WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-monetary incentives reimbursement

  1. Simulation of enlisted sailor assignment process to explore the cost of non-monetary incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Buelow, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The attractiveness of an employer became more important for employees over time. It influences the decision to reject a job or to stay in the job. Incentives are useful to motivate employees to do their job and to stay with their employer. The U.S. Navy uses many different incentives to motivate sailors to stay in the Navy. The Navy spends the biggest amount of money to motivate enlisted sailors to stay in the Navy for the reenli...

  2. The Combinatorial Retention Auction Mechanism (CRAM): Integrating Monetary and Non-monetary Reenlistment Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    free dinner. Employees who stay with the company also reach benchmark incentives after 10, 15, and 20 years, such as cruises or Hawaiian vacations...reunions, weddings , class reunions, births and funerals. The survey also indicated SWOs were dissatisfied with the command culture and felt that their

  3. MONETARY AND NON-MONETARY INCENTIVES TO BOOST TAX PAYMENT A CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria, Giarrizzo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After centuries in which control and punishment formed the basis of policies designed to combat tax evasion, the results in many world economies are far from expected. Paying taxes is a resisted action, a few people are predisposed to do so voluntarily and that bias is reduced if people perceive inefficiencies from the State. When that happens, controls and penalties, although necessary, become insufficient and it is necessary to create parallel incentives. This research shows evidence of the usefulness of positive incentives and the need to replace the traditional control scheme and penalties for a control scheme, punishments and rewards. Supported by a controlled experiment contrasts the results of the allocation of awards for a good contributor, showing some advantages of non-cash prizes on the prize money.

  4. Measuring the impact of non-monetary incentives on facility delivery in rural Zambia: a clustered randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Connor, A L; Guo, E; Nambao, M; Chanda-Kapata, P; Lambo, N; Phiri, C

    2016-04-01

    In Zambia, only 56% of rural women deliver in a health facility, and improving facility delivery rates is a priority of the Zambian government. 'Mama kit' incentives - small packages of childcare items provided to mothers conditional on delivering their baby in a facility - may encourage facility delivery. This study measured the impact and cost-effectiveness of a US$4 mama kit on rural facility delivery rates in Zambia. A clustered randomised controlled trial was used to measure the impact of mama kits on facility delivery rates in thirty rural health facilities in Serenje and Chadiza districts. Facility-level antenatal care and delivery registers were used to measure the percentage of women attending antenatal care who delivered at a study facility during the intervention period. Results from the trial were then used to model the cost-effectiveness of mama kits at-scale in terms of cost per death averted. The mama kits intervention resulted in a statistically significant increase in facility delivery rates. The multivariate logistic regression found that the mama kits intervention increased the odds of delivering at a facility by 63% (P-value < 0.01, 95% CI: 29%, 106%), or an increase of 9.9 percentage points, yielding a cost-effectiveness of US$5183 per death averted. This evaluation confirms that low-cost mama kits can be a cost-effective intervention to increase facility delivery rates in rural Zambia. Mama kits alone are unlikely to completely solve safe delivery challenges but should be embedded in larger maternal and child health programmes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Financial incentives for lumbar surgery: a critical analysis of physician reimbursement for decompression and fusion procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Peter G; Lim, Moe R; Sasso, Rick C; Skelton, Alta; Brown, Zoe B; Greg Anderson, David; Albert, Todd J; Hilibrand, Alan S; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2008-08-01

    Retrospective case-control study/economic analysis. To determine the treatment times required for isolated lumbar decompressions and for combined decompression and instrumented fusion procedures to compare the relative reimbursements for each type of operation as a function of time expenditure by the surgeon. Under current Medicare fee schedules, the payment for a fusion procedure is higher than of an isolated decompression. It has been recently suggested in the lay press that the greater reimbursement for a lumbar arthrodesis may inappropriately influence the manner in which surgeons elect to treat lumbar degenerative conditions, resulting in what they believe to be a substantial number of unnecessary spinal fusions. A consecutive series of 50 single-level decompression cases performed by single surgeon were retrospectively analyzed and compared with an equivalent cohort of subjects who underwent single-level decompression and instrumented posterolateral fusion with autogenous iliac crest bone grafting. The operative reports, office charts, and billing records were reviewed to determine the total clinical time invested by the surgeon and the Medicare reimbursement for each surgery. Relative to the corresponding values of the decompression group, combined decompression and fusion procedures were associated with a longer mean surgical time (134.6 min vs. 47.3 min, Pundue financial incentive to recommend a combined decompression and instrumented fusion procedure over an isolated decompression to patients with symptomatic lumbar degeneration, especially when considering the greater time, effort, and risk characteristic of this more complex operation.

  6. The value of non monetary-based retail promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsi, Armando Maria; Mueller Loose, Simone; Lockshin, Larry

    Purpose: Price discounts in the retail sector are the norm rather than an exception. However, price promotions have several negative impacts on brands. Less attention has been devoted to non-monetary promotions (e.g. shelf talkers, in-store displays). The aim of this work is to fill this gap......, by showing the effects of non-monetary promotions in store and the relationship with the way consumers react to analogous non-monetary promotions on-line. Design: The study comprised three main stages: a) the selection and pre-test of the promotional material with a representative sample of the Australian...... to have a bigger effect than visual ones. Third, banners are only useful to promote environmental friendly wines. In addition, it was possible to observe substitution effects between wines showing a shelf talker and control wines. The online choice experiment confirmed to have a high external validity...

  7. The value of non monetary-based retail promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsi, Armando Maria; Mueller Loose, Simone; Lockshin, Larry

    Purpose: Price discounts in the retail sector are the norm rather than an exception. However, price promotions have several negative impacts on brands. Less attention has been devoted to non-monetary promotions (e.g. shelf talkers, in-store displays). The aim of this work is to fill this gap......, by showing the effects of non-monetary promotions in store and the relationship with the way consumers react to analogous non-monetary promotions on-line. Design: The study comprised three main stages: a) the selection and pre-test of the promotional material with a representative sample of the Australian...... wine drinking population; b) an in-store experiment with an Australian wine retailer across 62 stores located in New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria, and c) an online discrete choice experiment to test the effects of the same stimuli used in the in-store experiment on consumers’ simulated...

  8. Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yansong eLi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs, we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs.

  9. Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs), we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs. PMID:24723862

  10. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 360 - Non-Monetary Transaction File Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-Monetary Transaction File Structure A... OF GENERAL POLICY RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES Pt. 360, App. A Appendix A to Part 360—Non-Monetary Transaction File Structure This is the structure of the data file the FDIC will provide to remove...

  11. Using Non-Monetary Deprivation Indicators to Analyze Poverty and Social Exclusion: Lessons from Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Brian; Whelan, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    Non-monetary indicators of deprivation are now widely used in studying poverty in Europe. While measuring financial resources remains central, having reliable information about material deprivation adds to the ability to capture poverty and social exclusion. Non-monetary indicators can help improve the identification of those experiencing poverty…

  12. Using Non-Monetary Deprivation Indicators to Analyze Poverty and Social Exclusion: Lessons from Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Brian; Whelan, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    Non-monetary indicators of deprivation are now widely used in studying poverty in Europe. While measuring financial resources remains central, having reliable information about material deprivation adds to the ability to capture poverty and social exclusion. Non-monetary indicators can help improve the identification of those experiencing poverty…

  13. Economic and utilitarian benefits of monetary versus non-monetary in-store sales promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Mike; Thompson, Peter; Mavondo, Felix

    2014-01-01

    While prior research has examined the issue of sales promotion proneness, very little has examined proneness to non-monetary promotions, such as contests and premiums discovered in store. This study draws on a promotions benefits framework to examine the influence of shoppers’ desired benefits...... on their relative proneness to in-store monetary and non-monetary promotions. Computer-aided telephone interviewing (CATI) data gathered from 500 grocery shoppers are used. The findings show that shoppers who are prone to using non-monetary in-store promotions seek exploration, entertainment and value expression...... benefits, in common with shoppers who are prone to monetary promotions. Both monetary and non-monetary promotion-prone shoppers feel financially constrained. In addition, non-monetary promotion-prone shoppers enjoy gambling and other hedonic outcomes. The managerial implications of our research findings...

  14. Simulation of Enlisted Sailor Assignment Process to Explore the Cost of Non-Monetary Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Herzbergs Two - factor Theory (Exams_tutor_business) ....................... 6... two - factor theory , also known as Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory . (Exams_tutor_business) Herzberg categorized work related factors into two ...from Motivation - 4. Herzbergs Two Factor Theory : http://www.examstutor.com/business/resources/studyroom/people_and_or

  15. Non-Monetary Feedback Induces more Cooperation: Students and Workers in a Voluntary Contribution Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Davide; Galeotti, Fabio; Raimondello ORSINI

    2016-01-01

    We conduct an artefactual field experiment to study and compare the behavior of workers and students in a linear voluntary contribution mechanism in which subjects can assign immaterial sanctions or rewards to the other group members. We find that both students and workers sanction group members who contribute less than the group average, and reward those who contribute more. In both subject samples, the use of non-monetary sanctions and rewards induces more cooperation. The magnitude of the ...

  16. Insurance Incentives for Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Michael C.

    1984-01-01

    To reduce the cost of reimbursements, many insurance companies have begun to use insurance incentives as a way to motivate individuals to participate in health promotion activities. Traditional health education, research and demonstration, and policy-premium incentives are methods of health promotion used by life and health insurance companies.…

  17. Auction Mechanisms For Allocating Individualized Non-monetary Retention Incentives in Complex Decision Environments: Evaluation Via Laboratory Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    nature, meaning that the optimal bidding strategy is to bid one’s true value for a product or service. This is the critical difference between a first...15,000 and telecommuting at $8,000. In combination, these may become valued at $17,000. Again, reasons for sub-additive effects can only be...cost for most individuals, while sabbatical and telecommuting appear to cost the military more in relation to most people’s value for the NMIs. For

  18. Allocating Non-Monetary Incentives for Navy Nurse Corps Officers: Menu Method vs. Bid Method Combinatorial Retention Auction Mechanism (CRAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Generation X and Y, and the Millennials ” all place distinctively different demands on employers based on their expectations. The “boomers’ make up the...majority of the professional nursing labor force and their exercising their options to retire at an increasing rate. Generation X, Y, and the Millennials ...must look at Firm B’s offer, which becomes the subject’s reservation wage , and then enter a salary request to Firm A. As previously discussed, if an

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Experiments on the Effectiveness of Incentives in Organizational Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres van Grinsven, Vanessa; Hox, Joop

    2014-01-01

    The use of monetary and non-monetary incentives for increasing response is considered a proven and widely used method in surveys of individuals or households. This applies not only to mail, but also to face-to-face and telephone surveys. Experimental research shows that the technique is also effecti

  20. “THE NET MONETARY STATEMENT” AND “THE NET NON-MONETARY STATEMENT” – ASSESSMENT INDICATORS FOR THE FINANCIAL POSITION OF THE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN-CONSTANTIN DEACONU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines two indicators, namely the net monetary statement and the net non-monetary statement. To determine and analyze them, we started with the classification of assets (monetary and non-monetary and liabilities (monetary and nonmonetary. The actual values of these elements were established on the basis of information supplied by the balance sheet, followed by the calculus of the net monetary statement and of the net non-monetary statement. These indicators provide relevant and reliable information to the users of financial statements and, in the future, they should be taken into account because they bring additional information about the financial position of the entity.

  1. 48 CFR 16.304 - Cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-plus-incentive-fee... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 16.304 Cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts. A cost-plus-incentive-fee contract is a cost-reimbursement contract that provides...

  2. Inadequate reimbursement for care management to primary care offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Luo, Zhehui; Alexanders, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Care management in primary care can be effective in helping patients with chronic disease improve their health; however, primary care practices are often challenged to identify revenue to pay for it. This study explored the impact of direct reimbursement on the provision of care management in a primary care physician organization. Using data on expenses and health plan reimbursement during the initial 16 months of care management implementation at 5 practices, we calculated the percentage of related costs that were covered by payments. Qualitative data from interviews with practice members were used to identify their perceived barriers to care management reimbursement and the impact of current reimbursement strategies on service delivery. Direct reimbursement for care management covered only 21% of the costs. Reimbursement varied by care manager background, patient diagnoses, insurer, and indication for the visit. Barriers to gaining reimbursement included patient resistance to copay, clinician hesitation to bill for care management visits (for fear the patient may receive a bill), differential reimbursement policies of insurers, and general lack of reimbursement for care management in many cases. Although practice-level quality improvement incentives were an alternative means of supporting care management, because these incentives were not directly tied to the service of care management, they were used for other activities ultimately supporting patient care. This study highlights the need for sufficient reimbursement to initiate and maintain care management for patients in primary care as proposed for service reforms under the Affordable Care Act. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  3. Stratified Medicine and Reimbursement Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joerg eFugel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Stratified Medicine (SM has the potential to target patient populations who will most benefit from a therapy while reducing unnecessary health interventions associated with side effects. The link between clinical biomarkers/diagnostics and therapies provides new opportunities for value creation to strengthen the value proposition to pricing and reimbursement (P&R authorities. However, the introduction of SM challenges current reimbursement schemes in many EU countries and the US as different P&R policies have been adopted for drugs and diagnostics. Also, there is a lack of a consistent process for value assessment of more complex diagnostics in these markets. New, innovative approaches and more flexible P&R systems are needed to reflect the added value of diagnostic tests and to stimulate investments in new technologies. Yet, the framework for access of diagnostic–based therapies still requires further development while setting the right incentives and appropriate align stakeholders interests when realizing long- term patient benefits. This article addresses the reimbursement challenges of SM approaches in several EU countries and the US outlining some options to overcome existing reimbursement barriers for stratified medicine.

  4. Construction Health and Safety: Effectiveness of Safety Incentive Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkefli F.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety incentive programmes or awards have become a standard practice for most construction companies as an effort to improve their safety performance on worksites. Providing incentives in the construction industry is an action which aims to motivate contractors and workers to achieve the objectives set by a project’s management in order to improve overall performance on the project. This study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of such incentives and analyse the extent of involved parties’ contribution to the success of the programme. It was found that workers have become motivated and site safety performance has also improved since the implementation of the safety incentive programme. Incentives are divided into two categories, (1 monetary and (2 non-monetary. These were evaluated based on workers’ rate of achievement or behaviour.

  5. Incentives for better performance in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljawad, Asaad; Al-Assaf, Assaf F

    2011-05-01

    Incentives for better performance in health care have several modes and methods. They are designed to motivate and encourage people to perform well and improve their outcomes. They may include monetary or non-monetary incentives and may be applied to consumers, individual providers or institutions. One such model is the Pay-for-Performance system. In this system, beneficiaries are compared with one another based on a set of performance indicators and those that achieve a high level of performance are rewarded financially. This system is meant to recognise and primarily to reward high performers. Its goal is to encourage beneficiaries to strive for better performance. This system has been applied in several countries and for several recipients and settings. Early indications show that this system has had mixed effects on performance.

  6. Development of a concept for non-monetary assessment of urban ecosystem services at the site level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, Daniel; Artmann, Martina

    2014-05-01

    Determining the performance of ecosystem services at the city or regional level cannot accurately take into account the fine differences between green or gray structures. The supply of regulating ecosystem services in, for instance, parks can differ as parks vary in their land cover composition. A comprehensive ecosystem service assessment approach also needs to reflect land use to consider the demands placed on ecosystem services, which are mostly neglected by current research yet important for urban planning. For instance, if a sealed surface is no longer used, it could be unsealed to improve ecosystem service supply. Because of these scientific shortcomings, this article argues for a conceptual framework for the non-monetary assessment of urban ecosystem services at the site scale. This paper introduces a standardized method for selecting representative sites and evaluating their supply of and demand on ecosystem services. The conceptual design is supplemented by examples of Salzburg, Austria.

  7. 48 CFR 16.405-1 - Cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-plus-incentive-fee... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.405-1 Cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts. (a) Description. The cost-plus-incentive-fee contract is a cost-reimbursement contract that...

  8. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart C of... - FSA-2514, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are in Non-Monetary Default

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Borrowers Who Are in Non-Monetary Default C Appendix C to Subpart C of Part 766 Agriculture Regulations of... PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Loan Servicing Programs Pt. 766, Subpt. C, App. C Appendix C to Subpart C of Part 766—FSA-2514, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are in...

  9. Monetary and Non-monetary SWO Retention Bonuses: An Experimental Approach to the Combinatorial Retention Auction Mechanism (CRAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    this illustration offer individual values that exceed the Navy’s cost to provide the incentive for most individuals. On the other hand, telecommuting ...cost effective for the Navy to offer geographic stability and homeport to these SWOs. At the same time, there are some SWOs that value telecommuting ...and sabbaticals more than it costs the Navy’s provide them. The Navy would omit a cost-effective incentive if it did not offer telecommuting and

  10. Young adult cannabis users report greater propensity for risk-taking only in non-monetary domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Jodi M; Calderon, Vanessa; Curran, Max T; Evins, A Eden

    2015-02-01

    Though substance use is often associated with elevated risk-taking in real-world scenarios, many risk-taking tasks in experimental psychology using financial gambles fail to find significant differences between individuals with substance use disorders and healthy controls. We assessed whether participants using marijuana would show a greater propensity for risk-taking in distinct domains including, but not limited to, financial risk-taking. In the current study, we assessed risk-taking in young adult (age 18-25) regular marijuana users and in non-using control participants using a domain-specific risk-taking self-report scale (DOSPERT) encompassing five domains of risk-taking (social, financial, recreational, health/safety, and ethical). We also measured behavioral risk-taking using a laboratory monetary risk-taking task. Marijuana users and controls reported significant differences on the social, health/safety, and ethical risk-taking scales, but no differences in the propensity to take recreational or financial risks. Complementing the self-report finding, there were no differences between marijuana users and controls in their performance on the laboratory risk-taking task. These findings suggest that financial risk-taking may be less sensitive than other domains of risk-taking in assessing differences in risky behavior between those who use marijuana and those who do not. In order to more consistently determine whether increased risk-taking is a factor in substance use, it may be necessary to use both monetary risk-taking tasks and complementary assessments of non-monetary-based risk-taking measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrating Monetary and Non-Monetary Retention Incentives for the U.S. Navy Dental Corps Officers Utilizing the Combinatorial Retention Auction Mechanism (CRAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Pediatric Dentistry (1795) 10. Duty Assignments The dental officers receive duty assignments based on the needs of the naval service. Duty...1 Endodontics 1 Prosthodontics 1 Orthodontics 1 Oral Pathology/Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine 1 Pediatric Dentistry 1 Periodontics 1 Public...Dental Research 1790 0 Pediatric Dentistry 1795 5 Total 110 Of the 110 DC officer respondents, the responses were fairly distributed across all the

  12. 48 CFR 1552.211-73 - Level of effort-cost-reimbursement term contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contracts without fee, cost-sharing contracts, cost-plus-fixed-fee (CPFF) contracts, cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts (CPIF), and cost-plus-award-fee contracts (CPAF). Level of Effort—Cost-Reimbursement Term Contract... additional effort shall not result in any increase in the fixed fee, if any. If this is a cost-plus-incentive...

  13. Carrots and Sticks: New Brunswick and Maine Forest Landowner Perceptions Toward Incentives and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartuch, Michael R.; Beckley, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The governments of countries that allow private land ownership have two main tools to motivate landowner behavior: regulations and incentives. This research examines landowner preferences toward these policy tools and asks specifically: Do private forest landowners in New Brunswick and Maine believe that regulations and/or incentives are effective means to motivate responsible stewardship? Can landowners identify explicit regulations and policies that restrict property rights? Also, we were interested to see if any discernible differences existed between these adjacent jurisdictions from different countries, but that share similar forests and a similar settlement history. We identified and interviewed diverse landowners, recorded and transcribed our discussions, and analyzed the results using a grounded theory approach. Findings suggest that both New Brunswick and Maine participants are fairly comfortable with most regulations and many agreed that a combination of incentives and regulations are in fact useful. Furthermore, landowners in New Brunswick discussed non-monetary incentives as a mechanism to reward "good" stewardship; while Maine respondents articulated a degree of responsible stewardship that transcends a need to incentivize landowners. This study demonstrates that diverse landowners may be more comfortable with environmental regulations than previously understood and may be interested in non-monetary incentives.

  14. Reimbursement of school fees

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Members of the personnel are reminded that only school fees from educational establishments recognized by local legislation are reimbursed by the Organization. Human Resources Division Tel. 72862/74474

  15. How Effective Are Non-monetary Instruments for Safe Driving? Panel Data Evidence on the Effect of the Demerit Point System in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya

    2017-01-01

    Using unusually rich longitudinal traffic offense data, this paper exploits a reform that introduced a point recording scheme in Denmark to estimate the behavioral responses of drivers to a non-monetary penalty based on demerit points. We find that drivers exhibit substantial behavioral responses...... to each demerit point assigned to their driving license. We also find that drivers’ effort, and hence response, increases with the number of demerit points accumulated. Depending on the number of demerit points accumulated, drivers with one or more demerit points reduced their frequency of traffic...

  16. Peace Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    How does economic assistance influence the success or failure of peace processes in Africa? Can economic assistance act as an incentive to facilitate an end to conflict? The literature largely ignores aid as a factor supporting peace processes. In addressing this topic, the current study tries...... to assess the impact of donor economic aid on recent African peace processes. This research points to the conclusion that international assistance can be a positive incentive for lasting peace....

  17. Reimbursement of school fees

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In order to answer regular enquiries on this subject, members of the personnel are reminded that only school fees from educational establishments recognized as such by the competent authorities of the Member State concerned are reimbursed by the Organization. Human Resources Division Tel. 72862/74474

  18. Using Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ethical implications of using incentives to encourage and recognise youth participation in research. While the complexity of research projects and the diversity of research subjects necessarily preclude simple solutions, the author argues that social research can successfully and ethically use a mix of extrinsic and…

  19. Reinventing radiology reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John; Adema, Denise

    2005-01-01

    Lee Memorial Health System (LMHS), located in southwest Florida, consists of 5 hospitals, a home health agency, a skilled nursing facility, multiple outpatient centers, walk-in medical centers, and primary care physician offices. LMHS annually performs more than 300,000 imaging procedures with gross imaging revenues exceeding dollar 350 million. In fall 2002, LMHS received the results of an independent audit of its IR coding. The overall IR coding error rate was determined to be 84.5%. The projected net financial impact of these errors was an annual reimbursement loss of dollar 182,000. To address the issues of coding errors and reimbursement loss, LMHS implemented its clinical reimbursementspecialist (CRS) system in October 2003, as an extension of financial services' reimbursement division. LMHS began with CRSs in 3 service lines: emergency department, cardiac catheterization, and radiology. These 3 CRSs coordinate all facets of their respective areas' chargemaster, patient charges, coding, and reimbursement functions while serving as a resident coding expert within their clinical areas. The radiology reimbursement specialist (RRS) combines an experienced radiologic technologist, interventional technologist, medical records coder, financial auditor, reimbursement specialist, and biller into a single position. The RRS's radiology experience and technologist knowledge are key assets to resolving coding conflicts and handling complex interventional coding. In addition, performing a daily charge audit and an active code review are essential if an organization is to eliminate coding errors. One of the inherent effects of eliminating coding errors is the capturing of additional RVUs and units of service. During its first year, based on account level detail, the RRS system increased radiology productivity through the additional capture of just more than 3,000 RVUs and 1,000 additional units of service. In addition, the physicians appreciate having someone who "keeps up

  20. Does Mixed Reimbursement Schemes Affect Hospital Activity and Productivity? An Analysis of the Case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Xenia Brun; Bech, Mickael; Jakobsen, Mads Leth

    2013-01-01

    literature with a deeper understanding of such mixed reimbursement systems as well as empirically by identifying key design factors that determines the incentives embedded in such a mixed model. Furthermore, we describe how incentives vary in different designs of the mixed reimbursement scheme and assess...... the period from 2007-2010. A theoretical framework identified the key factors in an ABF/block grant model to be the proportion of the national Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) tariff above and below a predefined production target (i.e. the baseline); baseline calculations; the presence of kinks...

  1. Does Mixed Reimbursement Schemes Affect Hospital Activity and Productivity? An Analysis of the Case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Xenia Brun; Bech, Mickael; Jakobsen, Mads Leth;

    2013-01-01

    The majority of public hospitals in Scandinavia are reimbursed through a mixture of two prospective reimbursement schemes, block grants (a fixed amount independent of the number of patients treated) and activity-based financing (ABF). This article contributes theoretically to the existing...... whether different incentives affects the performance of hospitals regarding activity and productivity differently. Information on Danish reimbursement schemes has been collected from documents provided by the regional governments and through interviews with regional administrations. The data cover...... and region we show that there have not been any significant changes in the number of hospital discharges for any of the regions from 2007 to 2010 within any of the treatment groups....

  2. Fundamentals of coding and reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Paula

    2002-01-01

    After completing this introduction to radiology coding and reimbursement, readers will: Understand how health care reimbursement evolved over the past 50 years. Know the importance of documenting the patient's history. Have an overall picture of the standardized numerical coding system. Understand how accurate coding affects reimbursement. Understand coding functions as they pertain to regulatory compliance in the radiology department. Be familiar with the U.S. Justice Department's use of coding in tracking health care fraud.

  3. Incentives of Health Care Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Siljander

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The incentives of health care expenditure (HCE have been a topic of discussion in the USA (Obama reforms and in Europe (adjustment to debt crisis. There are competing views of institutional versus GDP (unit income elasticity and productivity related factors of growth of expenditure. However ageing of populations, technology change and economic incentives related to institutions are also key drivers of growth according to the OECD and EU’s AWG committee. Simulation models have been developed to forecast the growth of social expenditure (including HCEs to 2050. In this article we take a historical perspective to look at the institutional structures and their relationship to HCE growth. When controlling for age structure, price developments, doctor density and in-patient and public shares of expenditures, we find that fee-for-service in primary care, is according to the results, in at least 20 percent more costly than capitation or salary remuneration. Capitation and salary (or wage remuneration are at same cost levels in primary care. However we did not find the cost lowering effect for gatekeeping which could have been expected based on previous literature. Global budgeting 30 (partly DRG based percent less costly in specialized care than other reimbursement schemes like open contracting or volume based reimbursement. However the public integration of purchaser and provider cost seems to result to about 20 higher than public reimbursement or public contracting. Increasing the number of doctors or public financing share results in increased HCEs. Therefore expanding public reimbursement share of health services seems to lead to higher HCE. On the contrary, the in-patient share reduced expenditures. Compared to the previous literature, the finding on institutional dummies is in line with similar modeling papers. However the results for public expansion of services is a contrary one to previous works on the subject. The median lag length of

  4. Discussion on Tax Issues of Non-monetary Assets Exchange%非货币性资产交换中相关税费问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓红; 戴华江; 许中强

    2014-01-01

    According to relevant provisions of CAS7,the cost of the assets is equal to the fair value (or book val-ue)plus relevant taxes and premium should be added if necessary,which has a certain discrepancy with the rele-vant provisions of the current tax system.Moreover,the new accounting standards on the current“related taxes”measurement standards have not been involved in rigorous specifications.Therefore,this paper will discuss the re-lated tax issues of the non-monetary assets exchange involved in the new accounting standards.%CAS7相关规定,换入资产的成本等于公允价值(或账面价值)加上相关税费,存在补价时,再加上补价。该项规定与当前税法体系中的相关规定存在一定的出入,并且当前新会计准则中对涉及的“相关税费”有关的计量标准尚未进行严谨的规范。因此,对我国目前新会计准则中涉及的非货币性资产交换涉及相关税费问题进行探讨。

  5. Respect as an Incentive

    OpenAIRE

    Tor Eriksson; Marie Claire Villeval

    2010-01-01

    Assuming that people care not only about what others do but also on what others think, we study respect as a non-monetary source of motivation in a context where the length of the employment relationship is endogenous. In our three-stage gift-exchange experiment, the employer can express respect by giving the employee costly symbolic rewards after observing his level of effort. This experiment sheds light on the extent to which symbolic rewards are used, how they affect employees' further eff...

  6. Respect as an Incentive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    In this paper we examine respect as a non-monetary source of motivation. Our experiment sheds light on the extent to which symbolic rewards are used, how they are valued by the employees, and how they affect employee effort, the duration of relationships, and profits of employers. We also study...... whether employers’ decisions to give symbolic rewards are driven by strategic considerations. We find that employers do make use of symbolic rewards and chiefly to express their satisfaction with the employee. Symbolic rewards are associated with higher profits and increased probability of continuing...

  7. Respect as an Incentive

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Tor; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2010-01-01

    Assuming that people care not only about what others do but also on what others think, we study respect as a non-monetary source of motivation in a context where the length of the employment relationship is endogeneous. In our three-stage gift-exchange experiment, the employer can express respect by giving the employee costly symbolic rewards after observing his level of effort. This experiment sheds light on the extent to which symbolic rewards are used, how they affect employees’ further ef...

  8. Respect as an Incentive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    In this paper we examine respect as a non-monetary source of motivation. Our experiment sheds light on the extent to which symbolic rewards are used, how they are valued by the employees, and how they affect employee effort, the duration of relationships, and profits of employers. We also study...... whether employers’ decisions to give symbolic rewards are driven by strategic considerations. We find that employers do make use of symbolic rewards and chiefly to express their satisfaction with the employee. Symbolic rewards are associated with higher profits and increased probability of continuing...

  9. Respect as an Incentive

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Tor; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2010-01-01

    Assuming that people care not only about what others do but also on what others think, we study respect as a non-monetary source of motivation in a context where the length of the employment relationship is endogenous. In our three-stage gift-exchange experiment, the employer can express respect by giving the employee costly symbolic rewards after observing his level of effort. This experiment sheds light on the extent to which symbolic rewards are used, how they affect employees’ further eff...

  10. Respect as an incentive

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Tor; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    Assuming that people care not only about what others do but also on what others think, we study respect as a non-monetary source of motivation in a context where the length of the employment relationship is endogeneous. In our three-stage gift-exchange experiment, the employer can express respect by giving the employee costly symbolic rewards after observing his level of effort. This experiment sheds light on the extent to which symbolic rewards are used, how they affect employees' further ef...

  11. Aligning Ambition and Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloïc

    Labor turnover creates longer term career concerns incentives that motivate employees in addition to the short term monetary incentives provided by the current employer. We analyze how these incentives interact and derive implications for the design of incentive contracts and organizational choic...

  12. Aligning Ambition and Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloïc

    Labor turnover creates longer term career concerns incentives that motivate employees in addition to the short term monetary incentives provided by the current employer. We analyze how these incentives interact and derive implications for the design of incentive contracts and organizational choice...

  13. Aligning ambition and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloïc

    2011-01-01

    Labor turnover creates longer term career concerns incentives that motivate employees in addition to the short term monetary incentives provided by the current employer. We analyze how these incentives interact, and derive implications for the design of incentive contracts and organizational choice...

  14. Planning nature in urbanized countries. An analysis of monetary and non-monetary impacts of conservation policy scenarios in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Frans J; van der Bilt, Willem G M; van Hinsberg, Arjen; de Knegt, Bart; van der Heide, Martijn; Leneman, Hans; Verburg, René

    2017-03-01

    Planning and conserving nature areas are challenging tasks in urbanized and intensively used countries like the Netherlands. This paper supports decision making and public policy debate about these tasks in both an empirical and a methodological way. Empirically, we explore policy alternatives by determining the potential consequences of different nature policy scenarios in the Netherlands. Methodologically, we employ a mixed monetary and non-monetary evaluation method known as multi-criteria cost-benefit analysis (MCCBA). We evaluate four new future directions of Dutch nature policy that address four dominant stakeholder demands: biodiversity conservation, the provision of ecosystem services, recreational potential as well as economic gains. To balance compact presentation of evaluation outcomes on the one hand and information richness of results on the other, we distinguish between two impact indicator sets: three "headline" and ten "elaborate" indicators. Using these indicators we discuss the quantitative assessment of the four nature policy scenarios by comparing them to two other scenarios, reflecting the 2010 stand-still baseline situation (2010) as well as a reference policy (Trend). In total, we evaluate six scenarios; four present new directions and two reflect existing or recently (2010) halted practices. Our findings first of all show that even in an urbanized country like the Netherlands, with its intensive competition among land use functions, serious gains in national and international biodiversity are possible. Second, we find that it is doubtful whether stimulating the provision of regulating ecosystem services in a country which applies intensive and profitable agricultural techniques is beneficial. Other countries or areas that are less suitable for intensive agricultural practices may be more logical for this. Finally we demonstrate that increasing urban recreational green space - a common challenge for many urban areas - can only be achieved at

  15. Maternal incentive scheme in Nepal – status of knowledge and financial benefits received by mothers on ANC incentive and safe delivery incentive program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Subedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antenatal (ANC and Safe Delivery Incentive Program (SDIP of Nepal is implemented with the view to increase institutional delivery, thereby improving maternal health. The program has been a public issue regarding its information cum. incentive received by the clients and reimbursement to the health facilities. The study aimed to identify and assess the knowledge with financial benefits received by mothers from 4ANC visits and institutional delivery. Methods: Descriptive study was conducted among six villages of Syangja district, Nepal in December 2013. Data was taken from mothers who had delivered during the last one year of study. Full concern was adapted to consent, anonymity, confidentiality and validity. Epi-data and SPSS were used for analysis and interpretation of data. Results: Among the total 414 mothers, 60.6% and 82.9% were aware on 4ANC incentive and SDIP respectively. Total, consulted, mothers who had delivered in health-facility (n=212 received delivery incentive. Comparing the delivery benefits with ANC (n=212, 65.4% of mothers were deprived from ANC incentive though they practiced scheduled ANC visit. As an interesting fact, some other cases of non-ANC visit (n=3 and less than four/non-scheduled visit (n=8 were benefited from the ANC incentive as opposed to the rule of scheme. Analysis has shown that mothers who were aware on ANC incentive scheme were 5.2 times more likely to receive incentive than those of unaware one. Conclusion: The utilization of ANC incentive is found to be the result of its level of awareness. Government and concerned authority should valuably focus on ANC incentive program to increase its utilization like SDIP.

  16. Reimbursement for critical care services in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Jayaram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are significant variations in critical care practices, costs, and reimbursements in various countries. Of note, there is a paucity of reliable information on remuneration and reimbursement models for intensivists in India. This review article aims to analyze the existing reimbursement models in United States and United Kingdom and propose a frame-work model that may be applicable in India.

  17. How is intensive care reimbursed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bittner, Martin-Immanuel; Donnelly, Maria; van Zanten, Arthur Rh

    2013-01-01

    Reimbursement schemes in intensive care are more complex than in other areas of healthcare, due to special procedures and high care needs. Knowledge regarding the principles of functioning in other countries can lead to increased understanding and awareness of potential for improvement. This can ...

  18. Delegation and incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Bester, Helmut; Krähmer, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the relation between authority and incentives. It extends the standard principal--agent model by a project selection stage in which the principal can either delegate the choice of project to the agent or keep the authority. The agent's subsequent choice of effort depends both on monetary incentives and the selected project. We find that the consideration of effort incentives makes the principal less likely to delegate the authority over projects to the agent. In fact, if t...

  19. Innovation in Workforce Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-13

    of key acquisition personnel including providing appropriate compensation and other forms of incentives • Inability to couple rewards to performance...against incentives • Gerald Ledford and Barry Gerhart in “Negative Effects of Extrinsic Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: More Smoke Than Fire” argue...May 13, 2015 Innovation in Workforce Incentives Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection

  20. What explains DRG upcoding in neonatology? The roles of financial incentives and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürges, Hendrik; Köberlein, Juliane

    2015-09-01

    We use the introduction of diagnosis related groups (DRGs) in German neonatology to study the determinants of upcoding. Since 2003, reimbursement is based inter alia on birth weight, with substantial discontinuities at eight thresholds. These discontinuities create incentives to upcode preterm infants into classes of lower birth weight. Using data from the German birth statistics 1996-2010 and German hospital data from 2006 to 2011, we show that (1) since the introduction of DRGs, hospitals have upcoded at least 12,000 preterm infants and gained additional reimbursement in excess of 100 million Euro; (2) upcoding rates are systematically higher at thresholds with larger reimbursement hikes and in hospitals that subsequently treat preterm infants, i.e. where the gains accrue; (3) upcoding is systematically linked with newborn health conditional on birth weight. Doctors and midwives respond to financial incentives by not upcoding newborns with low survival probabilities, and by upcoding infants with higher expected treatment costs.

  1. Pricing and reimbursement of orphan drugs: the need for more transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven

    2011-06-17

    Pricing and reimbursement of orphan drugs are an issue of high priority for policy makers, legislators, health care professionals, industry leaders, academics and patients. This study aims to conduct a literature review to provide insight into the drivers of orphan drug pricing and reimbursement. Although orphan drug pricing follows the same economic logic as drug pricing in general, the monopolistic power of orphan drugs results in high prices: a) orphan drugs benefit from a period of marketing exclusivity; b) few alternative health technologies are available; c) third-party payers and patients have limited negotiating power; d) manufacturers attempt to maximise orphan drug prices within the constraints of domestic pricing and reimbursement policies; and e) substantial R&D costs need to be recouped from a small number of patients. Although these conditions apply to some orphan drugs, they do not apply to all orphan drugs. Indeed, the small number of patients treated with an orphan drug and the limited economic viability of orphan drugs can be questioned in a number of cases. Additionally, manufacturers have an incentive to game the system by artificially creating monopolistic market conditions. Given their high price for an often modest effectiveness, orphan drugs are unlikely to provide value for money. However, additional criteria are used to inform reimbursement decisions in some countries. These criteria may include: the seriousness of the disease; the availability of other therapies to treat the disease; and the cost to the patient if the medicine is not reimbursed. Therefore, the maximum cost per unit of outcome that a health care payer is willing to pay for a drug could be set higher for orphan drugs to which society attaches a high social value. There is a need for a transparent and evidence-based approach towards orphan drug pricing and reimbursement. Such an approach should be targeted at demonstrating the relative effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and

  2. Comparison of pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Turkey and certain EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atikeler, Enver Kagan; Özçelikay, Gulbin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the need for health care services has increased gradually and the limitations in sources allocated for this area have been recognized. Moving from this fact, it has gained a supreme importance to determine what health programs or technologies will be given priority. According to Danzon (Reference pricing: theory and evidence, reference pricing and pharmaceutical policy: perspectives on economics and innovation, springer, New York, pp 86-126, 2001), arrangements towards controlling the expenses through price and profit controls, reimbursement methods and incentives have recently gained wide currency. This present study examines; along with the current situation in Turkey, pharmaceutical pricing methods, reimbursement methods and basic health indicators, within the scope of changing pharmaceutical policies, in Turkey, the EU countries which Turkey takes as reference and the United Kingdom, the implementations of which are of utmost importance for other countries. Upon the research conducted, it was detected that the pharmaceutical pricing in Turkey has been performed on the basis of the reference pricing system that takes Italy, Portugal, Spain, Greece and France as reference. The regulations regarding the reimbursement process are determined by SSI. For Turkey's case; pricing and reimbursement system has been changed numerous times and the discount rates has incrementally risen. In pricing, on the other hand, during this period companies faced with difficulties in economic terms because of the fact that price discount of high rates are implemented over the reference price and that the European currency of Euro is determined as 70% of previous year average Euro sales rate which is 2,1166 for the year 2016. Each country has specific regulations and pricing and reimbursement policies of medicines based on economic situation, reimbursement methods and market size. The aim of pricing and reimbursement systems are reaching more efficient and sustainable

  3. Pricing and reimbursement of orphan drugs: the need for more transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoens Steven

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pricing and reimbursement of orphan drugs are an issue of high priority for policy makers, legislators, health care professionals, industry leaders, academics and patients. This study aims to conduct a literature review to provide insight into the drivers of orphan drug pricing and reimbursement. Although orphan drug pricing follows the same economic logic as drug pricing in general, the monopolistic power of orphan drugs results in high prices: a orphan drugs benefit from a period of marketing exclusivity; b few alternative health technologies are available; c third-party payers and patients have limited negotiating power; d manufacturers attempt to maximise orphan drug prices within the constraints of domestic pricing and reimbursement policies; and e substantial R&D costs need to be recouped from a small number of patients. Although these conditions apply to some orphan drugs, they do not apply to all orphan drugs. Indeed, the small number of patients treated with an orphan drug and the limited economic viability of orphan drugs can be questioned in a number of cases. Additionally, manufacturers have an incentive to game the system by artificially creating monopolistic market conditions. Given their high price for an often modest effectiveness, orphan drugs are unlikely to provide value for money. However, additional criteria are used to inform reimbursement decisions in some countries. These criteria may include: the seriousness of the disease; the availability of other therapies to treat the disease; and the cost to the patient if the medicine is not reimbursed. Therefore, the maximum cost per unit of outcome that a health care payer is willing to pay for a drug could be set higher for orphan drugs to which society attaches a high social value. There is a need for a transparent and evidence-based approach towards orphan drug pricing and reimbursement. Such an approach should be targeted at demonstrating the relative effectiveness

  4. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  5. Photovoltaic Incentive Design Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    Investments in customer-owned grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are growing at a steady pace. This is due, in part, to the availability of attractive economic incentives offered by public state agencies and utilities. In the United States, these incentives have largely been upfront lump payments tied to the system capacity rating. While capacity-based ''buydowns'' have stimulated the domestic PV market, they have been criticized for subsidizing systems with potentially poor energy performance. As a result, the industry has been forced to consider alternative incentive structures, particularly ones that pay based on long-term measured performance. The industry, however, lacks consensus in the debate over the tradeoffs between upfront incentive payments versus longer-term payments for energy delivery. This handbook is designed for agencies and utilities that offer or intend to offer incentive programs for customer-owned PV systems. Its purpose is to help select, design, and implement incentive programs that best meet programmatic goals. The handbook begins with a discussion of the various available incentive structures and then provides qualitative and quantitative tools necessary to design the most appropriate incentive structure. It concludes with program administration considerations.

  6. 24 CFR 5.632 - Utility reimbursements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Utility reimbursements. 5.632... Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Payment § 5.632 Utility reimbursements. (a) Applicability. This...); (2) A public housing family paying an income-based rent (see § 960.253 of this title)....

  7. Rewards and Performance Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigon, Jack

    1994-01-01

    Discusses rewards and performance incentives for employees, including types of rewards; how rewards help in managing; dysfunctional awards; selecting the right reward; how to find rewards that fit; and delivering rewards effectively. Examples are included. (three references) (LRW)

  8. Fertility incentives and disincentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Financioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    Some 40 countries use some form of incentives and disincentives in support of population policies, about half with the aim of reducing fertility and half with the aim of increasing it. These schemes range from limitations on tax and family allowances or maternity benefits after a given family size has been reached to payments to acceptors of fertility control methods. Some schemes aim to eliminate or reduce the cost and inconvenience people may face in achieving their fertility preferences, whereas others contain an element of deterrence. It is difficult to isolate and measure the impact of incentives on fertility from the effects of other factors such as family planning service availability or modernization. Studies in pronatalist countries suggest that incentive schemes produce short-term fertility increases without a change in average family size. Monetary incentives must be constantly increased to keep pace with inflation, placing a heavy burden on government budgets. Administrative capacity to operate the scheme is critical in terms of both manpower and efficient systems for record keeping, monitoring, and close supervision to prevent abuse. There is also considerable debate on the moral and ethical implications of incentives and disincentives as policy tools. Incentives offered for the acceptance of a particular fertility control method potentially contravene the principle of voluntary and informed consent. In addition, the relative value of the reward is greater for those in the lower income groups. The discriminatory nature of certain types of incentives and disincentives is illustrated by measures introduced in Singapore that give highest priority in school enrollment to the children of highly educated mothers with 2-3 children. This ruling is expected to further intensify the controversy surrounding incentive and disincentive schemes.

  9. Value-Based Pricing and Reimbursement in Personalised Healthcare: Introduction to the Basic Health Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis P. Garrison

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘Value-based’ outcomes, pricing, and reimbursement are widely discussed as health sector reforms these days. In this paper, we discuss their meaning and relationship in the context of personalized healthcare, defined as receipt of care conditional on the results of a biomarker-based diagnostic test. We address the question: “What kinds of pricing and reimbursement models should be applied in personalized healthcare?” The simple answer is that competing innovators and technology adopters should have incentives that promote long-term dynamic efficiency. We argue that—to meet this social objective of optimal innovation in personalized healthcare—payers, as agents of their plan participants, should aim to send clear signals to their suppliers about what they value. We begin by revisiting the concept of value from an economic perspective, and argue that a broader concept of value is needed in the context of personalized healthcare. We discuss the market for personalized healthcare and the interplay between price and reimbursement. We close by emphasizing the potential barrier posed by inflexible or cost-based reimbursement systems, especially for biomarker-based predictive tests, and how these personalized technologies have global public goods characteristics that require global value-based differential pricing to achieve dynamic efficiency in terms of the optimal rate of innovation and adoption.

  10. Incentive Use in Research: Protecting Vulnerable Populations from Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Muwonge

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Global investment in Medical Research and Development has markedly increased in the last few decades. However, due to the decreasing public altruism, researchers have come under increased pressures from the funding bodies to produce results. Out of desperation, some researchers have resorted to using incentives as a means of sourcing for volunteers. Consequently, the research burden has disproportionately been shared among the most vulnerable populations in the society. Incentives especially monetary ones present an ethical dilemma because of the uncertainties’ surrounding the morality, amount and type of payment, vulnerability of volunteers and possible threats to voluntary participation. Several studies done on the use of incentives in medical research have noted that financial motivation was the number one reason for subjects to volunteer in Medical research. Mutual benefit and freedom of choice by participants were given as reasons to support their use. However, scientists who are against the use of incentives believe that they are coercive or undue inducements, and may influence a subjects’ ability to give an informed consent. Guidelines exist that protect vulnerable groups from exploitation, although none sheds light into the use of incentives. Nonetheless, in the face of the waning public altruism, the benefits of using incentives far outweigh the dangers, although researchers should avoid situations where their use may become problematic. As a mode of payment to research subjects, researchers should adopt a combination of the Dickerts’ Wage and re-imbursement models as guides in quantifying the incentive. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 408-417

  11. 38 CFR 17.114 - Submittal of claim for reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... amount of reimbursement claimed on each article of personal effects is not in excess of the fair value... MEDICAL Reimbursement for Loss by Natural Disaster of Personal Effects of Hospitalized Or Nursing Home Patients § 17.114 Submittal of claim for reimbursement. The claim for reimbursement for personal...

  12. Innumeracy and incentives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Dale

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ratio-Bias phenomenon, observed by psychologist Seymour Epstein and colleagues, is a systematic manifestation of irrationality. When offered a choice between two lotteries, individuals consistently choose the lottery with the greater number of potential successes, even when it offers a smaller probability of success. In the current study, we conduct experiments to confirm this phenomenon and test for the existence of Bias as distinct from general irrationality. Moreover, we examine the effect of introducing a monetary incentive of varying size (depending on the treatment on the extent of irrational choices within this framework. We confirm the existence of the Bias. Moreover, the existence of an incentive significantly reduces the extent of irrationality exhibited, and that this effect is roughly linear in response to changes in the size of the incentive within the magnitudes investigated.

  13. Structure of non-reimbursed and reimbursed therapeutic procedures provided at a general dental care office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zgardzinska Sylwia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental care in Poland is based both on the public system (reimbursement by the National Health Fund and on the private funding (non-reimbursed. The aim of the paper was an analysis of the structure of non-reimbursed and reimbursed therapeutic procedures provided at a general dental care office. The study material was medical documentation of 669 patients treated for 3 months (the third quarter of 2013 at a general dental care office. The structure of therapeutic procedures, with the exception of orthodontic and prosthetic treatment, was analyzed, taking into account the patients’ gender, age, place of residence, the kind of procedure, and the payment type they made. The procedures reimbursed by the National Health Fund constituted 60.1% of all the procedures provided to patients at a dental office. Both among the procedures reimbursed by the National Health Fund and non-reimbursed procedures, the therapeutic procedures prevailed significantly over the prophylactic ones; in all age groups conservative treatment was predominant. An increase in the number of extractions in patients over 40 years of age, in comparison to younger patients, was found. The number of the dental procedures reimbursed by the National Health Fund, compared to the number of the non-reimbursed ones, increased with the patients’ age.

  14. HEALTH INSURANCE: CONTRIBUTIONS AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMAL

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...

  15. HEALTH INSURANCE: FIXED CONTRIBUTION AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMA

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Affected by the salary adjustments on 1 January 2001 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maxima, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maxima and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2001. Reimbursement maxima The revised reimbursement maxima will appear on the leaflet summarizing the benefits for the year 2001, which will be sent out with the forthcoming issue of the CHIS Bull'. This leaflet will also be available from the divisional secretariats and from the UNIQA office at CERN. Fixed contributions The fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions) : voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with normal health insurance cover : 910.- (was 815.- in 2000) voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced heal...

  16. Cost incentives for doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schottmüller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    If doctors take the costs of treatment into account when prescribing medication, their objectives differ from their patients' objectives because the patients are insured. This misalignment of interests hampers communication between patient and doctor. Giving cost incentives to doctors increases...... welfare if (i) the doctor's examination technology is sufficiently good or (ii) (marginal) costs of treatment are high enough. If the planner can costlessly choose the extent to which doctors take costs into account, he will opt for less than 100%. Optimal health care systems should implement different...... degrees of cost incentives depending on type of disease and/or doctor....

  17. Incentives and Earnings Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    by investigating the effects that explicit short-run incentives and implicit incentives have on earnings growth. The model’s predictions are tested using personnel records from a large bank and are found to be consistent with the observed earnings growth during the first half of the employees’ careers.......The career prospects of newly recruited employees differ substantially within an organization. The stars experience considerable growth in earnings; others can hardly maintain their entry salaries. This article sheds light on the mechanisms generating the observed heterogeneity in earnings growth...

  18. Perceptions of reimbursement for clinical trial participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Loza, Melissa; Vincent, Kathleen; Moench, Thomas; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2011-09-01

    A greater understanding of participant views regarding reimbursement will help investigators plan studies that have better potential for reaching target enrollment, maximize efficient recruitment, maintain scientific integrity, and enhance retention over time. As part of a clinical trial in the area of sexual health, healthy women's perceptions of reimbursement for research participation were investigated. Semi-structured, audio-recorded, qualitative interviews were conducted immediately upon women's completion of the clinical trial to enable a participant-driven understanding of perceptions about monetary reimbursement. Audio-recordings were transcribed and analyzed using framework analysis. Women (N = 30) had a mean age of 29.5 ± 5.7 years (range 22-45 years). Sixty-three percent of participants (n = 19) were non-Hispanic (white n = 13, black n = 4, and Asian n = 2), while the remaining were Hispanic (n = 11). Seventy-three percent (n = 22) reported previous participation in research. In general, women viewed reimbursement as a benefit to research participation, the amount of which should reflect time, the inconvenience to the research subject, and the potential for unknown risks in the short- and long-term. They believed reimbursement should take into account the degree of risk of the study, with investigations of experimental products offering greater reimbursement. Women believed that monetary reimbursement is unlikely to coerce an individual to volunteer for a study involving procedures or requirements that they found unacceptable. The results of this study can be used to provide guidance to those planning and evaluating reimbursement for research participation.

  19. Medicaid capital reimbursement policy and environmental artifacts of nursing home culture change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan C; Cohen, Neal; Lima, Julie C; Mor, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    To examine how Medicaid capital reimbursement policy is associated with nursing homes (NHs) having high proportions of private rooms and small households. Through a 2009/2010 NH national survey, we identified NHs having small households and high proportions of private rooms (≥76%). A survey of state Medicaid officials and policy document review provided 2009 policy data. Facility- and county-level covariates were from Online Survey, Certification and Reporting, the Area Resource File, and aggregated resident assessment data (minimum data set). The policy of interest was the presence of traditional versus fair rental capital reimbursement policy. Average Medicaid per diem rates and the presence of NH pay-for-performance (p4p) reimbursement were also examined. A total of 1,665 NHs in 40 states were included. Multivariate logistic regression analyses (with clustering on states) were used. In multivariate models, Medicaid capital reimbursement policy was not significantly associated with either outcome. However, there was a significantly greater likelihood of NHs having many private rooms when states had higher Medicaid rates (per $10 increment; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.13; 95% CI 1.049, 1.228), and in states with versus without p4p (AOR 1.78; 95% CI 1.045, 3.036). Also, in states with p4p NHs had a greater likelihood of having small households (AOR 1.78; 95% CI 1.045, 3.0636). Higher NH Medicaid rates and reimbursement incentives may contribute to a higher presence of 2 important environmental artifacts of culture change-an abundance of private rooms and small households. However, longitudinal research examining policy change is needed to establish the cause and effect of the associations observed.

  20. Incentives for Recruiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    promotions, with prizes for the kids: anything from football ti’kets to trips to Disneyland ." [Ref. 10:p. 68] Any publisher who wants a successful...such as a trip to Disneyland . The latter focuses more on providing an 29 incentive to the carrier to get a certain number of new customers in a short

  1. Dynamic Incentives in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruckes, Martin; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    to this inertial tendency is either to increase the financial incentives to encourage searching or to accept no searching. The former response increases search efforts and total profits; the latter response has the opposite results. Inertia can be removed by restructuring the firm in period 2, but this may create...

  2. Incentives for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter; Harrison, Oliver; Cooper, Cary; Jané-Llopis, Eva

    2011-08-01

    This article discusses incentives to help make healthy choices the easy choices for individuals, operating at the levels of the individual, producers and service providers, and governments. Whereas paying individuals directly to be healthier seems to have a limited effect, offering financial incentives through health insurance improves health. Changing the environment to make healthier choices more accessible acts as an incentive to improve health. Employers can provide incentives to improve the health of their employees. Producers and service providers can take voluntary action to make their products less harmful, and they can be nudged into marketing healthier products within a regulatory environment. International agreements and monitoring systems can incentivize governments to do more for health. Lessons from climate change adaptation suggest that multilevel governance and policy integration are greater obstacles to policy change and implementation than knowing what has to be done. Policy change and implementation are triggered by many drivers, many of which are side effects of other policy pressures rather than of the direct policy goal itself. Effective action to reduce noncommunicable diseases will require leveraging social networks into a new ways of thinking about health; making better health prestigious and aspirational, and giving health and wellness a brand that encourages positive behavior change.

  3. 超控制权私人收益及其非货币性收益的度量%The study on the extra-private benefits of control and the measurement of it's non-monetary profits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    年荣伟

    2012-01-01

    股权分置改革以后,大股东与中小股东的利益趋于一致,但是关于大股东利用控制权来侵占中小股东利益的问题还是没有解决,特别是大股东控制权私人的非货币性收益的计量仍然缺乏相关的理论研究。本文把控制性大股东的超控制权私人收益分为可以货币化的和不能货币化的收益,并着重说明非货币化的收益如何进行度量,最后提出抑制超控制权私人收益的相关措施。%After the reform of non-tradable shares, the interest of the largest shareholder and minority shareholders gradually converge, but the problem--the "tunneling" behaviors of the largest sharehold- er-still has not been completely resolved. Especially, the measurement of non-monetary profits of the largest shareholder needs to be studied. This article tried to propose some measures to resolve these problems.

  4. CLAIMS FOR REIMBURSEMENT OF EDUCATION FEES

    CERN Document Server

    Personnel Division

    1999-01-01

    REMINDERYou are reminded that, in accordance with Article R A 8.07 of the Staff Regulations 'the relevant bills shall be grouped so that not more than three claims in respect of each child are submitted in an academic year'.For this purpose:the academic year is defined as the period going from 1st September to 31st August, only paid bills can be subject to reimbursement, a claim for reimbursement of education fees may only include bills for expenses incurred during a given academic year for a given child, bills for one child may be grouped on a claim by periods of term, semester or academic year, the months of July and August should be included in the third term, or the second semester, or the academic year, for each dependent child, a maximum of 3 claims can be submitted for the reimbursement of expenses incurred during one academic year, therefore, any bill submitted for reimbursement after the third claim will not be reimbursed.Please make sure that you have received and paid all bills, including those for...

  5. Opposing incentives for collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil F.; Wien, Charlotte; Larsen, Asger Væring

    The Danish Bibliometric Research Indicator (BFI) is part of the performance-based model for the distribution of a special pool of baseline funding for universities and public research institutions in Denmark. BFI rewards the research publications published in the most recognized scientific journals...... collaboration is associated with a higher number of citations than single authorship which may present the author with two opposing incentives for research collaboration....

  6. Incentives and Prosocial Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Bénabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We build a theory of prosocial behaviour that combines heterogeneity in individual altruism and greed with concerns for social reputation or self-respect. The presence of rewards or punishments creates doubt as to the true motive for which good deeds are performed, and this ‘overjustification effect’ can result in a net crowding out of prosocial behaviour by extrinsic incentives. The model also allows us to identify settings that are conducive to multiple social norms of behaviour, and those ...

  7. Many southwest hosptials will receive decreased CMS reimbursement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. More hospitals are receiving penalties than bonuses in the second year of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ (CMS quality incentive program, and the average penalty is steeper than last year according to a report from Jordan Rau in Kaiser Health News (1. Southwest hospitals reflect that trend with New Mexico and Arizona exceeding the US average both in percentage of hospitals receiving penalties and the average size of the penalty (Table 1. Colorado approximated the national averages (Table 1. Most hospitals are gaining or losing <0.2% but in some instances the penalties are substantial. Gallup Indian Medical Center in New Mexico, a federal government hospital on the border of the Navajo Reservation, will be paid 1.14 percent less for each patient and New Mexico’s average of a -0.31% decline in reimbursement are the largest changes nationally. “This program is driving what we want in health care,” said Dr. …

  8. Q&A From ASCO's Coding and Reimbursement Hotline

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This column provides oncology practitioners and their staff with important information about reimbursement, coding, coverage, and regulatory policies. Questions for future issues should be sent to or by calling the coding and reimbursement hotline at 703-299-1050.

  9. Institutional incentives for altruism: gifting blood in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In mainland China, the motivation behind voluntary blood donation is a relatively new and understudied behavior. In recent times provincial governments in China have implemented various institutional incentive measures. However, little is known regarding the effectiveness of such measures. This qualitative study investigated the nature and outcomes of some identified institutionalized mechanisms, in particular how these were created and distributed in the form of incentives for voluntary blood donation. Methods Participatory observations were conducted at two blood donation stations and four blood collecting vehicles in Changsha city, China. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 staff and 58 blood donors at the aforementioned venues from May to October 2008 in Changsha. Results Thematic analysis revealed the operation of four primary type incentives: policy-driven, symbolic, information feedback and role models, which constituted the system of institutional incentives. The current blood reimbursement system was not the primary motivation for blood donation; instead this system was a subtheme of future assurance for emergency blood needs. It was evident that symbolic incentives stressed the meaning and value of blood donation. Furthermore, post-donation information services and the inherent mechanisms of communication, enhanced by some public role models, served to draw the public to donate blood. Conclusions At the institutional level, blood donation was not only informed by altruism, but also carried a system of benefit and reward for the donors and their family members. We would recommend that such arrangements, if accommodated effectively into China’s health promotion strategies, would increase the likelihood of blood donation. PMID:23721212

  10. 7 CFR 1484.56 - How are Cooperators reimbursed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....S. office to the Director, Marketing Operations Staff, FAS, USDA. (c) FAS will not reimburse claims submitted later than 6 months after the end of a marketing plan year. (d) If FAS overpays a reimbursement... format for reimbursement claims is available from the Director, Marketing Operations Staff, FAS,...

  11. 40 CFR 310.5 - Am I eligible for reimbursement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Am I eligible for reimbursement? 310.5 Section 310.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY... HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RELEASES Provisions Who Can Be Reimbursed? § 310.5 Am I eligible for reimbursement? If...

  12. 40 CFR 791.20 - Initiation of reimbursement proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Initiation of reimbursement proceeding. 791.20 Section 791.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Hearing Procedures § 791.20 Initiation of reimbursement...

  13. Employee incentives: bonuses or penalties?

    OpenAIRE

    Nosenzo, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Firms regularly use incentives to motivate their employees to be more productive. However, often little attention is paid to the language used in employment contracts to describe these incentives. It may be more effective to present incentives as entitlements that can be lost by failing to reach a performance target, rather than as additional rewards that can be gained by reaching that target. However, emphasizing the potential losses incurred as a result of failure may entail hidden costs fo...

  14. 44 CFR 352.28 - Reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement. 352.28 Section 352.28 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING...

  15. 76 FR 2291 - TRICARE Reimbursement Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... specific numeric Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) values, and replacing them with their narrative description... personal identifiers or contact information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Ann N. Fazzini, TRICARE Management Activity, Medical Benefits and Reimbursement Systems, telephone (303) 676-3803. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  16. 7 CFR 1485.16 - Reimbursement rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exceed the full fare economy rate, or other means of international transportation, and per diem, as... reimburse any portion of air travel in excess of the full fare economy rate or when the participant fails to... third party; (19) Membership fees in clubs and social organizations; (20) Indemnity and fidelity bonds...

  17. 7 CFR 1485.17 - Reimbursement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF... shall contain the following information: (1) Activity type—brand or generic; (2) Activity number; (3) Commodity aggregate code; (4) Country code; (5) Cost category; (6) Amount to be reimbursed; (7) If...

  18. 50 CFR 37.46 - Cost reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... identifying, evaluating and preserving historic, archeological and cultural resources in areas to be explored... notice from the Regional Director of the additional amount due. If the actual costs incurred are less... determines to be in competition with each other, each applicant shall reimburse the Department for...

  19. Do organizational incentives spur innovation?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barros, Henrique M; Lazzarini, Sergio G

    2012-01-01

    ... generate for the firm. In considering this perspective, this paper addresses whether organizational incentives affect innovation, and considers the conduits through which this link is established...

  20. Do religious nonprofit and for-profit organizations respond differently to financial incentives? The hospice industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindrooth, Richard C; Weisbrod, Burton A

    2007-03-01

    We study how for-profit and religious nonprofit hospices respond to an exogenous Medicare reimbursement incentive that encourages maximization of patient length of stay. Hospices have the incentive to selectively admit patients with longer expected lengths of stay, and admit patients sooner after a hospital discharge. We find that for-profit hospices are significantly less likely to admit patients with shorter, less profitable, expected lengths of stay. We do not find any difference in the timing of admission by ownership. Incentives for efficiency could be strengthened by a Medicare pricing system that replaced the current flat per diem payment with one that reflected the high costs at the beginning and end of hospice stay and the lower costs in between.

  1. 14 CFR 1214.202 - Reimbursement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... are recovered over a twelve-year period. (6) Pricing incentives are designed to maximize the proper... total operating costs are recovered over the twelve year period. (iii) The definition of the costs...

  2. Incentives for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-05-18

    Material or financial incentives are widely used in an attempt to precipitate or reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They operate in workplaces, in clinics and hospitals, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. In this third update of our review we now include trials conducted in pregnant women, to reflect the increasing activity and resources now targeting this high-risk group of smokers. To determine whether incentives and contingency management programmes lead to higher long-term quit rates. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The most recent searches were in December 2014, although we also include two trials published in 2015. We considered randomised controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures. We include studies in a mixed-population setting (e.g. community-, work-, institution-based), and also, for this update, trials in pregnant smokers. One author (KC) extracted data and a second (JH-B) checked them. We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure in the mixed-population studies was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up, and at least six months from the start of the intervention. In the trials of pregnant smokers abstinence was measured at the longest follow-up, and at least to the end of the pregnancy. Twenty-one mixed-population studies met our inclusion criteria, covering more than 8400 participants. Ten studies were set in clinics or health centres, one in Thai villages served by community health workers, two in academic institutions, and the rest in worksites. All but six of the trials were run in the USA. The incentives included lottery tickets or prize draws, cash payments, vouchers for goods and

  3. A randomised controlled trial to determine the effect on response of including a lottery incentive in health surveys [ISRCTN32203485

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridge P

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postal questionnaires are an economical and simple method of data collection for research purposes but are subject to non-response bias. Several studies have explored the effect of monetary and non-monetary incentives on response. Recent meta-analyses conclude that financial incentives are an effective way of increasing response rates. However, large surveys rarely have the resources to reward individual participants. Three previous papers report on the effectiveness of lottery incentives with contradictory results. This study aimed to determine the effect of including a lottery-style incentive on response rates to a postal health survey. Methods Randomised controlled trial. Setting: North and West Birmingham. 8,645 patients aged 18 or over randomly selected from registers of eight general practices (family physician practices. Intervention: Inclusion of a flyer and letter with a health questionnaire informing patients that returned questionnaires would be entered into a lottery-style draw for £100 of gift vouchers. Control: Health questionnaire accompanied only by standard letter of explanation. Main outcome measures: Response rate and completion rate to questionnaire. Results 5,209 individuals responded with identical rates in both groups (62.1%. Practice, patient age, sex and Townsend score (a postcode based deprivation measure were identified as predictive of response, with higher response related to older age, being female and living in an area with a lower Townsend score (less deprived. Conclusion This RCT, using a large community based sample, found that the offer of entry into a lottery style draw for £100 of High Street vouchers has no effect on response rates to a postal health questionnaire.

  4. Addressing government and market failures with payment incentives: Hospital reimbursement reform in Hainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Winnie; Eggleston, Karen

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role of provider payment policy as an instrument for addressing government and market failures and controlling costs in the health sector, particularly in developing countries. We empirically evaluate the impact of provider payment reform in Hainan province, China, on expenditures for different categories of services that had been subject to distorted prices under fee-for-service. Using a pre-post study design with a control group, we analyze two years of claims data to assess the impact of a January 1997 change to prospective payment for a sub-sample of the hospitals. This difference-in-difference empirical strategy allows us to isolate the supply-side payment reform effects from demand-side policy interventions. We find that prepayment is associated with a slower increase in spending on expensive drugs and high technology services, compared to fee-for-service. The fact that payment reform is associated with reduced growth in spending on the most expensive drugs is particularly encouraging, given that drugs account for a remarkably high percentage of both the level and growth of aggregate health expenditure in China. Payment reform can be an effective policy instrument for correcting market failures and adverse side effects of government health sector interventions (such as distorted prices to assure access to basic services), both of which can lead to excessive health care expenditure growth. Such health spending growth can have a particularly high opportunity cost for developing countries.

  5. Financial incentives and weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Robert W

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews research studies evaluating the use of financial incentives to promote weight control conducted between 1972 and 2010. It provides an overview of behavioral theories pertaining to incentives and describes empirical studies evaluating specific aspects of incentives. Research on financial incentives and weight control has a history spanning more than 30 years. Early studies were guided by operant learning concepts from Psychology, while more recent studies have relied on economic theory. Both theoretical orientations argue that providing financial rewards for losing weight should motivate people to engage in behaviors that produce weight loss. Empirical research has strongly supported this idea. However, results vary widely due to differences in incentive size and schedule, as well as contextual factors. Thus, many important questions about the use of incentives have not yet been clearly answered. Weight-maintenance studies using financial incentives are particularly sparse, so that their long-term efficacy and thus, value in addressing the public health problem of obesity is unclear. Major obstacles to sustained applications of incentive in weight control are funding sources and acceptance by those who might benefit.

  6. Separating Real Incentives and Accountability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Vieider (Ferdinand)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn experimental investigations of the effect of real incentives, accountability—the implicit or explicit expectation of a decision maker that she may have to justify her decisions in front of somebody else—is often confounded with the incentives themselves. This confounding of accountabi

  7. External economic incentives for prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treutlein, D.

    2014-01-01

    Economic incentives in occupational safety and health (OSH) describe processes that reward organisations for safe and healthy workplaces. From a European perspective, incentives are seen as an effective tool complementary to OSH regulation aimed at encouraging businesses at the management level to

  8. External economic incentives for prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treutlein, D.

    2014-01-01

    Economic incentives in occupational safety and health (OSH) describe processes that reward organisations for safe and healthy workplaces. From a European perspective, incentives are seen as an effective tool complementary to OSH regulation aimed at encouraging businesses at the management level to p

  9. An Argument for Early Retirement Incentive Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenen, Leonard B.; Ernest, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    Early retirement incentive programs are discussed as a humanitarian way of reducing payroll costs and rewarding long-tenured employees. The incentives to be considered, program communication, and problems found in incentive programs are addressed. (Author/MLF)

  10. Network versus Economic Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    The article supplements the traditional economic line of reasoning with an economic sociological account of the transition from unemployment to employment. The lack of full information is recognised by economic theory while the focus on network within the tradition of economic sociology has...... not been adopted. The article argues that the importance of network actually might be very well understood within recent economic theories that emphasise the lack of full information. The empirical evidence for the importance of network both for employed and unemployed is provided by analysing a best case...... might be an important part of the vicious circles of unemployment. Finally, the article analyse the importance of network versus the importance of economic incentives. The result supports the thesis that economic sociology provides a better account of the transition from unemployment to employment than...

  11. Proof of payment for all reimbursement claims

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel are kindly requested to note that only documents proving that a payment has been made are accepted as proof of payment for any claims for reimbursement, including specifically the reimbursement of education fees. In particular, the following will be accepted as proof of payment: bank or post office bank statements indicating the name of the institution to which the payment was made; photocopies of cheques made out to the institution to which the payments were made together with bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; proof of payment in the form of discharged payment slips; invoices with acknowledgement of settlement, receipts, bank statements detailing operations crediting another account or similar documents. As a result, the following documents in particular will no longer be accepted as proof of payment: photocopies of cheques that are not submitted together with bank or post office bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; details of ...

  12. HEALTH INSURANCE Spectacle frame reimbursement ceiling

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As from 1st January 2001, the three-year reimbursement ceiling for spectacle frames is replaced by annual ceilings which may be cumulated for a maximum of three years. The calculation method is therefore different from the one applied until 2000. A special procedure is applied to the transition between these two methods. Details of those procedures are published in an information sheet made available from divisional secretariats and at the UNIQA office at CERN.

  13. Patient perceptions on physician reimbursement in plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ryan M; Cassinelli, Ezequiel H; Hultman, C Scott; Erdmann, Detlev

    2014-07-01

    Public perception on physician reimbursement may be that considerable payments are received for procedures: a direct contrast to the actual decline. We aim to investigate patient perceptions toward plastic surgeon reimbursements from insurance companies. A survey of 4 common, single-staged procedures was administered to 140 patients. Patients were asked for their opinion on current insurance company reimbursement fees and what they believed the reimbursement fee should be. Eighty-four patients completed the survey. Patients estimated physician's reimbursements at 472% to 1061% more for breast reduction, 347% to 770% for abdominal hernia reconstruction, 372% to 787% for panniculectomy, and 290% to 628% for mandibular fracture repair. Despite these perceived higher-than-actual-fee payments, 87% of patients thought reimbursements should still be higher. Patients surveyed overestimated plastic surgery procedure fees by 290% to 1061%. Patients should be informed and educated regarding current fee schedules to plastic surgeons to correct current misconceptions.

  14. Bandwidth Trading as Incentive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Kolja; Killat, Ulrich

    In P2P networks with multi-source download the file of interest is fragmented into pieces and peers exchange pieces with each other although they did not finish the download of the complete file. Peers can adopt different strategies to trade upload for download bandwidth. These trading schemes should give peers an incentive to contribute bandwidth to the P2P network. This chapter studies different trading schemes analytically and by simulations. A mathematical framework for bandwidth trading is introduced and two distributed algorithms, which are denoted as Resource Pricing and Reciprocal Rate Control, are derived. The algorithms are compared to the tit-for-tat principle in BitTorrent. Nash Equilibria and results from simulations of static and dynamic networks are presented. Additionally, we discuss how trading schemes can be combined with a piece selection algorithm to increase the availability of a full copy of the file. The chapter closes with an extension of the mathematical model which takes also the underlying IP network into account. This results in a TCP variant optimised for P2P content distribution.

  15. Reimbursement of orphan drugs in Belgium: what (else) matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picavet, Eline; Cassiman, David; Simoens, Steven

    2014-09-12

    Most orphan drugs do not meet traditional standards of cost-effectiveness. Yet, most orphan drugs are reimbursed, which implies that other factors are taken into account at the time of reimbursement. To increase accountability of decision-makers, there is a need for more transparency in the factors that play a role in reimbursement decisions of orphan drugs. Therefore, the aim of this study is to use a combination of qualitative research methods to examine which official and non-official factors influence reimbursement decisions for orphan drugs in Belgium. Six semi-structured interviews with past or present members of the Drug Reimbursement Committee (DRC) were performed with a view to obtaining an overview of the potential factors influencing reimbursement. Additionally, these presence of these factors was assessed in the reimbursement dossiers of all orphan drugs (n = 64) for which an application for reimbursement was submitted to the National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance in Belgium between January 2002 and July 2013. Different official (i.e. therapeutic value, budget impact, price and impact in clinical practice) and non-official factors (i.e. pricing and reimbursement in other countries, interference by patient organisations and experts, arguments related to quality of branded drug versus compounding, media attention, innovative character, economic importance, ethical arguments and the political climate) may have influenced past reimbursement decisions for orphan drugs in Belgium. The identification of factors influencing orphan drug reimbursement is a crucial step in the development of a transparent and consistent framework which will guide future decision-making for reimbursement of orphan drugs.

  16. Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is pursuing a vision to improve the quality of health care by expanding the information available about quality of care and through direct incentives to reward...

  17. Stock Repurchases and Incentive Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jolls

    1998-01-01

    A longstanding puzzle in corporate finance is the rise of stock repurchases as a means of distributing earnings to shareholders. While most attempts to explain repurchase behavior focus on the incentives of firms, this paper focuses on the incentives of the agents who run firms, as determined by those agents' compensation packages. The increased use of repurchases coincided with an increasing reliance on stock options to compensate top managers, and stock options encourage managers to choose ...

  18. Service motives and profit incentives among physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godager, Geir; Iversen, Tor; Ma, Ching-To Albert

    2009-03-01

    We model physicians as health care professionals who care about their services and monetary rewards. These preferences are heterogeneous. Different physicians trade off the monetary and service motives differently, and therefore respond differently to incentive schemes. Our model is set up for the Norwegian health care system. First, each private practice physician has a patient list, which may have more or less patients than he desires. The physician is paid a fee-for-service reimbursement and a capitation per listed patient. Second, a municipality may obligate the physician to perform 7.5 h/week of community services. Our data are on an unbalanced panel of 435 physicians, with 412 physicians for the year 2002, and 400 for 2004. A physician's amount of gross wealth and gross debt in previous periods are used as proxy for preferences for community service. First, for the current period, accumulated wealth and debt are predetermined. Second, wealth and debt capture lifestyle preferences because they correlate with the planned future income and spending. The main results show that both gross debt and gross wealth have negative effects on physicians' supply of community health services. Gross debt and wealth have no effect on fee-for-service income per listed person in the physician's practice, and positive effects on the total income from fee-for-service. The higher income from fee-for-service is due to a longer patient list. Patient shortage has no significant effect on physicians' supply of community services, a positive effect on the fee-for-service income per listed person, and a negative effect on the total income from fee for service. These results support physician preference heterogeneity.

  19. Postoperative incentive spirometry use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Jain, Amit; Tan, Eric W; Stein, Benjamin E; Van Hoy, Megan L; Stewart, Nadine N; Lemma, Mesfin A

    2012-06-01

    The authors hypothesized that the use of incentive spirometry by orthopedic patients is less than the recommended level and is affected by patient-related factors and type of surgery. To determine its postoperative use, the authors prospectively surveyed all patients in their institution's general orthopedic ward who had undergone elective spine surgery or total knee or hip arthroplasty during a consecutive 3-month period in 2010, excluding patients with postoperative delirium or requiring a monitored bed. All 182 patients (74 men, 108 women; average age, 64.5 years; range, 32-88 years; spine group, n=55; arthroplasty group, n=127), per protocol, received preoperative spirometry education by a licensed respiratory therapist (recommended use, 10 times hourly) and reinforcement education by nurses. Patients were asked twice daily (morning and evening) regarding their spirometry use during the previous 1-hour period by a registered nurse on postoperative days 1 through 3. All data were collected by the same 2 nurses using the same standardized questionnaire. Spirometry use was correlated with surgery type, postoperative day/time, and patient's age and sex. Student's t test, Spearman test, and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare differences (PSpirometry use averaged 4.1 times per hour (range, 0-10 times). No statistical correlations were found between spirometry use and age. Sex did not influence spirometry use. The arthroplasty group reported significantly higher use than did the spine group: 4.3 and 3.5 times per hour, respectively. Mean use increased significantly between postoperative days 1, 2, and 3.

  20. Regulation, retrenchment--the DRG experience: problems from changing reimbursement practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, E G; Kronenfeld, J J

    1990-01-01

    A study of 227,771 discharge abstracts from one U.S. state's short-term, acute care hospitals compares changes in the inpatient market available to the oldest old Medicare patients (85 and older) with those less than 70 and those 70-84 between 1981, the last year when all hospitals were under cost-based reimbursement, and 1984, the first year in which all hospitals were under a prospective payment system based on diagnosis related groups (DRGs). All three populations experienced retrenchment in services as hospitals pursued practice changes to enhance revenue potential. An older, sicker client was admitted as hospitals implemented changes in admission patterns to avoid denial of reimbursement for an admission deemed inappropriate by the Peer Review Organization (PRO). Evidence demonstrates compression in service markets and retrenchment in services for less profitable DRGs and/or cohorts. Inpatient services were reduced the most for the oldest old population although this cohort was the sickest. Changes were observed in utilization of special care units, such as in coronary and intensive care units. Large increases in readmissions in all three cohorts suggests that DRG incentives to reduce length of hospital stay may have promoted premature discharge. Or, perhaps these readmissions resulted from 'unbundling', a practice of splitting patient problems into multiple admissions, as hospitals sought ways to enhance revenue instead of practicing cost-containment. Policy, perceived to be economically stringent, can affect hospital practice and produce undesired results with long-reaching untoward effects on certain segments of the population.

  1. Invited Article: Threats to physician autonomy in a performance-based reimbursement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larriviere, Daniel G; Bernat, James L

    2008-06-10

    Physician autonomy is currently threatened by the external application of pay for performance standards and required conformity to practice guidelines. This phenomenon is being driven by concerns over the economic viability of increasing per capita health care expenditures without a concomitant rise in favorable health outcomes and by the unjustified marked variations among physicians' practice patterns. Proponents contend that altering the reimbursement system to encourage physicians to make choices based upon the best available evidence would be one way to ensure better outcomes per health care dollar spent. Although physician autonomy is most easily justified when decisions are made by appealing to the best available evidence, incentivizing decision-making risks sacrificing physician autonomy to political and social forces if the limitations of evidence-based medicine are not respected. Any reimbursement system designed to encourage physicians to utilize the best available evidence by providing financial incentives must recognize physicians who try to play to the numbers as well as physicians who refuse to follow the best available evidence if doing so would conflict with good medicine or patient preferences. By designing, promulgating, and updating evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, medical specialty societies can limit threats to physician autonomy while improving medical practice.

  2. Reminder : Reimbursement of education fees / accommodation fees

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Your attention is drawn to the 20 km distance limit set in Article R A 8.01 of the Staff Regulations, namely, that only accommodation fees of students attending an educational establishment which is more than 20 km from the place of residence and the duty station of the member of the personnel are reimbursed by the Organization, subject to the percentage rate and maximum amounts set out in this article and in Administrative Circular N° 12. Human Resources Division Tel : 72862 / 74474

  3. Reimbursement of education fees / accommodation fees

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Your attention is drawn to the 20 km distance limit set in Article R A 8.01 of the Staff Regulations, namely, that only accommodation fees of students attending an educational establishment which is more than 20 km from the place of residence and the duty station of the member of the personnel are reimbursed by the Organization, subject to the percentage rate and maximum amounts set out in this article and in Administrative Circular N° 12. Human Resources Division Tel: 72862 / 74474

  4. The Challenge of Conditional Reimbursement: Stopping Reimbursement Can Be More Difficult Than Not Starting in the First Place!

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wetering, E J; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner B F

    2017-01-01

    Conditional reimbursement of new health technologies is increasingly considered as a useful policy instrument. It allows gathering more robust evidence regarding effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new technologies without delaying market access. Nevertheless, the literature suggests that ending reimbursement and provision of a technology when it proves not to be effective or cost-effective in practice may be difficult. To investigate how policymakers and the general public in the Netherlands value removing a previously reimbursed treatment from the basic benefits package relative to not including a new treatment. To investigate this issue, we used discrete-choice experiments. Mixed multinomial logit models were used to analyze the data. Compensating variation values and changes in probability of acceptance were calculated for withdrawal of reimbursement. The results show that, ceteris paribus, both the general public (n = 1169) and policymakers (n = 90) prefer a treatment that is presently reimbursed over one that is presently not yet reimbursed. Apparently, ending reimbursement is more difficult than not starting reimbursement in the first place, both for policymakers and for the public. Loss aversion is one of the possible explanations for this result. Policymakers in health care need to be aware of this effect before engaging in conditional reimbursement schemes. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Home Nutrition Support: Ethics and Reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karen; McGinnis, Carol

    2016-06-01

    Ethical dilemmas challenge providers on both sides of the hospital and clinic doors. In addition to establishing the nutrition care plan and guiding the client into the home setting with safe and effective parenteral or enteral nutrition therapy, procuring home nutrition support involves meeting documentation requirements and verifying that clients meet reimbursement criteria for home therapy based on third-party payer criteria. Providers have entered a realm for which training has been scarce and they face moral and ethical dilemmas involving serving as patient advocates, possibly stretching the truth to fit the clinical documentation to criteria vs maintaining professional integrity. Nutrition research and evidence-based practice have outpaced modifications to policies including Medicare's national and local coverage determinations, the bulk of which have not seen revisions in 32 years. This review elucidates clinical dilemmas and urges a political call to action to advocate for changes in current, outdated requirements for reimbursement. Given the current healthcare environment and trend toward expedited hospital stays, patients may be better served (and nourished) with revised guidelines.

  6. Obtaining reimbursement in France and Italy for new diabetes products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Elmar; Schnell, Gerald; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key.

  7. 36 CFR 64.15 - Financial reporting requirements and reimbursements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial reporting requirements and reimbursements. 64.15 Section 64.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE... RIGHTS-OF-WAY § 64.15 Financial reporting requirements and reimbursements. Payments to applicants...

  8. Reimbursement restriction moderately decreases Benzodiazepine use in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebert, J.M.; Souverein, P.C.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A.K.; Leufkens, H.G.M.; Dijk, L. van

    2011-01-01

    Problem Statement: On January 1st 2009, benzodiazepines were excluded from the Dutch positive reimbursement list when used as anxiolytic, hypnotic or sedative, to limit misuse and for cost savings. Thus far, the (un)intended effects of this reimbursement restriction are unknown. Objective(s): To ass

  9. Reimbursement restriction moderately decreases benzodiazepine use in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebert, J.M.; Souverein, P.C.; Mantel, A.K.; Leufkens, B.G.M.; Dijk, L. van

    2011-01-01

    Background: On January 1st 2009, benzodiazepines were excluded from the Dutch positive reimbursement list when used as anxiolytic, hypnotic or sedative, to limit misuse and for cost savings. Thus far, the (un)intended effects of this reimbursement restriction are unknown. Objectives: To assess the i

  10. 10 CFR 765.10 - Eligibility for reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM... uranium or thorium processing site that has incurred costs of remedial action for the site that are... reimbursement of costs of remedial action incurred by a licensee, the Department shall make a determination...

  11. New regulatory pathways and incentives for sustainable antibiotics: Recent European & US Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    , increased public awareness, and better hygiene, but also reactive push & pull strategies, such as increased investments, new collaborative models for R&D in antibiotics, prizes, “sui generis” IP-related incentives, regulatory responses and new pathways for approval. Recognizing that both global & local (i......, and the problem that incentives provided by the traditional innovation system model often fail in the case of antibiotics. Next the presentation focused on a variety of solution models that could be discussed to fight AMR. These include both conservational and preventive approaches comprising use limitations...... and reactive perspective? In that regard I believe that A. Kesselheim’s and K. Outterson’s ideas about “antibiotic delinkage models” and “integrated approaches”, which combine value-based reimbursement with conservation-based market exclusivities, deserve further careful consideration (see i.a. Kesselheim...

  12. Do not trash the incentive! Monetary incentives and waste sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.; Montinari, N.; Piovesan, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether monetary incentives are an effective tool for increasing domestic waste sorting. We exploit the exogenous variation in the pricing systems experienced during the 1999-2008 decade by the 95 municipalities in the district of Treviso (Italy). We estimate with a panel

  13. The History of Reimbursements in Neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen E Lakhan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA addresses consumer protection, employer-provided insurance coverage, as well as the government's role in providing health care access to the most vulnerable populations. Within the practice of neurology, the PPACA has the challenging goal of reconciling the needs of the growing elderly population with the financial barriers to costly yet available health care services. To bridge that gap, all health care professionals working in the field of neurology must reflect on the effect previous Medicare reimbursement policies have had on the current practice of neurology, and utilize lessons learned in recent years. The test of time will tell whether the PPACA will achieve the goal of decreasing in health care spending while ensuring quality universal healthcare services.

  14. Direct reimbursement. The future for organized dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, D P

    2001-10-01

    Direct reimbursement, or DR, has been a popular topic in organized dentistry for much of the last decade, and the concept is beginning to be more widely known. This article explores the underpinnings of and future for DR. TYPES OF LITERATURE REVIEWED: This article is based on an online review of the dental, medical and business literature. The author explores the advantages of DR for patients, employers and dentists. He also presents purported disadvantages of DR, and refutes them. Organized dentistry's marketing efforts and the importance of third-party administrators also are examined. During the next several years, DR has the potential to become the vehicle of choice for financing much of the dental care provided in the United States. Dentists need to become more aware of what DR is and what it can offer the public. They then will be better able to promote DR, which is a significantly better payment system for dental care than any other available today.

  15. Pricing and reimbursement of drugs in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michael; Tilson, Lesley; Ryan, Máirín

    2004-06-01

    Expenditure on healthcare in Ireland, which is mainly derived from taxation, has increased considerably in recent years to an estimated 9.2 billion euro in 2003. Pharmaceuticals account for approximately 10% of total healthcare expenditure. Approximately one-third of patients receive their medications free of charge whilst the remaining two-thirds are subject to a co-payment threshold of 78 euro per month, i.e. 936 euro per year. The price of medications in Ireland is linked to those of five other member states where the price to the wholesaler of any medication will not exceed the lesser of the currency-adjusted wholesale price in the United Kingdom or the average of wholesale prices in Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. A price freeze at the introduction price has been in existence since 1993. Despite the price freeze, expenditure on medicines on the community drugs scheme has increased from 201 million euro in 1993 to 898 million euro in 2002. The two main factors contributing to the increased expenditure on medicines include "product mix", the prescribing of new and more expensive medication, and "volume effect" comprising growth in the number of prescription items. Changing demographics and the extension of the General Medical Services (GMS) Scheme to provide free medicines for all those over the age of 70 years have also contributed. Prior to reimbursement under the community drugs schemes, a medicine must be included in the GMS code book or positive list. A demonstration of cost-effectiveness is not a pre-requisite for reimbursement.

  16. Pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement reforms in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yfantopoulos, John

    2008-02-01

    Pharmaceutical price regulation in Greece is centralized. The National Drug Organization (EOF) is the main regulatory authority functioning under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity. In 2004, total pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece reached the level of 2.9 billion euro, of which 77.9% were public expenditure and the remaining 22.1% private. According to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) data the total per-capita expenditure on pharmaceutical care in Greece is among the lowest in Europe, representing 58% of the EU-12 average. In 1998, Greece introduced a reimbursement list, and the lowest reference pricing system among the 15 European Union member states with the purpose of controlling the growth of pharmaceutical expenditure. The measures proved to be ineffective since pharmaceutical expenditure, after a short-term reduction, continued to increase at similar rates to those before the introduction of price control mechanisms. The average annual increase of pharmaceutical expenditure in Greece over the period 1998-2003 was 7.9%, which is among the highest in the OECD countries (average 6.1%). New pharmaceutical legislation, no. 3457, was enacted on May 8th 2006, aiming at greater access to medicines, improvements to citizens' quality of life, effective and efficient utilization of health resources, transparency in public management, protecting public health, and maintaining long-term financial viability of the insurance system. The innovative aspect of the new legislation is the abolition of the positive list and the establishment of a rebate system granting the National Insurance Funds a rebate rate paid by the pharmaceutical companies. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First to assess the effectiveness of the positive list introduced in 1988 in Greece, using simple econometric models. Second to present the recent pharmaceutical reforms aimed at the introduction of a rebate system and establishing

  17. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee shall establish a system of incentives to encourage an inmate to meet the mandatory ESL program requirements....

  18. Utility Incentives for Combined Heat and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the results of EPA's research and analysis into utility incentives for CHP. It provides information about utility-initiated policies, programs, and incentives for CHP systems, and includes case studies and tools and resources.

  19. Federal Incentives for Wind Power (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    This fact sheet describes the federal incentives available as of April 2013 that encourage increased development and deployment of wind energy technologies, including research grants, tax incentives, and loan programs.

  20. Variation in Incentive Effects across Neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Hanly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Small monetary incentives increase survey cooperation rates, however evidence suggests that the appeal of incentives may vary across sample subgroups. Fieldwork budgets can be most effectively distributed by targeting those subgroups where incentives will have the strongest appeal. We examine data from a randomised experiment implemented in the pilot phase of the Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which randomly assigned households to receive a higher (€25 or lower (€10 incentive amount. Using a random effects logistic regression model, we observe a variable effect of the higher incentive across geographic neighbourhoods. The higher incentive has the largest impact in neighbourhoods where baseline cooperation is low, as predicted by Leverage-Saliency theory. Auxiliary neighbourhood-level variables are linked to the sample frame to explore this variation further, however none of these moderate the incentive effect, suggesting that richer information is needed to identify sample subgroups where incentive budgets should be directed.

  1. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that firm-managers compete in supply functions. He reverses earlier findings in that owners give managers incentives to act in an accommodating way. That is, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits ...

  2. Social Relations and Relational Incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert); J. Tichem (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies how social relationships between managers and employees affect relational incentive contracts. To this end we develop a simple dynamic principal-agent model where both players may have feelings of altruism or spite toward each other. The contract may contain two types

  3. Incentives and regulation in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, N.

    2015-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2007-2008 has unveiled the hidden flaws in the regulatory framework of the financial sector. The rules of the game established by regulators were not stringent enough and provided bankers with wrong incentives to gamble with depositors’ money. There are two major challenges i

  4. To Duncan, Incentives a Priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan says he is eager to use a proposed $15 billion federal incentive-grant fund in part to reward states, districts, and even nonprofit organizations that have set high standards for the students they serve. "With this fund, we really have a chance to drive dramatic changes, to take to scale what works, invest…

  5. Motivating communities through economic incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viravaidya, M; Weeden, D

    1986-12-01

    Thailand's pilot Community-based Incentives Program in the northeast illustrates the high level of contraceptive prevalence that can be achieved when entire communities profit from economic incentives. This particular community incentives program began in 1983 with funding from the Special Projects Fund of the Population Crisis Committee under the auspices of Thailand's largest nongovernmental organization, the Population and Community Development Association (PDA). PDA, with its long and impressive record as a grassroots family planning service network, had almost a decade of experience in creating demand for family planning by offering income generating incentives to individuals. Through the community incentives program, PDA used the grant from abroad to establish loan funds of about $2000 in each of 6 villages. The loan funds grew in size as the overall contraceptive prevalence rate in the villages increased. Loans between $80 and $200 were made available to villagers for income-generating activities, mostly to buy fertilizer, rent tractors, or hire workers for planting and harvesting the local crops. Elected villagers administered the funds and reviewed loan applications with assistance from PDA. By the end of 2 years, loans totaling $72,000 had been granted in the 6 villages, and 75% of all village households had received at least 1 loan. Repayment was nearly 100% on schedule with no defaults. The 6 loan funds are still operating in 1986 but without outside assistance. Contraceptive practice increased from 46% to 75% of all married women aged 15-44 in the 6 villages between 1983-85. In a comparative study of 3 villages in which no loan fund operated, contraceptive prevalence increased from 51% to only 57%. In the Thai experience, the private PDA appears to have several advantages over the central government in implementing a community incentives approach: because PDA works closely with community members, it is able to determine community needs, involve the

  6. Internal Financial Incentives in Systems Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    34On the Design of Managerial Incentive Structures in a Decentralized Planning Environment," The American Economic Review , September, 1976. (3] Canes...Michael E., "The Simple Economics of Incentive Contracting: Note" The American Economic Review , June, 1975. [4] Cummins, Michael T., "Incentive...Harris, Milton; Raiv, Artur, "Optimal Incentive Contracts with Imperfect Information," The American Economic Review , March, 1978. (9] Jennergren

  7. Pattern of the rational worker incentive system

    OpenAIRE

    Kopytova A.V.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a model of rational incentive system with the structure consisting of three blocks. The first block (financial incentives) provides monetary compensation to a worker. The second block (stimulating by comfortable living conditions) is aimed to regulate the quality of a worker’s life in and outside the place he works. The third block (non-financial incentives) takes into account cultural and social worker’s needs. The proposed structure of incentive system provides the most...

  8. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Isamu; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Toriumi, Fujio; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2015-05-01

    Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (rewards) and negative incentives (punishments) with second-order incentives, which are incentives for other players' incentives. The critical assumption of our model is that players who tend to provide incentives to other players for their cooperative or non-cooperative behavior also tend to provide incentives to their incentive behaviors. In this paper, we solve the replicator dynamics for a simple version of the game and analytically categorize the game types into four groups. We find that the second-order free-rider problem is completely resolved without any third-order or higher (meta) incentive under the assumption. To do so, a second-order costly incentive, which is given individually (peer-to-peer) after playing donation games, is needed. The paper concludes that (1) second-order incentives for first-order reward are necessary for cooperative regimes, (2) a system without first-order rewards cannot maintain a cooperative regime, (3) a system with first-order rewards and no incentives for rewards is the worst because it never reaches cooperation, and (4) a system with rewards for incentives is more likely to be a cooperative regime than a system with punishments for incentives when the cost-effect ratio of incentives is sufficiently large. This solution is general and strong in the sense that the game does not need any centralized institution or proactive system for incentives.

  9. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Okada

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (rewards and negative incentives (punishments with second-order incentives, which are incentives for other players' incentives. The critical assumption of our model is that players who tend to provide incentives to other players for their cooperative or non-cooperative behavior also tend to provide incentives to their incentive behaviors. In this paper, we solve the replicator dynamics for a simple version of the game and analytically categorize the game types into four groups. We find that the second-order free-rider problem is completely resolved without any third-order or higher (meta incentive under the assumption. To do so, a second-order costly incentive, which is given individually (peer-to-peer after playing donation games, is needed. The paper concludes that (1 second-order incentives for first-order reward are necessary for cooperative regimes, (2 a system without first-order rewards cannot maintain a cooperative regime, (3 a system with first-order rewards and no incentives for rewards is the worst because it never reaches cooperation, and (4 a system with rewards for incentives is more likely to be a cooperative regime than a system with punishments for incentives when the cost-effect ratio of incentives is sufficiently large. This solution is general and strong in the sense that the game does not need any centralized institution or proactive system for incentives.

  10. 20 CFR 638.519 - Incentives system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives system. 638.519 Section 638.519... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.519 Incentives system. The center operator shall establish and maintain its own incentives system for students in accordance with...

  11. Merger incentives and the failing firm defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Kort, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merger incentives between profitable firms differ fundamentally from the incentives of a profitable firm to merge with a failing firm. We investigate these incentives under different modes of price competition and Cournot behavior. Our main finding is that firms strictly prefer exit of the faili

  12. Merger incentives and the failing firm defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Kort, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merger incentives between profitable firms differ fundamentally from the incentives of a profitable firm to merge with a failing firm. We investigate these incentives under different modes of price competition and Cournot behavior. Our main finding is that firms strictly prefer exit of the

  13. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  14. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers. (a....653(d), incentives to agree to the restrictive-use period in § 3560.662 if the following conditions...

  15. 12 CFR 708a.12 - Voting incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting incentives. 708a.12 Section 708a.12... INSURED CREDIT UNIONS TO MUTUAL SAVINGS BANKS § 708a.12 Voting incentives. If a converting credit union offers an incentive to encourage members to participate in the vote, including a prize raffle, every...

  16. 28 CFR 544.72 - Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives. 544.72 Section 544.72 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Literacy Program § 544.72 Incentives. The Warden shall establish a system of incentives to encourage an...

  17. 24 CFR 901.130 - Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives. 901.130 Section 901.130... HOUSING MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT PROGRAM § 901.130 Incentives. (a) A PHA that is designated high performer or... the applicable incentives unless it has been designated an overall high performer. (c) High-performing...

  18. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  19. 31 CFR 256.41 - When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... No FEAR payments? 256.41 Section 256.41 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... When is reimbursement due for CDA and No FEAR payments? Reimbursement for a CDA or No FEAR payment... Management (OPM) regulations, No FEAR reimbursements or payment reimbursement plans must be made within 45...

  20. Employee incentives in the healthcare industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnies, Richard C; Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2008-01-01

    *Employee incentives are an important part of a radiology department's ability to attract and maintain employees. For incentive programs to be successful, radiology managers must diligently look for the incentives that motivate each particular employee. *The types of incentives being used frequently in the field of healthcare vary between technical, managerial, and executive positions. The process of identifying the right employee incentive for each group of individuals may be challenging, but if the result is a more productive and satisfied group of employees, the process is worth the effort.

  1. Economic aspect of health care systems. Advantage and disadvantage incentives in different systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G J; Feldman, S R

    2000-04-01

    European health care delivery systems illustrate the effect of economic incentives on health care delivery. Each country faces the issue of trying to balance the desire for economic efficiency with comprehensive, quality medical care. Without careful use of economic incentives achievable with central control, one gets to pick only two of the three desired goods--high quality, low cost, and comprehensive coverage. In the United States, payment approaches for health care have been undergoing tremendous changes since the early 1980s. These changes have escalated during the 1990s. The basic approach for reimbursing hospital care has been completely restructured by many payers for care, and payment approaches for physicians and long-term care providers also are being restructured. Financing approaches vary from provider to provider and payer to payer, and financing approaches will continue to evolve over time. In the traditional fee-for-service reimbursement system, the incentive to physicians is to do more because more services lead to more revenue. The use of incentives to influence health care practitioners' behavior is common. Incentives are generally financial in nature and expose health care providers to some risk or reward for certain patterns of behavior. Some common incentives used in managed care include capitation payment, in which a physician is paid a fixed fee, regardless of the number of services administered; bonus distribution; and withhold accounts, through which a practitioner stands to gain or lose some amount of money for overuse or underuse of medical resources against budget. In many countries, a strengthening of the position of primary care providers can be observed: Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and now the United States. General practitioners are assumed to function as a gatekeeper to second-line care, such as specialist care, prescription drugs, and hospital care. A further step is to

  2. Contractual incentives in EPC contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Salvesen, Terje

    2011-01-01

    The Norwegian Oil Industry has through the years utilized several different Contract models for offshore projects. In the recent years, the big oil companies are using EPC Contracts to regulate deliveries in the industry. The main focus in the master thesis was the EPC Contract for offshore deliveries and the contractual incentives built into these Contract models. The first section presents the basics to the EPC contract format. Subjects are why the EPC Contract format is used...

  3. Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.

  4. Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.

  5. Economics of periodontal care: market trends, competitive forces and incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemmig, Thomas F; Beikler, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The adoption of new technologies for the treatment of periodontitis and the replacement of teeth has changed the delivery of periodontal care. The objective of this review was to conduct an economic analysis of a mature periodontal service market with a well-developed workforce, including general dentists, dental hygienists and periodontists. Publicly available information about the delivery of periodontal care in the USA was used. A strong trend toward increased utilization of nonsurgical therapy and decreased utilization of surgical periodontal therapy was observed. Although periodontal surgery remained the domain of periodontists, general dentists had taken over most of the nonsurgical periodontal care. The decline in surgical periodontal therapy was associated with an increased utilization of implant-supported prosthesis. Approximately equal numbers of implants were surgically placed by periodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and general dentists. Porter's framework of the forces driving industry competition was used to analyze the role of patients, dental insurances, general dentists, competitors, entrants, substitutes and suppliers in the periodontal service market. Estimates of out-of-pocket payments of self-pay and insured patients, reimbursement by dental insurances and providers' earnings for various periodontal procedures and alternative treatments were calculated. Economic incentives for providers may explain some of the observed shifts in the periodontal service market. Given the inherent uncertainty about treatment outcomes in dentistry, which makes clinical judgment critical, providers may yield to economic incentives without jeopardizing their ethical standards and professional norms. Although the economic analysis pertains to the USA, some considerations may also apply to other periodontal service markets.

  6. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Isamu Okada; Hitoshi Yamamoto; Fujio Toriumi; Tatsuya Sasaki

    2015-01-01

    Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (re...

  7. Tube feeding in dementia: how incentives undermine health care quality and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, Thomas E; Christmas, Colleen; Leff, Bruce A

    2007-05-01

    For nursing home residents with advanced dementia, very little evidence is available to show clinical benefit from enteral tube feeding. Although no randomized clinical trials have been done, considerable evidence from studies of weaker design strongly suggest that tube feeding does not reduce the risks of death, aspiration pneumonia, pressure ulcers, other infections, or poor functional outcome. Nationally, however, utilization is high and highly variable. System-wide incentives favor use of tube feeding, and may influence substitute decision-makers, bedside clinicians, gastroenterologists, and administrators regardless of patient preferences or putative medical indications. Underlying the widespread use of this marginally effective therapy is a basic misunderstanding about malnutrition and about aspiration pneumonia. The face value of tube feeding is strong indeed. In addition to the general faith in intervention, the impulse to "do something" when things are going poorly, financial incentives favor tube feeding for gastroenterologists, hospitals, and nursing homes. The desire to avoid regulatory sanctions, bad publicity, and liability exposure creates a further incentive for nursing homes to provide tube feeding. Rational, evidence-based use of tube feeding in advanced dementia will depend fundamentally on improved education. Reimbursement schemes require significant modification to limit the irrational use of tube feeding. Nursing home regulations based more securely on scientific evidence would likely reduce nonbeneficial tube feeding, as would evidence-based tort reform. Quality improvement initiatives could create positive incentives. Realigning incentives in these ways could, we believe, improve the quality of care, quality of life, and safety of these vulnerable individuals, likely with reduced costs of care.

  8. Water Conservation and Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Water has played a vital role in the progress of human civilization throughout history. Both agriculture based economics as well as industry based economics totally rely upon water for survival and prosperity. Water could be a limiting factor in dictating day-to-day human activities and as such one should learn to live within the limits of available natural resources. Most of the water on this earth is either salty or undrinkable. Only one percent of world's water is available for all the needs of human civilization. This includes human personal household needs, community activities, agriculture, industry, plant and animal life sustenance. The supply of usable fresh water is finite and the per capita consumption of fresh water needs to be reduced in particularly in some selected regions of this world. The United States consumes about 450 billion gallons of water every day. The U.S. daily average of water pumped by public water supply systems is 185 gallons per person. The biggest water gobbler in a household is the lawn. Typically, at least 50% of water consumed by households is used outdoors. Even inside a house, bathroom facilities claim nearly 75% of the water used. Here is a short list of economic Incentives that may help water conservation. (1) Providing rebates, refunds or other economic incentives to those consumers that are willing to change to modern technological methods. Examples include, but not limited to energy efficient washing machines, low-flush toilets and improved shower head designs. (2) Communities should provide economic incentives to limit the type and size of landscaping. (3) Need, necessity and nature of outdoor water use could be restricted whenever possible. (4) Sprinkler ban may be deemed appropriate in extreme cases. (5) Set up hotlines that can help penalize those that ignore water conservation guidelines. (6) Incorporating water conservation monitors. References: http://www.nrdc.org/water/http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sscwd.org/tips.html

  9. Incentive Stackelberg Mean-payoff Games

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Anshul; Deepak, M. S. Krishna; Padarthi, Bharath Kumar; Schewe, Sven; Trivedi, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and study incentive equilibria for multi-player meanpayoff games. Incentive equilibria generalise well-studied solution concepts such as Nash equilibria and leader equilibria (also known as Stackelberg equilibria). Recall that a strategy profile is a Nash equilibrium if no player can improve his payoff by changing his strategy unilaterally. In the setting of incentive and leader equilibria, there is a distinguished player called the leader who can assign strategies to all other p...

  10. Essays on Policy Incentives and Labor Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Katherine Ellyn

    2016-01-01

    My dissertation broadly examines how individuals respond to incentives imbedded in various policy designs. I study a variety of policies, including teacher retirement incentives, child care subsidies, and the Earned Income Tax Credit. The evidence presented here is of importance to policy analysis and design.In the first chapter, I examine what types of teachers respond to early retirement incentives (ERIs). In recent years, many education programs have been faced with steep budget cuts. ...

  11. A Neural Computational Model of Incentive Salience

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Zhang; Berridge, Kent C; Amy J Tindell; Kyle S Smith; J Wayne Aldridge

    2009-01-01

    Incentive salience is a motivational property with ‘magnet-like’ qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues), incentive salience triggers a pulse of ‘wanting’ and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire ca...

  12. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that the firm-managers compete in supply functions. In supply function equilibrium, managers’ decisions are strategic complements. This reverses earlier findings in that the author finds that owners give managers incentives...... to act in an accommodating way. As a result, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits to above-Cournot profits. Moreover, in supply function equilibrium the mode of competition is endogenous. This means that the author avoids results that are sensitive with respect to assuming...

  13. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  14. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    to act in an accommodating way. As a result, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits to above-Cournot profits. Moreover, in supply function equilibrium the mode of competition is endogenous. This means that the author avoids results that are sensitive with respect to assuming......The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that the firm-managers compete in supply functions. In supply function equilibrium, managers’ decisions are strategic complements. This reverses earlier findings in that the author finds that owners give managers incentives...

  15. Radiology coding, reimbursement, and economics: a practical playbook for housestaff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrey, W Banks; Allen, Bibb; Thorwarth, William T

    2009-09-01

    As radiologists-in-training, residents and fellows have little time to devote to understanding the complex and often confusing world of reimbursement and radiology economics. At best, housestaff are afforded only a modicum of exposure to the economics of medicine. Although most training programs try to provide some information on the subject, between learning radiology, taking call, and juggling life outside the hospital, the majority of residents and fellows have little time or energy to learn about the economics of radiology. Furthermore, information on medical economics and radiology has only occasionally been directed specifically to housestaff or widely distributed to residents across the country. This is unfortunate because the reimbursement and economic arena will significantly affect daily practice, relationships with other specialties, and compensation. In this article, the authors briefly describe the current reimbursement and economic climate: how we got here and where we may be headed, with specific attention to coding for radiologic services. In addition, and perhaps more important, the authors highlight aspects of residents' or fellows' daily practice that may have the potential to affect reimbursement in their years of practice ahead, such as proper dictation and coding techniques, the importance of adhering to new reporting guidelines, and the need for increased radiologist involvement in professional and community activities. The authors also emphasize measures that can be taken, specifically by housestaff, to promote and preserve the image of our specialty, which ultimately is intertwined with the reimbursement and economics of our field.

  16. On the Effectiveness of Incentive Pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    2015-01-01

    Extant research already emphasises that complementarities and substitution involving incentive pay and other elements of an organisation's management control system play an important role in terms of explaining the effectiveness of incentive systems. Despite this awareness calls continue for more...... research addressing the need to better understand how interdependencies arise among management control system elements and how they affect organisational effectiveness. Based on an in-depth case study on the implementation of a new incentive system in a manufacturing firm, we seek to provide more research...... the effectiveness of the incentive system in the individual organisational setting is determined by these relationships....

  17. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Berdud

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated.

  18. The failure of financial incentive? The seemingly inexorable rise of cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Shyan; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Bradley; Lin, Chung-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Two policy interventions in Taiwan aiming to slow the growth of cesarean delivery utilization were respectively implemented in 2005 and 2006. The first policy provided financial incentives to encourage vaginal delivery by setting a global fee for obstetric services and in essence increasing the reimbursement for vaginal delivery up to the same level of cesarean section. The second policy aimed to reduce the demand for elective cesarean procedure by employing a copayment when cesarean section is not medically indicated. This paper examines the impact of financial incentives of both the supply and the demand side on the use of utilization of cesarean section using data from the 2003-2008 National Health Insurance Research Database. We found that while the overall trend of cesarean utilization did not seem to respond to the interventions, the policies did have significant impact on its elective use. Financial incentives for the providers do matter, and policy interventions, such as a fee change, are still important strategies to consider in reducing the over-utilization of cesarean section.

  19. Issues in drug pricing, reimbursement, and access in China with references to other Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingyao; Schweitzer, Stuart O

    2008-03-01

    Pharmaceutical policies have become paramount in China and other countries of the Asia-Pacific region because of rapidly rising expenditures on drugs. The problems are especially acute in China because expenditures on drugs are typically so large. This article intends to review effects of the policy of drug expenditure containment with primary reference to China, and it proposes some measures to deal with rising pharmaceutical expenditures. This article overviews the issues of pharmaceutical pricing, reimbursement, and access in China, and there are a number of policies or measures to control pharmaceutical expenditures. Nevertheless, the effect of those policies of containing drug expenditure is ambiguous so far, and some policies have negative impacts to the manufacturers, providers, and patients. Some underlying reasons are identified. First, the policy's focus on health-care costs is, to some extent, neglected. Second, the governance of the health sector, including pharmaceutical sector, needs to be improved by both the government and the market. This article proposes some suggestions to change policies in drug pricing, reimbursement, and access, and make policies more responsive to the main problem of rising health-care expenditures rather than that of pharmaceutical expenditures alone. The policy suggestions include those of setting the reasonable price for pharmaceuticals, instituting reasonable incentives for all health decision-makers to encourage efficient use of pharmaceuticals and other health resources, and making pharmaceutical markets more efficient, either in the demand or the supply side.

  20. 5 CFR 575.109 - Payment of recruitment incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of recruitment incentives. 575... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Recruitment Incentives § 575.109 Payment of recruitment incentives. (a) An authorized agency...

  1. 48 CFR 16.402-1 - Cost incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost incentives. 16.402-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-1 Cost incentives. (a) Most incentive contracts include only cost incentives, which take the form of a profit or fee adjustment formula and are...

  2. 5 CFR 575.309 - Payment of retention incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of retention incentives. 575.309... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Retention Incentives § 575.309 Payment of retention incentives. (a) An authorized agency official...

  3. 5 CFR 575.209 - Payment of relocation incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of relocation incentives. 575.209... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Relocation Incentives § 575.209 Payment of relocation incentives. (a) An authorized agency...

  4. Incentives to reduce groundwater consumption in Yemen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Perry, C.J.; Al-Aulaqi, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper options for changing the incentive structure to reduce unsustainable groundwater consumption in Yemen are evaluated. Special attention is paid to incentives that decrease the profitability of irrigation water use and subsidies on improved irrigation technology. Although the literature

  5. 78 FR 21116 - Superior Supplier Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Department of the Navy Superior Supplier Incentive Program AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... policy that will establish a Superior Supplier Incentive Program (SSIP). Under the SSIP, contractors that..., performance, quality, and business relations would be granted Superior Supplier Status (SSS). Contractors...

  6. 36 CFR 906.7 - Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives. 906.7 Section 906.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION POLICY AND PROCEDURE Development Program § 906.7 Incentives. (a) At the request of the developer, the...

  7. Estimating Acceptability of Financial Health Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Seitz, Holli H.; Halpern, Scott D.; Volpp, Kevin; Cappella, Joseph N.

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that financial incentives can influence health behavior change, but research on the public acceptability of these programs and factors that predict public support have been limited. A representative sample of U.S. adults (N = 526) were randomly assigned to receive an incentive program description in which the…

  8. The Incentive System in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfried, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the incentive system in German higher education. He states that the underdeveloped incentive and management mechanisms in German higher education result in mistaken allocations in the higher education system in general and in some individual institutions in particular. He believes that the only way to optimize…

  9. Are Delegation and Incentives Complementary Instruments ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    It is natural to suppose that delegation and incentives are complementaryboth in the sense that when more decisions are delegated toa lower level of an organizational hierarchy, more use should be madeof incentives at that level, and in the sense that more use of incentivesshould be accompanied...

  10. 75 FR 57907 - Teacher Incentive Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... 1810-AB08 Teacher Incentive Fund ACTION: Interim final requirements; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Education (Secretary) amends the final requirements for the Teacher Incentive Fund program to...) for participation in the Congressionally mandated TIF national evaluation. DATES: These interim...

  11. 47 CFR 24.245 - Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from the... reimbursement cap as defined in § 24.243(b). Such reimbursement will not be subject to depreciation under...

  12. The Impact of Lottery Incentives on Student Survey Response Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A controlled experiment tested the effects of lottery incentives using a prospective college applicant Web survey, with emails sent to more than 9,000 high school students. Found minimal effect of postpaid incentives for increasing levels of incentive. (EV)

  13. 48 CFR 1816.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Performance incentives... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1816.402-2 Performance incentives. ...

  14. Incentive contracts for development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, David T.; Smith, Byron; DeGroff, B.

    2012-09-01

    Finding a contract vehicle that balances the concerns of the customer and the contractor in a development project can be difficult. The customer wants a low price and an early delivery, with as few surprises as possible as the project progresses. The contractor wants sufficient cost and schedule to cover risk. Both want to clearly define what each party will provide. Many program offices do not want to award cost plus contracts because their funding sources will not allow it, their boards do not want an open ended commitment, and they feel like they lose financial control of the project. A fixed price incentive contract, with a mutually agreed upon target cost, provides the owner with visibility into the project and input into the execution of the project, encourages both parties to save costs, and stimulates a collaborative atmosphere by aligning the respective interests of customers and contractors.

  15. 47 CFR 27.1166 - Reimbursement under the Cost-Sharing Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cost-Sharing Policies Governing Microwave Relocation from the 2110-2150 Mhz and 2160-2200 Mhz Bands... reimbursement cap as defined in § 27.1164(b). Such reimbursement will not be subject to depreciation under the... depreciation as specified § 27.1164(b). An AWS licensee who is obligated to reimburse relocation costs...

  16. 12 CFR 303.248 - Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement... PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.248 Truth in Lending Act—Relief from reimbursement. (a) Scope. This section applies to requests for relief from reimbursement pursuant to the Truth in Lending...

  17. 76 FR 24871 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites AGENCY: Department of... from eligible active uranium and thorium processing site licensees for reimbursement under Title X of...). Title X requires DOE to reimburse eligible uranium and thorium licensees for certain costs...

  18. 75 FR 71677 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites AGENCY: Department of... uranium and thorium processing site licensees for reimbursement under Title X of the Energy Policy Act of... requires DOE to reimburse eligible uranium and thorium licensees for certain costs of...

  19. 76 FR 30696 - Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites AGENCY: Department of... eligible active uranium and thorium processing site licensees for reimbursement under Title X of the Energy... requires DOE to reimburse eligible uranium and thorium licensees for certain costs of...

  20. 76 FR 63353 - Proposed Information Collection (Payment and Reimbursement for Emergency Services for Non Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Collection (Payment and Reimbursement for Emergency Services for Non Service-Connected Conditions in Non-VA... information technology. Title: Payment and Reimbursement for Emergency Services for Non Service-Connected... information needed to determine a claimant's eligibility for reimbursement or payment for emergency...

  1. 45 CFR 1609.5 - Acceptance of reimbursement from a client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance of reimbursement from a client. 1609.5... CORPORATION FEE-GENERATING CASES § 1609.5 Acceptance of reimbursement from a client. (a) When a case results in recovery of damages or statutory benefits, a recipient may accept reimbursement from the client...

  2. 44 CFR 208.36 - Reimbursement for Alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 208.41 of this part. (4) Food and beverages for Task Force Members and Support Specialists when DHS does not provide meals during the Alert. DHS will limit food and beverage reimbursement to the amount... where such food and beverages were provided, multiplied by the number of personnel who received them....

  3. Profitability, third-party reimbursement, and access to community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, N V; Miederhoff, P A; Waters, L W

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent to which third-party reimbursement programs have affected the profitability and availability of community pharmacies. Data were taken from records maintained by the Virginia Board of Pharmacy and a survey of 177 community pharmacies. Between 1989 and 1994, 258 outpatient pharmacies opened and 342 closed. Chain and independent pharmacies suffered net losses, and supermarket and mass merchandiser pharmacies experienced net increases. Few significant changes occurred in the distribution of pharmacies over the study period. Fifty-nine chain and independent pharmacies and 1 supermarket pharmacy chain provided usable profit and reimbursement data. These pharmacies experienced declines in profits and increases in the percentage of prescriptions reimbursed by private third-party prescription programs over the last several years. Regression analyses indicated that higher ratios of sales of private third-party prescriptions to private-pay prescriptions were associated with lower profits. All respondents indicated that changes in private third-party reimbursement had substantially reduced profits over the past 5 years. The results indicate that the growth of private third-party payment has led to lower pharmacy profits but has not yet resulted in problems of consumer access.

  4. 76 FR 19909 - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... of Justice Programs 28 CFR Part 94 RIN 1121-AA78 International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement... Victims of Crime (OVC) is promulgating this interim-final rule for its International Terrorism Victim... as an incident of international terrorism. DATES: Effective date: This interim-final rule is...

  5. 78 FR 7750 - Summer Food Service Program; 2013 Reimbursement Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ..., Section Head, Policy and Program Development Branch, Child Nutrition Division, Food and Nutrition Service... the Program, while providing the best possible nutrition benefit to children. The operating and... Food and Nutrition Service Summer Food Service Program; 2013 Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Food...

  6. Governance of conditional reimbursement practices in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, W.P.C.; Martins, Luis; Koopmanschap, Marc

    2015-01-01

    When entering the market, orphan drugs are associated with substantial prices and a high degree of uncertainty regarding safety and effectiveness. This makes decision making about the reimbursement of these drugs a complex exercise. To advance on this, the Dutch government introduced a conditional r

  7. The Case for Insurance Reimbursement of Couple Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Robb E; Davis, Stephanie Y; Miller, Richard B; Webster, Tabitha N

    2017-08-22

    A case is made for why it may now be in the best interest of insurance companies to reimburse for marital therapy to treat marital distress. Relevant literature is reviewed with a considerable focus on the reasons that insurance companies would benefit from reimbursing marital therapy - the high costs of marital distress, the growing link between marital distress and a host of related physical and mental health problems, as well as the availability of empirically supported treatments for marital distress. This is followed by a focus on the major reasons insurance companies cite for not reimbursing marital therapy, along with a discussion of advances in several growing bodies of research to address these concerns. Main arguments include the direct medical offset costs of couple and family therapy (including for high utilizers of health insurance), and the fact that insurance companies already find it cost effective to reimburse for prevention of other health and psychological problems. This is followed by implications for practitioners and researchers. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  8. 20 CFR 362.12 - Computation of amount of reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the cost of repair is the amount payable. (b) Depreciation in value of an item of personal property is... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of amount of reimbursement. 362.12 Section 362.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND...

  9. 42 CFR 413.5 - Cost reimbursement: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost reimbursement: General. 413.5 Section 413.5 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE... records of old assets, the principles provide an optional allowance in lieu of such depreciation...

  10. Employee Medical Reimbursement Plans in the Age of ERISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewater, Robert D.

    1976-01-01

    The employee medical reimbursement plan offers a new dimension in fringe benefits. This article discusses the purposes of such plans to determine who should adopt them, to guide draftsmen in their preparation, and to aid administrators and fiduciaries in their management. (LBH)

  11. 41 CFR 101-39.207 - Reimbursement for services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 101-39.207 Reimbursement for services. (a) GSA Regional Administrators will issue, as appropriate, regional bulletins announcing the GSA vehicle rental rates applicable to their respective regions. (b) The... billed for accidents and incidents as described in § 101-39.406. Agencies may also be charged...

  12. Reimbursement of pharmaceuticals: Reference pricing versus health technology assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Drummond (Michael); B. Jönsson (Bengt); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans); T. Stargardt (Tom)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractReference pricing and health technology assessment are policies commonly applied in order to obtain more value for money from pharmaceuticals. This study focussed on decisions about the initial price and reimbursement status of innovative drugs and discussed the consequences for market a

  13. 10 CFR 765.21 - Procedures for processing reimbursement claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Procedures for Submitting and Processing Reimbursement Claims § 765.21... uranium or thorium processing site licensees for approved costs of remedial action will be made... Department's determination to approve, approve in part, or deny a claim will be provided to the licensee...

  14. Incentives for telehealthcare deployment that support integrated care: a comparative analysis across eight European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lluch

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health care systems are struggling to deal with the increasing demands of an older population. In an attempt to find a solution to these demands, there has been a shift towards integrated care supported by information and communication technologies. However, little is understood about the role played by incentives and reimbursement schemes in the development of integrated care and information and communication technologies uptake. The objective of this paper is to investigate this question, specifically as regards telehealthcare.Methods: In order to identify the deployment of telehealthcare applications and their role in supporting integrated care, a case study approach was used. A clustering exercise was carried out and eight European countries were selected for in-depth study: Denmark, Estonia, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK. In total, 31 telehealthcare initiatives across eight countries involving over 20,000 patients were investigated.Results: Reflecting on specific examples in each initiative, drivers promoting integrated care delivery supported by telehealthcare mainstreaming and associated incentive mechanisms were identified. Attention was also paid to other factors which acted as barriers for widespread deployment.Discussion and conclusions: Trends towards telehealthcare mainstreaming were found in Denmark, the UK, and in some regions of Spain, Italy and France. Mainstreaming often went hand-in-hand with progress towards integrated care delivery and payment reforms.A general trend was found towards outcomes-based payments and bundled payment schemes, which aimed to promote integrated care supported by telehealthcare deployment. Their effectiveness in achieving these goals remains to be seen.In addition, a form of outpatient diagnostic-related group reimbursement for telehealthcare services was found to have emerged in a few countries. However, it is questionable how this incentive could promote

  15. Reimbursed Price of Orphan Drugs: Current Strategies and Potential Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincarone, Pierpaolo; Leo, Carlo Giacomo; Sabina, Saverio; Sarriá-Santamera, Antonio; Taruscio, Domenica; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro Guillermo; Kanavos, Panos

    2017-01-01

    The pricing and reimbursement policies for pharmaceuticals are relevant to balance timely and equitable access for all patients, financial sustainability, and reward for valuable innovation. The proliferation of high-cost specialty medicines is particularly true in rare diseases (RDs) where the pricing mechanism is characterised by a lack of transparency. This work provides an overall picture of current strategies for the definition of the reimbursed prices of orphan drugs (ODs) and highlights some potential improvements. Current strategies and suggestions are presented along 4 dimensions: (1) comprehensive value assessment, (2) early dialogs among relevant stakeholders, (3) innovative reimbursement approaches, and (4) societal participation in producing ODs. Comprehensive value assessment could be achieved by clarifying the approach of distributive justice to adopt, ensuring a representative participation of stakeholders, and with a broad consideration of value-bearing factors. With respect to early dialogs, cross-border cooperation can be determinant to companies and agencies. The cost-benefit ratio of early dialogs needs to be demonstrated and the "regulatory capture" effect should be monitored. Innovative reimbursement approaches were developed to balance the need for evidence-based decisions with the timely access to innovative drugs. The societal participation in producing ODs needs to be recognised in a collaborating framework where adaptive agreements can be developed with mutual satisfaction. Such agreements could also impact on coverage and reimbursement decisions as additional elements for the determination of a comprehensive societal value of ODs. Further research is needed to investigate the highlighted open challenges so that RDs will not remain, in practical terms, orphan diseases. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. A Neural Computational Model of Incentive Salience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Berridge, Kent C.; Tindell, Amy J.; Smith, Kyle S.; Aldridge, J. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Incentive salience is a motivational property with ‘magnet-like’ qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues), incentive salience triggers a pulse of ‘wanting’ and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire cached predictive values of rewards. However, empirical data show that subsequent incentive values are also modulated on the fly by dynamic fluctuation in physiological states, altering cached values in ways requiring additional motivation mechanisms. Dynamic modulation of incentive salience for a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS or cue) occurs during certain states, without necessarily requiring (re)learning about the cue. In some cases, dynamic modulation of cue value occurs during states that are quite novel, never having been experienced before, and even prior to experience of the associated unconditioned reward in the new state. Such cases can include novel drug-induced mesolimbic activation and addictive incentive-sensitization, as well as natural appetite states such as salt appetite. Dynamic enhancement specifically raises the incentive salience of an appropriate CS, without necessarily changing that of other CSs. Here we suggest a new computational model that modulates incentive salience by integrating changing physiological states with prior learning. We support the model with behavioral and neurobiological data from empirical tests that demonstrate dynamic elevations in cue-triggered motivation (involving natural salt appetite, and drug-induced intoxication and sensitization). Our data call for a dynamic model of incentive salience, such as presented here. Computational models can adequately capture fluctuations in cue-triggered ‘wanting’ only by

  17. A neural computational model of incentive salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Berridge, Kent C; Tindell, Amy J; Smith, Kyle S; Aldridge, J Wayne

    2009-07-01

    Incentive salience is a motivational property with 'magnet-like' qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues), incentive salience triggers a pulse of 'wanting' and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire cached predictive values of rewards. However, empirical data show that subsequent incentive values are also modulated on the fly by dynamic fluctuation in physiological states, altering cached values in ways requiring additional motivation mechanisms. Dynamic modulation of incentive salience for a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS or cue) occurs during certain states, without necessarily requiring (re)learning about the cue. In some cases, dynamic modulation of cue value occurs during states that are quite novel, never having been experienced before, and even prior to experience of the associated unconditioned reward in the new state. Such cases can include novel drug-induced mesolimbic activation and addictive incentive-sensitization, as well as natural appetite states such as salt appetite. Dynamic enhancement specifically raises the incentive salience of an appropriate CS, without necessarily changing that of other CSs. Here we suggest a new computational model that modulates incentive salience by integrating changing physiological states with prior learning. We support the model with behavioral and neurobiological data from empirical tests that demonstrate dynamic elevations in cue-triggered motivation (involving natural salt appetite, and drug-induced intoxication and sensitization). Our data call for a dynamic model of incentive salience, such as presented here. Computational models can adequately capture fluctuations in cue-triggered 'wanting' only by incorporating

  18. A neural computational model of incentive salience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Incentive salience is a motivational property with 'magnet-like' qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues, incentive salience triggers a pulse of 'wanting' and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire cached predictive values of rewards. However, empirical data show that subsequent incentive values are also modulated on the fly by dynamic fluctuation in physiological states, altering cached values in ways requiring additional motivation mechanisms. Dynamic modulation of incentive salience for a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS or cue occurs during certain states, without necessarily requiring (relearning about the cue. In some cases, dynamic modulation of cue value occurs during states that are quite novel, never having been experienced before, and even prior to experience of the associated unconditioned reward in the new state. Such cases can include novel drug-induced mesolimbic activation and addictive incentive-sensitization, as well as natural appetite states such as salt appetite. Dynamic enhancement specifically raises the incentive salience of an appropriate CS, without necessarily changing that of other CSs. Here we suggest a new computational model that modulates incentive salience by integrating changing physiological states with prior learning. We support the model with behavioral and neurobiological data from empirical tests that demonstrate dynamic elevations in cue-triggered motivation (involving natural salt appetite, and drug-induced intoxication and sensitization. Our data call for a dynamic model of incentive salience, such as presented here. Computational models can adequately capture fluctuations in cue-triggered 'wanting' only by

  19. INEQUALITY, INCENTIVES AND THE INTERPERSONAL TEST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article defends three claims: (1) even if Rawls' difference principle permits incentives to induce talented people to be more productive, it does not follow that it permits inequalities; (2) the difference principle, when adequately specified, may in some circumstances permit...... incentives and allow that the worst off are not made as well off as they could be; and (3) an argument for incentives might pass Cohen's interpersonal test even if it is unsound and might not pass it even if it is sound. 1...

  20. When and how to use monetary incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2005-01-01

    Will money motivate your staff to perform better? While some practice managers prefer not to use bonus incentive programs, others use them fequently and report excellent results. This article explores the benefits and pitfalls of using monetary incentives with your staff. It explores the effectiveness of bonuses compared with raises. It also considers the four qualities of effective incentive bonus programs and gives examples of both percentage bonus programs and flat-dollar bonus programs. In particular, this article includes how-to advice for structuring a new patient incentive bonus program along with the potential problems of such programs as reported by two doctors who tried them. Finally, the article explores the benefits of using merchandise rewards rather than cash and includes innovative ideas for maximizing bonuses by implementing a "cookie jar" system and dividing annual bonuses into two installments.

  1. 75 FR 71325 - Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ...: ``Wildlife means non-domesticated birds, fishes, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, and mammals.'' Section... conservation programs like the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). Response: Section 1244(h) of... documentation, payment scheduling, and documentation. Technical standards for certifying other services...

  2. EHR Incentive Programs - Data and Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As of March 2013, more than 259,000 health care providers received payment for participating in the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive...

  3. Motivational incentives of nurses and nursing leadership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bakola H; Zyga S; Panoutsopoulos G; Alikari V

    2016-01-01

    ... and maximizing the quality of service. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the need for motivating nurses, presenting a realistic framework of incentives as well as the role of nursing leadership in this. Method...

  4. 24 CFR 902.71 - Incentives for high performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives for high performers. 902... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Incentives and Remedies § 902.71 Incentives for high performers. (a) Incentives for high performer PHAs. A PHA that is designated a high performer will be...

  5. 48 CFR 16.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance incentives. 16... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-2 Performance incentives. (a) Performance incentives may be considered in connection with specific product characteristics (e.g...

  6. 48 CFR 16.402-3 - Delivery incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery incentives. 16... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-3 Delivery incentives. (a) Delivery incentives should be considered when improvement from a required delivery schedule is a...

  7. 45 CFR 305.34 - Payment of incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of incentives. 305.34 Section 305.34... PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.34 Payment of incentives. (a) Each State must report one-fourth of its estimated annual incentive payment on each of its...

  8. 48 CFR 1516.401-70 - Award term incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Award term incentives. 1516... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1516.401-70 Award term incentives. (a) Award term incentives enable a contractor to become eligible for additional periods of...

  9. 5 CFR 575.306 - Authorizing a retention incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a retention incentive; (2) Determine when a group or category of employees has unusually high or... in the absence of a retention incentive; (3) Approve a retention incentive for an employee (or group... the limitation on the maximum amount of a retention incentive for an employee (or group or category of...

  10. Improving Acquisition Through Innovation in Workforce Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    analytic review of 45 studies on the effects of incentives on workplace performance and documented the impact of several factors that influenced...as a driver of individual performance. Kohn suggests that rewards and punishments are two sides of the same coin attempting to manipulate behavior...H. D. (2003). The effects of incentives on workplace performance: A meta-analytic review of research studies. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 16

  11. Economic incentives and alternative nitrogen regulation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Ørum, Jens Erik

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to investigate economic incentives associated with changes in nitrogen regulation, including the distribution between farm types and geographically. The analysis is carried out on a partial equilibrium simulation model of the Danish agricultural sector—ESMERALDA. ......The objective of this chapter is to investigate economic incentives associated with changes in nitrogen regulation, including the distribution between farm types and geographically. The analysis is carried out on a partial equilibrium simulation model of the Danish agricultural sector...

  12. Public Incentives for Conservation on Private Land

    OpenAIRE

    Suter, Jordan; Sahan, Dissanayake; Lynne, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Habitat destruction and fragmentation resulting from land development has motivated considerable public and private expenditures on land conservation initiatives. In addition to direct expenditures related to the procurement of conservation land, legislators have also put in place incentives aimed at encouraging private landowners to voluntarily donate conservation easements. Many landowners have taken advantage of these incentives, as private land held under conservation easement increased n...

  13. Relating illness complexity to reimbursement in CKD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessette RW

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Russell W Bessette1, Randy L Carter2,3 1Department of Health Sciences, Institute for Healthcare Informatics, 2Department of Biostatistics, 3Population Health Observatory, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA Background: Despite significant investments of federal and state dollars to transition patient medical records to an all-electronic system, a chasm still exists between health care quality and payment for it. A major reason for this gap is the difficulty in evaluating health care outcomes based on claims data. Since both payers and patients may not appreciate how illness complexity impacts treatment outcomes, it is difficult to determine fair provider compensation. Objectives: Chronic kidney disease (CKD typifies these problems and is often associated with comorbidities that impact cost, health, and work productivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate an illness complexity score (ICS based on a linear regression of select blood values that might assist in predicting average monthly reimbursements in CKD patients. A second objective was to compare the results of this ICS prediction to results obtained by prediction of average monthly reimbursement using CKD stage. A third objective was to analyze the relationship between the change in ICS, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, and CKD stage over time to average monthly reimbursement. Methods: We calculated parsimonious values for select variables associated with CKD patients and compared the ICS to ordinal staging of renal disease. Data from 177 de-identified patients over 13 months was collected, which included 15 blood chemistry observations along with complete claims data for all medical expenses. To test for the relationship between average blood chemistry values, stages of CKD, age, and average monthly reimbursement, we modeled an association through a linear regression function of age, eGFR, and the Z-scores calculated from average

  14. The Illusory Effects of Saving Incentives on Saving

    OpenAIRE

    Engen, Eric M.; William G. Gale; John Karl Scholz

    1996-01-01

    The authors evaluate research on how tax-based saving incentives (IRAs and 401(k)s) affect saving. Previous research overstates the impact of the incentives on saving by failing to account for several issues: households with saving incentives have stronger tastes for saving than others; saving incentives have interacted with debt, nonfinancial assets, financial markets, and pensions; and saving incentives represent pretax balances, whereas taxable accounts represent posttax balances. Accounti...

  15. The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Terry E.; Berridge, Kent C

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the incentive sensitization theory of addiction. This posits that addiction is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems that attribute incentive salience to reward-associated stimuli. If rendered hypersensitive, these systems cause pathological incentive motivation (‘wanting’) for drugs. We address some current questions including: what is the role of learning in incentive sensitization and addiction? Does incentive s...

  16. Provider Reimbursement Review Board annual report: fiscal year 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Provider Reimbursement Review Board (PRRB) is the first step in the administrative/judicial appeals process for Medicare payment disputes of $10,000 ($50,000 for group appeals) or more. This annual report provides information about the PRRB, its performance during the past fiscal year (FY), an assessment of current issues, and comments regarding the future. Tables and figures accompanying this report illustrate trends reported herein.

  17. Incentives to promote breastfeeding: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Victoria Hall; Morgan, Heather; Rothnie, Kieran; MacLennan, Graeme; Stewart, Fiona; Thomson, Gillian; Crossland, Nicola; Tappin, David; Campbell, Marion; Hoddinott, Pat

    2015-03-01

    Few women in industrialized countries achieve the World Health Organization's recommendation to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months. Governments are increasingly seeking new interventions to address this problem, including the use of incentives. The goal of this study was to assess the evidence regarding the effectiveness of incentive interventions, delivered within or outside of health care settings, to individuals and/or their families seeking to increase and sustain breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth. Searches of electronic databases, reference lists, and grey literature were conducted to identify relevant reports of published, unpublished, and ongoing studies. All study designs published in English, which met our definition of incentives and that were from a developed country, were eligible for inclusion. Abstract and full-text article review with sequential data extraction were conducted by 2 independent authors. Sixteen full reports were included in the review. The majority evaluated multicomponent interventions of varying frequency, intensity, and duration. Incentives involved providing access to breast pumps, gifts, vouchers, money, food packages, and help with household tasks, but little consensus in findings was revealed. The lack of high-quality, randomized controlled trials identified by this review and the multicomponent nature of the interventions prohibited meta-analysis. This review found that the overall effect of providing incentives for breastfeeding compared with no incentives is unclear due to study heterogeneity and the variation in study quality. Further evidence on breastfeeding incentives offered to women is required to understand the possible effects of these interventions. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Implementation of a reimbursed medication review program: Corporate and pharmacy level strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKeigan, Linda D; Ijaz, Nadine; Bojarski, Elizabeth A; Dolovich, Lisa

    In 2006, the Ontario drug plan greatly reduced community pharmacy reimbursement for generic drugs. In exchange, a fee-for-service medication review program was introduced to help patients better understand their medication therapy and ensure that medications were taken as prescribed. A qualitative study of community pharmacy implementation strategies was undertaken to inform a mixed methods evaluation of the program. To describe strategies used by community pharmacies to implement a government-funded medication review service. Key informant interviews were conducted with pharmacy corporate executives and managers, as well as independent pharmacy owners. All pharmacy corporations in the province were approached; owners were purposively sampled from the registry of the pharmacist licensing body to obtain diversity in pharmacy attributes; and pharmacy managers were identified through a mix of snowball and registry sampling. Thematic qualitative coding and analysis were applied to interview transcripts. 42 key informants, including 14 executives, 15 managers/franchisees, and 11 owners, participated. The most common implementation strategy was software adaptation to flag eligible patients and to document the service. Human resource management (task shifting to technicians and increasing the technician complement), staff training, and patient identification and recruitment processes were widely mentioned. Motivational strategies including service targets and financial incentives were less frequent but controversial. Strategies typically unfolded over time, and became multifaceted. Apart from the use of targets in chain pharmacies only, strategies were similar across pharmacy ownership types. Ontario community pharmacies appeared to have done little preplanning of implementation strategies. Strategies focused on service efficiency and quantity, rather than quality. Unlike other jurisdictions, many managers supported the use of targets as motivators, and very few reported

  19. Mapping Out A GIS-Multidimensional Non- Monetary Poverty Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... Due to this, there exists a major problem of reaching the poor to address their specific needs. .... meaning, almost about half of Ghana's population is rural. ... of Poverty (A), the three dimensions of education, health and living ...

  20. Estimating the non-monetary burden of neurocysticercosis in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Bhattarai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NCC is a major public health problem in many developing countries where health education, sanitation, and meat inspection infrastructure are insufficient. The condition occurs when humans ingest eggs of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, which then develop into larvae in the central nervous system. Although NCC is endemic in many areas of the world and is associated with considerable socio-economic losses, the burden of NCC remains largely unknown. This study provides the first estimate of disability adjusted life years (DALYs associated with NCC in Mexico. METHODS: DALYs lost for symptomatic cases of NCC in Mexico were estimated by incorporating morbidity and mortality due to NCC-associated epilepsy, and morbidity due to NCC-associated severe chronic headaches. Latin hypercube sampling methods were employed to sample the distributions of uncertain parameters and to estimate 95% credible regions (95% CRs. FINDINGS: In Mexico, 144,433 and 98,520 individuals are estimated to suffer from NCC-associated epilepsy and NCC-associated severe chronic headaches, respectively. A total of 25,341 (95% CR: 12,569-46,640 DALYs were estimated to be lost due to these clinical manifestations, with 0.25 (95% CR: 0.12-0.46 DALY lost per 1,000 person-years of which 90% was due to NCC-associated epilepsy. CONCLUSION: This is the first estimate of DALYs associated with NCC in Mexico. However, this value is likely to be underestimated since only the clinical manifestations of epilepsy and severe chronic headaches were included. In addition, due to limited country specific data, some parameters used in the analysis were based on systematic reviews of the literature or primary research from other geographic locations. Even with these limitations, our estimates suggest that healthy years of life are being lost due to NCC in Mexico.

  1. Non-monetary benefit indicators for prioritizing wetlands restoration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological restoration of wetlands can reestablish ecosystem services that provide valuable social and environmental benefits. Explicitly characterizing these benefits can help managers better allocate scarce resources among potential restoration projects. Economic valuation stud...

  2. Monetary and Non-Monetary Remittances within Marginalized Migrating Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina JANKU

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I am using the research experience among Czech Roma families with the migration experience and taking a look on what is being exchanged between „those who went abroad“, and „those who stayed home“ and what can be the function and consequences of it.Sending money, things, ideas etc. back and forth is the mean of closing the range between people within family and thus it facilitates the formation of transnational social ties. As individual examples of those remittances are lying open in front of us, we can see how they are part of the strategic reproduction of the “trans-nationalized” family.Thus, I understand remittances in a broader sense than the economics does. I am proposing to aim not only on salary to be sent abroad to relatively poorer environments. There are not only monetary remittances, but also material, symbolic, social and emotional ones.

  3. CROSS-CULTURAL INCENTIVES FOR THE FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru ZAIȚ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to invest there are some incentives needed, including among them, certainly, the ones discussed and analysed in the scientific literature such as: specific earning chances (expectations of each participant (wage, profit, dividend, budget revenue, etc., potential investor’s general or current state, etc.. Less visible incentives from complex areas not obviously related to the investment are, however, less considered. Among these could be incentives arising from inherited or education and culture transmitted philosophy, generally regarding earnings, business and investment. We notice these incentives in case of FDI in different shades and intensities.Investor’s decision to acquire, sell or to carry out projects in a particular area, region or country is not only due to purely economic, commercial or financial reasoning. In such operations, meeting among businessmen, managers and other professionals in the field is, first of all, meeting in specific circumstances, among more or less different cultures.Both theory and practice must be concerned in what way and to what extent these factors influence the investment intention, outcome and yield. Our study proposes a list of the most important cultural type incentives for investment (mainly FDI, based on a set of cases, through a logical and empirical research, using some of the most relevant and recent studies and several real situations to which we got access. These are early data and analysis that will allow us to draw attention to the problem and to develop further research to reach generalizable results

  4. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdud, Mikel; Cabasés, Juan M; Nieto, Jorge

    It has been established in the literature that workers within public organisations are intrinsically motivated. This paper is an empirical study of the healthcare sector using methods of qualitative analysis research, which aims to answer the following hypotheses: 1) doctors are intrinsically motivated; 2) economic incentives and control policies may undermine doctors' intrinsic motivation; and 3) well-designed incentives may encourage doctors' intrinsic motivation. We conducted semi-structured interviews à-la-Bewley with 16 doctors from Navarre's Healthcare Service (Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea), Spain. The questions were based on current theories of intrinsic motivation and incentives to test the hypotheses. Interviewees were allowed to respond openly without time constraints. Relevant information was selected, quantified and analysed by using the qualitative concepts of saturation and codification. The results seem to confirm the hypotheses. Evidence supporting hypotheses 1 and 2 was gathered from all interviewees, as well as indications of the validity of hypothesis 3 based on interviewees' proposals of incentives. The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of alternative reimbursement strategies in the new cooperative medical scheme on caesarean delivery rates: a mixed-method study in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Kun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of caesarean delivery (CD in rural China has been rapidly increasing in recent decades. Due to the exorbitant costs associated with CD, paying for this expensive procedure is often a great challenge for the majority of rural families. Since 2003, the Chinese government has re-established the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS, aimed to improve the access of essential healthcare to rural residents and reduce financial burden owing to high out of pocket payments. This paper seeks to test the hypothesis that NCMS may provide service users and providers with financial incentives to select CD. It also assesses the effect of different health insurance reimbursement strategies of NCMS on CD rates in rural China. Methods Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted for data collection. Two cross-sectional household surveys were conducted with women having babies delivered in 2006 and 2009; 2326 and 1515 women, respectively, from the study sites were interviewed using structured questionnaires, to collect demographic and socio-economic data, maternal and child care characteristics and health-related expenditures. Focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth key informant interviews (KIIs were undertaken with policy makers, health managers, providers and mothers to understand their perceptions of the influence of NCMS on the choices of delivery mode. Results The CD rates in the two study counties were 46.0 percent and 64.7 percent in 2006, increasing to 63.6 percent and 82.1 percent, respectively, in 2009. The study found that decisions on the selection of CD largely came from the pregnant women. Logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for socio-economic, maternal and fetal characteristics, did not indicate a significant effect of either proportional reimbursement or fixed amount reimbursement on the choice of CD for both study years. Interviews with stakeholders reflected that different reimbursable rates for

  6. Impact of alternative reimbursement strategies in the new cooperative medical scheme on caesarean delivery rates: a mixed-method study in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Tao, Fangbiao; Bogg, Lennart; Tang, Shenglan

    2012-07-24

    The rate of caesarean delivery (CD) in rural China has been rapidly increasing in recent decades. Due to the exorbitant costs associated with CD, paying for this expensive procedure is often a great challenge for the majority of rural families. Since 2003, the Chinese government has re-established the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), aimed to improve the access of essential healthcare to rural residents and reduce financial burden owing to high out of pocket payments. This paper seeks to test the hypothesis that NCMS may provide service users and providers with financial incentives to select CD. It also assesses the effect of different health insurance reimbursement strategies of NCMS on CD rates in rural China. Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted for data collection. Two cross-sectional household surveys were conducted with women having babies delivered in 2006 and 2009; 2326 and 1515 women, respectively, from the study sites were interviewed using structured questionnaires, to collect demographic and socio-economic data, maternal and child care characteristics and health-related expenditures. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth key informant interviews (KIIs) were undertaken with policy makers, health managers, providers and mothers to understand their perceptions of the influence of NCMS on the choices of delivery mode. The CD rates in the two study counties were 46.0 percent and 64.7 percent in 2006, increasing to 63.6 percent and 82.1 percent, respectively, in 2009. The study found that decisions on the selection of CD largely came from the pregnant women. Logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for socio-economic, maternal and fetal characteristics, did not indicate a significant effect of either proportional reimbursement or fixed amount reimbursement on the choice of CD for both study years. Interviews with stakeholders reflected that different reimbursable rates for CD and vaginal deliveries did not have a

  7. Capital cost reimbursement to community hospitals under Federal health insurance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, E D; Lefkowitz, B

    1982-01-01

    Issues in current capital cost reimbursement to community hospitals by Medicare and Medicaid are described, and options for change analyzed. Major reforms in the way the federal government pays for capital costs--in particular substitution of other methods of payment for existing depreciation reimbursement--could have significant impact on the structure of the health care system and on government expenditures. While such reforms are likely to engender substantial political opposition, they may be facilitated by broader changes in the reimbursement system.

  8. Paperless Transaction for Publication Incentive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rosziati; Madon, Hamiza Diana; Nazri, Nurul Hashida Amira Mohd; Saarani, Norhafizah; Mustapha, Aida

    2017-08-01

    Within the Malaysian context, incentive system in scientific publishing rewards authors for publishing journal articles or conference papers that are indexed by Scopus. At Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, the incentive system is going into its third year in operational. The main challenge lies in preparing the evidences as required by the application guideline. This paper presents an online module for publication incentive within the University Publication Information System (SMPU). The module was developed using the Scrum methodology based on the existing workflow of paper-based application. The module is hoped to increase the quality of the system deliverables of SMPU as well as having the ability to cope with change of university requirements in the future.

  9. Splitting motivation: unilateral effects of subliminal incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Liane; Palminteri, Stefano; Lafargue, Gilles; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2010-07-01

    Motivation is generally understood to denote the strength of a person's desire to attain a goal. Here we challenge this view of motivation as a person-level concept, in a study that targeted subliminal incentives to only one half of the human brain. Participants in the study squeezed a handgrip to win the greatest fraction possible of each subliminal incentive, which materialized as a coin image flashed in one visual hemifield. Motivation effects (i.e., more force exerted when the incentive was higher) were observed only for the hand controlled by the stimulated brain hemisphere. These results show that in the absence of conscious control, one brain hemisphere, and hence one side of the body, can be motivated independently of the other.

  10. Incentive relativity in middle aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M; Ruetti, E

    2014-01-24

    Response to a reinforcer is affected by prior experience with different reward values of that reward, a phenomenon known as incentive relativity. Two different procedures to study this phenomenon are the incentive downshift (ID) and the consummatory anticipatory negative contrast (cANC), the former is an emotional-cognitive protocol and the latter cognitive one. Aged rodents, as also well described in aged humans, exhibit alterations in cognitive functions. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of age in the incentive' assessment using these two procedures. The results indicated that aged rats had an adequate assessment of the rewards but their performance is not completely comparable to that of young subjects. They recover faster from the ID and they had a cognitive impairment in the cANC. The results are discussed in relation to age-related changes in memory and emotion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Powerplant productivity improvements and regulatory incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, D; Brown, D

    1980-10-27

    The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits to be gained from increased powerplant productivity and to validate and demonstrate the use of incentives within the regulatory process to promote the improvement of powerplant productivity. The system-wide costs savings to be gained from given productivity improvement scenarios are estimated in both the short and long term. Numerous reports and studies exist which indicate that productivity improvements at the powerplant level are feasible and cost effective. The efforts of this study widen this focus and relate system-wide productivity improvements with system-wide cost savings. The initial thrust of the regulatory section of this study is to validate the existence of reasonable incentive procedures which would enable regulatory agencies to better motivate electric utilities to improve productivity on both the powerplant and system levels. The voluntary incentive format developed in this study was designed to facilitate the link between profit and efficiency which is typically not clear in most regulated market environments. It is concluded that at the present time, many electric utilities in this country could significantly increase the productivity of their base load units, and the adoption of an incentive program of the general type recommended in this study would add to rate of return regulation the needed financial incentives to enable utilities to make such improvements without losing long-run profit. In light of the upcoming oil import target levels and mandatory cutbacks of oil and gas as boiler fuels for electric utilities, the use of incentive programs to encourage more efficient utilization of coal and nuclear base load capacity will become far more inviting over the next two decades.

  12. Differential dependence of Pavlovian incentive motivation and instrumental incentive learning processes on dopamine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassum, Kate M; Ostlund, Sean B; Balleine, Bernard W; Maidment, Nigel T

    2011-01-01

    Here we attempted to clarify the role of dopamine signaling in reward seeking. In Experiment 1, we assessed the effects of the dopamine D(1)/D(2) receptor antagonist flupenthixol (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) on Pavlovian incentive motivation and found that flupenthixol blocked the ability of a conditioned stimulus to enhance both goal approach and instrumental performance (Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer). In Experiment 2 we assessed the effects of flupenthixol on reward palatability during post-training noncontingent re-exposure to the sucrose reward in either a control 3-h or novel 23-h food-deprived state. Flupenthixol, although effective in blocking the Pavlovian goal approach, was without effect on palatability or the increase in reward palatability induced by the upshift in motivational state. This noncontingent re-exposure provided an opportunity for instrumental incentive learning, the process by which rats encode the value of a reward for use in updating reward-seeking actions. Flupenthixol administered prior to the instrumental incentive learning opportunity did not affect the increase in subsequent off-drug reward-seeking actions induced by that experience. These data suggest that although dopamine signaling is necessary for Pavlovian incentive motivation, it is not necessary for changes in reward experience, or for the instrumental incentive learning process that translates this experience into the incentive value used to drive reward-seeking actions, and provide further evidence that Pavlovian and instrumental incentive learning processes are dissociable.

  13. Incentives and performance governance of research organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Wollersheim, Jutta; Ringelhan, Stefanie; Osterloh, Margit

    2015-01-01

    ​This book contributes to the current discussion in society, politics and higher education on innovation capacity and the financial and non-financial incentives for researchers. The expert contributions in the book deal with implementation of incentive systems at higher education institutions in order to foster innovation. On the other hand, the book also discusses the extent to which governance structures from economy can be transferred to universities and how scientific performance can be measured and evaluated. This book is essential for decision-makers in knowledge-intensive organizations and higher-educational institutions dealing with the topic of performance management.

  14. Incentive and insurance effects of income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    2015-01-01

    Tax distortions cause a trade-off between efficiency and equity. However, taxes not only affect incentives; they also provide implicit insurance, and this may critically affect the efficiency–equity relationship. For a standard labour supply problem it is shown that the insurance effect mutes...... the sensitivity of labour supply to taxes, which tends to reduce tax distortions and lower the marginal costs of public funds. The relation between incentives and insurance and thus efficiency and equity is flattened by the insurance effect and it may even be non-monotone. However, the optimal utilitarian policy...

  15. Incentive Contracts for Venture Capital Syndication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-li; YANG De-li

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the incentive problems of venture capital syndication at the second and later stages, an game model is set up by principal agent and incentive theory, given that the lead venture capitalist has already some knowledge of the project quality from his initial funding of the project. Under symmetric and asymmetric information, the model analyzes how the optimal syndication contracts induce venture capitalists to truthfully reveal their information to each other, and vary with the level of venture capitalists' expertise and information in evaluating projects.

  16. Primary care physician perspectives on reimbursement for childhood immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Gary L; Cowan, Anne E; Clark, Sarah J

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore physicians' attitudes and behaviors related to vaccine financing issues within their practice. Amid the increasing number of vaccine doses recommended for children and adolescents, anecdotal reports suggest that physicians are facing increasing financial pressures from vaccine purchase and administration and may stop providing vaccines altogether to privately insured children. Whether these sentiments are widely held among immunization providers is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional mail survey from July to September 2007 of a random sample of 1280 US pediatricians and family physicians engaged in direct patient care. Main outcome measures included delay in the purchase of specific vaccines for financial reasons; reported decrease in profit margin from immunizations; and practice consideration of whether to stop providing all vaccines to privately insured children. The response rate was 70% for pediatricians and 60% for family physicians. Approximately half of the respondents reported that their practice had delayed the purchase of specific vaccines for financial reasons (49%) and experienced decreased profit margin from immunizations (53%) in the previous 3 years. Twenty-one percent of respondents strongly disagreed that "reimbursement for vaccine purchase is adequate," and 17% strongly disagreed that "reimbursement for vaccine administration is adequate." Eleven percent of respondents said their practice had seriously considered whether to stop providing all vaccines to privately insured children in the previous year. Physicians who provide vaccines to children and adolescents report dissatisfaction with reimbursement levels and increasing financial strain from immunizations. Although large-scale withdrawal of immunization providers does not seem to be imminent, efforts to address root causes of financial pressures should be undertaken.

  17. SOCIAL ACCOUNTING ASPECTS IN THE PREUNIVERSITY LEVEL REIMBURSEMENT OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CENAR IULIANA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The specific accounting approaches in preuniversity accounting are reduced, including the segment accounted for the reimbursementof students travel expenses and other benefits. This paper aims to outline an image of the social aspects of education in the preuniversity public education, represented by reimbursement to the beneficiaries of education, how they are reflected in accounting through the budget classification and disclosed to users via public media. Specifically, our approach refers to scholarships provided by the local administration to support learning, professionalscholarships, as well as various support programs for students who come from families with material difficulties, whose financial backer is the state through school inspectorates.

  18. Glossary – dCHPP (CHP Policies and incentives database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This glossary provides descriptions of the policy and incentive types included in the CHP Partnership's CHP Policies and incentives database (dCHPP), as well as the frequency with which the EPA updates each type.

  19. Professional norms, public service motivation and economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2007-01-01

    The theories of professions, public service motivation, and economic incentives explain the behaviour of the producers of publicly financed services differently. They emphasize professional norms, sector, and economic incentives, respectively. The few existing attempts to integrate these theories...

  20. Examining the Incentives in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Goldhaber, Dan D.

    2008-01-01

    In their best seller, "Freakonomics", University of Chicago economist Steven Levitt and "New York Times" writer Stephen Dubner show in an amusing and often provocative manner how an economic way of thinking can be useful in explaining all sorts of real-world phenomena. Their central insight is very simple: incentives are the cornerstone of modern…

  1. Developmental Effects of Incentives on Response Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Charles F.; Luna, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory control and incentive processes underlie decision making, yet few studies have explicitly examined their interaction across development. Here, the effects of potential rewards and losses on inhibitory control in 64 adolescents (13- to 17-year-olds) and 42 young adults (18- to 29-year-olds) were examined using an incentivized antisaccade…

  2. Incentives and Social Relations in the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sol (Joeri)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis, I study how organizations can incentivize a group of individuals, both in theory and by conducting …eld experiments. The …eld experiments introduce short-term team incentives in a randomly selected sample of stores that belong to a single Dutch retail chain of 128 stores.

  3. Incentives for Cheating Given Imperfect Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-10-01

    The incentives for cheating given imperfect detection can be discussed within the context of first strike stability. The cost reduction due to is balanced against the sanctions that would be imposed if cheating was detected. For small political sanctions, the optimum level is at high levels of cheating. For large sanctions, the optimum is at quite low levels, which discourages cheating.

  4. Incentive and insurance effects of income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    2015-01-01

    the sensitivity of labour supply to taxes, which tends to reduce tax distortions and lower the marginal costs of public funds. The relation between incentives and insurance and thus efficiency and equity is flattened by the insurance effect and it may even be non-monotone. However, the optimal utilitarian policy...

  5. Economic Incentives for Stormwater Control (ISBN9781439845608)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addressing a huge knowledge gap from a policy perspective, this book focuses on the economic tools available for stormwater runoff control. It provides case studies demonstrating the application of various incentives, such as tradable credits, fees with rebates, and auction mecha...

  6. Incentives through Consumer Learning about Tastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    no equilibrium in which the firm always exerts high effort. However, when consumers learn about their own tastes, such an equilibrium can exist. Consumer learning about tastes therefore is an alternative to reputational concerns that produces stable incentives. We discuss the implications of this mechanism...

  7. Targeted Business Incentives and Local Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to examine the effects of geographically targeted business incentives on local labor markets. Unlike elsewhere in the United States, enterprise zone (EZ) designations in Texas are determined in part by a cutoff rule based on census block group poverty rates. Exploiting this discontinuity as a…

  8. Incentive Issues in Information Security Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul Ho

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies three incentive issues in information security management. The first essay studies contract issues between a firm that outsources security functions and a managed security service provider (MSSP) that provides security functions to the firm. Since MSSP and firms cannot observe each other's actions, both can suffer…

  9. Incentives and Social Relations in the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sol (Joeri)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis, I study how organizations can incentivize a group of individuals, both in theory and by conducting …eld experiments. The …eld experiments introduce short-term team incentives in a randomly selected sample of stores that belong to a single Dutch retail chain of 128

  10. Health, Financial Incentives and Retirement in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Erdogan-Ciftci (Esen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); A. Lopez-Nicolas (Angel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe estimate the impact of health and financial incentives on the retirement transitions of older workers in Spain. Individual measures of pension wealth, peak and accrual values are constructed using labor market histories and health shocks are derived as changes in a composite health st

  11. Incentives, Teachers, and Gender at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Incentive pay programs have become panacea for a multitude of educational challenges. When aimed at teachers the assumption is that rewards entice them to work in particular ways or particular schools. However, the assumption is based on an economic formula that does not take into consideration the gendered nature of policy processes. This study…

  12. 75 FR 30007 - Teacher Incentive Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... FY 2010 (NIA) for the Teacher Incentive Fund. This notice makes a correction to the May 21 NIA. FOR...: Correction On page 28745 of the May 21 NIA, we requested that applicants submit a short e-mail as a notice of... applicant intends to address.'' We are correcting the May 21 NIA to provide applicants with the correct...

  13. Early Retirement Incentive Programs for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Scott E.; McCarthy, Martha M.

    1989-01-01

    Despite their popularity, early retirement incentive programs (ERIPs) remain controversial. Although early retirement may be appealing to some teachers, others bristle at being shoved into retirement. Following a historical overview, this article summarizes recent state legislation and addresses ERIP legal status under the Age Discrimination in…

  14. Financial Incentives to Promote Active Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    Context Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between “nudging,” which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. Evidence acquisition The literature review identified studies published between January 1997 and January 2012 of financial incentives relating to any mode of travel in which the impact on active travel, physical activity, or obesity levels was reported. It encompassed macroenvironmental schemes, such as gasoline taxes, and microenvironmental schemes, such as employer-subsidized bicycles. Five relevant reviews and 20 primary studies (of which nine were not included in the reviews) were identified. Evidence synthesis The results show that more-robust evidence is required if policymakers are to maximize the health impact of fiscal policy relating to transport schemes of this kind. Conclusions Drawing on a literature review and insights from the SLOTH (sleep, leisure, occupation, transportation, and home-based activities) time-budget model, this paper argues that financial incentives may have a larger role in promoting walking and cycling than is acknowledged generally. PMID:23159264

  15. The Cornell Staff Retirement Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Kenneth T.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Hallock, Kevin F.; Seeber, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate potential determinants of enrollment in an early retirement incentive program for non-tenure-track employees at a large university. Using administrative records on the eligible, population of employees not covered by collective bargaining agreements, historical employee count and layoff data by budget units, and public information on…

  16. Federal Tax Incentives for Battery Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Investments in renewable energy can be more attractive with the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. NREL provides basic information about the investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction, which may apply to battery storage systems owned by a private party (i.e., a tax-paying business).

  17. 75 FR 53023 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... principles and the guidance are consistent with the Principles for Sound Compensation Practices adopted by... of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. Today, OTS is.... Description: The guidance is based on three key principles that are designed to ensure that incentive...

  18. The Effects of Incentives on Recruiter Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    recruiter. (after Samuelson , Kraus, Reese, Moskowitz, 2006, p. 13). ...................................................................................3...sailors to volunteer for recruiting duty. However, these incentives lack the endurance to successively motivate recruiters. Samuelson et al.’s (2006...productivity between 12 and 18 months ( Samuelson , Kraus, Reese, & Moskowitz, 2006). The drop-off in productivity after their peak (with usually more than half

  19. Targeting incentives to reduce habitat fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Lewis; Andrew Plantinga; Junjie Wu

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical model to analyze the spatial targeting of incentives for the restoration of forested landscapes when wildlife habitat can be enhanced by reducing fragmentation. The key theoretical result is that the marginal net benefits of increasing forest can be convex, in which case corner solutions--converting either none or all of the...

  20. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...

  1. 5 CFR 575.311 - Continuation, reduction, and termination of retention incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of retention incentives. 575.311 Section 575.311 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Retention Incentives § 575.311 Continuation, reduction, and...

  2. Justify a Dedicated Radiology Coder-Reimbursement Specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaikis, Melody W

    2015-01-01

    There are many opportunities to justify a dedicated staff member. We have to be able to answer the question "How does this position make money?" The bottom line is that it's crucial the facility does not forfeit appropriate reimbursement for its existing procedures. For new procedures, or equipment, this individual can also ensure cost-benefit analysis/ROI is correct for equipment and/or supply purchases. The specific opportunities vary by facility so you must determine where your potential opportunities lie. There is not one answer, but this article provides you with specific areas to evaluate. Keep in mind if you are evaluating opportunities related to specific procedures you need to utilize outpatient numbers and assume Medicare reimbursement rates so that you calculate a conservative estimate. There is nioney to be found in most hospital organizations, so take the time to identify the potential benefit for your own. You can quantify the impact of a dedicated individual based on your specific case mix, which is very useful when justifying a new position. Also, it's very important to remember, you get what you pay for-fill the new position wisely. Saving a small amount in salary may result in a large sacrifice in potential revenues.

  3. Reimbursement of pharmaceuticals: reference pricing versus health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Michael; Jönsson, Bengt; Rutten, Frans; Stargardt, Tom

    2011-06-01

    Reference pricing and health technology assessment are policies commonly applied in order to obtain more value for money from pharmaceuticals. This study focussed on decisions about the initial price and reimbursement status of innovative drugs and discussed the consequences for market access and cost. Four countries were studied: Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom. These countries have operated one, or both, of the two policies at certain points in time, sometimes in parallel. Drugs in four groups were considered: cholesterol-lowering agents, insulin analogues, biologic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and "atypical" drugs for schizophrenia. Compared with HTA, reference pricing is a relatively blunt instrument for obtaining value for money from pharmaceuticals. Thus, its role in making reimbursement decisions should be limited to drugs which are therapeutically equivalent. HTA is a superior strategy for obtaining value for money because it addresses not only price but also the appropriate indications for the use of the drug and the relation between additional value and additional costs. However, given the relatively higher costs of conducting HTAs, the most efficient approach might be a combination of both policies.

  4. Economic incentives to wind systems commercialization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotker, M.; Shaw, Jr, R. W.; Adolfson, W. F.; Bernardi, R. P.; Davidoff, P. H.; Eckhart, M. T.; Gunwaldsen, D. S.; Mettam, P. J.; Narayanan, P.; Sillin, J. O.

    1978-08-01

    This assessment of Economic Incentives to Wind Systems Commercialization is an analysis of the quantitative and qualitative impacts of a variety of Government funded economic incentives on Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). The purpose of this study is to achieve better understanding of the relationship between implementation of specific economic incentives for WECS, and the factors surrounding WECS commercial introduction.

  5. Coupons for Success: A Marketing Incentive in Academic Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potacco, Donna R.; Chen, Peter; Desroches, Danielle; Chisholm, Daniel R.; De Young, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    How does a Coupon Incentive Program motivate students to seek academic support in high-risk courses? Results from this study demonstrated that the Coupon Incentive Program was effective in motivating voluntary student attendance and improving student outcomes. Recommendations related to implementation of the Coupon Incentive Program are discussed.…

  6. The Impact of Incentives and Requirements on Group Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    INCENTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS ON GROUP COLLABORATION by Sheryl Jardine September 2010 Thesis Co-Advisors: Susan Hocevar Gail Thomas THIS PAGE...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Impact of Incentives and Requirements on Group Collaboration 6. AUTHOR(S) Sheryl Jardine 5. FUNDING NUMBERS...OF INCENTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS ON GROUP COLLABORATION Sheryl Jardine Mitigation & Recovery Section Manager, Washington State Emergency

  7. Economic incentives to wind systems commercialization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotker, M.; Shaw, Jr, R. W.; Adolfson, W. F.; Bernardi, R. P.; Davidoff, P. H.; Eckhart, M. T.; Gunwaldsen, D. S.; Mettam, P. J.; Narayanan, P.; Sillin, J. O.

    1978-08-01

    This assessment of Economic Incentives to Wind Systems Commercialization is an analysis of the quantitative and qualitative impacts of a variety of Government funded economic incentives on Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). The purpose of this study is to achieve better understanding of the relationship between implementation of specific economic incentives for WECS, and the factors surrounding WECS commercial introduction.

  8. 28 CFR 91.4 - Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. 91... FACILITIES General § 91.4 Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. (a) Half of the total amount of funds... available for Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. (b) Eligibility. To be eligible to receive such a grant...

  9. 75 FR 27165 - Conservation Reserve Program; Transition Incentives Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1410 RIN 0560-AH80 Conservation Reserve Program; Transition Incentives Program AGENCY... amending the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) regulations to add provisions for incentives to retired or... farmer or rancher for production. The Transition Incentives Program involves new and mandatory provisions...

  10. 48 CFR 1816.402-270 - NASA technical performance incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... incentives. 1816.402-270 Section 1816.402-270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1816.402-270 NASA technical performance incentives. (a) Pursuant to the guidelines in 1816.402, NASA has...

  11. 48 CFR 819.7105 - Incentives for prime contractor participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentives for prime... Incentives for prime contractor participation. (a) Under the Small Business Act, 15 U.S.C. 637(d)(4)(e), VA is authorized to provide appropriate incentives to encourage subcontracting opportunities for small...

  12. Faculty Incentives for Online Course Design, Delivery, and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jennifer H.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the types and frequency of incentives for online instruction at non-profit institutions of higher education with an established teaching and learning development unit. While up to 70% of institutions offer incentives, this support is not universal and varies by incentive type and purpose.

  13. 48 CFR 216.402-2 - Technical performance incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... incentives. 216.402-2 Section 216.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 216.402-2 Technical performance incentives. See PGI 216.402-2 for guidance on establishing...

  14. 46 CFR 393.5 - Incentives, Impediments and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. 393.5 Section 393... AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.5 Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. (a) Summary. The purpose of this section is to identify short term incentives and solutions to impediments in order to...

  15. Incentive issues in the South African construction industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    survey by completing the structured questionnaire. The questionnaire survey is .... Alliance contracting is reinforced by incentive design, ... Many researchers have advocated the use of incentives as ... aims to evaluate the current practices of incentive mechanisms in the ..... The analysis shows lack of consistency in the.

  16. Coupons for Success: A Marketing Incentive in Academic Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potacco, Donna R.; Chen, Peter; Desroches, Danielle; Chisholm, Daniel R.; De Young, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    How does a Coupon Incentive Program motivate students to seek academic support in high-risk courses? Results from this study demonstrated that the Coupon Incentive Program was effective in motivating voluntary student attendance and improving student outcomes. Recommendations related to implementation of the Coupon Incentive Program are discussed.…

  17. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section 538.9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles...

  18. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that meets the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section on the date of grant. An incentive stock option is also subject to the $100,000 limitation described in § 1.422-4. An incentive stock option may contain a...

  19. 12 CFR 2.4 - Bonus and incentive plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bonus and incentive plans. 2.4 Section 2.4... § 2.4 Bonus and incentive plans. A bank employee or officer may participate in a bonus or incentive... do not exceed the greater of: (a) Five percent of the recipient's annual salary; or (b) Five...

  20. 31 CFR 13.6 - Reimbursement of State and local governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN PROTECTING FOREIGN DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS § 13.6 Reimbursement of State and local governments. (a) State and local governments providing services... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reimbursement of State and...

  1. 41 CFR 301-72.203 - When may we limit traveler reimbursement for a cash payment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... traveler reimbursement for a cash payment? 301-72.203 Section 301-72.203 Public Contracts and Property... Carrier Transportation Services § 301-72.203 When may we limit traveler reimbursement for a cash payment... the traveler must not exceed the cost which would have been properly chargeable to the Government had...

  2. [Problems of national health insurance reimbursement revision, especially for laboratory tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, M

    1995-07-01

    The reimbursement fees for laboratory tests are lowered at every revision of Health Insurance Reimbursement (HIR), carried out every 2 years. This leads to the financial trouble for laboratory operation in university hospitals as well as general hospitals. Medical care costs in Japan account for 6% of GNP and is not as high as that in advanced countries such as USA, Canada, and Germany. The Central Pharmaceutical Affairs Councils gives manufacturing and sales approval for in-vitro diagnostics after examination of the applied documents. The Committee on Application of Medical Care Remuneration in the Japan Medical Association decides the following; Propriety of reimbursement establishment for new in-vitro diagnostics, reimbursement fees for new in-vitro diagnostics, propriety of reimbursement establishment for medical devices and propriety of reimbursement for new drugs. The MOSS (Market-Oriented, Sector-Selective) approach was initiated also in the in-vitro diagnostics field in January 1985 the target of which is to abolish the economic barrier and relax regulations in Japan. The Ministry of Health and Welfare lowered the reimbursement fees based on actual prices in commercial laboratories, which is very low because of price dumping through excess competition. In future, we would like to propose additional reimbursement fees for in-house emergency tests. Furthermore, we would like to request the judgment fee for diagnosis of myelogram, immunoelectrophoresis and isoenzymes for which clinical laboratory physicians play a role.

  3. 76 FR 78739 - Agency Information Collection (Payment and Reimbursement for Emergency Services for Non Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Payment and Reimbursement for Emergency Services for Non Service... Reimbursement for Emergency Services for Non Service-Connected Conditions in Non-VA Facilities, 38 U.S.C. 1725... CONTACT: Denise McLamb, Enterprise Records Service (005R1B), Department of Veterans Affairs, 810...

  4. Medicare payment data for spine reimbursement; important but flawed data for evaluating utilization of resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Menger

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Medicare reimbursement data are fundamentally flawed in determining healthcare expenditure as it shows a bias toward delivery of care in specific patient demographics. However, neurosurgeons, not just policy makers, must take ownership to analyze, investigate, and interpret these data as it will affect healthcare reimbursement and delivery moving forward.

  5. Layoffs as part of an optimal incentive mix:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Takáts, Elöd

    Firms offer highly complex contracts to their employees. These contracts contain a mix of incentives, such as fixed wages, bonus payments, promotion options, and layoff threats. In general, economists understand how incentives motivate employees but not why a particular mix should be used....... In this paper we present a model in which the observed incentive mix is an optimal contract. In particular, we show that it can be optimal for firms to combine cost-efficient incentives such as promotions and bonuses with layoffs. The intuition is that layoffs play a dual role. First, they create incentives...

  6. Layoffs as part of an optimal incentive mix:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Takáts, Elöd

    Firms offer highly complex contracts to their employees. These contracts contain a mix of incentives, such as fixed wages, bonus payments, promotion options, and layoff threats. In general, economists understand how incentives motivate employees but not why a particular mix should be used....... In this paper we present a model in which the observed incentive mix is an optimal contract. In particular, we show that it can be optimal for firms to combine cost-efficient incentives such as promotions and bonuses with layoffs. The intuition is that layoffs play a dual role. First, they create incentives...

  7. Changes in Payer Mix and Physician Reimbursement After the Affordable Care Act and Medicaid Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D. Jones MD, MS

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although uncompensated care for hospital-based care has fallen dramatically since the implementation of the Affordable Care Act and Medicaid expansion, the changes in hospital physician reimbursement are not known. We evaluated if payer mix and physician reimbursement by encounter changed between 2013 and 2014 in an academic hospitalist practice in a Medicaid expansion state. This was a retrospective cohort study of all general medicine inpatient admissions to an academic hospitalist group in 2013 and 2014. The proportion of encounters by payer and reimbursement/inpatient encounter were compared in 2013 versus 2014. A sensitivity analysis determined the relative contribution of different factors to the change in reimbursement/encounter. Among 37 540 and 40 397 general medicine inpatient encounters in 2013 and 2014, respectively, Medicaid encounters increased (17.3% to 30.0%, P < .001, uninsured encounters decreased (18.4% to 6.3%, P < 0.001, and private payer encounters also decreased (14.1% to 13.3%, P = .001. The median reimbursement/encounter increased 4.2% from $79.98/encounter in 2013 to $83.36/encounter in 2014 (P < .001. In a sensitivity analysis, changes in length of stay, proportions in encounter type by payer, payer mix, and reimbursement for encounter type by payer accounted for −0.7%, 0.8%, 2.0%, and 2.3% of the reimbursement change, respectively. From 2013 to 2014, Medicaid encounters increased, and uninsured and private payer encounters decreased within our hospitalist practice. Reimbursement/encounter also increased, much of which could be attributed to a change in payer mix. Further analyses of physician reimbursement in Medicaid expansion and non-expansion states would further delineate reimbursement changes that are directly attributable to Medicaid expansion.

  8. Medicare payment data for spine reimbursement; important but flawed data for evaluating utilization of resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Richard P; Wolf, Michael E; Kukreja, Sunil; Sin, Anthony; Nanda, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Medicare data showing physician-specific reimbursement for 2012 were recently made public in the mainstream media. Given the ongoing interest in containing healthcare costs, we analyze these data in the context of the delivery of spinal surgery. Demographics of 206 leading surgeons were extracted including state, geographic area, residency training program, fellowship training, and academic affiliation. Using current procedural terminology (CPT) codes, information was evaluated regarding the number of lumbar laminectomies, lumbar fusions, add-on laminectomy levels, and anterior cervical fusions reimbursed by Medicare in 2012. In 2012 Medicare reimbursed the average neurosurgeon slightly more than an orthopedic surgeon for all procedures ($142,075 vs. $110,920), but this was not found to be statistically significant (P = 0.218). Orthopedic surgeons had a statistical trend illustrating increased reimbursement for lumbar fusions specifically, $1187 versus $1073 (P = 0.07). Fellowship trained spinal surgeons also, on average, received more from Medicare ($125,407 vs. $76,551), but again this was not statistically significant (P = 0.112). A surgeon in private practice, on average, was reimbursed $137,495 while their academic counterparts were reimbursed $103,144 (P = 0.127). Surgeons performing cervical fusions in the Centers for Disease Control West Region did receive statistically significantly less reimbursement for that procedure then those surgeons in other parts of the country (P = 0.015). Surgeons in the West were reimbursed on average $849 for CPT code 22,551 while those in the Midwest received $1475 per procedure. Medicare reimbursement data are fundamentally flawed in determining healthcare expenditure as it shows a bias toward delivery of care in specific patient demographics. However, neurosurgeons, not just policy makers, must take ownership to analyze, investigate, and interpret these data as it will affect healthcare reimbursement and delivery moving

  9. Changes in Payer Mix and Physician Reimbursement After the Affordable Care Act and Medicaid Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christine D; Scott, Serena J; Anoff, Debra L; Pierce, Read G; Glasheen, Jeffrey J

    2015-01-01

    Although uncompensated care for hospital-based care has fallen dramatically since the implementation of the Affordable Care Act and Medicaid expansion, the changes in hospital physician reimbursement are not known. We evaluated if payer mix and physician reimbursement by encounter changed between 2013 and 2014 in an academic hospitalist practice in a Medicaid expansion state. This was a retrospective cohort study of all general medicine inpatient admissions to an academic hospitalist group in 2013 and 2014. The proportion of encounters by payer and reimbursement/inpatient encounter were compared in 2013 versus 2014. A sensitivity analysis determined the relative contribution of different factors to the change in reimbursement/encounter. Among 37 540 and 40 397 general medicine inpatient encounters in 2013 and 2014, respectively, Medicaid encounters increased (17.3% to 30.0%, P < .001), uninsured encounters decreased (18.4% to 6.3%, P < 0.001), and private payer encounters also decreased (14.1% to 13.3%, P = .001). The median reimbursement/encounter increased 4.2% from $79.98/encounter in 2013 to $83.36/encounter in 2014 (P < .001). In a sensitivity analysis, changes in length of stay, proportions in encounter type by payer, payer mix, and reimbursement for encounter type by payer accounted for -0.7%, 0.8%, 2.0%, and 2.3% of the reimbursement change, respectively. From 2013 to 2014, Medicaid encounters increased, and uninsured and private payer encounters decreased within our hospitalist practice. Reimbursement/encounter also increased, much of which could be attributed to a change in payer mix. Further analyses of physician reimbursement in Medicaid expansion and non-expansion states would further delineate reimbursement changes that are directly attributable to Medicaid expansion.

  10. 76 FR 30598 - Payment or Reimbursement for Emergency Services for Nonservice-Connected Conditions in Non-VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN86 Payment or Reimbursement for Emergency Services for Nonservice... Reimbursement for Emergency Services for Nonservice-Connected Conditions in Non-VA Facilities'' regulations to... reimbursement to veterans who receive emergency services in non-VA facilities, and would establish...

  11. 78 FR 36092 - Payment or Reimbursement for Emergency Services for Nonservice-Connected Conditions in Non-VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN86 Payment or Reimbursement for Emergency Services for Nonservice... that governs ``Payment or Reimbursement for Emergency Services for Nonservice-Connected Conditions in....1005. These revisions eliminated certain exclusions from emergency care payment or reimbursement,...

  12. A computational substrate for incentive salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Samuel M; Daw, Nathaniel D; Montague, P Read

    2003-08-01

    Theories of dopamine function are at a crossroads. Computational models derived from single-unit recordings capture changes in dopaminergic neuron firing rate as a prediction error signal. These models employ the prediction error signal in two roles: learning to predict future rewarding events and biasing action choice. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition or lesion of dopaminergic neuron function diminishes the ability of an animal to motivate behaviors directed at acquiring rewards. These lesion experiments have raised the possibility that dopamine release encodes a measure of the incentive value of a contemplated behavioral act. The most complete psychological idea that captures this notion frames the dopamine signal as carrying 'incentive salience'. On the surface, these two competing accounts of dopamine function seem incommensurate. To the contrary, we demonstrate that both of these functions can be captured in a single computational model of the involvement of dopamine in reward prediction for the purpose of reward seeking.

  13. Pricing and Reimbursement of Biosimilars in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Paweł; Stawowczyk, Ewa; Tesar, Tomas; Skoupa, Jana; Turcu-Stiolica, Adina; Dimitrova, Maria; Petrova, Guenka I.; Rugaja, Zinta; Männik, Agnes; Harsanyi, Andras; Draganic, Pero

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to review the requirements for the reimbursement of biosimilars and to compare the reimbursement status, market share, and reimbursement costs of biosimilars in selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted between November 2016 and January 2017 among experts from the following CEE countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Romania. The requirements for the pricing and reimbursement of biosimilars were reviewed for each country. Data on the extent of reimbursement of biologic drugs (separately for original products and biosimilars) in the years 2014 and 2015 were also collected for each country, along with data on the total pharmaceutical and total public health care budgets. Results: Our survey revealed that no specific criteria were applied for the pricing and reimbursement of biosimilars in the selected CEE countries; the price of biosimilars was usually reduced compared with original drugs and specific price discounts were common. Substitution and interchangeability were generally allowed, although in most countries they were at the discretion of the physician after a clinical assessment. Original biologic drugs and the corresponding biosimilars were usually in the same homogeneous group, and internal reference pricing was usually employed. The reimbursement rate of biosimilars in the majority of the countries was the same and amounted to 100%. Generally, the higher shares of expenditures were shown for the reimbursement of original drugs than for biosimilars, except for filgrastim, somatropin, and epoetin (alfa and zeta). The shares of expenditures on the reimbursement of biosimilar products ranged from 8.0% in Estonia in 2014 to 32.4% in Lithuania in 2015, and generally increased in 2015. The share of expenditures on reimbursement of biosimilars in the total pharmaceutical budget differed between the

  14. WORK INCENTIVES IN AN AGE OF AUTOMATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVENSTEIN, AARON

    HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL PREMISES ABOUT THE MEANING OF WORK AND THE ROLE OF WORK IN MAN'S LIFE ARE EXPLORED. ATTITUDES TOWARD WORK CHANGE AS INCENTIVES CHANGED. WORK HAD MEANING WHEN IT MEANT SURVIVAL OR WAS CONNECTED TO A FEAR OF GOD. FREUD SAW WORK AS A FORCE WHICH BINDS MAN TO REALITY. OTHERS SEE IT AS A MEANS TO SELF-FULLFILLMENT, OR AS A…

  15. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...... symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment....

  16. Job assignments, intrinsic motivation and explicit incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Nafziger, Julia

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the interplay of job assignments with the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of an agent. Job assignments influence the self confidence of the agent, and thereby his intrinsic motivation. Monetary reward allow the principal to complement intrinsic motivation with extrinsic incentives. The main result is that the principal chooses an inefficient job assignment rule to enhance the agent's intrinsic motivation even though she can motivate him with monetary rewards. This show...

  17. Regulatory Risk under Optimal Incentive Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Strausz, Roland

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides a tractable, analytical framework to study regulatory risk under optimal incentive regulation. Regulatory risk is captured by uncertainty about the policy variables in the regulator’s objective function: weights attached to profits and costs of public funds. Results are as follows: 1) The regulator’s reaction to regulatory risk depends on the curvature of the aggregate demand function. 2) It yields a positive information rent effect exactly when demand is convex. 3) Firms b...

  18. Bank Solvency, Market Structure, and Monitoring Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Caminal, Ramon; Matutes, Carmen

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the impact of market structure on the probability of banking failure when banks’ loan portfolios are subject to aggregate uncertainty. In our model borrowers are subject to a moral hazard problem, which induces banks to choose between two second-best alternative devices: costly monitoring and credit rationing. We show that investment depends on both the lending rate and the information structure. Since monitoring incentives increase with interest rate margins, the relationship betw...

  19. Incentive Design for Introducing Genetically Modified Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Kingwell, Ross S.

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops raises several issues. This paper looks at incentives required to reduce problems of illegal and improper use of GM proprietary technology used in growing GM crops. A simple model of producer behaviour describes some key influences of a farmer’s response to GM crops. The model is illustrated using the example of INGARD cotton grown in Australia. The key findings are that legitimate adoption of a GM crop by a farmer depends on their attitude ...

  20. Evaluating incentive mechanisms for conserving habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Parkhurst, Gregory M.; Jason F. Shogren

    2005-01-01

    Private lands have an important role in the success of the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The current command-andcontrol approach to protecting species on private land has resulted in disincentives to the landowner, which have decreased the ability of the ESA to protect many of our endangered and threatened species. Herein we define and evaluate, from an economic perspective, eight incentive mechanisms, including the status quo, for protecting species on private land. We highlight the strength...

  1. Economic Incentives and Global Fisheries Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Costello; John Lynham; Sarah E. Lester; Gaines, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Widespread global collapses of fisheries corroborate decades-old predictions by economists, made long before large-scale industrialization of the world's fisheries, that open access would have deleterious ecological and economic effects on fishery resources. Incentive-based alternatives (collectively called catch shares) have been shown to generate pecuniary benefits, but little empirical evidence exists for, or against, a link to global fisheries sustainability. We report and expand on an an...

  2. Cost-shifting under cost reimbursement and prospective payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, R W

    1985-09-01

    Cost-shifting is seen as a three-way phenomenon involving hospital interests as well as those of government and private patients. Without economies of scale, private patients are indifferent to government policies unless underpayment leads to hospital bankruptcy. In the presence of economies of scale, private patients benefit from reductions in government payment under either cost reimbursement or prospective payment. Their interest in a shift to prospective payment depends upon the hospital's location on its cost curve. Hospitals benefit from increases in payment rates in all cases, but benefit from a shift to prospective payment only if operating in a region of declining average costs. The conventional view of cost-shifting is inconsistent with profit maximization and may be inappropriate for many voluntary hospitals as well.

  3. Incentive or habit learning in amphibians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén N Muzio

    Full Text Available Toads (Rhinella arenarum received training with a novel incentive procedure involving access to solutions of different NaCl concentrations. In Experiment 1, instrumental behavior and weight variation data confirmed that such solutions yield incentive values ranging from appetitive (deionized water, DW, leading to weight gain, to neutral (300 mM slightly hypertonic solution, leading to no net weight gain or loss, and aversive (800 mM highly hypertonic solution leading to weight loss. In Experiment 2, a downshift from DW to a 300 mM solution or an upshift from a 300 mM solution to DW led to a gradual adjustment in instrumental behavior. In Experiment 3, extinction was similar after acquisition with access to only DW or with a random mixture of DW and 300 mM. In Experiment 4, a downshift from DW to 225, 212, or 200 mM solutions led again to gradual adjustments. These findings add to a growing body of comparative evidence suggesting that amphibians adjust to incentive shifts on the basis of habit formation and reorganization.

  4. Motivational incentives of nurses and nursing leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakola H.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the health sector which is characterized much more as a "labor intensive" rather than as "capital intensive" human capital is the core for improving efficiency, enhancing productivity and maximizing the quality of service. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the need for motivating nurses, presenting a realistic framework of incentives as well as the role of nursing leadership in this. Method: Literature review was carried out based on research and review articles from international (PubMed, Medline and Greek (Iatrotek databases. Results: The high performance of nursing staff depends on factors such as working environment conditions, financial rewards, job stress, etc. The international literature review highlighted as the main motivation factors for health care workers, the assessment by managers and colleagues, the personal achievements, the economic stability as well as training and job characteristics. The framework of incentives should include measures to improve work conditions and environment, measures for developing a working framework, incentives for moral compensation and self-realization. The role of nursing leadership should be based on the theory of path-goal for the improving of nursing practice, patient satisfaction and reduction of hospitalization costs. Conclusions: In order to apply a proper motivation of nursing staff, in addition to effective implementation of existing provisions, further changes to the legal framework without "personal" criteria focused more on punishment other than a reward , should be required.

  5. Incentives for demand-side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state`s progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  6. Incentives for demand-side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B. (Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state's progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  7. Can incentives undermine intrinsic motivation to participate in epidemiologic surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenemark, Marika; Vernby, Asa; Norberg, Annika Lindahl

    2010-04-01

    Response rates to surveys are decreasing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of lottery tickets as incentives in an epidemiologic control group. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents in the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden, who were to be used as a control group in a study addressing stress in parents of children with cancer. A stratified random sample of 450 parents were randomized into three incentive groups: (a) no incentive; (b) a promised incentive of one lottery ticket to be received upon reply; (c) a promised incentive of one lottery ticket to be received upon reply and an additional lottery ticket upon reply within 1 week. The overall response rate across the three groups was 65.3%. The response rate was highest in the no incentive group (69.3%) and lowest in the one plus one lottery ticket group (62.0%). In a survival analysis, the difference between the two response curves was significant by the log-rank test (P = 0.04), with the no incentive group having a shorter time to response than the incentive group. Our findings suggest that the use of lottery tickets as incentives to increase participation in a mail questionnaire among parents may be less valuable or even harmful. Incentives may undermine motivation in studies in which the intrinsic motivation of the respondents is already high.

  8. Wellness Incentives, Equity, and the 5 Groups Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Wellness incentives are an increasingly popular means of encouraging participation in prevention programs, but they may not benefit all groups equally. To assist those planning, conducting, and evaluating incentive programs, I describe the impact of incentives on 5 groups: the “lucky ones,” the “yes-I-can” group, the “I'll-do-it-tomorrow” group, the “unlucky ones,” and the “leave-me-alone” group. The 5 groups problem concerns the question of when disparities in the capacity to use incentive programs constitute unfairness and how policymakers ought to respond. I outline 4 policy options: to continue to offer incentives universally, to offer them universally but with modifications, to offer targeted rather than universal programs, and to abandon incentive programs altogether. PMID:22095346

  9. Professional norms, public service motivation and economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2007-01-01

    have, however, indicated that these factors interact. Using interviews, surveys and registers, the paper investigated how professional norms, economic incentives and sector affected the behaviour of Danish dentists and physicians. It was found that when strong professional norms existed, economic......The theories of professions, public service motivation, and economic incentives explain the behaviour of the producers of publicly financed services differently. They emphasize professional norms, sector, and economic incentives, respectively. The few existing attempts to integrate these theories...... incentives were unimportant for both public and private employees. In contrast, when no firm professional norm applied, economic incentives affected behaviour. Controlling for different economic incentives, sector does not seem to affect the behaviour much. The results imply that the economic...

  10. Game theoretic analysis for pricing-based incentive mechanism in non-dedicated cooperative relay networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张闯; 赵洪林; 贾敏

    2015-01-01

    In non-dedicated cooperative relay networks, each node is autonomous and selfish in nature, and thus spontaneous cooperation among nodes is challenged. To stimulate the selfish node to participate in cooperation, a pricing-based cooperation engine using game theory was designed. Firstly, the feasible regions of the charge price and reimbursement price were deduced. Then, the non-cooperative and cooperative games were adopted to analyze the amount of bandwidth that initiating cooperation node (ICN) forwards data through participating cooperation node (PCN) and the amount of bandwidth that PCN helps ICN to relay data. Meanwhile, the Nash equilibrium solutions of cooperation bandwidth allocations (CBAs) were obtained through geometrical interpretation. Secondly, a pricing-based cooperation engine was proposed and a cooperative communication system model with cooperation engines was depicted. Finally, an algorithm based on game theory was proposed to realize the cooperation engine. The simulation results demonstrate that, compared with the system without pricing-based incentive, the proposed system can significantly improve the ICN’s metric measured by bit-per-Joule and increase the PCN’s revenue.

  11. Modeling regulated water utility investment incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    This work attempts to model the infrastructure investment choices of privatized water utilities subject to rate of return and price cap regulation. The goal is to understand how regulation influences water companies' investment decisions such as their desire to engage in transfers with neighbouring companies. We formulate a profit maximization capacity expansion model that finds the schedule of new supply, demand management and transfer schemes that maintain the annual supply-demand balance and maximize a companies' profit under the 2010-15 price control process in England. Regulatory incentives for costs savings are also represented in the model. These include: the CIS scheme for the capital expenditure (capex) and incentive allowance schemes for the operating expenditure (opex) . The profit-maximizing investment program (what to build, when and what size) is compared with the least cost program (social optimum). We apply this formulation to several water companies in South East England to model performance and sensitivity to water network particulars. Results show that if companies' are able to outperform the regulatory assumption on the cost of capital, a capital bias can be generated, due to the fact that the capital expenditure, contrarily to opex, can be remunerated through the companies' regulatory capital value (RCV). The occurrence of the 'capital bias' or its entity depends on the extent to which a company can finance its investments at a rate below the allowed cost of capital. The bias can be reduced by the regulatory penalties for underperformances on the capital expenditure (CIS scheme); Sensitivity analysis can be applied by varying the CIS penalty to see how and to which extent this impacts the capital bias effect. We show how regulatory changes could potentially be devised to partially remove the 'capital bias' effect. Solutions potentially include allowing for incentives on total expenditure rather than separately for capex and opex and allowing

  12. Designing an Incentive Contract Menu for Sustaining the Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Yu; Tongdan Jin; Chunjie Zhong

    2015-01-01

    This paper designs an incentive contract menu to achieve long-term stability for electricity prices in a day-ahead electricity market. A bi-level Stackelberg game model is proposed to search for the optimal incentive mechanism under a one-leader and multi-followers gaming framework. A multi-agent simulation platform was developed to investigate the effectiveness of the incentive mechanism using an independent system operator (ISO) and multiple power generating companies (GenCos). Further, a Q...

  13. Do incentives exert undue influence on survey participation? Experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Eleanor; Couper, Mick P

    2008-09-01

    MONETARY INCENTIVES ARE INCREASINGLY used to help motivate survey participation. Research Ethics Committees have begun to ask whether, and under what conditions, the use of monetary incentives to induce participation might be coercive. The article reports research from an online vignette-based study bearing on this question, concluding that at present the evidence suggests that larger incentives do not induce research participants to accept higher risks than they would be unwilling to accept with smaller ones.

  14. Incentives to participate in clinical trials: practical and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Steven L; Feldman, James

    2015-09-01

    Clinical trials often offer incentives to encourage individuals to enroll and to enhance follow-up. The scope and nature of incentives used in emergency department (ED)-based trials are unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize the quantity and quality of incentives and other forms of compensation used in clinical trials of human subjects recruited in US EDs. A secondary goal is to provide an historical and ethical analysis of the use of incentives in clinical trials. We reviewed English-language randomized clinical trials conducted in US EDs from 2009 to 2013. Full text of the studies was reviewed to identify whether incentives were used, their value, and timing. Funding source was noted as well. Data are presented with descriptive statistics. Of 1151 articles identified, 76 (6.6%) fit criteria for review. Of these, 7 (9.2%) provided incentive payments. A recently published eighth trial was included as well. The total cash value of incentives offered ranged from $10 to $195. Four studies offered payment at enrollment only. Incentives included cash, debit cards, and gift cards. The use of financial incentives in ED-based trials is uncommon. Studies that use incentives are generally extramurally funded, usually by a federal agency, and include waves of follow-up that continue after discharge from the ED. Payment size is modest. Incentives may improve recruitment and retention in ED-based trials, but authoritative data are lacking. Investigators need to take care to avoid incentives that may be coercive or unduly influence research participants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stock-based compensation plans and employee incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Zabojnik, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Standard principal-agent theory predicts that large firms should not use employee stock options and other stock-based compensation to provide incentives to non-executive employees. Yet, business practitioners appear to believe that stock-based compensation improves incentives, and mounting empirical evidence points to the same conclusion. This paper provides an explanation for why stock-based incentives can be effective. In the model of this paper, employee stock options complement individual...

  16. [Financial incentives in improving healthcare quality. SESPAS Report 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirea Eiras, Carlos; Ortún Rubio, Vicente

    2012-03-01

    We address the contribution of financial incentives linked to pay for performance (P4P) to improving the quality of care. The situation of P4P is analyzed internationally and in the distinct health services in Spain. The participation of P4P in wage compensation and the effects of the current economic crisis on these incentives is discussed. We review the results of recent studies to clarify the role of these incentive models and assess possible orientations and new proposals.

  17. When incentives backfire: Spillover effects in food choice

    OpenAIRE

    Angelucci, Manuela; Prina, Silvia; Royer, Heather; Samek, Anya

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how peers influence the impact of incentives. We investigate two mechanisms by which these effects can occur: through peers' actions and peers' incentives. In a field experiment on snack choice in the school lunchroom (choice of grapes versus cookies), we randomize who receives incentives, the fraction of peers incentivized, and whether or not it can be observed that peers' choices are incentivized. We show that, while peers' actions - picking grapes - have a positive sp...

  18. Design of economic incentive instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2011-01-01

    • Economic incentives are instruments to improve diets and reduce the fraction of people exposed to diet-related health risks • Proper targeting and design of economic incentive instruments is important, if such instruments should be efficient and feasible policy measures in the improvement of di...... of dietary behaviour in industrialised countries • From a cost-effectiveness perspective, there are considerable potential for optimizing the targeting and design of economic incentive instruments in nutritional policy...

  19. Career concerns incentives: An experimental test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Morgenstern, Albrecht; Raab, Philippe

    Holmström's (1982/99) career concerns model has become a workhorse for analyzing agency issues in many fields. The underlying signal jamming argument requires players to use information in a Bayesian way, which is difficult to directly test with field data: typically little is known about...... the information that individuals base their decisions on. Our laboratory experiment provides prima facie evidence: i) the signal jamming mechanism successfully creates incentives on the labor supply side; ii) decision errors take time to decrease; iii) while subjects' average beliefs are remarkably consistent...

  20. Financial incentives for reducing proliferation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, Rachel A.; Hund, Gretchen

    2016-08-15

    This article submitted for publication to the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists explains the possible financial incentives for financial institutions and large integrators to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by including anti-proliferation measures in their due diligence and requiring their suppliers to meet heightened compliance standards. Because manufacturers of dual-use nuclear goods are diverse and numerous outreach is difficult. However, financial institutions and large integrators work with nearly all dual-use manufacturers, making financial institutions and integrators well-positioned to increase awareness of proliferation and trafficking risks throughout the nuclear supply chain

  1. The Effect of Incentives on Sustainable Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Laura Rosendahl; Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    of primary school in the Netherlands. Schools participating in this program are randomly assigned to one of three treatments: the first is purely financially oriented, the second promotes sustainable behavior and the third also induces sustainability by (monetary) incentives. Comparing the first twogroups we...... find that solely promoting sustainability does not lead to a change in sustainable behavior. However, once the monetary reward is linked to sustainable outcome measures, we find a significant positive effect on sustainable behavior. Inour specificsetting, the choice to behave more sustainable comes...

  2. Relational incentives in Chinese family firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi Jiancai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly discusses the choice of managerial compensation contracts in Chinese family firms. Relation or guanxi in Chinese language is an important factor that should be considered because it can bring the shirking cost to the relation-based manager and the caring cost to the owner under Chinese-style differential mode of association (“chaxu geju”. Our theoretical analysis shows that under some conditions it is optimal for the owner to choose the efficiency wage contract, and that under other conditions it is optimal for the owner to choose the share-based incentive contract.

  3. Incentive mechanisms for Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Olesen, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic Cloud Computing Service (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. The OCCS network may suffer from the free riding problem where members are selfish and will only want to use services on the platform without e......, incentive compatibility, allocative efficiency, robustness, and flexible to accommodate changing user behavior on the platform.......Opportunistic Cloud Computing Service (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. The OCCS network may suffer from the free riding problem where members are selfish and will only want to use services on the platform without...

  4. Early Retirement Incentives and Student Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D; Lovenheim, Michael F

    2014-08-01

    Early retirement incentives (ERIs) are increasingly prevalent in education as districts seek to close budget gaps by replacing expensive experienced teachers with lower-cost newer teachers. Combined with the aging of the teacher workforce, these ERIs are likely to change the composition of teachers dramatically in the coming years. We use exogenous variation from an ERI program in Illinois in the mid-1990s to provide the first evidence in the literature of the effects of large-scale teacher retirements on student achievement. We find the program did not reduce test scores; likely, it increased them, with positive effects most pronounced in lower-SES schools.

  5. Incentives and Insurance in International Financial Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    77 ---- 4 S -- 175 p I or~ -C7s t~z 4_ O&r h%.0~4j\\- Si A RAND NOTE * . INCENTIVES AND INSURANCE IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKETS Daniel F . Kohler...Markets 6. PE04RPOwnGa ORG. REPOr owtA86ER AUTHOR(O 6. CONTRACT OR1 GRANT 11UM411Ctej Daniel F . Kohler MDA9O3-83-C-0148 %’ 9. P90FoAMN* OR1GANSRATION...Insurance and Loan Guarantee, by Daniel F . Kohler and Kip T. Fisher, N-1951-USDP, January 1983. * The Effects of Export Credit Subsidies on Western

  6. 76 FR 67557 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Reimbursement of Licensing or Certification Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Reimbursement of Licensing or Certification Test Fees) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), Department of...

  7. 76 FR 73020 - Agency Information Collection (Request for Transportation Expense Reimbursement): Activity Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... unable to pursue training or employment without travel assistance. An agency may not conduct or sponsor... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Request for Transportation Expense Reimbursement): Activity...

  8. CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) – Reimbursement of contraception and sterilisation

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    In line with the practice in many Member States and in other international organisations based in Geneva, the CHIS will, as of 1 March 2016, reimburse upon presentation of a medical prescription:   contraceptive medicine (e.g. oral medicine or implant); intrauterine contraceptive devices; and medical sterilisation operations (vasectomy, tubal ligations). These methods of contraception will be considered as pharmaceutical costs or medical treatments, to which the reimbursement rate according to the general rule and the reimbursement bonus apply. Treatment undertaken, or paid for, before March 2016 will not be reimbursed. For more information, do not hesitate to contact the third-party administrator of the CHIS: UNIQA (Tel.: 72730 / uniqa-assurance@cern.ch).

  9. Practical implications of incentive systems are utilized by dental franchises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavner, S B

    1989-01-01

    The success of any dental practice depends, among other factors, on the critical role of staff employees. In order to encourage desired staff behaviors, incentive systems can be designed for employee dentists, assistants/hygienists and managers. A survey of dental franchises was conducted in 1987 for the purpose of examining their incentive control systems. The specific incentives employed by these dental franchises for their employees are analyzed. The implications of these incentive systems used by dental franchise organizations for all dental practices are then discussed.

  10. Understanding congestion in China's medical market: an incentive structure perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Zesheng; Wang, Shuhong; Barnes, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    .... Our analysis reveals that prior medical system reforms with price regulation in China have induced hospitals to establish incentives for capital-intensive investments, while ignoring human capital...

  11. DSM shareholder incentives: Current designs and economic theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoft, S.; Eto, J.; Kito, S.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews recent DSM shareholder incentive designs and performance at 10 US utilities identifies opportunities for regulators to improve the design of DSM shareholder incentive mechanisms to increase the procurement of cost-effective DSM resources. We develop six recommendations: (1) apply shared-savings incentives to DSM resource programs; (2) use markup incentives for individual programs only when net benefits are difficult to measure, but are known to be positive; (3) set expected incentive payments based on covering a utility`s {open_quotes}hidden costs,{close_quotes} which include some transitional management and risk-adjusted opportunity costs; (4) use higher marginal incentives rates than are currently found in practice, but limit total incentive payments by adding a fixed charge; (5) mitigate risks to regulators and utilities by lowering marginal incentive rates at high and low performance levels; and (6) use an aggregate incentive mechanism for all DSM resource programs, with limited exceptions (e.g., information programs where markups are more appropriate).

  12. Safety, economic incentives and insurance in the Norwegian petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundsen, Petter [Department of Industrial Economics and Risk Management, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway)], E-mail: Petter.Osmundsen@uis.no; Aven, Terje [Department of Industrial Economics and Risk Management, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway)], E-mail: Terje.Aven@uis.no; Erik Vinnem, Jan [Department of Industrial Economics and Risk Management, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway)], E-mail: jev@preventor.no

    2008-01-15

    There is an increased use of key performance indicators and incentive schemes in the petroleum industry. Applying modern incentive theory, we explore what implications this management trend has for injury and major accident prevention efforts and safety. Can economic incentives be designed for accident prevention activities? In cases where this is not possible, what are the challenges for the safety efforts? In particular, how are safety efforts affected by enhanced economic incentives for other performance dimensions like production and rate of return? Can safety be neglected? What remedies are available?.

  13. Incentives and the siting of radioactive waste facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Reed, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-08-01

    The importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of nuclear waste facilities has been recognized in recent years. Limited evidence from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 indicates that incentives may help achieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward) and the conditions which may be prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives in nuclear waste repository siting are developed. Incentive packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. Without careful attention to prerequisites in the siting process it is not likely that incentives will facilitate the siting process.

  14. R&D tax incentives for innovation and managerial decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Walicka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In many countries tax incentives are a popular means of realizing political, economic and social objectives. The main motive of their application is often to achieve and accelerate the selected activities in the public interest and also stimulate development of industry, and induce growth in research and investment. The key element that helps a company achieve a competitive advantage is innovation. Global competition forces the production of unique products and services. Tax incentives in science, research and development are important in stimulating innovation. The purpose of this article is to show the level of managerial awareness about R&D tax incentives, the level of R&D tax incentive usage by companies in Poland, and main obstacles that managers meet with R&D tax incentives in practice. We explore R&D tax incentives as a government instrument on R&D management and aim to find the reasons why Polish companies do not take advantage of them. We examine 275 companies using a semi-structured questi onnaire. Our findings suggest that many firms report lack of knowledge about such incentives, and firms find many obstacles to reach all of the requirements which are necessary to use the incentive. Due to our analysis we find that large firms, especially those that implement innovation, are more likely to use the tax incentives, but small and medium sized companies find more obstacle. The effect of this tax policy is significant mainly in large, high-tech sector firms.

  15. The correlation between HTA recommendations and reimbursement status of orphan drugs in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kawalec, Paweł; Sagan, Anna; Pilc, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to review and compare types of reimbursement recommendations for orphan drugs issued by eight European health technology assessment (HTA) agencies and the reimbursement status of these drugs in the corresponding countries. Separate calculations were also performed for three sub-groups: ultra-orphan drugs, oncology orphan drugs and other (non-ultra, non-oncology) orphan drugs. Results We reviewed drugs authorized by the European Medicine Agency (EMA) betwee...

  16. Patient access to reimbursed biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in the European region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaló, Zoltán; Vokó, Zoltán; Östör, Andrew; Clifton-Brown, Emma; Vasilescu, Radu; Battersby, Alysia; Gibson, Edward

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background & Objectives: Biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are not always accessible to all patients in accordance with international guidelines, partly owing to their high direct costs against a background of restricted healthcare budgets. This study compares the size of RA patient populations with access to reimbursed bDMARDs across 37 European countries, Russia, and Turkey, according to their treatment eligibility defined by European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations and national reimbursement criteria. Methods: The size of the RA patient population eligible for bDMARD treatment was estimated in a population model using published RA epidemiological data and clinical criteria defined by 2013 EULAR recommendations along with national reimbursement criteria defined in a survey of the 39 countries in November 2015. Results: According to EULAR recommendations, 32% of the total RA population in the European region is eligible for bDMARD treatment. However, only an average 59% of this EULAR-eligible population remains eligible after applying national reimbursement criteria (from 86% in ‘high access’ to 13% in ‘low-access’ countries). Conclusion: Access to reimbursed bDMARDs remains unequal in the European region. As biosimilars of bDMARDs are introduced, changes in reimbursement criteria may increase access to bDMARDs and reduce this inequality. PMID:28740623

  17. Comparing pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Croatia to the European Union Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Habl, Claudia; Bogut, Martina; Vončina, Luka

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Croatia and the 27 European Union (EU) Member States. Methods Knowledge about the pharmaceutical systems in Croatia and the 27 EU Member States was acquired by literature review and primary research with stakeholders. Results Pharmaceutical prices are controlled at all levels in Croatia, which is also the case in 21 EU Member States. Like many EU countries, Croatia also applies external price referencing, ie, compares prices with other countries. While the wholesale remuneration by a statutorily regulated linear mark-up is applied in Croatia and in several EU countries, the pharmacy compensation for dispensing reimbursable medicines in the form of a flat rate service fee in Croatia is rare among EU countries, which usually apply a linear or regressive pharmacy mark-up scheme. Like in most EU countries, the Croatian Social Insurance reimburses specific medicines at 100%, whereas patients are charged co-payments for other reimbursable medicines. Criteria for reimbursement include the medicine’s importance from the public health perspective, its therapeutic value, and relative effectiveness. In Croatia and in many EU Member States, reimbursement is based on a reference price system. Conclusion The Croatian pharmaceutical system is similar to those in the EU Member States. Key policies, like external price referencing and reference price systems, which have increasingly been introduced in EU countries are also applied in Croatia and serve the same purpose: to ensure access to medicines while containing public pharmaceutical expenditure. PMID:21495202

  18. Regularities of Formation of the Labour Reimbursement Institute in the Market Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povoroznyuk Inna M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical issues of formation of the labour reimbursement institute in the market economy. It proves that functioning of the labour reimbursement institute identifies proportions of distribution of the total amount of expenditures on labour reimbursement between different professional and qualification groups of workers. Also, functioning of the labour reimbursement institute significantly influences proportions of distribution of income between owners of the means of production and hired labour, although, to a big extent, this institute is adapted, on the one hand, to the existing in the society forms of resolution of contradictions, inherent in means of production ownership relations, and, on the other hand, to the situation in a relevant labour market segment. However, the labour reimbursement institute itself significantly influences realisation of interests of employees and employers. The article states that wages in the modern economy should be understood as an incomplete labour reimbursement – the entrepreneur spends on an employee not only the sum of wages, but also uses other forms of resource provision of the processes of acquisition of certain benefits by the enterprise employees.

  19. Improving reimbursement with nursing case manager status assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Marlyn K; Marshall, Michele L

    2013-01-01

    Historically, physicians completed status assignment during the admission process. Incorrect status assignment of patients can result in reimbursement problems and denial of payment by Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance companies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of case manager's role with status assignment during the admission process by looking at the denial of payment for services rendered. Denial rates were evaluated for two 15-month time periods: preintervention group (status assignment completed by physicians) and intervention group (status assignment recommended by case managers with physician signature). Denial data for all diagnosis-related groups possessing a more than 2% denial rate related to status assignment were further examined to identify the rationale for denial of payment. FINDINGS/OUTCOMES: The greatest denial rates for payment occurred during the Preintervention Period, when physicians assigned status for patients independently. There was a significant reduction in denial of payment for most diagnosis-related groups during the Intervention time period when case managers were recommending status assignment. Evaluation of denial data provides an opportunity to target creative performance improvement solutions to reduce denial of payment related to incorrect status assignment.

  20. Medicaid reimbursement of hearing services for infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Margaret A; Levtov, Ruti; White, Karl R; Forsman, Irene; Foust, Terry; Thompson, Maureen

    2010-08-01

    As newborn hearing-screening programs have expanded, more and more infants and young children need hearing services. Medicaid is one of the primary sources of funding for such services and, by law, must establish payment rates that are sufficient to enlist enough providers to provide services. In this study we compared 2005 Medicaid reimbursement rates for hearing services for infants and young children in 15 states with the payment rates for the same services by Medicare and commercially available health insurance. On average, Medicaid rates for the same services were only 67 as high as Medicare and only 38 as high as commercial fees. Furthermore, most Medicaid rates declined from 2000 to 2005, and many states did not have billing codes for a significant number of the hearing services needed by infants and young children. These factors likely contribute to infants and young children with hearing loss not being able to get the hearing services they need to benefit from early identification of hearing loss. These data also raise questions about the extent to which states are meeting the federal requirement that Medicaid payments be sufficient to enlist enough providers so that care and services are adequately available to the general population in the geographic area.

  1. Universal health insurance through incentives reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enthoven, A C; Kronick, R

    1991-05-15

    Roughly 35 million Americans have no health care coverage. Health care expenditures are out of control. The problems of access and cost are inextricably related. Important correctable causes include cost-unconscious demand, a system not organized for quality and economy, market failure, and public funds not distributed equitably or effectively to motivate widespread coverage. We propose Public Sponsor agencies to offer subsidized coverage to those otherwise uninsured, mandated employer-provided health insurance, premium contributions from all employers and employees, a limit on tax-free employer contributions to employee health insurance, and "managed competition". Our proposed new government revenues equal proposed new outlays. We believe our proposal will work because efficient managed care does exist and can provide satisfactory care for a cost far below that of the traditional fee-for-service third-party payment system. Presented with an opportunity to make an economically responsible choice, people choose value for money; the dynamic created by these individual choices will give providers strong incentives to render high-quality, economical care. We believe that providers will respond to these incentives.

  2. Should financial incentives be used to differentially reward 'me-too' and innovative drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekarsky, Brita

    2010-01-01

    Strategies to change the existing mix of innovative and 'me-too' drugs are intended to increase societal value of a given investment in R&D by providing an incentive for firms to invest in drugs that are more likely to be clinically innovative. How can financial incentives be used to change this mix? Will a strategy have its intended consequence or will it have the unintended outcome of reducing the rate at which the population burden of disease is reduced? The perspective of this review is a country such as Australia, Canada or the UK that has universal health insurance and a drug reimbursement process that is informed by economic evidence. A review of the literature was performed and the views of both the proponents and the opponents of such strategies and the mechanisms by which they could be implemented were summarized. The debate is based largely on hypothesized responses by firms to changes in incentives rather than empirical evidence. The main point of contention is whether a changed mix of new molecular entities (NMEs) increases or decreases the total amount of clinical innovation launched each year. The argument presented in this article is that, despite the limited empirical evidence, it is possible to improve our assessment of the likely costs and consequences of a proposed strategy by appealing to economic theory and observations about the reimbursement process. First, the empirical evidence supporting the view that changing a mix of drugs will improve clinical innovation is based on the average launched drug, not the marginal innovative drug otherwise not developed, and therefore could be misleading. Second, the dynamic and complex nature of evidence of clinical innovation will reduce the feasibility of using contractually based mechanisms to implement such a strategy. Also, a single country is unlikely to have an impact on R&D decisions, and variation in the per capita economic value of new drugs would make multi-jurisdiction contracts with one firm

  3. A Comparison of Reimbursement Recommendations by European HTA Agencies: Is There Opportunity for Further Alignment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Allen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Europe and beyond, the rising costs of healthcare and limited healthcare resources have resulted in the implementation of health technology assessment (HTA to inform health policy and reimbursement decision-making. European legislation has provided a harmonized route for the regulatory process with the European Medicines Agency, but reimbursement decision-making still remains the responsibility of each country. There is a recognized need to move toward a more objective and collaborative reimbursement environment for new medicines in Europe. Therefore, the aim of this study was to objectively assess and compare the national reimbursement recommendations of 9 European jurisdictions following European Medicines Agency (EMA recommendation for centralized marketing authorization.Methods: Using publicly available data and newly developed classification tools, this study appraised 9 European reimbursement systems by assessing HTA processes and the relationship between the regulatory, HTA and decision-making organizations. Each national HTA agency was classified according to two novel taxonomies. The System taxonomy, focuses on the position of the HTA agency within the national reimbursement system according to the relationship between the regulator, the HTA-performing agency, and the reimbursement decision-making coverage body. The HTA Process taxonomy distinguishes between the individual HTA agency's approach to economic and therapeutic evaluation and the inclusion of an independent appraisal step. The taxonomic groups were subsequently compared with national HTA recommendations.Results: This study identified European national reimbursement recommendations for 102 new active substances (NASs approved by the EMA from 2008 to 2012. These reimbursement recommendations were compared using a novel classification tool and identified alignment between the organizational structure of reimbursement systems (System taxonomy and HTA

  4. Design of economic incentive instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2011-01-01

    • Economic incentives are instruments to improve diets and reduce the fraction of people exposed to diet-related health risks • Proper targeting and design of economic incentive instruments is important, if such instruments should be efficient and feasible policy measures in the improvement of di...

  5. Study on the efficacy of the safety incentive mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Shui-cheng; LI Hong-xia; Feng Chang-gen

    2001-01-01

    Safety Incentive mechanism and corresponding motivation avenues are helpful and important for the scientific safety management in coal mine. With the help of modem systematic analysis method, the effcacy of safety incentive mechanisms is discussed in detail. The research shows that more effective avenue to reduce accident is to differently use motivation measures in practice.

  6. Feedback, Goal Setting, and Incentives Effects on Organizational Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    persuasive argument for em- PlOy’iz these very precise copts in explaning how goal setting works. The mse of incentives to alter motivatios ad...almost every cascelvehe situ- atios where a behavior is to be sohesced. Reviews of incentive motivatios theo- rie an be fommd in Cphgieli an Pritchard

  7. Fundamental Characteristics of Incentive Streams Created by Legal Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari Mattiacci, G.

    2002-01-01

    The law shapes people’s behaviour by creating incentives. For example, tort law induces motorists to drive carefully by making them pay compensation for the accidents they may cause. This study analyses the way the law can create incentives in those cases in which the courts or the administrative bo

  8. Incentives: Getting and Keeping Workers Involved in Health Promotion Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, James F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The article explores motivation as it relates to worksite health promotion participation, addressing incentive use as a motivational means of getting and keeping employees involved in health promotion programs. It suggests various incentives to help program planners, categorizing them as social or material reinforcers. (SM)

  9. Using Incentives To Promote Employee Health. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenney, Sharon L.

    The use of incentives by businesses is a well-accepted pattern of management-employee collaboration. Increasingly, U.S. businesses are using incentives to encourage employees to stay healthy. Research in the field of behavior modification indicates that positive reinforcement, negative consequences and restrictions, and feedback have great…

  10. 24 CFR 599.507 - Tax incentives utilization plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax incentives utilization plan... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF....507 Tax incentives utilization plan. (a) Preliminary plan. Within six months of designation, the CoRA...

  11. Something for Nothing: Cash Flow as a Contract Incentive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Defense AT&L: March-April 2016 16 Something for Nothing “Cash Flow” as a Contract Incentive John Pritchard n John Krieger Pritchard and...negligible resources are required to implement the incentive, this is the closest the government ever will come to getting something for nothing . The

  12. [An incentive mechanism for environment management under unsymmetrical information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Zheng, Z; Fu, G

    2001-01-01

    Information unsymmtry is a big obstacle in environment management. In this paper, an incentive mechanism for implementation of effluent charge under unsymmetrical information was designed. This mechanism will provide incentives for true information and lower down the transaction cost in environment management.

  13. Adaptive Incentive Controls for Stackelberg Games with Unknown Cost Functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Games with Incentives," Preprints of the 4th IFAC/IFORS/ IIASA Conf. on the Modelling and Control of National Economies, Washington, D. C., June 1983...34Robustness of Incentive Policies in Team Problems with Discrepancies in Goal Perceptions," Preprints of the 4th IFAC/IFORS/ IIASA Conf. on the

  14. 38 CFR 21.256 - Incentives for employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives for employers. 21.256 Section 21.256 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Employment Services § 21.256 Incentives for employers. (a) General. VA may make payments to...

  15. 12 CFR 702.307 - Incentives for new credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentives for new credit unions. 702.307 Section 702.307 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Alternative Prompt Corrective Action for New Credit Unions § 702.307 Incentives...

  16. Long Term Incentives for Residential Customers Using Dynamic Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews several grid tariff schemes, including flat tariff, time-of-use, time-varying tariff, demand charge and dynamic tariff (DT), from the perspective of the long term incentives. The long term incentives can motivate the owners of flexible demands to change their energy consumption...

  17. 48 CFR 919.7006 - Incentives for DOE contractor participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentives for DOE contractor participation. 919.7006 Section 919.7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....7006 Incentives for DOE contractor participation. (a) Under cost-plus-award fee contracts, approved...

  18. Creating Teacher Incentives for School Excellence and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Barnett; Eckert, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring that all students in America's public schools are taught by good teachers is an educational and moral imperative. Teacher incentive proposals are rarely grounded on what high-quality research indicates are the kinds of teacher incentives that lead to school excellence and equity. Few of the current approaches to creating teacher…

  19. Team incentives in public organisations; an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, P; Vyrastekova, J; Onderstal, S.

    2006-01-01

    Using a simple production game, we investigate whether public firms perform better when they increase the power of their workers¿ incentive schemes. In a laboratory experiment, subjects choose between a `public firm¿ and a `private firm¿ with team and individual incentives, respectively. When

  20. Private versus Public Feedback - The Incentive Effects of Symbolic Awards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, Leonie; Siemer, Neele

    We experimentally compare the incentive effects of rewarding individuals for outstanding performance publicly versus privately. We implement two real-effort tasks, which differ in how prestigious subjects perceive working on them. In both tasks private and public feedback similarly enhances...... experiment at a secondary school we furthermore compare the incentive effects of different forms of public recognition....

  1. A model of strategic product quality and process improvement incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Gaalman, G.

    2013-01-01

    In many production firms it is common practice to financially reward managers for firm performance improvement. The use of financial incentives for improvement has been widely researched in several analytical and empirical studies. Literature has also addressed the strategic effect of incentives, in

  2. A model of strategic product quality and process improvement incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Gaalman, Gerard

    In many production firms it is common practice to financially reward managers for firm performance improvement. The use of financial incentives for improvement has been widely researched in several analytical and empirical studies. Literature has also addressed the strategic effect of incentives, in

  3. 48 CFR 48.105 - Relationship to other incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... incentives. 48.105 Section 48.105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.105 Relationship to other incentives... should not be rewarded both as value engineering shares and under performance, design-to-cost, or similar...

  4. SOE Execs:Get Ready For Stock Incentives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Stock option incentive plan will soon be available to state-owned enterprise executives, but will it lead to greater prosperity or new problems? Atrailblazing new scheme to infuse state-owned enterprises (SOEs) with incentive stock options is underway. It's a plan that may bolster company performance, but it's

  5. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  6. Credit ratings and CEO risk-taking incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuang, Y.F.; Qin, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the sophistication of rating agencies in incorporating managerial risk-taking incentives into their credit risk evaluation. We measure risk-taking incentives using two proxies: the sensitivity of managerial wealth to stock return volatility (vega) and the sensitivity of

  7. Financial Incentives for Steering Education and Training. Getting Skills Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report examines how governments use financial incentives to promote a better alignment between labour market needs, on the one hand, and the supply of skills, on the other. In doing so, it identifies: (1) innovative models that countries may be interested in learning from; (2) best practice in the design and use of financial incentives; (3)…

  8. Sellers' hedging incentives at EPA's emission trading auction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.R.; Haan, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cason (1993)argued thattheauction theEPAused in order to start the market for sulfur allowances, is not efficient. The set-up of the auction gives both buyers and sellers an incentive to understate their valuation of an allowance. In this paper, we show that the sellers’ incentives are even more per

  9. Incentives as connectors: insights into a breastfeeding incentive intervention in a disadvantaged area of North-West England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Gill

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incentive or reward schemes are becoming increasingly popular to motivate healthy lifestyle behaviours. In this paper, insights from a qualitative and descriptive study to investigate the uptake, impact and meanings of a breastfeeding incentive intervention integrated into an existing peer support programme (Star Buddies are reported. The Star Buddies service employs breastfeeding peer supporters to support women across the ante-natal, intra-partum and post-partum period. Methods In a disadvantaged area of North West England, women initiating breastfeeding were recruited by peer supporters on the postnatal ward or soon after hospital discharge to participate in an 8 week incentive (gifts and vouchers and breastfeeding peer supporter intervention. In-depth interviews were conducted with 26 women participants who engaged with the incentive intervention, and a focus group was held with the 4 community peer supporters who delivered the intervention. Descriptive analysis of routinely collected data for peer supporter contacts and breastfeeding outcomes before and after the incentive intervention triangulated and retrospectively provided the context for the qualitative thematic analysis. Results A global theme emerged of 'incentives as connectors', with two sub-themes of 'facilitating connections' and 'facilitating relationships and wellbeing'. The incentives were linked to discussion themes and gift giving facilitated peer supporter access for proactive weekly home visits to support women. Regular face to face contacts enabled meaningful relationships and new connections within and between the women, families, peer supporters and care providers to be formed and sustained. Participants in the incentive scheme received more home visits and total contact time with peer supporters compared to women before the incentive intervention. Full participation levels and breastfeeding rates at 6-8 weeks were similar for women before and after

  10. 48 CFR 16.402-4 - Structuring multiple-incentive contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... multiple-incentive contracts. A properly structured multiple-incentive arrangement should— (a) Motivate the... include a cost incentive (or constraint) that operates to preclude rewarding a contractor for...

  11. 75 FR 81885 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Correcting Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Correcting Amendment AGENCY: Centers for Medicare...; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program'' that appeared in the July 28, 2010 Federal Register. DATES... 44314) the final rule entitled ``Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive...

  12. Designing an Incentive Contract Menu for Sustaining the Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs an incentive contract menu to achieve long-term stability for electricity prices in a day-ahead electricity market. A bi-level Stackelberg game model is proposed to search for the optimal incentive mechanism under a one-leader and multi-followers gaming framework. A multi-agent simulation platform was developed to investigate the effectiveness of the incentive mechanism using an independent system operator (ISO and multiple power generating companies (GenCos. Further, a Q-learning approach was implemented to analyze and assess the response of GenCos to the incentive menu. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the incentive contract.

  13. Successive duopoly under moral hazard: Will incentive contracts persist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Fernández-Olmos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The central purpose of this paper is to examine the incentive contract as an equilibrium phenomenon. We analyse a model of vertical differentiation in which we deal with the strategic role of the competitor’s decisions in a successive duopoly. Is it better for a processor to offer an incentive contract to an upstream producer or the spot market? We determine the equilibrium of a game in which the processors simultaneously decide whether to offer an incentive contract or to continue at the spot market to acquire their input. Our results show that under successive duopoly, offering an incentive contract constitutes the unique equilibrium solution, which highlights the incentive contract persistence.

  14. The role of incentives in nurses' aspirations to management roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carol A; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Cziraki, Karen

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to describe findings from a study examining nurses' perceptions of incentives for pursuing management roles. Upcoming retirements of nurse managers and a reported lack of interest in manager roles signal concerns about a leadership shortage. However, there is limited research on nurses' career aspirations and specifically the effect of perceived incentives for pursuing manager roles. Data from a national, cross-sectional survey of Canadian nurses were analyzed (n = 1241) using multiple regression to measure the effect of incentives on nurses' career aspirations. Twenty-four percent of nurses expressed interest in pursuing management roles. Age, education, and incentives explained 43% of the variance in career aspirations. Intrinsically oriented incentives such as new challenges, autonomy, and the opportunity to influence others were the strongest predictors of aspirations to management roles. Ensuring an adequate supply of nurse managers will require proactive investment in the identification, recruitment, and development of nurses with leadership potential.

  15. Too poor to say no? Health incentives for disadvantaged populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Kristin

    2017-03-01

    Incentive schemes, which offer recipients benefits if they meet particular requirements, are being used across the world to encourage healthier behaviours. From the perspective of equality, an important concern about such schemes is that since people often do not have equal opportunity to fulfil the stipulated conditions, incentives create opportunity for further unfair advantage. Are incentive schemes that are available only to disadvantaged groups less susceptible to such egalitarian concerns? While targeted schemes may at first glance seem well placed to help improve outcomes among disadvantaged groups and thus reduce inequalities, I argue in this paper that they are susceptible to significant problems. At the same time, incentive schemes may be less problematic when they operate in ways that differ from the 'standard' incentive mechanism; I discuss three such mechanisms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Third-Party Incentive Strategies and Conflict Management in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Nikolas Emmanuel's examines the use of an incentives approach in managing intrastate conflict in Africa because in many cases, risks and costs make applications of hard power alone unfeasible. Furthermore, simply ignoring episodes of civil conflict in the hope that they will "burn themselves...... out"� does not appear to be a viable alternative. That said, both noncoercive and coercive incentive strategies exist and have been deployed by third parties in a variety of conflict situations. Such incentives seek to manage conflict by encouraging political bargaining. The clear intention...... parties can help manage conflicts. Second, it offers a typology of the available incentive strategies, classifying them along noncoercive and coercive lines. Thus, the article outlines the possibilities offered by an incentives approach, focusing on examples drawn from recent African cases....

  17. BEACON: A Summary Framework to Overcome Potential Reimbursement Hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, William C N; Mullins, C Daniel; Pirk, Olaf; Goeree, Ron; Postma, Maarten J; Enstone, Ashley; Heron, Louise

    2016-10-01

    To provide a framework for addressing payers' criteria during the development of pharmaceuticals. A conceptual framework was presented to an international health economic expert panel for discussion. A structured literature search (from 2010 to May 2015), using the following databases in Ovid: Medline(®) and Medline(®) In-Process (PubMed), Embase (Ovid), EconLit (EBSCOhost) and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), and a 'grey literature' search, were conducted to identify existing criteria from the payer perspective. The criteria assessed by existing frameworks and guidelines were collated; the most commonly reported criteria were considered for inclusion in the framework. A mnemonic was conceived as a memory aide to summarise these criteria. Overall, 41 publications were identified as potentially relevant to the objective. Following further screening, 26 were excluded upon full-text review on the basis of no framework presented (n = 13), redundancy (n = 11) or abstract only (n = 2). Frameworks that captured criteria developed for or utilised by the pharmaceutical industry (n = 5) and reimbursement guidance (n = 10) were reviewed. The most commonly identified criteria-unmet need/patient burden, safety, efficacy, quality-of-life outcomes, environment, evidence quality, budget impact and comparator-were incorporated into the summary framework. For ease of communication, the following mnemonic was developed: BEACON (Burden/target population, Environment, Affordability/value, Comparator, Outcomes, Number of studies/quality of evidence). The BEACON framework aims to capture the 'essence' of payer requirements by addressing the most commonly described criteria requested by payers regarding the introduction of a new pharmaceutical.

  18. Incentive Mechanisms for Hierarchical Spectrum Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Iosifidis, George; Alpcan, Tansu; Koutsopoulos, Iordanis

    2011-01-01

    We study spectrum allocation mechanisms in hierarchical multi-layer markets which are expected to proliferate in the near future based on the current spectrum policy reform proposals. We consider a setting where a state agency sells spectrum to Primary Operators (POs) and in turn these resell it to Secondary Operators (SOs) through auctions. We show that these hierarchical markets do not result in a socially efficient spectrum allocation which is aimed by the agency, due to lack of coordination among the entities in different layers and the inherently selfish revenue-maximizing strategy of POs. In order to reconcile these opposing objectives, we propose an incentive mechanism which aligns the strategy and the actions of the POs with the objective of the agency, and thus it leads to system performance improvement in terms of social welfare. This pricing based mechanism constitutes a method for hierarchical market regulation and requires the feedback provision from SOs. A basic component of the proposed incenti...

  19. Career concerns incentives: An experimental test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Morgenstern, Albrecht; Raab, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Holmström's (1982/99) career concerns model has become a workhorse for analyzing agency issues in many elds. The underlying signal jamming argument requires players to use information in a Bayesian way, which is difficult to directly test with eld data: typically little is known about the informa......Holmström's (1982/99) career concerns model has become a workhorse for analyzing agency issues in many elds. The underlying signal jamming argument requires players to use information in a Bayesian way, which is difficult to directly test with eld data: typically little is known about...... the information that individuals base their decisions on. Our laboratory experiment provides prima facie evidence: i) the signal jamming mechanism successfully creates incentives on the labor supply side; ii) decision errors take time to decrease; iii) while subjects’ average beliefs are remarkably consistent...

  20. Reimbursement-Based Economics--What Is It and How Can We Use It to Inform Drug Policy Reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Doug; Lee, Karen M; Mamdani, Muhammad; Sabarre, Kelley-Anne; Tingley, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    In Ontario, approximately $3.8 billion is spent annually on publicly funded drug programs. The annual growth in Ontario Public Drug Program (OPDP) expenditure has been limited to 1.2% over the course of 3 years. Concurrently, the Ontario Drug Policy Research Network (ODPRN) was appointed to conduct drug class review research relating to formulary modernization within the OPDP. Drug class reviews by ODPRN incorporate a novel methodological technique called reimbursement-based economics, which focuses on reimbursement strategies and may be particularly relevant for policy-makers. To describe the reimbursement-based economics approach. Reimbursement-based economics aims to identify the optimal reimbursement strategy for drug classes by incorporating a review of economic literature, comprehensive budget impact analyses, and consideration of cost-effectiveness. This 3-step approach is novel in its focus on the economic impact of alternate reimbursement strategies rather than individual therapies. The methods involved within the reimbursement-based approach are detailed. To facilitate the description, summary methods and findings from a recent application to formulary modernization with respect to the drug class tryptamine-based selective serotonin receptor agonists (triptans) used to treat migraine headaches are presented. The application of reimbursement-based economics in drug policy reforms allows policy-makers to consider the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of different reimbursement strategies allowing consideration of the trade-off between potential cost savings vs increased access to cost-effective treatments. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  1. Estimating the budget impact of new technologies added to the National List of Health Services in Israel: stakeholders' incentives for adopting a financial risk-sharing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerman, Ariel; Greenberg, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The Israeli National List of Health Services (NLHS) is updated annually according to a government allocated budget. The estimated annual cost of each new technology added to this list is based on budget-impact estimations provided by the HMOs and the manufacturers. The HMOs argue that once a new technology is reimbursed, extensive marketing efforts by industry expands demand and renders the allocated budget insufficient. Industry claims that HMOs, in order to secure a sufficient budget, tend to over-estimate the number of target patients. We provide a framework for a financial risk-sharing mechanism between HMOs and the industry, which may be able to balance these incentives and result in more accurate early budget-impact estimates. To explore the current stakeholders' incentives and behaviors under the existing process of updating the NLHS, and to examine the possible incentives for adopting a financial risk-sharing mechanism on early budget-impact estimations. According to the financial risk-sharing mechanism, HMOs will be partially compensated by the industry if actual use of a technology is substantially higher than what was projected. HMOs will partially refund the government for a budget that was not fully used. To maintain profits, we assume that the industry will present a more realistic budget-impact analysis. HMOs will be less apprehensive of technology promotion, as they would be compensated in case of budget under-estimation. In case of over-estimation of technology use, the budget re-allocated will be used to enlarge the NLHS which is in the best interest of the health technology industry. Our proposed risk-sharing mechanism is expected to counter balance incentives and disincentives that currently exist in adopting new health technologies in the Israeli healthcare system.

  2. Restrictions on the reimbursement policy with regard to retail marketing of medicinal products in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    On January 1, 2012, the law of 12 May 2011 on the reimbursement of medicines, food products of special nutritional purpose and medicinal products, intended to tighten up the reimbursement system, came into force in Poland. The new legislative act has significantly altered the previous principles of retail marketing of products subject to publicly financed reimbursement. First of all, the prices of reimbursed products have been unified through the introduction of fixed margins and prices and a ban--completely unknown until now--on using free market sales practices. These regulations are intended to lead to the abolition of price competition and its replacement with competition as to the quality of services provided by pharmacies. At the same time, entities engaged in retail marketing of medicinal products have been imposed a number of new obligations and highly repressive penalties for failure to fulfill them. The paper analyzes the legislative changes and points out the consequences, both those which can already be seen and the predictable ones. The assumed priority and criterion of evaluation of the reimbursement policy in question is its impact on the functioning of pharmacies which, according to the premises of Polish pharmaceutical law, should play the role of public health protection institutions.

  3. Impact of patient outcomes and cost aspects on reimbursement recommendations in Poland in 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr; Kawalec, Paweł; Trąbka, Wojciech

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different factors on the final reimbursement recommendations for drugs in Poland and to identify the correlation between these factors and the probability of a positive reimbursement recommendation for an applicant drug issued by the President of the Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System (AOTMiT). We analysed all recommendations for the period of 2012-2014 in Poland, three years following the launch of the new Reimbursement Act of Medicines, Foodstuffs Intended for Particular Nutritional Uses and Medical Devices. For each recommendation we collected data on efficacy, safety, cost of therapy, cost-effectiveness, quality of evidence, orphan drug status and others. Logistic regression was used to identify factors that increase the odds of a positive reimbursement recommendation. We analysed 221 recommendations for drugs, of which 78% were positive. We observed significant associations of all selected factors with positive recommendations. Proven efficacy and safety were associated with much greater odds for a positive reimbursement recommendation (123.5 and 42.6, respectively) than cost factors, which may suggest that patient outcome is much more important than the results of the cost-effectiveness analysis (odds ratio of 3.5) and the general cost of therapy (odds ratio of 3) in the analysed period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reimbursement of hormonal contraceptives and the frequency of induced abortion among teenagers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydsjö, Adam; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Josefsson, Ann

    2014-05-29

    Reduction in costs of hormonal contraceptives is often proposed to reduce rates of induced abortion among young women. This study investigates the relationship between rates of induced abortion and reimbursement of dispensed hormonal contraceptives among young women in Sweden. Comparisons are made with the Nordic countries Finland, Norway and Denmark. Official statistics on induced abortion and numbers of prescribed and dispensed hormonal contraceptives presented as "Defined Daily Dose/thousand women" (DDD/T) aged 15-19 years were compiled and related to levels of reimbursement in all Swedish counties by using public official data. The Swedish numbers of induced abortion were compared to those of Finland, Norway and Denmark. The main outcome measure was rates of induced abortion and DDD/T. No correlation was observed between rates of abortion and reimbursement among Swedish counties. Nor was any correlation found between sales of hormonal contraceptives and the rates of abortion. In a Nordic perspective, Finland and Denmark, which have no reimbursement at all, and Norway all have lower rates of induced abortion than Sweden. Reimbursement does not seem to be enough in order to reduce rates of induced abortion. Evidently, other factors such as attitudes, education, religion, tradition or cultural differences in each of Swedish counties as well as in the Nordic countries may be of importance. A more innovative approach is needed in order to facilitate safe sex and to protect young women from unwanted pregnancies.

  5. A contemporary perspective on capitated reimbursement for imaging services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H W

    1995-01-01

    Capitation ensures predictability of healthcare costs, requires acceptance of a premium in return for providing all required medical services and defines the actual dollar amount paid to a physician or hospital on a per member per month basis for a service or group of services. Capitation is expected to dramatically affect the marketplace in the near future, as private enterprise demands lower, more stable healthcare costs. Capitation requires detailed quantitative and financial data, including: eligibility and benefits determination, encounter processing, referral management, claims processing, case management, physician compensation, insurance management functions, outcomes reporting, performance management and cost accounting. It is important to understand actuarial risk and capitation marketing when considering a capitation contract. Also, capitated payment methodologies may vary to include modified fee-for-service, incentive pay, risk pool redistributions, merit, or a combination. Risk is directly related to the ability to predict utilization and unit cost of imaging services provided to a specific insured population. In capitated environments, radiologists will have even less control over referrals than they have today and will serve many more "covered lives"; long-term relationships with referring physicians will continue to evaporate; and services will be provided under exclusive, multi-year contracts. In addition to intensified use of technology for image transfer, telecommunications and sophisticated data processing and tracking systems, imaging departments must continue to provide the greatest amount of appropriate diagnostic information in a timely fashion at the lowest feasible cost and risk to the patient.

  6. Incentive Pass-through for Residential Solar Systems in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, C. G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has grown rapidly over the last decade, partly because of various government incentives. In the United States, among the largest and longest-running incentives have been those established in California. Building on past research, this report addresses the still-unanswered question: to what degree have the direct PV incentives in California been passed through from installers to consumers? This report helps address this question by carefully examining the residential PV market in California (excluding a certain class of third-party-owned PV systems) and applying both a structural-modeling approach and a reduced-form regression analysis to estimate the incentive pass-through rate. The results suggest an average pass-through rate of direct incentives of nearly 100%, though with regional differences among California counties. While these results could have multiple explanations, they suggest a relatively competitive market and well-functioning subsidy program. Further analysis is required to determine whether similar results broadly apply to other states, to other customer segments, to all third-party-owned PV systems, or to all forms of financial incentives for solar (considering not only direct state subsidies, but also utility electric bill savings and federal tax incentives).

  7. Endogenous Split Awards as a Bid Protest and Procurement Management Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    voluntary separation bonus auctions, using purely monetary incentives or individualized combinations of monetary and non- monetary incentives, and...with accuracy in resolving contract disputes. Expediency favors a quick resolution, while accuracy may require a more deliberative process. The

  8. Using financial incentives to improve value in orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, David; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Bozic, Kevin J

    2012-04-01

    A variety of reforms to traditional approaches to provider payment and benefit design are being implemented in the United States. There is increasing interest in applying these financial incentives to orthopaedics, although it is unclear whether and to what extent they have been implemented and whether they increase quality or reduce costs. We reviewed and discussed physician- and patient-oriented financial incentives being implemented in orthopaedics, key challenges, and prerequisites to payment reform and value-driven payment policy in orthopaedics. We searched the MEDLINE database using as search terms various provider payment and consumer incentive models. We retrieved a total of 169 articles; none of these studies met the inclusion criteria. For incentive models known to the authors to be in use in orthopaedics but for which no peer-reviewed literature was found, we searched Google for further information. Provider financial incentives reviewed include payments for reporting, performance, and patient safety and episode payment. Patient incentives include tiered networks, value-based benefit design, reference pricing, and value-based purchasing. Reform of financial incentives for orthopaedic surgery is challenged by (1) lack of a payment/incentive model that has demonstrated reductions in cost trends and (2) the complex interrelation of current pay schemes in today's fragmented environment. Prerequisites to reform include (1) a reliable and complete data infrastructure; (2) new business structures to support cost sharing; and (3) a retooling of patient expectations. There is insufficient literature reporting the effects of various financial incentive models under implementation in orthopaedics to know whether they increase quality or reduce costs. National concerns about cost will continue to drive experimentation, and all anticipated innovations will require improved collaboration and data collection and reporting.

  9. Health incentives: the science and art of motivating healthy behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Employers seeking to motivate and encourage healthy behaviors among their employees are increasingly turning to incentive rewards. In fact, a recent Buck Consultants survey of 555 employers, titled Working Well: A Global Survey of Health Promotion and Workplace Wellness Strategies, predicts the use of such rewards to more than double over the next two to three years. This article provides an overview of the key considerations for employers seeking to maximize the value of incentive rewards. Discussion includes incentive strategies, types of rewards, reward amounts and regulatory considerations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

  10. Handover Incentives for Self-Interested WLANs with Overlapping Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Siris, Vasilios A.

    2012-01-01

    We consider an environment where self-interested IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) have overlapping coverage, and investigate the incentives that can trigger handovers between the WLANs. Our focus is on the incentives for supporting handovers due solely to the improved performance...... for all wireless networks. Such incentives arise due to a well-known property of 802.11 networks, where low rate users that send traffic significantly degrade the performance of high rate users that are associated with the same access point. A key difference of this paper compared to other works...

  11. Geopressured-geothermal energy development: government incentives and institutional structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, D.O.; Prestwood, D.C.L.; Roberts, K.; Vanston, J.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The following subjects are included: a geothermal resource overview, the evolution of the current Texas geopressured-geothermal institutional structure, project evaluation with uncertainty and the structure of incentives, the natural gas industry, the electric utility industry, potential governmental participants in resource development, industrial users of thermal energy, current government incentives bearing on geopressured-geothermal development, six profiles for utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resources in the mid-term, and probable impacts of new government incentives on mid-term resource utilization profiles. (MHR)

  12. Do Capitation-based Reimbursement Systems Underfund Tertiary Healthcare Providers? Evidence from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Somi; Schumacher, Christoph; Feess, Eberhard

    2017-02-01

    One of the main concerns about capitation-based reimbursement systems is that tertiary institutions may be underfunded due to insufficient reimbursements of more complicated cases. We test this hypothesis with a data set from New Zealand that, in 2003, introduced a capitation system where public healthcare provider funding is primarily based on the characteristics of the regional population. Investigating the funding for all cases from 2003 to 2011, we find evidence that tertiary providers are at a disadvantage compared with secondary providers. The reasons are that tertiary providers not only attract the most complicated, but also the highest number of cases. Our findings suggest that accurate risk adjustment is crucial to the success of a capitation-based reimbursement system. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Hospitals push back against reimbursement cuts due to Two-Midnight rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The American Hospital Association (AHA) and other hospitals are suing CMS, challenging the 0.2% cut in Medicare reimbursement that CMS instituted to compensate for the financial effect of the Two-Midnight rule. CMS' actuaries reported that inpatient claims are likely to increase under the rule, resulting in $220 million additional reimbursement for hospitals. Hospitals disagree and a study commissioned by the AHA concluded that the CMS study was based on data not available to the public and that data from the Medicare Provider and Analysis Review (MedPAR) would lead to a different conclusion. The AHA suit asks CMS to rescind the cut, restore the base rate for Medicare payments to its previous level, and reimburse hospitals retroactively for the reductions.

  14. Medicare Part B reimbursement and the perceived quality of physician care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Christopher S; Jensen, Gail A

    2010-06-01

    The maximum amount physicians can charge Medicare patients for Part B services depends on Medicare reimbursement rates and on federal and state restrictions regarding balance billing. This study evaluates whether Part B payment rates, state restrictions on balance billing beyond the federal limit, and physician balance billing influence how beneficiaries rate the quality of their doctor's care. Using nationally representative data from the 2001 to 2003 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, this paper finds strong evidence that Medicare reimbursement rates, and state balance billing restrictions influence a wide range of perceived care quality measures. Lower Medicare reimbursement and restrictions on physicians' ability to balance bill significantly reduce the perceived quality of care under Part B.

  15. Physician extender services in family planning agencies: issues in Medicaid reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy, L W; Lutz, D B; Heartwell, S F; Zetzman, M R

    1986-01-01

    The US Social Security Amendments of 1972 mandated the inclusion of family planning services in state Medicaid plans, authorized 90% of reimbursements for family planning care, and imposed financial penalties for failure to provide these services to Medicaid-eligible clients. On the other hand, many states have retrictive policies regarding Medicaid reimbursements to family planning agencies for services provided by physician extenders (e.g.s nurse practitioners and physician assistants). There is concern that such restrictions greatly reduce accessibility to family planning services. Reasons that hae been suggested as causes of such restrictive policies include physician concern over loss of income, the uncertain status of physician extenders in some states, a fear that this step will lead to a demand for reiimbursement for the services of other allied health care providers such as social workers, and concern that care for the indigent will lead to an expensive increase in state reimbursement for family planning services. However, a review of relevant federal law and regulations indicates that Medicaid reimbursement for services provided to eligible patients by physician extenders has never been prohibited or discouraged. Physician supervision is required in reimbursement cases, but this does not mean that a physician must be on the premises while services are delivered. The Medicaid program actually allows significant latitude in establishing administrative policies and procedures. Rather, problems faced by family planning agencies in receiving Medicaid reimbursements for physician extenders' services are due to restrictions in state laws and staff misinterpretations of policy. Research has demonstrated that physcian extenders can contribute significantly to cost effectiveness, while providing types of care in localities such as rural areas that physicians tend to avoid. Given the importance of family planning services to Medicaid-eligible clients, unwarranted

  16. Reimbursement for Emergency Department Electrocardiography and Radiograph Interpretations: What Is It Worth for the Emergency Physician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu, Tina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physician reimbursement laws for diagnostic interpretive services require that only those services provided contemporaneously and /or contribute directly to patient care can be billed for. Despite these regulations, cardiologists and radiologists in many hospitals continue to bill for ECG and plain film diagnostic services performed in the emergency department (ED. The reimbursement value of this care, which is disconnected in time and place from the ED patient encounter, is unknown. In a California community ED with a 32,000 annual census, the emergency physicians (EPs alone, by contract, bill for all ECG readings and plain film interpretations when the radiologists are not available to provide contemporaneous readings.Objectives: To determine the impact of this billing practice on actual EP reimbursement we undertook an analysis that allows calculation of physician reimbursement from billing data.Methods: An IRB-approved analysis of 12 months of billing data cleansed of all patient identifiers was undertaken for 2003. From the data we created a descriptive study with itemized breakdown of reimbursement for radiograph and ECG interpretive services (procedures and the gross resultant physician income.Results: In 2003 EPs at this hospital treated patients during 32,690 ED visits. Total group income in 2003 for radiographs was $173,555 and $91,025 for ECGs, or $19/EP hour and $6/EP hour respectively. For the average full-time EP, the combined total is $2537/month or $30,444 per annum, per EP. This is $8/ED visit (averaged across all patients.Conclusion: As EP-reimbursement is challenged by rising malpractice premiums, uninsured patients, HMO contracts, unfunded government mandates and state budgetary shortfalls, EPs are seeking to preserve their patient services and resultant income. They should also be reimbursed for those services and the liability that they incur. The reimbursement value of ECGs and plain film interpretations to the

  17. New Incentives to Stimulate Data Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, E. R.; Lowry, R.; Pissierssens, P.

    2008-12-01

    Data from ocean observations and experiments often are not submitted to appropriate data centers, or if they are submitted, may not be easily retrievable. These problems arise for a variety of reasons. Data are not always submitted, even when required by the agency funding the research, because the rewards for submitting data are not strong enough. Once data are submitted, the typical data center disaggregates the data into its component parameters, so it is difficult to get all the data related to a particular experiment back out of the system. With the advent of persistent identifiers, like digital object identifiers , the rapid evolution of the high-speed Internet, and the availability of large digital storage capacities that enable the transfer and storage of comprehensive data sets, it is now possible to restructure data management in a way that will create new incentives for ocean scientists to submit their data, for others to use it, and for the originating scientists to get credit for their effort and creativity in collecting the data. This presentation will report on a new activity of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research and the International Ocean Data and Information Exchange of UNESCO's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission that is mapping out new ways to (1) submit the data underlying the figures and tables in traditionally published papers to a recognized repository and link it to the publication, and (2) stimulate the submission of data publications that can be cited on originating scientists' CVs.

  18. Mitigating Inadvertent Insider Threats with Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Debin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Camp, L. Jean

    Inadvertent insiders are trusted insiders who do not have malicious intent (as with malicious insiders) but do not responsibly managing security. The result is often enabling a malicious outsider to use the privileges of the inattentive insider to implement an insider attack. This risk is as old as conversion of a weak user password into root access, but the term inadvertent insider is recently coined to identify the link between the behavior and the vulnerability. In this paper, we propose to mitigate this threat using a novel risk budget mechanism that offers incentives to an insider to behave according to the risk posture set by the organization. We propose assigning an insider a risk budget, which is a specific allocation of risk points, allowing employees to take a finite number of risk-seeking choice. In this way, the employee can complete her tasks without subverting the security system, as with absolute prohibitions. In the end, the organization penalizes the insider if she fails to accomplish her task within the budget while rewards her in the presence of a surplus. Most importantly. the risk budget requires that the user make conscious visible choices to take electronic risks. We describe the theory behind the system, including specific work on the insider threats. We evaluated this approach using human-subject experiments, which demonstrate the effectiveness of our risk budget mechanism. We also present a game theoretic analysis of the mechanism.

  19. Environmental controls: Market incentives v. direct regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosobud, R.F.; Atallah, D.S. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Cap-and-trade environmental markets, where the commodities are tradable pollution rights, are being introduced in several closely watched applications as a potentially more cost-effective way of cleaning up the environment than direct or command-and-control (CAC) regulation. In this study, we examine the evidence on control cost savings provided by price and transactions data from the first few years of activity in two markets designed to reduce atmospheric pollution. Some observers of both markets have argued that prices for tradable permits lower than expected, and transactions fewer than expected, are evidence that the markets are not achieving the hoped for savings. It was found, on the contrary, that observed prices point toward more flexible and improved pollution control choices and that the number of transactions has been steadily increasing as market incentives are incorporated into enterprise decisions. These new markets during their first few years are generating, according to our estimates, control cost savings in the neighborhood of one to two billion dollars annually. However, there is evidence that the markets have not yet reached their full potential. In the course of this study, several obstacles to market performance were found that are worthy of attention by policy makers. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Financial incentive schemes in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillam S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Gillam Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Pay-for-performance (P4P schemes have become increasingly common in primary care, and this article reviews their impact. It is based primarily on existing systematic reviews. The evidence suggests that P4P schemes can change health professionals' behavior and improve recorded disease management of those clinical processes that are incentivized. P4P may narrow inequalities in performance comparing deprived with nondeprived areas. However, such schemes have unintended consequences. Whether P4P improves the patient experience, the outcomes of care or population health is less clear. These practical uncertainties mirror the ethical concerns of many clinicians that a reductionist approach to managing markers of chronic disease runs counter to the humanitarian values of family practice. The variation in P4P schemes between countries reflects different historical and organizational contexts. With so much uncertainty regarding the effects of P4P, policy makers are well advised to proceed carefully with the implementation of such schemes until and unless clearer evidence for their cost–benefit emerges. Keywords: financial incentives, pay for performance, quality improvement, primary care

  1. Private versus social incentives for pharmaceutical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Paula; Macho-Stadler, Inés; Pérez-Castrillo, David

    2016-12-01

    We provide a theoretical framework to contribute to the current debate regarding the tendency of pharmaceutical companies to direct their R&D toward marketing products that are "follow-on" drugs of already existing drugs, rather than toward the development of breakthrough drugs. We construct a model with a population of patients who can be treated with drugs that are horizontally and vertically differentiated. In addition to a pioneering drug, a new drug can be marketed as the result of an innovative process. We analyze physician prescription choices and the optimal pricing decision of an innovative firm. We also characterize the incentives of the innovative firm to conduct R&D activities, disentangling the quest for breakthrough drugs from the firm effort to develop follow-on drugs. Our results offer theoretical support for the conventional wisdom that pharmaceutical firms devote too many resources to conducting R&D activities that lead to incremental innovations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 41 CFR 102-37.115 - May a holding agency be reimbursed for costs incurred incident to a donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reimbursed for costs incurred incident to a donation? 102-37.115 Section 102-37.115 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Holding Agency § 102-37.115 May a holding agency be reimbursed for costs incurred incident to a donation? Yes, you, as a holding agency,...

  3. 78 FR 21352 - Update on Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... on Reimbursement for Costs of Remedial Action at Active Uranium and Thorium Processing Sites AGENCY... reimbursement for cleanup work performed by licensees at eligible uranium and thorium processing sites in... licensees of eligible uranium and thorium processing sites. If licensees submit claims in FY 2013,...

  4. 77 FR 23615 - Payment or Reimbursement for Emergency Services for Nonservice-Connected Conditions in Non-VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN86 Payment or Reimbursement for Emergency Services for Nonservice... Emergency Services for Nonservice- Connected Conditions in Non-VA Facilities'' regulations to conform with a... Reimbursement for Emergency Services for Nonservice-Connected Conditions in Non-VA Facilities.'' This final...

  5. 38 CFR 17.1000 - Payment or reimbursement for emergency services for nonservice-connected conditions in non-VA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for emergency services for nonservice-connected conditions in non-VA facilities. 17.1000 Section 17... Reimbursement for Emergency Services for Nonservice-Connected Conditions in Non-Va Facilities § 17.1000 Payment or reimbursement for emergency services for nonservice-connected conditions in non-VA...

  6. 41 CFR 302-5.13 - What methods may my agency use to reimburse me for househunting trip expenses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agency use to reimburse me for househunting trip expenses? 302-5.13 Section 302-5.13 Public Contracts and...) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 5-ALLOWANCE FOR HOUSEHUNTING TRIP EXPENSES Employee's Allowance For Househunting Trip Expenses § 302-5.13 What methods may my agency use to reimburse me for...

  7. 41 CFR 301-11.4 - May I be reimbursed actual expense and per diem on the same trip?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I be reimbursed actual expense and per diem on the same trip? 301-11.4 Section 301-11.4 Public Contracts and Property... same trip? Yes, you may be reimbursed both actual expense and per diem during a single trip, but only...

  8. Subtle social clues, explicit incentives and cooperation in social dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, Chr.; Declerck, C.; Suetens, S.

    2008-01-01

    Subtle contextual social cues and the explicit incentive structure of social dilemmas are two important, but fundamentally different classes of determinants of cooperative behavior. The former provides subjective social information regarding the likelihood of attaining mutual cooperation by shaping

  9. OBJECTIVES AND INCENTIVES AT THE EUROPEAN PATENT OFFICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friebel, Guido; Koch, Alexander; Seabright, Paul

    This report examines the effectiveness of the current system of incentives within the European Patent Office (EPO) and considers the possible consequences of placing greater emphasis on quantitative measures of productivity in rewarding EPO staff....

  10. OBJECTIVES AND INCENTIVES AT THE EUROPEAN PATENT OFFICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friebel, Guido; Koch, Alexander; Seabright, Paul

    This report examines the effectiveness of the current system of incentives within the European Patent Office (EPO) and considers the possible consequences of placing greater emphasis on quantitative measures of productivity in rewarding EPO staff....

  11. Social Relations, Incentives, and Gender in the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.A. Onemu (Okemena)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Gender differences in preferences regarding social relationships and competitive environments are well documented in psychology and economics. Research also shows that social relationships and competition among co-workers are affected by the incentive schemes workers

  12. Envisioning Incentives for Improving University Governance: A Ghanaian Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernard Bekuni Boawei Bingab; Joseph Ato Forson; Oscar Siema Mmbali; Theresa Yaaba Baah-Ennumh; Joshua-Luther Ndoye Upoalkpajor

    2016-01-01

    The incentive to strengthen university governance system has three implications: (1) improving the quality of the university education system, and thus providing students and the general public value for money...

  13. Review: Pharmaceutical policies : effects of financial incentives for prescribers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, H.; Austvoll-Dahlgren, A.; Aaserud, M.; Oxman, A. D.; Ramsay, C.; Vernby, A.; Koesters, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    Background Pharmaceuticals, while central to medical therapy, pose a significant burden to health care budgets. Therefore regulations to control prescribing costs and improve quality of care are implemented increasingly. These include the use of financial incentives for prescribers, namely increased

  14. How to create economic incentives in occupational safety and health: A practical guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsler, D.; Heyer, A.; Kuhl, K.; Eeckelaert, L.; Chatzigiannoglou, C.; Maier, A.; Cuervo, M.; Elsler, D.; Frusteri, L.; Charalambous, A.; Molinaro, R.; Steiger, O.; Brummer, E.; Penttila, M.; Petrisic, N.; Vanadzins, I.; Benedetti, F.; Karadeniz, O.; Treutlein, D.; Tompa, E.; Kohstall, T.; Nicot, A.M.; Tynkkynen, M.; Kruger, H.; Wittig, K.; Stadnik, M.; Jones, C.; Epegui, H.; Lunde-Jensen, P.; Ottati, M.; Pecillo-Pacek, M.; Greef, M.de; Mierlo, M. van; Maya Rubio, M.I.; Kahr, J.; Sapir, M.

    2011-01-01

    This Guide on Economic Incentives Schemes is intended to serve as a practical and user-friendly guide to help incentive providers to create or optimise their own economic incentive schemes. Incentives schemes should not only reward past results of good OSH management (such as low accident numbers),

  15. How to create economic incentives in occupational safety and health: A practical guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsler, D.; Heyer, A.; Kuhl, K.; Eeckelaert, L.; Chatzigiannoglou, C.; Maier, A.; Cuervo, M.; Elsler, D.; Frusteri, L.; Charalambous, A.; Molinaro, R.; Steiger, O.; Brummer, E.; Penttila, M.; Petrisic, N.; Vanadzins, I.; Benedetti, F.; Karadeniz, O.; Treutlein, D.; Tompa, E.; Kohstall, T.; Nicot, A.M.; Tynkkynen, M.; Kruger, H.; Wittig, K.; Stadnik, M.; Jones, C.; Epegui, H.; Lunde-Jensen, P.; Ottati, M.; Pecillo-Pacek, M.; Greef, M.de; Mierlo, M. van; Maya Rubio, M.I.; Kahr, J.; Sapir, M.

    2011-01-01

    This Guide on Economic Incentives Schemes is intended to serve as a practical and user-friendly guide to help incentive providers to create or optimise their own economic incentive schemes. Incentives schemes should not only reward past results of good OSH management (such as low accident numbers),

  16. 26 CFR 1.422-3 - Stockholder approval of incentive stock option plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stockholder approval of incentive stock option... incentive stock option plans. This section addresses the stockholder approval of incentive stock option... such cases an incentive stock option plan must be approved: (a) By a majority of the votes cast at...

  17. 26 CFR 1.422-4 - $100,000 limitation for incentive stock options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... qualifies as an incentive stock option nevertheless fails to be an incentive stock option to the extent that... incentive stock option (determined without regard to this section) is exercisable for the first time by any... it will not be treated as an incentive stock option) is disregarded. See § 1.422-2(a)(4). (2)...

  18. 41 CFR 302-14.2 - What is the purpose of a home marketing incentive payment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INCENTIVE PAYMENTS Payment of Incentive to the Employee § 302-14.2 What is the purpose of a home marketing incentive payment? The purpose of a home marketing incentive payment is to reduce the Government's... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of...

  19. An Incentive Based Regulatory System: A Bridge Too Far

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper argues that the operation of the financial sector as a whole will not be as effective if market discipline is relied upon as the only tool of financial regulation. Before enacting any incentive mechanisms, there must be adequate built-in measures to prevent the exploitation of information asymmetries as well as greater harmonisation and co-ordination of regulatory standards between countries. The paper considers the "incentive problem" in regulation using a principal-agent framewor...

  20. Short-term incentive schemes for hospital managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Malambe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Short-term incentives, considered to be an extrinsic motivation, are commonly used to motivate performance. This study explored hospital managers’ perceptions of short term incentives in maximising performance and retention.Research purpose: The study explored the experiences, views and perceptions of private hospital managers in South Africa regarding the use of short-term incentives to maximise performance and retention, as well as the applicability of the findings to public hospitals.Motivation for the study: Whilst there is an established link between performance reward schemes and organisational performance, there is little understanding of the effects of short term incentives on the performance and retention of hospital managers within the South African context.Research design, approach, and method: The study used a qualitative research design: interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 19 hospital managers, and a thematic content analysis was performed.Main findings: Short-term incentives may not be the primary motivator for hospital managers, but they do play a critical role in sustaining motivation. Participants indicated that these schemes could also be applicable to public hospitals.Practical/managerial implications: Hospital managers are inclined to be more motivated by intrinsic than extrinsic factors. However, hospital managers (as middle managers also seem to be motivated by short-term incentives. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators should thus be used to maximise performance and retention.Contribution/value-add: Whilst the study sought to explore hospital managers’ perceptions of short-term incentives, it also found that an adequate balance between internal and external motivators is key to implementing an effective short-term incentive scheme.

  1. A Simulation of the Bonus Incentive Recruiter Model (BIRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    of the Bonus Incentive Recruiter Model ( BIRM ) and to provide estimates of the BIRM’s effects on recruiting. Since this incentive structure has not been...field tested, it is critical for USAREC to accurately understand the possible outcomes, advantages, and shortcomings if the BIRM were implemented...effects of the utility, cost and production functions. The simulation found that USAREC should meet the Army’s manpower goals with the BIRM and the cost should be less than hiring additional recruiters.

  2. A simulation of the Bonus Incentive Recruiter Model (BIRM)

    OpenAIRE

    Piper, Samuel T.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide the United States Army Recruiting Command (USAREC) with background material for developing the bonus table of the Bonus Incentive Recruiter Model (BIRM) and to provide estimates of the BIRM's effects on recruiting. Since this incentive structure has not been field tested, it is critical for USAREC to accurately understand the possible outcomes, advantages, and shortcomings if the BIRM were implemented. The first part of this thesis describes a method f...

  3. Exit Options in Corporate Finance: Liquidity versus Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Aghion, Philippe; Bolton, Patrick; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a first study of the optimal design of active monitors' exit options in a problem involving a demand for liquidity and costly monitoring of the issuer. Optimal incentives to monitor the issuer may involve restricting the monitor's right to sell her claims on the firm's cash-flow early. But the monitor will then require a liquidity premium for holding such an illiquid claim. In general, therefore, there will be a trade off between incentives and liquidity. The paper highlig...

  4. Individual preferences modulate incentive values: evidence from functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch Volker; Dieckmann Anja; Pedroni Andreas F; Koeneke Susan; Jäncke Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In most studies on human reward processing, reward intensity has been manipulated on an objective scale (e.g., varying monetary value). Everyday experience, however, teaches us that objectively equivalent rewards may differ substantially in their subjective incentive values. One factor influencing incentive value in humans is branding. The current study explores the hypothesis that individual brand preferences modulate activity in reward areas similarly to objectively meas...

  5. CONSERVATION OF ENDANGERED SPECIES: CAN INCENTIVES WORK FOR PRIVATE LANDOWNERS?

    OpenAIRE

    Langpap, Christian

    2003-01-01

    It has been argued that the traditional regulatory approach of the Endangered Species Act, based on land-use restrictions, has failed to protect endangered species on private land. In response, there has been a call for the use of incentives to complement this regulatory approach. This paper examines the potential of incentives programs to elicit conservation-oriented management choices from landowners. Data obtained from a survey of non-industrial private forest owners in Oregon and Washingt...

  6. Exit Options in Corporate Finance: Liquidity versus Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Aghion, Philippe; Bolton, Patrick; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a first study of the optimal design of active monitors' exit options in a problem involving a demand for liquidity and costly monitoring of the issuer. Optimal incentives to monitor the issuer may involve restricting the monitor's right to sell her claims on the firm's cash-flow early. But the monitor will then require a liquidity premium for holding such an illiquid claim. In general, therefore, there will be a trade off between incentives and liquidity. The paper highlig...

  7. Innovation Incentive of Downstream Firms in Stackelberg Duopoly Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Hongzhen; Yan Qingyou; Huang Wenjie

    2006-01-01

    The licensing strategies and innovation incentives of downstream firms in a Stackelberg duopoly model were analyzed under three respective assumptions that upstream industry is monopoly, duopoly, or perfect competition. It is found that the Stackelberg firm may license his drastic innovation by a fixed royalty rate which is lower than innovation size. The incentives of drastic innovation of Stackelberg firm facing input suppliers with market power decrease considerably even under royalty licensing,compared with facing perfectly competitive input market.

  8. Individual preferences modulate incentive values: Evidence from functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch Volker; Dieckmann Anja; Pedroni Andreas F; Koeneke Susan; Jäncke Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In most studies on human reward processing, reward intensity has been manipulated on an objective scale (e.g., varying monetary value). Everyday experience, however, teaches us that objectively equivalent rewards may differ substantially in their subjective incentive values. One factor influencing incentive value in humans is branding. The current study explores the hypothesis that individual brand preferences modulate activity in reward areas similarly to objectively meas...

  9. Understanding congestion in China's medical market: an incentive structure perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zesheng; Wang, Shuhong; Barnes, Stephen R

    2016-04-01

    Congestion has become one of the most important factors leading to patient dissatisfaction and doctor-patient conflicts in the medical market of China. In this study, we explore the causes and effects of structural congestion in the Chinese medical market from an incentive structure perspective. Our analysis reveals that prior medical system reforms with price regulation in China have induced hospitals to establish incentives for capital-intensive investments, while ignoring human capital, and have driven medical staff and patients to higher-level hospitals, reinforcing an incentive structure in which congestion in higher-level hospitals and idle resources in lower-level hospitals coexist. The existing incentive structure has led to cost increases and degradation of human capital and specific factor effects. Recent reforms to reduce congestion in the Chinese medical market were not effective. Most of them had no impact on and did not involve the existing distorted incentive structure. Future reforms should consider rebalancing expectations for medical quality, free flow of human capital and price regulation reforms to rebuild a new incentive structure.

  10. Managerial strategies to make incentives meaningful and motivating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korlén, Sara; Essén, Anna; Lindgren, Peter; Amer-Wahlin, Isis; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2017-04-10

    Purpose Policy makers are applying market-inspired competition and financial incentives to drive efficiency in healthcare. However, a lack of knowledge exists about the process whereby incentives are filtered through organizations to influence staff motivation, and the key role of managers is often overlooked. The purpose of this paper is to explore the strategies managers use as intermediaries between financial incentives and the individual motivation of staff. The authors use empirical data from a local case in Swedish specialized care. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted an exploratory qualitative case study of a patient-choice reform, including financial incentives, in specialized orthopedics in Sweden. In total, 17 interviews were conducted with professionals in managerial positions, representing six healthcare providers. A hypo-deductive, thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Findings The results show that managers applied alignment strategies to make the incentive model motivating for staff. The managers' strategies are characterized by attempts to align external rewards with professional values based on their contextual and practical knowledge. Managers occasionally overruled the financial logic of the model to safeguard patient needs and expressed an interest in having a closer dialogue with policy makers about improvements. Originality/value Externally imposed incentives do not automatically motivate healthcare staff. Managers in healthcare play key roles as intermediaries by aligning external rewards with professional values. Managers' multiple perspectives on healthcare practices and professional culture can also be utilized to improve policy and as a source of knowledge in partnership with policy makers.

  11. Neural effects of positive and negative incentives during marijuana withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M Filbey

    Full Text Available In spite of evidence suggesting two possible mechanisms related to drug-seeking behavior, namely reward-seeking and harm avoidance, much of the addiction literature has focused largely on positive incentivization mechanisms associated with addiction. In this study, we examined the contributing neural mechanisms of avoidance of an aversive state to drug-seeking behavior during marijuana withdrawal. To that end, marijuana users were scanned while performing the monetary incentive delay task in order to assess positive and negative incentive processes. The results showed a group x incentive interaction, such that marijuana users had greater response in areas that underlie reward processes during positive incentives while controls showed greater response in the same areas, but to negative incentives. Furthermore, a negative correlation between withdrawal symptoms and response in the amygdala during negative incentives was found in the marijuana users. These findings suggest that although marijuana users have greater reward sensitivity and less harm avoidance than controls, that attenuated amygdala response, an area that underlies fear and avoidance, was present in marijuana users with greater marijuana withdrawal symptoms. This is concordant with models of drug addiction that involve multiple sources of reinforcement in substance use disorders, and suggests the importance of strategies that focus on respective mechanisms.

  12. Analysis of Federal incentives used to stimulate energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    Federal incentives for the development of solar energy are examined. A Federal incentive is any action that can be taken by the government to expand residential and commercial use of solar energy. The development of solar energy policy could be enhanced by identification, quantification, and analysis of Federal incentives that have been used to simulate the development of other forms of energy. The text of this report identifies, quantifies, and analyzes such incentives and relates them to current thought about solar energy. Four viewpoints used in this discussion come from 4 types of analysis: economic, political, organizational, and legal. The next chapter identifies actions (primarily domestic) that the Federal government has taken concerning energy. This analysis uses the typology of actions described in the previous chapter to identify actions, and the four viewpoints described there to determine whether an action concerns energy. Once identified, the actions are described and then quantified by an estimate of the 1976 cost of accomplishing them. Then incentives, investments, liabilities, regulations, and other factors are analyzed in detail for nuclear energy, hydroelectric power, coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Incentives of all energy sources are then discussed with respect to solar energy policy. (MCW)

  13. Incentives and enablers to improve adherence in tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutge, Elizabeth E; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Knight, Stephen E; Sinclair, David; Volmink, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient adherence to medications, particularly for conditions requiring prolonged treatment such as tuberculosis (TB), is frequently less than ideal and can result in poor treatment outcomes. Material incentives to reward good behaviour and enablers to remove economic barriers to accessing care are sometimes given in the form of cash, vouchers, or food to improve adherence. Objectives To evaluate the effects of material incentives and enablers in patients undergoing diagnostic testing, or receiving prophylactic or curative therapy, for TB. Search methods We undertook a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; and reference lists of relevant publications up to 5 June 2015. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials of material incentives in patients being investigated for TB, or on treatment for latent or active TB. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. We compared the effects of interventions using risk ratios (RR), and presented RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. Main results We identified 12 eligible trials. Ten were conducted in the USA: in adolescents (one trial), in injection drug or cocaine users (four trials), in homeless adults (three trials), and in prisoners (two trials). The remaining two trials, in general adult populations, were conducted in Timor-Leste and South Africa. Sustained incentive programmes Only two trials have assessed whether material incentives and enablers can improve long-term adherence and completion of treatment for active TB, and neither demonstrated a clear benefit (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.14; two trials, 4356 participants; low quality evidence). In one trial, the incentive

  14. Relating Health Technology Assessment recommendations and reimbursement decisions in Poland in years 2012-2014, a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Paweł; Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of public advisory bodies (the Transparency Council and the President of AOTMiT, the Polish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System) involved in the process on final reimbursement decisions performed by the Ministry of Health. We have analysed all statements of the Transparency Council as well as the President of the AOTMiT recommendations and final reimbursement decisions in Poland for the period of three years: 2012 till 2014. For each recommendation we collected data on decisions as well as potential additional requirements regarding the reimbursement; data was presented for the whole analysed period and separately for each year, to assess the general tendencies in the reimbursement decision-making in Poland. We collected all data accessible at February 2015. The kappa measurement of agreement was used to assess the compliance between statements, recommendations and reimbursement decisions. We collected data on 238 drugs evaluated by the Agency. The compliance between the Transparency Council and the President of the AOTMiT was 95% and remained constant in the analysed period. The agreement between the President of the AOTMiT recommendations and final reimbursement decisions was only fairly represented by a kappa coefficient of 0.23 and decreased in the subsequent years. We observed an increasing proportion of positive-conditional recommendations, with the introduction of a risk sharing scheme being the most common condition of a reimbursement recommendation. We observed that final reimbursement decisions did not reflect statements and recommendations issued by the advisory boards. Positive recommendations issued by the AOTMiT did not guarantee positive reimbursement status, and negative recommendations in some cases did not result in the lack of reimbursement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. "Report to the Legislature on": The Implementation of the Special Education Reimbursement ("Circuit Breaker") Program. Line-Item 7061-0012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of the Special Education Reimbursement ("Circuit Breaker") Program. Fiscal Year 2007 is the fourth year implementing the Circuit Breaker reimbursement program which provides additional state support for students with disabilities. School districts are eligible for a reimbursement of eligible costs…

  16. 41 CFR 302-6.102 - What is the “applicable per diem rate” under the actual TQSE reimbursement method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSISTENCE EXPENSES Actual TQSE Method of Reimbursement § 302-6.102 What is the “applicable per diem rate” under the actual TQSE reimbursement method? The “applicable per diem rate” under the actual TQSE reimbursement method is as follows: For temporary quarters located in The applicable per diem rate is The...

  17. Investigating financial incentives for maternal health: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Mary Ellen; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Koblinsky, Marge

    2013-12-01

    Projection of current trends in maternal and neonatal mortality reduction shows that many countries will fall short of the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5. Underutilization of maternal health services contributes to this poor progress toward reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the quality of services continues to lag in many countries, with a negative effect on the health of women and their babies, including deterring women from seeking care. To enhance the use and provision of quality maternal care, countries and donors are increasingly using financial incentives. This paper introduces the JHPN Supplement, in which each paper reviews the evidence of the effectiveness of a specific financial incentive instrument with the aim of improving the use and quality of maternal healthcare and impact. The US Agency for International Development and the US National Institutes of Health convened a US Government Evidence Summit on Enhancing Provision and Use of Maternal Health Services through Financial Incentives on 24-25 April 2012 in Washington, DC. The Summit brought together leading global experts in finance, maternal health, and health systems from governments, academia, development organizations, and foundations to assess the evidence on whether financial incentives significantly and substantially increase provision, use and quality of maternal health services, and the contextual factors that impact the effectiveness of these incentives. Evidence review teams evaluated the multidisciplinary evidence of various financial mechanisms, including supply-side incentives (e.g. performance-based financing, user fees, and various insurance mechanisms) and demand-side incentives (e.g. conditional cash transfers, vouchers, user fee exemptions, and subsidies for care-seeking). At the Summit, the teams presented a synthesis of evidence and initial recommendations on practice, policy, and research for discussion. The Summit enabled structured

  18. Diet in phenylketonuria : A snapshot of special dietary costs and reimbursement systems in 10 international centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belanger-Quintana, A.; Dokoupil, K.; Gokmen-Ozel, H.; Lammardo, A. M.; MacDonald, A.; Motzfeldt, K.; Nowacka, M.; van Rijn, M.; Ahring, K.; Robert, M.

    Background and aims: To gather exploratory data on the costs and reimbursement of special dietary foods used in the management of phenylketonuria (PKU) from ten international specialist PKU centers. Methods: Experts from each center provided data on retail costs of the three most frequently used

  19. 44 CFR 208.38 - Reimbursement for re-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and logistics costs incurred during Activation. 208.38 Section 208.38 Emergency Management and...-supply and logistics costs incurred during Activation. With the exception of emergency procurement... this subpart, DHS will not reimburse costs incurred for re-supply and logistical support during...

  20. "Budget impact analyses": a practical policy making tool for drug reimbursement decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Hamid Reza; Foroutan, Naghmeh; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    In the present article, Budget Impact Analysis as an effective, practical financial tool has been introduced to the policy makers for improving drug formulary and reimbursement decision making. In Iran, Ministry of Health (MOH), health insurance organizations, and health care providers such as hospitals could take the most advantage of the BIAs reports.

  1. “Budget Impact Analyses”: A Practical Policy Making Tool for Drug Reimbursement Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Jamshidi,Hamid Reza; Foroutan, Naghmeh; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    In the present article, Budget Impact Analysis as an effective, practical financial tool has been introduced to the policy makers for improving drug formulary and reimbursement decision making. In Iran, Ministry of Health (MOH), health insurance organizations, and health care providers such as hospitals could take the most advantage of the BIAs reports.

  2. 19 CFR 24.18 - Preclearance of air travelers in a foreign country; reimbursable cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... adjusted so that the current biweekly excess cost schedule will reflect the actual excess costs of the...; reimbursable cost. 24.18 Section 24.18 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE §...

  3. Hospital Coding Practice, Data Quality, and DRG-Based Reimbursement under the Thai Universal Coverage Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpirul, Krit

    2011-01-01

    In the Thai Universal Coverage scheme, hospital providers are paid for their inpatient care using Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) reimbursement. Questionable quality of the submitted DRG codes has been of concern whereas knowledge about hospital coding practice has been lacking. The objectives of this thesis are (1) To explore hospital coding…

  4. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart A - International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program (ITVERP); Chart of Expense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Terrorism Victim Expense... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Pt. 94, Subpt. A, App. Appendix to Subpart A—International Terrorism Victim Expense...

  5. 75 FR 873 - Extramural Support Reimbursement of Travel and Subsistence Expenses Toward Living Organ Donation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... and Subsistence Expenses Toward Living Organ Donation Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... reimbursement for qualifying travel and subsistence expenses related to live organ donation. The existing... that donors incurred or will incur these additional expenses as a result of making living donations...

  6. 42 CFR 403.822 - Reimbursement of transitional assistance and associated sponsor requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... associated sponsor requirements. 403.822 Section 403.822 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Prescription Drug Discount Card and Transitional Assistance Program § 403.822 Reimbursement of transitional... in § 403.808. (c) Endorsed sponsors must routinely account to CMS for the transitional...

  7. Hospital Coding Practice, Data Quality, and DRG-Based Reimbursement under the Thai Universal Coverage Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpirul, Krit

    2011-01-01

    In the Thai Universal Coverage scheme, hospital providers are paid for their inpatient care using Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) reimbursement. Questionable quality of the submitted DRG codes has been of concern whereas knowledge about hospital coding practice has been lacking. The objectives of this thesis are (1) To explore hospital coding…

  8. Report to the Congress on Nursing and Other Nonphysician Health Professions Educational Programs Reimbursed under Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Health Professions.

    This report provides information on approved educational activities for nursing and other nonphysician health professions for which reimbursement is made to hospitals under the Medicare program. Information was summarized from an examination of existing data and a special study of the variations that exist in hospital educational activities. The…

  9. 48 CFR 46.308 - Cost-reimbursement research and development contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... research and development contracts. 46.308 Section 46.308 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... research and development contracts. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.246-8, Inspection of Research and Development—Cost-Reimbursement, in solicitations and contracts for research and...

  10. 41 CFR 301-11.300 - When is actual expense reimbursement warranted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is actual expense reimbursement warranted? 301-11.300 Section 301-11.300 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... meals are procured at a prearranged place such as a hotel where a meeting, conference or training...

  11. 41 CFR 301-12.1 - What miscellaneous expenses are reimbursable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... used on official business. Charges for inoculations that cannot be obtained through a Federal dispensary. Hire of conference center room or hotel room for official business. Official telephone calls... and/or visa and such examination could not be obtained at a Government facility. Reimbursement for...

  12. 42 CFR 447.257 - FFP: Conditions relating to institutional reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP: Conditions relating to institutional... Inpatient Hospital and Long-Term Care Facility Services Federal Financial Participation § 447.257 FFP: Conditions relating to institutional reimbursement. FFP is not available for a State's expenditures...

  13. 48 CFR 219.7104 - Developmental assistance costs eligible for reimbursement or credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BUSINESS PROGRAMS Pilot Mentor-Protege Program 219.7104 Developmental assistance costs eligible for reimbursement or credit. (a) Developmental assistance provided under an approved mentor-protege agreement is... debarred while performing under an approved mentor-protege agreement, the mentor firm may not be...

  14. HEALTH INFO SANTÉ – REMINDER ANNUAL DEDUCTIBLE AND REIMBURSEMENT CLAIMS HINTS FOR USE

    CERN Multimedia

    CHIS Board

    2000-01-01

    Information from the CHIS Board and the Human Resources Division:Annual deductible and reimbursement claims: hints for useOne should bear in mind that the annual deductible is an amount (currently CHF 100) charged automatically by the Administrator of the scheme for every adult aged 18 and above. This is what happens: The amount is deducted annually for all medical services received over a calendar year.It is triggered by the date of the treatment and neither by the date of the bill nor that of the reimbursement claim.In other words, if you receive medical treatment in December for the first time in a given year, the CHF 100 will be deducted from the claim for that treatment. So, except for urgent cases, it would be better to wait till the following month, thus avoiding one annual deductible.It is also worth remembering that the cost of processing our reimbursement claims - and there were 54, 000 in 1999 - is part of the cost of our insurance.Help keep administrative costs down: do not submit reimbursement cl...

  15. 3 CFR - Waiver of Reimbursement Under the United Nations Participation Act to Support the United Nations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of Reimbursement Under the United Nations Participation Act to Support the United Nations/African Union Mission in Darfur Presidential Documents Other... the United Nations Participation Act to Support the United Nations/African Union Mission in...

  16. 78 FR 56719 - Challenging Regulatory and Reimbursement Paradigms for Medical Devices in the Treatment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... morbid obesity and other metabolic diseases and evolving approaches for the regulation and reimbursement... is included in the registration information on the AGA Web site. If you need special accommodations... morbid obesity and other metabolic diseases as well as evolving approaches for the regulation...

  17. Reimbursement for Living Kidney Donor Follow-Up Care: How Often Does Donor Insurance Pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kher, Ajay; Rodrigue, James; Ajaimy, Maria; Wasilewski, Marcy; Ladin, Keren; Mandelbrot, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, many transplantation centers do not follow former living kidney donors on a long-term basis. Several potential barriers have been identified to provide this follow-up of former living kidney donors, including concerns that donor insurance will not reimburse transplantation centers or primary care physicians for this care. Here, we report the rates at which different insurance companies reimbursed our transplantation center for follow-up visits of living donors. Methods We collected data on all yearly follow-up visits of living donors billed from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2010, representing 82 different donors. Concurrent visits of their recipients were available for 47 recipients and were used as a control group. Results We find that most bills for follow-up visits of living kidney donors were paid by insurance companies, at a rate similar to the reimbursement for recipient follow-up care. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, for former donors with insurance, inadequate reimbursement should not be a barrier in providing follow-up care. PMID:23060280

  18. Reimbursement for living kidney donor follow-up care: how often does donor insurance pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kher, Ajay; Rodrigue, James; Ajaimy, Maria; Wasilewski, Marcy; Ladin, Keren; Mandelbrot, Didier

    2012-11-27

    Currently, many transplantation centers do not follow former living kidney donors on a long-term basis. Several potential barriers have been identified to provide this follow-up of former living kidney donors, including concerns that donor insurance will not reimburse transplantation centers or primary care physicians for this care. Here, we report the rates at which different insurance companies reimbursed our transplantation center for follow-up visits of living donors. We collected data on all yearly follow-up visits of living donors billed from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2010, representing 82 different donors. Concurrent visits of their recipients were available for 47 recipients and were used as a control group. We find that most bills for follow-up visits of living kidney donors were paid by insurance companies, at a rate similar to the reimbursement for recipient follow-up care. Our findings suggest that, for former donors with insurance, inadequate reimbursement should not be a barrier in providing follow-up care.

  19. 5 CFR 734.503 - Allocation and reimbursement of costs associated with political activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Executive Office of the President § 734.503 Allocation and reimbursement of costs associated with political activities. (a) The costs associated with the political activities described in § 733.502(c) of this chapter may not be paid for by money derived from the Treasury of the United States. Costs associated with a...

  20. Potential impact of Affordable Care Act-related insurance expansion on trauma care reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John W; Neiman, Pooja U; Najjar, Peter A; Tsai, Thomas C; Scott, Kirstin W; Shrime, Mark G; Cutler, David M; Salim, Ali; Haider, Adil H

    2017-05-01

    Nearly one quarter of trauma patients are uninsured and hospitals recoup less than 20% of inpatient costs for their care. This study examines changes to hospital reimbursement for inpatient trauma care if the full coverage expansion provisions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) were in effect. We abstracted nonelderly adults (ages 18-64 years) admitted for trauma from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample during 2010-the last year before most major ACA coverage expansion policies. We calculated national and facility-level reimbursements and trauma-related contribution margins using Nationwide Inpatient Sample-supplied cost-to-charge ratios and published reimbursement rates for each payer type. Using US census data, we developed a probabilistic microsimulation model to determine the proportion of pre-ACA uninsured trauma patients that would be expected to gain private insurance, Medicaid, or remain uninsured after full implementation of the ACA. We then estimated the impact of these coverage changes on national and facility-level trauma reimbursement for this population. There were 145,849 patients (representing 737,852 patients nationwide) included. National inpatient trauma costs for patients aged 18 years to 64 years totaled US $14.8 billion (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.5,17.1). Preexpansion reimbursements totaled US $13.7 billion (95% CI, 10.8-14.7), yielding a national margin of -7.9% (95% CI, -10.6 to -5.1). Postexpansion projected reimbursements totaled US $15.0 billion (95% CI, 12.7-17.3), increasing the margin by 9.3 absolute percentage points to +1.4% (95% CI, -0.3 to +3.2). Of the 263 eligible facilities, 90 (34.2%) had a positive trauma-related contribution margin in 2010, which increased to 171 (65.0%) using postexpansion projections. Those facilities with the highest proportion of uninsured and racial/ethnic minorities experienced the greatest gains. Health insurance coverage expansion for uninsured trauma patients has the potential to increase national

  1. Analysis of federal incentives used to stimulate energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.J.; Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C.; Huelshoff, M.; Lenerz, D.E.; Marcus, A.; Morris, F.A.; Sheppard, W.J.; Sommers, P.

    1981-08-01

    The purpose of the analysis is to identify and quantify Federal incentives that have increased the consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity. The introductory chapter is intended as a device for presenting the policy questions about the incentives that can be used to stimulate desired levels of energy development. In the theoretical chapter federal incentives were identified for the consumption of energy as Federal government actions whose major intent or result is to stimulate energy consumption. The stimulus comes through changing values of variables included in energy demand functions, thereby inducing energy consumers to move along the function in the direction of greater quantity of energy demanded, or through inducing a shift of the function to a position where more energy will be demanded at a given price. The demand variables fall into one of six categories: price of the energy form, price of complements, price of substitutes, preferences, income, and technology. The government can provide such incentives using six different policy instruments: taxation, disbursements, requirements, nontraditional services, traditional services, and market activity. The four major energy forms were examined. Six energy-consuming sectors were examined: residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, transportation, and public. Two types of analyses of incentive actions are presented in this volume. The generic chapter focused on actions taken in 1978 across all energy forms. The subsequent chapters traced the patterns of incentive actions, energy form by energy form, from the beginning of the 20th century, to the present. The summary chapter includes the results of the previous chapters presented by energy form, incentive type, and user group. Finally, the implications of these results for solar policy are presented in the last chapter. (MCW)

  2. The response of maize production in Kenya to economic incentives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onono, P.A.,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural development policy in Kenya has emphasised the use of incentives towards increased production and therefore self-sufficiency in maize which is a basic staple for most households. The channels used to provide incentives to maize farmers over the years include setting higher producer prices; subsidisation of inputs; provision of agricultural credit, research and extension services; construction and maintenance of roads, development of irrigation and water systems; legislative, institutional and macroeconomic reforms. Despite these efforts outputof maize has remained below domestic requirements in most years and the country continues to rely on imports to meet the deficits. Studies have assessed the responsiveness of maize to output price and reported inelastic responses and have recommended policies targeting non-price incentives to complement prices for the required increased production of maize. The studies, however, did not analyse the influence of the non-price incentives on the production of the crop. The findings of those studies are therefore deficient in explaining the relative importance of different non-price incentives and how they complement prices in influencing maize production in Kenya. This study investigated the response of maize production to both price and non-price incentives. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relative importance of non-price factors in influencing production of the crops as well as complementarity between price and non-price incentives. The findings show that maize production responds positively to its output price, development expenditures in agriculture, maize sales to marketing boards, growth in per capita GDP, liberalisation and governance reforms. However, maize production responds negatively to fertiliser price and unfavourable weather conditions. The response of maize output to its price is lower with rising inflation and grain market liberalisation.

  3. What incentives influence employers to engage in workplace health interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsson, Camilla; Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Kwak, Lydia; Bergström, Gunnar; Hellman, Therese

    2016-08-23

    To achieve a sustainable working life it is important to know more about what could encourage employers to increase the use of preventive and health promotive interventions. The objective of the study is to explore and describe the employer perspective regarding what incentives influence their use of preventive and health promotive workplace interventions. Semi-structured focus group interviews were carried out with 20 representatives from 19 employers across Sweden. The economic sectors represented were municipalities, government agencies, defence, educational, research, and development institutions, health care, manufacturing, agriculture and commercial services. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and the data were analysed using latent content analysis. Various incentives were identified in the analysis, namely: "law and provisions", "consequences for the workplace", "knowledge of worker health and workplace health interventions", "characteristics of the intervention", "communication and collaboration with the provider". The incentives seemed to influence the decision-making in parallel with each other and were not only related to positive incentives for engaging in workplace health interventions, but also to disincentives. This study suggests that the decision to engage in workplace health interventions was influenced by several incentives. There are those incentives that lead to a desire to engage in a workplace health intervention, others pertain to aspects more related to the intervention use, such as the characteristics of the employer, the provider and the intervention. It is important to take all incentives into consideration when trying to understand the decision-making process for workplace health interventions and to bridge the gap between what is produced through research and what is used in practice.

  4. 45 CFR 2551.46 - What cost reimbursements are provided to Senior Companions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provide supportive service without injury to themselves or the clients served. (e) Meals and recognition...) Leadership incentive. Senior Companions who serve as volunteer leaders, assisting new Senior Companions or...

  5. Material incentives and enablers in the management of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutge, Elizabeth E; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Knight, Stephen E; Volmink, Jimmy

    2012-01-18

    Patient adherence to medications, particularly for conditions requiring prolonged treatment such as tuberculosis, is frequently less than ideal, and can result in poor treatment outcomes. Material incentives (given as cash, vouchers and tokens), have been used to improve adherence. To assess the effects of material incentives in people undergoing diagnostic testing, or receiving prophylactic or curative therapy, for tuberculosis. We undertook a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; and reference lists of relevant publications; to 22 June 2011. Randomized controlled trials of material incentives in patients being investigated for tuberculosis, or on treatment for latent or active disease. At least two authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. The effects of interventions are compared using risk ratios (RR), and presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. We identified 11 eligible studies. Ten were conducted in the USA: in adolescents (one trial), in injection drug or cocaine users (four trials), in homeless adults (three trials), and in prisoners (two trials). One additional trial recruited malnourished men receiving active treatment for tuberculosis in Timor-Leste.Material incentives may increase the return rate for reading of tuberculin skin test results compared to normal care (two trials, 1371 participants: RR 2.16, 95% CI 1.41 to 3.29, low quality evidence).Similarly, incentives probably improve clinic re-attendance for initiation or continuation of antituberculosis prophylaxis (three trials, 595 participants: RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.96, moderate quality evidence), and may improve subsequent completion of prophylaxis in some settings (three trials, 869 participants: RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.70 to 4

  6. Incentives and enablers to improve adherence in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutge, Elizabeth E; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Knight, Stephen E; Sinclair, David; Volmink, Jimmy

    2015-09-03

    Patient adherence to medications, particularly for conditions requiring prolonged treatment such as tuberculosis (TB), is frequently less than ideal and can result in poor treatment outcomes. Material incentives to reward good behaviour and enablers to remove economic barriers to accessing care are sometimes given in the form of cash, vouchers, or food to improve adherence. To evaluate the effects of material incentives and enablers in patients undergoing diagnostic testing, or receiving prophylactic or curative therapy, for TB. We undertook a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; and reference lists of relevant publications up to 5 June 2015. Randomized controlled trials of material incentives in patients being investigated for TB, or on treatment for latent or active TB. At least two review authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. We compared the effects of interventions using risk ratios (RR), and presented RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. We identified 12 eligible trials. Ten were conducted in the USA: in adolescents (one trial), in injection drug or cocaine users (four trials), in homeless adults (three trials), and in prisoners (two trials). The remaining two trials, in general adult populations, were conducted in Timor-Leste and South Africa. Sustained incentive programmesOnly two trials have assessed whether material incentives and enablers can improve long-term adherence and completion of treatment for active TB, and neither demonstrated a clear benefit (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.14; two trials, 4356 participants; low quality evidence). In one trial, the incentive, given as a daily hot meal, was not well received by the population due to the inconvenience of

  7. Parental financial incentives for increasing preschool vaccination uptake: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigham, Sarah; Ternent, Laura; Bryant, Andrew; Robalino, Shannon; Sniehotta, Falko F; Adams, Jean

    2014-10-01

    Financial incentives have been used to promote vaccination uptake but are not always viewed as acceptable. Quasimandatory policies, such as requiring vaccinations for school enrollment, are widely implemented in some countries. A systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness, acceptability, and economic costs and consequences of parental financial incentives and quasimandatory schemes for increasing the uptake of preschool vaccinations in high-income countries. Electronic databases and gray literature were searched for randomized controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies, and time series analyses examining the effectiveness of parental financial incentives and quasimandatory schemes, as well as any empirical studies exploring acceptability. All included studies were screened for information on economic costs and consequences. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed the quality of selected articles by using established instruments. Studies were synthesized in narrative reviews. Four studies on the effectiveness and 6 on the acceptability of parental financial incentives and quasimandatory interventions met the inclusion criteria. Only 1 study reported on costs and consequences. Studies of effectiveness had low risk of bias but displayed substantial heterogeneity in terms of interventions and methods. There was insufficient evidence to conclude whether these interventions were effective. Studies of acceptability suggested a preference, in settings where this already occurs, for incentives linking vaccinations to access to education. There was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on economic costs and consequences. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Motivating employees through incentives: productive or a counterproductive strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayum, Mehran; Sawal, Shefa Haider; Khan, Hassan Mehmood

    2014-05-01

    The disparity between human resource in health and provision of health services is a growing concern worldwide. Many developing countries are facing this crisis and therefore human resource in health is considered a high priority on their agenda.This imbalance between supplies of human resource is exacerbated by migration of health workers in many countries. Understanding the motivational factor is an important aspect to retain the migrating health workforce. This paper analyses the role of financial and non financial incentives in motivating the health work force. A review of available literature was conducted to understand the role of motivational factor in retaining health workforce. A review of current literature found that an incentive plays a key role in motivating a health worker. Financial incentives are useful in improving the compliance to standard policies and procedures. Comprehensive integrated incentive system approach should be established to develop a sustainable health workforce with required skill. Likewise monetary incentives should be linked to adherence to provincial and national guidelines and procedures. Sustainability could be ensured by commitment of government, political will and involvement of key stakeholders and decision makers.

  9. Intermediaries in Trust: Indirect Reciprocity, Incentives, and Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giangiacomo Bravo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Any trust situation involves a certain amount of risk for trustors that trustees could abuse. In some cases, intermediaries exist who play a crucial role in the exchange by providing reputational information. To examine under what conditions intermediary opinion could have a positive impact on cooperation, we designed two experiments based on a modified version of the investment game where intermediaries rated the behaviour of trustees under various incentive schemes and different role structures. We found that intermediaries can increase trust if there is room for indirect reciprocity between the involved parties. We also found that the effect of monetary incentives and social norms cannot be clearly separable in these situations. If properly designed, monetary incentives for intermediaries can have a positive effect. On the one hand, when intermediary rewards are aligned with the trustor’s interest, investments and returns tend to increase. On the other hand, fixed monetary incentives perform less than any other incentive schemes and endogenous social norms in ensuring trust and fairness. These findings should make us reconsider the mantra of incentivization of social and public conventional policy.

  10. Anti-double dipping rules for federal tax incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ing, E.T.C. [Law Office of Edwin T.C. Ing, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Political as well as technological changes are now reshaping the electric utility industry. While accommodating these changes, state legislative and regulatory agencies have the opportunity to promote public policies. In this regard, various state entities are evaluating appropriate incentives for renewable energy development so as to introduce greater competition in electric generation. For example, the California legislature is considering a supplemental production payment and the State of Iowa has instituted a low-interest loan program for wind and other alternative energy generation. By complementing the existing federal tax incentives, state incentives can spur the wind industry`s growth. If structured in the wrong way, however, state assistance programs will undercut the value of the federal tax incentives. The federal anti-double dipping rules apply to certain state programs. If a developer utilizes the wrong type of state assistance for a wind project, the anti-double dipping rules will reduce the federal tax incentives and this in turn will decrease the project`s profitability. Rather than suffer these results, very few if any developer will use the state program. Despite the time and effort a state may expend to enact a program for alternative energy development, the state assistance will be ineffectual. This paper reviews the counterproductive results which state assistance can have on a wind project because of the federal anti-double dipping rules.

  11. Les incentives dans les enquêtes en ligne

    OpenAIRE

    Solène Guillemot

    2013-01-01

    Ce mémoire présente les recherches antérieures d'auteurs s'intéressant aux incentives dans les études marketing et une expérimentation cherchant à vérifier les impacts, à la fois positifs et négatifs, des incentives dans les enquêtes quantitatives en ligne. Ainsi, un questionnaire a été administré par emailing à deux groupes, l'un recevant la possibilité de participer à un tirage au sort (incentive de l'étude), et l'autre n'ayant pas cette possibilité. Il s'agissait dans un premier temps de v...

  12. Reputation-based Incentive Protocols in Crowdsourcing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Crowdsourcing websites (e.g. Yahoo! Answers, Amazon Mechanical Turk, and etc.) emerged in recent years that allow requesters from all around the world to post tasks and seek help from an equally global pool of workers. However, intrinsic incentive problems reside in crowdsourcing applications as workers and requester are selfish and aim to strategically maximize their own benefit. In this paper, we propose to provide incentives for workers to exert effort using a novel game-theoretic model based on repeated games. As there is always a gap in the social welfare between the non-cooperative equilibria emerging when workers pursue their self-interests and the desirable Pareto efficient outcome, we propose a novel class of incentive protocols based on social norms which integrates reputation mechanisms into the existing pricing schemes currently implemented on crowdsourcing websites, in order to improve the performance of the non-cooperative equilibria emerging in such applications. We first formulate the exchange...

  13. An incentive-based architecture for social recommendations

    KAUST Repository

    Bhattacharjee, Rajat

    2009-01-01

    We present an incentive-based architecture for providing recommendations in a social network. We maintain a distinct reputation system for each individual and we rely on users to identify appropriate correlations and rate the items using a system-provided recommendation language. The key idea is to design an incentive structure and a ranking system such that any inaccuracy in the recommendations implies the existence of a profitable arbitrage opportunity, hence making the system resistant to malicious spam and presentation bias. We also show that, under mild assumptions, our architecture provides users with incentive to minimize the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the ratings and the actual item qualities, quickly driving the system to an equilibrium state with accurate recommendations. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  14. Analysing Incentive and Cost Sharing Issues in Livestock Disease Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biira, Juliet

    This PhD thesis tackles two main issues in livestock health management: a) the incentives for animal disease prevention on Danish livestock farms and b) allocation of costs of animal disease outbreaks and animal disease preparedness, among stakeholders involved in the livestock sector. The main...... be arranged and lastly, a theoretical contribution to how disease preparedness costs could be shared. An exploration of literature on issues regarding animal disease prevention in the Danish livestock sector is used in paper 1, while an empirical approach is used in paper 2, 3 and 4. A theoretical approach...... to elaborate on the private and public incentives that influence Danish farmers to prevent animal diseases. The paper reveals that public incentives could be improved by clearly stating repercussions for not following certain regulations and the current compensation strategy could be adjusted in a way...

  15. The Impact of Tax Incentives on Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Svoboda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to analyze the impact of tax incentives on research and development and compare its effectiveness to direct government support of research and development. The analysis is based on regression analysis, which compares effect of tax incentives for research and development and direct government support (as percentage of GDP in 28 countries of OECD in 2013 on innovative effectiveness of these countries measured by number of registered triadic patent families per billion GDP in the same year. Results suggest that tax incentives are more effective form of research and development support than direct government funding. Research also revealed interesting case of Switzerland’s research and development performance backed by almost none government support, which should be subject to future study.

  16. Incentive salience attribution under reward uncertainty: A Pavlovian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselme, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    There is a vast literature on the behavioural effects of partial reinforcement in Pavlovian conditioning. Compared with animals receiving continuous reinforcement, partially rewarded animals typically show (a) a slower development of the conditioned response (CR) early in training and (b) a higher asymptotic level of the CR later in training. This phenomenon is known as the partial reinforcement acquisition effect (PRAE). Learning models of Pavlovian conditioning fail to account for it. In accordance with the incentive salience hypothesis, it is here argued that incentive motivation (or 'wanting') plays a more direct role in controlling behaviour than does learning, and reward uncertainty is shown to have an excitatory effect on incentive motivation. The psychological origin of that effect is discussed and a computational model integrating this new interpretation is developed. Many features of CRs under partial reinforcement emerge from this model.

  17. A Study on the Self-Adaption Incentive Performance Salary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanming; Wang, Yang

    In project managing, the performance salary management mode is often used to motivate project managers and other similar staff to improve performance or reduce the cost. But the engineering activities who own a lot of internal and external uncertain factors can not be known by the principle. It is difficult for to develop a suitable incentive target to project managers etch. This paper thinks that the manager self master the maximum of information on engineering activities. So this paper sets up an incentive model: the project managers themselves report performance objectives; owner gives the managers reward or punishment combined with their reported performance and actual performance. The model to ensure that the project manager is only accurate self reported its results to get the maximum profit. At the same time, it cans incentive managers to improve performance or reduce the cost. This paper focuses on setting up the model, analyzing the model parameters. And cite an example analyze them.

  18. Designing incentive market mechanisms for improving restructured power system reliabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    In a restructured power system, the monopoly generation utility is replaced by different electricity producers. There exists extreme price volatility caused by random failures by generation or/and transmission systems. In these cases, producers' profits can be much higher than those in the normal...... mechanisms for improving the restructured power system reliabilities have been designed in this paper. In the proposed incentive mechanisms, penalty will be implemented on a producer if the failures of its generator(s) result in the variation of electricity prices. Incentive market mechanisms can motivate...... state. The reliability management of producers usually cannot be directly controlled by the system operators in a restructured power system. Producers may have no motivation to improve their reliabilities, which can result in serious system unreliability issues in the new environment. Incentive market...

  19. Summary of prospective quantification of reimbursement recovery from inpatient acute care outliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Gerald S; Paulson, Albert S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify inpatient acute care hospital cases that are eligible for additional financial reimbursement. Acute care hospitals are reimbursed by third-party payers on behalf of their patients. Reimbursement is a fixed amount dependent primarily upon the diagnostic related group (DRG) of the case and the service intensity weight of the individual hospital. This method is used by nearly all third-party payers. For a given case, reimbursement is fixed (all else being equal) until a certain threshold level of charges, the cost outlier threshold, is reached. Above this amount the hospital is partially reimbursed for additional charges above the cost outlier threshold. Hospital discharge information has been described as having an error rate of between 7 and 22 percent in attribution of basic case characteristics. It can be expected that there is a significant error rate in the attribution of charges as well. This could be due to miscategorization of the case, misapplication of charges, or other causes. Identification of likely cases eligible for additional reimbursement would alleviate financial pressure where hospitals would have to absorb high expenses for outlier cases. Determining predicted values for total charges for each case was accomplished by exploring associative relationships between charges and case-specific variables. These variables were clinical, demographic, and administrative. Year-by-year comparisons show that these relationships appear stable throughout the five-year period under study. Beta coefficients developed in Year 1 are applied to develop predictions for Year 3 cases. This was also done for year pairs 2 and 4, and 3 and 5. Based on the predicted and actual value of charges, recovery amounts were calculated for each case in the second year of the year pairs. The year gap is necessary to allow for collection and analysis of the data of the first year of each pair. The analysis was performed in two parts

  20. Assessing cancer drugs for reimbursement: methodology, relationship between effect size and medical need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sahb-Berkovitch, Rima; Woronoff-Lemsi, Marie-Christine; Molimard, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    Reimbursement is assessed by the Transparency Commission from the Health Authority (HAS) using a medical benefit (SMR) score that gives access to reimbursement, an "improvement of medical service rendered" (ASMR) that determines the added therapeutic value, and the target population. Assessing cancer drugs for reimbursement raises the same issues as other therapeutic classes, with some key differences. Overall survival (OS) is considered by the Transparency Commission as the endpoint for assessing clinical benefit, and yet it is not an applicable primary endpoint in all types of cancer. Later lines of treatment, particularly during the development process, may make it difficult to interpret OS as the primary endpoint. Therefore, progression-free survival (PFS) for metastatic situations and disease-free survival (DFS) in adjuvant situations are wholly relevant endpoints for decisions on the reimbursement of a new cancer drug. Effect size is assessed using actuarial survival curves of the product versus the comparator, and it is difficult to summarise them into one single parameter. Results are generally interpreted based on median survival, which is fragmented because it only measures one point of the curve. The hazard ratio measures the effect of treatment throughout the duration of survival and is therefore more comprehensive in quantifying clinical benefit. Determining an effect size threshold for granting reimbursement is difficult given the diversity of cancer settings and the level of medical need, which influences assessment of the clinical relevance of the observed difference. Rapid progress in comparators (700 molecules in development) and the identification of predictive factors of efficacy (biomarkers, histology, etc.) during development may lead to different ASMR scores per population, or to the restriction of the target population to a subgroup of the marketing authorisation (MA) population in which the expected effect size is greater. To address these