSM 11074T) is the type strain.

  3. Paenibacillus medicaginis sp. nov. a chitinolytic endophyte isolated from the root nodule of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-An; Hameed, Asif; Lin, Shih-Yao; Hung, Mei-Hua; Hsu, Yi-Han; Liu, You-Cheng; Shahina, Mariyan; Shen, Fo-Ting; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2015-08-04

    A Gram-stain-variable, short-rod-shaped, endospore-forming, strictly aerobic, non-motile, chitinolytic and endophytic bacterium, designated strain CC-Alfalfa-19T, exhibiting unusual bipolar appendages was isolated from the root nodule of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Taiwan and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomy. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CC-Alfalfa-19T was found to be most closely related to Paenibacillus puldeungensis CAU 9324T (95.2 %), whereas other Paenibacillus species shared ≤95.0 % sequence similarity. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a distinct phyletic lineage established by strain CC-Alfalfa-19T with respect to other Paenibacillus species. Fatty acids comprised predominantly anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C16. Menaquinone 7 (MK-7) was identified as the sole respiratory quinone and the genomic DNA G+C content was 42.7 mol%. Polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified glycolipid and an unidentified lipid. The diagnostic diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. Based on the polyphasic taxonomic evidences that were in line with the genus Paenibacillus and additional distinguishing characteristics, strain CC-Alfalfa-19T is considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Paenibacillus medicaginis sp. nov. (type strain CC-Alfalfa-19T = BCRC 80441T = JCM 18446T) is proposed.

  4. Biology of archaea from a novel family Cuniculiplasmataceae (Thermoplasmata) ubiquitous in hyperacidic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golyshina, Olga V; Kublanov, Ilya V; Tran, Hai; Korzhenkov, Alexei A; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Nechitaylo, Taras Y; Gavrilov, Sergey N; Toshchakov, Stepan V; Golyshin, Peter N

    2016-12-14

    The order Thermoplasmatales (Euryarchaeota) is represented by the most acidophilic organisms known so far that are poorly amenable to cultivation. Earlier culture-independent studies in Iron Mountain (California) pointed at an abundant archaeal group, dubbed 'G-plasma'. We examined the genomes and physiology of two cultured representatives of a Family Cuniculiplasmataceae, recently isolated from acidic (pH 1-1.5) sites in Spain and UK that are 16S rRNA gene sequence-identical with 'G-plasma'. Organisms had largest genomes among Thermoplasmatales (1.87-1.94 Mbp), that shared 98.7-98.8% average nucleotide identities between themselves and 'G-plasma' and exhibited a high genome conservation even within their genomic islands, despite their remote geographical localisations. Facultatively anaerobic heterotrophs, they possess an ancestral form of A-type terminal oxygen reductase from a distinct parental clade. The lack of complete pathways for biosynthesis of histidine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine and proline pre-determines the reliance on external sources of amino acids and hence the lifestyle of these organisms as scavengers of proteinaceous compounds from surrounding microbial community members. In contrast to earlier metagenomics-based assumptions, isolates were S-layer-deficient, non-motile, non-methylotrophic and devoid of iron-oxidation despite the abundance of methylotrophy substrates and ferrous iron in situ, which underlines the essentiality of experimental validation of bioinformatic predictions.

  5. Swimming Motility Reduces Deposition to Silica Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Nanxi [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Massoudieh, Arash [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Liang, Xiaomeng [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Hu, Dehong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kamai, Tamir [Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan (Israel); Ginn, Timothy R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Zilles, Julie L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Nguyen, Thanh H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The role of swimming motility on bacterial transport and fate in porous media was evaluated. We present microscopic evidence showing that strong swimming motility reduces attachment of Azotobacter vinelandii cells to silica surfaces. Applying global and cluster statistical analyses to microscopic videos taken under non-flow conditions, wild type, flagellated A. vinelandii strain DJ showed strong swimming ability with an average speed of 13.1 μm/s, DJ77 showed impaired swimming averaged at 8.7 μm/s, and both the non-flagellated JZ52 and chemically treated DJ cells were non-motile. Quantitative analyses of trajectories observed at different distances above the collector of a radial stagnation point flow cell (RSPF) revealed that both swimming and non-swimming cells moved with the flow when at a distance of at least 20 μm from the collector surface. Near the surface, DJ cells showed both horizontal and vertical movement diverging them from reaching surfaces, while chemically treated DJ cells moved with the flow to reach surfaces, suggesting that strong swimming reduced attachment. In agreement with the RSPF results, the deposition rates obtained for two-dimensional multiple-collector micromodels were also lowest for DJ, while DJ77 and JZ52 showed similar values. Strong swimming specifically reduced deposition on the upstream surfaces of the micromodel collectors.

  6. Changes of Photosynthetic Behaviors and Photoprotection during Cell Transformation and Astaxanthin Accumulation in Haematococcus pluvialis Grown Outdoors in Tubular Photobioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Litao; Su, Fang; Zhang, Chunhui; Gong, Fengying; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    The cell transformation from green motile cells to non-motile cells and astaxanthin accumulation can be induced in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis cultured outdoors. In the initial 3 d of incubation (cell transformation phase), light absorption and photosynthetic electron transport became more efficient. After five days of incubation (astaxanthin accumulation phase), the light absorption per active reaction center (ABS/RC) increased, but the efficiency of electron transport (ψo) and the quantum yield of electron transport (φEo) decreased with increased time, indicating that the capacity of photosynthetic energy utilization decreased significantly during astaxanthin accumulation, leading to an imbalance between photosynthetic light absorption and energy utilization. It would inevitably aggravate photoinhibition under high light, e.g., at midday. However, the level of photoinhibition in H. pluvialis decreased as the incubation time increased, which is reflected by the fact that Fv/Fm determined at midday decreased significantly in the initial 3 d of incubation, but was affected very little after seven days of incubation, compared with that determined at predawn. This might be because the non-photochemical quenching, plastid terminal oxidase, photosystem I cyclic electron transport, defensive enzymes and the accumulated astaxanthin can protect cells against photoinhibition. PMID:28035956

  7. AOAC Official MethodSM Matrix Extension Validation Study of Assurance GDSTM for the Detection of Salmonella in Selected Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldsine, Philip; Kaur, Mandeep; Shah, Khyati; Immerman, Amy; Jucker, Markus; Lienau, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Assurance GDSTM for Salmonella Tq has been validated according to the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Methods Committee Guidelines for Validation of Microbiological Methods for Food and Environmental Surfaces for the detection of selected foods and environmental surfaces (Official Method of AnalysisSM 2009.03, Performance Tested MethodSM No. 050602). The method also completed AFNOR validation (following the ISO 16140 standard) compared to the reference method EN ISO 6579. For AFNOR, GDS was given a scope covering all human food, animal feed stuff, and environmental surfaces (Certificate No. TRA02/12-01/09). Results showed that Assurance GDS for Salmonella (GDS) has high sensitivity and is equivalent to the reference culture methods for the detection of motile and non-motile Salmonella. As part of the aforementioned validations, inclusivity and exclusivity studies, stability, and ruggedness studies were also conducted. Assurance GDS has 100% inclusivity and exclusivity among the 100 Salmonella serovars and 35 non-Salmonella organisms analyzed. To add to the scope of the Assurance GDS for Salmonella method, a matrix extension study was conducted, following the AOAC guidelines, to validate the application of the method for selected spices, specifically curry powder, cumin powder, and chili powder, for the detection of Salmonella.

  8. The RNA-binding protein CsrA plays a central role in positively regulating virulence factors in Erwinia amylovora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Veronica; Lee, Jae Hoon; Zhao, Youfu

    2016-01-01

    The GacS/GacA two-component system (also called GrrS/GrrA) is a global regulatory system which is highly conserved among gamma-proteobacteria. This system positively regulates non-coding small regulatory RNA csrB, which in turn binds to the RNA-binding protein CsrA. However, how GacS/GacA-Csr system regulates virulence traits in E. amylovora remains unknown. Results from mutant characterization showed that the csrB mutant was hypermotile, produced higher amount of exopolysaccharide amylovoran, and had increased expression of type III secretion (T3SS) genes in vitro. In contrast, the csrA mutant exhibited complete opposite phenotypes, including non-motile, reduced amylovoran production and expression of T3SS genes. Furthermore, the csrA mutant did not induce hypersensitive response on tobacco or cause disease on immature pear fruits, indicating that CsrA is a positive regulator of virulence factors. These findings demonstrated that CsrA plays a critical role in E. amylovora virulence and suggested that negative regulation of virulence by GacS/GacA acts through csrB sRNA, which binds to CsrA and neutralizes its positive effect on T3SS gene expression, flagellar formation and amylovoran production. Future research will be focused on determining the molecular mechanism underlying the positive regulation of virulence traits by CsrA. PMID:27845410

  9. Susceptibility of zebra fish Danio rerio to infection by Flavobacterium columnare and F. johnsoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Thomas R; Hunnicutt, David W

    2007-06-07

    Flavobacterium columnare is a serious pathogen in a wide range of fish species. F. johnsoniae is an opportunistic pathogen of certain fish. Both are gliding bacteria. These species were tested for their ability to infect the zebra fish Danio rerio. Both injection and bath infection methods were tested. The results indicate that F. johnsoniae is not an effective pathogen in D. rerio, but that F. columnare is an effective pathogen. F. johnsoniae did not cause increased death rates following bath infection, but did cause increased death rates following injection, with an LD50 (mean lethal dose) of approximately 3 x 10(10) cfu (colony-forming units). Non-motile mutants of F. johnsoniae produced a similar LD50. F. columnare caused increased death rates following both injection and bath infections. There was considerable strain variation in LD50, with the most lethal strain tested producing an LD50 of 3.2 x 10(6) cfu injected and 1.1 x 10(6) cfu ml(-1) in bath experiments, including skin damage. The LD50 of F. columnare in zebra fish without skin damage was > 1 x 10(8), indicating an important effect of skin damage.

  10. Accumulation of Astaxanthin by a New Haematococcus pluvialis Strain BM1 from the White Sea Coastal Rocks (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Chekanov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on a novel arctic strain BM1 of a carotenogenic chlorophyte from a coastal habitat with harsh environmental conditions (wide variations in solar irradiance, temperature, salinity and nutrient availability identified as Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow. Increased (25‰ salinity exerted no adverse effect on the growth of the green BM1 cells. Under stressful conditions (high light, nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation, green vegetative cells of H. pluvialis BM1 grown in BG11 medium formed non-motile palmelloid cells and, eventually, hematocysts capable of a massive accumulation of the keto-carotenoid astaxanthin with a high nutraceutical and therapeutic potential. Routinely, astaxanthin was accumulated at the level of 4% of the cell dry weight (DW, reaching, under prolonged stress, 5.5% DW. Astaxanthin was predominantly accumulated in the form of mono- and diesters of fatty acids from C16 and C18 families. The palmelloids and hematocysts were characterized by the formation of red-colored cytoplasmic lipid droplets, increasingly large in size and number. The lipid droplets tended to merge and occupied almost the entire volume of the cell at the advanced stages of stress-induced carotenogenesis. The potential application of the new strain for the production of astaxanthin is discussed in comparison with the H. pluvialis strains currently employed in microalgal biotechnology.

  11. Accumulation of astaxanthin by a new Haematococcus pluvialis strain BM1 from the white sea coastal rocks (Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekanov, Konstantin; Lobakova, Elena; Selyakh, Irina; Semenova, Larisa; Sidorov, Roman; Solovchenko, Alexei

    2014-08-15

    We report on a novel arctic strain BM1 of a carotenogenic chlorophyte from a coastal habitat with harsh environmental conditions (wide variations in solar irradiance, temperature, salinity and nutrient availability) identified as Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow. Increased (25‰) salinity exerted no adverse effect on the growth of the green BM1 cells. Under stressful conditions (high light, nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation), green vegetative cells of H. pluvialis BM1 grown in BG11 medium formed non-motile palmelloid cells and, eventually, hematocysts capable of a massive accumulation of the keto-carotenoid astaxanthin with a high nutraceutical and therapeutic potential. Routinely, astaxanthin was accumulated at the level of 4% of the cell dry weight (DW), reaching, under prolonged stress, 5.5% DW. Astaxanthin was predominantly accumulated in the form of mono- and diesters of fatty acids from C16 and C18 families. The palmelloids and hematocysts were characterized by the formation of red-colored cytoplasmic lipid droplets, increasingly large in size and number. The lipid droplets tended to merge and occupied almost the entire volume of the cell at the advanced stages of stress-induced carotenogenesis. The potential application of the new strain for the production of astaxanthin is discussed in comparison with the H. pluvialis strains currently employed in microalgal biotechnology.

  12. Methanosarcina soligelidi sp. nov., a desiccation- and freeze-thaw-resistant methanogenic archaeon from a Siberian permafrost-affected soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dirk; Schirmack, Janosch; Ganzert, Lars; Morozova, Daria; Mangelsdorf, Kai

    2013-08-01

    A methanogenic archaeon, strain SMA-21(T), was isolated from a permafrost-affected soil by serial dilution in liquid medium. The cells were non-motile, stained Gram-negative and grew as irregular cocci with a diameter of 1.3-2.5 µm. Optimal growth was observed at 28 °C, pH 7.8 and 0.02 M NaCl. The strain grew on H2/CO2, methanol and acetate, but not on formate, ethanol, 2-butanol, 2-propanol, monomethylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine or dimethyl sulfide. Major membrane lipids of strain SMA-21(T) were archaeol phosphatidylglycerol, archaeol phosphatidylethanolamine and the corresponding hydroxyarchaeol compounds. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 40.9 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence was closely related to those of Methanosarcina mazei DSM 2053(T) (similarity 99.9 %) and Methanosarcina horonobensis HB-1(T) (similarity 98.7 %). On basis of the level of DNA-DNA hybridization (22.1 %) between strain SMA-21(T) and Methanosarcina mazei DSM 2053(T) as well as of phenotypic and genotypic differences, strain SMA-21(T) was assigned to a novel species of the genus Methanosarcina, for which the name Methanosarcina soligelidi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SMA-21(T) (=DSM 26065(T) [corrected] = JCM 18468).

  13. Methanosarcina subterranea sp. nov., a methanogenic archaeon isolated from a deep subsurface diatomaceous shale formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Satoru; Ueno, Akio; Naganuma, Takeshi; Kaneko, Katsuhiko

    2015-04-01

    A methanogenic archaeon, strain HC-2(T), was isolated from a deep diatomaceous shale formation. The strain grew on methanol, monomethylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine and dimethylsulphide, but not on acetate, H2/CO2, formate, 2-propanol, 2-butanol or cyclopentanol. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, and coccus-like, 0.9-1.4 µm in diameter, and occurred singly, in pairs, or as aggregates. The strain grew at 10-40 °C (optimum 35 °C), pH 5.9-7.4 (optimum pH 6.6-6.8) and in 0-0.6 M NaCl (optimum 0.1-0.2 M). The genomic DNA G+C content was 41.5 mol% and the 16S rRNA gene sequence was closely related to those of Methanosarcina lacustris DSM 13486(T) (99.1%) and Methanosarcina siciliae DSM 3028(T) (98.3%). Values for DNA-DNA hybridization with these strains were less than 30%. The phenotypic and phylogenetic features of HC-2(T) indicate that it represents a novel species of the genus Methanosarcina , for which the name Methanosarcina subterranea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HC-2(T) ( = DSM 22503(T) = JCM 15540(T) = NBRC 102578(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  14. Dynein associates with oskar mRNPs and is required for their efficient net plus-end localization in Drosophila oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulomi Sanghavi

    Full Text Available In order for eukaryotic cells to function properly, they must establish polarity. The Drosophila oocyte uses mRNA localization to establish polarity and hence provides a genetically tractable model in which to study this process. The spatial restriction of oskar mRNA and its subsequent protein product is necessary for embryonic patterning. The localization of oskar mRNA requires microtubules and microtubule-based motor proteins. Null mutants in Kinesin heavy chain (Khc, the motor subunit of the plus end-directed Kinesin-1, result in oskar mRNA delocalization. Although the majority of oskar particles are non-motile in khc nulls, a small fraction of particles display active motility. Thus, a motor other than Kinesin-1 could conceivably also participate in oskar mRNA localization. Here we show that Dynein heavy chain (Dhc, the motor subunit of the minus end-directed Dynein complex, extensively co-localizes with Khc and oskar mRNA. In addition, immunoprecipitation of the Dynein complex specifically co-precipitated oskar mRNA and Khc. Lastly, germline-specific depletion of Dhc resulted in oskar mRNA and Khc delocalization. Our results therefore suggest that efficient posterior localization of oskar mRNA requires the concerted activities of both Dynein and Kinesin-1.

  15. Primary cilia in the basal cells of equine epididymis: a serendipitous finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Silvana

    2013-04-01

    Occurrence of a solitary cilium was an unexpected discovery while studying the ultrastructure of epididymal epithelium in equidae. Primary cilia were detected in epididymal basal cells of all individuals of the equines studied - horses, donkey and mules - independently from age and tract of the duct, emerging from the basal cell surface and insinuating into the intercellular spaces. More rarely solitary cilia occurred also at the luminal surface of the principal cells. The ciliary apparatus was constituted by a structurally typical basal body continuous with the finger-like ciliary shaft extending from the cell surface, and an adjacent centriole oriented at right angles to the basal body. The cilium was structured as the typical primary, non-motile cilia found in many mammalian cells, having a 9+0 microtubular pattern. The basal diplosome was randomly associated with other cellular organelles including the Golgi complex, the endoplasmic reticulum, the microfilament network, the plasma membrane, vesicles and pits. Primary ciliogenesis is a new and unexpected finding in the epididymal epithelium. A monitoring role of luminal factors and extracellular liquids might be attributed to this organelle, likely acting as chemical receptor of the luminal environment, thus modulating the epithelial function by a cell-to-cell crosstalk involving the entire epithelium.

  16. Co-Cultivation of Fungal and Microalgal Cells as an Efficient System for Harvesting Microalgal Cells, Lipid Production and Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, Digby; Taha, Mohamed; Miranda, Ana F.; Kadali, Krishna; Stevenson, Trevor; Ball, Andrew S.; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2014-01-01

    The challenges which the large scale microalgal industry is facing are associated with the high cost of key operations such as harvesting, nutrient supply and oil extraction. The high-energy input for harvesting makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible and can account for up to 50% of the total cost of biofuel production. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells is getting increasing attention because of high efficiency of bio-flocculation of microalgal cells with no requirement for added chemicals and low energy inputs. Moreover, some fungal and microalgal strains are well known for their exceptional ability to purify wastewater, generating biomass that represents a renewable and sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. We have screened the flocculation efficiency of the filamentous fungus A. fumigatus against 11 microalgae representing freshwater, marine, small (5 µm), large (over 300 µm), heterotrophic, photoautotrophic, motile and non-motile strains. Some of the strains are commercially used for biofuel production. Lipid production and composition were analysed in fungal-algal pellets grown on media containing alternative carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources contained in wheat straw and swine wastewater, respectively. Co-cultivation of algae and A. fumigatus cells showed additive and synergistic effects on biomass production, lipid yield and wastewater bioremediation efficiency. Analysis of fungal-algal pellet's fatty acids composition suggested that it can be tailored and optimised through co-cultivating different algae and fungi without the need for genetic modification. PMID:25419574

  17. Chryseobacterium frigidisoli sp. nov., a psychrotolerant species of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from sandy permafrost from a glacier forefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerski, Felizitas; Ganzert, Lars; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Padur, Lisa; Lipski, André; Wagner, Dirk

    2013-07-01

    During diversity studies of the glacier forefields of the Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica, a novel psychrotolerant, non-motile Gram-negative, shiny yellow, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated strain PB4(T) was isolated from a soil sample. Strain PB4(T) produces indole from tryptophan and hydrolyses casein. It grows between 0 and 25 °C with an optimum growth temperature of 20 °C. A wide range of substrates are used as sole carbon sources and acid is produced from numerous carbohydrates. The major menaquinone is MK-6. Identified polar lipids are ethanolamines and ornithine lipids. Major fatty acids (>10 %) are iso-C15 : 0 (13.0 %) and iso-2OH-C15 : 0 (51.2 %). G+C content is 33.7 mol%. The polyamine pattern is composed of sym-homospermidine (25.1 µmol g(-1) dry weight), minor amounts of cadaverine (0.2 µmol g(-1) dry weight) and spermidine (0.4 µmol g(-1) dry weight) and traces of putrescine and spermine (26000(T) = LMG 27025(T)).

  18. 利什曼原虫胞内寄生相关基因的研究%The research on genes related to the endoparasitic Leishmania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹得萍; 陈建平

    2010-01-01

    利什曼病是由利什曼原虫无鞭毛体寄生在包括人在内的哺乳动物巨噬细胞而引起的疾病,由杜氏利什曼原虫引起的内脏利什曼病若不治疗则会致命.研究者对寄生在白蛉属消化道内的前鞭毛体和寄生在巨噬细胞内的无鞭毛体胞内高表达基因或蛋白进行研究,筛选出一些特异基因,为利什曼原虫疫苗候选抗原的确定和靶作用药物的确定提供了科学依据.%Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by Leishmania spp. amastigotes which parasitize in the macrophage cells of mammals including human being. Visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani is usually fatal if not properly treated. Parasitological studies have found some special genes by screening high expressed genes or proteins in motile promastigotes existing in the midgut of sandflies and non-motile amastigotes residing in macrophages. These findings may provide a scientific foundation to determine target drugs and candidate antigens of Leishmania vaccine.

  19. Rubidimonas crustatorum gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Saprospiraceae isolated from a marine crustacean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Katsuta, Atsuko; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2012-03-01

    A strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, reddish-orange pigmented, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated AK17-053(T) was isolated from a marine crustacean (Squillidae) living on tidal flats on the coast of the Ariake Sea, Nagasaki, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate could be affiliated with the family Saprospiraceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it showed highest sequence similarity (84%) with Lewinella marina MKG-38(T). The strain could be differentiated phenotypically from recognized members of the family Saprospiraceae. The G+C content of DNA was 55.3 mol%, MK-7 was the major menaquinone and iso-C(15:0) and C(16:1)ω7c were the major fatty acids. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic studies, it was concluded that strain AK17-053(T) represents a new genus of the family Saprospiraceae. We propose the name Rubidimonas crustatorum gen. nov., sp. nov. for this strain; its type strain is AK17-053(T) (= MBIC08356(T) = NBRC 107717(T)).

  20. Shared and Distinct Mechanisms of Compartmentalized and Cytosolic Ciliogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidor-Reiss, Tomer; Leroux, Michel R

    2015-12-07

    Most motile and all non-motile (also known as primary) eukaryotic cilia possess microtubule-based axonemes that are assembled at the cell surface to form hair-like or more elaborate compartments endowed with motility and/or signaling functions. Such compartmentalized ciliogenesis depends on the core intraflagellar transport (IFT) machinery and the associated Bardet-Biedl syndrome complex (BBSome) for dynamic delivery of ciliary components. The transition zone (TZ), an ultrastructurally complex barrier or 'gate' at the base of cilia, also contributes to the formation of compartmentalized cilia. Yet, some ciliated protists do not have IFT components and, like some metazoan spermatozoa, use IFT-independent mechanisms to build axonemes exposed to the cytosol. Moreover, various ciliated protists lack TZ components, whereas Drosophila sperm surprisingly requires the activity of dynamically localized TZ proteins for cytosolic ciliogenesis. Here, we discuss the various ways eukaryotes use IFT and/or TZ proteins to generate the wide assortment of compartmentalized and cytosolic cilia observed in nature. Consideration of the different ciliogenesis pathways allows us to propose how three types of cytosol-exposed cilia (primary, secondary and tertiary), including cilia found in the human sperm proximal segment, are likely generated by evolutionary derivations of compartmentalized ciliogenesis.

  1. High-quality-draft genome sequence of the fermenting bacterium Anaerobium acetethylicum type strain GluBS11(T) (DSM 29698).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Yogita; Müller, Nicolai; Schink, Bernhard; Whitman, William B; Huntemann, Marcel; Clum, Alicia; Pillay, Manoj; Palaniappan, Krishnaveni; Varghese, Neha; Mikhailova, Natalia; Stamatis, Dimitrios; Reddy, T B K; Daum, Chris; Shapiro, Nicole; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Woyke, Tanja; Junghare, Madan

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobium acetethylicum strain GluBS11(T) belongs to the family Lachnospiraceae within the order Clostridiales. It is a Gram-positive, non-motile and strictly anaerobic bacterium isolated from biogas slurry that was originally enriched with gluconate as carbon source (Patil, et al., Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 65:3289-3296, 2015). Here we describe the draft genome sequence of strain GluBS11(T) and provide a detailed insight into its physiological and metabolic features. The draft genome sequence generated 4,609,043 bp, distributed among 105 scaffolds assembled using the SPAdes genome assembler method. It comprises in total 4,132 genes, of which 4,008 were predicted to be protein coding genes, 124 RNA genes and 867 pseudogenes. The G + C content was 43.51 mol %. The annotated genome of strain GluBS11(T) contains putative genes coding for the pentose phosphate pathway, the Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas pathway, the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The genome revealed the presence of most of the necessary genes required for the fermentation of glucose and gluconate to acetate, ethanol, and hydrogen gas. However, a candidate gene for production of formate was not identified.

  2. High quality draft genome sequence of Leucobacter chironomi strain MM2LB(T) (DSM 19883(T)) isolated from a Chironomus sp. egg mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviad, Sivan; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Reddy, Tbk; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia N; Markowitz, Victor M; Pukall, Rüdiger; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Leucobacter chironomi strain MM2LB(T) (Halpern et al., Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59:665-70 2009) is a Gram-positive, rod shaped, non-motile, aerobic, chemoorganotroph bacterium. L. chironomi belongs to the family Microbacteriaceae, a family within the class Actinobacteria. Strain MM2LB(T) was isolated from a chironomid (Diptera; Chironomidae) egg mass that was sampled from a waste stabilization pond in northern Israel. In a phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain MM2LB(T) formed a distinct branch within the radiation encompassing the genus Leucobacter. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The DNA GC content is 69.90%. The chromosome length is 2,964,712 bp. It encodes 2,690 proteins and 61 RNA genes. L. chironomi genome is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes (KMG) project.

  3. Genome sequence of Microvirga lupini strain LUT6(T), a novel Lupinus alphaproteobacterial microsymbiont from Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Wayne; Parker, Matthew; Tian, Rui; Goodwin, Lynne; Teshima, Hazuki; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2014-06-15

    Microvirga lupini LUT6(T) is an aerobic, non-motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Lupinus texensis. LUT6(T) was isolated in 2006 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the annual L. texensis growing in Travis Co., Texas. LUT6(T) forms a highly specific nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with endemic L. texensis and no other Lupinus species can form an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with this isolate. Here we describe the features of M. lupini LUT6(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 9,633,614 bp improved high quality draft genome is arranged into 160 scaffolds of 1,366 contigs containing 10,864 protein-coding genes and 87 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of a DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Project.

  4. Genome sequence of Microvirga lupini strain LUT6T, a novel Lupinus alphaproteobacterial microsymbiont from Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Wayne; Parker, Matthew; Tian, Rui; Goodwin, Lynne; Teshima, Hazuki; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Microvirga lupini LUT6T is an aerobic, non-motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of Lupinus texensis. LUT6T was isolated in 2006 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the annual L. texensis growing in Travis Co., Texas. LUT6T forms a highly specific nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with endemic L. texensis and no other Lupinus species can form an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with this isolate. Here we describe the features of M. lupini LUT6T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 9,633,614 bp improved high quality draft genome is arranged into 160 scaffolds of 1,366 contigs containing 10,864 protein-coding genes and 87 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of a DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Project. PMID:25197490

  5. Complete genome sequence of Pyrolobus fumarii type strain (1AT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Huber, Harald [Universitat Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; Yasawong, Montri [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Abt, Birte [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Wirth, Reinhard [Universitat Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolobus fumarii Bl chl et al. 1997 is the type species of the genus Pyrolobus, which be- longs to the crenarchaeal family Pyrodictiaceae. The species is a facultatively microaerophilic non-motile crenarchaeon. It is of interest because of its isolated phylogenetic location in the tree of life and because it is a hyperthermophilic chemolithoautotroph known as the primary producer of organic matter at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. P. fumarii exhibits currently the highest optimal growth temperature of all life forms on earth (106 C). This is the first com- pleted genome sequence of a member of the genus Pyrolobus to be published and only the second genome sequence from a member of the family Pyrodictiaceae. Although Diversa Corporation announced the completion of sequencing of the P. fumarii genome on Septem- ber 25, 2001, this sequence was never released to the public. The 1,843,267 bp long genome with its 1,986 protein-coding and 52 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  6. Biodegradation of heavy oils by halophilic bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruixia Hao; Anhuai Lu

    2009-01-01

    A halophilic bacterial strain TM-1 was isolated from the reservoir of the Shengli oil field in East China. Strain TM-1, which was found to be able to degrade crude oils, is a gram-positive non-motile bacterium with a coccus shape that can grow at temperatures of up to 58 ℃ and in 18% NaCl solution. Depending on the culture conditions, the organism may occur in tetrads. In addition, strain TM-1 pro-duced acid from glucose without gas formation and was catalase-negative. Furthermore, strain TM-I was found to be a facultative aer-obe capable of growth under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, it produced butylated hydroxytoluene, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid-bis ester and dibutyl phthalate and could use different organic substrates. Laboratory studies indicated that strain TM-1 affected different heavy oils by degrading various components and by changing the chemical properties of the oils. In addition, growth of the bacterium in heavy oils resulted in the loss of aromatic hydrocarbons, resins and asphaltenes, and enrichment with light hydrocarbons and an overall redistribution of these hydrocarbons.

  7. Bacteroides luti sp. nov., an anaerobic, cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacterium isolated from methanogenic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamoto, Masashi; Kaneshige, Masami; Nakamura, Akinobu; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    A mesophilic, anaerobic, cellulolytic and xylanolytic strain, UasXn-3T, was isolated from anaerobic granular sludge in a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, which was used to treat municipal sewage. The cells were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, and non-spore-forming rods. The optimal temperature for growth was 37-40 °C and the optimal pH for growth was pH 6.5-7.0. Strain UasXn-3T could grow on several polysaccharides and sugars, including cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, fructose, arabinose, mannose, raffinose, trehalose and starch. The DNA G+C content was 44.4 mol%. On the basis of comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain UasXn-3T was identified as a member of the genus Bacteroides and most closely related to Bacteroides oleiciplenus, B. intestinalis, B. cellulosilyticus and B. graminisolvens (sequence similarities of 91.3-91.6%). Since the genetic and phenotypic properties suggest that strain UasXn-3T represents a novel species, we propose the name Bacteroides luti sp. nov. The type strain is UasXn-3T (=JCM 19020T=DSM 26991T).

  8. Bacteroides cellulosilyticus sp. nov., a cellulolytic bacterium from the human gut microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Céline; Chassard, Christophe; Lawson, Paul A; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick

    2007-07-01

    A strictly anaerobic cellulolytic bacterium, strain CRE21(T), was isolated from a human faecal sample. Cells were Gram-negative non-motile rods that were about 1.7 microm in length and 0.9 microm in width. Strain CRE21(T) degraded different types of cellulose and was able to grow on a variety of carbohydrates. Cellulose and sugars were mainly converted to acetate, propionate and succinate. The G+C content of the DNA was 41.1 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate belonged to the genus Bacteroides with highest sequence similarity to the type strain of Bacteroides intestinalis (98 %). DNA-DNA hybridization results revealed that strain CRE21(T) was distinct from B. intestinalis (40 % DNA-DNA relatedness). Strain CRE21(T) also showed several characteristics distinct from B. intestinalis. In particular, it exhibited different capacity to degrade polysaccharides such as cellulose. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis and the morphological, physiological and biochemical data presented in this study, strain CRE21(T) can be readily differentiated from recognized species of the genus Bacteroides. The name Bacteroides cellulosilyticus sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate this organism. The type strain is CRE21(T) (=DSM 14838(T)=CCUG 44979(T)).

  9. A global transcriptional switch between the attack and growth forms of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Karunker

    Full Text Available Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is an obligate predator of bacteria ubiquitously found in the environment. Its life cycle is composed of two essential phases: a free-living, non-replicative, fast swimming attack phase (AP wherein the predator searches for prey; and a non-motile, actively dividing growth phase (GP in which it consumes the prey. The molecular regulatory mechanisms governing the switch between AP and GP are largely unknown. We used RNA-seq to generate a single-base-resolution map of the Bdellovibrio transcriptome in AP and GP, revealing a specific "AP" transcriptional program, which is largely mutually exclusive of the GP program. Based on the expression map, most genes in the Bdellovibrio genome are classified as "AP only" or "GP only". We experimentally generated a genome-wide map of 140 AP promoters, controlling the majority of AP-specific genes. This revealed a common sigma-like DNA binding site highly similar to the E. coli flagellar genes regulator sigma28 (FliA. Further analyses suggest that FliA has evolved to become a global AP regulator in Bdellovibrio. Our results also reveal a non-coding RNA that is massively expressed in AP. This ncRNA contains a c-di-GMP riboswitch. We suggest it functions as an intracellular reservoir for c-di-GMP, playing a role in the rapid switch from AP to GP.

  10. Thiohalocapsa marina sp. nov., from an Indian marine aquaculture pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil Kumar, P; Srinivas, T N R; Thiel, V; Tank, M; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V; Imhoff, J F

    2009-09-01

    A spherical-shaped, phototrophic, purple sulfur bacterium was isolated in pure culture from anoxic sediment in a marine aquaculture pond near Bheemli (India). Strain JA142T is Gram-negative and non-motile. It has a requirement for NaCl (optimum of 2% and maximum of 6% w/v NaCl). Intracellular photosynthetic membranes are of the vesicular type. In vivo absorption spectra indicate the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of the okenone series as photosynthetic pigments. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JA142T is related to halophilic purple sulfur bacteria of the genera Thiohalocapsa and Halochromatium, with the highest sequence similarity to Thiohalocapsa halophila DSM 6210T (97.5%). Morphological and physiological characteristics differentiate strain JA142T from other species of the genera Halochromatium and Thiohalocapsa. Strain JA142T is sufficiently different from Thiohalocapsa halophila based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and morphological and physiological characteristics to allow the proposal of a novel species, Thiohalocapsa marina sp. nov., with the type strain JA142T (=JCM 14780T=DSM 19078T).

  11. Isolation and Characterization of a New KOR-1 from an Anaerobic Digester Using Pig Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urantulkhuur Battumur

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A new methanogen was isolated from an anaerobic digester using pig slurry in South Korea. Only one strain, designated KOR-1, was characterized in detail. Cells of KOR-1 were straight or crooked rods, non-motile, 5 to 15 μm long and 0.7 μm wide. They stained Gram-positive and produced methane from H2+CO2 and formate. Strain KOR-1 grew optimally at 38°C. The optimum pH for growth was 7.0. The strain grew at 0.5% to 3.0% NaCl, with optimum growth at 2.5% NaCl. The G+C content of genomic DNA of strain KOR-1 was 41 mol%. The strain tolerated ampicillin, penicillin G, kanamycin and streptomycin but tetracycline inhibited cell growth. A large fragment of the 16S rRNA gene (~1,350 bp was obtained from the isolate and sequenced. Comparison of 16S rRNA genes revealed that strain KOR–1 is related to Methanobacterium formicicum (98%, sequence similarity, Methanobacterium bryantii (95% and Methanobacterium ivanovii (93%. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced mcrA gene sequences confirmed the closest relative as based on mcrA gene sequence analysis was Methanobacterium formicicum strain (97% nucleic acid sequence identity. On the basis of physiological and phylogenetic characteristics, strain KOR-1 is proposed as a new strain within the genus Methanobacterium, Methanobacterium formicicum KOR-1.

  12. Description of Acinetobacter populi sp. nov. isolated from symptomatic bark of Populus x euramericana canker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Chang, Jupu; Guo, Li-min; Wang, Hai-Ming; Xie, Shou-jiang; Piao, Chun-gen; He, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Five Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains were isolated from cankers of Populus x euramericana collected from different locations in Puyang city, Henan Province, China. The five strains were characterized by nutritional and physiological testing and DNA sequence analysis. Haemolysis was not observed on agar media supplemented with sheep erythrocytes. The strains could be distinguished from members of most species of the genus Acinetobacter by their inability to assimilate L-arginine and benzoate. The five strains formed a single branch in phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB individual gene sequence analysis,indicating that they all belonged to a single taxon within the genus Acinetobacter. DNA-DNA hybridization results indicated that the five isolates represented to a single species that was separate from Acinetobacter puyangensis. On the basis of the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the five strains are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter populi sp. nov. is proposed. The typestrain of A. populi sp. nov. is PBJ7T (CFCC 11170T=KCTC 42272T).

  13. Acinetobacter plantarum sp. nov. isolated from wheat seedlings plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Singh, Hina; Yu, Hongshan; Jin, Feng-Xie; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2016-07-01

    Strain THG-SQM11(T), a Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, coccus-shaped bacterium, was isolated from wheat seedlings plant in P. R. China. Strain THG-SQM11(T) was closely related to members of the genus Acinetobacter and showed the highest 16S rRNA sequence similarities with Acinetobacter junii (97.9 %) and Acinetobacter kookii (96.1 %). DNA-DNA hybridization showed 41.3 ± 2.4 % DNA reassociation with A. junii KCTC 12416(T). Chemotaxonomic data revealed that strain THG-SQM11(T) possesses ubiquinone-9 as the predominant respiratory quinone, C18:1 ω9c, summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c), and C16:0 as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylcholine. The DNA G+C content was 41.7 mol %. These data, together with phenotypic characterization, suggest that the isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Acinetobacter plantarum sp. nov. is proposed, with THG-SQM11(T) as the type strain (=CCTCC AB 2015123(T) =KCTC 42611(T)).

  14. Primary cilium - antenna-like structure on the surface of most mammalian cell types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, J.; Sitorova, V.; Hadzi Nikolov, D.; Mokry, J.; Richter, I.; Kasaova, L.; Filip, S.; Ryska, A.; Petera, J.

    2011-12-01

    The primary cilium is a sensory solitary non-motile microtubule-based organelle protruding in the quiescent phase of the cell cycle from the surface of the majority of human cells, including embryonic cells, stem cells and stromal cells of malignant tumors. The presence of a primary cilium on the surface of a cell is transient, limited to the quiescent G1(G0) phase and the beginning of the S phase of the cell cycle. The primary cilium is formed from the mother centriole. Primary cilia are key coordinators of signaling pathways during development and tissue homeostasis and, when deffective, they are a major cause of human diseases and developmental disorders, now commonly referred to as ciliopathies. Most cancer cells do not possess a primary cilium. The loss of the primary cilium is a regular feature of neoplastic transformation in the majority of solid tumors. The primary cilium could serve as a tumor suppressor organelle. The aim of this paper was to provide a review of the current knowledge of the primary cilium.

  15. Microbacterium xylanilyticum sp. nov., a xylan-degrading bacterium isolated from a biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Kyu; Park, Hye Yoon; Park, Wooshin; Kim, In S; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2005-09-01

    A novel xylan-degrading bacterium, S3-E(T), was isolated from the biofilm of a membrane bioreactor. The cells of this strain were Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming rods, produced primary branches and formed yellow colonies on nutrient agar. The strain had chemotaxonomic markers that were consistent with classification in the genus Microbacterium, i.e. MK-12, MK-11 and MK-13 as the major menaquinones, predominant iso- and anteiso-branched cellular fatty acids, glucose and galactose as the cell-wall sugars, peptidoglycan-type B2beta with glycolyl residues and a DNA G+C content of 69.7 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, showed that strain S3-E(T) is most similar to Microbacterium hominis IFO 15708(T) and Microbacterium foliorum DSM 12966(T) (97.6 and 97.4% sequence similarity, respectively), and that it forms a separate lineage with M. hominis in the genus Microbacterium. DNA-DNA hybridization results and phenotypic properties showed that strain S3-E(T) could be distinguished from all known Microbacterium species and represented a novel species, for which the name Microbacterium xylanilyticum sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is S3-E(T) (=DSM 16914(T)=KCTC 19079(T)).

  16. DLVO, hydrophobic, capillary and hydrodynamic forces acting on bacteria at solid-air-water interfaces: Their relative impact on bacteria deposition mechanisms in unsaturated porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hongjuan; Cochet, Nelly; Pauss, André; Lamy, Edvina

    2017-02-01

    Experimental and modeling studies were performed to investigate bacteria deposition behavior in unsaturated porous media. The coupled effect of different forces, acting on bacteria at solid-air-water interfaces and their relative importance on bacteria deposition mechanisms was explored by calculating Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) and non-DLVO interactions such as hydrophobic, capillary and hydrodynamic forces. Negatively charged non-motile bacteria and quartz sands were used in packed column experiments. The breakthrough curves and retention profiles of bacteria were simulated using the modified Mobile-IMmobile (MIM) model, to identify physico-chemical attachment or physical straining mechanisms involved in bacteria retention. These results indicated that both mechanisms might occur in both sand. However, the attachment was found to be a reversible process, because attachment coefficients were similar to those of detachment. DLVO calculations supported these results: the primary minimum did not exist, suggesting no permanent retention of bacteria to solid-water and air-water interfaces. Calculated hydrodynamic and resisting torques predicted that bacteria detachment in the secondary minimum might occur. The capillary potential energy was greater than DLVO, hydrophobic and hydrodynamic potential energies, suggesting that film straining by capillary forces might largely govern bacteria deposition under unsaturated conditions.

  17. Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae 3841, deficient in 27-hydroxyoctacosanoate-modified lipopolysaccharide, is impaired in desiccation tolerance, biofilm formation and motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinde, Elizabeth M; Muszynski, Artur; Harrison, Joe J; Koval, Susan F; Foreman, Dallas L; Ceri, Howard; Kannenberg, Elmar L; Carlson, Russell W; Yost, Christopher K

    2009-09-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the Gram-negative legume symbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae 3,841 contains several unique modifications, including the addition of a 27-hydroxyoctacosanoic acid (27OHC28 : 0), also termed the very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA), attached at the 2' position of lipid A. A transposon mutant that lacks expression of two putative 3-oxo-acyl [acyl-carrier protein] synthase II genes, fabF1 and fabF2, from the VLCFA biosynthetic cluster, was isolated and characterized. MS indicated that the lipid A of the mutant lacked the VLCFA modification, and sodium deoxycholate (DOC)-PAGE of the LPS indicated further structural alterations. The mutant was characteristically sensitive to several stresses that would be experienced in the soil environment, such as desiccation and osmotic stresses. An increase in the excretion of neutral surface polysaccharides was observed in the mutant. This mutant was also altered in its attachment to solid surfaces, and was non-motile, with most of the mutant cells lacking flagella. Despite the pleiotropic effects of the mutation, these mutants were still able to nodulate legumes and fix atmospheric nitrogen. This report emphasizes that a structurally intact VLCFA-containing lipid A is critical to cellular traits that are important for survival in the rhizosphere.

  18. Repeated use of the GnRH analogue deslorelin to down-regulate reproduction in male cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschinger, H J; Jago, M; Nöthling, J O; Human, A

    2006-10-01

    The GnRH analogue deslorelin, as a subcutaneous implant, was initially developed in Australia as an ovulation-inducing agent in mares. Its uses, for the suppression of reproduction in the domestic dog and cat and in other species, including humans, have been developed subsequently. Such implants have been used as a contraceptive modality in a variety of wild carnivores, both males and females. This paper describes the use of deslorelin implants as a contraceptive agent for cheetah males maintained in a semi-captive environment and housed in various camps together with females. Annually, male cheetahs were treated for 1 (n = 2), 2 (n = 7), 3 (n = 9), 4 (n = 3) or 5 (n = 1) consecutive years with an implant containing 4.7, 5.0 or 6.0 mg of deslorelin. On the first day of treatment and then on an annual basis, blood testosterone concentrations were analysed, testicular measurements were taken, appearance of penile spikes was determined, and semen was collected and evaluated. Pregnancy rates of mated or inseminated females were determined. A dose of 6 mg of deslorelin suppressed reproduction for at least 1 year, whereas with 4.7 and 5 mg of deslorelin, 3 of 17 males had a few non-motile spermatozoa in their ejaculates. All testosterone concentrations were basal at 1 year post-implant and no side effects were observed. We concluded that deslorelin implantation, at a dose of 6 mg, was a safe and reliable method of annual contraception in male cheetahs.

  19. In vitro Study of the Spermatozoa Motility in the Lizard Eutropis carinata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Dosemane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reptilian epididymis is considered as an important excurrent duct system required for the sperm maturation. Reptilian epididymis synthesizes and secretes proteins which vary in different regions of the epididymis. Hence, to investigate the effect of the secretions of different regions of the epididymis on spermatozoa motility, an in vitro study was undertaken to observe the changes in the patterns of motility of the testicular spermatozoa incubated with luminal contents of different regions of the epididymis in the lizard Eutropis carinata for the first time. The non motile testicular spermatozoa from the testis exhibited different patterns of motility, when incubated with the luminal contents of different regions of the epididymis. The spermatozoa from the testis, different regions of the epididymis exhibited 8 different patterns of motility (a-h. Testicular spermatozoa incubated with the anterior and middle epididymal luminal contents showed the motility patterns almost similar to that of the spermatozoa of the anterior and middle epididymis respectively. In contrast to the spermatozoa of the posterior epididymis, none of the testicular spermatozoa showed any movement when incubated with the posterior epididymal luminal contents. This study throws light on the importance of each region of epididymis in the physiological maturation of spermatozoa.

  20. [Role of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, C; Aránguiz, V; Giglio, M S; Fernández, A

    1990-04-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (AA), is a cocobacillus thin and small, non motile, uncapsulate and capnophilic. AA, is: one of the species encountered in the mouth's comensal flora being able to be isolated in gingival crevices culture and oral mucosa in a 20% of the healthy population. An important number of pathogenic factors make it well equipped, to protect itself from host's defense mechanisms, and to destroy the periodontal tissue. Between the most important we find lipopolisacarides and leucotoxines which promote tisular invasion and destructive qualities of this microorganism. Since 1912, there are numerous reports of infectious process associated to it, between which we find: endocarditis in native and prothesic valve, soft tissues abscess, pneumonia, brain's abscess, urethritis, vertebral osteomielitis, thyroid's abscess, pericarditis and periodontal juvenile illness, being this one in which its isolation is more frequent. In vitro, AA is very susceptible to tetracicline. This antibiotic reaches high concentrations in gingival crevices, has significant affinity to the alveolar bone and contributes to protect the collagen. These special feature make them the election drug in periodontal disease produced by this microorganism.

  1. In Azospirillum brasilense, mutations in flmA or flmB genes affect polar flagellum assembly, surface polysaccharides, and attachment to maize roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fernando Ariel; Medeot, Daniela Beatriz; Liaudat, Juan Pablo; Pistorio, Mariano; Jofré, Edgardo

    2016-09-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a soil bacterium capable of promoting plant growth. Several surface components were previously reported to be involved in the attachment of A. brasilense to root plants. Among these components are the exopolysaccharide (EPS), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the polar flagellum. Flagellin from polar flagellum is glycosylated and it was suggested that genes involved in such a posttranslational modification are the same ones involved in the biosynthesis of sugars present in the O-antigen of the LPS. In this work, we report on the characterization of two homologs present in A. brasilense Cd, to the well characterized flagellin modification genes, flmA and flmB, from Aeromonas caviae. We show that mutations in either flmA or flmB genes of A. brasilense resulted in non-motile cells due to alterations in the polar flagellum assembly. Moreover, these mutations also affected the capability of A. brasilense cells to adsorb to maize roots and to produce LPS and EPS. By generating a mutant containing the polar flagellum affected in their rotation, we show the importance of the bacterial motility for the early colonization of maize roots.

  2. [Yersinia pestis and plague - an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2014-12-01

    The plague of man is a severe, systemic bacterial infectious disease. Without antibacterial therapy, the disease is associated with a high case fatality rate, ranging from 40% (bubonic plague) to nearly 100% (septicemic and pneumonic plague). The disease is caused by Yersinia pestis, a non-motile, gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. In nature, Y. pestis has been found in several rodent species and some other small animals such as shrews. Within its reservoir host, Y. pestis circulates via flea bites. Transmission of Y. pestis to humans occurs by the bite of rat fleas, other flea vectors or by non vectorial routes, e. g., handling infected animals or consumption of contaminated food. Human-to-human transmission of the pathogen occurs primarily through aerosol droplets. Compared to the days when plague was a pandemic scourge, the disease is now relatively rare and limited to some rural areas of Africa. During the last ten years, however, plague outbreaks have been registered repea- tedly in some African regions. For treatment of plague, streptomycin is still considered the drug of choice. Chloramphenicol, doxycycline, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin are also promising drugs. Recombinant vaccines against plague are in clinical development.

  3. Methanofollis aquaemaris sp. nov., a methanogen isolated from an aquaculture fish pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, M C; Chen, S C

    2001-09-01

    A novel methanogen, designated strain N2F9704T, was isolated from an aquaculture fish pond near Wang-gong, Taiwan. The cells were irregular cocci, non-motile, 1.2-2.0 microm in diameter and stained gram-negative. Cells of strain N2F9704T lysed easily by SDS treatment (0.1 g l(-1)) and the S-layer protein had an Mr of 137000. The catabolic substrates used included formate and H2+CO2, but not acetate, methanol, trimethylamine or secondary alcohols. The optimal growth parameters for strain N2F9704T were pH 6.5, 37 degrees C with 0.5% NaCl. Trace amounts of tungstate not only promoted growth but also extended the range of growth conditions. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence revealed a phylogenetic relationship to Methanofollis species and the name Methanofollis aquaemaris sp. nov. is therefore proposed for strain N2F9704T (= OCM 746T = CCRC 16166T). Additionally, the strain was infected with a novel coccus-shaped, enveloped virus with a diameter of 200 nm.

  4. Dynamic Cross Talk between S1P and CXCL12 Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cells Migration, Development and Bone Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Golan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs are mostly retained in a quiescent non-motile mode in their bone marrow (BM niches, shifting to a migratory cycling and differentiating state to replenish the blood with mature leukocytes on demand. The balance between the major chemo-attractants CXCL12, predominantly in the BM, and S1P, mainly in the blood, dynamically regulates HSC recruitment to the circulation versus their retention in the BM. During alarm situations, stress-signals induce a decrease in CXCL12 levels in the BM, while S1P levels are rapidly and transiently increased in the circulation, thus favoring mobilization of stem cells as part of host defense and repair mechanisms. Myeloid cytokines, including G-CSF, up-regulate S1P signaling in the BM via the PI3K pathway. Induced CXCL12 secretion from stromal cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and increased S1P1 expression and ROS signaling in HSCs, all facilitate mobilization. Bone turnover is also modulated by both CXCL12 and S1P, regulating the dynamic BM stromal microenvironment, osteoclasts and stem cell niches which all functionally express CXCL12 and S1P receptors. Overall, CXCL12 and S1P levels in the BM and circulation are synchronized to mutually control HSC motility, leukocyte production and osteoclast/osteoblast bone turnover during homeostasis and stress situations.

  5. Autonomous motion of semipermeable colloidal particles via chemical reactions: self-osmophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Misael; Cordova-Figueroa, Ubaldo

    2010-11-01

    While a large body of work exists on the design of catalytically-driven colloidal particles, little work exists on particles with the ability to permeate fluid through its surface that may be used for applications in lab-on-a-chip systems and drug delivery. We propose a model for the catalytically-driven motion of a semipermeable particle (e.g., non-motile microorganisms and vesicles) surrounded by reactant solutes in a Newtonian fluid. It is assumed that a first-order consumption reaction of surrounding reactants---which could be enzymatic or catalytic---occurs on half of the outer surface of the membrane. In equilibrium, the osmotic pressure inside the particle balances that of outside. The reaction creates an imbalance in osmotic pressure, causing outer fluid facing the catalytic side to permeate inside the particle as inner fluid permeates through the passive side. This fluid motion satisfies mass conservation inside the particle, causing particle motion towards regions of low reactant concentration by a mechanism known as osmophoresis. Preliminary results show that the particle velocity--defined as a P'eclet number--is a function of the permeability of the membrane, a "characteristic" osmotic velocity, and the Damköhler number--which is a measure of relative impacts of the diffusion and chemical reaction. The permeating fluid retards particle motion by dragging the solute against the induced osmotic imbalance.

  6. Evidence that a modified type IV pilus-like system powers gliding motility and polysaccharide secretion in filamentous cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatan, Behzad; Meeks, John C; Risser, Douglas D

    2015-12-01

    In filamentous cyanobacteria, the mechanism of gliding motility is undefined but posited to be driven by a polysaccharide secretion system known as the junctional pore complex (JPC). Recent evidence implies that the JPC is a modified type IV pilus-like structure encoded for in part by genes in the hps locus. To test this hypothesis, we conducted genetic, cytological and comparative genomics studies on hps and pil genes in Nostoc punctiforme, a species in which motility is restricted to transiently differentiated filaments called hormogonia. Inactivation of most hps and pil genes abolished motility and abolished or drastically reduced secretion of hormogonium polysaccharide, and the subcellular localization of several Pil proteins in motile hormogonia corresponds to the site of the junctional pore complex. The non-motile ΔhpsE-G strain, which lacks three glycosyltransferases that synthesize hormogonium polysaccharide, could be complemented to motility by the addition of medium conditioned by wild-type hormogonia. Based on this result, we speculate that secretion of hormogonium polysaccharide facilitates but does not provide the motive force for gliding. Both the Hps and Pil homologs characterized in this study are almost universally conserved among filamentous cyanobacteria, with the Hps homologs rarely found in unicellular strains. These results support the theory that Hps and Pil proteins compose the JPC, a type IV pilus-like nanomotor that drives motility and polysaccharide secretion in filamentous cyanobacteria.

  7. Male-female crosstalk during pollen germination, tube growth and guidance, and double fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Franklin-Tong, Noni

    2013-07-01

    Sperm cells of flowering plants are non-motile and thus require transportation to the egg apparatus via the pollen tube to execute double fertilization. During its journey, the pollen tube interacts with various sporophytic cell types that support its growth and guide it towards the surface of the ovule. The final steps of tube guidance and sperm delivery are controlled by the cells of the female gametophyte. During fertilization, cell-cell communication events take place to achieve and maximize reproductive success. Additional layers of crosstalk exist, including self-recognition and specialized processes to prevent self-fertilization and consequent inbreeding. In this review, we focus on intercellular communication between the pollen grain/pollen tube including the sperm cells with the various sporophytic maternal tissues and the cells of the female gametophyte. Polymorphic-secreted peptides and small proteins, especially those belonging to various subclasses of small cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs), reactive oxygen species (ROS)/NO signaling, and the second messenger Ca(2+), play center stage in most of these processes.

  8. Inoculation density and nutrient level determine the formation of mushroom-shaped structures in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Azadeh; Dehghany, Jaber; Schwebs, Timo; Müsken, Mathias; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa often colonises immunocompromised patients and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. It exhibits resistance to many antibiotics by forming biofilms, which makes it hard to eliminate. P. aeruginosa biofilms form mushroom-shaped structures under certain circumstances. Bacterial motility and the environment affect the eventual mushroom morphology. This study provides an agent-based model for the bacterial dynamics and interactions influencing bacterial biofilm shape. Cell motility in the model relies on recently published experimental data. Our simulations show colony formation by immotile cells. Motile cells escape from a single colony by nutrient chemotaxis and hence no mushroom shape develops. A high number density of non-motile colonies leads to migration of motile cells onto the top of the colonies and formation of mushroom-shaped structures. This model proposes that the formation of mushroom-shaped structures can be predicted by parameters at the time of bacteria inoculation. Depending on nutrient levels and the initial number density of stalks, mushroom-shaped structures only form in a restricted regime. This opens the possibility of early manipulation of spatial pattern formation in bacterial colonies, using environmental factors.

  9. Transition of Plasmodium sporozoites into liver stage-like forms is regulated by the RNA binding protein Pumilio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina S S Gomes-Santos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many eukaryotic developmental and cell fate decisions that are effected post-transcriptionally involve RNA binding proteins as regulators of translation of key mRNAs. In malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp., the development of round, non-motile and replicating exo-erythrocytic liver stage forms from slender, motile and cell-cycle arrested sporozoites is believed to depend on environmental changes experienced during the transmission of the parasite from the mosquito vector to the vertebrate host. Here we identify a Plasmodium member of the RNA binding protein family PUF as a key regulator of this transformation. In the absence of Pumilio-2 (Puf2 sporozoites initiate EEF development inside mosquito salivary glands independently of the normal transmission-associated environmental cues. Puf2- sporozoites exhibit genome-wide transcriptional changes that result in loss of gliding motility, cell traversal ability and reduction in infectivity, and, moreover, trigger metamorphosis typical of early Plasmodium intra-hepatic development. These data demonstrate that Puf2 is a key player in regulating sporozoite developmental control, and imply that transformation of salivary gland-resident sporozoites into liver stage-like parasites is regulated by a post-transcriptional mechanism.

  10. Morphological characteristics of motile plants for dynamic motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-11-01

    Most plants have been considered as non-motile organisms. However, plants move in response to environmental changes for survival. In addition, some species drive dynamic motions in a short period of time. Mimosa pudica is a plant that rapidly shrinks its body in response to external stimuli. It has specialized organs that are omnidirectionally activated due to morphological features. In addition, scales of pinecone open or close up depending on humidity for efficient seed release. A number of previous studies on the dynamic motion of plants have been investigated in a biochemical point of view. In this study, the morphological characteristics of those motile organs were investigated by using X-ray CT and micro-imaging techniques. The results show that the dynamic motions of motile plants are supported by structural features related with water transport. These studies would provide new insight for better understanding the moving mechanism of motile plant in morphological point of view. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Grant Number: 2008-0061991).

  11. Actinomycetospora rishiriensis sp. nov., isolated from a lichen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Hideki; Ashizawa, Haruna; Nakagawa, Youji; Hamada, Moriyuki; Ishida, Yuumi; Otoguro, Misa; Tamura, Tomohiko; Hayakawa, Masayuki

    2011-11-01

    An actinomycete, strain RI109-Li102(T), was isolated from a lichen sample obtained from Rishiri Island in Japan. Cells of strain RI109-Li102(T) were Gram-positive, aerobic and non-motile and formed bud-like spore chains. The isolate grew with 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl, at pH 5-9 and at 10-30 °C (optimum 30 °C). The whole-cell hydrolysate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose and galactose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H(4)) and the diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 1) H. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain RI109-Li102(T) was most closely related to Actinomycetospora corticicola 014-5(T) (99.0 % rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Actinomycetospora chiangmaiensis YIM 0006(T) (98.4 %). However, DNA-DNA hybridization assays, as well as physiological and biochemical analyses, showed that strain RI109-Li102(T) could be differentiated from its closest phylogenetic relatives. It is proposed that strain RI109-Li102(T) ( = NBRC 106356(T) = KCTC 19782(T)) be classified as the type strain of a novel species, with the name Actinomycetospora rishiriensis sp. nov.

  12. Leifsonia lichenia sp. nov., isolated from lichen in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sun-Young; Xiao, Tian; Yokota, Akira

    2009-10-01

    An actinobacterial strain, 2SbT, isolated from lichen was characterized taxonomically using a polyphasic approach. Strain 2SbT was Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped and non-motile. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain 2SbT was located in the genus Leifsonia. Level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the isolated strains and the type strains of Leifsonia species were 95.0-99.2%. The value of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 2SbT and Leifsonia poae, a phylogenetically related and phenotypically similar species, was 39.9/25.2%. The DNA G+C content of the strain 2SbT was 61.7 mol%. Cell wall peptidoglycan type (2,4-diaminobutyric acid), major cellular fatty acids (anteiso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(17:0) and iso-C(16:0)) and quinone type (MK-11 and MK-10) of the isolate support their affiliation to the genus Leifsonia. On the basis of phylogenetic position, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, strain 2SbT represent a novel species of the genus Leifsonia, for which the name Leifsonia lichenia sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2SbT (=IAM 15426T =JCM 23226T =KCTC 13122T).

  13. Molecular analysis of sourdough reveals Lactobacillus mindensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Matthias A; Müller, Martin R A; Vogel, Rudi F

    2003-01-01

    Genotypic fingerprinting to analyse the bacterial flora of an industrial sourdough revealed a coherent group of strains which could not be associated with a valid species. Comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that these strains formed a homogeneous cluster distinct from their closest relatives, Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus alimentarius and Lactobacillus kimchii. To characterize them further, physiological (sugar fermentation, formation of DL-lactate, hydrolysis of arginine, growth temperature, CO2 production) and chemotaxonomic properties have been determined. The DNA G +C content was 37.5 0.2 mol%. The peptidoglycan was of the lysine-D-iso-asparagine (L-Lys-D-Asp) type. The strains were homofermentative, Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile rods. They were found as a major stable component of a rye flour sourdough fermentation. Physiological, biochemical as well as genotypic data suggested them to be a new species of the genus Lactobacillus. This was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization of genomic DNA, and the name Lactobacillus mindensis is proposed. The type strain of this species is DSM 14500T (=LMG 21508T).

  14. Transition of Plasmodium sporozoites into liver stage-like forms is regulated by the RNA binding protein Pumilio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina S S Gomes-Santos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many eukaryotic developmental and cell fate decisions that are effected post-transcriptionally involve RNA binding proteins as regulators of translation of key mRNAs. In malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp., the development of round, non-motile and replicating exo-erythrocytic liver stage forms from slender, motile and cell-cycle arrested sporozoites is believed to depend on environmental changes experienced during the transmission of the parasite from the mosquito vector to the vertebrate host. Here we identify a Plasmodium member of the RNA binding protein family PUF as a key regulator of this transformation. In the absence of Pumilio-2 (Puf2 sporozoites initiate EEF development inside mosquito salivary glands independently of the normal transmission-associated environmental cues. Puf2- sporozoites exhibit genome-wide transcriptional changes that result in loss of gliding motility, cell traversal ability and reduction in infectivity, and, moreover, trigger metamorphosis typical of early Plasmodium intra-hepatic development. These data demonstrate that Puf2 is a key player in regulating sporozoite developmental control, and imply that transformation of salivary gland-resident sporozoites into liver stage-like parasites is regulated by a post-transcriptional mechanism.

  15. The role of WlaRG, WlaTB and WlaTC in lipooligosaccharide synthesis by Campylobacter jejuni strain 81116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Karen M; Gilbert, Michel; Coloe, Peter J; Li, Jianjun; Fry, Benjamin N

    2012-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major bacterial cause of gastroenteritis world-wide. C. jejuni produces a range of glycans including lipooligosaccharide (LOS), an important virulence factor. The genetic content of the LOS synthesis locus varies between C. jejuni strains and 19 classes have been described. Three LOS synthesis genes of C. jejuni strain 81116 (NCTC 11828), wlaRG, wlaTB and wlaTC were the focus of this study. WlaRG and the remaining two proteins of interest share sequence similarity to aminotransferases and glycosyltransferases, respectively. These genes were insertionally inactivated and phenotypically characterised. Each mutant produced truncated LOS. Mutants lacking WlaRG, WlaTB and WlaTC produced LOS with reduced immunogenicity. Both the wlaRG and wlaTC mutants were non-motile and aflagellate. In vitro invasion and adhesion assays revealed that the wlaRG, wlaTB and wlaTC mutants displayed reduced adherence to chicken embryo fibroblasts. All mutants were less invasive of human cells than 81116 confirming the role of intact LOS during invasion of human cells in vitro. Here we propose the general composition for the 81116 LOS core backbone based on capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

  16. Order and instabilities in dense bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimring, Lev

    2012-02-01

    The structure of cell colonies is governed by the interplay of many physical and biological factors, ranging from properties of surrounding media to cell-cell communication and gene expression in individual cells. The biomechanical interactions arising from the growth and division of individual cells in confined environments are ubiquitous, yet little work has focused on this fundamental aspect of colony formation. By combining experimental observations of growing monolayers of non-motile strain of bacteria Escherichia coli in a shallow microfluidic chemostat with discrete-element simulations and continuous theory, we demonstrate that expansion of a dense colony leads to rapid orientational alignment of rod-like cells. However, in larger colonies, anisotropic compression may lead to buckling instability which breaks perfect nematic order. Furthermore, we found that in shallow cavities feedback between cell growth and mobility in a confined environment leads to a novel cell streaming instability. Joint work with W. Mather, D. Volfson, O. Mondrag'on-Palomino, T. Danino, S. Cookson, and J. Hasty (UCSD) and D. Boyer, S. Orozco-Fuentes (UNAM, Mexico).

  17. Piezo-actuated mouse intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naoko; Perry, Anthony C F

    2007-01-01

    The mouse is a genetically tractable model organism widely used to study mammalian development and disease. However, mouse metaphase II (mII) oocytes are exquisitely sensitive and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with conventional pipettes generally kills them. This problem can be solved with piezo-actuated micromanipulation, in which the piezo-electric effect (crystal deformation in response to an externally applied voltage) propels a microinjection needle tip forward in a precise and rapid movement. Piezo-actuated micromanipulation enhances the penetration of membranes and matrices, and mouse ICSI is a major application. Here we describe a comprehensive, step-by-step mouse piezo ICSI protocol for non-specialists that can be completed in 2-4 h. The protocol is a basic prelude to multiple applications, including nuclear transfer cloning, spermatid injection, blastocyst injection, mII transgenesis, and streamlining micromanipulation in primates and livestock. Moreover, piezo ICSI can be used to obtain offspring from 'dead' (non-motile) sperm, enabling trivial sperm freezing protocols for mouse strain storage and shipment.

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma-derived exosomes promote motility of immortalized hepatocyte through transfer of oncogenic proteins and RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mian; Qin, Hao; Poon, Terence C W; Sze, Siu-Ching; Ding, Xiaofan; Co, Ngai Na; Ngai, Sai-Ming; Chan, Ting-Fung; Wong, Nathalie

    2015-09-01

    Exosomes are increasingly recognized as important mediators of cell-cell communication in cancer progression through the horizontal transfer of RNAs and proteins to neighboring or distant cells. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant cancer, whose metastasis is largely influenced by the tumor microenvironment. The possible role of exosomes in the interactions between HCC tumor cell and its surrounding hepatic milieu are however largely unknown. In this study, we comprehensively characterized the exosomal RNA and proteome contents derived from three HCC cell lines (HKCI-C3, HKCI-8 and MHCC97L) and an immortalized hepatocyte line (MIHA) using Ion Torrent sequencing and mass spectrometry, respectively. RNA deep sequencing and proteomic analysis revealed exosomes derived from metastatic HCC cell lines carried a large number of protumorigenic RNAs and proteins, such as MET protooncogene, S100 family members and the caveolins. Of interest, we found that exosomes from motile HCC cell lines could significantly enhance the migratory and invasive abilities of non-motile MIHA cell. We further demonstrated that uptake of these shuttled molecules could trigger PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways in MIHA with increased secretion of active MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our study showed for the first time that HCC-derived exosomes could mobilize normal hepatocyte, which may have implication in facilitating the protrusive activity of HCC cells through liver parenchyma during the process of metastasis.

  19. Living-Donor Liver Transplantation From a Heterozygous Parent for Infantile Refsum Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunami, Masatoshi; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Fukuda, Akinari; Kumagai, Tadayuki; Kubota, Masaya; Chong, Pin Fee; Kasahara, Mureo

    2016-06-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of peroxisome biogenesis characterized by generalized peroxisomal metabolic dysfunction, including accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and phytanic acid (PA), as well as decreased plasmalogen contents (PL). An effective therapy for this intractable disease has not been established, and only supportive management with docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and low PA diet has been reported so far. A boy of 3 years and 8 months presented with facial dysmorphism, transaminitis, and psychomotor retardation. Biochemical analysis showed elevated PA and VLCFAs, with reduced PL in the serum. Immunofluorescence study of fibroblasts from the patient indicated a mosaic pattern of catalase-positive and -negative particles, and molecular analysis revealed compound heterozygous mutations of PEX6 The failure of medical management to prevent the progression of clinical symptoms and abnormal biochemistry prompted us to consider liver transplantation (LT). With the chances of receiving a deceased donor liver being poor, we performed a living-donor LT from the patient's heterozygous mother. At 6-month follow-up, the patient's serum PA levels had normalized. VLCFAs and PL levels had declined and increased, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second reported case in which IRD was treated by living-donor LT by using a heterozygous donor. Only long-term follow-up will reveal if there is any clinical improvement in the present case. With the liver being a major site for peroxisomal pathways, its replacement by LT may work as a form of partial enzyme therapy for patients with IRD.

  20. Bacillus mesophilus sp. nov., an alginate-degrading bacterium isolated from a soil sample collected from an abandoned marine solar saltern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Xia; Liu, Guo-Hong; Liu, Bo; Chen, Guan-Jun; Du, Zong-Jun

    2016-07-01

    A novel Gram-stain positive, endospore-forming bacterium, designated SA4(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from an abandoned marine solar saltern at Wendeng, Shandong Province, PR China. Cells were observed to be rod shaped, alginase positive, catalase positive and motile. The strain was found to grow at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40 °C (optimum 35 °C), and pH 5.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0) with 0-7.0 % (w/v) NaCl concentration (optimum NaCl 3.0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SA4(T) belongs to the genus Bacillus and exhibits 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 96.6, 96.5, 96.3 and 96.2 % with Bacillus horikoshii DSM 8719(T), Bacillus acidicola 105-2(T), Bacillus shackletonii LMG 18435(T) and Bacillus pocheonensis Gsoil 420(T), respectively. The menaquinone was identified as MK-7 and the major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major fatty acids detected were anteiso-C15:0 (22.3 %), iso-C15:0 (22.6 %), iso-C16:0 (14.8 %) and iso-C14:0 (14.7 %). The DNA G+C content was determined to be 42.4 mol %. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties clearly indicated that isolate SA4(T) represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus mesophius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA4(T) (=DSM 101000(T)=CCTCC AB 2015209(T)).

  1. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus xylosus: technological potential for use in fermented sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Maria Fiorentini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Micrococcaceae strains are applied to fermented sausage as starter cultures, where several members of this family are naturally found. The aim of the present work was to isolate and characterize Staphylococcus xylosus from artisanal sausages produced in South Region of Brazil. From 89 isolates presenting catalase positive and coagulase negative activities, 25 strains were selected for phenotypic characterization. Nine strains identified as Staphylococcus xylosus by API-STAPH were evaluated for their nitrate reduction capacity, which showed satisfactory growth of the strains in the presence of nitrite and sodium chloride, demonstrating their potential for use as starter cultures in fermented sausage. The strains were also evaluated through genus and species-specific PCR, which showed only two as S. xylosus, differing from results found in phenotypic characterization.Cepas de Micrococcaceae são aplicadas em embutidos cárneos fermentados como culturas iniciadoras, onde vários membros desta família são naturalmente encontrados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi isolar e caracterizar Staphylococcus xylosus de embutidos cárneos artesanais produzidos na região Sul do Brasil. Dos 89 isolados que apresentaram atividades positiva para catalase e negativa para coagulase, 25 cepas foram selecionadas para caracterização fenotípica. Nove cepas identificadas como Staphylococcus xylosus por API-STAPH foram avaliadas para capacidade de redução de nitratos e o crescimento satidfatório das cepas foi verificado na presença de nitrito e NaCl, demonstrando seu potencial para utilização como culturas iniciadoras em embutidos cárneos fermentados. As cepas foram ainda avaliadas quanto ao gênero e espécie através da reação em cadeia da polimerase e apenas duas cepas foram identificadas como S. xylosus, diferindo dos resultados encontrados na caracterização fenotípica.

  2. Sphingomonas phyllosphaerae sp. nov., from the phyllosphere of Acacia caven in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Raúl; Abril, Adriana; Trujillo, Martha E; Velázquez, Encarna

    2004-11-01

    Two bacterial strains (FA1 and FA2(T)) were isolated from the phyllosphere of a leguminous tree, Acacia caven, in central Argentina. The strains were Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, motile and formed yellow-pigmented colonies on nutrient agar. The two-primer RAPD patterns of the two strains were identical, suggesting that they belong to the same species. The complete 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains were obtained and comparisons demonstrated that they cluster phylogenetically with the species of the genus Sphingomonas sensu stricto. Strain FA2(T) was most closely related (97.6 %) to Sphingomonas adhaesiva. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to all other established Sphingomonas species ranged from 94.4 % (to Sphingomonas echinoides) to 97.6 % (to S. adhaesiva). Strains FA1 and FA2(T) were catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Aesculin was hydrolysed, gelatin and urea were not. beta-Galactosidase was produced. From 51 compounds tested 21 were used as single sources of carbon. The major respiratory lipoquinone was ubiquinone-10. The predominant cellular fatty acids were 16 : 0, 18 : 1omega7c and 16 : 1omega7c (from summed feature 3). Hydroxy fatty acids 14 : 0 2-OH and 15 : 0 iso 2-OH were present as well (from summed feature 4). The polar lipids detected in strain FA2(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, sphingoglycolipid and two unidentified phospholipids. The DNA G+C content of strain FA2(T) was 61 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed 27.6 % relatedness between strain FA2(T) and S. adhaesiva DSM 7418(T). Based upon phenotypic and molecular evidence, a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas is proposed, Sphingomonas phyllosphaerae sp. nov., with strain FA2(T) (=LMG 21958(T)=CECT 5832(T)) as the type strain.

  3. Kluyvera, a new (redefined) genus in the family Enterobacteriaceae: identification of Kluyvera ascorbata sp. nov. and Kluyvera cryocrescens sp. nov. in clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, J J; Fanning, G R; Huntley-Carter, G P; Holmes, B; Hickman, F W; Richard, C; Brenner, D J

    1981-05-01

    Kluyvera is proposed as a new genus for the group of organisms formerly known as Enteric Group 8 (synonym = API group 1). Strains of Kluyvera share the properties of most members of the family Enterobacteriaceae: they are gram-negative rods, motile with peritrichous flagella, catalase positive, and oxidase negative; they grow on MacConkey agar, ferment D-glucose with the production of acid and gas, and are susceptible to many antibiotics. Strains are usually indole positive, methyl red positive, Voges-Proskauer negative, citrate positive, H2S (triple sugar iron) negative, urea negative, phenylalanine deaminase negative, lysine decarboxylase positive, arginine dihydrolase negative, and ornithine decarboxylase positive. Kluyvera strains ferment many of the sugars and polyhydroxyl alcohols used in identification. By deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization, strains of Kluyvera were divided into three groups. Kluyvera ascorbata is proposed as the type species for the genus. Most strains of K. ascorbata have been isolated from clinical specimens. K. cryocrescens is proposed as the second species. It was occasionally isolated from clinical specimens, but it was isolated more commonly from the environment. Kluyvera species group 3 was heterogeneous, but was distinct from the two named species by deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization. This group was rare, so no species name will be proposed at this time. K. ascorbata can be differentiated from K. cryocrescens by its positive ascorbate test, inability to grow at 5 degrees C in a refrigerator, and smaller zones of inhibition around carbenicillin and cephalothin disks. The test normally used for identification does not clearly differentiate these two species. Kluyvera species are probably infrequent opportunistic pathogens. The most common source is sputum, where they are probably not clinically significant. Five strains have been from blood cultures. More information is needed about the incidence and clinical

  4. Transfer of Pseudomonas flectens Johnson 1956 to Phaseolibacter gen. nov., in the family Enterobacteriaceae, as Phaseolibacter flectens gen. nov., comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Malka; Fridman, Svetlana; Aizenberg-Gershtein, Yana; Izhaki, Ido

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas flectens Johnson 1956, a plant-pathogenic bacterium on the pods of the French bean, is no longer considered to be a member of the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto. A polyphasic approach that included examination of phenotypic properties and phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA, rpoB and atpD gene sequences supported the transfer of Pseudomonas flectens Johnson 1956 to a new genus in the family Enterobacteriaceae as Phaseolibacter flectens gen. nov., comb. nov. Two strains of Phaseolibacter flectens were studied (ATCC 12775(T) and LMG 2186); the strains shared 99.8 % sequence similarity in their 16S rRNA genes and the housekeeping gene sequences were identical. Strains of Phaseolibacter flectens shared 96.6 % or less 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with members of different genera in the family Enterobacteriaceae and only 84.7 % sequence similarity with Pseudomonas aeruginosa LMG 1242(T), demonstrating that they are not related to the genus Pseudomonas. As Phaseolibacter flectens formed an independent phyletic lineage in all of the phylogenetic analyses, it could not be affiliated to any of the recognized genera within the family Enterobacteriaceae and therefore was assigned to a new genus. Cells were Gram-negative, straight rods, motile by means of one or two polar flagella, fermentative, facultative anaerobes, oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Growth occurred in the presence of 0-60 % sucrose. The DNA G+C content of the type strain was 44.3 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, Pseudomonas flectens Johnson 1956 is transferred to the novel genus Phaseolibacter gen. nov. as Phaseolibacter flectens gen. nov., comb. nov. The type strain of Phaseolibacter flectens is ATCC 12775(T) = CFBP 3281(T) = ICMP 745(T) = LMG 2187(T) = NCPPB 539(T).

  5. Acetobacter lambici sp. nov., isolated from fermenting lambic beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitaels, Freek; Li, Leilei; Wieme, Anneleen; Balzarini, Tom; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-04-01

    An acetic acid bacterium, strain LMG 27439(T), was isolated from fermenting lambic beer. The cells were Gram-stain-negative, motile rods, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed the strain was closely related to Acetobacter okinawensis (99.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strain of this species), A. ghanensis (99.6 %), A. syzygii (99.6 %), A. fabarum (99.4 %) and A. lovaniensis (99.2 %). DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strains of these species revealed moderate DNA-DNA hybridization values (31-45 %). Strain LMG 27439(T) was unable to grow on glycerol or methanol as the sole carbon source, on yeast extract with 10 % ethanol or on glucose-yeast extract medium at 37 °C. It did not produce acid from l-arabinose, d-galactose or d-mannose, nor did it produce 2-keto-d-gluconic acid, 5-keto-d-gluconic acid or 2,5-diketo-d-gluconic acid from d-glucose. It did not grow on ammonium as the sole nitrogen source and ethanol as the sole carbon source. These genotypic and phenotypic data distinguished strain LMG 27439(T) from established species of the genus Acetobacter, and therefore we propose this strain represents a novel species of the genus Acetobacter. The name Acetobacter lambici sp. nov. is proposed, with LMG 27439(T) ( = DSM 27328(T)) as the type strain.

  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF QUATERNARY AMMONIUM RESISTANT BACTERIA FROM A FINE PAPERMACHINE SYS-TEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HweigWang; ChiYuHuang; ChunHanKo

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the biocide effect of quaternary ammonium chloride (QAC), a whitewater sample wastaken from a fine papermachine headbox. By platespreading method, 51 strains of facultative anaerobewere isolated morphologically. Then the strains wereseparately transferred to basal medium and were incubated before the beginning of log phase. To identify strains with different QAC resistance, 30-120 ppmof N-Alkyl-benzyl-dimethyl ammonium chloridewere added to basal medium.Biocide effect was investigated by comparison of bacterial growth, whichcan be monitored by 600 nm light absorbance ofbasal medium suspension. Among 51 strains, only 2strains can Survive for QAC concentration up to 120ppm. API20E aud 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique were applied to identify two strains with highest (120 ppm)QAC resistance. One strain (HB22)was identified as Morganella morganii. HB22 can resist QAC concentration up to 150 ppm. HB22 isGram-negative rod, motile with flagella, catalasepositive, oxidase negative, Indole positive, H2S production negative, facultative anaerobe. HB22 has op-timum growth condition of 35C and pH 7.0.HB22can catabolize only glucose and D (+)-Mannose.The other (HB45) was identified with high similarityamong Pseudomonas cf. monteili or Pseudomonas mosselii or Pseudomonas putida. HB45can resist QAC concentration up to 200 ppm.HB45 is Gram-negative rod, motile with flagella,catalase positive, oxidase negative, Indole negative,H2S production negative, aerobe. HB45 has optimum growth condition of 30~C and pH 7.4. HB45can catabolize L-Arabinose, L (+)-Rhanmose, D(+)-Mannose, Glucose, Glycerol, Lactose, Maltose,Raffmose, Xylose, Cellulose and Xylan. The implication of this work to paper industry is also discussed.

  7. Identification of staphylococci and dominant lactic acid bacteria in spontaneously fermented Swiss meat products using PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Esther; Buchs, Jasmin; Eugster-Meier, Elisabeth; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2012-04-01

    Pathogenic, spoilage, and technologically important microorganisms were monitored in 21 spontaneously fermented Swiss meat products manufactured with meat from wildlife or animals grown in natural habitat. Thereby, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) on rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequences provided a powerful tool for fast and accurate identification of the main microbial population. Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus dominated in fermented meat products followed by Staphylococcus species, which constituted 88.2% of all Gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci (GCC(+)) with cell counts varying from 2.6 to 7.0 log cfu/g during maturation. Staphylococcus equorum was prevalent in frequency and cell counts during maturation (18.0%; 5.0-7.3 log cfu/g) and in the end products (28.4%; 1.8-6.2 log cfu/g) implicating a new presumptive starter species for meat fermentation. Nine out of 14 end products indicated safety risks to consumers due to the high incidence of Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Staphylococcus epidermidis combined with cell counts of 7.4 and 4.9 log cfu/g, respectively. This fact was supported by the detection of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacteriaceae in ready-to-eat products strongly exceeding the tolerable limit of 2 log cfu/g. Spontaneously fermented meat products produced from wildlife or animals grown in natural habitats not only gave rise to hygienic and safety concerns but also provided new presumptive starter strains. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oceanobacillus gochujangensis sp. nov., isolated from gochujang a traditional Korean fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seo-Jung; Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Sul-Hee; Park, Young-Seo; Park, Jung-Min; Bai, Dong-Hoon

    2014-12-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, polar flagella-containing, rod-shaped, obligate aerobic, endospore-forming bacterium, strain TK1655(T), was isolated from the traditional Korean food gochujang. The 16S rRNA sequence of strain TK1655(T) was a member of the genus Oceanobacillus similar to that of the type strain of Oceanobacillus oncorhynchi subsp. incaldanensis DSM 16557(T) (97.2%), O. oncorhynchi subsp. oncorhynchi JCM 12661(T) (97.1%), O. locisalsi KCTC 13253(T) (97.0%), and O. sojae JCM 15792(T) (96.9%). Strain TK1655(T) was oxidase and catalase positive. Colonies were circular, smooth, low convex, cream in colour, and measured about 0.5-1.0 mm in diameter. The range for growth was 20-40°C (optimal, 30°C), pH 6.0-10.0 (optimal, 7.0), and 2-16% (w/v) NaCl (optimal, 2%). Additionally, the cells contained meso-DAP, and the predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The complex polar lipids were consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylcholine (PC). The major cellular fatty acid components were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, and anteiso-C17:0, and the DNA G+C content was 40.5%. DNA-DNA relatedness of our novel strain and reference strain O. locisalsi KCTC 13253(T), O. oncorhynchi subsp. incaldanensis DSM 16557(T), O. oncorhynchi subsp. oncorhynchi JCM 12661(T) was 45.7, 43.8, and 41.9%. From the results of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic analyses of strain TK1655(T), we propose the novel species Oceanobacillus gochujangensis sp. nov. The type strain is TK1655(T) (=KCCM 101304(T) =KCTC 33014(T) =CIP 110582(T) =NBRC 109637(T)).

  9. SCREENING THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE ESCHERICHIA COLI TYPE (1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAZA ANWAR AL LAHAM, FRDOOS MOHAMMAD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of Escherichia coli causing mastitis and of bacteria resistant to conventional antibiotics has become aserious problem in recent years. So the search for new antibiotics and alternative products to solve this problem is the question ofthe age. This research aims to investigate the effectiveness of the extracts prepared from different parts of the following plants:Olea europea Linn (Oleaceae ، Myrtus communis Linn (Liliaceae، Majorana syriacus Linn (Laminaceae، Zingiber officinaleLinn (Zingiberaceae، Achillea falcata Linn (Asteraceae against resistant Escherichia coli Type (1. Investigation began forE.coli bacteria in 667 milk samples. The bacteria were identified culturally, morphologically and biochemically. Antibioticsusceptibility testing against E.coli by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method were conducted. Then using the blood agar,MacConkey agar, salmonella - shigella agar, and biochemical testing method [API 20 E testing Enterobacteriaceae] were made totype E.coli. Plants were extracted with water, absolute alcohol, then ether using a soxhlet apparatus and rotary vacuumevaporator. Then extracts susceptibility testing against antibiotic resistant E.coli Type (1 were studied. E. coli was defined asoxidase negative, indole positive, catalase positive. The studied antibiotics did not show any antibacterial effect against E.coli .By the results of the biochemical analysis (API20e on resistant E.coli , E.coli type (1 was 33.35% of the total number ofsamples. The anti-bacterial effectiveness against E.coli type (1 of ethanol extracts prepared from different parts of the studiedplants were variant, whereas the Myrtus communis extract effectively has the most powerful antibacterial effect for these bacteria,while the Zingiber officinale extract has the lowest influence.

  10. Molecular Epidemiology of Nosocomial Infection: Analysis of chro­mosomal Restriction Fragment Patterns by Pulsed-Field Gel Electro­phoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf I Shehata

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is a species of non-fermentative gram-negative coccobacilli commonly found in soil, water and other environmental samples. This bacterium is defined as being strict aerobes, nonmotile, catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. This organism was susceptible to most antibiotics in the 1970s. A. baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that may be an important threat due to its increasing multidrug resistance and is involved in nosocomial infections that are often severe. The objective of this study was undertaken to elucidate the molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii using the most widely applicable DNA – based typing methods namely Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE. These strains comprised isolates from environmental samples, blood, wound, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and tracheal aspirates. PFGE analysis of 81 clinical isolates has been carried out by using CHEF–DR III systems from Bio – Rad and following the protocol of Gautom with some modifications. A 2.00% band tolerance and an optimization of 4.00% were selected for use during comparisons of generated fingerprints or pulsotypes after digestion with Apa I restriction enzyme. Similarity values have been generated using BioNumerics software, cluster analysis was performed by the unweighted pair – group method using arithmetic averages and DNA relatedness was calculated based on Dice coefficient. An interlinkage homology level of 80% between patterns was assumed as the cutoff for defining a close genetic relationship between strains and was used to define the cluster. As per the generated dendogram, isolates were categorized into 18 major groups designated as Strain I to Strain xvIII. Overall, PFGE was able to discriminate the 81 different Acinetobacter baumannii isolates with similarity levels of 63.63%.

  11. Erwinia endophytica sp. nov., isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; Salazar, Sergio; Cuesta, Maria José; Tejedor, Carmen; Igual, Jose Mariano; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Peix, Alvaro

    2015-12-04

    We analysed through a polyphasic taxonomy approach two bacterial strains coded BSTT30T and BSTT40, isolated in the course of a study of endophytic bacteria occurring in stems and roots of potato growing in a soil from Salamanca, Spain. The 16S rRNA gene sequence was identical in both strains and had 98.4% identity with respect to the closest relatives Erwinia tasmaniensis Et1/99T and E. rhapontici ATCC29283T and the following closest related species with 98.2 % similarity were E. billingiae E63T and E. toletana A37T, for which the strains were classified within genus Erwinia. The analysis of housekeeping genes gpd, gyrB and rpoD confirmed their phylogenetic affiliation and showed identities lower than 90% in all cases with respect to the mentioned closest relatives. The respiratory quinone is Q8. The major fatty acids are C16:0, C16:1 7c/ 16:1 6c in summed feature 3 and C18:1 7c/ 18:2 6,9c in summed feature 8. Oxidase negative and catalase positive. Glucose is fermented without gas production. Arginine dihydrolase, urease and indole production are negative. It can grow at 35ºC and at pH 10. The DNA G+C content was 50.1 mol %. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed values lower than 29% relatedness with respect to the type strains of the four closest related species. Therefore, the combined results of genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data support the classification of strains BSTT30T and BSTT40 into a novel species of Erwinia, for which the name Erwinia endophytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BSTT30T (=LMG 28457T, CECT 8692T).

  12. Characterization of Aquamicrobium defluvii gen. nov. sp. nov., a thiophene-2-carboxylate-metabolizing bacterium from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambauer, A; Rainey, F A; Stackebrandt, E; Winter, J

    1998-04-01

    A gram-negative bacterium was isolated from activated sewage sludge with thiophene-2-carboxylate as the sole source of carbon and with nitrate as an electron acceptor. The isolate, strain NKK, was a motile, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-like bacterium with a G+C content of 61.7 mol%. Besides nitrate, oxygen could serve as a terminal electron acceptor. Among many carbon sources tested, only a few sugars, fatty acids, and thiophene-2-carboxylate supported growth. Other heterocyclic compounds were not used. The sulfur atom of thiophene-2-carboxylate was oxidized to thiosulfate when cells were grown aerobically, or to elemental sulfur when cells were grown anaerobically with nitrate. Nitrate was reduced to nitrite. Growth on thiophene-2-carboxylate was dependent on the addition of molybdate to the medium. Tungstate, a specific antagonist of molybdate, inhibited growth on thiophene-2-carboxylate at concentrations > 10(-7) M. Three inducible enzymes involved in the metabolism of thiophene-2-carboxylate were detected: an ATP-, CoA-, thiophene-2-carboxylate- and Mg2+-dependent thiophene-2-carboxyl-CoA ligase (AMP-forming), a molybdenum-containing thiophene-2-carboxyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and a thiophene-2-carboxyl-CoA thioesterase. The sequence of the 16S rRNA gene suggested a classification of strain NKK within the alpha-subgroup of the Proteobacteria as a new genus and species, Aquamicrobium defluvii gen. nov. sp. nov. (DSM 11603), closely related to Mesorhizobium sp. and Phyllobacterium sp., but representing a distinct lineage equal in depth to those of the two mentioned genera. Aquamicrobium defluvii can be distinguished from both genera by a distinct spectrum of substrates, the maximal growth temperature, and a different salt tolerance.

  13. Tsukamurella soli sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weon, Hang-Yeon; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Anandham, Rangasamy; Schumann, Peter; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2010-07-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, white-coloured bacterium, designated strain JS18-1(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Halla mountain, Jeju island, Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain was most closely related to members of the genus Tsukamurella with levels of sequence similarity of 95.4-96.5 %. Strain JS18-1(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Tsukamurella strandjordii DSM 44573(T) (96.5 %), Tsukamurella carboxydivorans Y2(T) (96.4 %) and Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens DSM 44234(T) (96.4 %). The G+C content of the total DNA of strain JS18-1(T) was 70 mol%. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A1gamma and mycolic acids were also detected. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The major quinone was menaquinone-9 (MK-9) and major cell-wall sugars were arabinose, ribose and glucose. The major fatty acids (>10 % of the total fatty acids) were C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1)omega9c, C(18 : 0) 10-methyl and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and chemotaxonomic, biochemical and physiological characteristics indicate that strain JS18-1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Tsukamurella, for which the name Tsukamurella soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JS18-1(T) (=KACC 20764(T)=DSM 45046(T)).

  14. Sphingomonas kyeonggiense sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Heung-Min; Kook, Moochang; Tran, Hanh T H; Kim, Ki-Young; Park, Sang-Yong; Kim, Ju-Han; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2014-04-01

    A Gram-staining negative bacterium, THG-DT81(T), which was isolated from soil of a ginseng field, was investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells were oxidase- and catalase-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped and motile with one polar flagellum. Strain THG-DT81(T) grew optimally at pH 7.0 and in the absence of NaCl on trypticase soy agar. Its optimum growth temperature was 25-28 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain THG-DT81(T) belongs to the family Sphingomonadaceae and was related to Sphingomonas pituitosa EDIV(T) (98.0 % similarity), S. leidyi ATCC 15260(T) (97.8 %), S. trueperi LMG 2142(T) (97.1 %), S. azotifigens NBRC 15497(T) (97.1 %), S. koreensis JSS26 (T) (97.1 %) and S. dokdonensis DS-4(T) (97.0 %). Strain THG-DT81(T) contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18:1 ω7c and C16:0 as the major fatty acids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 66.8 mol %. The major component in the polyamine pattern was identified as sym-homospermidine. The major polar lipids detected in strain THG-DT81(T) were sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The DNA-DNA relatedness values of the strain THG-DT81(T) and its closest phylogenetically neighbors were below 21 %. The phenotypic characteristics and genotypic data demonstrated the affiliation of strain THG-DT81(T) to the genus Sphingomonas. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic data presented, strain THG-DT81(T) is described as a novel species of genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas kyeonggiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-DT81(T) (= KACC 17173(T) = JCM 18825(T)).

  15. Cellvibrio diazotrophicus sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of salt meadow plants and emended description of the genus Cellvibrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Christian; Ratering, Stefan; Kramer, Irina; Schnell, Sylvia

    2014-02-01

    Two Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, nitrogen-fixing, rod-shaped bacteria, designated strains E20 and E50(T), were isolated from the rhizosphere of salt meadow plants Plantago winteri and Hordeum secalinum, respectively, near Münzenberg, Germany. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis both strains E20 and E50(T) are affiliated with the genus Cellvibrio, sharing the highest similarity with Cellvibrio gandavensis LMG 18551(T) (96.4%) and (97.1%), respectively. Strains E20 and E50(T) were oxidase and catalase-positive, grew at a temperature range between 16 and 37 °C and in the presence of 0-5% NaCl (w/v). The DNA G+C contents were 52.1 mol% (E20) and 51.6 mol% (E50(T)). Major fatty acids of strains E20 and E50(T) were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH), C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1)ω7c, C(12 : 0), C(18 : 0) and C(12 : 0) 3-OH. The DNA-DNA relatedness of the strains to Cellvibrio gandavensis LMG 18551(T) was 39% for strain E20 and 58% for strain E50(T). The nitrogen fixation capability of strains E20 and E50(T) was confirmed by the acetylene reduction assay. On the basis of our polyphasic taxonomic study, strains E20 and E50(T) represent a novel species of the genus Cellvibrio, for which the name Cellvibrio diazotrophicus is proposed. The type strain of Cellvibrio diazotrophicus is E50(T) ( = LMG 27267(T) = KACC 17069(T)). An emended description of the genus Cellvibrio is proposed based on the capability of fixing nitrogen and growth in presence of up to 5% NaCl (w/v).

  16. Exploring the metabolic heterogeneity of coagulase-negative staphylococci to improve the quality and safety of fermented meats: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Mainar, María; Stavropoulou, Despoina Angeliki; Leroy, Frédéric

    2017-04-17

    The production of fermented meats, such as fermented sausage, relies on the metabolic activities of lactic acid bacteria and catalase-positive cocci, in particular the group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). Conventional use of CNS as meat starter cultures usually leads to an appropriate cured colour development based on their nitrate reductase activity, whereas their catalase activity reduces oxidative damage. In addition, CNS metabolism contributes to flavour, although the precise effects are difficult to estimate. There are reasons to believe that these basic technological features of CNS can be further enlarged by exploring their full metabolic potential. Non-negligible differences in metabolism among and within different species of CNS indicate that a rational selection of strains may lead to the development of novel starter cultures with enhanced functionality. Firstly, the use of CNS strains with a superior ability to use alternative energy sources, such as nucleosides or arginine, may improve culture competitiveness and survival. Secondly, cured colour generation could be optimised to lower the amounts of curing salts needed, either by selecting for efficient nitrate-reducing CNS strains or by exploring the potential alternative based on nitric oxide synthase activity. Thirdly, CNS with specific aroma-producing abilities may help to accentuate specific flavours, whereby the selection of wild-type strains from artisan-type fermented sausages seems attractive in the framework of innovation-through-tradition. Finally, bacteriocin-producing CNS strains may offer solutions for bioprotection towards meat pathogens such as Clostridium botulinum and Staphylococcus aureus. Overall, making use of the metabolic inter- and intraspecies heterogeneity of CNS is promising for the elaboration of healthier, tastier, and safer fermented meats. Yet, the proposed strategies are sometimes still overly theoretical and speculative, requiring further proof-of-principle.

  17. Lysinibacillus louembei sp. nov., a spore-forming bacterium isolated from Ntoba Mbodi, alkaline fermented leaves of cassava from the Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouoba, Labia Irène I; Vouidibio Mbozo, Alain B; Thorsen, Line; Anyogu, Amarachukwu; Nielsen, Dennis S; Kobawila, Simon C; Sutherland, Jane P

    2015-11-01

    Investigation of the microbial diversity of Ntoba Mbodi, an African food made from the alkaline fermentation of cassava leaves, revealed the presence of a Gram-positive, catalase-positive, aerobic, motile and rod-shaped endospore-forming bacterium (NM73) with unusual phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the isolate was most closely related to Lysinibacillus meyeri WS 4626T (98.93%), Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus XDB9T (96.95%) and Lysinibacillus odysseyi 34hs-1T (96.94%). The DNA-DNA relatedness of the isolate with L. meyeri LMG 26643T, L. xylanilyticus DSM 23493T and L. odysseyi DSM 18869T was 41%, 16% and 15%, respectively. The internal transcribed spacer-PCR profile of the isolate was different from those of closely related bacteria. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A4α, L-Lys-D-Asp and the major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C17:0 and iso-C17:1ω10c. The polar lipids included phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid, aminolipid, two phospholipids and two unknown lipids. The predominant menaquinones were MK-7 and MK-6. Ribose was the only whole-cell sugar detected. The DNA G+C content was 38 mol%. Based on the results of the phenotypic and genotypic characterization, it was concluded that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Lysinibacillus, for which the name of Lysinibacillus louembei sp. nov. is proposed. NM73T ( = DSM 25583T = LMG 26837T) represents the type strain.

  18. Fungos e fumonisinas no período pré-colheita do milho Fungi and fumonisins at maize's pre-harvest period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Hermanns

    2006-03-01

    and associated with pulmonary edema syndrome in swine and esophageal cancer in humans. The objective of this work was to identify critical points of fungal contamination and fumonisins production during pre-harvest growth stage. Results showed fungal growth since the dough stage, with no significant difference at both following stages: dent and physiological maturity. Non sporulated fungi were predominant at the silking stage (100% and at the dough stage (95%. Saprophytes species were identified at the dent stage (23.25%. Fusarium spp. was evident since the dough stage (5% increasing considerably through the dent stage (62.5% to the physiological maturity (90%. All Fusarium spp. strains tested showed toxigenic potential. Fumonisins were evident at the latest development stages increasing considerably from the dent stage (0.2 ppm to the physiological maturity (2.5 ppm. Authors suggest special attention and adopting preventive measures in relation to the dough stage, from which Fusarium spp. begin to be evident.

  19. Isolation, identification and characteristics of moderately halophilic bacteria in crab paste%蟹酱中度嗜盐菌的分离、鉴定及特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕彦; 孙业盈

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify moderately halophilic bacteria from crab paste and investigate its morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Three moderately halophilic bacteria PKY101, PKY102 and PKY103 were isolated. Moderately halophilic bacteria were isolated by Gibbons medium. Morphological tests, biochemical reactions and molecular identifications of 16S rDNA were applied to i-dentify the bacteria with determining growth characterization by spectrophotometry. Three strains were found to be gram-positive, non-sporulating and spherical, and the diameter of the strains was 0.6μm~1.9μm, 0.8μm ~1.0μm and 0.7μm~1.5μm, respectively. 16S rDNA alignment and phylo-genetic anlysis showed that the stain PKY101 had a 99% homology with Staphylococcus succinus, PKY102 had a 99% homology with Staphylococ-cus cohnii and PKY103 had a 99% homology with Staphylococcus equorum. Our result could provided some references for study of halophilic bacteria structure in crab paste and prevention of halophilic bacteria contamination.%从蟹酱中分离纯化鉴定嗜盐菌,对其进行形态学和生理生化特性研究.采用Gibbons培养基分离纯化,通过形态学、生理生化实验进行特性研究,16S rDNA序列比对分析进行鉴定,吸光度法测定生长特性.结果分离得到3株中度嗜盐菌PKY101,PKY102和PKY103,试验结果表明,3种嗜盐菌均为革兰氏阳性菌,不产芽孢,菌体呈球状,直径分别为0.6μm~1.9μm,0.8μm~1.0μm,0.7μm~1.5μm;系统发育分析将3株嗜盐菌鉴定为葡萄球菌属(Staphylococcus)中的3个不同的种,分别为:琥珀葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus succinus)、科氏葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus cohnii)和马胃葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus equorum).本研究将为进一步研究蟹酱中的嗜盐菌的类型及在发酵盐渍类食品中的作用开展了前期的基础工作,为防止嗜盐菌污染食品提供了理论参考.

  20. Detecção e variabilidade de Plasmopara halstedii no Brasil e avaliação da resistência de genótipos de girassol ao míldio Detection and variability of Plasmopara halstedii in Brazil and resistance of sunflower genotypes to downy mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria Villas Bôas de Campos Leite

    2007-12-01

    sand boxes. Seedlings were kept in growing chambers at 21ºC for 11 days. After this period, plants were intensively misted with distilled water, covered with plastic bag, and kept in the dark at 18ºC. In the next day, sporulation in cotyledons was observed. Plants with sporulation were considered susceptible and non-sporulated plants were resistant. Results indicated the occurrence of race 330 (former American race 7 in the three years evaluated. Sunflower genotypes Embrapa 122, BRS 191 and ornamental sunflower cultivars BRS Capri M, BRS Encanto M, BRS Oásis, BRS Paixão M, BRS Pesqueiro M, BRS Refúgio M, BRS Saudade M and BRS Saudade U and respective parents were susceptible to P. halstedii race 330. The genotypes AGROBEL 910, AGROBEL 920, AGROBEL 960, AGROBEL 965, C11, EXP38, M734, M742 and RUMBOSOL 91 were resistant to that race and can be used by the growers in regions of high potential for disease occurrence.

  1. Colonization of Lutzomyia verrucarum and Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae by Bartonella bacilliformis, the Etiologic Agent of Carrion's Disease.

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    James M Battisti

    Full Text Available Bartonella bacilliformis is a pathogenic bacterium transmitted to humans presumably by bites of phlebotomine sand flies, infection with which results in a bi-phasic syndrome termed Carrión's disease. After constructing a low-passage GFP-labeled strain of B. bacilliformis, we artificially infected Lutzomyia verrucarum and L. longipalpis populations, and subsequently monitored colonization of sand flies by fluorescence microscopy. Initially, colonization of the two fly species was indistinguishable, with bacteria exhibiting a high degree of motility, yet still confined to the abdominal midgut. After 48 h, B. bacilliformis transitioned from bacillus-shape to a non-motile, small coccoid form and appeared to be digested along with the blood meal in both fly species. Differences in colonization patterns became evident at 72 h when B. bacilliformis was observed at relatively high density outside the peritrophic membrane in the lumen of the midgut in L. verrucarum, but colonization of L. longipalpis was limited to the blood meal within the intra-peritrophic space of the abdominal midgut, and the majority of bacteria were digested along with the blood meal by day 7. The viability of B. bacilliformis in L. longipalpis was assessed by artificially infecting, homogenizing, and plating for determination of colony-forming units in individual flies over a 13-d time course. Bacteria remained viable at relatively high density for approximately seven days, suggesting that L. longipalpis could potentially serve as a vector. The capacity of L. longipalpis to transmit viable B. bacilliformis from infected to uninfected meals was analyzed via interrupted feeds. No viable bacteria were retrieved from uninfected blood meals in these experiments. This study provides significant information toward understanding colonization of sand flies by B. bacilliformis and also demonstrates the utility of L. longipalpis as a user-friendly, live-vector model system for studying this

  2. Use of CFSE staining of borreliae in studies on the interaction between borreliae and human neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hytönen Jukka

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species of the tick-transmitted spirochete group Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi cause Lyme borreliosis. Acute borrelial infection of the skin has unusual characteristics with only a mild local inflammatory response suggesting that the interaction between borreliae and the cells of the first-line defence might differ from that of other bacteria. It has been reported that human neutrophils phagocytose motile borreliae through an unconventional mechanism (tube phagocytosis which is not observed with non-motile borreliae. Therefore, it would be of great interest to visualise the bacteria by a method not affecting motility and viability of borreliae to be able to study their interaction with the cells of the innate immunity. Carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester (CFSE labelling has been previously used for studying the adhesion of labelled bacteria to host cells and the uptake of labelled substrates by various cells using flow cytometry. Results In this study, CFSE was shown to efficiently stain different genospecies of B. burgdorferi without affecting bacterial viability or motility. Use of CFSE staining allowed subsequent quantification of borreliae associated with human neutrophils with flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. As a result, no difference in association between different borrelial genospecies (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, or between borreliae and the pyogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes, with neutrophils could be detected. Borrelial virulence, on the other hand, affected association with neutrophils, with significantly higher association of a non-virulent mutant B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain compared to the parental virulent wild type strain. Conclusion These results suggest that the flow cytometric assay using CFSE labelled borreliae is a valuable tool in the analysis of the interaction between borreliae and human neutrophils. The

  3. Crenalkalicoccus roseus gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from alkaline hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Hong; Duan, Yan-Yan; Yin, Yi-Rui; Meng, Xiao-Lin; Li, Shuai; Zhou, En-Min; Huang, Jian-Rong; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Two closely related thermophilic bacterial strains, designated YIM 78023T and YIM 78058, were isolated from samples collected from two alkaline hot springs in Tengchong county, Yunnan province, south-west China. The novel isolates were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, aerobic ovoid- to coccoid-shaped and non-spore-forming. Strain YIM 78023T grew at 20-60 ºC and pH 6.0-9.0 with optimal growth observed at 40-50 ºC and pH 8.0, while strain YIM 78058 grew at 25-60 ºC and pH 6.0-10.0 with optimal growth at 45-50 ºC and pH 8.0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences affiliated these two isolates within the family Acetobacteraceae with high sequence similarities to members of the genera Roseomonas and Belnapia (all sequence similarities <94.5 %). In addition to the above two genera, these strains also clustered with the genera Craurococcus and Paracraurococcus (having sequence similarities <93.3 %) in the phylogenetic tree, but with a distinct lineage within the family Acetobacteraceae. The major ubiquinone was Q-10 and the major fatty acids observed were C18:1ω7c, summed feature 4 and C16:0. The genomic DNA G+C contents observed for strains YIM 78023T and YIM 78058 were 74.3 and 74.0 mol%, respectively. Morphological, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic results suggest that strains YIM 78023T and YIM 78058 are representatives of a novel species of a new genus within the family Acetobacteraceae, for which the name Crenalkalicoccus roseus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Crenalkalicoccus roseus is YIM 78023T (=JCM 19657T=KACC 17825T).

  4. Bacillus endolithicus sp. nov., isolated from pebbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parag, B; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-12-01

    Strain JC267T was isolated from pebbles collected from Pingleshwar beach, Gujarat, India. Cells are Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile rods forming sub-terminal endospores in swollen ellipsoidal to oval sporangia. Strain JC267T contains anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C14 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major (>5 %) cellular fatty acids. Polar lipids include phosphatidylglycerol, phospholipids (PL1-3), glycolipids (GL1-2) and an unidentified lipid. Cell-wall amino acids are composed of diagnostic meso-diaminopimelic acid, dl-alanine and a small amount of d-glutamic acid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JC267T is 45.5 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JC267T showed highest sequence similarities of Bacillus when subjected to EzTaxon-e blast analysis. The reassociation values based on DNA-DNA hybridization of strain JC267T with Bacillus halosaccharovorans IBRC-M 10095T and Bacillus niabensis JCM 16399T were 26 ± 1 % and 34 ± 3 %, respectively. Based on taxonomic data obtained using a polyphasic approach, strain JC267T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus endolithicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC267T ( = IBRC-M 10914T = KCTC 33579T).

  5. Novel sex cells and evidence for sex pheromones in diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shinya; Beakes, Gordon; Idei, Masahiko; Nagumo, Tamotsu; Mann, David G

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms belong to the stramenopiles, one of the largest groups of eukaryotes, which are primarily characterized by a presence of an anterior flagellum with tubular mastigonemes and usually a second, smooth flagellum. Based on cell wall morphology, diatoms have historically been divided into centrics and pennates, of which only the former have flagella and only on the sperm. Molecular phylogenies show the pennates to have evolved from among the centrics. However, the timing of flagellum loss--whether before the evolution of the pennate lineage or after--is unknown, because sexual reproduction has been so little studied in the 'araphid' basal pennate lineages, to which Pseudostaurosira belongs. Sexual reproduction of an araphid pennate, Pseudostaurosira trainorii, was studied with light microscopy (including time lapse observations and immunofluorescence staining observed under confocal scanning laser microscopy) and SEM. We show that the species produces motile male gametes. Motility is mostly associated with the extrusion and retrieval of microtubule-based 'threads', which are structures hitherto unknown in stramenopiles, their number varying from one to three per cell. We also report experimental evidence for sex pheromones that reciprocally stimulate sexualization of compatible clones and orientate motility of the male gametes after an initial 'random walk'. The threads superficially resemble flagella, in that both are produced by male gametes and contain microtubules. However, one striking difference is that threads cannot beat or undulate and have no motility of their own, and they do not bear mastigonemes. Threads are sticky and catch and draw objects, including eggs. The motility conferred by the threads is probably crucial for sexual reproduction of P. trainorii, because this diatom is non-motile in its vegetative stage but obligately outbreeding. Our pheromone experiments are the first studies in which gametogenesis has been induced in diatoms by cell

  6. [Evaluation of PremiTest Salmonella kit for identification of not-typable by conventional methods Salmonella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madajczak, Grzegorz; Szych, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Despite the downward trend, Salmonella is still one of the most important bacterial intestinal infections agents. For example, in 2007 y. in Poland over 14 thousands human salmonelosis cases were notified, in 2008 y.--over 10 thousands. Among all Salmonella isolated from human source, most common (more then 80%) are two serotypes--S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, but every year the number of non-typable (because of the lack I or II phase flagellar antigens, autoagglutinative or non-motility properties) Salmonella is growing. This work describes the results of the evaluation of commercially available kit PremiTest Salmonella (DSM, Netherlands), which uses the microarray hybridization in ArrayTube, for serological identification of non-typable Salmonella strains. All 37 researched strains were submitted to the Department of Bacteriology in 2007-2008 y, were reidentified according to standard operating procedures and serotyped by slide agglutination for somatic and flagellar antigens if it was possible. All strains were tested using the PremiTest Salmonella Kit, according to manufacturer instructions. In 21 cases (56%) full identification were achieved, in 5 cases (14%) additional tests were required for precise identification (Salmonella Choleraesuis or Paratyphi C, what was detailed using examination of additional biochemical features), 5 strains (14%) achieved an incomplete identification (three of them--S. diarizonae were confirmed in National Reference Laboratory for Salmonella) and 6 cases (16%) were not identified at all. The total number of recognized strains is 30 (81%). The results of present studies show, that PremiTest Salmonella Kit is useful for non-typable Salmonella identification.

  7. Colony shape as a genetic trait in the pattern-forming Bacillus mycoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Carmen; Beccari, Elena; Santini, Tiziana; Pisaneschi, Giuseppe; Tecce, Giorgio

    2002-01-01

    Background Bacillus mycoides Flügge, a Gram-positive, non-motile soil bacterium assigned to Bacillus cereus group, grows on agar as chains of cells linked end to end, forming radial filaments curving clock- or counter-clockwise (SIN or DX morphotypes). The molecular mechanism causing asymmetric curving is not known: our working hypothesis considers regulation of filamentous growth as the prerequisite for these morphotypes. Results SIN and DX strains isolated from the environment were classified as B. mycoides by biochemical and molecular biology tests. Growth on agar of different hardness and nutrient concentration did not abolish colony patterns, nor was conversion between SIN and DX morphotypes ever noticed. A number of morphotype mutants, all originating from one SIN strain, were obtained. Some lost turn direction becoming fluffy, others became round and compact. All mutants lost wild type tight aggregation in liquid culture. Growth on agar was followed by microscopy, exploring the process of colony formation and details of cell divisions. A region of the dcw (division cell wall) cluster, including ftsQ, ftsA, ftsZ and murC, was sequenced in DX and SIN strains as a basis for studying cell division. This confirmed the relatedness of DX and SIN strains to the B. cereus group. Conclusions DX and SIN asymmetric morphotypes stem from a close but not identical genomic context. Asymmetry is established early during growth on agar. Wild type bacilli construct mostly uninterrupted filaments with cells dividing at the free ends: they "walk" longer distances compared to mutants, where enhanced frequency of cell separation produces new growing edges resulting in round compact colonies. PMID:12429070

  8. Salibacterium halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from a salt pan, reclassification of Bacillus qingdaonensis as Salibacterium qingdaonense comb. nov. and Bacillus halochares as Salibacterium halochares comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnuvardhan Reddy, Sultanpuram; Thirumala, Mothe; Sasikala, Chintalapati; Venkata Ramana, Chintalapati

    2015-11-01

    Two novel Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-endospore-forming bacterial strains, S7T and IB5, were isolated from Khavda, India. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis they were identified as belonging to the class Bacilli, order Bacillales, family Bacillaceae, and were most closely related to Bacillus qingdaonensis CGMCC 1.6134T (97.3 %, sequence similarity), Bacillus halochares LMG 24571T (96.9 %), Bacillus salarius KCTC 3912T (95.6 %) and Bacillus aidingensis DSM 18341T (95.3 %). However, these strains shared only 88.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis DSM 10T, indicating that strains S7T and IB5 might not be members of the genus Bacillus. The DNA-DNA relatedness of these strains with B. qingdaonensis CGMCC 1.6134T was 42.9 ± 0.8. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strains S7T and IB5 contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, while the polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, a phospholipid and three unknown lipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. anteiso-C15 : 0 was the predominant fatty acid. The results of the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and biochemical tests allowed a clear differentiation of strains S7T and IB5, suggesting that they represent a novel member of the family Bacillaceae, for which the name Salibacterium halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Salibacterium halotolerans is S7T ( = KCTC 33658T = CGMCC 1.15324T). Based on the results of the present study, it is also suggested that B. qingdaonensis and B. halochares should be transferred to this novel genus, as Salibacterium qingdaonense comb. nov. and Salibacterium halochares comb. nov., respectively.

  9. Bacterial attraction and quorum sensing inhibition in Caenorhabditis elegans exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Fatma; Badri, Dayakar V; Zachariah, Cherian; Ajredini, Ramadan; Sandoval, Francisco J; Roje, Sanja; Levine, Lanfang H; Zhang, Fengli; Robinette, Steven L; Alborn, Hans T; Zhao, Wei; Stadler, Michael; Nimalendran, Rathika; Dossey, Aaron T; Brüschweiler, Rafael; Vivanco, Jorge M; Edison, Arthur S

    2009-08-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans, a bacterivorous nematode, lives in complex rotting fruit, soil, and compost environments, and chemical interactions are required for mating, monitoring population density, recognition of food, avoidance of pathogenic microbes, and other essential ecological functions. Despite being one of the best-studied model organisms in biology, relatively little is known about the signals that C. elegans uses to interact chemically with its environment or as defense. C. elegans exudates were analyzed by using several analytical methods and found to contain 36 common metabolites that include organic acids, amino acids, and sugars, all in relatively high abundance. Furthermore, the concentrations of amino acids in the exudates were dependent on developmental stage. The C. elegans exudates were tested for bacterial chemotaxis using Pseudomonas putida (KT2440), a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1), a soil bacterium pathogenic to C. elegans, and Escherichia coli (OP50), a non-motile bacterium tested as a control. The C. elegans exudates attracted the two Pseudomonas species, but had no detectable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. To our surprise, the exudates of young adult and adult life stages of C. elegans exudates inhibited quorum sensing in the reporter system based on the LuxR bacterial quorum sensing (QS) system, which regulates bacterial virulence and other factors in Vibrio fischeri. We were able to fractionate the QS inhibition and bacterial chemotaxis activities, thus demonstrating that these activities are chemically distinct. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans can attract its bacterial food and has the potential of partially regulating the virulence of bacterial pathogens by inhibiting specific QS systems.

  10. Effect of Follicular Fluid and Platelet-Activating Factor on Lactate Dehydrogenase C Expression in Human Asthenozoospermic Samples

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    Tahereh Esmaeilpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Application of follicular fluid (FF and platelet-activating factor (PAF in artificial insemination improves sperm motility. Lactate dehydrogenase C (LDH-C is a key enzyme for sperm motility. In this study, the effects of FF and PAF on the sperm motility index and LDH-C expression were investigated. Moreover, LDH-C expression was compared between asthenozoospermic and normozoospermic samples. Methods: The expression of LDH-C was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT PCR and western blotting after it was treated with optimized concentrations of FF and PAF in twenty asthenozoospermic samples. Also, LDH-C expression was evaluated in five normozoospermic samples. Results: Samples with 75% FF and 100 nM of PAF had an increase in their percentages of progressive and slowly motile sperms and a decrease in their percentages of non-progressive and non-motile sperms. Moreover, LDH-C mRNA transcripts were not changed following PAF and FF treatment, and LDH-C protein was detected in highly progressive motile specimens treated with FF in the asthenozoospermic samples. Furthermore, LDH-C expression was more detectable in the normal sperms. Conclusion: Our results indicated that PAF had more beneficial effects than FF on sperm motility in the asthenozoospermic samples (P=0.0001, although the LDH-C expressions of the sperms were not changed significantly in both groups. We found no association between LDH-C expression and sperm motility after FF and PAF actions. This finding, however, requires further investigation. The fact that LDH-C protein was detected in the normozoospermic, but not asthenozoospermic, samples could be cited as a reason for the infertility in these patients.

  11. Clostridium oryzae sp. nov., from soil of a Japanese rice field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horino, Haruka; Ito, Miyuki; Tonouchi, Akio

    2015-03-01

    An obligately anaerobic bacterial strain designated KC3(T) was isolated from a rice straw-degrading culture, for which soil of a Japanese rice field was used as the inoculum. Cells of strain KC3(T) were determined to be non-cellulolytic, Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, ellipsoidal, spore-forming rods, 0.8-1×4-25 µm. Endospores were formed at a terminal position in elongated cells (12-25 µm, mean 15 µm). The temperature range for growth was 20-50 °C, with an optimum at 37 °C. The pH range for growth was 5.0-7.5, with an optimum at pH 6.0 (slightly acidophilic). Strain KC3(T) fermented cellobiose to lactate, butyrate, acetate, formate, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C14 : 0, C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 cyclo 11,12 dimethylacetal. The DNA G+C content of strain KC3(T) was 37.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain KC3(T) shared low sequence similarity (Clostridium sensu stricto (Clostridium rRNA cluster I). Analyses of the DNA gyrase A and ATP synthase beta subunit sequences supported the affiliation of strain KC3(T) to the genus Clostridium sensu stricto. The evidence presented here indicates that strain KC3(T) represents a novel species of the genus Clostridium, for which the name Clostridium oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Clostridium oryzae is KC3(T) ( = DSM 28571(T) = NBRC 110163(T)).

  12. Thermocrinis jamiesonii sp. nov., a thiosulfate-oxidizing, autotropic thermophile isolated from a geothermal spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, John C.; Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Hedlund, Brian P.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Williams, Amanda J.

    2015-12-01

    An obligately thermophilic, chemolithotrophic, microaerophilic bacterium, designated strain GBS1T, was isolated from the water column of Great Boiling Spring, Nevada, USA. Thiosulfate was required for growth. Although capable of autotrophy, growth of GBS1T was enhanced in the presence of acetate, peptone, or Casamino acids. Growth occurred at 70-85 °C with an optimum at 80 °C, at pH 6.5-7.75 with an optimum at pH 7.25, at 0.5-8% oxygen with an optimum at 1-2%, and at ≤200 mM sodium chloride. The doubling time under optimal growth conditions was 1.3 hrs, with a final cell density of 6.2±0.5 x 107 cells/mL. Non-motile, rod-shaped cells 1.4-2.4 x 0.4-0.6 µm occurred singly or in pairs. Major cellular fatty acids (>5% of total) were C20:1ω9c (44.8%), C18:0 (26.0%), C16:0 (9.9%) and C20:0 (5.4%). Phylogenetic analysis of the GBS1T 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated an affiliation with Thermocrinis ruber and other Thermocrinis spp., but comparisons of 16S rRNA gene identity (≤97.10%) and in silico estimated DNA-DNA hybridization values (≤18.4%) with Thermocrinis spp. indicate that his strain is distinct from described species. Based on phenotypic, genotypic, and phylogenetic characteristics, the name Thermocrinis jamiesonii sp. nov. is proposed, with GBS1T (= JCM 19133T = DSM 27162T) as the type strain.

  13. Martelella endophytica sp. nov., an antifungal bacterium associated with a halophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Fehmida; Chung, Eu Jin; Khan, Ajmal; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

    2013-08-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, non-spore-forming endophytic bacterium, designated strain YC6887(T), was isolated from a root sample of a halophyte, Rosa rugosa, collected from a tidal flat area of Namhae Island, located at the southern end of Korea. Strain YC6887(T) was found to exhibit inhibitory activity against oomycete plant pathogens. The cells were non-motile and aerobic rods. The strain was able to grow at 4-40 °C (optimum 28-30 °C) and at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0-8.5). Strain YC6887(T) was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0-9 % (w/v) with optimum growth at 4-5 % (w/v) NaCl, but NaCl is not essential for growth. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain was a member of the genus Martelella, a member of order Rhizobiales, exhibiting highest similarity with Martelella mediterranea (98.6 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain YC6887(T) and M. mediterranea MACL11(T) was 19.8 ± 6.8. Chemotaxonomically, strain YC6887(T) contained C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c (28.0 %) and C18 : 1ω7c (17.9 %) as predominant fatty acids, confirming the affiliation of strain YC6887(T) with the genus Martelella. The major respiratory quinone was Q-10 and the DNA G+C content was 62.1 mol%. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, physiological and biochemical characterization and DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain YC6887(T) should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Martelella, for which the name Martelella endophytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6887(T) ( = KCCM 43011(T) = NBRC 109149(T)).

  14. Asinibacterium lactis gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Chitinophagaceae, isolated from donkey (Equus asinus) milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Geol; Park, Ji-Min; Kang, Heecheol; Hong, So-Young; Lee, Kyung Real; Chang, Hung-Bae; Trujillo, Martha E

    2013-09-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated LCJ02(T), was isolated on R2A agar from donkey (Equus asinus) milk powder and subjected to a taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach. Strain LCJ02(T) showed a Gram-negative reaction, was non-motile, non-spore-forming and possessed rod-shaped cells and yellow-pigmented colonies. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel isolate formed a cluster with several uncultured bacterial clones and with cultured members of the genera Hydrotalea, Sediminibacterium and Lacibacter (family Chitinophagaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes). The gene sequence similarities with respect to the type strains of recognized species from the above genera and other phylogenetic neighbours ranged from 89.3 to 92.9%. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 49.2 mol%, the only isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and the major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0), iso-C(17:0) 3-OH, iso-C(15:1) G and summed feature 3 (C(16:1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH). The major polar lipids of strain LCJ02(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminophospholipids, one unidentified aminolipid and five unidentified lipids. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed phenotypic differentiation of strain LCJ02(T) from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. On the basis of the evidence of this polyphasic study, isolate LCJ02(T) represents a novel genus and species in the family Chitinophagaceae for which the name Asinibacterium lactis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LCJ02(T) ( =KCCM 90108(T) =JCM 18484(T)).

  15. Gene loss and horizontal gene transfer contributed to the genome evolution of the extreme acidophile Ferrovum

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    Sophie Roxana Ullrich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD, associated with active and abandoned mining sites, is a habitat for acidophilic microorganisms that gain energy from the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds and ferrous iron and that thrive at pH below 4. Members of the recently proposed genus Ferrovum are the first acidophilic iron oxidizers to be described within the Betaproteobacteria. Although they have been detected as typical community members in AMD habitats worldwide, knowledge of their phylogenetic and metabolic diversity is scarce. Genomics approaches appear to be most promising in addressing this lacuna since isolation and cultivation of Ferrovum has proven to be extremely difficult and has so far only been successful for the designated type strain Ferrovum myxofaciens P3G. In this study, the genomes of two novel strains of Ferrovum (PN-J185 and Z-31 derived from water samples of a mine water treatment plant were sequenced. These genomes were compared with those of Ferrovum sp. JA12 that also originated from the mine water treatment plant, and of the type strain (P3G. Phylogenomic scrutiny suggests that the four strains represent three Ferrovum species that cluster in two groups (1 and 2. Comprehensive analysis of their predicted metabolic pathways revealed that these groups harbor characteristic metabolic profiles, notably with respect to motility, chemotaxis, nitrogen metabolism, biofilm formation and their potential strategies to cope with the acidic environment. For example, while the F. myxofaciens strains (group 1 appear to be motile and diazotrophic, the non-motile group 2 strains have the predicted potential to use a greater variety of fixed nitrogen sources. Furthermore, analysis of their genome synteny provides first insights into their genome evolution, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer and genome reduction in the group 2 strains by loss of genes encoding complete metabolic pathways or physiological features contributed to the observed

  16. Gemmobacter megaterium sp. nov., isolated from coastal planktonic seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Jin; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Chi, Fang-Tao; Pan, Jie; Sun, Cong; Wu, Min

    2014-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile and aerobic bacterium, designated CF17(T), was isolated from coastal planktonic seaweeds, East China Sea. The isolate grew at 18-37 °C (optimum 25-28 °C), pH 6.5-9.0 (optimum 7.0-8.0) and with 0-5 % NaCl (optimum 1-2 %, w/v) and 0.5-10 % sea salts (optimum 2-3 %, w/v). Growth of strain CF17(T) could be stimulated prominently by supplementing the growth medium with the autoclaved supernatant of a culture of strain CF5, which was isolated from the same sample along with strain CF17(T). The cell morphology of strain CF17(T) was a bean-shaped rod consisting of a swollen end and a long prostheca. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain CF17(T) clustered with Gemmobacter nectariphilus DSM 15620(T) within the genus Gemmobacter. The DNA G+C content of strain CF17(T) was 61.4 mol%. The respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-10. The major fatty acids included C18 : 1ω7c and C18 : 0. The polar lipids of strain CF17(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, two uncharacterized phospholipids, one uncharacterized aminolipid, three uncharacterized glycolipids and one uncharacterized lipid. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic data, strain CF17(T) ( = CGMCC 1.11024(T) = JCM 18498(T)) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Gemmobacter, for which the name Gemmobacter megaterium sp. nov. is proposed.

  17. Temporal variation in plankton assemblages and physicochemistry of Devils Lake, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, H.V.; Berkas, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    Seasonal and annual variation in biomass and structure of algal assemblages of hyposaline Devils Lake were examined in relation to turbidity, ambient concentrations of major ions, trace elements and nutrients, and the standing crop of herbivores. Lake level declined during the early years of study, but rose markedly in subsequent years as historically large volumes of water flowed into this hydrologically-closed basin. Winter algal assemblages were dominated (in biomass) most years by small, non-motile chlorophytes (Choricystis minor, Kirchneriella lunaris or Dunaliella sp.), or Euglena sp. in the most saline sub-basin. Spring assemblages were dominated by diatoms (Stephanodiscus cf. minutulus, Surirella peisonis, Cyclotella meneghiniana and Entomoneis paludosa were especially prominent) or chlorophytes (C. minor) until the lake level rose. C. minor abundances then declined in spring assemblages and diatoms (Stephanodiscus cf. agassizensis and S. niagarae; E. paludosa in the more saline sub-basins) dominated. The potential for nitrogen-deficient conditions for phytoplankton growth was evidenced most summers and early autumns by consistently high concentrations of reactive-P relative to inorganic-N and blooms of the N-fixing cyanophyte Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; Microcystis aeruginosa typically was a co-dominant (> 30% of biomass) in these assemblages. Pulses of diatoms (S. cf. agassizensis and C. meneghiniana) occurred in summers following unusually prolonged periods of calm weather or large water inflows. Physical (irradiance, turbulence) and chemical (major nutrients) variables were the primary factors associated with phytoplankton growth. Transparency and major nutrient concentrations accounted for more of the annual variation in phytoplankton structure than did salinity. Seasonal abundance patterns of the dominant zooplankton (the copepod Diaptomus sicilis; the cladocerans Ceriodaphnia quadrangula, Chydorus sphaericus, Daphnia pulex and Diaphanosoma birgei; and

  18. A role for the RNA chaperone Hfq in controlling adherent-invasive Escherichia coli colonization and virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina T Simonsen

    Full Text Available Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC has been linked with the onset and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel diseases. The AIEC strain LF82 was originally isolated from an ileal biopsy from a patient with Crohn's disease. The pathogenesis of LF82 results from its abnormal adherence to and subsequent invasion of the intestinal epithelium coupled with its ability to survive phagocytosis by macrophages once it has crossed the intestinal barrier. To gain further insight into AIEC pathogenesis we employed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an in vivo infection model. We demonstrate that AIEC strain LF82 forms a persistent infection in C. elegans, thereby reducing the host lifespan significantly. This host killing phenotype was associated with massive bacterial colonization of the nematode intestine and damage to the intestinal epithelial surface. C. elegans killing was independent of known LF82 virulence determinants but was abolished by deletion of the LF82 hfq gene, which encodes an RNA chaperone involved in mediating posttranscriptional gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs. This finding reveals that important aspects of LF82 pathogenesis are controlled at the posttranscriptional level by riboregulation. The role of Hfq in LF82 virulence was independent of its function in regulating RpoS and RpoE activity. Further, LF82Δhfq mutants were non-motile, impaired in cell invasion and highly sensitive to various chemical stress conditions, reinforcing the multifaceted function of Hfq in mediating bacterial adaptation. This study highlights the usefulness of simple non-mammalian infection systems for the identification and analysis of bacterial virulence factors.

  19. Behavioral and physiological changes during benthic-pelagic transition in the harmful alga, Heterosigma akashiwo: potential for rapid bloom formation.

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    Elizabeth D Tobin

    Full Text Available Many species of harmful algae transition between a motile, vegetative stage in the water column and a non-motile, resting stage in the sediments. Physiological and behavioral traits expressed during benthic-pelagic transition potentially regulate the timing, location and persistence of blooms. The roles of key physiological and behavioral traits involved in resting cell emergence and bloom formation were examined in two geographically distinct strains of the harmful alga, Heterosigma akashiwo. Physiological measures of cell viability, division and population growth, and cell fatty acid content were made using flow cytometry and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry techniques as cells transitioned between the benthic resting stage and the vegetative pelagic stage. Video-based tracking was used to quantify cell-level swimming behaviors. Data show increased temperature and light triggered rapid emergence from the resting stage and initiated cell swimming. Algal strains varied in important physiological and behavioral traits, including survivorship during life-stage transitions, population growth rates and swimming velocities. Collectively, these traits function as "population growth strategies" that can influence bloom formation. Many resting cells regained the up-swimming capacity necessary to cross an environmentally relevant halocline and the ability to aggregate in near-surface waters within hours after vegetative growth supporting conditions were restored. Using a heuristic model, we illustrate how strain-specific population growth strategies can govern the timescales over which H. akashiwo blooms form. Our findings highlight the need for identification and quantification of strain-specific physiological and behavioral traits to improve mechanistic understanding of bloom formation and successful bloom prediction.

  20. Effect of diffusely adherent Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrhoeal patients and healthy carriers on IL-8 secretion and tight junction barrier integrity of Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Yoshihiko; Arikawa, Kentaro; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2013-03-15

    The pathogenesis of diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC) remains to be elucidated. Previously, we found that afimbrial adhesin gene (afa)-positive motile DAEC strains isolated from patients with diarrhoea induce high levels of IL-8 secretion in Caco-2 cells via toll-like receptor 5 (TLR-5), while non-motile strains did not. The aim of this study was to compare virulence properties, including the phylogenetic groups, afa subtypes, IL-8 secretion levels, and the effects on tight junctions, of DAEC strains isolated from healthy persons with those isolated from patients with diarrhoea. Induction of IL-8 secretion in Caco-2 cells was examined for a total of 36 afa-positive strains: 19 from diarrhoeal patients and 17 from healthy carriers. Irrespective of the source, all strains were classified into the phylogenetic group B2 or D, with the exception of two strains. All 7 motile strains isolated from diarrhoeal patients induced high levels of IL-8 secretion, while only 6 of 15 motile strains from healthy carriers induced IL-8 secretion to the same levels as the diarrhoeal strains. We speculated that additional virulence factors other than afa and motility cause the loosening of tight junctions that allows flagellin to reach TLR-5 located on the basolateral side of the epithelium. However, no differences in the TER and dextran permeability were observed between cells infected with diarrhoeal strains and those from healthy persons. Thus, diarrhoeagenic DAEC seems to possess additional factors, in addition to adhesin and flagellin, which can induce high IL-8 secretion.

  1. Novosphingobium lotistagni sp. nov., isolated from a lotus pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hien T T; Trinh, Huan; Kim, Jung-Hee; Yang, Jung-Eun; Won, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Ju-Han; Kook, MooChang; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2016-11-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain THG-DN6.20T, was isolated from a lotus pond near Donghaksa temple in Daejeon, Republic of Korea. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain THG-DN6.20T was found to be most closely related to Novosphingobium rosa IFO 15208T (97.6 % sequence similarity), Novosphingobium sediminicola HU1-AH51T (97.5 %) and Novosphingobium barchaimii LL02T (96.9 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain THG-DN6.20T and its phylogenetically closest neighbours was below 60.0 %. The respiratory quinone and polyamine detected in strain THG-DN6.20T were ubiquinone Q-10 and spermidine, respectively. The DNA G+C content was 63.1 mol%. The major polar lipids were found to be phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, sphingoglycolipid and phosphatidylcholine. The major fatty acids were identified as C16 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) and C14 : 0 2-OH. These data supported the affiliation of strain THG-DN6.20T to the genus Novosphingobium. Strain THG-DN6.20T could be distinguished from related species of the genus Novosphingobium by physiological and biochemical characteristics. Therefore, the novel isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Novosphingobium lotistagni sp. nov. is proposed, with THG-DN6.20T as the type strain (=KACC 18541T=CCTCC AB 2015354T).

  2. Niabella hibiscisoli sp. nov., isolated from soil of a Rose of Sharon garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hien T T; Trinh, Huan; Yan, Zheng-Fei; Moya, Gabriela; Kook, MooChang; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2016-10-21

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain THG-DN5.5T, was isolated from soil of a Rose of Sharon garden in Daejeon, South Korea. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain THG-DN5.5T was found to be most closely related to Niabella yanshanensis CCBAU 05354T (97.7 % sequence similarity), Niabella ginsengisoli GR10-1T (97.0 %), Niabella terrae ICM 1-15T (96.0 %), Niabella soli DSM 19437T (95.7 %), and Niabella aquatica RP-2T (95.6 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain THG-DN5.5T and its phylogenetically closest neighbours was below 50.0 %. The DNA G+C content was 43.1 mol%. The major polar lipid was found to be phosphati¬dylethanolamine. The major fatty acids were identified as C16:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C15:1 G, and iso-C17:0 3OH. MK-7 was the only menaquinone present. These data supported the affiliation of strain THG-DN5.5T to the genus Niabella. Strain THG-DN5.5T was distinguished from related Niabella species by physiological and biochemical tests. In this study, the novel isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Niabella hibiscisoli sp. nov. is proposed, with THG-DN5.5T as the type strain (= KACC 18857T = CCTCC AB 2016086T).

  3. Emticicia aquatilis sp. nov., isolated from a freshwater sample near Donghaksa temple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hien T T; Trinh, Huan; Yang, Jung-Eun; Won, Kyung-Hwa; Chu, Dong-Hun; Kook, MooChang; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2017-02-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, facultative anaerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped and yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain THG-DN6.14T, was isolated from a freshwater sample near Donghaksa temple in Daejeon, South Korea. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain THG-DN6.14T was found to be most closely related to Emticicia sediminis JBR12T (99.1 % sequence similarity), Emticicia oligotrophica DSM 17448T (97.6 %), Emticicia aquatica HMF2925T (96.5 %), and Emticicia ginsengisoli Gsoil 085T (94.4 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain THG-DN6.14T and its phylogenetically closest neighbours was below 65.0 %. The DNA G+C content was 43.3 mol%. The major polar lipids were found to be phosphati¬dylethanolamine, unidentified glycolipid, and unidentified aminoglycolipid. The major fatty acids were identified as C16:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3OH, and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c). The respiratory quinone was menaquinone MK-7. These data supported the affiliation of strain THG-DN6.14T to the genus Emticicia. Strain THG-DN6.14T was distinguished from related Emticicia species by physiological and biochemical tests. Therefore, the novel isolate represents a novel species, for which the name Emticicia aquatilis sp. nov. is proposed, with THG-DN6.14T as the type strain (= KACC 18540T = CGMCC 1.15958T).

  4. Coordination of division and development influences complex multicellular behavior in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

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    Jinwoo Kim

    Full Text Available The α-Proteobacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens has proteins homologous to known regulators that govern cell division and development in Caulobacter crescentus, many of which are also conserved among diverse α-Proteobacteria. In light of recent work demonstrating similarity between the division cycle of C. crescentus and that of A. tumefaciens, the functional conservation for this presumptive control pathway was examined. In C. crescentus the CtrA response regulator serves as the master regulator of cell cycle progression and cell division. CtrA activity is controlled by an integrated pair of multi-component phosphorelays: PleC/DivJ-DivK and CckA-ChpT-CtrA. Although several of the conserved orthologues appear to be essential in A. tumefaciens, deletions in pleC or divK were isolated and resulted in cell division defects, diminished swimming motility, and a decrease in biofilm formation. A. tumefaciens also has two additional pleC/divJhomologue sensor kinases called pdhS1 and pdhS2, absent in C. crescentus. Deletion of pdhS1 phenocopied the ΔpleC and ΔdivK mutants. Cells lacking pdhS2 morphologically resembled wild-type bacteria, but were decreased in swimming motility and elevated for biofilm formation, suggesting that pdhS2 may serve to regulate the motile to non-motile switch in A. tumefaciens. Genetic analysis suggests that the PleC/DivJ-DivK and CckA-ChpT-CtrA phosphorelays in A. tumefaciens are vertically-integrated, as in C. crescentus. A gain-of-function mutation in CckA (Y674D was identified as a spontaneous suppressor of the ΔpleC motility phenotype. Thus, although the core architecture of the A. tumefaciens pathway resembles that of C. crescentus there are specific differences including additional regulators, divergent pathway architecture, and distinct target functions.

  5. Abyssicoccus albus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Staphylococcaceae isolated from marine sediment of the Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhao; Yuan, Chang-Guo; Xiao, Min; Tian, Xin-Peng; Khan, Inam-Ullah; Kim, Chang-Jin; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile, asporogenous, coccoid shaped bacterium, designated YIM M12140(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the Indian Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YIM M12140(T) forms a separate clade within the family Staphylococcaceae. Strain YIM M12140(T) shares high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Macrococcus brunensis DSM 19358(T) (92.9 %). The isolate was found to grow at 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2-3 %), pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and temperature 5-40 °C (optimum, 28 °C). The polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminophospholipid and two unidentified polar lipids. The major cellular fatty acids of the strain were identified as anteiso-C15:0, -C17:0, iso-C16:0, anteiso-C19:0 and C20:0. The respiratory menaquinones were found to be MK-6 (94 %) and MK-7 (6 %). The cell wall amino acids were found to contain Lys, Ala, Glu, Gly, Asp, Ser and Thr. Whole cell sugars were identified as mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose and xylose. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain YIM M12140(T) was determined to be 42.4 mol %. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic data and phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that strain YIM M12140(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Staphylococcaceae, for which the name Abyssicoccus albus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM M12140(T) (= DSM 29158(T) = CCTCC AB 2014213(T)).

  6. Youngimonas vesicularis gen. nov., sp. nov., of the family Rhodobacteraceae, isolated from surface seawater, reclassification of Donghicola xiamenensis Tan et al. 2009 as Pseudodonghicola xiamenensis gen. nov., comb. nov. and emended description of the genus Donghicola Yoon et al. 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Asif; Shahina, Mariyam; Lin, Shih-Yao; Nakayan, Phanit; Liu, You-Cheng; Lai, Wei-An; Hsu, Yi-Han

    2014-08-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, non-pigmented, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium, devoid of bacteriochlorophyll, designated strain CC-AMW-E(T), was isolated from surface seawater off the coast at Kending, Taiwan. Strain CC-AMW-E(T) shared 95.7 and 93.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively, with the type strains of the type species of the genera Donghicola (Donghicola eburneus SW-277(T)) and Roseovarius (Roseovarius tolerans EL-172(T)). The predominant (>75% of the total) fatty acid was summed feature 8 (C(18 : 1)ω6c and/or C(18 : 1)ω7c). The polar lipid profile included major amounts of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified aminolipid. In addition, moderate amounts of an unidentified lipid and trace amounts of an unidentified phospholipid were detected. The DNA G+C content was 67.9 mol%. Ubiquinone Q-10 was the sole respiratory quinone. Based on its phylogenetic distinctiveness and distinguishing phenotypic characteristics (in particular its polar lipid pattern), we conclude that strain CC-AMW-E(T) represents a novel genus and species of the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the name Youngimonas vesicularis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Youngimonas vesicularis is CC-AMW-E(T) ( = JCM 18819(T) = BCRC 80549(T)). In addition, an emended description of the genus Donghicola Yoon et al. 2007 and the reclassification of Donghicola xiamenensis Tan et al. 2009 as Pseudodonghicola xiamenensis gen. nov., comb. nov. (type strain Y-2(T) = MCCC 1A00107(T) = LMG 24574(T) = CGMCC 1.7081(T)) are proposed.

  7. Characteristics and distribution of Listeria spp., including Listeria species newly described since 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Renato H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The genus Listeria is currently comprised of 17 species, including 9 Listeria species newly described since 2009. Genomic and phenotypic data clearly define a distinct group of six species (Listeria sensu strictu) that share common phenotypic characteristics (e.g., ability to grow at low temperature, flagellar motility); this group includes the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The other 11 species (Listeria sensu lato) represent three distinct monophyletic groups, which may warrant recognition as separate genera. These three proposed genera do not contain pathogens, are non-motile (except for Listeria grayi), are able to reduce nitrate (except for Listeria floridensis), and are negative for the Voges-Proskauer test (except for L. grayi). Unlike all other Listeria species, species in the proposed new genus Mesolisteria are not able to grow below 7 °C. While most new Listeria species have only been identified in a few countries, the availability of molecular tools for rapid characterization of putative Listeria isolates will likely lead to future identification of isolates representing these new species from different sources. Identification of Listeria sensu lato isolates has not only allowed for a better understanding of the evolution of Listeria and virulence characteristics in Listeria but also has practical implications as detection of Listeria species is often used by the food industry as a marker to detect conditions that allow for presence, growth, and persistence of L. monocytogenes. This review will provide a comprehensive critical summary of our current understanding of the characteristics and distribution of the new Listeria species with a focus on Listeria sensu lato.

  8. Towards unraveling the human tooth transcriptome: the dentome.

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    Shijia Hu

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to characterize the transcriptome profiles of human ameloblasts and odontoblasts, evaluate molecular pathways and advance our knowledge of the human "dentome". Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate odontoblasts and ameloblasts from human tooth buds (15-20week gestational age from 4 fetuses. RNA was examined using Agilent 41k whole genome arrays at 2 different stages of enamel formation, presecretory and secretory. Probe detection was considered against the array negative control to control for background noise. Differential expression was examined using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM 4.0 between different cell types and developmental stages with a false discovery rate of 20%. Pathway analysis was conducted using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. We found that during primary tooth formation, odontoblasts expressed 14,802 genes, presecretory ameloblasts 15,179 genes and secretory ameloblasts 14,526 genes. Genes known to be active during tooth development for each cell type (eg COL1A1, AMELX were shown to be expressed by our approach. Exploring further into the list of differentially expressed genes between the motile odontoblasts and non-motile presecretory ameloblasts we found several genes of interest that could be involved in cell movement (FN1, LUM, ASTN1. Furthermore, our analysis indicated that the Phospholipase C and ERK5 pathways, that are important for cell movement, were activated in the motile odontoblasts. In addition our pathway analysis identified WNT3A and TGFB1 as important upstream contributors. Recent studies implicate these genes in the development of Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia. The utility of laser capture microdissection can be a valuable tool in the examination of specific tissues or cell populations present in human tooth buds. Advancing our knowledge of the human dentome and related molecular pathways provides new insights into the complex mechanisms regulating

  9. Strain H2-419-4 of Haematococcus pluvialis induced by ethyl methanesulphonate and ultraviolet radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yanhong; LIU Jianguo; ZHANG Xiaoli; LIN Wei

    2008-01-01

    Two strains H2-410 and H2-419 were obtained from the chemically mutated survivors of wild Haematococcus pluvialis 2 by using ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS).Strains H2-410 and H2-419 showed a fast cell growth with 13% and 20% increase in biomass compared to wild type,respectively.Then H2-419-4,a fast cell growth and high astaxanthin accumulation strain,was obtained by exposing the strain H2-419 to ultraviolet radiation (UV) further.The total biomass,the astaxanthin content per cell,astaxanthin production of H2-419-4 showed 68%,28%,and 120% increase compared to wild H.pluvialis 2,respectively.HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) data showed also an obvious proportional variation of different carotenoid compositions in the extracts of H2-419-4 and the wild type,although no peak of carotenoids appeared or disappeared.Therefore,the main compositions in strain H2-419-4,like its wild one,were free of astaxanthin,monoester,and diester of astaxanthin.The asexual reproduction in survivors after exposed to UV was not synchronous,and different from the normal synchronous asexual reproduction as the mother cells were motile instead of non-motile.Interestingly,some survivors from UV irradiation produced many mini-spores (or gamete?),the spores moved away from the mother cell gradually 4 or 5 days later.This is quite similar to sexual reproduction described by Elliot in 1934.However,whether this was sexual reproduction remains questionable,as no mating process has been observed.

  10. Deep-water microbialites of the Mesoproterozoic Dismal Lakes Group: microbial growth, lithification, and implications for coniform stromatolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, J K; Kah, L C; Frank, T D; Lyons, T W

    2015-01-01

    Offshore facies of the Mesoproterozoic Sulky Formation, Dismal Lakes Group, arctic Canada, preserve microbialites with unusual morphology. These microbialites grew in water depths greater than several tens of meters and correlate with high-relief conical stromatolites of the more proximal September Lake reef complex. The gross morphology of these microbial facies consists of ridge-like vertical supports draped by concave-upward, subhorizontal elements, resulting in tent-shaped cuspate microbialites with substantial primary void space. Morphological and petrographic analyses suggest a model wherein penecontemporaneous upward growth of ridge elements and development of subhorizontal draping elements initially resulted in a buoyantly supported, unlithified microbial form. Lithification began via precipitation within organic elements during microbialite growth. Mineralization either stabilized or facilitated collapse of initially neutrally buoyant microbialite forms. Microbial structures and breccias were then further stabilized by precipitation of marine herringbone cement. During late-stage diagenesis, remaining void space was occluded by ferroan dolomite cement. Cuspate microbialites are most similar to those found in offshore facies of Neoarchean carbonate platforms and to unlithified, buoyantly supported microbial mats in modern ice-covered Antarctic lakes. We suggest that such unusual microbialite morphologies are a product of the interaction between motile and non-motile communities under nutrient-limiting conditions, followed by early lithification, which served to preserve the resultant microbial form. The presence of marine herringbone cement, commonly associated with high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), low O2 conditions, also suggests growth in association with reducing environments at or near the seafloor or in conjunction with a geochemical interface. Predominance of coniform stromatolite forms in the Proterozoic--across a variety of depositional

  11. Terriglobus saanensis sp. nov., an acidobacterium isolated from tundra soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männistö, Minna K; Rawat, Suman; Starovoytov, Valentin; Häggblom, Max M

    2011-08-01

    Two aerobic bacterial strains, designated SP1PR4(T) and SP1PR5, were isolated from tundra soil samples collected from Saana fjeld, North-western Finland (69° 03' N 20° 50' E). Cells of both strains were Gram-negative, non-motile rods. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the strains belong to the genus Terriglobus in subdivision 1 of the phylum Acidobacteria. Strains SP1PR4(T) and SP1PR5 shared identical BOX and ERIC fingerprints and 99.7 % 16S rRNA gene similarity indicating that, together with their identical physiological features, these strains are members of the same species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of SP1PR4(T) and SP1PR5 with Terriglobus roseus DSM 18391(T) was 97.1 %. A low DNA-DNA hybridization value (<20 %) and rpoB gene sequence similarity (83.6 %) with T. roseus DSM 18391(T) indicated that the tundra soil isolates represent novel members of the genus Terriglobus. Strains SP1PR4(T) and SP1PR5 grew at pH 4.5-7.5 and 4-30 °C. Sugars were the preferred growth substrates. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 1)ω7c, iso-C(13 : 0) and C(16 : 0). The DNA G+C content of strain SP1PR4(T) was 57.3 mol%. Based on phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and physiological analyses, the name Terriglobus saanensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate the two strains; the type strain is SP1PR4(T) ( = DSM 23119(T)  = ATCC BAA-1853(T)).

  12. The genome of a Bacillus isolate causing anthrax in chimpanzees combines chromosomal properties of B. cereus with B. anthracis virulence plasmids.

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    Silke R Klee

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a fatal disease caused by strains of Bacillus anthracis. Members of this monophyletic species are non motile and are all characterized by the presence of four prophages and a nonsense mutation in the plcR regulator gene. Here we report the complete genome sequence of a Bacillus strain isolated from a chimpanzee that had died with clinical symptoms of anthrax. Unlike classic B. anthracis, this strain was motile and lacked the four prohages and the nonsense mutation. Four replicons were identified, a chromosome and three plasmids. Comparative genome analysis revealed that the chromosome resembles those of non-B. anthracis members of the Bacillus cereus group, whereas two plasmids were identical to the anthrax virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2. The function of the newly discovered third plasmid with a length of 14 kbp is unknown. A detailed comparison of genomic loci encoding key features confirmed a higher similarity to B. thuringiensis serovar konkukian strain 97-27 and B. cereus E33L than to B. anthracis strains. For the first time we describe the sequence of an anthrax causing bacterium possessing both anthrax plasmids that apparently does not belong to the monophyletic group of all so far known B. anthracis strains and that differs in important diagnostic features. The data suggest that this bacterium has evolved from a B. cereus strain independently from the classic B. anthracis strains and established a B. anthracis lifestyle. Therefore we suggest to designate this isolate as "B. cereus variety (var. anthracis".

  13. POTENSI PROBIOTIK BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT ASAL BEKASAM IKAN NILA [Probiotic Potential of Bekasam Lactic Acid Bacteria of Tilapia Fish

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    Astri Nurnaafi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bekasam is well known in Indonesia as one of fermented fish product. Several fermented products generate lactic acid bacteria (LAB which has probiotic potential with beneficial effects on human health. However, In Indonesia, the research on LAB isolated from fermented fish product, including bekasam, is still rarely conducted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the probiotic potential of LAB isolated from bekasam. Two LAB isolates namely NS(5 and NS(6 were selected based on their resistance to gastric pH (pH 2.0, intestinal pH (pH 7.2 and bile salts (0.5% oxgal. Pathogenic test, antimicrobial activity test, characterization and identification of the isolats were also performed respectively. The result showed that NS(5 isolate survived at pH 2.0, pH 7.2 and bile salts (oxgal. It was obtained that NS(5 isolate was non pathogenic bacteria which exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Escherichia coli. The characterization result showed that NS(5 isolate was Gram-positive bacteria, rod-shaped, non-endospore producer, negative catalase, homofermentative, non motile, having an amilolitik as well as lipolitik activity and able to grow at 30-37°C, NaCl 2-7% dan pH 4.4-9.6. Isolate NS(5 isolate was then identified as Lactobacillus plantarum 1 strain with 99.9% of similarity. Meanwhile, NS(6 isolate was not able to survive in the medium containing bile salts (oxgal, therefore it was not categorized as a probiotic candidate.

  14. Deinococcus metallilatus sp. nov. and Deinococcus carri sp. nov., isolated from a car air-conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Uk; Lee, Hyosun; Lee, Ji-Hyeong; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Lim, Sangyong; Jeong, Sunwook; Park, So Yoon; Seong, Chi Nam; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2015-09-01

    Two bacterial strains, designated MA1002(T) and MA1003(T), were isolated from the air-conditioning system of a car. Cells of both strains were Gram-reaction-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming coccoids, catalase- and oxidase-positive and UV-radiation resistant. The major fatty acids of strain MA1002(T) were iso-C17 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0 and those of strain MA1003(T) were iso-C16 : 0 and iso-C16 : 1 H. The polar lipid profile of MA1002(T) contained phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified phosphoglycolipids, an unidentified phospholipid, an unidentified aminophospholipid, an unidentified aminolipid and an unidentified lipid. MA1003(T) had three unidentified phosphoglycolipids, six unidentified phospholipids, two unidentified glycolipids and two unidentified polar lipids as the polar lipids. The G+C contents of the genomic DNA of MA1002(T) and MA1003(T) were 70.5 and 76.0 mol%, respectively. MK-8 was the predominant respiratory quinone for both strains. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain MA1002(T) was phylogenetically related to Deinococcus apachensis DSM 19763(T), D. geothermalis DSM 11300(T), D. aerius TR0125(T) and D. aetherius ST0316(T) (92.9, 92.6, 92.0 and 91.9% sequence similarity, respectively), and MA1003(T) showed the highest sequence similarity to Deinococcus hopiensis KR-140(T) (92.9%) and D. xinjiangensis X-82(T) (91.4%). The results of genotypic and phenotypic characterizations showed that both strains could be distinguished from phylogenetically related species, and that the strains represented novel species within the genus Deinococcus, for which we propose the names Deinococcus metallilatus sp. nov. (type strain MA1002(T) = KACC 17964(T) = NBRC 110141(T)) and Deinococcus carri sp. nov. (type strain is MA1003(T) = KACC 17965(T) = NBRC 110142(T)).

  15. Nitropelagi marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., Isolated From Seawater, Je-bu island, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sun Hwan; Lee, Sang Seob

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-spore forming, non-motile and aerobic strain, designated JB22(T), was isolated from seawater, Je-bu Island, South Korea. Strain JB22(T) was catalase and oxidase positive. Optimal growth of JB22(T) was observed at 30 °C and pH 7.0. NaCl tolerance range was 1-9 % (w/v) with an optimum of 2.0 % concentration. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JB22(T) showed the highest sequence similarity to those of Pelagicola litorisediminis D1-W8(T) (95.8 %), Roseovarius litoreus GSW-M15(T) (95.2 %), Roseovarius aestuarii SMK-122(T) (95.0 %), Donghicola eburmeus SW-277(T) (95.0 %), and Roseovarius halotolerans HJ50(T) (94.9 %). It contained ubiquine-10 as the major respiratory quinone and C18:1 ω7c (69.3 %), :0 (9.9 %), C18:1 ω7c 11-methyl (9.6 %) as the major fatty acid. The polar lipid profile included phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, and unidentified aminolipid. The DNA G+C content of the strain JB22(T) was 47 mol  %. Based on physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain JB22(T) should be regarded as a new genus of the family Rhodobacteraceae, for which the Nitropelagi marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JB22(T) (= KEMB 3001-101(T) = JCM 30822(T)).

  16. Gene Loss and Horizontal Gene Transfer Contributed to the Genome Evolution of the Extreme Acidophile “Ferrovum”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Sophie R.; González, Carolina; Poehlein, Anja; Tischler, Judith S.; Daniel, Rolf; Schlömann, Michael; Holmes, David S.; Mühling, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), associated with active and abandoned mining sites, is a habitat for acidophilic microorganisms that gain energy from the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds and ferrous iron and that thrive at pH below 4. Members of the recently proposed genus “Ferrovum” are the first acidophilic iron oxidizers to be described within the Betaproteobacteria. Although they have been detected as typical community members in AMD habitats worldwide, knowledge of their phylogenetic and metabolic diversity is scarce. Genomics approaches appear to be most promising in addressing this lacuna since isolation and cultivation of “Ferrovum” has proven to be extremely difficult and has so far only been successful for the designated type strain “Ferrovum myxofaciens” P3G. In this study, the genomes of two novel strains of “Ferrovum” (PN-J185 and Z-31) derived from water samples of a mine water treatment plant were sequenced. These genomes were compared with those of “Ferrovum” sp. JA12 that also originated from the mine water treatment plant, and of the type strain (P3G). Phylogenomic scrutiny suggests that the four strains represent three “Ferrovum” species that cluster in two groups (1 and 2). Comprehensive analysis of their predicted metabolic pathways revealed that these groups harbor characteristic metabolic profiles, notably with respect to motility, chemotaxis, nitrogen metabolism, biofilm formation and their potential strategies to cope with the acidic environment. For example, while the “F. myxofaciens” strains (group 1) appear to be motile and diazotrophic, the non-motile group 2 strains have the predicted potential to use a greater variety of fixed nitrogen sources. Furthermore, analysis of their genome synteny provides first insights into their genome evolution, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer and genome reduction in the group 2 strains by loss of genes encoding complete metabolic pathways or physiological features

  17. Roseomonas aestuarii sp. nov., a bacteriochlorophyll-a containing alphaproteobacterium isolated from an estuarine habitat of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Ramana, V; Sasikala, Ch; Takaichi, S; Ramana, Ch V

    2010-06-01

    Two strains (JC17(T) and JC19a) of orange pigmented bacteria were isolated from an estuarine sample. Cells of both the strains were Gram-negative coccobacilli, non-motile, non-spore forming and strictly aerobic. Chemo-organoheterotrophy was the growth mode for both strains and was possible on a wide range of organic compounds. Strains were non-hemolytic and contained low levels of BChl-a and carotenoids. The fatty acids (>1.0%) comprised C(18:1)omega7c, C(16:1)omega7c/iso-C(15:0)2OH, C(16:0), C(16:0) 3-OH, C(18:1)2OH, C(16:1)omega5c, and C(19:0) cycloomega8c. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JC17(T) was 66.2mol%. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strains JC17(T) and JC19a had the highest similarity to members of the genus Roseomonas and were closely related to Roseomonas cervicalis CIP104027(T) (96.4%) and Roseomonas ludipueritiae CIP107418(T) (96.3%) of the family Acetobacteraceae within the class Alphaproteobacteria. Strains JC17(T) and JC19a shared 100% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, were phenotypically (morphological, physiological, biochemical characters) identical and had closely related genomes (85% DDH). Based on polyphasic taxonomic data, strain JC17(T) is classified as a novel species of the genus Roseomonas for which the name Roseomonas aestuarii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC17(T) (=CCUG 57456(T) =KCTC 22692(T) =NBRC105654(T)).

  18. Roseomonas eburnea sp. nov., isolated from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenghong; Deng, Shikai; Liu, Xin; Yao, Li; Shi, Chao; Jiang, Jin; Kwon, Soon-Wo; He, Jian; Li, Jiayou

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped, non-endospore-forming, ivory-pigmented and non-motile bacterium, designated strain BUT-5T, was isolated from activated sludge of an herbicides-manufacturing wastewater treatment facility in Jiangsu Province, China. The major fatty acids (>5 % of total fatty acids) were C16 : 0, C18 : 1 2-OH and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c). The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-10. The polar lipids profile of strain BUT-5T included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and two unknown aminolipids. The DNA G+C content was 67.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain BUT-5T showed the highest sequence similarities to Roseomonas soli 5N26T (97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), followed by Roseomonas lacus TH-G33T (97.3 %) and Roseomonas terrae DS-48T (97.1 %). Strain BUT-5T showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with Roseomonas soli KACC 16376T (41 %), Roseomonas lacus KACC 11678T (46 %) and Roseomonas terrae KACC 12677T (42 %), respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic properties, as well as chemotaxonomic data, strain BUT-5T represents a novel species of the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas eburnea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BUT-5T ( = CCTCC AB2013276T = KACC 17166T).

  19. Roseomonas oryzae sp. nov., isolated from paddy rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-10-01

    A non-motile, coccus-shaped, pale-pink-pigmented bacterium, designated strain JC288T, was isolated from a paddy rhizosphere soil collected from Western Ghats, Kankumbi, Karnataka, India. Cells were found to be Gram-stain-negative, and catalase- and oxidase-positive; the major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c, C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c and C18 : 1 2-OH. The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-10 and the genomic DNA G+C content was 67.5 mol%. Strain JC288T contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, four unidentified aminolipids, three unidentified phospholipids, two unidentified lipids, an aminophospholipid and a glycolipid. Hydroxyspirilloxanthin was the major carotenoid of strain JC288T. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons indicated that strain JC288T represents a member of the genus Roseomonas within the family Acetobacteraceae of the phylum Proteobacteria. Strain JC288T shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Roseomonas rhizosphaerae YW11T (97.3 %), Roseomonas aestuarii JC17T (97.1 %), Roseomonas cervicalis CIP 104027T (95.9 %) and other members of the genus Roseomonas ( Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC288T ( = KCTC 42542T = LMG 28711T).

  20. Roseomonas pecuniae sp. nov., isolated from the surface of a copper-alloy coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, André; Esp Rito Santo, Christophe; Grass, Gregor; Chung, Ana Paula; Morais, Paula V

    2011-03-01

    Strain N75(T) was isolated from the surface of a copper-alloy 50 Euro cent coin collected from general circulation. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain N75(T) formed a distinct branch within the genus Roseomonas and placed it in the Alphaproteobacteria. Strain N75(T) showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 92.4-97.1  % to type strains of species of the genus Roseomonas. Strain N75(T) was a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile coccoid, with an optimum growth temperature of about 30 °C; the strain did not grow at 5 or 37 °C. Strain N75(T) did not grow in medium containing NaCl. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 10 (Q-10). The major fatty acids were unsaturated C₁₆:₁ω7c/C₁₆:₁ω6c and C₁₈:₁ω7c (around 70 % of the total fatty acids); the third most abundant fatty acid was the hydroxylated C₁₈:₁ 2-OH. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown aminolipid. The DNA G+C content was 72.8 mol%. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical characteristics, we conclude that strain N75(T) represents a novel species of the genus Roseomonas, for which we propose the name Roseomonas pecuniae sp. nov. (type strain N75(T) =LMG 25481(T) =CIP 110074(T)).

  1. Roseomonas sediminicola sp. nov., isolated from fresh water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Kim, Jin-Kwang; Jiang, Xiao-Ye; Park, Hye-Yoon; Sun, Changkai; Yu, Hong-San; Yoon, Min-Ho; Kim, Sun-Chang; Jin, Feng Xie; Im, Wan-Taek

    2014-01-01

    A Gram-stain negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, and rod-shaped bacterial strain designated FW-3(T) was isolated from fresh water and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Strain FW-3(T) was found to grow at 10-37 °C and at pH 7.0 in the absence of NaCl on nutrient agar. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain FW-3(T) was shown to belong to the family Acetobacteraceae and to be related to Roseomonas lacus TH-G33(T) (97.2 % sequence similarity) and Roseomonas terrae DS-48(T) (96.4 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was determined to be 68.0 %. The major menaquinone was determined to be Q-10 and the major fatty acids were identified as summed feature 7 (comprising C18:1 ω9c/ω12t/ω7c as defined by the MIDI system; 55.4 %), and C18:1 2OH (29.8 %). DNA and chemotaxonomic data supported the affiliation of strain FW-3(T) to the genus Roseomonas. Strain FW-3(T) could be differentiated genotypically and phenotypically from the recognized species of the genus Roseomonas. The novel isolate therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Roseomonas sediminicola sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain FW-3(T) (=KACC 16616(T) = JCM 18210(T)).

  2. Sperm motility-initiating substance in newt egg-jelly induces differential initiation of sperm motility based on sperm intracellular calcium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akihiko; Takayama-Watanabe, Eriko; Vines, Carol A; Cherr, Gary N

    2011-01-01

    Sperm motility-initiating substance (SMIS), a novel motility inducer from newt egg-jelly, is activated by the release from associated jelly substances at the beginning of internal fertilization and affects female-stored sperm. We examined motility initiation kinetics of newt sperm in response to SMIS by monitoring the changes of sperm intracellular calcium ([Ca²(+)](i)). In quiescent non-motile sperm loaded with the Ca²(+) indicator Fluo-4, intracellular free Ca²(+) was observed around mitochondria using confocal scanning laser microscopy. A slight increase in [Ca²(+)](i) occurred simultaneously and transiently at motility initiation in sperm treated with either heated jelly extract (hJE) containing activated SMIS, or a low osmotic solution, which naturally initiates motility in externally-fertilizing amphibians and can initiate motility in urodele sperm. When the increase of [Ca²(+)](i) at motility-initiation was monitored using spectrofluorometry, large increases in [Ca²(+)](i) occurred immediately in the low osmotic solution and within 1.5 min in the hJE. In the intact jelly extract (no heating), small increases of [Ca²(+)](i) irregularly occurred from around 1 min and for about 4 min, during which motility was differentially initiated among sperm. These results indicate that the SMIS induces differential initiation of sperm motility depending on the activational states of the SMIS and its overall activity. The motility initiation in the jelly extract was delayed in sperm whose intracellular Ca²(+) had been chelated with BAPTA-AM. The relative levels of [Ca²(+)](i) were variable with a mean of 414 ± 256 nmol/L among resting sperm, suggesting that the level of [Ca²(+)](i) in the resting sperm modulates the responsiveness to the SMIS.

  3. Vibrio ishigakensis sp. nov., in Halioticoli clade isolated from seawater in Okinawa coral reef area, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Rohul Amin, A K M; Sato, Kazumichi; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hargreaves, Paulo Iiboshi; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2016-07-01

    Five novel strains showing non-motile, alginolytic, halophilic and fermentative features were isolated from seawater samples off Okinawa in coral reef areas. These strains were characterized by an advanced polyphasic taxonomy including genome based taxonomy using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and in silico DNA-DNA similarity (in silico DDH). Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates could be assigned to the genus Vibrio, however they were not allocated into any distinct cluster with known Vibrionaceae species. MLSA based on eight protein-coding genes (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) showed the vibrios formed an outskirt branch of Halioticoli clade. The experimental DNA-DNA hybridization data revealed that the five strains were in the range of being defined as conspecific but separate from nine Halioticoli clade species. The G+C contents of the Vibrio ishigakensis strains were 47.3-49.1mol%. Both Amino Acid Identity and Average Nucleotide Identity of the strain C1(T) against Vibrio ezurae HDS1-1(T), Vibrio gallicus HT2-1(T), Vibrio halioticoli IAM 14596(T), Vibrio neonatus HDD3-1(T) and Vibrio superstes G3-29(T) showed less than 95% similarity. The genome-based taxonomic approach by means of in silico DDH values also supports the V. ishigakensis strains being distinct from the other known Halioticoli clade species. Sixteen traits (growth temperature range, DNase and lipase production, indole production, and assimilation of 10 carbon compounds) distinguished these strains from Halioticoli clade species. The names V. ishigakensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species of Halioticoli clade, with C1(T) as the type strain (JCM 19231(T)=LMG 28703(T)).

  4. Primary isolation strain determines both phage type and receptors recognised by Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Martine C Holst; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Birk, Tina; Baldvinsson, Signe Berg; Jäckel, Claudia; Hammerl, Jens A; Vegge, Christina S; Neve, Horst; Brøndsted, Lone

    2015-01-01

    In this study we isolated novel bacteriophages, infecting the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. These phages may be used in phage therapy of C. jejuni colonized poultry to prevent spreading of the bacteria to meat products causing disease in humans. Many C. jejuni phages have been isolated using NCTC12662 as the indicator strain, which may have biased the selection of phages. A large group of C. jejuni phages rely on the highly diverse capsular polysaccharide (CPS) for infection and recent work identified the O-methyl phosphoramidate modification (MeOPN) of CPS as a phage receptor. We therefore chose seven C. jejuni strains each expressing different CPS structures as indicator strains in a large screening for phages in samples collected from free-range poultry farms. Forty-three phages were isolated using C. jejuni NCTC12658, NCTC12662 and RM1221 as host strains and 20 distinct phages were identified based on host range analysis and genome restriction profiles. Most phages were isolated using C. jejuni strains NCTC12662 and RM1221 and interestingly phage genome size (140 kb vs. 190 kb), host range and morphological appearance correlated with the isolation strain. Thus, according to C. jejuni phage grouping, NCTC12662 and NCTC12658 selected for CP81-type phages, while RM1221 selected for CP220-type phages. Furthermore, using acapsular ∆kpsM mutants we demonstrated that phages isolated on NCTC12658 and NCTC12662 were dependent on the capsule for infection. In contrast, CP220-type phages isolated on RM1221 were unable to infect non-motile ∆motA mutants, hence requiring motility for successful infection. Hence, the primary phage isolation strain determines both phage type (CP81 or CP220) as well as receptors (CPS or flagella) recognised by the isolated phages.

  5. Tessaracoccus arenae sp. nov., isolated from sea sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongphrom, Chutimon; Kim, Jong-Hwa; Bora, Nagamani; Kim, Wonyong

    2017-06-01

    A Gram-stain positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile, facultatively anaerobic bacterial strain, designated CAU 1319T, was isolated from sea sand and the strain's taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Strain CAU 1319T grew optimally at 30 °C and at pH 7.5 in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, revealed that strain CAU 1319T belongs to the genus Tessaracoccus, and is closely related to Tessaracoccus lapidicaptus IPBSL-7T (similarity 97.69 %), Tessaracoccus bendigoensis Ben 106T (similarity 95.64 %) and Tessaracoccus flavescens SST-39T (similarity 95.84 %). Strain CAU 1319T had ll-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan, MK-9 (H4) as the predominant menaquinone, and anteiso-C15 : 0 as the major fatty acid. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, two unidentified aminolipids, three unidentified phospholipids and one unidentified glycolipid. Predominant polyamines were spermine and spermidine. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain CAU 1319T and T. lapidicaptus IPBSL-7T was 24 %±0.2. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 69.5 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, as well as phylogenetic relatedness, strain CAU 1319Tshould be classified as a novel species of the genus Tessaracoccus, for which the name Tessaracoccus arenae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CAU 1319T(=KCTC 39760T=NBRC 111973T).

  6. The proteome landscape of Giardia lamblia encystation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faso, Carmen; Bischof, Sylvain; Hehl, Adrian B

    2013-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is an intestinal protozoan parasite required to survive in the environment in order to be transmitted to a new host. To ensure parasite survival, flagellated trophozoites colonizing the small intestine differentiate into non-motile environmentally-resistant cysts which are then shed in the environment. This cell differentiation process called encystation is characterized by significant morphological remodeling which includes secretion of large amounts of cyst wall material. Although much is known about the transcriptional regulation of encystation and the synthesis and trafficking of cyst wall material, the investigation of global changes in protein content and abundance during G. lamblia encystation is still unaddressed. In this study, we report on the quantitative analysis of the G. lamblia proteome during encystation using tandem mass spectrometry. Quantification of more than 1000 proteins revealed major changes in protein abundance in early, mid and late encystation, notably in constitutive secretory protein trafficking. Early stages of encystation were marked by a striking decrease of endoplasmic reticulum-targeted variant-specific surface proteins and significant increases in cytoskeleton regulatory components, NEK protein kinases and proteins involved in protein folding and glycolysis. This was in stark contrast to cells in the later stages of encystation which presented a surprisingly similar proteome composition to non-encysting trophozoites. Altogether these data constitute the first quantitative atlas of the Giardia proteome covering the whole process of encystation and point towards an important role for post-transcriptional control of gene expression in Giardia differentiation. Furthermore, our data provide a valuable resource for the community-based annotation effort of the G. lamblia genome, where almost 70% of all predicted gene models remains "hypothetical".

  7. Jeotgalibaca dankookensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Carnobacteriaceae, isolated from seujeot (Korean traditional food).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Geol; Trujillo, Martha E; Kang, Heecheol; Ahn, Tae-Young

    2014-05-01

    A novel, Gram-stain-positive bacterium, designated strain EX-07T, was isolated from seujeot (Korean traditional food). The strain was aerobic, halotolerant and non-motile; it formed cocci that grouped into tetrads and sarcinae or formed irregular conglomerates. Growth occurred at pH 7-9, at 10-37 °C and with up to 9% NaCl. Isolate EX-07T was catalase- and oxidase-negative and used sugars and organic acids as carbon sources. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the novel strain showed 94.2-94.5% similarity with the type strains of Trichococcus pasteurii, Trichococcus patagoniensis, Trichococcus collinsii, Trichococcus flocculiformis and Trichococcus palustris and only 92.2% with representatives of the genera Bavariicoccus, Carnobacterium and Granulicatella. Sequence similarities based on the groEL gene ranged from 81.3 to 82.8% between the novel isolate and the type strains of all species of the genus Trichococcus, and only 74.2 and 75.3% with type strains of members of the genera Bavariicoccus and Granulicatella, respectively. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 39.6 mol%. The predominant fatty acids were C16:1ω9c, C18:1ω9c, C16:0 and C14:0. The polar lipid profile was very complex and included phosphatidylethanolamine and several unidentified aminolipids, glycolipids and phospholipids. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic results obtained in this study, it is proposed that isolate EX-07T represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Carnobacteriaceae for which the name Jeotgalibaca dankookensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Jeotgalibaca dankookensis is EX-07T (=KCCM 90229T=JCM 19215T).

  8. Polyphasic characterization of Bacillus species from anthrax outbreaks in animals from South Africa and Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekota, Kgaugelo Edward; Hassim, Ayesha; Mafofo, Joseph; Rees, Jasper; Muchadeyi, Farai Catherine; Van Heerden, Henriette; Madoroba, Evelyn

    2016-08-31

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a disease endemic in regions of Northern Cape Province and Kruger National Park of South Africa. Accurate identification of virulent B. anthracis is essential but challenging due to its close relationship with other members of B. cereus group. This study characterized B. anthracis and Bacillus species that were recovered from animals and the environment where animals died of anthrax symptoms in southern Africa using a polyphasic approach. For this purpose, 3 B. anthracis and 10 Bacillus isolates were subjected to microbiology tests, BiologOmniLog identification system (Biolog), 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of protective antigen (pag) and capsule (cap) regions, and real-time PCR using hybridization probes targeting chromosomal, pag, and capC genes. The Bacillus isolates were non-hemolytic, non-motile, and susceptible to penicillin, which is typical of B. anthracis, but resistant to gamma phage, unlike typical B. anthracis. The Biolog system and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified most of the Bacillus isolates as B. endophyticus (7 of 10). Conventional PCR revealed that most of the Bacillus isolates contained capBCA gene regions. This highlights the limitation of the specificity of conventional PCR and the fact that the real-time PCR is more specific and reliable for anthrax diagnosis. Real-time PCR, 16S rRNA sequencing, and confirmatory microbiology tests including phage resistance distinguished Bacillus isolates from B. anthracis in this study. Identification of B. anthracis should be done using a polyphasic approach.

  9. Chryseobacterium chengduensis sp. nov. isolated from the air of captive giant panda enclosures in Chengdu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Cai-Fang; Xi, Li-Xin; Zhao, Shan; Hao, Zhong-Xiang; Luo, Lu; Liao, Hong; Chen, Zhen-Rong; She, Rong; Han, Guo-Quan; Cao, San-Jie; Wu, Rui; Yan, Qi-Gui; Hou, Rong

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated 25-1(T), was isolated from the air inside giant panda enclosures at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, China. Strain 25-1(T) grew optimally at pH 7.0-8.0, at 28-30 °C and in the presence of NaCl concentrations from 0.0% to 0.5 %. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain 25-1(T) belongs to the genus Chryseobacterium within the family Flavobacteriaceae and is related most closely to C. carnis G81(T) (96.4% similarity), C. lathyri RBA2-6(T) (95.8% similarity), and C. zeae JM1085(T) (95.8% similarity). Its genomic DNA G+C molar composition was 36.2%. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0 (44.0%), iso-C17:0 3OH (19.8%) and C16:1 ω7c/16:1 ω6c (12.7%). The only isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified amino lipids and two unidentified lipids. The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 25-1(T) and C. lathyri RBA2-6(T) was 38%. Phenotypic, genotypic, and phylogenetic characteristics indicated that strain 25-1(T) is a novel member of the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name C. chengduensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 25-1(T) (CCTCC AB2015133(T)=DSM 100396(T)).

  10. Brucella vulpis sp. nov., isolated from mandibular lymph nodes of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Holger C; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Hammerl, Jens A; Zygmunt, Michel S; Cloeckaert, Axel; Koylass, Mark; Whatmore, Adrian M; Blom, Jochen; Vergnaud, Gilles; Witte, Angela; Aistleitner, Karin; Hofer, Erwin

    2016-05-01

    Two slow-growing, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, coccoid bacteria (strains F60T and F965), isolated in Austria from mandibular lymph nodes of two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic analysis. In a recent study, both isolates were assigned to the genus Brucella but could not be attributed to any of the existing species. Hence, we have analysed both strains in further detail to determine their exact taxonomic position and genetic relatedness to other members of the genus Brucella. The genome sizes of F60T and F965 were 3 236 779 and 3 237 765 bp, respectively. Each genome consisted of two chromosomes, with a DNA G+C content of 57.2 %. A genome-to-genome distance of >80 %, an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 97 % and an average amino acid identity (AAI) of 98 % compared with the type species Brucella melitensis confirmed affiliation to the genus. Remarkably, 5 % of the entire genetic information of both strains was of non-Brucella origin, including as-yet uncharacterized bacteriophages and insertion sequences as well as ABC transporters and other genes of metabolic function from various soil-living bacteria. Core-genome-based phylogenetic reconstructions placed the novel species well separated from all hitherto-described species of the genus Brucella, forming a long-branched sister clade to the classical species of Brucella. In summary, based on phenotypic and molecular data, we conclude that strains F60T and F965 are members of a novel species of the genus Brucella, for which the name Brucella vulpis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain F60T ( = BCCN 09-2T = DSM 101715T).

  11. Antimicrobial activity of some sulfonamide derivatives on clinical isolates of Staphylococus aureus

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    Bekdemir Yunus

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is a non-motile, gram positive, non-sporforming, facultative anaerobic microorganism. It is one of the important bacteria as a potential pathogen specifically for nosocomial infections. The sulfonamide derivative medicines are preferred to cure infection caused by S. aureus due to methicillin resistance. Methods Antimicrobial activity of four sulfonamide derivatives have been investigated against 50 clinical isolates of S. aureus and tested by using MIC and disc diffusion methods. 50 clinical isolate which collected from specimens of patients who are given medical treatment in Ondokuz Mayis University Medical School Hospital. A control strain of S. aureus ATCC 29213 was also tested. Results The strongest inhibition was observed in the cases of I [N-(2-hydroxy-4-nitro-phenyl-4-methyl-benzensulfonamid], and II [N-(2-hydroxy-5-nitro-phenyl-4-methyl-benzensulfonamid] against S. aureus. Compound I [N-(2-hydroxy-4-nitro-phenyl-4-methyl-benzensulfonamid] showed higher effect on 21 S. aureus MRSAisolates than oxacillin antibiotic. Introducing an electron withdrawing on the ring increased the antimicrobial activity remarkably. Conclusion This study may help to suggest an alternative possible leading compound for development of new antimicrobial agents against MRSA and MSSA resistant S. aureus. It was also shown here that that clinical isolates of 50 S. aureus have various resistance patterns against to four sulfonamide derivatives. It may also be emphasized here that in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing results for S. aureus need standardization with further studies and it should also have a correlation with in vivo therapeutic response experiments.

  12. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Mice Models to Study Blastocystis spp. Adhesion, Colonization and Pathology: Closer to Proving Koch's Postulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjampur, Sitara S R; Png, Chin Wen; Chia, Wan Ni; Zhang, Yongliang; Tan, Kevin S W

    2016-01-01

    Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), isolate B (ST7-B) and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H), we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch's postulates for this parasite.

  13. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni FliS and FliW in Flagella Biogenesis and Flagellin Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomska, Katarzyna A.; Wösten, Marc M. S. M.; Ordoñez, Soledad R.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Flagella-driven motility enables bacteria to reach their favorable niche within the host. The human foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni produces two heavily glycosylated structural flagellins (FlaA and FlaB) that form the flagellar filament. It also encodes the non-structural FlaC flagellin which is secreted through the flagellum and has been implicated in host cell invasion. The mechanisms that regulate C. jejuni flagellin biogenesis and guide the proteins to the export apparatus are different from those in most other enteropathogens and are not fully understood. This work demonstrates the importance of the putative flagellar protein FliS in C. jejuni flagella assembly. A constructed fliS knockout strain was non-motile, displayed reduced levels of FlaA/B and FlaC flagellin, and carried severely truncated flagella. Pull-down and Far Western blot assays showed direct interaction of FliS with all three C. jejuni flagellins (FlaA, FlaB, and FlaC). This is in contrast to, the sensor and regulator of intracellular flagellin levels, FliW, which bound to FlaA and FlaB but not to FlaC. The FliS protein but not FliW preferred binding to glycosylated C. jejuni flagellins rather than to their non-glycosylated recombinant counterparts. Mapping of the binding region of FliS and FliW using a set of flagellin fragments showed that the C-terminal subdomain of the flagellin was required for FliS binding, whereas the N-terminal subdomain was essential for FliW binding. The separate binding subdomains required for FliS and FliW, the different substrate specificity, and the differential preference for binding of glycosylated flagellins ensure optimal processing and assembly of the C. jejuni flagellins. PMID:28659885

  14. Primary isolation strain determines both phage type and receptors recognised by Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine C Holst Sørensen

    Full Text Available In this study we isolated novel bacteriophages, infecting the zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. These phages may be used in phage therapy of C. jejuni colonized poultry to prevent spreading of the bacteria to meat products causing disease in humans. Many C. jejuni phages have been isolated using NCTC12662 as the indicator strain, which may have biased the selection of phages. A large group of C. jejuni phages rely on the highly diverse capsular polysaccharide (CPS for infection and recent work identified the O-methyl phosphoramidate modification (MeOPN of CPS as a phage receptor. We therefore chose seven C. jejuni strains each expressing different CPS structures as indicator strains in a large screening for phages in samples collected from free-range poultry farms. Forty-three phages were isolated using C. jejuni NCTC12658, NCTC12662 and RM1221 as host strains and 20 distinct phages were identified based on host range analysis and genome restriction profiles. Most phages were isolated using C. jejuni strains NCTC12662 and RM1221 and interestingly phage genome size (140 kb vs. 190 kb, host range and morphological appearance correlated with the isolation strain. Thus, according to C. jejuni phage grouping, NCTC12662 and NCTC12658 selected for CP81-type phages, while RM1221 selected for CP220-type phages. Furthermore, using acapsular ∆kpsM mutants we demonstrated that phages isolated on NCTC12658 and NCTC12662 were dependent on the capsule for infection. In contrast, CP220-type phages isolated on RM1221 were unable to infect non-motile ∆motA mutants, hence requiring motility for successful infection. Hence, the primary phage isolation strain determines both phage type (CP81 or CP220 as well as receptors (CPS or flagella recognised by the isolated phages.

  15. Geobacter anodireducens sp. nov., an exoelectrogenic microbe in bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dan; Wang, Aijie; Cheng, Shaoan; Yates, Matthew; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-10-01

    A previously isolated exoelectrogenic bacterium, strain SD-1(T), was further characterized and identified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Geobacter. Strain SD-1(T) was Gram-negative, aerotolerant, anaerobic, non-spore-forming, non-fermentative and non-motile. Cells were short, curved rods (0.8-1.3 µm long and 0.3 µm in diameter). Growth of strain SD-1(T) was observed at 15-42 °C and pH 6.0-8.5, with optimal growth at 30-35 °C and pH 7. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate was a member of the genus Geobacter, with the closest known relative being Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA(T) (98% similarity). Similar to other members of the genus Geobacter, strain SD-1(T) used soluble or insoluble Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor coupled with the oxidation of acetate. However, SD-1(T) could not reduce fumarate as an electron acceptor with acetate oxidization, which is an important physiological trait for G. sulfurreducens. Moreover, SD-1(T) could grow in media containing as much as 3% NaCl, while G. sulfurreducens PCA(T) can tolerate just half this concentration, and this difference in salt tolerance was even more obvious when cultivated in bioelectrochemical systems. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis of strain SD-1(T) and its closest relative, G. sulfurreducens ATCC 51573(T), showed a relatedness of 61.6%. The DNA G+C content of strain SD-1(T) was 58.9 mol%. Thus, on the basis of these characteristics, strain SD-1(T) was not assigned to G. sulfurreducens, and was instead classified in the genus Geobacter as a representative of a novel species. The name Geobacter anodireducens sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain SD-1(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12536(T) = KCTC 4672(T)).

  16. Phenylobacterium muchangponense sp. nov., isolated from beach soil, and emended description of the genus Phenylobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yong-Sik; Roh, Dong-Hyun

    2012-04-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, aerobic bacterium, designated strain A8T, was isolated from the beach soil of Muchangpo, Korea. Cells were rod-shaped (0.5-0.6×0.7-1.3 µm) and colonies were colourless, circular with entire edges and had a glistening surface. The isolate grew optimally at 25-35 °C and did not require NaCl for growth. Strain A8T could not assimilate acetate, DL-lactate, succinate, antipyrine or chloridazon, but weakly assimilated L-phenylalanine. Major fatty acids were summed feature 7 (comprising C18:1ω7c/ω9t/ω12t), C16:0 and summed feature 4 (comprising C16:1ω7c/ iso-C15:0 2-OH). The major isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-10 and the DNA G+C content was 72.3 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed that strain A8T belonged to the family Caulobacteraceae, class Alphaproteobacteria and was most closely related to type strains of members of the genus Phenylobacterium (95.7-97.1 % similarity). Signature nucleotides and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence also suggested that strain A8T was affiliated with the genus Phenylobacterium. Low DNA-DNA relatedness values (3.0±1.8-11.5±3.2 %) indicated that strain A8T represented a distinct species that was separated from other type strains in the genus Phenylobacterium. On the basis of evidence from a polyphasic study, it is proposed that strain A8T (=KACC 15042T=LMG 25973T) represents the type strain of a novel species, Phenylobacterium muchangponense sp. nov. An emended description of the genus Phenylobacterium is also presented.

  17. Intestinimonas butyriciproducens gen. nov., sp. nov., a butyrate-producing bacterium from the mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kläring, Karoline; Hanske, Laura; Bui, Nam; Charrier, Cédric; Blaut, Michael; Haller, Dirk; Plugge, Caroline M; Clavel, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    A Gram-positive, spore-forming, non-motile, strictly anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from the caecal content of a TNF(deltaARE) mouse. The isolate, referred to as strain SRB-521-5-I(T), was originally cultured on a reduced agar medium containing yeast extract, rumen fluid and lactic acid as main energy and carbon sources. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA genes revealed that the species most closely related to strain SRB-521-5-I(T) were Flavonifractor plautii and Pseudoflavonifractor capillosus (<95 % sequence similarity; 1436 bp). In contrast to F. plautii and P. capillosus, strain SRB-521-5-I(T) contained a substantial amount of C18 : 0 dimethylacetal. Additional major fatty acids were C14 : 0 methyl ester, C16 : 0 dimethylacetal and C18 : 0 aldehyde. Strain SRB-521-5-I(T) differed in its enzyme profile from F. plautii and P. capillosus by being positive for dextrin, maltotriose, turanose, dl-lactic acid and d-lactic acid methyl ester but negative for d-fructose. In reduced Wilkins-Chalgren-Anaerobe broth, strain SRB-521-5-I(T) produced approximately 8 mM butyrate and 4 mM acetate. In contrast to F. plautii, the strain did not metabolize flavonoids. It showed intermediate resistance towards the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, colistin and tetracycline. Based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, we propose the name Intestinimonas butyriciproducens gen. nov., sp. nov. to accommodate strain SRB-521-5-I(T) ( = DSM 26588(T) = CCUG 63529(T)) as the type strain.

  18. Halalkalicoccus paucihalophilus sp. nov., a halophilic archaeon from Lop Nur region in Xinjiang, northwest of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing-Bing; Tang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Lu, Xin-Hua; Li, Li; Cheng, Juan; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Li-Li; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-05-01

    Two extremely halophilic archaea, designated YIM 93701(T) and YIM 93664, were isolated from Lop Nur region in Xinjiang Province, northwest of China. The cells of the two strains were observed to be cocci, non-motile and Gram-negative. The organisms were determined to be aerobic and required at least 6 % NaCl for growth (optimum 20-25 % and maximum 35 %). Growth was found to occur in the ranges of 16-50 °C (optimum 37 °C) and pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum 6.5-7.5). Cells did not lyse in distilled water. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the two strains belongs to the genus Halalkalicoccus and possessed 99.3 and 99.5 % similarities with their closest phylogenetic relative Halalkalicoccus tibetensis JCM 11890(T). Major polar lipids of the two strains were determined to be phosphatidylglycerol(PG),phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester (PGP-Me), phosphatidylglycerol sulfate (PGS) and three unidentified glycolipids. The DNA G+C contents were determined to be 60.0-60.4 mol%. The DNA hybridization between the two strains was 92.0 %. In addition, the hybridizations of both strains to H. tibetensis were 49 and 52 %, respectively, and to Halalkalicoccus jeotali were 38 and 33 %, respectively. On the basis of physiological, biochemical tests and phylogenetic differentiations, strains YIM 93701(T) and YIM 93664 were classified as the same species which represent a novel species in the genus Halalkalicoccus, for which the name Halalkalicoccus paucihalophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 93701(T) (=JCM 17505(T) = CCTCC 2012803(T)).

  19. Erwinia carotovora DsbA mutants: evidence for a periplasmic-stress signal transduction system affecting transcription of genes encoding secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Sealy, L V; Thomas, J D; Commander, P; Salmond, G P

    1999-08-01

    The dsbA genes, which encode major periplasmic disulfide-bond-forming proteins, were isolated from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) and Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca), and the dsbC gene, encoding another periplasmic disulfide oxidoreductase was isolated from Ecc. All three genes were sequenced and mutants deficient in these genes were created by marker exchange mutagenesis. The Ecc mutants were severely affected in activity and secretion of pectate lyase, probably due to the absence of functional PelC, which is predicted to require disulfide bond formation to achieve its correct conformation prior to secretion across the outer membrane. Similarly, endopolygalacturonase, also predicted to possess disulfide bonds, displayed reduced activity. The major Ecc cellulase (CelV) does not contain cysteine residues and was still secreted in dsbA-deficient strains. This observation demonstrated unequivocally that the localization and activity of the individual components of the Out apparatus are independent of disulfide bond formation. Surprisingly, cellulase activity was shown to be increased approximately two- to threefold in the DsbA mutant. This phenomenon resulted from transcriptional up-regulation of celV gene expression. In contrast, transcription of both pelC and peh were down-regulated in dsbA-deficient strains when compared to the wild-type. Protease (Prt) activity and secretion were unaffected in the Ecc dsbA mutant. Prt activity was considerably reduced in the double dsbA dsbC mutant. However Prt was secreted normally in this strain. The Eca dsbA mutant was found to be non-motile, suggesting that disulfide bond formation is essential for motility in this strain. All of the dsb mutants showed reduced tissue maceration in planta. These results suggest that a feedback regulation system operates in Ecc. In this system, defects in periplasmic disulfide bond formation act as a signal which is relayed to the transcription machinery regulating gene

  20. Haloactinomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from Dead Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hangxian; Jiang, Yingying; Chen, Xiu; Li, Qinyuan; Jiang, Chenglin; Jiang, Yi; Wei, Xiaomin

    2017-01-10

    A novel halophilic, filamentous actinomycete strain, designated AFM 10258T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Dead Sea of Israel. The isolate grew with 10-35% NaCl and did not grow without NaCl. The isolate formed white aerial mycelium and long spore chains, and two spores were separated by sterile mycelium. The spores were non-motile, spherical and rugose-surfaced. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and galactose and arabinose as the major whole-cell sugars. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and three unknown phospholipids. Major fatty acids were anteiso-C17:0, iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0. MK-9(H4) was the predominant menaquinone and the DNA G+C content was 62.8 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain AFM 10258T shared low sequence similarity with the closely related representatives of the families Pseudonocardiaceae (below 94.47%) and Actinopolysporaceae (below 93.76%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain AFM 10258T formed a robust clade with members of the family Actinopolysporaceae. On the basis of analysis of phenotypic, chemical and molecular characteristics, strain AFM 10258T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus , for which the name Haloactinomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is AFM 10258T (=DSM 45977T = CGMCC 4.7115T).

  1. Sphingomonas laterariae sp. nov., isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane-contaminated dump site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasvinder; Kaur, Jaspreet; Niharika, Neha; Lal, Rup

    2012-12-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, cream-coloured and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain LNB2(T), was isolated from a hexachlorocyclohexane-contaminated dump site in the village of Ummari, in northern India. The taxonomic position of the novel strain was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. In a phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain LNB2(T) appeared to be most closely related to Sphingomonas haloaromaticamans A175(T) (98.0% sequence similarity) and Sphingomonas histidinilytica UM2(T) (97.3%). In DNA-DNA hybridizations, the levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between the novel strain and S. haloaromaticamans A175(T) and S. histidinilytica UM2(T) were found to be low (8.6% and 5.6%, respectively). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain LNB2(T) was 61.0 mol%. The novel strain's predominant fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C(18:1)ω7c and/or C(18:1)ω6c), C(16:0), summed feature 3 (C(16:1)ω7c and/or C(16:1)ω6c), C(14:0) 2-OH, C(17:1)ω6c and 11-methyl C(18:1)ω7c. The major ubiquinone was Q-10, the predominant polyamine was homospermidine, and the major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine. Based on the phylogenetic, biochemical and chemotaxonomic evidence and the results of the DNA-DNA hybridizations, strain LNB2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas laterariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LNB2(T) ( = MTCC 10873(T) = CCM 7880(T) = DSM 25432(T)).

  2. Petrothermobacter organivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic, strictly anaerobic bacterium of the phylum Deferribacteres isolated from a deep subsurface oil reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamazawa, Satoshi; Mayumi, Daisuke; Mochimaru, Hanako; Sakata, Susumu; Maeda, Haruo; Wakayama, Tatsuki; Ikarashi, Masayuki; Kamagata, Yoichi; Tamaki, Hideyuki

    2017-09-12

    A novel thermophilic, anaerobic, chemoheterotrophic, acetate-oxidizing and iron(III)-, manganese(IV)-, nitrate- and sulfate-reducing bacterium, designated strain ANAT, was isolated from a deep subsurface oil field in Japan (Yabase oil field, Akita Pref.). Cells of strain ANAT were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore forming and slightly curved or twisted rods (1.5-5.0 µm long and 0.6-0.7 µm wide). The isolate grew at 25-60 °C (optimum 55 °C) and pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0). The isolate was capable of reducing iron(III), manganese(IV), nitrate and sulfate as an electron acceptor. The isolate utilized a limited range of electron donors such as acetate, lactate, pyruvate and yeast extract for iron reduction. Strain ANAT also used pyruvate, fumarate, succinate, malate, yeast extract and peptone for fermentative growth. The major respiratory quinones were menaquinone-7(H8) and menaquinone-8. The strain contained C18 : 0, iso-C18 : 0 and C16 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 34.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain ANAT was closely related to Calditerrivibrio nitroreducens in the phylum Deferribacteres with low sequence similarities (89.5 %), and formed a distinct clade within the family Deferribacteraceae. In addition, the isolate is the first sulfate-reducing member of the phylum Deferribacteres. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, a novel genus and species, Petrothermobacter organivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed for the isolate (type strain=ANAT= NBRC 112621T=DSM 105015T).

  3. Systems level analysis of two-component signal transduction systems in Erwinia amylovora: Role in virulence, regulation of amylovoran biosynthesis and swarming motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundin George W

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSTs, consisting of a histidine kinase (HK and a response regulator (RR, represent a major paradigm for signal transduction in prokaryotes. TCSTs play critical roles in sensing and responding to environmental conditions, and in bacterial pathogenesis. Most TCSTs in Erwinia amylovora have either not been identified or have not yet been studied. Results We used a systems approach to identify TCST and related signal transduction genes in the genome of E. amylovora. Comparative genomic analysis of TCSTs indicated that E. amylovora TCSTs were closely related to those of Erwinia tasmaniensis, a saprophytic enterobacterium isolated from apple flowers, and to other enterobacteria. Forty-six TCST genes in E. amylovora including 17 sensor kinases, three hybrid kinases, 20 DNA- or ligand-binding RRs, four RRs with enzymatic output domain (EAL-GGDEF proteins, and two kinases were characterized in this study. A systematic TCST gene-knockout experiment was conducted, generating a total of 59 single-, double-, and triple-mutants. Virulence assays revealed that five of these mutants were non-pathogenic on immature pear fruits. Results from phenotypic characterization and gene expression experiments indicated that several groups of TCST systems in E. amylovora control amylovoran biosynthesis, one of two major virulence factors in E. amylovora. Both negative and positive regulators of amylovoran biosynthesis were identified, indicating a complex network may control this important feature of pathogenesis. Positive (non-motile, EnvZ/OmpR, negative (hypermotile, GrrS/GrrA, and intermediate regulators for swarming motility in E. amylovora were also identified. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that TCSTs in E. amylovora played major roles in virulence on immature pear fruit and in regulating amylovoran biosynthesis and swarming motility. This suggested presence of regulatory networks governing

  4. Mucinivorans hirudinis gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, mucin-degrading bacterium isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael C; Bomar, Lindsey; Maltz, Michele; Graf, Joerg

    2015-03-01

    Three anaerobic bacterial strains were isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana, using mucin as the primary carbon and energy source. These strains, designated M3(T), M4 and M6, were Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming and non-motile. Cells were elongated bacilli approximately 2.4 µm long and 0.6 µm wide. Growth only occurred anaerobically under mesophilic and neutral pH conditions. All three strains could utilize multiple simple and complex sugars as carbon sources, with glucose fermented to acid by-products. The DNA G+C contents of strains M3(T), M4 and M6 were 44.9, 44.8 and 44.8 mol%, respectively. The major cellular fatty acid of strain M3(T) was iso-C15 : 0. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the three strains shared >99 % similarity with each other and represent a new lineage within the family Rikenellaceae of the order Bacteroidales, phylum Bacteroidetes. The most closely related bacteria to strain M3(T) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences were Rikenella microfusus DSM 15922(T) (87.3 % similarity) and Alistipes finegoldii AHN 2437(T) (87.4 %). On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and physiological evidence, strains M3(T), M4 and M6 are proposed as representing a novel species of a new genus within the family Rikenellaceae, for which the name Mucinivorans hirudinis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Mucinivorans hirudinis is M3(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2553(T) = DSM 27344(T)).

  5. Lentibacillus kimchii sp. nov., an extremely halophilic bacterium isolated from kimchi, a Korean fermented vegetable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Joon; Lee, Hae-Won; Lim, Seul Ki; Kwon, Min-Sung; Lee, Jieun; Jang, Ja-Young; Lee, Jong Hee; Park, Hae Woong; Nam, Young-Do; Seo, Myung-Ji; Roh, Seong Woon; Choi, Hak-Jong

    2016-06-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile and extremely halophilic bacterial strain, designated K9(T), was isolated from kimchi, a Korean fermented food. The strain was observed as endospore-forming rod-shaped cells showing oxidase and catalase activity. It was found to grow at 10.0-30.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 15.0-20.0 %), pH 7.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.5) and 15-40 °C (optimum, 30 °C). The polar lipids of strain K9(T) were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified glycolipid. The isoprenoid quinone was identified as menaquinone-7. The major cellular fatty acids (>20 % of the total) were found to be anteisio-C15:0 and anteisio-C17:0. The cell wall peptidoglycan composition was determined to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The G + C content of genomic DNA was determined to be 48.2 mol %. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the isolated strain is closely related to Lentibacillus salinarum AHS-1(T) (96.7 % sequence similarity). Based on its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain K9(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Lentibacillus, for which the name Lentibacillus kimchii sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is K9(T) (=KACC 18490(T) = JCM 30234(T)).

  6. RickA expression is not sufficient to promote actin-based motility of Rickettsia raoultii.

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    Premanand Balraj

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsia raoultii is a novel Rickettsia species recently isolated from Dermacentor ticks and classified within the spotted fever group (SFG. The inability of R. raoultii to spread within L929 cells suggests that this bacterium is unable to polymerize host cell actin, a property exhibited by all SFG rickettsiae except R. peacocki. This result led us to investigate if RickA, the protein thought to generate actin nucleation, was expressed within this rickettsia species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Amplification and sequencing of R. raoultii rickA showed that this gene encoded a putative 565 amino acid protein highly homologous to those found in other rickettsiae. Using immunofluorescence assays, we determined that the motility pattern (i.e. microcolonies or cell-to-cell spreading of R. raoultii was different depending on the host cell line in which the bacteria replicated. In contrast, under the same experimental conditions, R. conorii shares the same phenotype both in L929 and in Vero cells. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of infected cells showed that non-motile bacteria were free in the cytosol instead of enclosed in a vacuole. Moreover, western-blot analysis demonstrated that the defect of R. raoultii actin-based motility within L929 cells was not related to lower expression of RickA. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results, together with previously published data about R. typhi, strongly suggest that another factor, apart from RickA, may be involved with be responsible for actin-based motility in bacteria from the Rickettsia genus.

  7. Colony shape as a genetic trait in the pattern-forming Bacillus mycoides

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    Pisaneschi Giuseppe

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus mycoides Flügge, a Gram-positive, non-motile soil bacterium assigned to Bacillus cereus group, grows on agar as chains of cells linked end to end, forming radial filaments curving clock- or counter-clockwise (SIN or DX morphotypes. The molecular mechanism causing asymmetric curving is not known: our working hypothesis considers regulation of filamentous growth as the prerequisite for these morphotypes. Results SIN and DX strains isolated from the environment were classified as B. mycoides by biochemical and molecular biology tests. Growth on agar of different hardness and nutrient concentration did not abolish colony patterns, nor was conversion between SIN and DX morphotypes ever noticed. A number of morphotype mutants, all originating from one SIN strain, were obtained. Some lost turn direction becoming fluffy, others became round and compact. All mutants lost wild type tight aggregation in liquid culture. Growth on agar was followed by microscopy, exploring the process of colony formation and details of cell divisions. A region of the dcw (division cell wall cluster, including ftsQ, ftsA, ftsZ and murC, was sequenced in DX and SIN strains as a basis for studying cell division. This confirmed the relatedness of DX and SIN strains to the B. cereus group. Conclusions DX and SIN asymmetric morphotypes stem from a close but not identical genomic context. Asymmetry is established early during growth on agar. Wild type bacilli construct mostly uninterrupted filaments with cells dividing at the free ends: they "walk" longer distances compared to mutants, where enhanced frequency of cell separation produces new growing edges resulting in round compact colonies.

  8. Arthrobacter pityocampae sp. nov., isolated from Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lep., Thaumetopoeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnce, İkbal Agah; Demirbağ, Zihni; Katı, Hatice

    2014-10-01

    A bacterium (strain Tp2(T)) was isolated from a caterpillar of the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Den. & Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae), a destructive pine forest pest. The bacterium is a Gram-stain-positive, red-pigmented coccus, oxidase-negative, nitrate-reducing, non-motile and non-spore-forming. Strain Tp2(T) was subjected to a taxonomic study using polyphasic approach that included morphological and biochemical characterizations, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, DNA G+C content analysis, comparative fatty acid profiles, and analyses of quinones and polar lipids. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain Tp2(T) revealed that Arthrobacter agilis DSM 20550(T) was the closest known strain (98% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization of A. agilis DSM 20550(T) and strain Tp2(T) resulted in a DNA-DNA relatedness value of 11.9% (20.2% reciprocal). The DNA base composition of strain Tp2(T) was 69.5 mol%, which is consistent with the other recognized members of Actinobacteria that have a high G+C content in their genome. The polar lipid pattern of strain Tp2(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol (major), phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol and unknown glycolipids. The cellular fatty acids were anteiso C15:0 and anteiso C17:0 and the major menaquinone was MK-9(II-H2). The peptidoglycan type was A3α with an L-Lys-L-Thr-L-Ala3 interpeptide bridge. The above-mentioned characterization qualifies strain Tp2(T) as genotypically and phenotypically distinct from closely related species of the genus Arthrobacter with validly published names. Strain Tp2(T) is therefore proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, described as Arthrobacter pityocampae sp. nov. The type strain is Tp2(T) ( = DSM 21719(T) = NCCB 100254(T)).

  9. Methanosarcina spelaei sp. nov., a methanogenic archaeon isolated from a floating biofilm of a subsurface sulphurous lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzert, Lars; Schirmack, Janosch; Alawi, Mashal; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Sand, Wolfgang; Hillebrand-Voiculescu, Alexandra; Wagner, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    A novel methanogenic archaeon, strain MC-15(T), was isolated from a floating biofilm on a sulphurous subsurface lake in Movile Cave (Mangalia, Romania). Cells were non-motile sarcina-like cocci with a diameter of 2-4 µm, occurring in aggregates. The strain was able to grow autotrophically on H2/CO2. Additionally, acetate, methanol, monomethylamine, dimethylamine and trimethylamine were utilized, but not formate or dimethyl sulfide. Trypticase peptone and yeast extract were not required for growth. Optimal growth was observed at 33 °C, pH 6.5 and a salt concentration of 0.05 M NaCl. The predominant membrane lipids of MC-15(T) were archaeol and hydroxyarchaeol phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol as well as hydroxyarchaeol phosphatidylserine and archaeol glycosaminyl phosphatidylinositol. The closely related species, Methanosarcina vacuolata and Methanosarcina horonobensis, had a similar composition of major membrane lipids to strain MC-15(T). The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MC-15(T) was similar to those of Methanosarcina vacuolata DSM 1232(T) (sequence similarity 99.3%), Methanosarcina horonobensis HB-1(T) (98.8%), Methanosarcina barkeri DSM 800(T) (98.7%) and Methanosarcina siciliae T4/M(T) (98.4%). DNA-DNA hybridization revealed 43.3% relatedness between strain MC-15(T) and Methanosarcina vacuolata DSM 1232(T). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 39.0 mol%. Based on physiological, phenotypic and genotypic differences, strain MC-15(T) represents a novel species of the genus Methanosarcina, for which the name Methanosarcina spelaei sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MC-15(T) ( = DSM 26047(T) = JCM 18469(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  10. Pedobacter panacis sp. nov., isolated from Panax ginseng soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Singh, Hina; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2017-02-01

    A novel strain, DCY108(T) was isolated from soil of a Panax ginseng field, Yeoncheon province (38°04'N 126°57'E), Republic of Korea. Strain DCY108(T) is Gram-negative, non-motile, non-flagellate, rod-shaped, and aerobic. The bacterium grows optimally at 25-30 °C, pH 6.5-7.0 and 1 % NaCl. Phylogenetically, strain DCY108(T) is closely related to Pedobacter jejuensis JCM 18824(T), Pedobacter aquatilis JCM 13454(T), Pedobacter kyungheensis LMG 26577(T) and the type strain of the genus Pedobacter heparinus DSM 2366(T). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain DCY108(T) and its close phylogenetic neighbors were below 30.0 %. The DNA G+C content of strain DCY108(T) was determined to be 45.1 mol%. The predominant quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine and three unidentified aminolipids AL1, AL13 and AL17. Iso-C15:00, iso-C17:03OH and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c) were identified as the major fatty acids present in strain DCY108(T). The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed strain DCY108(T) to be differentiated phenotypically from other recognized species belonging to the genus Pedobacter. Therefore, it is suggested that the newly isolated organism represents a novel species, for which the name Pedobacter panacis sp. nov is proposed with the type strain designated as DCY108(T) (=CCTCCAB 2015196(T) = KCTC 42748(T)).

  11. Rhizobium pseudoryzae sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxia; Sun, Lei; Ma, Xiaotong; Sui, Xin Hua; Jiang, Ruibo

    2011-10-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain J3-A127(T), was isolated from the roots of fresh rice plants (Oryza sativa). Cells were non-motile and no flagellum was detected. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain was phylogenetically related to species of the genus Rhizobium, with closest similarity to Rhizobium oryzae Alt 505(T) (96.4 %). The low levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (Rhizobium also indicated that it represented a separate species. The temperature range for growth was 10-40 °C (optimum around 28 °C) and the pH range was 6.0-11.0 (optimum pH 7.0-8.0). Strain J3-A127(T) tolerated NaCl concentrations up to 5.0 % (w/v). The strain was catalase- and oxidase-positive. The main cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C(18 : 1)ω7c and/or C(18 : 1)ω6; 46.7 %). The DNA G+C content of strain J3-A127(T) was 59.5 mol%. Strain J3-A127(T) did not form any nodules on four different legumes and the nodD and nifH genes were not detected by PCR. According to physiological and biochemical characteristics and genotypic data, strain J3-A127(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium pseudoryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is J3-A127(T) ( = ACCC 10380(T) = KCTC 23294(T)).

  12. Rhizobium straminoryzae sp. nov., isolated from the surface of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yao; Hsu, Yi-Han; Liu, You-Cheng; Hung, Mei-Hua; Hameed, Asif; Lai, Wei-An; Yen, Wen-Shao; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2014-09-01

    An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain CC-LY845(T), was isolated from the surface of rice straw in Taiwan. Cells were non-motile, and no flagellum was detected. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the strain was phylogenetically related to species of the genus Rhizobium, with closest similarity to Rhizobium pseudoryzae KCTC 23294(T) (97.6 %), R. rhizoryzae KCTC 23652(T) (97.0 %) and R. oryzae LMG 24253(T) (96.7 %); other species showed lower levels of similarity (Rhizobium. The temperature range for growth was 25-42 °C, the pH range was 5.0-9.0 and NaCl concentrations up to 4.0 % (w/v) were tolerated. Strain CC-LY845(T) did not form nodules on four different legumes, and the nodD and nifH genes were not detected by PCR. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c). The polyamine pattern of strain CC-LY845(T) showed spermidine and putrescine as major polyamines. The predominant quinone system was ubiquinone 10 (Q-10). The DNA G+C content was 68.3±2.4 mol%. Base on its phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, strain CC-LY845(T) is proposed to represent a novel species within the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium straminoryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain CC-LY845(T) ( = BCRC 80698(T) = JCM 19536(T)).

  13. Rhizobium flavum sp. nov., a triazophos-degrading bacterium isolated from soil under the long-term application of triazophos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tao; Sun, Li Na; Zhang, Jun; Sui, Xin Hua; Li, Shun Peng

    2014-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, pale yellow, rod-shaped bacterial strain, YW14(T), was isolated from soil and its taxonomic position was investigated by a polyphasic study. Strain YW14(T) did not form nodules on three different legumes, and the nodD and nifH genes were not detected by PCR. Strain YW14(T) contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone. The major cellular fatty acid was C(18 : 1)ω7c. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and seven housekeeping gene sequences (recA, atpD, glnII, gyrB, rpoB, dnaK and thrC) showed that strain YW14(T) belonged to the genus Rhizobium. Strain YW14(T) showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 93.4-97.3% to the type strains of recognized species of the genus Rhizobium. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain YW14(T) and the type strains of Rhizobium sullae IS123(T) and Rhizobium yanglingense CCBAU 71623(T) was 19.6-25.7%, indicating that strain YW14(T) was distinct from them genetically. Strain YW14(T) could also be differentiated from these phylogenetically related species of the genus Rhizobium by various phenotypic properties. On the basis of phenotypic properties, phylogenetic distinctiveness and genetic data, strain YW14(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium flavum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YW14(T) ( = KACC 17222(T) = CCTCC AB2013042(T)).

  14. Rhizobium pakistanensis sp. nov., isolated from groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) nodules grown in rainfed Pothwar, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Rabia; Zhang, Yu Jing; Ali, Safdar; Sui, Xin Hua; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Amara, Ummay; Chen, Wen Xin; Hayat, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    A Gram-negative, white, non-motile, rod shaped bacterial strain BN-19(T) was isolated from a root nodule of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) in Pakistan. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain BN-19(T) formed a subclade in the genus Rhizobium together with Rhizobium alkalisoli CCBAU 01393(T), Rhizobium vignae CCBAU 05176(T), Rhizobium huautlense SO2(T) and Rhizobium tarimense PL-41(T) with sequence similarities of 97.5, 97.3, 97.2 and 97.1 % respectively. Sequence analysis of housekeeping genes atpD, glnII and recA (with sequence similarities of ≤92 %) confirmed the unique position of BN-19(T) in the genus Rhizobium. DNA-DNA relatedness between the strain BN-19(T) and R. alkalisoli CCBAU 01393(T), R. vignae CCBAU 05176(T), R. huautlense SO2(T) and R. tarimense PL-41(T) were 20.6, 22.5, 15.9 and 20.5 % respectively, further confirming that BN-19(T) represents a novel species in the genus Rhizobium. The DNA G + C content was 60.1 mol%. The dominant fatty acids of strain BN-19(T) were C19:0 cyclo ω8c, summed feature 2 (C14:0 3OH and/or C16:1 iso I) and summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c). Some phenotypic features also differentiate the strain BN-19(T) from the related species. On the basis of these results, strain BN-19(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium pakistanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BN-19(T) (=LMG 27895(T) = CCBAU 101086(T)).

  15. Paracoccus fistulariae sp. nov., a lipolytic bacterium isolated from bluespotted cornetfish, Fistularia commersonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ok; Kong, Hee Jeong; Park, Sooyeon; Kang, So-Jung; Kim, Kyung-Kil; Moon, Dae Yeon; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2010-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming and short rod- or rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated 22-5(T), was isolated from a bluespotted cornetfish, Fistularia commersonii, and subjected to taxonomic study. Strain 22-5(T) grew optimally at 30 °C and in the presence of 2-5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain 22-5(T) belonged to the genus Paracoccus and joined the cluster comprising Paracoccus homiensis DD-R11(T) and Paracoccus zeaxanthinifaciens ATCC 21588(T), with which strain 22-5(T) exhibited 97.4 and 96.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. Strain 22-5(T) exhibited 94.0-96.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the other type strains of species of the genus Paracoccus. Strain 22-5(T) contained Q-10 as the predominant menaquinone and C(18 : 1)ω7c as the predominant fatty acid. In this study, P. zeaxanthinifaciens KCTC 22688(T) also contained Q-10 as the predominant isoprenoid quinone. The DNA G+C content of strain 22-5(T) was 63.6 mol%. Strain 22-5(T) exhibited 44 and 32 % DNA-DNA relatedness to P. homiensis KACC 11518(T) and P. zeaxanthinifaciens KCTC 22688(T), respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic data, strain 22-5(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paracoccus, for which the name Paracoccus fistulariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 22-5(T) (=KCTC 22803(T) =CCUG 58401(T)).

  16. Characterization and identification of streptococci from golden pompano in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X H; Peng, Y H; Wang, Z C; Huang, T; Xiong, X Y; Huang, Y C; Wang, B; Xu, L W; Wu, Z H

    2016-05-26

    Streptococcal infections cause significant mortality and high economic losses in the fish farm industry worldwide, including in the culture of golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus L., a species gaining popularity in China. A total of 9 streptococcal strains were isolated from cage-cultured diseased golden pompano in Beihai, Zhanjing, and Shenzhen, China, between 2012 and 2014. Conventional and rapid identification systems were used to determine that the isolates were Streptococcus agalactiae, S. iniae, and S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae. All isolates were gram-positive cocci cells in pairs or short-chain, non-motile, catalase negative, α or β hemolytic cocci. The results of multiplex PCR assays and 16S rRNA BLAST analysis also showed that the β hemolytic strains were S. agalactiae and S. iniae and the α hemolytic strain was S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, respectively. Pathogenicity assays revealed that S. agalactiae (lethal dose [LD50]: 6.38 × 10(4) CFU ml(-1)) was more virulent for golden pompano than S. iniae (LD50: 1.47 × 10(7) CFU ml(-1)) and S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (LD50: 2.57 × 10(6) CFU ml(-1)) when they were challenged by intraperiotoneal (i.p.) injection. The results of antibiotic susceptibility showed that all strains were extremely susceptible to cefradine, erythromycin, and cefotaxime but resistant to gentamicin, penicillin G, novobiocin, neomycin, ciprofloxacin, roxithromycin, furazolidone, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, kanamycin, ampicillin, tetracycline, and vancomycin This is the first report of a phenomenon of golden pompano coinfection with S. agalactiae and S. iniae, which will contribute to the diagnosis and prevention of streptococcicosis.

  17. A gel-free quantitative proteomics approach to investigate temperature adaptation of the food-borne pathogen Cronobacter turicensis 3032.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Paula; Grunau, Alexander; Schneider, Thomas; Hartmann, Isabel; Lehner, Angelika; Stephan, Roger; Gehrig, Peter; Grossmann, Jonas; Groebel, Katrin; Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Eberl, Leo; Riedel, Kathrin

    2010-09-01

    The opportunistic food-borne pathogen Cronobacter sp. causes rare but significant illness in neonates and is capable to grow at a remarkably wide range of temperatures from 5.5 to 47 degrees C. A gel-free quantitative proteomics approach was employed to investigate the molecular basis of the Cronobacter sp. adaptation to heat and cold-stress. To this end the model strain Cronobacter turicensis 3032 was grown at 25, 37, 44, and 47 degrees C, and whole-cell and secreted proteins were iTRAQ-labelled and identified/quantified by 2-D-LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. While 44 degrees C caused only minor changes in C. turicensis growth rate and protein profile, 47 degrees C affected the expression of about 20% of all 891 identified proteins and resulted in a reduced growth rate and rendered the strain non-motile and filamentous. Among the heat-induced proteins were heat shock factors, transcriptional and translational proteins, whereas proteins affecting cellular morphology, proteins involved in motility, central metabolism and energy production were down-regulated. Notably, numerous potential virulence factors were found to be up-regulated at higher temperatures, suggesting an elevated pathogenic potential of Cronobacter sp. under these growth conditions. Significant alterations in the protein expression profile and growth rate of C. turicensis exposed to 25 degrees C indicate that at this temperature the organism is cold-stressed. Up-regulated gene products comprised cold-shock, DNA-binding and ribosomal proteins, factors that support protein folding and proteins opposing cold-induced decrease in membrane fluidity, whereas down-regulated proteins were mainly involved in central metabolism.

  18. The proteome landscape of Giardia lamblia encystation.

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    Carmen Faso

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is an intestinal protozoan parasite required to survive in the environment in order to be transmitted to a new host. To ensure parasite survival, flagellated trophozoites colonizing the small intestine differentiate into non-motile environmentally-resistant cysts which are then shed in the environment. This cell differentiation process called encystation is characterized by significant morphological remodeling which includes secretion of large amounts of cyst wall material. Although much is known about the transcriptional regulation of encystation and the synthesis and trafficking of cyst wall material, the investigation of global changes in protein content and abundance during G. lamblia encystation is still unaddressed. In this study, we report on the quantitative analysis of the G. lamblia proteome during encystation using tandem mass spectrometry. Quantification of more than 1000 proteins revealed major changes in protein abundance in early, mid and late encystation, notably in constitutive