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Sample records for non-modis mas flight

  1. UAV Robust Strategy Control Based on MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel multiagent system (MAS has been proposed to integrate individual UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle to form a UAV team which can accomplish complex missions with better efficiency and effect. The MAS based UAV team control is more able to conquer dynamic situations and enhance the performance of any single UAV. In this paper, the MAS proposed and established combines the reacting and thinking abilities to be an initiative and autonomous hybrid system which can solve missions involving coordinated flight and cooperative operation. The MAS uses BDI model to support its logical perception and to classify the different missions; then the missions will be allocated by utilizing auction mechanism after analyzing dynamic parameters. Prim potential algorithm, particle swarm algorithm, and reallocation mechanism are proposed to realize the rational decomposing and optimal allocation in order to reach the maximum profit. After simulation, the MAS has been proved to be able to promote the success ratio and raise the robustness, while realizing feasibility of coordinated flight and optimality of cooperative mission.

  2. High Tech M&As

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppenberg, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    of findings are not applicable to the high-tech industry; in fact this industry has many additional challenges. In this study, we aim to explore the process of M&A in the high-tech industry by drawing on extant literature and empirical field work. The paper outlines a research project in progress which...... intends to provide theoretical, empirical and practical contributions in answering the research question: what role does Operations and IT play in creating value in high-tech M&As? The research adds a needed perspective on M&A literature by unveiling unique challenges and opportunities faced by the M...

  3. Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank

    2015-08-01

    The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor.

  4. Intercomparison of MAS, AVIRIS, and HIS data from FIRE cirrus 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumley, Liam E.; King, Michael D.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gao, Bo-Cai; Arnold, G. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    The NASA ER-2 flight on 5 Dec. 1991 is unique among the FIRE Cirrus 2 missions in that data were acquired simultaneously by the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), and the High Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS). These data represent a unique source of information about the spatial and spectral properties of cirrus clouds. The MAS is a new instrument which will aid in defining algorithms and building an understanding of the ability of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to remotely sense atmospheric conditions for assessing global change. In order to establish confidence in the absolute calibration accuracy of the MAS radiances, an inter-comparison of MAS radiances with AVIRIS and HIS has been undertaken.

  5. MAS NMR of HIV-1 protein assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Quinn, Caitlin M.; Lu, Manman; Hou, Guangjin; Zhang, Huilan; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-04-01

    The negative global impact of the AIDS pandemic is well known. In this perspective article, the utility of magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy to answer pressing questions related to the structure and dynamics of HIV-1 protein assemblies is examined. In recent years, MAS NMR has undergone major technological developments enabling studies of large viral assemblies. We discuss some of these evolving methods and technologies and provide a perspective on the current state of MAS NMR as applied to the investigations into structure and dynamics of HIV-1 assemblies of CA capsid protein and of Gag maturation intermediates.

  6. Millimeter-Wave Atmospheric Sounder (MAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G. K.

    1988-01-01

    MAS is a remote sensing instrument for passive sounding (limb sounding) of the earth's atmosphere from the Space Shuttle. The main objective of the MAS is to study the composition and dynamic structure of the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere in the height range 20 to 100 km, the region known as the middle atmosphere. The MAS will be flown on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission scheduled for late 1990. The Millimeter-Wave Atmospheric Sounder will provide, for the first time, information obtained simultaneously on the temperature and on ozone concentrations in the 20 to 90 km altitude region. The information will cover a large area of the globe, will have high accuracy and high vertical resolution, and will cover both day and night times. Additionally, data on the two important molecules, H2O and ClO, will also be provided.

  7. The MicroMAS CubeSat Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoy, K.; Blackwell, W. J.; Allen, G.; Bury, M.; Efromson, R.; Galbraith, C.; Hancock, T.; Leslie, V.; Osaretin, I.; Retherford, L.; Scarito, M.; Shields, M.; Toher, D.; Wight, K.; Miller, D.; Marinan, A.; Paek, S.; Peters, E.; Schmidt, F. H.; Alvisio, B.; Wise, E.; Masterson, R.; Franzim Miranda, D.; Crail, C.; Kingsbury, R.; Souffrant, A.; Orrego, L.; Eslinger, G.; Nicholas, A.; Pong, C.

    2012-12-01

    The recently published Midterm Assessment of NASA's Implementation of the Decadal Survey finds that, "The nation's Earth observing system is beginning a rapid decline in capability as long-running missions end and key new missions are delayed, lost, or canceled. The projected loss of observing capability could have significant adverse consequences for science and society." In this presentation, we explore low-cost, mission-flexible, and rapidly deployable spaceborne sensors that can meet stringent performance requirements pervading the NASA Earth Science measurement programs, including especially the recommended NRC Decadal Survey missions. New technologies have enabled a novel approach toward this science observational goal, and in this paper we describe recent technology develop efforts to address the challenges above through the use of CubeSat radiometers. The Micro-sized Microwave Atmospheric Satellite (MicroMAS) is a 3U cubesat (30x10x10 cm, ~4kg) hosting a passive microwave spectrometer operating near the 118.75-GHz oxygen absorption line. The focus of the first MicroMAS mission (hereafter, MicroMAS-1) is to observe convective thunderstorms, tropical cyclones, and hurricanes from a near-equatorial orbit at approximately 500-km altitude. A MicroMAS flight unit is currently being developed in anticipation of a 2014 launch to be provided by NASA. A parabolic reflector is mechanically rotated as the spacecraft orbits the earth, thus directing a cross-track scanned beam with FWHM beamwidth of 2.4-degrees, yielding an approximately 25-km diameter footprint from a nominal altitude of 500 km. Radiometric calibration is carried out using observations of cold space, the earth's limb, and an internal noise diode that is weakly coupled through the RF front-end electronics. A key technology feature is the development of an ultra-compact intermediate frequency processor module for channelization, detection, and A-to-D conversion. The antenna system and RF front

  8. 48 CFR 538.271 - MAS contract awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false MAS contract awards. 538... Schedules 538.271 MAS contract awards. (a) MAS awards will be for commercial items as defined in FAR 2.101. Negotiate contracts as a discount from established catalog prices. (b) Before awarding any MAS contract...

  9. A social-democracia do MAS boliviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Simões Reis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O partido MAS, que governa a Bolívia e é liderado pelo presidente Evo Morales, geralmente é classificado como populista ou como revolucionário. Este artigo contesta ambos os diagnósticos, e sustenta que o MAS é um partido social-democrata. Tanto em sua gênese, como em seu comportamento na oposição, como em suas políticas no governo, o MAS apresenta todas as características necessárias para ser classificado como um representante da social-democracia. Para contestar os diagnósticos predominantes na literatura, o argumento desenvolve-se aplicando três distintas abordagens sobre a social-democracia. Uma comparação histórico-ideológica com os partidos tradicionalmente apontados como social-democratas mostra que o MAS assemelha-se a eles tanto em sua origem fortemente sindical como no tipo de mudança que introduziu na política do país. Uma análise institucional mostra que não procedem as acusações de que é antissistema e contrário à democracia, características associadas tanto aos "populistas", de acordo com "teóricos das duas esquerdas latino-americanas", como aos partidos adeptos da "revolução violenta". Por fim, uma análise das políticas adotadas pelo MAS no governo indica que estão alinhadas com aquelas consideradas como social-democráticas no contexto de integração dos mercados globais. Argumenta-se no texto que o MAS não é em geral classificado como social-democrata, em parte devido a uma visão equivocada sobre suas práticas, e em parte por uma tendência dos estudiosos a chamarem a atenção para o que lhe é específico, e não para o que ele tem em comum com outros partidos de esquerda, como é feito com quaisquer partidos ao catalogá-los em famílias.

  10. 一个多Agent系统规范--MAS/KIB%MAS/KIB--a Multiagent System Specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡舜耕; 钟义信

    2000-01-01

    采用K(知道),B(相信),I(意愿)等几个基本的心智状态,建立了一个多Agent系统逻辑规范-MAS/KIB,讨论了其语法、模型和语义,给出了公理和推理规则,研究了MAS/KIB的一些基本性质.

  11. Ultra-low temperature MAS-DNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel; Bouleau, Eric; Saint-Bonnet, Pierre; Hediger, Sabine; De Paëpe, Gaël

    2016-03-01

    Since the infancy of NMR spectroscopy, sensitivity and resolution have been the limiting factors of the technique. Regular essential developments on this front have led to the widely applicable, versatile, and powerful spectroscopy that we know today. However, the Holy Grail of ultimate sensitivity and resolution is not yet reached, and technical improvements are still ongoing. Hence, high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) making use of high-frequency, high-power microwave irradiation of electron spins has become very promising in combination with magic angle sample spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR experiments. This is because it leads to a transfer of the much larger polarization of these electron spins under suitable irradiation to surrounding nuclei, greatly increasing NMR sensitivity. Currently, this boom in MAS-DNP is mainly performed at minimum sample temperatures of about 100 K, using cold nitrogen gas to pneumatically spin and cool the sample. This Perspective deals with the desire to improve further the sensitivity and resolution by providing "ultra"-low temperatures for MAS-DNP, using cryogenic helium gas. Different designs on how this technological challenge has been overcome are described. It is shown that stable and fast spinning can be attained for sample temperatures down to 30 K using a large cryostat developed in our laboratory. Using this cryostat to cool a closed-loop of helium gas brings the additional advantage of sample spinning frequencies that can greatly surpass those achievable with nitrogen gas, due to the differing fluidic properties of these two gases. It is shown that using ultra-low temperatures for MAS-DNP results in substantial experimental sensitivity enhancements and according time-savings. Access to this temperature range is demonstrated to be both viable and highly pertinent.

  12. Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS) architecture and design accommodations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, L.; Racette, P.; Blackwell, W.; Galbraith, C.; Thompson, E.

    The Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMAS) is being developed at Lincoln Laboratories and accommodated by the Goddard Space Flight Center for a flight opportunity on a NASA research aircraft. The term “ hyperspectral microwave” is used to indicate an all-weather sounding that performs equivalent to hyperspectral infrared sounders in clear air with vertical resolution of approximately 1 km. Deploying the HyMAS equipped scanhead with the existing Conical Scanning Microwave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) shortens the path to a flight demonstration. Hyperspectral microwave is achieved through the use of independent RF antennas that sample the volume of the Earth's atmosphere through various levels of frequencies, thereby producing a set of dense, spaced vertical weighting functions. The simulations proposed for HyMAS 118/183-GHz system should yield surface precipitation rate and water path retrievals for small hail, soft hail, or snow pellets, snow, rainwater, etc. with accuracies comparable to those of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder. Further improvements in retrieval methodology (for example, polarization exploitation) are expected. The CoSMIR instrument is a packaging concept re-used on HyMAS to ease the integration features of the scanhead. The HyMAS scanhead will include an ultra-compact Intermediate Frequency Processor (IFP) module that is mounted inside the door to improve thermal management. The IFP is fabricated with materials made of Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology integrated with detectors, amplifiers, A/D conversion and data aggregation. The IFP will put out 52 channels of 16 bit data comprised of 4 - 9 channel data streams for temperature profiles and 2-8 channel streams for water vapor. With the limited volume of the existing CoSMIR scanhead and new HyMAS front end components, the HyMAS team at Goddard began preliminary layout work inside the new drum. Importing and re-using models of the shell, the s- an head

  13. Recent Results from the MicroMAS Global Environmental MonitoringNanosatellite Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, W. J.; Cahoy, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Micro-sized Microwave Atmospheric Satellite (MicroMAS) is a dual-spinning 3U CubeSat equipped with apassive microwave radiometer that observes in nine channels near the 118.75-GHz oxygen absorption line.MicroMAS is designed to observe convective thunderstorms, tropical cyclones, and hurricanes from a midinclinationorbit. The MicroMAS flight unit was developed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory and the MIT Space SystemsLaboratory and was launched to the International Space Station on July 13, 2014, and scheduled for an earlySeptember deployment for a ~90-day mission. The payload is housed in the "lower" 1U of the dual-spinning 3UCubeSat and mechanically rotated approximately once per second as the spacecraft orbits the Earth, resulting in across-track scanned beam with a full-width half-max (FWHM) beamwidth of 2.4 degrees and an approximately 17-km diameter footprint at nadir incidence from a nominal altitude of 400 km. The relatively low cost of MicroMASenables the deployment of a constellation of sensors, spaced equally around several orbit planes. A small fleet ofMicroMAS systems could yield high-resolution global temperature and water vapor profiles, as well as cloudmicrophysical and precipitation parameters.Significant advancements were made in the Assembly, Integration, and Test phase of the project developmentlifecycle. The flight software and communications architecture was refined and tested in relevant lab facilities. Thepower subsystem was modified to include additional required inhibits for the ISS launch. Hardware in the loop testsas well as simulations of the attitude determination and control system (ADCS) were performed to validate theunique dual-spinning, local vertical, local horizontal (LVLH) stabilized flight design. ADCS algorithms were testedon a 3-axis air bearing and custom rig inside a 3-axis programmable Helmholtz cage. Finally, the integratedspacecraft underwent a series of environmental tests in order to verify the results of thermal modeling

  14. 48 CFR 538.272 - MAS price reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false MAS price reductions. 538.272 Section 538.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL... Schedules 538.272 MAS price reductions. (a) Section 552.238-75, Price Reductions, requires the contractor to...

  15. UPLC-TOF-MS Characterization and Identification of Bioactive Iridoids in Cornus mas Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brett J.; Jensen, C. Jarakae

    2013-01-01

    Cornus mas L. is indigenous to Europe and parts of Asia. Although Cornus is widely considered to be an iridoid rich genera, only two iridoids have been previously found in this plant. The lack of information on taxonomically and biologically active iridoids prompted us to develop and optimize an analytical method for characterization of additional phytochemicals in C. mas fruit. An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with photodiode array spectrophotometry (PDA) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) was employed and mass parameters were optimized. Identification was made by elucidating the mass spectral data and further confirmed by comparing retention times and UV spectra of target peaks with those of reference compounds. Primary DNA damage and antigenotoxicity tests in E. coli PQ37 were used to screen the iridoids for biological activity. As a result, ten phytochemicals were identified, including iridoids loganic acid, loganin, sweroside, and cornuside. Nine of these were reported for the first time from C. mas fruit. The iridoids did not induce SOS repair of DNA, indicating a lack of genotoxic activity in E. coli PQ37. However, loganin, sweroside, and cornuside did reduce the amount of DNA damage caused by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide, suggesting potential antigenotoxic activity. PMID:24228188

  16. UPLC-TOF-MS Characterization and Identification of Bioactive Iridoids in Cornus mas Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixin Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornus mas L. is indigenous to Europe and parts of Asia. Although Cornus is widely considered to be an iridoid rich genera, only two iridoids have been previously found in this plant. The lack of information on taxonomically and biologically active iridoids prompted us to develop and optimize an analytical method for characterization of additional phytochemicals in C. mas fruit. An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC coupled with photodiode array spectrophotometry (PDA and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS was employed and mass parameters were optimized. Identification was made by elucidating the mass spectral data and further confirmed by comparing retention times and UV spectra of target peaks with those of reference compounds. Primary DNA damage and antigenotoxicity tests in E. coli PQ37 were used to screen the iridoids for biological activity. As a result, ten phytochemicals were identified, including iridoids loganic acid, loganin, sweroside, and cornuside. Nine of these were reported for the first time from C. mas fruit. The iridoids did not induce SOS repair of DNA, indicating a lack of genotoxic activity in E. coli PQ37. However, loganin, sweroside, and cornuside did reduce the amount of DNA damage caused by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide, suggesting potential antigenotoxic activity.

  17. Optimization of dental CBCT exposures through mAs reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, R; Seynaeve, L; Henriques, J C G; de Oliveira-Santos, C; Souza, P C; Westphalen, F H; Rubira-Bullen, I R F; Ribeiro-Rotta, R F; Rockenbach, M I B; Haiter-Neto, F; Pittayapat, P; Bosmans, H; Bogaerts, R; Jacobs, R

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of tube current-exposure time (mAs) reduction on clinical and technical image quality for different CBCT scanners, and to determine preliminary minimally acceptable values for the mAs and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in CBCT. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom and an anthropomorphic skull phantom, containing a human skeleton embedded in polyurethane, were scanned using four CBCT devices, including seven exposure protocols. For all protocols, the mAs was varied within the selectable range. Using the PMMA phantom, the CNRAIR was measured and corrected for voxel size. Eight axial slices and one coronal slice showing various anatomical landmarks were selected for each CBCT scan of the skull phantom. The slices were presented to six dentomaxillofacial radiologists, providing scores for various anatomical and diagnostic parameters. A hyperbolic relationship was seen between CNRAIR and mAs. Similarly, a gradual reduction in clinical image quality was seen at lower mAs values; however, for several protocols, image quality remained acceptable for a moderate or large mAs reduction compared with the standard exposure setting, depending on the clinical application. The relationship between mAs, CNRAIR and observer scores was different for each CBCT device. Minimally acceptable values for mAs were between 9 and 70, depending on the criterion and clinical application. Although noise increased at a lower mAs, clinical image quality often remained acceptable at exposure levels below the manufacturer's recommended setting, for certain patient groups. Currently, it is not possible to determine minimally acceptable values for image quality that are applicable to multiple CBCT models.

  18. A Construction Way of MAS Based on Organization Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Bo; FEI Qi; CHEN Xue-guang

    2002-01-01

    With emphasizing that the integration of autonomy and coordination is the basis for constructing multi-agent systems (MAS), we analyze the organizational characters inherent with MAS and point out that it's a natural and essential way to construct MAS based on organization theory. We consider that the emphasis of the theory is the process of system analyzing. Then we present an analysis frame to expound the process, which includes the process of organization definition, the process of role definition, the process of organizational structure definition and the process of interaction protocol definition. Lastly, we discuss some issues associated with the processes of system design and implementation.

  19. Endothelin-1 downregulates Mas receptor expression in human cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiheng; Tang, Yamei; Yang, Zuocheng; Liu, Shaojun; Liu, Yong; Li, Yan; He, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction. The Mas receptor is a functional binding site for angiotensin (Ang)‑(1-7), which is now considered a critical component of the RAS and exerts cardioprotective effects. To the best of our knowledge, the present study aimed to examine, for the first time, the effects of ET-1 on Mas expression in cultured human cardiomyocytes. Human cardiomyocytes were treated with ET-1 at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 nM) for varied time periods (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 or 6 h) with or without the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D, endothelin A (ETA) receptor blocker BQ123 and ETB receptor blocker BQ788, or different kinase inhibitors. ET-1 decreased the Mas mRNA level in a statistically significant dose- and time-dependent manner within 4.5 h, which was reflected in the dose-dependent downregulation of Mas promoter activity, Mas protein levels and Ang-(1-7) binding on the cell membrane. Actinomycin D (1 mg/ml), BQ123 (1 µM), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) siRNA and inhibitor PD169316 (25 µM), completely eliminated the inhibitory effects of ET-1 on Mas expression in human cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that ET-1 downregulates Mas expression at the transcription level in human cardiomyocytes via the ETA receptor by a p38 MAPK‑dependent mechanism. This study provides novel insights into the function of ET-1 and the Ang‑(1-7)/Mas axis in cardiac pathophysiology.

  20. Increased vascular sympathetic modulation in mice with Mas receptor deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello Casali, Karina; Ravizzoni Dartora, Daniela; Moura, Marina; Bertagnolli, Mariane; Bader, Michael; Haibara, Andrea; Alenina, Natalia; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Santos, Robson A

    2016-01-01

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas axis could modulate the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure variabilities (BPV) which are important predictors of cardiovascular risk and provide information about the autonomic modulation of the cardiovascular system. Therefore we investigated the effect of Mas deficiency on autonomic modulation in wild type and Mas-knockout (KO) mice. Blood pressure was recorded at high sample rate (4000 Hz). Stationary sequences of 200-250 beats were randomly chosen. Frequency domain analysis of HR and BPV was performed with an autoregressive algorithm on the pulse interval sequences and on respective systolic sequences. The KO group presented an increase of systolic arterial pressure (SAP; 127.26±11.20 vs 135.07±6.98 mmHg), BPV (3.54±1.54 vs 5.87±2.12 mmHg(2)), and low-frequency component of systolic BPV (0.12±0.11 vs 0.47±0.34 mmHg(2)). The deletion of Mas receptor is associated with an increase of SAP and with an increased BPV, indicating alterations in autonomic control. Increase of sympathetic vascular modulation in absence of Mas evidences the important role of Ang-(1-7)/Mas on cardiovascular regulation. Moreover, the absence of significant changes in HR and HRV can indicate an adaptation of autonomic cardiac balance. Our results suggest that the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis seems more important in autonomic modulation of arterial pressure than HR. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. High resolution MAS-NMR in combinatorial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, M J; Gounarides, J S

    High-resolution magic angle spinning (hr-MAS) NMR is a powerful tool for characterizing organic reactions on solid support. Because magic angle spinning reduces the line-broadening due to dipolar coupling and variations in bulk magnetic susceptibility, line widths approaching those obtained in solution-phase NMR can be obtained. The magic angle spinning method is amenable for use in conjunction with a variety of NMR-pulse sequences, making it possible to perform full-structure determinations and conformational analysis on compounds attached to a polymer support. Diffusion-weighted MAS-NMR methods such as SPEEDY (Spin-Echo-Enhanced Diffusion-Filtered Spectroscopy) can be used to remove unwanted signals from the solvent, residual reactants, and the polymer support from the MAS-NMR spectrum, leaving only those signals arising from the resin-bound product. This review will present the applications of high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR for use in combinatorial chemistry research.

  2. KINERJA USAHA TANAMAN HIAS POTONG PT PESONA DAUN MAS ASRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Arief Bangun Sanjaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesona Daun Mas Asri is a company in cut flowers  and leaves cultivation. The  achievement is shown by the performance of the company. The overall company’s performance contributes in developing the company’s vision. Balanced score card is a management tool used to observe and maintain the stability between financial indicators (financial perspective and non financial indicators (customer, business internal process, growth and learning.  The objective of the journal is to plan the performance of the company using balanced scorecard approach, analyze and calculate the vision, mission and strategy implemented by Pesona Daun Mas in it business activity..  The result for every strategic target shows that the performance of Pesona Daun Mas is excellent with the achieved score of 78,04%.  However the target for the selling growth level and marketing activities are classified as average which means that it still needs to be developed.   Keywords:  balanced scorecard, performance evaluation, KPI performance index, ornamental plants cutAbstrakPesona Daun Mas Asri merupakan perusahaan yang bergerak dalam bidang budi daya bunga potong dan daun potong. Pencapaian dalam menjalankan sebuah perusahaan dapat dilihat dari kinerja perusahaan tersebut.Kinerja perusahaan Pesona Daun Mas Asri secara keseluruhan dapat berkontribusi untuk mengembangkan perusahaan dalam mencapai visi. Balanced scorecard adalah salah satu alat manajemen yang dapat melihat dan menjaga keseimbangan antara indikator keuangan (perspektif keuangan dan indikator non-keuangan (pelanggan, proses bisnisinternal, pertumbuhan dan pembelajaran. Tujuan dari jurnal ini adalah untuk merancang pengukuran kinerja perusahaan dengan pendekatan Balanced scorecard. Penelitian ini juga bertujuan menganalisis dan mengukur pelaksanaan visi, misi dan strategi yang dijalankan oleh Pesona Daun Mas Asri dalam kegiatan bisnisnya. Selain itu, memberikan saran dan rekomendasi, serta merumuskan implikasi

  3. Structural biology applications of solid state MAS DNP NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbey, Ümit; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has long been an aim for increasing sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, delivering spectra in shorter experiment times or of smaller sample amounts. In recent years, it has been applied in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR to a large range of samples, including biological macromolecules and functional materials. New research directions in structural biology can be envisaged by DNP, facilitating investigations on very large complexes or very heterogeneous samples. Here we present a summary of state of the art DNP MAS NMR spectroscopy and its applications to structural biology, discussing the technical challenges and factors affecting DNP performance.

  4. O sentido argumentativo do articulador mas no discurso oral

    OpenAIRE

    Nesello, Marcela Cristiane

    2008-01-01

    Esta pesquisa tem por objetivo estudar o sentido do articulador mas no discurso oral pela Teoria da Argumentação na Língua de Oswald Ducrot e colaboradores. Temos o propósito de identificar e analisar os sentidos que o articulador mas assume no discurso oral, bem como suas diferentes funções, por isso trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa. Também é objetivo desta pesquisa identificar os encadeamentos precedentes e subseqüentes ao articulador. Para esses fins, apresentamos estudos sobre o artic...

  5. The evolution of the MasAgro hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho-Villa, Tania Carolina; Almekinders, Conny; Hellin, Jon; Martinez-Cruz, Tania Eulalia; Rendon-Medel, Roberto; Guevara-Hernández, Francisco; Beuchelt, Tina D.; Govaerts, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about effective ways to operationalize agricultural innovation processes. We use the MasAgro program in Mexico (which aims to increase maize and wheat productivity, profitability and sustainability), and the experiences of middle level ‘hub managers’, to understand how innov

  6. Angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and receptor Mas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villela, Daniel; Leonhardt, Julia; Patel, Neal

    2015-01-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor Mas are components of the protective arms of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), i.e. they both mediate tissue protective and regenerative actions. The spectrum of actions of these two receptors and their signalling mechanisms display striking...

  7. Size-exclusion chromatographic NMR under HR-MAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena Alcalde, Guillermo; Anderson, Natalie; Day, Iain J

    2017-05-01

    The addition of stationary phases or sample modifiers can be used to modify the separation achievable in the diffusion domain of diffusion NMR experiments or provide information on the nature of the analyte-sample modifier interaction. Unfortunately, the addition of insoluble chromatographic stationary phases can lead to line broadening and degradation in spectral resolution, largely because of differences in magnetic susceptibility between the sample and the stationary phase. High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) techniques can be used to remove this broadening. Here, we attempt the application of HR-MAS to size-exclusion chromatographic NMR with limited success. Observed diffusion coefficients for polymer molecular weight reference standards are shown to be larger than those obtained on static samples. Further investigation reveals that under HR-MAS it is possible to obtain reasonably accurate estimates of diffusion coefficients, using either full rotor synchronisation or sophisticated pulse sequences. The requirement for restricting the sample to the centre of the MAS rotor to ensure homogeneous magnetic and RF fields is also tested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. High-temperature MAS-NMR at high spinning speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhain, Holger; Holzinger, Julian; Mainka, Adrian; Spörhase, Andreas; Venkatachalam, Sabarinathan; Wixforth, Achim; van Wüllen, Leo

    2016-09-01

    A low cost version to enable high temperature MAS NMR experiments at temperatures of up to 700°C and spinning speeds of up to 10kHz is presented. The method relies on inductive heating using a metal coated rotor insert. The metal coating is accomplished via a two step process involving physical vapor deposition and galvanization.

  9. The evolution of the MasAgro hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho-Villa, Tania Carolina; Almekinders, Conny; Hellin, Jon; Martinez-Cruz, Tania Eulalia; Rendon-Medel, Roberto; Guevara-Hernández, Francisco; Beuchelt, Tina D.; Govaerts, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about effective ways to operationalize agricultural innovation processes. We use the MasAgro program in Mexico (which aims to increase maize and wheat productivity, profitability and sustainability), and the experiences of middle level ‘hub managers’, to understand how

  10. A Vision in Jeopardy: Royal Navy Maritime Autonomous Systems (MAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    article in The Economist, which observed that to break from the structures of Augustine’s 16th Law and unaffordable cost trends, defense needed a...52 Bibliography ...developed, not by the RN, but by the industrial and scientific research communities. Hoping to encourage the RN to invest in unmanned and MAS

  11. Residue specific hydration of primary cell wall potato pectin identified by solid-state 13C single-pulse MAS and CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming H; Byg, Inge; Damager, Iben

    2011-01-01

    Hydration of rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) derived from potato cell wall was analyzed by 13C single-pulse (SP) magic-angle-spinning (MAS) and 13C cross-polarization (CP) MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and supported by 2H SP/MAS NMR experiments. The study shows that the arabinan side chains...

  12. [Hepatic manifestation of a macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Michael; Schwarting, Andreas; Straub, Beate K; Galle, Peter R; Zimmermann, Tim

    2017-05-01

    Background Elevated liver values are the most common pathological laboratory result in Germany. Frequent findings, especially in younger patients, are nutritive- or medicamentous- toxic reasons, viral or autoimmune hepatitis. A macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) may manifest like a viral infectious disease with fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia and is associated with a high mortality. It is based on an enhanced activation of macrophages with increased cytokine release, leading to organ damage and multi-organ failure. In addition to genetic causes, MAS is commonly associated with infections and rheumatic diseases. We report the case of a 26-year-old female patient suffering from MAS as a rare cause of elevated liver enzymes. Methods Patient characteristics, laboratory values, liver histology, bone marrow and radiological imaging were documented and analyzed. Case Report After an ordinary upper airway infection with bronchitis, a rheumatic arthritis appeared and was treated with leflunomide und methotrexate. In the further course of the disease, the patient developed an acute hepatitis with fever, pancytopenia and massive hyperferritinemia. Immunohistochemistry of the liver biopsy revealed hemophagocytosis and activation of CD68-positive macrophages. In the radiological and histological diagnostics of the liver and bone marrow, an MAS was diagnosed as underlying disease of the acute hepatitis. Under therapy with prednisolone, the fever disappeared and transaminases and ferritin rapidly normalized. Conclusion Aside from the frequent causes of elevated liver values in younger patients, such as nutritive toxic, drug induced liver injury, viral or autoimmune hepatitis, especially in case of massive hyperferritinemia, a MAS should be considered as a rare cause of acute liver disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. 1H MAS and 1H --> 31P CP/MAS NMR study of human bone mineral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaflak-Hachulska, A; Samoson, A; Kolodziejski, W

    2003-11-01

    Chemical structure of human bone mineral was studied by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with magic-angle spinning (MAS). Trabecular and cortical bone samples from adult subjects were compared with mineral standards: hydroxyapatite (HA), hydrated and calcined, carbonatoapatite of type B with 9 wt% of CO3(2-) (CHA-B), brushite (BRU) and mixtures of HA with BRU. Proton spectra were acquired with excellent spectral resolution provided by ultra-high speed MAS at 40 kHz. 2D 1H-31P NMR heteronuclear correlation was achieved by cross-polarization (CP) under fast MAS at 12 kHz. 31P NMR was applied with CP from protons under slow MAS at 1 kHz. Appearance of 31P rotational sidebands together with their CP kinetics were analyzed. It was suggested that the sidebands of CP spectra are particularly suitable for monitoring the state of apatite crystal surfaces. The bone samples appeared to be deficient in structural hydroxyl groups analogous to those in HA. We found no direct evidence that the HPO4(2-) brushite-like ions are present in bone mineral. The latter problem is extensively discussed in the literature. The study proves there is a similarity between CHA-B and bone mineral expressed by their similar NMR behavior.

  14. Stabilization of the angiotensin-(1-7) receptor Mas through interaction with PSD95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Weihua; Sun, Licui; Yang, Longyan; Li, Ji-Feng; Hu, Jia; Zheng, Shuai; Guo, Ruihan; Feng, Duiping; Ma, Qian; Shi, Xiaocui; Xiong, Ying; Yang, Xiaomei; Song, Ran; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Songlin; He, Junqi

    2013-08-01

    The functions and signalling mechanisms of the Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)] receptor Mas have been studied extensively. However, less attention has been paid to the intracellular regulation of Mas protein. In the present study, PSD95 (postsynaptic density 95), a novel binding protein of Mas receptor, was identified, and their association was characterized further. Mas specifically interacts with PDZ1-2, but not the PDZ3, domain of PSD95 via Mas-CT (Mas C-terminus), and the last four amino acids [ETVV (Glu-Thr-Val-Val)] of Mas-CT were determined to be essential for this interaction, as shown by GST pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation and confocal co-localization experiments. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies indicated that PSD95 enhanced Mas protein expression by increasing the stabilization of the receptor. Mas degradation was robustly inhibited by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 in time- and dose-dependent manners, and the expression of PSD95 impaired Mas ubiquitination, indicating that the PSD95-Mas association inhibits Mas receptor degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. These findings reveal a novel mechanism of Mas receptor regulation by which its expression is modulated at the post-translational level by ubiquitination, and clarify the role of PSD95, which binds directly to Mas, blocking the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of the receptor via the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway.

  15. ERP sistēmas ieviešana

    OpenAIRE

    Proskurins, Aleksandrs

    2008-01-01

    Šajā darbā tika apskatīta informācijas sistēmu klasifikācija, uzņēmuma resursu plānošanas sistēmas (ERP) definīcija un tās vieta IS klasifikācijā. Tika apskatīti ERP sistēmu ieviešanas teorētiskie aspekti, izstrādes un pielāgošanas specifika, kā arī tika izanalizēti vairāki ERP sistēmas ieviešanas projekti Latvijas uzņēmumos.

  16. Cross ambiguity functions on the MasPar MP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, D.A.; Pryor, D.V. [Superconducting Research Center, Bowie, MD (United States); Frock, C.K. [and others

    1995-12-01

    In a signal processing environment, cross ambiguity functions are often used to detect when one signal is a time and/or frequency shift of another. They consist of multiple cross-correlations, which can be computed efficiently using complex valued FFTs. This paper discusses the implementation of cross ambiguity functions on the MasPar MP-2, a SIMD processor array. Two different implementations are developed. The first computes each cross ambiguity function serially, using FFT code that parallelizes across the complete set of processors. The second uses the MasPar IORAM to realign the data so that the cross ambiguity functions can be computed in parallel. In this case, multiple FFTs are executed in parallel on subsets of the processors, which lowers the overall amount of communication required.

  17. ERP sistēmas ieviešana

    OpenAIRE

    Proskurins, Aleksandrs

    2008-01-01

    Šajā darbā tika apskatīta informācijas sistēmu klasifikācija, uzņēmuma resursu plānošanas sistēmas (ERP) definīcija un tās vieta IS klasifikācijā. Tika apskatīti ERP sistēmu ieviešanas teorētiskie aspekti, izstrādes un pielāgošanas specifika, kā arī tika izanalizēti vairāki ERP sistēmas ieviešanas projekti Latvijas uzņēmumos.

  18. Solvent signal suppression for high-resolution MAS-DNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel; Chaudhari, Sachin R.; De Paëpe, Gaël

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has become a powerful tool to substantially increase the sensitivity of high-field magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR experiments. The addition of dissolved hyperpolarizing agents usually results in the presence of solvent signals that can overlap and obscure those of interest from the analyte. Here, two methods are proposed to suppress DNP solvent signals: a Forced Echo Dephasing experiment (FEDex) and TRAnsfer of Populations in DOuble Resonance Echo Dephasing (TRAPDORED) NMR. These methods reintroduce a heteronuclear dipolar interaction that is specific to the solvent, thereby forcing a dephasing of recoupled solvent spins and leaving acquired NMR spectra free of associated resonance overlap with the analyte. The potency of these methods is demonstrated on sample types common to MAS-DNP experiments, namely a frozen solution (of L-proline) and a powdered solid (progesterone), both containing deuterated glycerol as a DNP solvent. The proposed methods are efficient, simple to implement, compatible with other NMR experiments, and extendable past spectral editing for just DNP solvents. The sensitivity gains from MAS-DNP in conjunction with FEDex or TRAPDORED then permits rapid and uninterrupted sample analysis.

  19. PERBAIKAN MUTU GENETIK IKAN MAS RAJADANU MELALUI SELEKSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Radona

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ikan mas rajadanu mempunyai karakter cepat tumbuh dan tahan penyakit. Selective breeding merupakan salah satu upaya dalam peningkatan mutu induk dan benih. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat respons pertumbuhan dan nilai heritabilitas pada ikan mas rajadanu (F-3 yang berpotensi tumbuh lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan generasi sebelumnya (F-2. Pembentukan ikan mas rajadanu F-3 dilakukan dengan metode hierarki (satu jantan membuahi empat betina. Pengujian respons seleksi dilakukan terhadap benih hasil pemijahan induk ikan mas rajadanu F-2 yang terseleksi. Terbentuk sebanyak 25 famili dan dipelihara secara terpisah selama 160 hari pada kolam beton ukuran 1,5 m x 1 m dengan ketinggian air 60 cm. Kolam digunakan sebanyak 25 buah. Respons seleksi dihitung dengan melihat nilai rata-rata pertumbuhan F-3 dibandingkan dengan F-2. Hasil penelitian menunjukan performa ikan mas rajadanu F-3 memiliki nilai respons seleksi (14,20 g; nilai heritabilitas (0,60; pertambahan bobot (41,63 ± 10,51 g; dan pertambahan panjang (9,86 ± 1,43 cm. Rajadanu carp strain have character of fast growing and disease resistant. Selective breeding is one of an attempts can be appllied to improve the broodstock and seed quality genetically. This research was aims to see response of growth and heritability value of F-3 on carp rajadanu that potentially grow faster compared with previous generation (F-2. The F-3 carp rajadanu was designated with hierarchy method (one males fertilize four female. The F-3 was derived from F-2 and formed 25 families. Those families were maintained for 160 days on pond with size of 1.5 m x 1 m and water depth of 60 cm. The response selection was calculated by choosing the best individuals of each based on ADG (averange daily growth. The research result show that the values of response selection was 14.20 g, heritability value of 0.60, weight, and length gain were 41.63 g and 9.86 cm, respectively.

  20. Miracle Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her future. Donate Now Make your donation today Saving Lives One Flight At A ... “To improve access to health care by providing financial assistance to low income children for commercial air ...

  1. Using flight simulators aboard ships: human side effects of an optimal scenario with smooth seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Eric R; Lawson, Ben

    2003-05-01

    The U.S. Navy is considering placing flight simulators aboard ships. It is known that certain types of flight simulators can elicit motion adaptation syndrome (MAS), and also that certain types of ship motion can cause MAS. The goal of this study was to determine if using a flight simulator during ship motion would cause MAS, even when the simulator stimulus and the ship motion were both very mild. All participants in this study completed three conditions. Condition 1 (Sim) entailed "flying" a personal computer-based flight simulator situated on land. Condition 2 (Ship) involved riding aboard a U.S. Navy Yard Patrol boat. Condition 3 (ShipSim) entailed "flying" a personal computer-based flight simulator while riding aboard a Yard Patrol boat. Before and after each condition, participants' balance and dynamic visual acuity were assessed. After each condition, participants filled out the Nausea Profile and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Following exposure to a flight simulator aboard a ship, participants reported negligible symptoms of nausea and simulator sickness. However, participants exhibited a decrease in dynamic visual acuity after exposure to the flight simulator aboard ship (T[25] = 3.61, p flight simulators can be used aboard ship. As a minimal safety precaution, these simulators should be used according to current safety practices for land-based simulators. Optimally, these simulators should be designed to minimize MAS, located near the ship's center of rotation and used when ship motion is not provocative.

  2. MAS及其相关概念%MAS and Correlation Conceptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程显毅; 董红斌

    2000-01-01

    The researching of MAS originates from distributed artificial intelligence ,because new theory framework is provided for solving some problems in complex and distributed environment ,MAS is valued increasingly by computer ,automatic control and management science.

  3. Marker-assisted-selection (MAS): A fast track to increase genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MAS have been widely used for simple inherited traits than for polygenic traits, although there are few success stories in improving quantitative traits through MAS. ... Key words: DNA sequence, gene introgression, genetic maps, germplasm ...

  4. 77 FR 43084 - Multiple Award Schedule (MAS) Program Continuous Open Season-Operational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Multiple Award Schedule (MAS) Program Continuous Open Season- Operational Change AGENCY: Federal... to assess and improve the performance of the Multiple Award Schedule (MAS) contracts operated by GSA. GSA is proposing this operational change to enhance the performance of and modernize the MAS program...

  5. 47 CFR 101.1317 - Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exclusive MAS EA applications. 101.1317 Section 101.1317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... License Requirements § 101.1317 Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications. Mutually exclusive initial applications for licenses in the portions of the MAS bands licensed on a...

  6. 48 CFR 538.270 - Evaluation of multiple award schedule (MAS) offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... award schedule (MAS) offers. 538.270 Section 538.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL... and Administering Federal Supply Schedules 538.270 Evaluation of multiple award schedule (MAS) offers... negotiation objectives and determining price reasonableness, compare the terms and conditions of the MAS...

  7. What drives cross-border M&As in commercial banking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galamhussen, Mohamed; Hennart, Jean-Francois; Pinheiro, Carlos Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Using a gravity model, we analyze the determinants of the probability that commercial banks in 89 acquiring countries and 118 target countries will undertake M&As over a 30-year period (1981–2010) and of the value of these M&As. We find that the value of cross-border M&As increases with the size of

  8. Nacionalismo e indigenismo en el gobierno del MAS

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga, Fernando; Rodríguez, Benjamín

    2010-01-01

    En los últimos años se ha modificado el mapa político de América latina con resultados electorales que indican una idea genérica de “giro a la izquierda”, imponiendo paulatinamente una taxonomía que distingue gobiernos socialdemócratas y gobiernos populistas. En Bolivia el arribo al gobierno del Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS) en enero de 2006 y la reelección presidencial de Evo Morales, despliega el proceso de una profunda reforma estatal que articula las demandas sociales en torno al naciona...

  9. Reforma integral masía Casa Flac

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Reyes, Sara

    2014-01-01

    La Masía Casa Flac se encuentra en un entorno rural rodeado de montañas en pleno Pirineo Catalán. Es una edificación compuesta por diferentes casas y pajares construidas en distintas épocas y etapas, para satisfacer las necesidades de sus habitantes a medida que iban desarrollando su actividad agricultora y ganadera. La primera edificación del conjunto data de finales los años 1800 y ha estado expuesta a modificaciones hasta este año, ha tenido pues un mantenimiento mínimo aunq...

  10. MAS-SCM for Auto Sector-The Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Sindhu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe in detail the development status of the innovative Multi -Agent based supply chain management (MAS-SCMAS for auto sector. This study was undertaken in view of the significance of improvement in efficiency of automobile sector and the development of a good multi-agent system framework to achieve that. The factors affecting the efficiency or OEE of the industry and the efficiency properties were identified. It was clearly revealed that the available model do not fulfill the needs in the supply chain management of automobile industry and there is a scope for evolving new model resulting in better efficiency.

  11. 基于对策论的MAS-BDI主体模型%Modeling MAS-BDI Agent in Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴朝晖; 忻栋; 潘云鹤

    2001-01-01

    BDI Agent will choose the intention, which has minimal penalty and maximal income, to achieve its goal. While in multi-Agent system,it is hard for the Agent to find the best intention,not only because of the lack of information,but also the high complexity ot computation. The factors ,which will affect the Agents' decision-making,are the cooperation state of Agents ,the Agents' reasoning process,etc. In this paper,we introduce a new model of MAS-BDI Agent based on game theory,and propose the intention selection strategy for a single BDI Agent, (cooperated)multi-Agent and(uncooperated)multiAgent.

  12. MAS C-Terminal Tail Interacting Proteins Identified by Mass Spectrometry- Based Proteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirupula, Kalyan C; Zhang, Dongmei; Osbourne, Appledene; Chatterjee, Arunachal; Desnoyer, Russ; Willard, Belinda; Karnik, Sadashiva S

    2015-01-01

    Propagation of signals from G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in cells is primarily mediated by protein-protein interactions. MAS is a GPCR that was initially discovered as an oncogene and is now known to play an important role in cardiovascular physiology. Current literature suggests that MAS interacts with common heterotrimeric G-proteins, but MAS interaction with proteins which might mediate G protein-independent or atypical signaling is unknown. In this study we hypothesized that MAS C-terminal tail (Ct) is a major determinant of receptor-scaffold protein interactions mediating MAS signaling. Mass-spectrometry based proteomic analysis was used to comprehensively identify the proteins that interact with MAS Ct comprising the PDZ-binding motif (PDZ-BM). We identified both PDZ and non-PDZ proteins from human embryonic kidney cell line, mouse atrial cardiomyocyte cell line and human heart tissue to interact specifically with MAS Ct. For the first time our study provides a panel of PDZ and other proteins that potentially interact with MAS with high significance. A 'cardiac-specific finger print' of MAS interacting PDZ proteins was identified which includes DLG1, MAGI1 and SNTA. Cell based experiments with wild-type and mutant MAS lacking the PDZ-BM validated MAS interaction with PDZ proteins DLG1 and TJP2. Bioinformatics analysis suggested well-known multi-protein scaffold complexes involved in nitric oxide signaling (NOS), cell-cell signaling of neuromuscular junctions, synapses and epithelial cells. Majority of these protein hits were predicted to be part of disease categories comprising cancers and malignant tumors. We propose a 'MAS-signalosome' model to stimulate further research in understanding the molecular mechanism of MAS function. Identifying hierarchy of interactions of 'signalosome' components with MAS will be a necessary step in future to fully understand the physiological and pathological functions of this enigmatic receptor.

  13. TOKSISITAS LETAL MOLUSKISIDA NIKLOSAMIDA PADA BENIH IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosmaniar Yosmaniar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan moluskisida untuk menanggulangi hama dalam budidaya tanaman padi yang semakin meningkat berpotensi mencemari lingkungan perairan, karena mengandung residu dari bahan aktifnya. Moluskisida niklosamida (C13H8Cl2N2O4 merupakan bahan aktif pestisida yang digunakan untuk memberantas hama keong mas atau siput murbei (Pomacea sp. di sawah. Dengan demikian, bahan tersebut memiliki potensi untuk mencemari lahan tempat usaha budidaya ikan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi toksisitas akut niklosamida terhadap benih ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio yang ditunjukkan oleh nilai Median Lethal Concentration (LC50 24, 48, dan 96 jam. Penelitian dilakukan di Instalasi Riset Lingkungan Perikanan Budidaya dan Toksikologi, Cibalagung-Bogor. Menggunakan ikan mas dengan bobot individu 2,47 ± 0,13 g. Moluskisida yang digunakan mengandung bahan aktif niklosamida 250g/L. Wadah pengujian berupa 21 unit akuarium kaca berukuran 40 cm x 20 cm x 20 cm yang dilengkapi aerasi serta saluran pemasukan dan pengeluaran. Jumlah ikan uji setiap wadah 10 ekor dengan peubah yang diukur adalah mortalitas ikan. Selama penelitian ikan tidak diberi makan. Tahapan penelitian terdiri atas penentuan nilai ambang atas-bawah, nilai lethal time dan LC50 -24, 48, 72, dan 96 jam. Data diolah dengan analisis probit program LC50. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai LC50-24, 48, 72, dan 96 jam terhadap benih ikan mas adalah 0,8012 (0,7140—0,8990; 0,5999 (0,5356—0,6719; 0,4511 (0,4067—0,5004; dan 0,3849 mg/L (0,3684—0,4061. Hal ini menunjukkan niklosamida termasuk pestisida yang memiliki toksisitas sangat tinggi (golongan A. The use of molluscicide in aquatic as well as in terresterial agro ecosystem without properly controlled may produce detrimental effects on freshwater fisheries. Molluscicide utilization for golden apple snail (Pomacea sp. control in rice field has increased. The ingredient potencially has a possibility to pollute aquaculture water. The

  14. Food Waste Composting Study from Makanan Ringan Mas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Ismail, S. N. M.; Jamaludin, S. N.

    2016-07-01

    The poor management of municipal solid waste in Malaysia has worsened over the years especially on food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% of the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Composting is one of low cost alternative method to dispose the food waste. This study is conducted to compost the food waste generation in Makanan Ringan Mas, which is a medium scale industry in Parit Kuari Darat due to the lack knowledge and exposure of food waste recycling practice. The aim of this study is to identify the physical and chemical parameters of composting food waste from Makanan Ringan Mas. The physical parameters were tested for temperature and pH value and the chemical parameter are Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. In this study, backyard composting was conducted with 6 reactors. Tapioca peel was used as fermentation liquid and soil and coconut grated were used as the fermentation bed. Backyard composting was conducted with six reactors. The overall results from the study showed that the temperature of the reactors were within the range which are from 30° to 50°C. The result of this study revealed that all the reactors which contain processed food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 5 to 6 which can be categorized as slightly acidic. Meanwhile, the reactors which contained raw food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 7 to 8 which can be categorized as neutral. The highest NPK obtained is from Reactor B that process only raw food waste. The average value of Nitrogen is 48540 mg/L, Phosphorus is 410 mg/L and Potassium is 1550 mg/L. From the comparison with common chemical fertilizer, it shows that NPK value from the composting are much lower than NPK of the common chemical fertilizer. However, comparison with NPK of organic fertilizer shown only slightly difference value in NPK.

  15. Multiple non-coding exons and alternative splicing in the mouse Mas protooncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenina, Natalia; Böhme, Ilka; Bader, Michael; Walther, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The Mas protooncogene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor with the common seven transmembrane domains, expressed mainly in the testis and brain. We provided evidence that Mas is a functional angiotensin-(1-7) receptor and can interact with the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor. The gene is transcriptionally regulated during development in the brain and testis, but its structure was unresolved. In this study we used 5'- and 3'-RACE, RT-PCR, and RNase-protection assays to elucidate the complete Mas gene structure and organization. We identified 12 exons in the mouse Mas gene with 11 in the 5' untranslated mRNA, which can be alternatively spliced. We also showed that Mas transcription can start from 4 tissue-specific promoters, whereby testis-specific Mas mRNA is transcribed from two upstream promoters, and the expression of Mas in the brain starts from two downstream promoters. Alternative splicing and multiple promoter usage result in at least 12 Mas transcripts in which different 5' untranslated regions are fused to a common coding sequence. Moreover, termination of Mas mRNA is regulated by two different polyadenylation signals. The gene spans approximately 27 kb, and the longest detected mRNA contains 2,451 bp. Thus, our results characterize the Mas protooncogene as the gene with the most complex gene structure of all described members of the gene family coding for G protein-coupled receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic allergic pulmonary inflammation is aggravated in angiotensin-(1-7) Mas receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Giselle S; Rodrigues-Machado, Maria Glória; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A; Barcelos, Lucíola S; Campagnole-Santos, Maria José

    2016-12-01

    The angiotensin-(1-7) [ANG-(1-7)]/Mas receptor pathway is currently recognized as a counterbalancing mechanism of the renin-angiotensin system in different pathophysiological conditions. We have previously described that treatment with ANG-(1-7) attenuates lung inflammation and remodeling in an experimental model of asthma. In the present study, we investigated whether lack of the Mas receptor could alter the inflammatory response in a model of chronic allergic lung inflammation induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Mas receptor wild-type (MasWT) and knockout (MasKO) mice were subjected to four doses of OVA (20 μg/mice ip) with a 14-day interval. At the 21st day, nebulization with OVA (1%) was started, three times per week until the 46th day. Control groups received saline (0.9% ip) and were nebulized with saline (0.9%). MasWT-OVA developed a modest inflammatory response and minor pulmonary remodeling to OVA challenge. Strikingly, MasKO-OVA presented a significant increase in inflammatory cell infiltrate, increase in extracellular matrix deposition, increase in thickening of the alveolar parenchyma, increase in thickening of the smooth muscle layer of the pulmonary arterioles, increase in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in the lungs, characteristic of chronic asthma. Additionally, MasKO-OVA presented an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation compared with MasWT-OVA. Furthermore, MasKO-OVA showed a worse performance in a test of maximum physical exercise compared with MasWT-OVA. Our study shows that effects triggered by the Mas receptor are important to attenuate the inflammatory and remodeling processes in a model of allergic lung inflammation in mice. Our data indicate that impairment of the ANG-(1-7)/Mas receptor pathway may lead to worsening of the pathophysiological changes of asthma. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Reverse Induced Fit-Driven MAS-Downstream Transduction: Looking for Metabotropic Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernomian, Larissa; Gomes, Mayara Santos; de Paula da Silva, Carlos Henrique Tomich; Campos, Joaquin

    2017-09-11

    The protective effects assigned to MAS receptors activation have spurred a great interest in the development of MAS agonists for clinical purposes. However, the current bases that drive the design of these ligands preclude important concepts recently addressed for MAS activation. Emerging data confirmed that physiological concentrations of peptide MAS agonists induce an atypical signaling that does not reach the metabotropic efficacy of constitutive MAS activation. The canonical activation of MAS-coupled G proteins is only achieved by supraphysiological concentrations of peptide MAS agonists or physiological concentrations of chemically modified analogues. These pleiotropic differences are because of two overlapped but non-identical ligand binding domains (LBD): one non-metabotropic site that recognizes peptide agonists and one metabotropic domain that recognizes modified analogues. Accordingly, it is feasible that supraphysiological concentrations of peptide MAS agonists undergo to chemical modifications that make them suitable for binding to the metabotropic LBD. Recent advances on Receptor Theory confirmed that G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) oligomerization enhances pharmacological parameters coupled to metabotropic signaling from GPCR ligands, including MAS agonists. For instance, the formation of GPCR-signalosome complex (higher order heteroligomers of GPCR involved in signaling crosstalk) makes the transduction of agonists a more adaptive signal. Considering the recent identification of MAS-signalosome, we postulate the reverse induced fit hypothesis in which MAS-signalosome would trigger chemical modifications required for agonists bind to the metabotropic MAS/LBD. In view of this hypothesis, we cover rational perspectives that consider this information for the development of novel metabotropic MAS agonists provided with constitutive efficacy at physiological concentrations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Remote Sensing of Radiative and Microphysical Properties of Clouds During TC (sup 4): Results from MAS, MASTER, MODIS, and MISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Wind, Galina; Arnold, G. Thomas; Dominguez, Roseanne T.

    2010-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS) and MODIS/Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Airborne Simulator (MASTER) were used to obtain measurements of the bidirectional reflectance and brightness temperature of clouds at 50 discrete wavelengths between 0.47 and 14.2 microns (12.9 microns for MASTER). These observations were obtained from the NASA ER-2 aircraft as part of the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) experiment conducted over Central America and surrounding Pacific and Atlantic Oceans between 17 July and 8 August 2007. Multispectral images in eleven distinct bands were used to derive a confidence in clear sky (or alternatively the probability Of cloud) over land and ocean ecosystems. Based on the results of individual tests run as part of the cloud mask, an algorithm was developed to estimate the phase of the clouds (liquid water, ice, or undetermined phase). The cloud optical thickness and effective radius were derived for both liquid water and ice clouds that were detected during each flight, using a nearly identical algorithm to that implemented operationally to process MODIS Cloud data from the Aqua and Terra satellites (Collection 5). This analysis shows that the cloud mask developed for operational use on MODIS, and tested using MAS and MASTER data in TC(sup 4), is quite capable of distinguishing both liquid water and ice clouds during daytime conditions over both land and ocean. The cloud optical thickness and effective radius retrievals use five distinct bands of the MAS (or MASTER), and these results were compared with nearly simultaneous retrievals of marine liquid water clouds from MODIS on the Terra spacecraft. Finally, this MODIS-based algorithm was adapted to Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) data to infer the cloud optical thickness Of liquid water clouds from MISR. Results of this analysis are compared and contrasted.

  19. Remote Sensing of Radiative and Microphysical Properties of Clouds During TC (sup 4): Results from MAS, MASTER, MODIS, and MISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Wind, Galina; Arnold, G. Thomas; Dominguez, Roseanne T.

    2010-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS) and MODIS/Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Airborne Simulator (MASTER) were used to obtain measurements of the bidirectional reflectance and brightness temperature of clouds at 50 discrete wavelengths between 0.47 and 14.2 microns (12.9 microns for MASTER). These observations were obtained from the NASA ER-2 aircraft as part of the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) experiment conducted over Central America and surrounding Pacific and Atlantic Oceans between 17 July and 8 August 2007. Multispectral images in eleven distinct bands were used to derive a confidence in clear sky (or alternatively the probability Of cloud) over land and ocean ecosystems. Based on the results of individual tests run as part of the cloud mask, an algorithm was developed to estimate the phase of the clouds (liquid water, ice, or undetermined phase). The cloud optical thickness and effective radius were derived for both liquid water and ice clouds that were detected during each flight, using a nearly identical algorithm to that implemented operationally to process MODIS Cloud data from the Aqua and Terra satellites (Collection 5). This analysis shows that the cloud mask developed for operational use on MODIS, and tested using MAS and MASTER data in TC(sup 4), is quite capable of distinguishing both liquid water and ice clouds during daytime conditions over both land and ocean. The cloud optical thickness and effective radius retrievals use five distinct bands of the MAS (or MASTER), and these results were compared with nearly simultaneous retrievals of marine liquid water clouds from MODIS on the Terra spacecraft. Finally, this MODIS-based algorithm was adapted to Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) data to infer the cloud optical thickness Of liquid water clouds from MISR. Results of this analysis are compared and contrasted.

  20. FLIGHT INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Check in With Singapore Airlines, Check out With Paypal Singapore Airlines customers in the United States, Singapore and five other Asia Pacific countries and territories can now pay for their flights with PayPal on singaporeair.com. This facility will progressively be made available to the airline’s customers in up to 17 countries, making this the largest collaboration between PayPal and an Asian carrier to date.

  1. Evidence for Heterodimerization and Functional Interaction of the Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor and the Receptor MAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonhardt, Julia; Steckelings, Ulrike Muscha

    2017-01-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor MAS are receptors of the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system. They mediate strikingly similar actions. Moreover, in various studies, AT2R antagonists blocked the effects of MAS agonists and vice versa. Such cross-inhibition may...... indicate heterodimerization of these receptors. Therefore, this study investigated the molecular and functional interplay between MAS and the AT2R. Molecular interactions were assessed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and by cross correlation spectroscopy in human embryonic kidney-293 cells...... transfected with vectors encoding fluorophore-tagged MAS or AT2R. Functional interaction of AT2R and MAS was studied in astrocytes with CX3C chemokine receptor-1 messenger RNA expression as readout. Coexpression of fluorophore-tagged AT2R and MAS resulted in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency...

  2. MAS based coordinated scheduling of storage capacities in a virtual microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert; Top, Søren; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    A distributed decentralized multi-agent system (MAS) for coordinated scheduling of charge and discharge intervals for storage capacities in a utility grid integrated microgrid is presented. As basis for the MAS based energy management system (EMS) serves a scheduling algorithm based on a distribu......A distributed decentralized multi-agent system (MAS) for coordinated scheduling of charge and discharge intervals for storage capacities in a utility grid integrated microgrid is presented. As basis for the MAS based energy management system (EMS) serves a scheduling algorithm based...... on a distributed optimization algorithm to minimize power flow from/to a virtual microgrid over a transformer substation. A cooperative low-level MAS scheme, which is based on the consensus algorithm is introduced. It is shown that using a cooperative MAS, load profile flattening (peak-shaving) for the utility...... be used, for example by a Distribution System Operator (DSO) to control grid load profiles of virtual microgrids....

  3. Evidence for Heterodimerization and Functional Interaction of the Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor and the Receptor MAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Julia; Villela, Daniel C; Teichmann, Anke; Münter, Lisa-Marie; Mayer, Magnus C; Mardahl, Maibritt; Kirsch, Sebastian; Namsolleck, Pawel; Lucht, Kristin; Benz, Verena; Alenina, Natalia; Daniell, Nicholas; Horiuchi, Masatsugu; Iwai, Masaru; Multhaup, Gerhard; Schülein, Ralf; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A; Unger, Thomas; Steckelings, Ulrike Muscha

    2017-06-01

    The angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the receptor MAS are receptors of the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system. They mediate strikingly similar actions. Moreover, in various studies, AT2R antagonists blocked the effects of MAS agonists and vice versa. Such cross-inhibition may indicate heterodimerization of these receptors. Therefore, this study investigated the molecular and functional interplay between MAS and the AT2R. Molecular interactions were assessed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and by cross correlation spectroscopy in human embryonic kidney-293 cells transfected with vectors encoding fluorophore-tagged MAS or AT2R. Functional interaction of AT2R and MAS was studied in astrocytes with CX3C chemokine receptor-1 messenger RNA expression as readout. Coexpression of fluorophore-tagged AT2R and MAS resulted in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency of 10.8 ± 0.8%, indicating that AT2R and MAS are capable to form heterodimers. Heterodimerization was verified by competition experiments using untagged AT2R and MAS. Specificity of dimerization of AT2R and MAS was supported by lack of dimerization with the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C-member 6. Dimerization of the AT2R was abolished when it was mutated at cysteine residue 35. AT2R and MAS stimulation with the respective agonists, Compound 21 or angiotensin-(1-7), significantly induced CX3C chemokine receptor-1 messenger RNA expression. Effects of each agonist were blocked by an AT2R antagonist (PD123319) and also by a MAS antagonist (A-779). Knockout of a single of these receptors made astrocytes unresponsive for both agonists. Our results suggest that MAS and the AT2R form heterodimers and that-at least in astrocytes-both receptors functionally depend on each other. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. MOS-2: A Two-Dimension Space for Positioning MAS Organizational Models

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Hosny; Shaheen, Samir

    2015-01-01

    The increased complexity and dynamism of present and future Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) enforce the need for considering both of their static (design-time) and the dynamic (run-time) aspects. A type of balance between the two aspects can definitely give better results related to system stability and adaptivity. MAS organization is the research area that is concerned with these issues and it is currently a very active and interesting research area. Designing a MAS with an initial organization an...

  5. COMPOZER-based longitudinal cross-polarization via dipolar coupling under MAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamihara, Takayuki; Murakami, Miwa; Noda, Yasuto; Takeda, Kazuyuki; Takegoshi, K

    2014-08-01

    We propose a cross polarization (CP) sequence effective under magic-angle spinning (MAS) which is tolerant to RF field inhomogeneity and Hartmann-Hahn mismatch. Its key feature is that spin locking is not used, as CP occurs among the longitudinal (Z) magnetizations modulated by the combination of two pulses with the opposite phases. We show that, by changing the phases of the pulse pairs synchronized with MAS, the flip-flop term of the dipolar interaction is restored under MAS.

  6. Structural studies on meiosis-activating sterols and structurally related compounds : potential ligands of the FF-MAS receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Meiosis Activating Sterols (MAS) are key regulatory factors in the meiotic cell cycle. Two compounds in this family, Follicular Fluid-MAS (FF-MAS or 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholest-8,14,24-triene-3b-ol) and Testicular-MAS (T-MAS or 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholest-8,14-diene-3b-ol), have been isolated and

  7. MAS-mediated antioxidant effects restore the functionality of angiotensin converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-MAS axis in diabetic rat carotid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernomian, Larissa; Gomes, Mayara Santos; Restini, Carolina Baraldi Araujo; de Oliveira, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that endothelial AT1-activated NAD(P)H oxidase-driven generation of reactive oxygen species during type I-diabetes impairs carotid ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis functionality, which accounts for the impaired carotid flow in diabetic rats. We also hypothesized that angiotensin-(1-7) chronic treatment of diabetic rats restores carotid ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis functionality and carotid flow. Relaxant curves for angiotensin II or angiotensin-(1-7) were obtained in carotid from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Superoxide or hydrogen peroxide levels were measured by flow cytometry in carotid endothelial cells. Carotid flow was also determined. We found that endothelial AT1-activated NAD(P)H oxidase-driven generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in diabetic rat carotid impairs ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis functionality, which reduces carotid flow. In this mechanism, hydrogen peroxide derived from superoxide dismutation inhibits ACE2 activity in generating angiotensin-(1-7) seemingly by activating I(Cl,SWELL0, while superoxide inhibits the nitrergic Mas-mediated vasorelaxation evoked by angiotensin-(1-7). Angiotensin-(1-7) treatment of diabetic rats restored carotid ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis functionality by triggering a positive feedback played by endothelial Mas receptors, that blunts endothelial AT1-activated NAD(P)H oxidase-driven generation of reactive oxygen species. Mas-mediated antioxidant effects also restored diabetic rat carotid flow, pointing to the contribution of ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis in maintaining carotid flow.

  8. Multi-Robot Remote Interaction with FS-MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunliang Jiang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The need to reduce bandwidth, improve productivity, autonomy and the scalability in multi‐robot teleoperation has been recognized for a long time. In this article we propose a novel finite state machine mobile agent based on the network interaction service model, namely FS‐MAS. This model consists of three finite state machines, namely the Finite State Mobile Agent (FS‐Agent, which is the basic service module. The Service Content Finite State Machine (Content‐FS, using the XML language to define workflow, to describe service content and service computation process. The Mobile Agent computation model Finite State Machine (MACM‐FS, used to describe the service implementation. Finally, we apply this service model to the multi‐robot system, the initial realization completing complex tasks in the form of multi‐robot scheduling. This demonstrates that the robot has greatly improved intelligence, and provides a wide solution space for critical issues such as task division, rational and efficient use of resource and multi‐robot collaboration.

  9. Receptor MAS protects mice against hypothermia and mortality induced by endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Laura L; Duchene, Johan; Todiras, Mihail; Azevedo, Luciano C P; Costa-Neto, Claudio M; Alenina, Natalia; Santos, Robson A; Bader, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The renin-angiotensin (Ang) system is involved in maintaining cardiovascular function by regulating blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis. More recently, alternative pathways within the renin-angiotensin system have been described, such as the ACE-2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis, with opposite effects to the ones of the ACE/Ang-II/AT1 axis. Correspondingly, our previous work reported that Ang-(1-7) via its receptor Mas inhibits the mRNA expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α increased by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mouse peritoneal macrophages. These data led us to investigate the functional role of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in an in vivo LPS model. In this work, we present evidence that Ang-(1-7) via Mas significantly reduced the LPS-increased production of circulating cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-12, and CXCL-1. This inhibitory effect was mediated by Mas because it was not detectable in Mas-deficient (Mas) mice. Accordingly, IL-6, CXCL-1, and CXCL-2 levels were higher after LPS treatment in the absence of Mas. Mas mice were less resistant to LPS-induced endotoxemia, their survival rate being 50% compared with 95% in wild-type mice. Telemetric analyses showed that Mas mice presented more pronounced LPS-induced hypothermia with a 3°C lower body temperature compared with wild-type mice. Altogether, our findings suggest that Ang-(1-7) and Mas inhibit LPS-induced cytokine production and hypothermia and thereby protect mice from the fatal consequences of endotoxemia.

  10. Mas receptor deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced cerebral and systemic inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Lima, Onésia C; Pinto, Mauro C X; Duchene, Johan; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Souza, Laura L; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A S; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana

    2015-12-01

    Beyond the classical actions of the renin-angiotensin system on the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis, several studies have shown its involvement in acute and chronic inflammation. The G protein-coupled receptor Mas is a functional binding site for the angiotensin-(1-7); however, its role in the immune system has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effect of genetic deletion of Mas receptor in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic and cerebral inflammation in mice. Inflammatory response was triggered in Mas deficient (Mas(-/-)) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice (8-12 weeks-old) by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg). Mas(-/-) mice presented more intense hypothermia compared to WT mice 24 h after LPS injection. Systemically, the bone marrow of Mas(-/-) mice contained a lower number of neutrophils and monocytes 3 h and 24 h after LPS injection, respectively. The plasma levels of inflammatory mediators KC, MCP-1 and IL-10 were higher in Mas(-/-) mice 24 h after LPS injection in comparison to WT. In the brain, Mas(-/-) animals had a significant increase in the number of adherent leukocytes to the brain microvasculature compared to WT mice, as well as, increased number of monocytes and neutrophils recruited to the pia-mater. The elevated number of adherent leukocytes on brain microvasculature in Mas(-/-) mice was associated with increased expression of CD11b - the alpha-subunit of the Mac-1 integrin - in bone marrow neutrophils 3h after LPS injection, and with increased brain levels of chemoattractants KC, MIP-2 and MCP-1, 24 h later. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Mas receptor deficiency results in exacerbated inflammation in LPS-challenged mice, which suggest a potential role for the Mas receptor as a regulator of systemic and brain inflammatory response induced by LPS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of the receptor Mas in macrophage-mediated inflammation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Anna; Yang, Guang; Friedrich, Juliane; Kovacs, Agnes; Lee, De-Hyung; Grave, Katharina; Jörg, Stefanie; Alenina, Natalia; Grosch, Janina; Winkler, Jürgen; Gold, Ralf; Bader, Michael; Manzel, Arndt; Rump, Lars C; Müller, Dominik N; Linker, Ralf A; Stegbauer, Johannes

    2016-12-06

    Recently, an alternative renin-angiotensin system pathway has been described, which involves binding of angiotensin-(1-7) to its receptor Mas. The Mas axis may counterbalance angiotensin-II-mediated proinflammatory effects, likely by affecting macrophage function. Here we investigate the role of Mas in murine models of autoimmune neuroinflammation and atherosclerosis, which both involve macrophage-driven pathomechanisms. Mas signaling affected macrophage polarization, migration, and macrophage-mediated T-cell activation. Mas deficiency exacerbated the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and increased macrophage infiltration as well as proinflammatory gene expression in the spleen and spinal cord. Furthermore, Mas deficiency promoted atherosclerosis by affecting macrophage infiltration and migration and led to increased oxidative stress as well as impaired endothelial function in ApoE-deficient mice. In summary, we identified the Mas axis as an important factor in macrophage function during inflammation of the central nervous and vascular system in vivo. Modulating the Mas axis may constitute an interesting therapeutic target in multiple sclerosis and/or atherosclerosis.

  12. Hydronephrosis alters cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Ma, Lulu; Wu, Junyan; Chen, Tingting

    2015-06-01

    Hydronephrosis is characterized by substantial loss of tubules and affects renin secretion in the kidney. However, whether alterations of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart are observed in hydronephrosis is unknown. Thus, we assessed these components in hydronephrotic mice treated with AT1 receptor blockade and ACE inhibitor. Hydronephrosis was induced by left ureteral ligation in Balb/C mice except sham-operated animals. The levels of cardiac ACE, ACE2 and Mas receptor were measured after treatment of losartan or enalapril. Hydronephrosis led to an increase of ACE level and a decrease of ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart. Losartan decreased cardiac ACE level, but ACE2 and Mas receptor levels significantly increased in hydronephrotic mice (p Mas receptor in the heart. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and Ang II decreased in hydronephrotic mice, but significantly increased after treatment with losartan or enalapril. Hydronephrosis increased cardiac ACE and suppressed ACE2 and Mas receptor levels. AT1 blockade caused sustained activation of cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor, but ACE inhibitor had the limitation of such activation of Mas receptor in hydronephrotic animals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. ACE2/ANG-(1-7)/Mas pathway in the brain: the axis of good

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Ping; Sriramula, Srinivas; Lazartigues, Eric

    2011-01-01

    ...). Among them, angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and the Mas receptor have forced a reevaluation of the original cascade and led to the emergence of a new arm of the RAS: the ACE2/ANG-(1-7)/Mas axis...

  14. Psychometric Comparison of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koritsas, S.; Iacono, T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) are frequently used to assess the learned function of challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim was to explore and compare the psychometric properties of the MAS and the QABF. Method: Seventy adults with ID and…

  15. The utility of MAS5 expression summary and detection call algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Claire L

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Used alone, the MAS5.0 algorithm for generating expression summaries has been criticized for high False Positive rates resulting from exaggerated variance at low intensities. Results Here we show, with replicated cell line data, that, when used alongside detection calls, MAS5 can be both selective and sensitive. A set of differentially expressed transcripts were identified that were found to be changing by MAS5, but unchanging by RMA and GCRMA. Subsequent analysis by real time PCR confirmed these changes. In addition, with the Latin square datasets often used to assess expression summary algorithms, filtered MAS5.0 was found to have performance approaching that of its peers. Conclusion When used alongside detection calls, MAS5 is a sensitive and selective algorithm for identifying differentially expressed genes.

  16. Mas receptor contributes to pregnancy-induced cardiac remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmos-Silva, Cintia; Almeida, Jônathas Fernandes Queiroz de; Macedo, Larissa Matuda; Melo, Marcos Barrouin B; Pedrino, Gustavo Rodrigues; Santos, Fernanda Fernanda Cristina Alcantara; Biancardi, Manoel Francisco; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza Dos Augusto Souza; Carvalho, Adryano Augustto; Mendes, Elizabeth Pereira; Colugnati, Diego Basile; Mazaro-Costa, Renata; Castro, Carlos Henrique de

    2016-09-13

    Previous studies have demonstrated a protective effect of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis on pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Also, the involvement of Mas receptor in the exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy has been suggested. However, the role of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor on pregnancy-induced cardiac remodeling remains unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the participation of the Mas receptor in the development of the cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis induced by gestation. Female Wistar rats were shared in 3 groups: control , pregnant , and pregnant treated with Mas receptor antagonist A-779 . Wild type (WT) and Mas-knockout mice (KO) were distributed in non-pregnant  and pregnant  groups. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. The medial part of the left ventricle (LV) was collected for histological analysis. Echocardiographic analysis was used to evaluate the cardiac function. SBP was not changed by pregnancy or A-779 treatment in the Wistar rats. Pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of Mas receptor attenuates the pregnancy-induced myocyte hypertrophy. The treatment with A-779 or genetic deletion of the Mas receptor increased the collagen III deposition in LV from pregnant animals without changing the fibroblast proliferation. KO mice presented a lower ejection fraction, fraction shortening, stroke volume and higher end systolic volume compared to WT. Interestingly, the pregnancy restored these parameters. In conclusion, these data show that while Mas receptor blockade or deletion decreases physiological hypertrophy of pregnancy, it is associated with more extracellular matrix deposition. These alterations are associated with improvement of the cardiac function through Mas-independent mechanism. ©2016 The Author(s).

  17. Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis modulates fear memory and extinction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaroni, Thiago Luiz do Nascimento; Bastos, Cristiane Perácio; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Santos, Robson Souza; Pereira, Grace Schenatto

    2016-01-01

    Inappropriate defense-alerting reaction to fear is a common feature of neuropsychiatric diseases. Therefore, impairments in brain circuits, as well as in molecular pathways underlying the neurovegetative adjustments to fear may play an essential role on developing neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we tested the hypothesis that interfering with angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]/Mas receptor axis homeostasis, which appears to be essential to arterial pressure control, would affect fear memory and extinction. Mas knockout (MasKO) mice, in FVB/N background, showed normal cued fear memory and extinction, but increased freezing in response to context. Next, as FVB/N has poor performance in contextual fear memory, we tested MasKO in mixed 129xC57BL/6 background. MasKO mice behaved similarly to wild-type (WT), but memory extinction was slower in contextual fear conditioning to a weak protocol (1CS/US). In addition, delayed extinction in MasKO mice was even more pronounced after a stronger protocol (3CS/US). We showed previously that Angiotensin II receptor AT1 antagonist, losantan, rescued object recognition memory deficit in MasKO mice. Here, losartan was also effective. Memory extinction was accelerated in MasKO mice after treatment with losartan. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis may modulate fear memory extinction. Furthermore, we suggest MasKO mice as an animal model to study post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. MAS receptors mediate vasoprotective and atheroprotective effects of candesartan upon the recovery of vascular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-MAS axis functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernomian, Larissa; do Prado, Alejandro F; Gomes, Mayara S; Pernomian, Laena; da Silva, Carlos H T P; Gerlach, Raquel F; de Oliveira, Ana M

    2015-10-05

    AT1 antagonists effectively prevent atherosclerosis since AT1 upregulation and angiotensin II-induced proinflammatory actions are critical to atherogenesis. Despite the classic mechanisms underlying the vasoprotective and atheroprotective actions of AT1 antagonists, the cross-talk between angiotensin-converting enzyme-angiotensin II-AT1 and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-MAS axes suggests other mechanisms beyond AT1 blockage in such effects. For instance, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity is inhibited by reactive oxygen species derived from AT1-mediated proinflammatory signaling. Since angiotensin-(1-7) promotes antiatherogenic effects, we hypothesized that the vasoprotective and atheroprotective effects of AT1 antagonists could result from their inhibitory effects on the AT1-mediated negative modulation of vascular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-MAS axis functionality. Interestingly, our results showed that early atherosclerosis triggered in thoracic aorta from high cholesterol fed-Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice impairs angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-MAS axis functionality by a proinflammatory-redox AT1-mediated pathway. In such mechanism, AT1 activation leads to the aortic release of tumor necrosis factor-α, which stimulates NAD(P)H oxidase/Nox1-driven generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. While hydrogen peroxide inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity, superoxide impairs MAS functionality. Candesartan treatment restored the functionality of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-MAS axis by inhibiting the proinflammatory-redox AT1-mediated mechanism. Candesartan also promoted vasoprotective and atheroprotective effects that were mediated by MAS since A779 (MAS antagonist) co-treatment inhibited them. The role of MAS receptors as the final mediators of the vasoprotective and atheroprotective effects of candesartan was supported by the vascular actions of angiotensin

  19. Atypical signaling and functional desensitization response of MAS receptor to peptide ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirupula, Kalyan C; Desnoyer, Russell; Speth, Robert C; Karnik, Sadashiva S

    2014-01-01

    MAS is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) implicated in multiple physiological processes. Several physiological peptide ligands such as angiotensin-(1-7), angiotensin fragments and neuropeptide FF (NPFF) are reported to act on MAS. Studies of conventional G protein signaling and receptor desensitization upon stimulation of MAS with the peptide ligands are limited so far. Therefore, we systematically analyzed G protein signals activated by the peptide ligands. MAS-selective non-peptide ligands that were previously shown to activate G proteins were used as controls for comparison on a common cell based assay platform. Activation of MAS by the non-peptide agonist (1) increased intracellular calcium and D-myo-inositol-1-phosphate (IP1) levels which are indicative of the activation of classical Gαq-phospholipase C signaling pathways, (2) decreased Gαi mediated cAMP levels and (3) stimulated Gα12-dependent expression of luciferase reporter. In all these assays, MAS exhibited strong constitutive activity that was inhibited by the non-peptide inverse agonist. Further, in the calcium response assay, MAS was resistant to stimulation by a second dose of the non-peptide agonist after the first activation has waned suggesting functional desensitization. In contrast, activation of MAS by the peptide ligand NPFF initiated a rapid rise in intracellular calcium with very weak IP1 accumulation which is unlike classical Gαq-phospholipase C signaling pathway. NPFF only weakly stimulated MAS-mediated activation of Gα12 and Gαi signaling pathways. Furthermore, unlike non-peptide agonist-activated MAS, NPFF-activated MAS could be readily re-stimulated the second time by the agonists. Functional assays with key ligand binding MAS mutants suggest that NPFF and non-peptide ligands bind to overlapping regions. Angiotensin-(1-7) and other angiotensin fragments weakly potentiated an NPFF-like calcium response at non-physiological concentrations (≥100 µM). Overall, our data suggest

  20. Pattern of Mas expression in acute and post-acute stage of nerve injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Alex Dias; de Assis Araújo, Fernanda; Dos Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Andrade, Silvia Passos; Zanon, Renata Graciele

    2017-09-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang [1-7]) and its receptor Mas are involved in a number of physiological processes, including control of arterial pressure and modulation of nervous system actions. However, the involvement of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in peripheral nerve injury has not been investigated. Using a model of sciatic nerve injury in mice, we demonstrated opposing changes in Mas receptor expression at days 2 and 14 post-injury. Mas receptor expression was more intense 2days after the nerve lesion, compared with the intensity of the intact nerve. At this time point, the sciatic nerve functional index was -20. At day 14 after the lesion, the intensity of the immunostaining labeling in longitudinal sections of the nerve was reduced (∼30%) and the functional index increased +36 (gait improvement). In the axotomized group treated with A779 (a Mas receptor antagonist), the functional recovery index decreased in relation to the untreated axotomized group. The Mas receptor inhibitor also altered the intensity of labeling of S-100, GAP43, and IBA-1 (morphological features compatible with delayed axon growth). This study demonstrated that Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis activity was differentially modulated in the acute and post-acute stages of nerve injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MasABK proteins interact with proteins of the type IV pilin system to affect social motility of Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Fremgen

    Full Text Available Gliding motility is critical for normal development of spore-filled fruiting bodies in the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Mutations in mgl block motility and development but one mgl allele can be suppressed by a mutation in masK, the last gene in an operon adjacent to the mgl operon. Deletion of the entire 5.5 kb masABK operon crippled gliding and fruiting body development and decreased sporulation. Expression of pilAGHI, which encodes type IV pili (TFP components essential for social (S gliding, several cryptic pil genes, and a LuxR family protein were reduced significantly in the Δmas mutant while expression of the myxalamide operon was increased significantly. Localization and two-hybrid analysis suggest that the three Mas proteins form a membrane complex. MasA-PhoA fusions confirmed that MasA is an integral cytoplasmic membrane protein with a ≈100 amino acid periplasmic domain. Results from yeast two-hybrid assays showed that MasA interacts with the lipoprotein MasB and MasK, a protein kinase and that MasB and MasK interact with one another. Additionally, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed a physical interaction between two gene products of the mas operon, MasA and MasB, and PilA. Deletion of mas may be accompanied by compensatory mutations since complementation of the Δmas social gliding and developmental defects required addition of both pilA and masABK.

  2. MasABK proteins interact with proteins of the type IV pilin system to affect social motility of Myxococcus xanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremgen, Sarah; Williams, Amanda; Furusawa, Gou; Dziewanowska, Katarzyna; Settles, Matthew; Hartzell, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Gliding motility is critical for normal development of spore-filled fruiting bodies in the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Mutations in mgl block motility and development but one mgl allele can be suppressed by a mutation in masK, the last gene in an operon adjacent to the mgl operon. Deletion of the entire 5.5 kb masABK operon crippled gliding and fruiting body development and decreased sporulation. Expression of pilAGHI, which encodes type IV pili (TFP) components essential for social (S) gliding, several cryptic pil genes, and a LuxR family protein were reduced significantly in the Δmas mutant while expression of the myxalamide operon was increased significantly. Localization and two-hybrid analysis suggest that the three Mas proteins form a membrane complex. MasA-PhoA fusions confirmed that MasA is an integral cytoplasmic membrane protein with a ≈100 amino acid periplasmic domain. Results from yeast two-hybrid assays showed that MasA interacts with the lipoprotein MasB and MasK, a protein kinase and that MasB and MasK interact with one another. Additionally, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed a physical interaction between two gene products of the mas operon, MasA and MasB, and PilA. Deletion of mas may be accompanied by compensatory mutations since complementation of the Δmas social gliding and developmental defects required addition of both pilA and masABK.

  3. A novel MAs(III)-selective ArsR transcriptional repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Nadar, Venkadesh Sarkarai; Rosen, Barry P

    2017-09-01

    Microbial expression of genes for resistance to heavy metals and metalloids is usually transcriptionally regulated by the toxic ions themselves. Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring toxic metalloid widely distributed in soil and groundwater. Microbes biotransform both arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) into more toxic methylated metabolites methylarsenite (MAs(III)) and dimethylarsenite (DMAs(III)). Environmental arsenic is sensed by members of the ArsR/SmtB family. The arsR gene is autoregulated and is typically part of an operon that contains other ars genes involved in arsenic detoxification. To date every identified ArsR is regulated by inorganic As(III). Here we described a novel ArsR from Shewanella putrefaciens selective for MAs(III). SpArsR orthologs control expression of two MAs(III) resistance genes, arsP that encodes the ArsP MAs(III) efflux permease, and arsH encoding the ArsH MAs(III) oxidase. SpArsR has two conserved cysteine residues, Cys101 and Cys102. Mutation of either resulted in loss of MAs(III) binding, indicating that they form an MAs(III) binding site. SpArsR can be converted into an As(III)-responsive repressor by introduction of an additional cysteine that allows for three-coordinate As(III) binding. Our results indicate that SpArsR evolved selectivity for MAs(III) over As(III) in order to control expression of genes for MAs(III) detoxification. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Propofol up-regulates Mas receptor expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lijun; Xun, Junmei; Jiang, Xinghua; Tan, Rong

    2013-08-01

    Mas is a functional binding site for angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7), a critical component of the renin-angiotensin system that is involved in processing nociceptive information. A recent study reported the localization of Mas in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) produced a dose-dependent peripheral antinociceptive effect in rats through the Mas receptor by an opioid-independent mechanism. In the present study, we for the first time examined the effect of propofol on Mas expression in cultured DRG neurons. We treated rat DRG neurons with propofol at different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 or 10 microM) for different length of time (0.5, 1, 2, 4 or 6 h) with or without transcription inhibitor actinomycin D or different kinase inhibitors. Propofol increased the Mas receptormRNA level in a statistically significant dose- and time-dependent manner within 4 h, which led to dose-dependent up-regulation of the Mas receptor protein level as well as Ang-(1-7) binding on the cell membrane. Actinomycin D (1 mg/ml) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor PD169316 (25 microM) completely abolished the effect of propofol on Mas receptor expression in DRG neurons. In conclusion, we demonstrate that propofol markedly up-regulates Mas receptor expression at the transcription level in DRG neurons by a p38 MAPK-dependent mechanism. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of action of propofol in peripheral antinociception, and suggests a new regulatory mechanism on the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the peripheral nervous system.

  5. Chronic nerve injury-induced Mas receptor expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons alleviates neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanting; Qin, Yue; Liu, Tuanjiang; Hao, Dingjun

    2015-12-01

    Neuropathic pain, which is characterized by hyperalgesia, allodynia and spontaneous pain, is one of the most painful symptoms that can be experienced in the clinic. It often occurs as a result of injury to the peripheral nerves, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), spinal cord or brain. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in nociception. As an essential component of the RAS, the angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas axis may be involved in antinociception. The aim of the present study was to explore the expression pattern of Mas in DRG neurons following chronic nerve injury and examine the effects of Mas inhibition and activation on neuropathic pain in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat model. The results showed, that compared with the sham group, CCI caused a time-dependent induction of Mas expression at both the mRNA and the protein levels in DRG neurons. Consistent with the results, isolated DRG neurons showed a time-dependent increase in Ang-(1-7) binding on the cell membrane following the CCI surgery, but not the sham surgery. Compared with the sham control groups, CCI significantly decreased the paw withdrawal latency and threshold, and this was markedly improved and aggravated by intrathecal injection of the selective Mas agonist Ang-(1-7) and the selective Mas inhibitor D-Pro7-Ang-(1-7), respectively. In conclusion, this study has provided the first evidence, to the best of our knowledge, that the Mas expression in DRG neurons is time-dependently induced by chronic nerve injury and that the intrathecal activation and inhibition of Mas can improve and aggravate CCI-induced neuropathic pain, respectively. This study has provided novel insights into the pathophysiological process of neuropathic pain and suggests that the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis could be an effective therapeutic target for neuropathic pain, warranting further study.

  6. Le signe /mas/ : entre la quantification et l’adversation

    OpenAIRE

    Sicot-Dominguez, María-Soledad

    2017-01-01

    Se trata de demostrar, desde una perspectiva semasiológica, la unicidad del signo lingüístico /mas/, pese a la distinción establecida por la gramática entre un más adverbio, pronombre o adjetivo cuantitativo y un mas conjunción adversativa. La observación de diversos enunciados tomados del Corpus de la RAE permite postular la existencia de un significado común a todos los empleos discursivos del signo /mas/; un signo único, a cuyo significante corresponde invariablemente un significado y que,...

  7. A New Algebraic Modelling Approach to Distributed Problem-Solving in MAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帅典勋; 邓志东

    2002-01-01

    This paper is devoted to a new algebraic modelling approach to distributed problem-solving in multi-agent systems (MAS), which is featured by a unified framework for describing and treating social behaviors, social dynamics and social intelligence. A conceptual architecture of algebraic modelling is presented. The algebraic modelling of typical social behaviors, social situation and social dynamics is discussed in the context of distributed problemsolving in MAS. The comparison and simulation on distributed task allocations and resource assignments in MAS show more advantages of the algebraic approach than other conventional methods.

  8. Moderate MAS enhances local (1)H spin exchange and spin diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Matthias; Micke, Peter; Saalwächter, Kay; Hempel, Günter

    2015-11-01

    Proton NMR spin-diffusion experiments are often combined with magic-angle spinning (MAS) to achieve higher spectral resolution of solid samples. Here we show that local proton spin diffusion can indeed become faster at low (MAS (Clauss et al., 1993). The enhancement of spin diffusion by slow MAS relies on the modulation of the orientation-dependent dipolar couplings during sample rotation and goes along with transient level crossings in combination with dipolar truncation. The experimental finding and its explanation is supported by density matrix simulations, and also emphasizes the sensitivity of spin diffusion to the local coupling topology. The amplification of spin diffusion by slow MAS cannot be explained by any model based on independent spin pairs; at least three spins have to be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cassini's Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) Process: How to Successfully Command 200 Navigation Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Genevie Velarde; Mohr, David; Kirby, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    To keep Cassini on its complex trajectory, more than 200 orbit trim maneuvers (OTMs) have been planned from July 2004 to July 2010. With only a few days between many of these OTMs, the operations process of planning and executing the necessary commands had to be automated. The resulting Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) process minimizes the workforce required for, and maximizes the efficiency of, the maneuver design and uplink activities. The MAS process is a well-organized and logically constructed interface between Cassini's Navigation (NAV), Spacecraft Operations (SCO), and Ground Software teams. Upon delivery of an orbit determination (OD) from NAV, the MAS process can generate a maneuver design and all related uplink and verification products within 30 minutes. To date, all 112 OTMs executed by the Cassini spacecraft have been successful. MAS was even used to successfully design and execute a maneuver while the spacecraft was in safe mode.

  10. BOREAS Level-2 MAS Surface Reflectance and Temperature Images in BSQ Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey (Editor); Lobitz, Brad; Spanner, Michael; Strub, Richard; Lobitz, Brad

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Aircraft Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed aircraft data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. The MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) images, along with other remotely sensed data, were collected to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes biophysical parameter maps such as surface reflectance and temperature. Collection of the MAS images occurred over the study areas during the 1994 field campaigns. The level-2 MAS data cover the dates of 21-Jul-1994, 24-Jul-1994, 04-Aug-1994, and 08-Aug-1994. The data are not geographically/geometrically corrected; however, files of relative X and Y coordinates for each image pixel were derived by using the C130 navigation data in a MAS scan model. The data are provided in binary image format files.

  11. 77 FR 58996 - Multiple Award Schedule (MAS) Program Continuous Open Season-Operational Change; Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Multiple Award Schedule (MAS) Program Continuous Open Season-- Operational Change; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Federal Acquisition Service (FAS), General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION...

  12. Angiotensin-(1-7) Is an Endogenous Ligand for the G Protein-Coupled Receptor Mas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robson A. S. Santos; Ana C. Simoes e Silva; Christine Maric; Denise M. R. Silva; Raquel Pillar Machado; Insa de Buhr; Silvia Heringer-Walther; Sergio Veloso B. Pinheiro; Myriam Teresa Lopes; Michael Bader; Elizabeth P. Mendes; Virgina Soares Lemos; Maria Jose Campagnole-Santos; Heinz-Peter Schultheiss; Robert Speth; Thomas Walther

    2003-01-01

    ...) antagonist indicated the existence of a distinct Ang-(1-7) receptor. We demonstrate that genetic deletion of the G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the Mas protooncogene abolishes the binding of Ang-(1-7) to mouse kidneys...

  13. BOREAS Level-1B MAS Imagery At-sensor Radiance, Relative X and Y Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strub, Richard; Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Ungar, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) images, along with the other remotely sensed data, were collected to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes detailed land cover and biophysical parameter maps such as fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fPAR) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Collection of the MAS images occurred over the study areas during the 1994 field campaigns. The level-1b MAS data cover the dates of 21-Jul-1994, 24-Jul-1994, 04-Aug-1994, and 08-Aug-1994. The data are not geographically/geometrically corrected; however, files of relative X and Y coordinates for each image pixel were derived by using the C-130 INS data in a MAS scan model. The data are provided in binary image format files.

  14. TrustMAS: Trusted Communication Platform for Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Szczypiorski, Krzysztof; Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Cabaj, Krzysztof; Radziszewski, Pawel

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents TrustMAS - Trusted Communication Platform for Multi-Agent Systems, which provides trust and anonymity for mobile agents. The platform includes anonymous technique based on random-walk algorithm for providing general purpose anonymous communication for agents. All agents, which take part in the proposed platform, benefit from trust and anonymity that is provided for their interactions. Moreover, in TrustMAS there are StegAgents (SA) that are able to perform various steganographic communication. To achieve that goal, SAs may use methods in different layers of TCP/IP model or specialized middleware enabling steganography that allows hidden communication through all layers of mentioned model. In TrustMAS steganographic channels are used to exchange routing tables between StegAgents. Thus all StegAgents in TrustMAS with their ability to exchange information by using hidden channels form distributed steganographic router (Stegrouter).

  15. Cassini's Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) Process: How to Successfully Command 200 Navigation Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Genevie Velarde; Mohr, David; Kirby, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    To keep Cassini on its complex trajectory, more than 200 orbit trim maneuvers (OTMs) have been planned from July 2004 to July 2010. With only a few days between many of these OTMs, the operations process of planning and executing the necessary commands had to be automated. The resulting Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) process minimizes the workforce required for, and maximizes the efficiency of, the maneuver design and uplink activities. The MAS process is a well-organized and logically constructed interface between Cassini's Navigation (NAV), Spacecraft Operations (SCO), and Ground Software teams. Upon delivery of an orbit determination (OD) from NAV, the MAS process can generate a maneuver design and all related uplink and verification products within 30 minutes. To date, all 112 OTMs executed by the Cassini spacecraft have been successful. MAS was even used to successfully design and execute a maneuver while the spacecraft was in safe mode.

  16. Expression and cellular localization of the Mas receptor in the adult and developing mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Tuhina; Verma, Amrisha; Li, Qiuhong

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence that a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exists in the retina and plays an important role in retinal neurovascular function. We have recently shown that increased expression of ACE2 and angiotensin (1-7) [Ang (1-7)], two components of the protective axis of the RAS, in the retina via adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery, conferred protection against diabetes-induced retinopathy. We hypothesized that the protective molecular and cellular mechanisms of Ang (1-7) are mediated by its receptor, Mas, and the expression level and cellular localization dictate the response to Ang (1-7) and activation of subsequent protective signaling pathways. We tested this hypothesis by examining the expression and cellular localization of the Mas receptor in adult and developing mouse retinas. The cellular localization of the Mas receptor protein was determined with immunofluorescence of the eyes of adult and postnatal day 1 (P1), P5, P7, P15, and P21 mice using the Mas receptor-specific antibody, and mRNA was detected with in situ hybridization of paraffin-embedded sections. Western blotting and real-time reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR analysis were performed to determine the relative levels of the Mas protein and mRNA in adult and developing retinas, as well as in cultured retinal Müller glial and RPE cells. In the adult eye, the Mas receptor protein was abundantly present in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and photoreceptor cells; a lower level of expression was observed in endothelial cells, Müller glial cells, and other neurons in the inner nuclear layer of the retina. In the developing retina, Mas receptor mRNA and protein expression was detected in the inner retina at P1, and the expression levels increased with age to reach the adult level and pattern by P15. In the adult mouse retina, Mas receptor mRNA was expressed at a much higher level when compared to angiotensin II (Ang II) type I (AT1R) and type II (AT2R) receptor m

  17. U.S. Geological Survey mineral databases; MRDS and MAS/MILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFaul, E.J.; Mason, G.T.; Ferguson, W.B.; Lipin, B.R.

    2000-01-01

    These two CD-ROM's contain the latest version of the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) database and the Minerals Availability System/Minerals Industry Location System (MAS/MILS) database for coverage of North America and the world outside North America. The records in the MRDS database each contain almost 200 data fields describing metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources, deposits, and commodities. The records in the MAS/MILS database each contain almost 100 data fields describing mines and mineral processing plans.

  18. {sup 29}Si MAS NMR for the zeolite Y - gallium oxide system; {sup 29}Si mas NMR dla ukladu fojazyt-tlenek galu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulikowski, B.; Derewinski, M. [Inst. Katalizy i Fizykochemii Powierzchni, Polska Akademia Nauk, Cracow (Poland); Olejniczak, Z.; Segnowski, S. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Wide-pore zeolites modified by gallium oxide has been prepared for catalytic use. Its physico-chemical and catalytic properties have been studied. The structure changes of the catalyst have been investigated by means of MAS NMR spectroscopy. Spectra of {sup 29}Si has been described and discussed. 11 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  19. Alteration of cardiac ACE2/Mas expression and cardiac remodelling in rats with aortic constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Li, Bing; Wang, Bingxiangi; Zhang, Jingjun; Wu, Junyan; Morgan, Trefor

    2014-12-31

    The recent discovery of the new components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) suggests the importance of the maintenance of cardiovascular structure and functions. To assess the role of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-Mas receptor axis in the regulation of cardiac structure and function, the present work investigated the expression of ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart in the cardiac remodeling that occurs in aortic constricted rats. Partial abdominal aortic ligation was carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Angiotensin AT1 receptor blockade and ACE inhibition were achieved by losartan and enalapril treatment, respectively. Results showed that aortic constriction increased left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma renin activity (PRA) and cardiac ACE levels, but decreased the expression of cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor. Losartan treatment significantly decreased MAP, left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH), fibrosis, and increased cardiac ACE2 and Mas expression. Enalapril also improved the cardiac parameters with a rise in cardiac ACE2, but did not change the Mas level. In conclusion, aortic constriction results in cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and a rise of cardiac ACE expression. Both AT1 receptor blocker and ACE inhibitor play a cardioprotective role in aortic constriction. However, AT1 receptor blocker particularly promotes cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor levels. ACE inhibitor is associated with the inhibition of ACE and normalization of cardiac ACE2 activity.

  20. Glucagon-producing cells are increased in Mas-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Braga, Janaína; Ravizzoni Dartora, Daniela; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that angiotensin(1-7) (Ang(1-7)) produces several effects related to glucose homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of genetic deletion of Ang(1-7), the GPCR Mas, on the glucagon-producing cells. C57BL6/N Mas(-/-) mice presented a significant and marked increase in pancreatic α-cells (number of cells: 146 ± 21 vs 67 ± 8 in WT; P Mas(-/-) mice (0.25 ± 0.01 vs 0.31 ± 56.45 pg/mL in WT; P = 0.02). In order to eliminate the possibility of a background-related phenotype, we determined the number of glucagon-producing cells in FVB/N Mas(-/-) mice. In keeping with the observations in C57BL6/N Mas(-/-) mice, the number and percentage of pancreatic α-cells were also significantly increased in these mice (number of α-cells: 260 ± 22 vs 156 ± 12 in WT, P Mas has a previously unexpected role on the pancreatic glucagon production. © 2017 The authors.

  1. The expression of Mas-receptor of the renin-angiotensin system in the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaajanen, A; Kalesnykas, G; Vapaatalo, H; Uusitalo, H

    2015-07-01

    The local renin-angiotensin system has been held to be expressed in many organs, including the eye. It has an important role in the regulation of local fluid homeostasis, cell proliferation, fibrosis, and vascular tone. Mas-receptor (Mas-R) is a potential receptor acting mainly opposite to the well-known angiotensin II receptor type 1. The aim of this study was to determine if Mas-R is expressed in the human eye. Seven enucleated human eyes were used in immunohistochemical detection of Mas-R and its endogenous ligand angiotensin (1-7) [Ang(1-7)]. Both light microscopy and immunofluorescent detection methods were used. A human kidney preparation sample was used as control. The Mas-R was found to have nuclear localization, and localized in the retinal nuclear layers and in the structures of the anterior segment of the eye. A cytoplasmic immunostaining pattern of Ang(1-7) was found in the inner and outer nuclear and plexiform layers of the retina and in the ciliary body. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing Mas-R expression in the human eye. Its localization suggests that it may have a role in physiological and pathological processes in the anterior part of the eye and in the retina.

  2. AVE 0991, a non-peptide Mas-receptor agonist, facilitates penile erection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Gonçalves, Andrey C; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Leite, Romulo; Santos, Robson A S

    2013-03-01

    The renin-angiotensin system plays a crucial role in erectile function. It has been shown that elevated levels of angiotensin II contribute to the development of erectile dysfunction both in humans and in aminals. On the contrary, the heptapeptide angiotensin-(1-7) appears to mediate penile erection by activation of the Mas receptor. Recently, we have shown that the erectile function of Mas gene-deleted mice was substantially reduced, which was associated with a marked increase in fibrous tissue in the corpus cavernosum. We have hypothesized that the synthetic non-peptide Mas agonist, AVE 0991, would potentiate penile erectile function. We showed that intracavernosal injection of AVE 0991 potentiated the erectile response of anaesthetized Wistar rats, measured as the ratio between corpus cavernosum pressure and mean arterial pressure, upon electrical stimulation of the major pelvic ganglion. The facilitatory effect of AVE 0991 on erectile function was dose dependent and completely blunted by the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, l-NAME. Importantly, concomitant intracavernosal infusion of the specific Mas receptor blocker, A-779, abolished the effect of AVE 0991. We demonstrated that AVE 0991 potentiates the penile erectile response through Mas in an NO-dependent manner. Importantly, these results suggest that Mas agonists, such as AVE 0991, might have significant therapeutic benefits for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  3. Temperature calibration for high-temperature MAS NMR to 913 K: 63Cu MAS NMR of CuBr and CuI, and 23Na MAS NMR of NaNbO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingshi; Kim, Namjun; Stebbins, Jonathan F

    2011-09-01

    The solid-state phase transitions of CuBr, CuI and NaNbO(3) can be readily observed using (63)Cu and (23)Na high-temperature magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Temperature has large, linear effects on the peak maximum of (63)Cu in each solid phase of CuBr and CuI, and there is large jump in shift across each phase transition. The (23)Na MAS NMR peak intensities and the line widths in NaNbO(3) also clearly show its high-temperature transition to the cubic phase. These data can be used to calibrate high-temperature MAS NMR probes up to 913 K, which is two hundred degrees higher than the commonly-used temperature calibration based on the chemical shift of (207)Pb in Pb(NO(3))(2). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Podocalyxin promotes glioblastoma multiforme cell invasion and proliferation by inhibiting angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Yugang

    2015-05-01

    Podocalyxin (PODX) reportedly enhances invasion in many human cancers including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Recent studies have shown that the local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in tumor environment contributes significantly to tumor progression. As a counter-regulatory axis in RAS, angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas signaling has been shown to inhibit the growth and invasiveness of several human cancers including GBM. In the present study, we examined the crosstalk between PODX and Ang-(1-7)/Mas signaling in GBM cells, and assessed its impact on GBM cell invasion and proliferation. A strong negative correlation between the expression of PODX and Mas in GBM tumor tissues from 10 consecutive patients (r=-0.768, pMas at the mRNA and protein levels, which led to decreased density of Ang-(1-7)-binding Mas on the cell membrane. This effect was completely abolished by selective phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor BKM120. By contrast, the stable knockdown of PODX in LN-229 and U-118 MG cells increased the expression of Mas and the density of Ang-(1-7)-binding Mas on the cell membrane. Overexpression and knockdown of PODX respectively reversed and enhanced the inhibitory effects of Ang-(1-7) on the expression/activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cell invasion and proliferation in GBM cells. Although the overexpression of Mas showed no significant effect on the promoting effect of PODX on GBM cell invasion and proliferation in the absence of Ang-(1-7), it completely eliminated the effect of PODX in the presence of Ang-(1-7). In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, the present study provided the first evidence that PODX inhibits Ang-(1-7)/Mas signaling by downregulating the expression of Mas through a PI3K-dependent mechanism in GBM cells. This effect led to enhanced GBM cell invasion and proliferation. The results of this study add new insight into the biological functions of PODX and the molecular mechanisms underlying GBM progression.

  5. Mas receptor is involved in the estrogen-receptor induced nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, Agua; Vallejo, Susana; Novella, Susana; Lázaro-Franco, Macarena; Mompeón, Ana; Bueno-Betí, Carlos; Walther, Thomas; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos; Peiró, Concepción; Hermenegildo, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    The Mas receptor is involved in the angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) vasodilatory actions by increasing nitric oxide production (NO). We have previously demonstrated an increased production of Ang-(1-7) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to estradiol (E2), suggesting a potential cross-talk between E2 and the Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis. Here, we explored whether the vasoactive response and NO-related signalling exerted by E2 are influenced by Mas. HUVEC were exposed to 10nM E2 for 24h in the presence or absence of the selective Mas receptor antagonist A779, and the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI182780 (ICI). E2 increased Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA and protein expression, measured by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Furthermore, E2 increased Akt activity (determined by the levels of phospho-Ser(473)) and eNOS activity (by the enhanced phosphorylation of Ser(1177), the activated form), resulting in increased NO production, which was measured by the fluorescence probe DAF-2-FM. These signalling events were dependent on ER and Mas receptor activation, since they were abolished in the presence of ICI or A779. In ex-vivo functional experiments performed with a small-vessel myograph in isolated mesenteric vessels from wild-type mice pre-contracted with noradrenaline, the relaxant response to physiological concentrations of E2 was blocked by ICI and A779, to the same extent to that obtained in the vessels isolated from Mas-deficient. In conclusion, E2 induces NO production and vasodilation through mechanisms that require Mas receptor activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mas receptor overexpression increased Ang-(1-7) relaxation response in renovascular hypertensive rat carotid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivon, V C; Aires, R D; Santiago, L B; Ramalho, L Z N; Cortes, S F; Lemos, V S

    2015-09-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important factor in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Mas receptor, Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]-activated receptor, is an important RAS component and exerts protective effects in the vasculature. Ang-(1-7) vascular effects and Mas receptor expression in carotid from renovascular hypertensive (2K-1C) rats is not clear. In the present study we investigated Mas receptor vasodilator response activated by Ang-(1-7) in the carotid rings from sham and 2K-1C rats. Changes in isometric tension were recorded on organ chamber. Mas receptors expression was investigated in carotid by Western blot. Nitric oxide production was evaluated by 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) and eNOS expression and activity by immunofluoresce and western blot, respectively. Ang-(1-7) induced concentration-dependent vasodilator effect in carotid rings from sham and 2K-1C, which the hypertension increased vasodilatation response. In the 2K-1C carotid rings, A-779 (Mas receptor antagonist) reduced but not abolish the vasodilator effect of Ang-(1-7). Corroborating, Mas receptor protein expression was significantly increased in the 2K-1C rats. L-NAME and ibuprofen decreased Ang-(1-7) vasodilator response and L-NAME plus ibuprofen practically abolish the remaining vasodilatation response. Nitric oxide production is increased due increased of eNOS expression and pSer(1177) activity. Our results demonstrated that renovascular hypertension increased Mas receptors expression and nitric oxide production in the rats carotid which, consequently increased Ang-(1-7)-vasorelaxant response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis can inhibit hepatic insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xi; Yang, Fang-Yuan; Xin, Zhong; Xie, Rong-Rong; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2014-08-05

    Blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can reduce the risk of diabetes. Meanwhile, the angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2)/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis has recently been proposed to function as a negative regulator of the RAS. In previous studies, we first demonstrated that ACE2 knockout (ACE2(-/)(y)) mice exhibit impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. However the precise roles of ACE2 on glucose metabolism are unknown. Here we show that the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis can ameliorate insulin resistance in the liver. Activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis increases glucose uptake and decreases glycogen synthesis in the liver accompanied by increased expression of glucose transporters, insulin receptor substrates and decreased expression of enzymes for glycogen synthesis. ACE2 knockout mice displayed elevated levels of oxidative stress and exposure to Ang-(1-7) reduced the stress in hepatic cells. As a consequence of anti-oxidative stress, activation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis led to improved hepatic insulin resistance through the Akt/PI3K/IRS-1/JNK insulin signaling pathway. This is the first time documented that the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis can ameliorate insulin resistance in the liver. As insulin resistance in the liver is considered to be the primary cause of the development of type 2 diabetes, this axis may serve as a new diabetes target. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The development of the ProMAS: a Probabilistic Medication Adherence Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleppe M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mieke Kleppe,1,2 Joyca Lacroix,2 Jaap Ham,1 Cees Midden1 1Human Technology Interaction, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands; 2Behavior, Cognition and Perception, Philips Research, Eindhoven, the Netherlands Abstract: Current self-report medication adherence measures often provide heavily skewed results with limited variance, suggesting that most participants are highly adherent. This contrasts with findings from objective adherence measures. We argue that one of the main limitations of these self-report measures is the limited range covered by the behaviors assessed. That is, the items do not match the adherence behaviors that people perform, resulting in a ceiling effect. In this paper, we present a new self-reported medication adherence scale based on the Rasch model approach (the ProMAS, which covers a wide range of adherence behaviors. The ProMAS was tested with 370 elderly receiving medication for chronic conditions. The results indicated that the ProMAS provided adherence scores with sufficient fit to the Rasch model. Furthermore, the ProMAS covered a wider range of adherence behaviors compared to the widely used Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS instrument, resulting in more variance and less skewness in adherence scores. We conclude that the ProMAS is more capable of discriminating between people with different adherence rates than the MARS. Keywords: questionnaire design, probabilistic models, methodology

  9. Altered heart rate and blood pressure variability in mice lacking the Mas protooncogene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Walther

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability is a relevant predictor of cardiovascular risk in humans. A significant genetic influence on heart rate variability is suggested, although the genes involved are ill-defined. The Mas-protooncogene encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor with seven transmembrane domains highly expressed in testis and brain. Since this receptor is supposed to interact with the signaling of angiotensin II, which is an important regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis, heart rate and blood pressure were analyzed in Mas-deficient mice. Using a femoral catheter the blood pressure of mice was measured for a period of 30 min and 250 data values per second were recorded. The mean values and range of heart rate and blood pressure were then calculated. Neither heart rate nor blood pressure were significantly different between knockout mice and controls. However, high resolution recording of these parameters and analysis of the data by non-linear dynamics revealed significant alterations in cardiovascular variability in Mas-deficient animals. In particular, females showed a strong reduction of heart rate variability. Furthermore, the data showed an increased sympathetic tone in knockout animals of both genders. The marked alterations detected in Mas-deficient mice of both genders suggest that the Mas-protooncogene is an important determinant of heart rate and blood pressure variability.

  10. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  11. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  12. Cornus mas (Linnaeus Novel Devised Medicinal Preparations: Bactericidal Effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M. Kyriakopoulos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal properties of Cornus mas L. (=Cornus mascula L., Cornaceae, are well described in Hippocratian documents, and recent research provides experimental evidence for some of these properties. However, the chemical components of Cornus mas L. that may be of pharmaceutical importance are relatively unstable. In this respect a novel methodology for plant nutrient element extraction that provides favorable conditions for simultaneous stabilization of such fragile and unstable structures has been devised. Using this methodology, medicinal preparations derived from Cornus mas L. fresh fruits, proved to possess significant antimicrobial activity selective against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. This effect became apparent with the addition of sodium bromide in the extraction procedure and varied with the ion availability during extraction. The identification of novel agents with potent antimicrobial activity against these species is of medical importance to overcome the problem of universal antibiotic resistance.

  13. Neuroprotective Mechanisms of the ACE2-Angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas Axis in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennion, Douglas M; Haltigan, Emily; Regenhardt, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of beneficial neuroprotective effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis [ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas] in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke has spurred interest in a more complete characterization of its mechanisms of action. Here, we summarize findings...... that describe the protective role of the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis in stroke, along with a focused discussion on the potential mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of Ang-(1-7) in stroke. The latter incorporates evidence describing the actions of Ang-(1-7) to counter the deleterious effects of angiotensin II...... complete understanding of the mechanisms of action of Ang-(1-7) to elicit neuroprotection will serve as an essential step toward research into potential targeted therapeutics in the clinical setting....

  14. MAS-Based Cooperative Control for Biotechnological Process-A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choinski, Dariusz; Metzger, Mieczyslaw; Nocon, Witold

    The MAS-based control seems to be better suited for manufacturing control because of its discrete event character. Nevertheless, for continuous industrial processes the MAS-based control can be also very attractive. In this paper, a synthesis of the MAS-based control system for the continuous process is presented. A biological reactor is controlled using respirometric approach. In this approach, both standard control loops and additional experiments are performed to obtain measurements not available on-line. Therefore, the system consists of different control agents being able to cooperate or to inhibit each other in order to achieve the appropriate goals. A case study experiments are realized using an experimental wastewater treatment pilot plant.

  15. Evidence for a systematic offset of $-$0.25~mas in the Gaia DR1 parallaxes

    CERN Document Server

    Stassun, Keivan G

    2016-01-01

    We test the parallaxes reported in the Gaia first data release using the sample of eclipsing binaries with accurate, empirical distances from Stassun & Torres (2016). We find a clear average offset of $-$0.25$\\pm$0.05 mas in the sense of the Gaia parallaxes being too small (i.e., the distances too long). The documented Gaia systematic uncertainty is 0.3 mas, which the eclipsing binary sample corroborates. The offset does not depend strongly on obvious parameters such as color, brightness, or spatial position. However, with a statistical significance of 99.7%, nearer stars possibly exhibit larger offsets according to $\\Delta\\pi \\approx -0.16 -0.02 \\times \\pi$ mas.

  16. Technology Enhanced Learning for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Cerebral Paralysis: The MAS Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Paniagua-Martín, Fernando; García-Crespo, Ángel; Ruiz-Mezcua, Belén

    Education for students with disabilities now takes place in a wide range of settings, thus, including a wider range of assistive tools. As a result of this, one of the most interesting application domains of technology enhanced learning is related to the adoption of learning technologies and designs for people with disabilities. Following this unstoppable trend, this paper presents MAS, a software platform aimed to help people with severe intellectual disabilities and cerebral paralysis in their learning processes. MAS, as a technology enhanced learning platform, provides several tools that supports learning and monitoring for people with special needs, including adaptative games, data processing and monitoring tools. Installed in a special needs education institution in Madrid, Spain, MAS provides special educators with a tool that improved students education processes.

  17. Ornithopter flight stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2007-04-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model and the vehicle dynamics model of ornithopter flight are explained, and numerical methods are described to capture limit cycle behavior in ornithopter flight. The Floquet method is used to determine stability in forward flight, and a linear discrete-time state-space model is developed. This is used to calculate stabilizing and disturbance-rejecting controllers.

  18. White flight or flight from poverty?

    CERN Document Server

    Jego, C; Jego, Charles; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of White flight is often illustrated by the case of Detroit whose population dropped from 1.80 million to 0.95 million between 1950 and 2000 while at the same time its Black and Hispanic component grew from 30 percent to 85 percent. But is this case really representative? The present paper shows that the phenomenon of White flight is in fact essentially a flight from poverty. As a confirmation, we show that the changes in White or Black populations are highly correlated which means that White flight is always paralleled by Black flight (and Hispanic flight as well). This broader interpretation of White flight accounts not only for the case of northern cities such as Cincinnati, Cleveland or Detroit, but for all population changes at county level, provided the population density is higher than a threshold of about 50 per square-kilometer which corresponds to moderately urbanized areas (as can be found in states like Indiana or Virginia for instance).

  19. Factor analysis of 27Al MAS NMR spectra for identifying nanocrystalline phases in amorphous geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanova, Martina; Kobera, Libor; Brus, Jiri

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured materials offer enhanced physicochemical properties because of the large interfacial area. Typically, geopolymers with specifically synthesized nanosized zeolites are a promising material for the sorption of pollutants. The structural characterization of these aluminosilicates, however, continues to be a challenge. To circumvent complications resulting from the amorphous character of the aluminosilicate matrix and from the low concentrations of nanosized crystallites, we have proposed a procedure based on factor analysis of (27)Al MAS NMR spectra. The capability of the proposed method was tested on geopolymers that exhibited various tendencies to crystallize (i) completely amorphous systems, (ii) X-ray amorphous systems with nanocrystalline phases, and (iii) highly crystalline systems. Although the recorded (27)Al MAS NMR spectra did not show visible differences between the amorphous systems (i) and the geopolymers with the nanocrystalline phase (ii), the applied factor analysis unambiguously distinguished these materials. The samples were separated into the well-defined clusters, and the systems with the evolving crystalline phase were identified even before any crystalline fraction was detected by X-ray powder diffraction. Reliability of the proposed procedure was verified by comparing it with (29)Si MAS NMR spectra. Factor analysis of (27)Al MAS NMR spectra thus has the ability to reveal spectroscopic features corresponding to the nanocrystalline phases. Because the measurement time of (27)Al MAS NMR spectra is significantly shorter than that of (29)Si MAS NMR data, the proposed procedure is particularly suitable for the analysis of large sets of specifically synthesized geopolymers in which the formation of the limited fractions of nanocrystalline phases is desired. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Remote Sensing of Liquid Water and Ice Cloud Optical Thickness and Effective Radius in the Arctic: Application of Airborne Multispectral MAS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Yang, Ping; Arnold, G. Thomas; Gray, Mark A.; Riedi, Jerome C.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Liou, Kuo-Nan

    2003-01-01

    A multispectral scanning spectrometer was used to obtain measurements of the reflection function and brightness temperature of clouds, sea ice, snow, and tundra surfaces at 50 discrete wavelengths between 0.47 and 14.0 microns. These observations were obtained from the NASA ER-2 aircraft as part of the FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment, conducted over a 1600 x 500 km region of the north slope of Alaska and surrounding Beaufort and Chukchi Seas between 18 May and 6 June 1998. Multispectral images of the reflection function and brightness temperature in 11 distinct bands of the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) were used to derive a confidence in clear sky (or alternatively the probability of cloud), shadow, and heavy aerosol over five different ecosystems. Based on the results of individual tests run as part of the cloud mask, an algorithm was developed to estimate the phase of the clouds (water, ice, or undetermined phase). Finally, the cloud optical thickness and effective radius were derived for both water and ice clouds that were detected during one flight line on 4 June. This analysis shows that the cloud mask developed for operational use on MODIS, and tested using MAS data in Alaska, is quite capable of distinguishing clouds from bright sea ice surfaces during daytime conditions in the high Arctic. Results of individual tests, however, make it difficult to distinguish ice clouds over snow and sea ice surfaces, so additional tests were added to enhance the confidence in the thermodynamic phase of clouds over the Beaufort Sea. The cloud optical thickness and effective radius retrievals used 3 distinct bands of the MAS, with the newly developed 1.62 and 2.13 micron bands being used quite successfully over snow and sea ice surfaces. These results are contrasted with a MODIS-based algorithm that relies on spectral reflectance at 0.87 and 2.13 micron.

  1. Dibujo y pensamiento en la obra de Rafael Masó

    OpenAIRE

    Marañón González, Rafael Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Rafael Masó, arquitecto noucentista, es además, el artista adecuado para el análisis de una obra totalmente gráfica.Dibujos, escritos, gráficos y bocetos, son los elementos idóneos para que las ideas sobre la expresión gráfica, queden reflejados en esta Tesis Doctoral.Para conocer su obra gráfica, es necesario llegar a lo más profundo de sus pensamientos transmitidos por historiadores y la Familia Masó. Tanto su obra arquitectónica, como sus dibujos, son conocidos por expertos y estudiosos ...

  2. Solid-phase enolate chemistry investigated using HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchart, Jean-Sébastien; Lippens, Guy; Kuhn, Cyrille; Gras-Masse, Hélène; Melnyk, Oleg

    2002-01-25

    Supported P4-t-Bu enolate chemistry of phenylacetyloxymethyl polystyrene (PS) resin was investigated using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Direct analysis of the crude reaction suspensions through the use of a diffusion filter (DF) allowed a rapid selection of the optimal experimental conditions, but also the characterization of the enolate on the solid phase. Comparison with solution experiments and literature data allowed us to address partially the structure of the enolate. HR-MAS NMR spectra of the enolate revealed also a tight interaction of P4-t-Bu base with the polymer matrix.

  3. “Logias masónicas en la Nueva España”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Francisco Martínez Moreno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca mostrar que en la Nueva España hubo logias masónicas autorizadas por la Gran Logia del Estado de Louisiana para ser establecidas en Veracruz, Campeche y Mérida Yucatán entre 1816 y 1820. La evidencia documental se presenta por primera vez con su transcripción y traducción, con un estudio hermenéutico del contexto político y masónico de la época, y de algunas reflexiones acerca de la composición de los miembros de las tres logias.

  4. Application of a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to Rational Credit Rating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A Multi-Agent System (MAS) is a promising approach to build complex system. This paper introduces the research of the Inner-Enterprise Credit Rating MAS (IECRMAS). To raise the ratingaccuracy, we not only consider the rating-target's information, but also focus on the evaluators' feature information and propose the rational rating-group formation algorithm based on an anti-bias measurement of the group. We also propose the rational rating individual, which consists of the evaluator and the assistant rating agent. A rational group formation protocol is designed to coordinate autonomous agents to perform the rating job.

  5. The ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis protects against pancreatic cell damage in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Ruixia; Qi, Haiyu; Wang, Yan; Cui, Lijian; Wen, Yan; Li, Huihui; Yin, Chenghong

    2015-03-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), its product angiotensin-(1-7), and its receptor Mas have been shown to moderate the adverse effects of the ACE-angiotensin II-AT1 axis in many diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis could have similar effects in a cell culture model of pancreatic damage. AR42J cells were stimulated with 10 nmol/L cerulein to simulate acute pancreatitis. ACE2, Ang-(1-7), Mas receptor, and PI3K/AKT pathway were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. ACE2 and Mas receptor protein levels in AR42J cells were significantly increased (P Mas receptor gene expression was significantly increased (P Mas axis significantly inhibits pancreatitis in response to decreased inflammatory factors by the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and NO signaling pathways.

  6. Changes in Structural and Electronic Properties of the Zeolite Framework Induced by Extra-Framework Al and La in H-USY and La(x)NaY : A 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR and 27Al MQ MAS NMR Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Bokhoven, J.A. van; Roest, A.L.; Miller, J.T.; Nachtegaal, G.H,; Kentgens, A.

    2000-01-01

    A 27Al 3Q MAS, a quantitative 27Al MAS, and a 29Si MAS NMR study has been carried out on La(x)NaY and H-USY. Assignment of the different types of Al coordinations has been done using the results of the MQ MAS experiments. The 29Si MAS and 27Al MAS NMR results obtained at high fields (14.1 T) and

  7. 27 Al MAS NMR Studies of HBEA Zeolite at Low to High Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Wan, Chuan; Vjunov, Aleksei; Wang, Meng; Zhao, Zhenchao; Hu, Mary Y.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2017-06-01

    27Al single pulse (SP) MAS NMR spectra of HBEA zeolites with high Si/Al ratios of 71 and 75 were obtained at three magnetic field strengths of 7.05, 11.75 and 19.97 T. High field 27Al MAS NMR spectra acquired at 19.97 T show significantly improved spectral resolution, resulting in at least two well-resolved tetrahedral-Al NMR peaks. Based on the results obtained from 27Al MAS and MQMAS NMR acquired at 19.97 T, four different quadrupole peaks are used to deconvolute the 27Al SP MAS spectra acquired at vari-ous fields by using the same set of quadrupole coupling constants, asymmetric parameters and relative integrated peak intensities for the tetrahedral Al peaks. The line shapes of individual peaks change from typical quadrupole line shape at low field to essentially symmetrical line shapes at high field. We demonstrate that for fully hydrated HBEA zeolites the effect of second order quadrupole interaction can be ignored and quantitative spectral analysis can be performed by directly fitting the high field spectra using mixed Gaussian/Lorentzian line shapes. Also, the analytical steps described in our work allow direct assignment of spectral intensity to individual Al tetrahedral sites (T-sites) of zeolite HBEA. Finally, the proposed concept is suggested generally applicable to other zeo-lite framework types, thus, allowing a direct probing of Al distributions by NMR spectroscopic methods in zeolites with high confi-dence.

  8. Project MAS, 1982-1983. O.E.E. Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Ana; Villegas, Jose

    This multi-site instructional program, in its first year of a three-year funding cycle, provided instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL) and native language arts, as well as bilingual instruction in various content areas, to 400 Spanish speaking students of limited English proficiency in grades 3-8. The functional goal of Project MAS,…

  9. SecMAS: Security Enhanced Monitoring and Analysis Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring, control, and security guarantee for the communication in the wireless sensor networks (WSNs are currently treated as three independent issues and addressed separately through specialized tools. However, most cases of WSNs applications requires the network administrator change the network configuration in a very short time to response to the change of observed phenomenon with security guarantee. To meet this requirement, we propose a security enhanced monitoring and control platform named SecMAS for WSNs, which provides the real-time visualization about network states and online reconfiguration of the network properties and behaviours in a resource-efficient way. Besides, basic cryptographic primitives and part of the anomaly detection functionalities are implemented in SecMAS to enabling the secure communication in WSNs. Furthermore, we conduct experiments to evaluate the performance of SecMAS in terms of the latency, throughput, communication overhead, and the security capacity. The experimental results demonstrate that the SecMAS system achieves stable, efficient and secure data collection with lightweight quick-response network control.

  10. Considerations for Consortia as States Transition Away from AA-MAS. NCEO Brief. Number 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Educational Outcomes, 2014

    2014-01-01

    States with an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) that received a flexibility waiver from some of the requirements of No Child Left Behind are required to phase out their use of this assessment. And, on August 23, 2013, the U.S. Department of Education published a proposed rollback of regulation that allowed the…

  11. Successfully Transitioning from the AA-MAS to the General Assessment. NCEO Policy Directions. Number 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha; Christensen, Laurene; Shyyan, Vitaliy

    2014-01-01

    Federal policy initiatives such as the flexibility waivers for accountability are requiring that states transition away from the use of an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). It is expected that those students who had participated in that assessment will instead participate in the state's general assessment (or a…

  12. An Analysis of the Rise and Fall of the AA-MAS Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Edwards, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, to address concerns about students who might fall in the "gap" between the regular assessment and the alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS), the U.S. Department of Education announced that states could develop alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). This article…

  13. Two-Stage MAS Technique for Analysis of DRA Elements and Arrays on Finite Ground Planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    A two-stage Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) technique is proposed for analysis of dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) elements and arrays on finite ground planes (FGPs). The problem is solved by first analysing the DRA on an infinite ground plane (IGP) and then using this solution to model the FGP...... problem....

  14. Characterization and significance of ACE2 and Mas receptor in human colon adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stella; Zennaro, Cristina; Palmisano, Silvia; Velkoska, Elena; Sabato, Nicoletta; Toffoli, Barbara; Giacomel, Greta; Buri, Luigi; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Bellini, Giuseppe; Burrell, Louise M; De Manzini, Nicolò; Fabris, Bruno

    2012-03-01

    A new arm of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been recently characterized; this includes angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2 and angiotensin (Ang)1-7, a heptapeptide acting through the Mas receptor (MasR). Recent studies show that Ang1-7 has an antiproliferative action on lung adenocarcinoma cells. The aim of this study was to characterize RAS expression in human colon adenocarcinoma and to investigate whether Ang1-7 exerts an antiproliferative effect on human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Gene, protein expression and enzymatic activity of the main components of the RAS were determined on non-neoplastic colon mucosa as well as on the tumor mass and the mucosa taken 5 cm distant from it, both collected from patients with colon adenocarcinoma. Two different human colon cancer cell lines were treated with AngII and Ang1-7. The novel finding of this study was that MasR was significantly upregulated in colon adenocarcinoma compared with non-neoplastic colon mucosa, which showed little or no expression of it. ACE gene expression and enzymatic activity were also increased in the tumors. However, AngII and Ang1-7 did not have any pro-/antiproliferative effects in the cell lines studied. The data suggest that upregulation of the MasR could be used as a diagnostic marker of colon adenocarcinoma.

  15. Performance of RINEPT is amplified by dipolar couplings under ultrafast MAS conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-06-01

    The refocused insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (RINEPT) technique is commonly used for heteronuclear polarization transfer in solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Suppression of dipolar couplings, either by fast molecular motions in solution or by a combination of MAS and multiple pulse sequences in solids, enables the polarization transfer via scalar couplings. However, the presence of unsuppressed dipolar couplings could alter the functioning of RINEPT, particularly under fast/ultrafast MAS conditions. In this study, we demonstrate, through experiments on rigid solids complemented by numerical simulations, that the polarization transfer efficiency of RINEPT is dependent on the MAS frequency. In addition, we show that heteronuclear dipolar coupling is the dominant factor in the polarization transfer, which is strengthened by the presence of (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings. In fact, the simultaneous presence of homonuclear and heteronuclear dipolar couplings is the premise for the polarization transfer by RINEPT, whereas the scalar coupling plays an insignificant role under ultrafast MAS conditions on rigid solids. Our results additionally reveal that the polarization transfer efficiency decreases with the increasing duration of RF pulses used in the RINEPT sequence.

  16. Downregulation of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in transgenic mice overexpressing GH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Marina C; Burghi, Valeria; Miquet, Johanna G; Giani, Jorge F; Banegas, Ricardo D; Toblli, Jorge E; Fang, Yimin; Wang, Feiya; Bartke, Andrzej; Dominici, Fernando P

    2014-05-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a crucial role in the regulation of physiological homeostasis and diseases such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, and chronic renal failure. In this cascade, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin II (Ang II)/AT1 receptor axis induces pathological effects, such as vasoconstriction, cell proliferation, and fibrosis, while the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis is protective for end-organ damage. The altered function of the RAS could be a contributing factor to the cardiac and renal alterations induced by GH excess. To further explore this issue, we evaluated the consequences of chronic GH exposure on the in vivo levels of Ang II, Ang-(1-7), ACE, ACE2, and Mas receptor in the heart and the kidney of GH-transgenic mice (bovine GH (bGH) mice). At the age of 7-8 months, female bGH mice displayed increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), a high degree of both cardiac and renal fibrosis, as well as increased levels of markers of tubular and glomerular damage. Angiotensinogen abundance was increased in the liver and the heart of bGH mice, along with a concomitant increase in cardiac Ang II levels. Importantly, the levels of ACE2, Ang-(1-7), and Mas receptor were markedly decreased in both tissues. In addition, Ang-(1-7) administration reduced SBP to control values in GH-transgenic mice, indicating that the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis is involved in GH-mediated hypertension. The data indicate that the altered expression profile of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the heart and the kidney of bGH mice could contribute to the increased incidence of hypertension, cardiovascular, and renal alterations observed in these animals.

  17. Effect of a Selective Mas Receptor Agonist in Cerebral Ischemia In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyoung Lee

    Full Text Available Functional modulation of the non-AT1R arm of the renin-angiotensin system, such as via AT2R activation, is known to improve stroke outcome. However, the relevance of the Mas receptor, which along with the AT2R forms the protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system, as a target in stroke is unclear. Here we tested the efficacy of a selective MasR agonist, AVE0991, in in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. Primary cortical neurons were cultured from E15-17 mouse embryos for 7-9 d, subjected to glucose deprivation for 24 h alone or with test drugs, and percentage cell death was determined using trypan blue exclusion assay. Additionally, adult male mice were subjected to 1 h middle cerebral artery occlusion and were administered either vehicle or AVE0991 (20 mg/kg i.p. at the commencement of 23 h reperfusion. Some animals were also treated with the MasR antagonist, A779 (80 mg/kg i.p. 1 h prior to surgery. Twenty-four h after MCAo, neurological deficits, locomotor activity and motor coordination were assessed in vivo, and infarct and edema volumes estimated from brain sections. Following glucose deprivation, application of AVE0991 (10-8 M to 10-6 M reduced neuronal cell death by ~60% (P<0.05, an effect prevented by the MasR antagonist. By contrast, AVE0991 administration in vivo had no effect on functional or histological outcomes at 24 h following stroke. These findings indicate that the classical MasR agonist, AVE0991, can directly protect neurons from injury following glucose-deprivation. However, this effect does not translate into an improved outcome in vivo when administered systemically following stroke.

  18. Indoxyl sulfate downregulates expression of Mas receptor via OAT3/AhR/Stat3 pathway in proximal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Yisireyili, Maimaiti; Saito, Shinichi; Lee, Chien-Te; Adelibieke, Yelixiati; Nishijima, Fuyuhiko; Niwa, Toshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a pivotal role in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Angiotensin converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis counteracts the deleterious actions of Ang II. ACE2 exerts its actions by cleaving Ang II into Ang-(1-7) which activates Mas receptor. This study aimed to determine if the expression of Mas receptor is altered in the kidneys of CKD rats, and if indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin, affects the expression of Mas receptor in rat kidneys and cultured human proximal tubular cells (HK-2 cells). The expression of Mas receptor was examined in the kidneys of CKD and AST-120-treated CKD rats using immunohistochemistry. Further, the effects of IS on Mas receptor expression in the kidneys of normotensive and hypertensive rats were examined. The effects of IS on the expression of Mas receptor and phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in HK-2 cells were examined using immunoblotting. CKD rats showed reduced renal expression of Mas receptor, while AST-120 restored its expression. Administration of IS downregulated Mas receptor expression in the kidneys of normotensive and hypertensive rats. IS downregulated Mas receptor expression in HK-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) inhibited IS-induced downregulation of Mas receptor and phosphorylated eNOS. N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, also inhibited IS-induced downregulation of Mas receptor and phosphorylated eNOS. Ang-(1-7) attenuated IS-induced transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression. Mas receptor expression is reduced in the kidneys of CKD rats. IS downregulates renal expression of Mas receptor via OAT3/AhR/Stat3 pathway in proximal tubular cells. IS-induced downregulation of Mas receptor might be involved in upregulation of TGF-β1 in proximal tubular

  19. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace.

  20. Digital flight control research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J. E.; Stern, R. G.; Smith, T. B.; Sinha, P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of studies which were undertaken to contribute to the design of digital flight control systems, particularly for transport aircraft are presented. In addition to the overall design considerations for a digital flight control system, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) aircraft attitude reference system design, (2) the digital computer configuration, (3) the design of a typical digital autopilot for transport aircraft, and (4) a hybrid flight simulator.

  1. Flight Standards Automation System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — FAVSIS supports Flight Standards Service (AFS) by maintaining their information on entities such as air carriers, air agencies, designated airmen, and check airmen....

  2. Participation and Performance Reporting for the Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS). Technical Report 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albus, Deb; Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines publicly reported participation and performance data for the alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). The authors' analysis of these data included all states publicly reporting AA-MAS data, regardless of whether they had received approval to use the results for Title I accountability calculations.…

  3. A hybrid MAS/MoM technique for 2D impedance scatterers illuminated by closely positioned sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid technique for 2D scattering problems with impedance structures and closely positioned illuminating sources is presented. This technique combines the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) with a localized method of moments (MoM) region near the source. Significant improvements over standard MAS...

  4. A novel BN–MAS system composite ceramics with greatly improved mechanical properties prepared by low temperature hot-pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Delong; Yang, Zhihua, E-mail: zhyang@hit.edu.cn; Duan, Xiaoming; Liang, Bin; Li, Qian; Jia, Dechang, E-mail: dcjia@hit.edu.cn; Zhou, Yu

    2015-05-01

    A novel composite ceramics with excellent mechanical properties was fabricated by means of low temperature hot-pressing using hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) as raw materials. The influences of starting MAS content on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The results indicate that the effective enhancement of relative density of composites has been achieved, which shows that MAS is an effective liquid-phase sintering aid during the hot-pressing. MAS also can improve the structural ordering of h-BN flakes. On the other hand, h-BN exhibits significant inhibiting effect on the crystallization of α-Cordierite. Furthermore, h-BN flakes with layered structure can play a role in strengthening the MAS matrix. So h-BN and MAS are considered to be co-enhanced by each other, resulting in better sintering ability and the mechanical properties of composite ceramics are better than that of both h-BN and MAS. Composite ceramics incorporated with 50 wt% MAS exhibits the highest bending strength and fracture toughness of 213±25 MPa and 2.49±0.35 MPa m{sup 1/2}, respectively.

  5. Angiotensin-(1-7) attenuates disuse skeletal muscle atrophy in mice via its receptor, Mas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, María Gabriela; Abrigo, Johanna; Acuña, María José; Santos, Robson A; Bader, Michael; Brandan, Enrique; Simon, Felipe; Olguin, Hugo; Cabrera, Daniel; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Immobilization is a form of disuse characterized by a loss of strength and muscle mass. Among the main features are decreased IGF-1/Akt signalling and increased ubiquitin-proteasome pathway signalling, which induce greater myosin heavy chain degradation. Activation of the classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) causes deleterious effects in skeletal muscle, including muscle wasting. In contrast, angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], a peptide of the non-classical RAS, produces beneficial effects in skeletal muscle. However, the role of Ang-(1-7) in skeletal muscle disuse atrophy and independent of classical RAS activation has not been evaluated. Therefore, we assessed the functions of Ang-(1-7) and the Mas receptor in disuse muscle atrophyin vivousing unilateral cast immobilization of the hind limb in male, 12-week-old wild-type (WT) and Mas-knockout (Mas KO) mice for 1 and 14 days. Additionally, we evaluated the participation of IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt signalling and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway expression on the effects of Ang-(1-7) immobilization-induced muscle atrophy. Our results found that Ang-(1-7) prevented decreased muscle strength and reduced myofiber diameter, myosin heavy chain levels, and the induction of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expressions, all of which normally occur during immobilization. Analyses indicated that Ang-(1-7) increases IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt pathway signalling through IGFR-1 and Akt phosphorylation, and the concomitant activation of two downstream targets of Akt, p70S6K and FoxO3. These anti-atrophic effects of Ang-(1-7) were not observed in Mas KO mice, indicating crucial participation of the Mas receptor. This report is the first to propose anti-atrophic effects of Ang-(1-7) via the Mas receptor and the participation of the IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt/p70S6K/FoxO3 mechanism in disuse skeletal muscle atrophy. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Angiotensin-(1-7 attenuates disuse skeletal muscle atrophy in mice via its receptor, Mas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Morales

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization is a form of disuse characterized by a loss of strength and muscle mass. Among the main features are decreased IGF-1/Akt signalling and increased ubiquitin-proteasome pathway signalling, which induce greater myosin heavy chain degradation. Activation of the classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS causes deleterious effects in skeletal muscle, including muscle wasting. In contrast, angiotensin-(1-7 [Ang-(1-7], a peptide of the non-classical RAS, produces beneficial effects in skeletal muscle. However, the role of Ang-(1-7 in skeletal muscle disuse atrophy and independent of classical RAS activation has not been evaluated. Therefore, we assessed the functions of Ang-(1-7 and the Mas receptor in disuse muscle atrophy in vivo using unilateral cast immobilization of the hind limb in male, 12-week-old wild-type (WT and Mas-knockout (Mas KO mice for 1 and 14 days. Additionally, we evaluated the participation of IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt signalling and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway expression on the effects of Ang-(1-7 immobilization-induced muscle atrophy. Our results found that Ang-(1-7 prevented decreased muscle strength and reduced myofiber diameter, myosin heavy chain levels, and the induction of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 expressions, all of which normally occur during immobilization. Analyses indicated that Ang-(1-7 increases IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt pathway signalling through IGFR-1 and Akt phosphorylation, and the concomitant activation of two downstream targets of Akt, p70S6K and FoxO3. These anti-atrophic effects of Ang-(1-7 were not observed in Mas KO mice, indicating crucial participation of the Mas receptor. This report is the first to propose anti-atrophic effects of Ang-(1-7 via the Mas receptor and the participation of the IGF-1/IGFR-1/Akt/p70S6K/FoxO3 mechanism in disuse skeletal muscle atrophy.

  7. Electromechanical flight control actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using an electromechanical actuator (EMA) as the primary flight control equipment in aerospace flight is examined. The EMA motor design is presented utilizing improved permanent magnet materials. The necessary equipment to complete a single channel EMA using the single channel power electronics breadboard is reported. The design and development of an improved rotor position sensor/tachometer is investigated.

  8. Java for flight software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  9. Slow-spinning low-sideband HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy: delicate analysis of biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Marie; Shintu, Laetitia; Piotto, Martial; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    High-Resolution Magic-Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy has become an extremely versatile analytical tool to study heterogeneous systems endowed with liquid-like dynamics. Spinning frequencies of several kHz are however required to obtain NMR spectra, devoid of spinning sidebands, with a resolution approaching that of purely isotropic liquid samples. An important limitation of the method is the large centrifugal forces that can damage the structure of the sample. In this communication, we show that optimizing the sample preparation, particularly avoiding air bubbles, and the geometry of the sample chamber of the HR-MAS rotor leads to high-quality low-sideband NMR spectra even at very moderate spinning frequencies, thus allowing the use of well-established solution-state NMR procedures for the characterization of small and highly dynamic molecules in the most fragile samples, such as live cells and intact tissues.

  10. El Proyecto Sismico "LARSE" - Trabajando Hacia un Futuro con Mas Seguridad para Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henyey, Thomas L.; Fuis, Gary S.; Benthien, Mark L.; Burdette, Thomas R.; Christofferson, Shari A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Criley, Edward E.; Davis, Paul M.; Hendley, James W.; Kohler, Monica D.; Lutter, William J.; McRaney, John K.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Ryberg, Trond; Simila, Gerald W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    La region de Los Angeles contiene una red de fallas activas, incluyendo muchas fallas por empuje que son profundas y no rompen la superficie de la tierra. Estas fallas ocultas incluyen la falla anteriormente desconocida que fue responsable por la devastacion que ocurrio durante el terremoto de Northridge en enero de 1994, el terremoto mas costoso en la historia de los Estados Unidos. El Experimento Sismico en la Region de Los Angeles (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, LARSE), esta localizando los peligros ocultos de los terremotos debajo de la region de Los Angeles para mejorar la construccion de las estructuras que pueden apoyar terremotos que son inevitables en el futuro, y que ayudaran a los cientificos determinar donde occurira el sacudimento mas fuerte y poderoso.

  11. Decomposition of adsorbed VX on activated carbons studied by 31P MAS NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, Ishay; Waysbort, Daniel; Shmueli, Liora; Nir, Ido; Kaplan, Doron

    2006-06-15

    The fate of the persistent OP nerve agent O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) on granular activated carbons that are used for gas filtration was studied by means of 31P magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. VX as vapor or liquid was adsorbed on carbon granules, and MAS NMR spectra were recorded periodically. The results show that at least 90% of the adsorbed VX decomposes within 20 days or less to the nontoxic ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and bis(S-2-diisopropylaminoethane) {(DES)2}. Decomposition occurred irrespective of the phase from which VX was loaded, the presence of metal impregnation on the carbon surface, and the water content of the carbon. Theoretical and practical aspects of the degradation are discussed.

  12. Le Kāmasūtra et la « pulsion shastrique » en Inde

    OpenAIRE

    Naudou, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Le mot « shastrique » fait référence au traité (śāstra) d’où sont issus les Kāmasūtra, (plus généralement appelé le Kāmasūtra), « aphorismes sur l’amour » : le Kāmaśāstra, « traité sur l’amour ». Qui dit śāstra, dit, en Inde, exposé religieux ou scientifique, d’où l’expression « pulsion shastrique » que l’on pourrait rendre par « pulsion encyclopédique énumérative et classificatoire ». Le but de cet exposé est de replacer le texte dans cette structure mentale typiquement indienne, qui reflète...

  13. Rehabilitación de una masía de Sentmenat

    OpenAIRE

    Souto Béjar, Carla; Hormigo Morales, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    El siguiente Proyecto Final de Carrera trata del estudio de evolución histórica, diagnosis, intervención y propuesta de rehabilitación de la masía “Can Padró” de Sentmenat, municipio de la comarca del Vallés Occidental. La masía “Can Padró” es un edificio aislado que consta de 1195,67 m2 útiles y 1501,98 m2 construidos distribuidos en 3 plantas más la azotea que forma esta casa rural. Aparte, se ha edificado 261,6 m2 en las construcciones anexas sin incluir la balsa adyacente. ...

  14. Porfirio Díaz en la historiografía masónica mexicana

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Flores Zavala

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza la presencia del general Porfirio Díaz en la historiografía masónica mexicana. Para la redacción de este texto se recurrió a las obras de José María Mateos (Historia de la masonería en México desde 1806 hasta 1884), Richard Chism (Una contribución a la historia masónica de México) y Luis J. Zalce (Apuntes para la historia de la masonería en México, de mis lecturas y mis recuerdos). El cuestionario es básico: ¿Qué fuentes documentales utilizaron los autores para red...

  15. Slow-spinning low-sideband HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy: delicate analysis of biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Marie; Shintu, Laetitia; Piotto, Martial; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    High-Resolution Magic-Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy has become an extremely versatile analytical tool to study heterogeneous systems endowed with liquid-like dynamics. Spinning frequencies of several kHz are however required to obtain NMR spectra, devoid of spinning sidebands, with a resolution approaching that of purely isotropic liquid samples. An important limitation of the method is the large centrifugal forces that can damage the structure of the sample. In this communication, we show that optimizing the sample preparation, particularly avoiding air bubbles, and the geometry of the sample chamber of the HR-MAS rotor leads to high-quality low-sideband NMR spectra even at very moderate spinning frequencies, thus allowing the use of well-established solution-state NMR procedures for the characterization of small and highly dynamic molecules in the most fragile samples, such as live cells and intact tissues. PMID:24284435

  16. Design and implementation of distributed virtual geographic environment system based on MAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Kaiping; Yang, Xiaoxia

    2007-11-01

    The use of distributed virtual geographic environments (DVGE) is one of the most promising uses of virtual reality in geographic field. Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) is flexible and adaptive enough to resolve highly complex distributed computing problems. This paper aims to discuss how to apply MAS technology to improve the efficiency of collaborative work among multi-user. We firstly design the three-layer system architecture and multi agent system of the DVGE. Then dynamic cooperative group algorithm is also addressed. Finally, we built a collaborative virtual environment and implemented prototype system in silt dams system planning on a case study area, Jiu-Yuan-Gou watershed of Loess Plateau, China. Experiment results prove that the scheme addressed in this paper is efficient and feasible.

  17. Decomposition of adsorbed VX on activated carbons studied by {sup 31}P MAS NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishay Columbus; Daniel Waysbort; Liora Shmueli; Ido Nir; Doron Kaplan [Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona (Israel). Departments of Organic Chemistry and Physical Chemistry

    2006-06-15

    The fate of the persistent OP nerve agent O-ethyl S-(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl) methylphosphonothioate (VX) on granular activated carbons that are used for gas filtration was studied by means of 31P magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Four types of activated carbon were used, including coal-based BPL. VX as vapor or liquid was adsorbed on carbon granules, and MAS NMR spectra were recorded periodically. The results show that at least 90% of the adsorbed VX decomposes within 20 days or less to the nontoxic ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA) and bis(S-2-diisopropylaminoethane) ((DES){sub 2}). Decomposition occurred irrespective of the phase from which VX was loaded, the presence of metal impregnation on the carbon surface, and the water content of the carbon. Theoretical and practical aspects of the degradation are discussed. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Increasing 13C CP-MAS NMR resolution using single crystals: application to model octaethyl porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang; Dalal, Naresh S

    2012-08-02

    Octaethyl porphyrin (OEP) and its Ni and Zn derivatives are considered as model compounds in biochemical, photophysical, and fossil fuel chemistry. They have thus been investigated by high-resolution solid-state (13)C NMR using powders, but peak assignment has been difficult because of large line widths. Arguing that a significant cause of broadening might be the anisotropic bulk magnetic susceptibility, we utilized single crystals in our (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) measurements and observed a nearly 2-fold line narrowing. This enhanced resolution enabled us to assign chemical shifts to each carbon for all the three compounds. The new assignments are now in agreement with X-ray structural data and allowed us to probe the motional dynamics of the methyl and methylene carbons of the OEP side chains. It is apparent that the use of single crystals in (13)C CP-MAS measurements has a significantly wider impact than previously thought.

  19. Porfirio Díaz en la historiografía masónica mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Flores Zavala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la presencia del general Porfirio Díaz en la historiografía masónica mexicana. Parala redacción de este texto se recurrió a las obras de José María Mateos (Historia de la masonería en Méxicodesde 1806 hasta 1884, Richard Chism (Una contribución a la historia masónica de México y Luis J. Zalce(Apuntes para la historia de la masonería en México, de mis lecturas y mis recuerdos. El cuestionario esbásico: ¿Qué fuentes documentales utilizaron los autores para redactar sus textos? ¿Cómo examinan laactuación del general Díaz, como actor de un régimen o un hermano masón? Pese a lo elemental de laspreguntas, éstas colaboran para situar parte de los tópicos y de las formas en que fueron redactadas lashistorias de la masonería en México. El artículo está integrado con dos secciones. En la primera se esboza unabiografía del general Díaz y se presentan las obras que se definen como historiografía masónica mexicana. Lasegunda sección presenta la descripción de las obras y cómo examinaron la presencia de Díaz en lamasonería.

  20. Trends and Determinants in the Japanese Cross-Border M&As

    OpenAIRE

    Filobok, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the recent trends in the Japanese cross-border M&A activity in 1988-2004 and investigates the factors influencing them. We develop classifications of theoretical foundations and factors of M&A activity and their application for the Japanese case. The article examines two categories of the Japanese M&As - transactions with Japanese companies as a target (sales) and transactions with Japanese companies as an acquirer (purchases). In the Japanese cr...

  1. Modelling Lyman α forest cross-correlations with LyMAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhaas, Cassandra; Weinberg, David H.; Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien

    2016-10-01

    We use the Lyα Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS) to predict cross-correlations at z = 2.5 between dark matter haloes and transmitted flux in the Lyα forest, and compare to cross-correlations measured for quasars and damped Lyα systems (DLAs) from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) by Font-Ribera et al. We calibrate LyMAS using Horizon-AGN hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of a (100 h- 1 Mpc)3 comoving volume. We apply this calibration to a (1 h- 1 Gpc)3 simulation realized with 20483 dark matter particles. In the 100 h- 1 Mpc box, LyMAS reproduces the halo-flux correlations computed from the full hydrodynamic gas distribution very well. In the 1 h- 1 Gpc box, the amplitude of the large-scale cross-correlation tracks the halo bias bh as expected. We provide empirical fitting functions that describe our numerical results. In the transverse separation bins used for the BOSS analyses, LyMAS cross-correlation predictions follow linear theory accurately down to small scales. Fitting the BOSS measurements requires inclusion of random velocity errors; we find best-fitting rms velocity errors of 399 and 252 {km} {s}^{-1} for quasars and DLAs, respectively. We infer bias-weighted mean halo masses of M_h/10^{12} h^{-1} M_{⊙}=2.19^{+0.16}_{-0.15} and 0.69^{+0.16}_{-0.14} for the host haloes of quasars and DLAs, with ˜0.2 dex systematic uncertainty associated with redshift evolution, intergalactic medium parameters, and selection of data fitting range.

  2. Investigation of multiaxial molecular dynamics by 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, J H; Hoatson, G L; Vold, R L

    1998-11-01

    The technique of 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy is presented for the investigation of multiaxial molecular dynamics. To evaluate the effects of discrete random reorientation a Lie algebraic formalism based on the stochastic Liouville-von Neumann equation is developed. The solution to the stochastic Liouville-von Neumann equation is obtained both in the presence and absence of rf irradiation. This allows effects of molecular dynamics to be evaluated during rf pulses and extends the applicability of the formalism to arbitrary multiple pulse experiments. Theoretical methods are presented for the description of multiaxial dynamics with particular emphasis on the application of vector parameters to represent molecular rotations. Numerical time and powder integration algorithms are presented that are both efficient and easy to implement computationally. The applicability of 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy for investigating molecular dynamics is evaluated from theoretical spectra. To demonstrate the potential of the technique the dynamics of thiourea-2H4 is investigated experimentally. From a series of variable temperature MAS and quadrupole echo spectra it has been found that the dynamics can be described by composite rotation about the CS and CN bonds. Both experiments are sensitive to the fast CS rotation which is shown to be described by the Arrhenius parameters E(CS) = 46.4 +/- 2.3 kJ mol(-1) and ln(A(CS))= 32.6 +/- 0.9. The MAS experiment represents a significant improvement by simultaneously allowing the dynamics of the slow CN rotation to be fully characterized in terms of E(CN) = 56.3 +/- 3.4 kJ mol(-1) and ln(A(CN)) = 25.3 +/- 1.1.

  3. Identifikasi Kadar Amoniak sebagai Indikator Bau Toilet Menggunakan Perangkat MAS TUQUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salsabila Nurulfarah Mahmudah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Toilet merupakan tempat untuk melakukan ekskresi. Kegiatan ekskresi ini terdapat 2 wujud zat, yaitu berupa zat cair atau urin dan keringat, dan zat padat berupa feses. Urin manusia menyuplai setidaknya 1% terhadap kuantitas air limbah domestik dengan 80% nitrogen dan 50% fosfat. Kebutuhan untuk melakukan ekskresi menjadikan pentingnya toilet di setiap tempat, baik di rumah maupun di tempat umum. Kebutuhan itu perlu diimbangi dengan tersedianya toilet layak pakai, yang memperhatikan kebersihan, kenyamanan dan kesehatan bagi pengguna. Kenyamanan toilet, bau toilet umum, dapat diidentifikasi dengan mengetahui kadar amoniak. Hubungan antara kadar amoniak dengan bau di toilet dapat dinyatakan dengan persamaan Y = 1.8045 + 0.5836 X. Y merupakan kategori bau, sedangkan X merupakan kadar amoniak (ppm. Kadar amoniak menyumbang 67% dari keseluruhan bau yang ada di toilet. Kadar amoniak yang telah disebutkan dalam Peraturan Kesehatan, yakni sebesar 2 ppm. Nilai tersebut termasuk kategori bau biasa. Pada pengukuran berdasarkan bau amoniak ini, Mas Tuqul dapat membacanya dengan benar. Mas Tuqul dapat membaca secara stabil selama 15 menit. Dari hasil pembacaan tersebut, dapat dilihat dengan mudah kadar bau yang ada di dalam toilet. Diharapkan dengan adanya Mas Tuqul ini dapat mempermudah untuk mengetahui keadaan udara yang ada di toilet.

  4. Detection of Ethambutol - resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains by MAS-PCR method and comparison with Proportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asgharzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: Ethambutol (EMB is one of the first - line drugs used for anti-tubercular therapy but resistance to this medicine is developed in many parts of the world. EMB resistant strains commonly have embB mutations. Purpose of this research was detection of EMB-resistant Mycobactercium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients by MAS-PCR method and comparison with Proportion procedure.Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty M. tuberculosis strains were isolated from patients with tulerculosis in Tabriz TB research center. Susceptibility testing to EMB was performed by the Proportion method. DNA was isolated from cultivated cells by SDS-proteinase K modified method. Isolated DNA was used as the template for PCR reaction.Results: One hundred and sixteen strains were susceptible to EMB and 4 (3.33% strains were resistant to EMB. All EMB resistant strains were multidrug-resistant. The MAS-PCR method was used to evaluate of mutation in the embB306 codon. Mutation was seen at the embB306 codon in all resistant strains to ethambutol.Conclusion: The results showed that MAS-PCR method can be used as a simple and rapid procedure for detecting EMB-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

  5. Modeling Lyman-\\alpha\\ Forest Cross-Correlations with LyMAS

    CERN Document Server

    Lochhaas, Cassandra; Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien

    2015-01-01

    We use the Ly-$\\alpha$ Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS; Peirani et al. 2014) to predict cross-correlations at z = 2.5 between dark matter halos and transmitted flux in the Ly-$\\alpha$ forest, and we compare these predictions to cross-correlations measured for quasars and damped Ly-$\\alpha$ systems (DLAs) from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) by Font-Ribera et al. (2012, 2013). We calibrate and test LyMAS using Horizon-AGN hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of a $(100\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Mpc})^3$ comoving volume with and without AGN feedback. We apply this calibration to a $(1\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Gpc})^3$ simulation realized with $2048^3$ dark matter particles for our primary predictions. In the $100\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Mpc}$ box, LyMAS reproduces the halo-flux correlations computed from the full hydrodynamic gas distribution essentially perfectly. In the $1\\ h^{-1}\\ \\rm{Gpc}$ box, the amplitude of the cross-correlation tracks the halo bias as expected, and the correlation for a halo sample with a distributio...

  6. High temperature {sup 17}O MAS NMR study of calcia, magnesia, scandia and yttria stabilized zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Namjun; Stebbins, Jonathan F. [Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Hsieh, Cheng-Han [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Huang, Hong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Prinz, Fritz B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    High-resolution {sup 17}O MAS NMR can provide unique constraints on local structure and oxide ion dynamics in conductive zirconia ceramics of interest for fuel cells and other technologies. We describe here NMR and bulk conductivity measurements for scandia, yttria, calcia, and magnesia stabilized zirconias, including MAS NMR spectra collected in situ at temperatures up to 700 C. All of the cubic compounds with high dopant levels showed line narrowing and coalescence in this temperature range, and the temperature-induced changes in line widths are qualitatively correlated with the bulk conductivities. A monoclinic zirconia with 2% Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} dopant level (expected to have relatively low ionic mobility) showed no motional averaging of its two {sup 17}O NMR peaks even at 600 C, but instead is observed to begin to transform to a disordered, possibly cubic or tetragonal phase at 600 to 700 C. {sup 17}O MAS NMR spectra of calcia stabilized zirconia were analyzed in detail and the exchange frequencies as a function of temperature, conductivity, and activation energy were estimated and compared with bulk conductivities. The activation energy estimated from NMR exchange frequencies is somewhat lower than that of bulk conductivity but the conductivities estimated from NMR appear to be lower than bulk conductivity. (author)

  7. MAS/MILS Arc/Info point coverage for the western U.S. (excluding Hawaii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, J. Douglas

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has two international and one regional digital database that contains information on mineral properties. This report describes the conversion of selected data from one of the international databases - MAS/MILS (Mineral Availability System/Mineral Industry Location System) - into a spatial data product. The MAS/MILS database, obtained from the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) upon its closure, contains over 221,000 records of mineral properties and processing facilities throughout the world. However, the majority of the records in the database are of sites located in the western U.S. This is due to the extensive mineral activity that has occurred in the West, and the work done by mineral professionals in the Western, Alaska, and Intermountain Field Operations Centers of the USBM. The purpose of this project was to create a spatial coverage of the western U.S. containing mineral resource information. This coverage includes information for the states of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. For this report, locations from MAS/MILS were converted to a point coverage using a geographic information system (GIS). All work was done using Arc/Info v. 7.0.4. There are 128,441 points in the coverage.

  8. Processing of CP MAS kinetics: Towards NMR crystallography for complex solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagys, Laurynas; Klimavicius, Vytautas; Balevicius, Vytautas

    2016-09-01

    Variable temperature and high data point density measurements of 1H-31P cross-polarization kinetics in the powdered ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) have been carried out in the range of -40 °C to +90 °C upon 7 and 10 kHz MAS. The advanced route of processing CP MAS kinetic data has been developed. It is based on reducing the incoherent far range order spin couplings and extracting the CP oscillatory term with the sequent mathematical treatment. The proper replica has been found, which allowed to reduce the Fourier-Bessel (Hankel) transform calculating the angularly averaged and purely distance-depending spin distribution profile to the routine Fourier transform. The shortest 31P-1H distances determined by CP MAS kinetics get between the values obtained by neutron and X-ray diffraction, whereas those for more remote protons are slightly larger. The changes in P⋯H distances are hardly noticeable, though a certain trend to increase upon the heating can be deduced. The clearly pronounced effect was the increase of the spin-diffusion rate constant upon heating. It allows to state that the communication between interacting spins is the process extremely easy to activate.

  9. Study on Composition and Generation of Food Waste in Makanan Ringan Mas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Kadir Aeslina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food waste management is a major problem for most food premises in Malaysia. This study was conducted at one of the Small Medium Industries (SMIs called Makanan Ringan Mas Industry that is located in Parit Kuari Darat, Parit Raja, Johor. This premise generates food waste almost every day including processed food waste (chips and coconut candy and raw food waste (banana peels, tapioca peels, breadfruit peels and grated coconut. The objective of the study was to determine the waste generation and composition of food waste generated by the premise. Food waste collected from the premise once a week and tested for moisture content and density. The results demonstrated that Makanan Ringan Mas Industry generated more raw food waste compared to processed food waste. Banana peels recorded the highest amount at 27.15kg per month compared to other food waste. To conclude, banana peels were found to be the highest component in the food waste composition by Makanan Ringan Mas Industry whereas breadfruit peels were found to be the lowest.

  10. Indirect detection of infinite-speed MAS solid-state NMR spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perras, Frédéric A.; Venkatesh, Amrit; Hanrahan, Michael P.; Goh, Tian Wei; Huang, Wenyu; Rossini, Aaron J.; Pruski, Marek

    2017-03-01

    Heavy spin-1/2 nuclides are known to possess very large chemical shift anisotropies that can challenge even the most advanced magic-angle-spinning (MAS) techniques. Wide manifolds of overlapping spinning sidebands and insufficient excitation bandwidths often obfuscate meaningful spectral information and force the use of static, low-resolution solid-state (SS)NMR methods for the characterization of materials. To address these issues, we have merged fast-magic-angle-turning (MAT) and dipolar heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (D-HMQC) experiments to obtain D-HMQC-MAT pulse sequences which enable the rapid acquisition of 2D SSNMR spectra that correlate isotropic 1H chemical shifts to the indirectly detected isotropic "infinite-MAS" spectra of heavy spin-1/2 nuclides. For these nuclides, the combination of fast MAS and 1H detection provides a high sensitivity, which rivals the DNP-enhanced ultra-wideline SSNMR. The new pulse sequences were used to determine the Pt coordination environments in a complex mixture of decomposition products of transplatin and in a metal-organic framework with Pt ions coordinated to the linker ligands.

  11. Infrared and MAS NMR Spectroscopic Studies of Al18B4O33

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The IR spectrum and 11B and 27Al MAS NMR spectra of Al18B4O33 are presented and discussed in relation to the possible existence of boron atoms substituting for aluminum atoms. TheIR spectrum shows that the strong vibrations of the BO3 groups are present in the 1 500~1 200em-1 region, and very weak bands of BO4 units are present in the region from 1 000 to 1 100cm-1. 11B MAS NMR spectrum indicates that the strong signal for BO3 units appears in the region from δ +5 to δ +20, and the very weak signal for BO4 units is at about δ-1, while 27AlMAS NMR spectrum shows five peaks at about δ +62, +42. 1, +14,-4.7 and-6.4, originating from AlO4, AlO4, A1O5, AlO6 and AlO6, respectively. These results reveal that there areminor BO4 units in Al18B4O33, indicating that a small amount of B atoms substitute for Al atomsin the 4-fold coordination.

  12. Protective Effect of Cornus mas Fruits Extract on Serum Biomarkers in CCl4-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Banihabib, Nafiseh; Es Haghi, Masoud; Panahi, Farid

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays attention to use herbs such as cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) is increasing, which contains high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins. Cornus mas fruits have been used for gastrointestinal and excretory disorders for many years in traditional medicine, also may improve liver and kidney functions, and have protective effects such as anti-allergic, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antihistamine and antimalarial properties. The aim of this study was to investigate protective effects of Cornus mas fruits extract on serum biomarkers in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride (1 mL/kg i.p.) in 1:1 dilution with olive oil. To evaluate the effect of Cornus mas fruits extract on disease progression, serum marker enzymes, serum total protein and albumin and liver lipid peroxidation were determined in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Oral administration of Cornus mas fruits extract to rats for 14 days provided a significant (P mas fruit extract effect may be due to including some antioxidant components, which caused membrane stabilizing and normalization of fluctuated biochemical profiles induced by CCl4 exposure. Our results validated the traditional use of Cornus mas in the treatment of liver disorders.

  13. Characterization of Mas-7-induced pore formation in SK-N-BE(2)C human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, B C; Lee, I S; Chae, H D; Han, S; Kim, K T

    1998-04-30

    Mastoparan, a peptide toxin from wasp venome, mimics receptors by stimulating the GTPase activity of guanine nucleotide binding proteins and the G-protein-coupled phospholipase C (PLC). By using Mas-7, the active analog of mastoparan, we showed that it makes pores in the plasma membrane. Treatment with Mas-7 but not Mas-17, the inactive analog, produced a concentration-dependent rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and facilitated the uptake of ethidium bromide (EtBr) (314 Da) to a sustained level during the stimulation. In addition, Mas-7 triggered the influx of lucifer yellow (457 Da), while it did not induce the influx of fura-2 (831 Da) and Evans blue (961 Da). However, the Mas-7-induced permeability was selectively prevented by the addition of La3+, Ni2+, and Co2+, but not Cd2+. This blocking activity was concentration-dependent. While the stimulatory effect of Mas-7 on PLC activity was dependent on extracellular Ca2+, the pore forming activity of Mas-7 was not effected by removal of extracellular Ca2+. These results, therefore, suggest that the mastoparan's action in pore formation is independent from its action in PLC stimulation and is negatively effected by inorganic cations.

  14. Phase cycling schemes for finite-pulse-RFDR MAS solid state NMR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Sun, Pingchuan; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-03-01

    The finite-pulse radio frequency driven dipolar recoupling (fp-RFDR) pulse sequence is used in 2D homonuclear chemical shift correlation experiments under magic angle spinning (MAS). A recent study demonstrated the advantages of using a short phase cycle, XY4, and its super-cycle, XY4(1)4, for the fp-RFDR pulse sequence employed in 2D (1)H/(1)H single-quantum/single-quantum correlation experiments under ultrafast MAS conditions. In this study, we report a comprehensive analysis on the dipolar recoupling efficiencies of XY4, XY4(1)2, XY4(1)3, XY4(1)4, and XY8(1)4 phase cycles under different spinning speeds ranging from 10 to 100 kHz. The theoretical calculations reveal the presence of second-order terms (T(10)T(2,±2), T(1,±1)T(2,±1), etc.) in the recoupled homonuclear dipolar coupling Hamiltonian only when the basic XY4 phase cycle is utilized, making it advantageous for proton-proton magnetization transfer under ultrafast MAS conditions. It is also found that the recoupling efficiency of fp-RFDR is quite dependent on the duty factor (τ180/τR) as well as on the strength of homonuclear dipolar couplings. The rate of longitudinal magnetization transfer increases linearly with the duty factor of fp-RFDR for all the XY-based phase cycles investigated in this study. Examination of the performances of different phase cycles against chemical shift offset and RF field inhomogeneity effects revealed that XY4(1)4 is the most tolerant phase cycle, while the shortest phase cycle XY4 suppressed the RF field inhomogeneity effects most efficiently under slow spinning speeds. Our results suggest that the difference in the fp-RFDR recoupling efficiencies decreases with the increasing MAS speed, while ultrafast (>60 kHz) spinning speed is advantageous as it recouples a large amount of homonuclear dipolar couplings and therefore enable fast magnetization exchange. The effects of higher-order terms and cross terms between various interactions in the effective Hamiltonian of fp

  15. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in astronauts before, during, and after space missions, in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female) on 4-6 month space flight missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight, (head-down tilt bed rest, n=27, 35 +/- 7 y). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-hour urinary excretion of magnesium along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-d space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4- to 6-month space missions.

  16. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  17. Flight Research Building (Hangar)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Glenn Flight Research Building is located at the NASA Glenn Research Center with aircraft access to Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. The facility is...

  18. Hypersonic flight testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, W.

    1987-01-01

    This presentation is developed for people attending the University of Texas week-long short course in hypersonics. The presentation will be late in the program after the audience has been exposed to computational tehniques and ground test methods. It will attempt to show why we flight test, flight test options, what we learn from flight tests and how we use this information to improve our knowledge of hypersonics. It presupposes that our primary interest is in developing vehicles which will fly in the hypersonic flight region and not in simply developing technology for technology's sake. The material is presented in annotated vugraph form so that the author's comments on each vugraph are on the back of the preceding page. It is hoped that the comments will help reinforce the message on the vugraph.

  19. Flight Systems Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Flight System Monitor which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). The electronic system health of...

  20. Development of a broad toxicological screening technique for urine using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Hon Kit; Ho, Chung Shun; Iu, Yan Ping Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Withdrawal of the support for the REMEDi HS drug profiling system has necessitated its replacement within our laboratories with an alternative broad toxicological screening technique. To this end, a novel method, based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and time-of-flight (TOF) mas...

  1. Dose reduction in dynamic CT stress myocardial perfusion imaging: comparison of 80-kV/370-mAs and 100-kV/300-mAs protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Makiko; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Ito, Tatsuro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Kurobe, Yusuke; Nagata, Motonori; Ishida, Masaki; Sakuma, Hajime

    2014-03-01

    To determine the effect of reduced 80-kV tube voltage with increased 370-mAs tube current on radiation dose, image quality and estimated myocardial blood flow (MBF) of dynamic CT stress myocardial perfusion imaging (CTP) in patients with a normal body mass index (BMI) compared with a 100-kV and 300-mAs protocol. Thirty patients with a normal BMI (mAs (n = 15) or 100-kV/300-mAs (n = 15) imaging. Maximal enhancement and noise of the left ventricular (LV) cavity, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and MBF of the two groups were compared. Imaging with 80-kV/370-mAs instead of 100-kV/300-mAs was associated with 40% lower radiation dose (mean dose-length product, 359 ± 66 vs 628 ± 112 mGy[Symbol: see text]cm; P mAs were associated with 30.9% higher maximal enhancement (804 ± 204 vs 614 ± 115 HU; P mAs allowed 40% dose reduction without compromising image quality or MBF. Tube voltage of 80-kV should be considered for individuals with a normal BMI. • CT stress perfusion imaging (CTP) is increasingly used to assess myocardial function. • Dynamic CTP is feasible at 80-kV in patients with normal BMI. • An 80-kV/370-mAs protocol allows 40% dose reduction compared with 100-kV/300-mAs. • Contrast-to-noise ratio and myocardial blood flow of the two protocols were comparable.

  2. 1999 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on May 18-20, 1999. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  3. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  4. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-08

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions.

  5. Interprofessional Flight Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfes, Celeste M; Rowe, Amanda S

    2016-01-01

    The Dorothy Ebersbach Academic Center for Flight Nursing in Cleveland, OH, holds an annual flight camp designed for master's degree nursing students in the acute care nurse practitioner program, subspecializing in flight nursing at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. The weeklong interprofessional training is also open to any health care provider working in an acute care setting and focuses on critical care updates, trauma, and emergency care within the critical care transport environment. This year, 29 graduate nursing students enrolled in a master's degree program from Puerto Rico attended. Although the emergency department in Puerto Rico sees and cares for trauma patients, there is no formal trauma training program. Furthermore, the country only has 1 rotor wing air medical transport service located at the Puerto Rico Medical Center in San Juan. Flight faculty and graduate teaching assistants spent approximately 9 months planning for their participation in our 13th annual flight camp. Students from Puerto Rico were extremely pleased with the learning experiences at camp and expressed particular interest in having more training time within the helicopter flight simulator.

  6. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  7. La internacionalizacion como objetivo explicito en la vision y mision declaradas de las 500 empresas mas grandes en Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robledo-Ardila, Cristina; Rios-Molina, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    El presente estudio es de caracter empirico y busca establecer--mediante el analisis de contenido de la vision y la mision de las 500 empresas mas grandes de Colombia--si la internacionalizacion hace...

  8. Low-power broadband solid-state MAS NMR of 14N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Andrew J.; Sanders, Kevin J.; Wegner, Sebastian; Pintacuda, Guido; Grey, Clare P.

    2017-05-01

    We propose two broadband pulse schemes for 14N solid-state magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) that achieves (i) complete population inversion and (ii) efficient excitation of the double-quantum spectrum using low-power single-sideband-selective pulses. We give a comprehensive theoretical description of both schemes using a common framework that is based on the jolting-frame formalism of Caravatti et al. [J. Magn. Reson. 55, 88 (1983)]. This formalism is used to determine for the first time that we can obtain complete population inversion of 14N under low-power conditions, which we do here using single-sideband-selective adiabatic pulses. It is then used to predict that double-quantum coherences can be excited using low-power single-sideband-selective pulses. We then proceed to design a new experimental scheme for double-quantum excitation. The final double-quantum excitation pulse scheme is easily incorporated into other NMR experiments, as demonstrated here for double quantum-single quantum 14N correlation spectroscopy, and 1H-14N dipolar heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation experiments. These pulses and irradiation schemes are evaluated numerically using simulations on single crystals and full powders, as well as experimentally on ammonium oxalate ((NH4)2C2O4) at moderate MAS and glycine at ultra-fast MAS. The performance of these new NMR methods is found to be very high, with population inversion efficiencies of 100% and double-quantum excitation efficiencies of 30%-50%, which are hitherto unprecedented for the low radiofrequency field amplitudes, up to the spinning frequency, that are used here.

  9. Separation of 2H MAS NMR Spectra by Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, J. H.; Bildsøe, H.; Jakobsen, H. J.; Nielsen, N. C.

    1999-08-01

    New methods for optimum separation of 2H MAS NMR spectra are presented. The approach is based on hypercomplex spectroscopy that is useful for sign discrimination and phase separation. A new theoretical formalism is developed for the description of hypercomplex experiments. This exploits the properties of Lie algebras and hypercomplex numbers to obtain a solution to the Liouville-von Neumann equation. The solution is expressed in terms of coherence transfer functions that describe the allowed coherence transfer pathways in the system. The theoretical formalism is essential in order to understand all the features of hypercomplex experiments. The method is applied to the development of two-dimensional quadrupole-resolved 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy. The important features of this technique are discussed and two different versions are presented with widely different characteristics. An improved version of two-dimensional double-quantum 2H MAS NMR spectroscopy is developed. The conditions under which the double-quantum experiment is useful are discussed and its performance is compared with that observed for the quadrupole-resolved experiments. A general method is presented for evaluating the optimum pulse sequence parameters consistent with maximum sensitivity and resolution. This approach improves the performance of the experiments and is essential for any further development of the techniques. The effects of finite pulse width and hypercomplex data processing may lead to both intensity and phase distortions in the spectra. These effects are analyzed and general correction procedures are suggested. The techniques are applied to polycrystalline malonic-acid-2H4 for which the spinning sideband manifolds from the carboxyl and methylene deuterons are separated. The spinning sideband manifolds are simulated to determine the quadrupole parameters. The values are consistent with previous results, indicating that the techniques are both accurate and reliable.

  10. 1H HR-MAS NMR and S180 cells: metabolite assignment and evaluation of pulse sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Aline L.; Martinelli,Bruno César B.; Lião,Luciano M.; Pereira,Flávia C.; Silveira-Lacerda,Elisangela P.; Alcantara,Glaucia B.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution magic angle spinning ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS NMR) is a useful technique for evaluation of intact cells and tissues. However, optimal NMR parameters are crucial in obtaining reliable results. To identify the key steps for the optimization of HR-MAS NMR parameters, we assessed different pulse sequences and NMR parameters using sarcoma 180 (S180) cells. A complete assignment of the metabolites of S180 is given to assist future studies.

  11. Design and implementation of a multi-axis precision movement machine based on MAS theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li MA; Linlin CI; Genyan GE

    2009-01-01

    A model construction of a multi-agent system (MAS) and the basic function of the agent are described.The precision control method using the multi-CPU of a programmable logic controller (PLC) is introduced,and a distributed method using multiple CPUs to control different motion machines is given.The test results indicate that in industrial control fields,the combination of using the credible PLC to control the motion machine and multi-CPU task distributing methods can solve multi-axis machine linkage and implication,providing a more credible method for multi-axis motion units.

  12. Structural characteristics of marine sedimentary humic acids by CP/MAS sup(13)C NMR spectroscopy

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Wahidullah, S.

    stream_size 34319 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Oceanol_Acta_21_543.pdf.txt stream_source_info Oceanol_Acta_21_543.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 OCEANOLOGICA ACTA... components of the: hydrolysate. 545 S. SARDESSAI, S. WAHlDULLAH 3.3 Nuclear magnetic resonance ~pe~t~Q~cQQy The cross-polarization technique with magic angle spin- ning (CP/MAS) was used to obtain 13C NMR spectra. Samples were thoroughly freeze...

  13. LA IDENTIDAD POLÍTICA DEL MAS-IPSP EN BOLIVIA. DE TRADICIONES, DEMANDAS Y ANTAGONISMOS

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga (UNRC e UNC), María Virginia

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se pretende analizar al MAS-IPSP en tanto identidad política que emergió en resistencia a la férrea aplicación de políticas neoliberales en Bolivia y se consolidó como una alternativa popular que triunfó en las elecciones nacionales de diciembre de 2005 y de diciembre de 2009. El análisis aquí propuesto arroja importantes claves para comprender el proceso boliviano actual, planteando novedosas articulaciones entre “lo social” y “lo político”.

  14. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of ACE-2/ANG1-7/Mas axis on lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopallawa, Indiwari; Uhal, Bruce D

    2014-01-01

    An established body of recent literature has demonstrated potent inhibitory effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2)/ANG1-7/ Mas axis on acute lung injury and lung fibrogenesis. One of the mechanisms of this inhibition is the enzymatic action of ACE-2 to degrade its main substrate angiotensin (ANG) II, thereby reducing the injurious and profibrotic activities of this octapeptide. Another, potentially more important mechanism is the production by ACE-2 of the heptapeptide ANG1-7, which inhibits the actions of ANGII through its own receptor Mas, the product of the oncogene of the same name. Very recent efforts to define the molecular and cellular mechanisms of ANG1-7/Mas action have revealed a number of similar, but mechanistically distinct, pathways by which ANG1-7 and Mas act on various lung cell types to inhibit lung injury and fibrosis. In this review we summarize the beneficial actions of the ANG1-7/Mas pathway, specifically on lung cells in non-neoplastic lung injury. We also review the currently known downstream signaling mechanisms of the ANG1-7/Mas pathway in various lung cell types known to be key in acute injury and fibrogenesis.

  15. Vasoprotective effects of neurocompensatory response to balloon injury during diabetes involve the improvement of Mas signaling by TGFβ1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernomian, Larissa; Gomes, Mayara S; Pernomian, Laena; Moreira, Rafael P; Corrêa, Fernando M A; de Oliveira, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Balloon injury in diabetic rats triggers a sensory neurocompensatory response that restores the blood flow in contralateral carotid. These vasoprotective effects result from H2O2-mediated relaxation that counteracts AT1-dependent contractile hyperreactivity. The most important mechanism from the renin-angiotensin-system in counteracting AT1-mediated effects is that one is mediated by Mas receptors. Thus, we hypothesized that the vasoprotective effects of balloon neurocompensation in diabetic rats could result from the improvement of Mas signaling by H2O2-mediated sensory mechanisms. NK1 receptors are sensory components whose activation could lead to H2O2 generation upon TGFβ1 release and ALK5-mediated Nox4 upregulation. Based on this, we aimed to investigate: (1) the role of the TGFβ1/ALK5-Nox4-H2O2 pathway on modulating Mas signaling in diabetic rat contralateral carotid; and (2) the contribution of Mas signaling in the control of local blood flow. Our results showed that balloon neurocompensation restored diabetic rat contralateral carotid flow by improving Mas signaling through NK1-mediated TGFβ1 release. TGFβ1/ALK5 activation enhanced Nox4 expression and Nox4-driven generation of H2O2. In turn, H2O2 enhanced the local Mas-mediated relaxation. Since restenosis impairs diabetic rat ipsilateral carotid flow, the restoration of diabetic rat contralateral carotid flow may prevent further damages in cerebral irrigation by carotid pathways after angioplasty during diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Immobilized MAS1 lipase showed high esterification activity in the production of triacylglycerols with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiumei; Li, Daoming; Qu, Man; Durrani, Rabia; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-02-01

    Immobilization of lipase MAS1 from marine Streptomyces sp. strain W007 and its application in catalyzing esterification of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with glycerol were investigated. The resin XAD1180 was selected as a suitable support for the immobilization of lipase MAS1, and its absorption ability was 75mg/g (lipase/resin ratio) with initial buffer pH value of 8.0. The thermal stability of immobilized MAS1 was improved significantly compared with that of the free lipase. Immobilized MAS1 had no regiospecificity in the hydrolysis of triolein. The highest esterification degree (99.31%) and TAG content (92.26%) by immobilized MAS1-catalyzed esterification were achieved under the optimized conditions, which were significantly better than those (82.16% and 47.26%, respectively) by Novozym 435. More than 92% n-3 PUFA was incorporated into TAG that had similar fatty acids composition to the substrate (n-3 PUFA). The immobilized MAS1 exhibited 50% of its initial activity after being used for five cycles.

  17. DAST in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone with Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1), a supercritical airfoil, during a 1980 research flight. The remotely-piloted vehicle, which was air launched from NASA's NB-52B mothership, participated in the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program which ran from 1977 to 1983. The DAST 1 aircraft (Serial #72-1557), pictured, crashed on 12 June 1980 after its right wing ripped off during a test flight near Cuddeback Dry Lake, California. The crash occurred on the modified drone's third free flight. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of

  18. Capital Flight and Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Beja, Edsel Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Capital flight aggravates resource constraints and contributes to undermine long-term economic growth. Counterfactual calculations on the Philippines suggest that capital flight contributed to lower the quality of long-term economic growth. Sustained capital flight over three decades means that capital flight had a role for the Philippines to lose the opportunities to achieve economic takeoff. Unless decisive policy actions are taken up to address enduring capital flight and manage the macroe...

  19. Recent estimates of capital flight

    OpenAIRE

    Claessens, Stijn; Naude, David

    1993-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers have in recent years paid considerable attention to the phenomenon of capital flight. Researchers have focused on four questions: What concept should be used to measure capital flight? What figure for capital flight will emerge, using this measure? Can the occurrence and magnitude of capital flight be explained by certain (economic) variables? What policy changes can be useful to reverse capital flight? The authors focus strictly on presenting estimates of capital...

  20. Long duration flights management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Letrenne, Gérard; Spel, Martin; Charbonnier, Jean-Marc

    Long duration flights (LDF) require a special management to take the best decisions in terms of ballast consumption and instant of separation. As a contrast to short duration flights, where meteorological conditions are relatively well known, for LDF we need to include the meteorological model accuracy in trajectory simulations. Dispersions on the fields of model (wind, temperature and IR fluxes) could make the mission incompatible with safety rules, authorized zones and others flight requirements. Last CNES developments for LDF act on three main axes: 1. Although ECMWF-NCEP forecast allows generating simulations from a 4D point (altitude, latitude, longitude and UT time), result is not statistical, it is determinist. To take into account model dispersion a meteorological NCEP data base was analyzed. A comparison between Analysis (AN) and Forecast (FC) for the same time frame had been done. Result obtained from this work allows implementing wind and temperature dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 2. For IR fluxes, NCEP does not provide ascending IR fluxes in AN mode but only in FC mode. To obtain the IR fluxes for each time frame, satellite images are used. A comparison between FC and satellites measurements had been done. Results obtained from this work allow implementing flux dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 3. An improved cartography containing a vast data base had been included in balloon flight simulator. Mixing these three points with balloon flight dynamics we have obtained two new tools for observing balloon evolution and risk, one of them is called ASTERISK (Statistic Tool for Evaluation of Risk) for calculations and the other one is called OBERISK (Observing Balloon Evolution and Risk) for visualization. Depending on the balloon type (super pressure, zero pressure or MIR) relevant information for the flight manager is different. The goal is to take the best decision according to the global situation to obtain the largest flight duration with

  1. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows the QF-106 'Delta Dart' tethered to the USAF C-141A during takeoff and in flight. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, supported a Kelly Space and Technology, Inc. (KST)/U.S. Air Force project known as Eclipse, which demonstrated a reusable tow launch vehicle concept. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate a reusable tow launch vehicle concept that had been conceived and patented by KST. Kelly Space obtained a contract with the USAF Research Laboratory for the tow launch demonstration project under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The USAF SBIR contract included the modifications to turn the QF-106 into the Experimental Demonstrator #1 (EXD-01), and the C141A aircraft to incorporate the tow provisions to link the two aircraft, as well as conducting flight tests. The demonstration consisted of ground and flight tests. These tests included a Combined Systems Test of both airplanes joined by a tow rope, a towed taxi test, and six towed flights. The primary goal of the project was demonstrating the tow phase of the Eclipse concept using a scaled-down tow aircraft (C-141A) and a representative aerodynamically-shaped aircraft (QF-106A) as a launch vehicle. This was successfully accomplished. On December 20, 1997, NASA research pilot Mark Stucky flew a QF-106 on the first towed flight behind an Air Force C-141 in the joint Eclipse project with KST to demonstrate the reusable tow launch vehicle concept developed by KST. Kelly hoped to use the data from the tow tests to validate a tow-to-launch procedure for reusable space launch vehicles. Stucky flew six successful tow tests between December 1997 and February 6, 1998. On February 6, 1998, the sixth and final towed flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions

  2. Hyperspectral Microwave Atmospheric Sounder (HyMas) - New Capability in the CoSMIR-CoSSIR Scanhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, L. M.; Racette, P. E.; Blackwell, W.; Galbraith, C.; Thompson, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lincoln Laboratory and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center have teamed to re-use an existing instrument platform, the CoSMIRCoSSIR system for atmospheric sounding, to develop a new capability in hyperspectral filtering, data collection, and display. The volume of the scanhead accomodated an intermediate frequency processor(IFP), that provides the filtering and digitization of the raw data and the interoperable remote component (IRC) adapted to CoSMIR, CoSSIR, and HyMAS that stores and archives the data with time tagged calibration and navigation data.The first element of the work is the demonstration of a hyperspectral microwave receiver subsystem that was recently shown using a comprehensive simulation study to yield performance that substantially exceeds current state-of-the-art. Hyperspectral microwave sounders with 100 channels offer temperature and humidity sounding improvements similar to those obtained when infrared sensors became hyperspectral, but with the relative insensitivity to clouds that characterizes microwave sensors. Hyperspectral microwave operation is achieved using independent RF antennareceiver arrays that sample the same areavolume of the Earths surfaceatmosphere at slightly different frequencies and therefore synthesize a set of dense, finely spaced vertical weighting functions. The second, enabling element of the proposal is the development of a compact 52-channel Intermediate Frequency processor module. A principal challenge in the development of a hyperspectral microwave system is the size of the IF filter bank required for channelization. Large bandwidths are simultaneously processed, thus complicating the use of digital back-ends with associated high complexities, costs, and power requirements. Our approach involves passive filters implemented using low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology to achieve an ultra-compact module that can be easily integrated with existing RF front-end technology. This IF processor is universally

  3. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  4. Nuevos datos en torno al escultor Josep Bover i Mas (1802-1866

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Samaniego, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Josep Bover i Mas (1802-1866 was one of the most distinguished Spanish sculptors of the Academy of Fine Arts of Barcelona during the first half of the 19th century. He had a major career as professional artist and teacher, which has been only partially studied. The author here assembles the scarce bibliographical information available on this sculptor and presents new data relating to his life and production, in order to provide a comprehensive interpretation of his works. Likewise, a renewed reflection on Spanish 19th -century academic sculpture is proposed.Josep Bover i Mas (1802-1866 fue uno de los más destacados escultores españoles de la Academia de Bellas Artes de Barcelona de la primera mitad del siglo XIX, desarrollando una interesante carrera como creador profesional y docente que, hasta el día de hoy sólo ha sido estudiada de forma fragmentaria. El presente artículo pretende reunir la escasa bibliografía publicada en torno al escultor y aportar numerosos datos nuevos relacionados con su vida y obra, facilitando la interpretación global de su trabajo. Asimismo, pretende sugerir una reflexión sobre la escultura académica decimonónica con el objetivo de contribuir a renovar la visión que de ésta se ha presentado hasta el momento.

  5. Renoprotective Effects of AVE0991, a Nonpeptide Mas Receptor Agonist, in Experimental Acute Renal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Corrêa Barroso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R is the major cause of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients. Mechanisms underlying reperfusion-associated injury include recruitment and activation of leukocytes and release of inflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigated the renal effects of acute administration of AVE0991, an agonist of Mas, the angiotensin-(1–7 receptor, the angiotensin-(1–7 receptor, in a murine model of renal I/R. Male C57BL/6 wild-type or Mas−/− mice were subjected to 30 min of bilateral ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. Administration of AVE0991 promoted renoprotective effects, as seen by improvement of function, decreased tissue injury, prevention of local and remote leucocyte infiltration, and release of the chemokine, CXCL1. I/R injury was similar in WT and Mas−/− mice, suggesting that endogenous activation of this receptor does not control renal damage under baseline conditions. In conclusion, pharmacological interventions using Mas receptor agonists may represent a therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of renal I/R injury.

  6. STRESS RESPONSE TO NICKEL IN ASPLENIUM SCOLOPENDRIUM L. AND DRYOPTERIS FILIX-MAS (L. SCHOTT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Alexandra Drăghiceanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the physiological response and the defensive potential in species Asplenium scolopendrium L. and Dryopteris filix-mas (L. Schott under the action of nickel. The following experimental variants were tested: 0, 250, 500, 1000, 1500 mg Ni kg-1soil. One month, and three months respectively, after the initiation of the experiment, the amount of assimilating pigments was determined. One month after the initiation of the experiment, there were no significant differences between the variants with Ni and the control as far as the content of chlorophyll (a and b and carotenoids was concerned. The results obtained three months after the inception of the experiment indicate that, at low concentrations, Ni stimulates the synthesis of chlorophyll. In the same period there occurred antioxidant mechanisms: increase in the amount of carotenoids and increased activity of catalase. In the species Dryopteris filix-mas, the variant with 1.000 mg Ni kg-1soil, the amount of chlorophyll was significantly reduced, and the catalase activity was 3 times higher than that obtained in the control group.

  7. Prolactin promoter gene as marker assisted selection (MAS for the control of broodiness of Kampung chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary research about MAS (Marker Assisted Selection was conducted to detect broodiness trait of Kampung chicken. MAS currently is very important in situations, where the accuracy of selection is low, such as, traits with low heritability, e.g. broodiness trait and egg production. Prolactin promoter was selected as a marker gene for broodiness because it plays a critical part in the neuroendocrine cascade which is triggered at the onset of broodiness. DNA samples were collected from low and highbroodiness samples on basic population (G0 each 24 samples, and from selected population (G3 each 28 samples. As control population without broody behavior was used 16 samples White Leghorn (WL chicken. Prolactin promoter gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. PCR product was analyzed using electrophoresis agarose gel 2%. The results showed four types of bands represent in the Kampung chicken, three types called as wild type band and one type as the WL band. The chickens with low and high broodiness on G0 generation have 75 and 87.5% of wild type band while in the G3 generation was decreased to 25 and 75%. Conclusions of the research indicated that the selected breed of the Kampung chicken on G3 generation increased WL band like White Leghorn chicken as much as 31,25% from the G0 generation.

  8. “La iconografía masónica y sus fuentes”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Sánchez Ferré

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El corpus iconográfico de la masonería es un elemento esencial en las prácticas rituales y un soporte privilegiado para transmitir sus doctrinas, su saber y su ciencia. Las imágenes y símbolos masónicos trascienden la experiencia estética para adentrarse en el terreno de lo iniciático, es decir, de lo espiritual; por lo tanto, el legado iconográfico que la Orden ha conservado es una representación del mundo sagrado a la que solamente se accede mediante su propio lenguaje: el simbólico, vehículo y fundamento de su sabiduría. Por ende, el objetivo del siguiente trabajo es analizar las fuentes en las que se ha inspirado el imaginario masónico a fin de comprender su significado primero y radical, su naturaleza original y los elementos que lo componen. Se intentará también poner de manifiesto el itinerario experimentado por este universo iconográfico desde el siglo XVIII hasta la actualidad, lo cual revelará la naturaleza de la metamorfosis experimentada por la masonería moderna desde su fundación.

  9. Protective effects of Cornus mas fruit extract on carbon tetrachloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es Haghi, M; Dehghan, G; Banihabib, N; Zare, S; Mikaili, P; Panahi, F

    2014-09-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. Cornus mas is used for in renal aliments traditionally in Iran. The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of C. mas fruit extract (CMFE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated oxidative stress in Wistar albino rats. Forty two male albino rats were divided into seven groups. Group I served as a sham; Group II served as a normal control; Group III served as a toxic control, with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight; 80% in olive oil); Groups IV and V received CMFE at doses of 300 and 700 mg/kg before CCl4 injection; Groups VI and VII received extract at same doses orally at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after CCl4 intoxication. CCl4 injection produced a significant rise in serum markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde along with the reduction of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismuta, catalase and glutathion peroxidase. Serum creatinine, urea and uric acid concentrations were increased whereas level of protein and albumin were reduced. Treatment of rats with different doses of fruit extract (300 and 700 mg/kg) significantly (P induced with CCl4 in lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defenses, biochemical and renal lesions. Based on these results, we conclude that CMFE protects kidney from oxidative stress induced by CCl4.

  10. Vadības sistēmas pilnveidošana SIA "Water Ser"

    OpenAIRE

    Strods, Jānis

    2013-01-01

    Maģistra darba tēma ir „Vadības sistēmas pilnveidošana SIA „WATER SER””. Darba pētījuma mērķis ir SIA „WATER SER” uz ilgtermiņa attīstību balstītas vadības sistēmas pilnveidošanas pasākumu definēšana, izstrāde, un ieviešanas plāna prezentēšana. Darba pirmā nodaļa ir veltīta populārāko vadības sistēmu teorētiskajam aprakstam. Otrā nodaļa ir veltīta būvniecības nozares raksturojumam. Darba trešā nodaļa ir veltīta pētāmā uzņēmuma raksturošanai. Ceturtajā nodaļā, balstoties uz veikto datu anal...

  11. ISOLATION AND HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR FILIXIC ACID PBP FROM DRYOPTERIS FILIX-MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Katekhaye

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Simple, rapid and specific isolation and HPLC method has been develop for filixic acid PBP in Dryopteris filix-mas extract. HPLC analysis was performed on C18 column using a 90:10 (v/v mixtures of acetonitrile and methanol as isocratic mobile phase at a flow rate 1.0 ml/min. UV detection was at 254 nm for filixic acid PBP. Filixic acid shown retention time at 4.02 min. Method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, specificity and sensitivity in accordance with International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. Validation studies revealed that the method is specific, accurate, precise, reliable and reproducible. Good linear correlation coefficient (r2 > 0.993 was obtained for calibration plots in the range tested. The limit of detection was 2.25 µg/ml and limit of quantification was 7.53 µg/ml for filixic acid PBP. Intra and inter-day relative standard deviation of precision was less than 1.50 %. Recovery was between 94.57 and 101.05 % filixic acid. The method can be successfully used for quantitative analysis of filixic acid PBP in D. filix-mas for day-to-day studies.

  12. The effect of FF-MAS on porcine cumulus-oocyte complex maturation, fertilization and pronucleus formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerge, Inger; Strejcek, Frantisek; Laurincik, Jozef; Rath, Detlef; Niemann, Heiner; Schellander, Karl; Rosenkranz, Christine; Hyttel, Poul Maddox; Grøndahl, Christian

    2006-08-01

    Follicular fluid meiosis-activating sterol (FF-MAS) has been isolated from the follicular fluid (FF) of several species including man. FF-MAS increases the quality of in vitro oocyte maturation, and thus the developmental potential of oocytes exposed to FF-MAS during in vitro maturation is improved. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of FF-MAS on porcine oocyte maturation and pronucleus formation in vitro. Porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were isolated from abattoir ovaries and in vitro matured for 48 h in NCSU 37 medium supplemented with 1 mg/l cysteine, 10 ng/ml epidermal growth factor and 50 microM 2-mercaptoethanol with or without 10% porcine follicular fluid (pFF). For the first 22 h, 1 mM db-cAMP and 10 I.E PMSG/hCG was added. The medium was supplemented with 1 microM, 3 microM, 10 microM, 30 microM or 100 microM FF-MAS dissolved in ethanol. After maturation the COCs were denuded mechanically using a fine glass pipette under constant pH and in vitro fertilized with fresh semen (5 x 10(5) spermatozoa/ml). The presumptive zygotes were evaluated 18 h after fertilization. The addition of pFF increased the monospermic as well as the polyspermic penetration of oocytes. In the absence of pFF, the addition of FF-MAS decreased the polyspermic penetration rate, whereas FF-MAS in combination with pFF decreased monospermic and increased polyspermic penetration. The degeneration rate of ova decreased in the presence of FF-MAS irrespective of the presence or absence of pFF. In the absence of pFF, FF-MAS at 3-10 microM increased the number of zygotes with advanced maternal pronuclear stages. In supraphysiological doses, i.e. 30-100 microM, FF-MAS dose-dependently and reversibly inhibited nuclear maturation in the absence of pFF.

  13. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

    flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about......  In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... 30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep....

  14. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

      In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about...... 30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep....

  15. Flight Dynamics Laboratory overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Thaddeus

    1986-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Laboratory (FDL) is one of four Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories (AFWAL) and part of the Aeronautical Systems Division located at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The FDL is responsible for the planning and execution of research and development programs in the areas of structures and dynamics, flight controls, vehicle equipment/subsystems, and aeromechanics. Some of the areas being researched in the four FDL divisions are as follows: large space structures (LSS) materials and controls; advanced cockpit designs; bird-strike-tolerant windshields; and hypersonic interceptor system studies. Two of the FDL divisions are actively involved in programs that deal directly with LSS control/structures interaction: the Flight Controls Division and the Structures and Dynamics Division.

  16. 2001 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on June 19-21, 2001. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to attitude/orbit determination, prediction and control; attitude simulation; attitude sensor calibration; theoretical foundation of attitude computation; dynamics model improvements; autonomous navigation; constellation design and formation flying; estimation theory and computational techniques; Earth environment mission analysis and design; and, spacecraft re-entry mission design and operations.

  17. Technologies for hypersonic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheil, Eckart; Uhse, Wolfgang

    An account is given of the technology readiness requirements of the West German Saenger II air-breathing first-stage, two-stage reusable launcher system. The present, five-year conceptual development phase will give attention to propulsion, aerothermodynamic, materials/structures, and flight guidance technology development requirements. The second, seven-year development phase will involve other West European design establishments and lead to the construction of a demonstration vehicle. Attention is presently given to the air-breathing propulsion system, and to flight-weight structural systems under consideration for both external heating and internal cryogenic tankage requirements.

  18. The Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas Axis Improves Pancreatic β-Cell Function in Vitro and in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahr, Anika; Wolke, Carmen; Maczewsky, Jonas; Krippeit-Drews, Peter; Tetzner, Anja; Drews, Gisela; Venz, Simone; Gürtler, Sarah; van den Brandt, Jens; Berg, Sabine; Döring, Paula; Dombrowski, Frank; Walther, Thomas; Lendeckel, Uwe

    2016-12-01

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas axis of the renin-angiotensin system often opposes the detrimental effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme/Ang II/Ang II type 1 receptor axis and has been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis, whereas underlying mechanisms are mostly unknown. Here we investigate the effects of Ang-(1-7) and its receptor Mas on β-cell function. Isolated islets from Mas-deficient and wild-type mice were stimulated with Ang-(1-7) or its antagonists and effects on insulin secretion determined. Islets' cytoplasmic calcium and cAMP concentrations, mRNA amounts of Ins1, Ins2, Pdx1, and Mafa and effects of inhibitors of cAMP downstream signaling were determined. Ang-(1-7) was also applied to mice by osmotic pumps for 14 days and effects on glucose tolerance and insulin secretion were assessed. Ang-(1-7) increased insulin secretion from wild-type islets, whereas antagonists and genetic Mas deficiency led to reduced insulin secretion. The Mas-dependent effects of Ang-(1-7) on insulin secretion did not result from changes in insulin gene expression or changes in the excitation-secretion coupling but from increased intracellular cAMP involving exchange protein activated directly by cAMP. Administration of Ang-(1-7) in vivo had only marginal effects on glucose tolerance in wild-type mice but still resulted in improved insulin secretion from islets isolated of these mice. Interestingly, although less pronounced than in wild types, Ang-(1-7) still affected insulin secretion in Mas-deficient islets. The data indicate a significant function of Ang-(1-7) in the regulation of insulin secretion from mouse islets in vitro and in vivo, mainly, but not exclusively, by Mas-dependent signaling, modulating the accessory pathway of insulin secretion via increase in cAMP.

  19. Mandibular advancement splint (MAS) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea--an overview and quality assessment of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Ama; Fleming, Padhraig S; Manek, Seema; Marinho, Valeria C C

    2015-09-01

    To conduct an overview of existing systematic reviews concerning management of obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) with mandibular advancement splint (MAS) and assess their methodological quality. PubMed and relevant Cochrane Library databases (CDSR, DARE, HTA) searches were performed (09.13) to identify systematic reviews investigating the response of adults with OSAHS to MAS therapy. The methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was assessed using AMSTAR, a validated tool for assessing quality. Eight systematic reviews, four incorporating meta-analyses, were identified evaluating both objective and subjective outcome measures. The effectiveness of MAS therapy was compared to no treatment (n = 1), non-active appliance (n = 6), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP; n = 5), surgical intervention (n = 3) and a different MAS intervention (n = 4). The quality of the reviews was variable (median = 7, range = 3 to 11), with only two of higher quality (AMSTAR scores >10), one of them a Cochrane review. In this high quality and current review, the overall (pooled) effects for comparison of MAS therapy with inactive appliances, revealed significant benefits of MAS therapy in terms of both daytime sleepiness and objective apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) outcomes. In general, the results from the higher quality reviews concerning the effectiveness of MAS therapy for OSAHS highlight the ability of the intervention to improve OSAHS. Current reporting guidelines for systematic reviews (e.g. PRISMA) and sources of high-quality existing reviews should be closely followed to enhance the validity and relevance of future reviews.

  20. Mas receptor deficiency is associated with worsening of lipid profile and severe hepatic steatosis in ApoE-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Analina R; Aguilar, Edenil C; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I; da Silva, Rafaela F; Arantes, Rosa M E; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Pelli, Graziano; Lenglet, Sébastien; Galan, Katia; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Mach, François; Santos, Sérgio H S; Santos, Robson A S

    2013-12-01

    The classical renin-angiotensin system pathway has been recently updated with the identification of additional molecules [such as angiotensin converting enzyme 2, ANG-(1-7), and Mas receptor] that might improve some pathophysiological processes in chronic inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we focused on the potential protective role of Mas receptor activation on mouse lipid profile, liver steatosis, and atherogenesis. Mas/apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-double-knockout (DKO) mice (based on C57BL/6 strain of 20 wk of age) were fed under normal diet and compared with aged-matched Mas and ApoE-single-knockout (KO), as well as wild-type mice. Mas/ApoE double deficiency was associated with increased serum levels of atherogenic fractions of cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose compared with wild-type or single KO. Serum levels of HDL or leptin in DKO were lower than in other groups. Hepatic lipid content as well as alanine aminotransferase serum levels were increased in DKO compared with wild-type or single-KO animals. Accordingly, the hepatic protein content of mediators related to atherosclerotic inflammation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and liver X receptor, was altered in an adverse way in DKO compared with ApoE-KO. On the other hand, DKO mice did not display increased atherogenesis and intraplaque inflammation compared with ApoE-KO group. In conclusion, Mas deletion in ApoE-KO mice was associated with development of severe liver steatosis and dyslipidemia without affecting concomitant atherosclerosis. Mas receptor activation might represent promising strategies for future treatments targeting both hepatic and metabolic alterations in chronic conditions clustering these disorders.

  1. Dose reduction at abdominal CT imaging: reduced tension (kV) or reduced intensity (mAs)?; Diminuer la dose en tomodensitometrie abdominale: baisser la tension (kV) ou la charge (mAs)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dion, A.M.; Helie, O.; Cordoliani, Y.S. [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees du Val-de-Grace, Service d' Imagerie, 75 - Paris (France); Berger, F.; Ott, D.; Spiegel, A. [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees Begin, Service de Medecine des Collectivites et d' Etudes Statistiques, 94 - Saint-Mande (France)

    2004-04-01

    Purpose. To compare low-dose protocols using either reduction of the tension (kV) or reduction of the intensity (mAs) at abdominal CT imaging, with reference to image quality. Materials and Methods. Fifty adult patients, weighing less than 55 kg, were prospectively included among patients referred for abdominal CT examination when the protocol required a non-contrast study. The images obtained with the standard protocol (120 kV, 200 mAs) were compared to 4 additional test images, two obtained with low intensity (120 kV, 100 mAs) and two obtained with low tension (100 kV, 200 mAs). Two senior radiologists blindly reviewed all images using both subjective (itemized list) and objective criteria (measure of standard deviation for density measurements obtained of the liver,parenchyma). Results. The image quality of the low kV protocol was better than the image quality of the low mAs protocol for both subjective and objective criteria. Conclusion. For abdominal CT imaging of standard to thin adult patients or children, dose reduction using a low kV-protocol may be an alternative to a protocol using a, low intensity. This can easily be implemented and can be used in conjunction with a dose reducing software. (author)

  2. Space Shuttle flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinar, W. J.; Kubiak, E. T.; Peters, W. H.; Saldana, R. L.; Smith, E. E., Jr.; Stegall, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is a control stabilized vehicle with control provided by an all digital, fly-by-wire flight control system. This paper gives a description of the several modes of flight control which correspond to the Shuttle mission phases. These modes are ascent flight control (including open loop first stage steering, the use of four computers operating in parallel and inertial guidance sensors), on-orbit flight control (with a discussion of reaction control, phase plane switching logic, jet selection logic, state estimator logic and OMS thrust vector control), entry flight control and TAEM (terminal area energy management to landing). Also discussed are redundancy management and backup flight control.

  3. Lipid bilayer-bound conformation of an integral membrane beta barrel protein by multidimensional MAS NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, Matthew T. [The Scripps Research Institute, Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology (United States); Su, Yongchao; Silvers, Robert; Andreas, Loren; Clark, Lindsay [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States); Wagner, Gerhard [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States); Pintacuda, Guido; Emsley, Lyndon [Université de Lyon, Centre de RMN à Très Hauts Champs, Institut des Sciences Analytiques (CNRS, ENS Lyon, UCB Lyon 1) (France); Griffin, Robert G., E-mail: rgg@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The human voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC) is a 32 kDa β-barrel integral membrane protein that controls the transport of ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane. Despite the determination of VDAC solution and diffraction structures, a structural basis for the mechanism of its function is not yet fully understood. Biophysical studies suggest VDAC requires a lipid bilayer to achieve full function, motivating the need for atomic resolution structural information of VDAC in a membrane environment. Here we report an essential step toward that goal: extensive assignments of backbone and side chain resonances for VDAC in DMPC lipid bilayers via magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). VDAC reconstituted into DMPC lipid bilayers spontaneously forms two-dimensional lipid crystals, showing remarkable spectral resolution (0.5–0.3 ppm for {sup 13}C line widths and <0.5 ppm {sup 15}N line widths at 750 MHz). In addition to the benefits of working in a lipid bilayer, several distinct advantages are observed with the lipid crystalline preparation. First, the strong signals and sharp line widths facilitated extensive NMR resonance assignments for an integral membrane β-barrel protein in lipid bilayers by MAS NMR. Second, a large number of residues in loop regions were readily observed and assigned, which can be challenging in detergent-solubilized membrane proteins where loop regions are often not detected due to line broadening from conformational exchange. Third, complete backbone and side chain chemical shift assignments could be obtained for the first 25 residues, which comprise the functionally important N-terminus. The reported assignments allow us to compare predicted torsion angles for VDAC prepared in DMPC 2D lipid crystals, DMPC liposomes, and LDAO-solubilized samples to address the possible effects of the membrane mimetic environment on the conformation of the protein. Concluding, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the

  4. Flight Mechanics Symposium 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Donna M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium. This symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  5. Overbooking Airline Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1982-01-01

    The problems involved in making reservations for airline flights is discussed in creating a mathematical model designed to maximize an airline's income. One issue not considered in the model is any public relations problem the airline may have. The model does take into account the issue of denied boarding compensation. (MP)

  6. Overbooking Airline Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1982-01-01

    The problems involved in making reservations for airline flights is discussed in creating a mathematical model designed to maximize an airline's income. One issue not considered in the model is any public relations problem the airline may have. The model does take into account the issue of denied boarding compensation. (MP)

  7. OMV In Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    In this 1988 artist's concept, the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), closes in on a satellite. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  8. Studies of minute quantities of natural abundance molecules using 2D heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy under 100 kHz MAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Y; Kobayashi, T; Malon, M; Singappuli-Arachchige, D; Slowing, I I; Pruski, M

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (1)H{(13)C} heteronuclear correlation solid-state NMR spectra of naturally abundant solid materials are presented, acquired using the 0.75-mm magic angle spinning (MAS) probe at spinning rates up to 100 kHz. In spite of the miniscule sample volume (290 nL), high-quality HSQC-type spectra of bulk samples as well as surface-bound molecules can be obtained within hours of experimental time. The experiments are compared with those carried out at 40 kHz MAS using a 1.6-mm probe, which offered higher overall sensitivity due to a larger rotor volume. The benefits of ultrafast MAS in such experiments include superior resolution in (1)H dimension without resorting to (1)H-(1)H homonuclear RF decoupling, easy optimization, and applicability to mass-limited samples. The HMQC spectra of surface-bound species can be also acquired under 100 kHz MAS, although the dephasing of transverse magnetization has significant effect on the efficiency transfer under MAS alone. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. [Effect of Astragali Radix in improving early renal damage in metabolic syndrome rats through ACE2/Mas pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong-ying; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Ning-yin; Xu, Han; Yang, Mi-na; Lin, Xin; Yu, Heng; Chang, Peng; Yu, Jing

    2015-11-01

    To study the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 specific receptor Mas protain in renal blood vessels of metabolic syndrome ( MS) rats and its anti-oxidative effect. A total of 80 male SD rats were divided into four groups: the normal control group (NC, the same volume of normal saline), the MS group (high fat diet), the MS + Astragali Radix group (MS + HQ, 6 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage) and the MS + Valsartan group (MS + XST, 30 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) in gavage). After four weeks of intervention, their general indexes, biochemical indexes and blood pressure were measured; plasma and renal tissue Ang II, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide demutase (SOD) levels were measured with radioimmunoassay. The protein expressions of Mas receptor, AT1R, ACE and ACE2 were detected by western blot analysis. According to the result, compared with the NC group, the MS group and the MS + HQ group showed significant increases in systolic and diastolic pressures, body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acid and Ang II level of MS rats (P Mas receptor expressions (all P Mas receptor expression in renal tissues, whereas the MS + XST group showed notable decrease in AT1R (all P Mas receptor expressions in renal tissues, decrease ACE expression and change local Ang II, MDA, NO and SOD in kidneys, so as to protect early damages in renal tissues.

  10. The demands and benefits of ergonomics in Sri Lankan apparel industry: A case study at MAS holdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, John; Illankoon, Prasanna

    2016-10-17

    Apparel exports bring in sizeable foreign income to Sri Lanka. To protect and promote this industry is a paramount need. This can be carried out by applying Human Factors/Ergonomics (HFE) which has proved to control negative effects at work places. This paper reports a case study which describes the demands and benefits of HFE in MAS Holdings which owns a large share of the apparel industry in Sri Lanka. The study consisted of walk through observation survey, a questionnaire survey and ergonomic work place analysis followed by a training programme to selected employees in three companies. Positive responses to questionnaires revealed good ergonomic practices in the work places surveyed. Ergonomically unfit chairs and potential hazards e.g. exposure to noise and hot environment were detected. It is seen that MAS have introduced strategies originated by Toyota Production System viz. 5S, Kaizen, six sigma etc., which are in fact ergonomic methods. A progressive project MAS boast of viz. 'MAS Operating System' (MOS) empowers training and development to employees. MAS Holdings has adequately realized the benefits of applying HFE as evident by the number of awards received. Relevant companies were advised to take appropriate corrective measures to control the potential hazards.

  11. The effect of FF-MAS on porcine cumulus-oocyte complex maturation, fertilization and pronucleus formation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færge, Inger; Strejcek, Frantisek; Laurincik, Jozef

    2006-01-01

    Follicular fluid meiosis-activating sterol (FF-MAS) has been isolated from the follicular fluid (FF) of several species including man. FF-MAS increases the quality of in vitro oocyte maturation, and thus the developmental potential of oocytes exposed to FF-MAS during in vitro maturaion is improved....... The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of FF-MAS on porcien oocyte maturation and pronucleus formation in vitro. Porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were isolated from abattoir ovaries and in vitro matured for 48 h in NCSU 37 medium supplemented with 1 mg/1 cysteine, 10 ng....../ml epidermal growth factor and 50µM 2-mercaptoethanol with or without 10% porcine follicular fluid (pFF). For the first 22 h, 1 mM db-cAMP and 10 I.E PMSG/hCG was added. The medium was supplemented with 1 µM, 3 µM, 10 µM, 30 µM or 100 µM FF-MAS dissolved in ethanol. After maturation the COCs were denuded...

  12. Colgate MaxWhite reklāmas kampaņa un auditorijas attieksme pret to

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Pētnieciskā darba tēma ir „Colgate Maxwhite” reklāmas kampaņa un klientu attieksme pret to. Darbā pētītas kampaņas reklāmas un noskaidrota potenciālo klientu attieksme. Darba mērķis ir noskaidrot kādā veidā tiek reklamēts produkts „Colgate Maxwhite” un kā pašas reklāmas uztver patērētājs, kāda ir patērētāju attieksme, vai reklāmas kampaņa ir bijusi veiksmīga un prātā paliekoša vai tā ir bijusi neveiksmīga. Bakalaura darbā tika izvirzīta hipotēze: „Colgate Maxwhite ” reklāmas kampaņai t...

  13. Role of Mas receptor in renal blood flow response to angiotensin-(1-7 in ovariectomized estradiol treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadan Saberi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7, is abundantly produced in kidneys and antagonizes the function of angiotensin II through Mas receptor (MasR or other unknown mechanisms. In the current study, the role of MasR and steroid hormone estrogen on renal blood flow response to Ang 1-7 administration was investigated in ovariectomized (OV female rats. OV female Wistar-rats received estradiol (500 μg/kg/week or vehicle for two weeks. In the day of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized, cannulated, and the responses including mean arterial pressure, renal blood flow (RBF, and renal vascular resistance at the constant level of renal perfusion pressure to graded infusion of Ang 1-7 at 0, 100 and 300 ng/kg/min were determined in OV and OV estradiol-treated (OVE rats, treated with vehicle or MasR antagonist; A779. RBF response to Ang 1-7 infusion increased dose-dependently in vehicle (P dose <0.001 and A779-treated (P dose<0.01 animals. However, when MasR was blocked, the RBF response to Ang 1-7 significantly increased in OV animals compared with OVE rats (P<0.05. When estradiol was limited by ovariectomy, A779 increased RBF response to Ang 1-7 administration, while this response was attenuated in OVE animals.

  14. EFEKTIVITAS TRANSFER DAN ANALISIS EKSPRESI GEN IMUNOGENIK TAHAN KOI HERPES VIRUS (KHV PADA IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Syahputra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian transfer gen imunogenik tahan KHV (krt-GP11 pada ikan mas telah dilakukan dengan metode elektroporasi sperma menggunakan konsentrasi DNA yang berbeda. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui konsentrasi DNA optimal yang efektif digunakan dalam transfer gen pada ikan mas. Sperma dielektroporasi menggunakan tipe kejutan square wave dengan voltase 50 V dan jumlah kejutan tiga kali. Konsentrasi DNA yang digunakan adalah 10 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, dan 100 μg/mL. Deteksi transgen pada sperma, embrio, dan larva dilakukan dengan metode PCR menggunakan primer spesifik untuk gen krt-GP11. Ekspresi transgen pada embrio dan larva dianalisis secara semi-kuantitatif dengan metode reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gen krt-GP11 terdeteksi pada sperma, embrio, dan larva. Pemberian konsentrasi DNA 10 μg/mL lebih efektif digunakan dalam transfer gen krt-GP11 pada ikan mas, sedangkan peningkatan konsentrasi DNA yang digunakan tidak memberikan hasil yang berbeda terhadap keberhasilan transfer gen pada ikan mas. Ekspresi gen krt-GP11 yang berhasil diintroduksikan pada ikan mas baru dapat teramati dengan baik pada fase embrio.

  15. Chaenomeles japonica, Cornus mas, Morus nigra fruits characteristics and their processing potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarko, Tomasz; Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra; Satora, Paweł; Sroka, Paweł; Pogoń, Piotr; Machalica, Justyna

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) and black mulberry (Morus nigra) fruits as raw materials for processing. All analyzed fruits were characterized by high antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Fruits of Japanese quince and cornelian cherry had also high acidity. Products such as fruit wines and liquors were prepared from the tested fruits. In respect of soluble solid content and reducing sugars content the obtained wine should be classified as dry wines. All analyzed liquors were characterized by similar alcohol content and the soluble solid content. Moreover, liquors made from Japanese quince and cornelian cherry were characterized by high total acidity and antioxidant capacity. The results of sensory analysis showed high commercial potential of the examined fruits.

  16. Molecular degradation of ancient documents revealed by 1H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Łojewska, Joanna; Mallamace, Francesco; Pietronero, Luciano; Missori, Mauro

    2013-10-01

    For centuries mankind has stored its knowledge on paper, a remarkable biomaterial made of natural cellulose fibers. However, spontaneous cellulose degradation phenomena weaken and discolorate paper over time. The detailed knowledge of products arising from cellulose degradation is essential in understanding deterioration pathways and in improving durability of cultural heritage. In this study, for the first time, products of cellulose degradation were individually detected in solid paper samples by means of an extremely powerful proton HR-MAS NMR set-up, in combination to a wise use of both ancient and, as reference, artificially aged paper samples. Carboxylic acids, in addition to more complex dicarboxylic and hydroxy-carboxylic acids, were found in all samples studied. Since these products can catalyze further degradation, their knowledge is fundamental to improve conservation strategies of historical documents. Furthermore, the identification of compounds used in ancient production techniques, also suggests for artifacts dating, authentication and provenance.

  17. Assessing Heterogeneity of Osteolytic Lesions in Multiple Myeloma by 1H HR-MAS NMR Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurette Tavel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a malignancy of plasma cells characterized by multifocal osteolytic bone lesions. Macroscopic and genetic heterogeneity has been documented within MM lesions. Understanding the bases of such heterogeneity may unveil relevant features of MM pathobiology. To this aim, we deployed unbiased 1H high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HR-MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR metabolomics to analyze multiple biopsy specimens of osteolytic lesions from one case of pathological fracture caused by MM. Multivariate analyses on normalized metabolite peak integrals allowed clusterization of samples in accordance with a posteriori histological findings. We investigated the relationship between morphological and NMR features by merging morphological data and metabolite profiling into a single correlation matrix. Data-merging addressed tissue heterogeneity, and greatly facilitated the mapping of lesions and nearby healthy tissues. Our proof-of-principle study reveals integrated metabolomics and histomorphology as a promising approach for the targeted study of osteolytic lesions.

  18. MAINTAINING THE EFFICIENCY OF MAS METHOD IN CEREALS WHILE REDUCING THE COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Moullet

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Marker-assisted selection (MAS is a powerful tool too rarely exploited in practical breeding applications mainly because of its prohibitive costs. A new manual protocol has been developed for DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses which could increase the impact of this technology on the creation of new varieties. In this procedure, only the amount of DNA serving as template is extracted directly into PCR tubes. The method is reproducible (100 % and efficient (97.9 %. The overall cost is low in term of starting lab equipment (25000 €, chemicals and consumable materials (0.33 to 0.40 € per samples and labor (1500 sample analyses per person and per week.

  19. 1H MAS NMR spectra of hy- droxyl species on diatomite surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    High spinning speed 1H magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (1H MAS NMR) was used to detect surface hydroxyl groups of diatomite, which include isolated hydroxyl groups and hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl groups, and water adsorbed on diatomite surface that include pore water and hydrogen-bonded water. The corresponding proton chemical shifts of above species are ca. 2.0, 6.0-7.1, 4.9 and 3.0 respectively. Accompanied by thermal treatment temperature ascending, the pore water and hydrogen-bonded water are desorbed successively. As a result, the relative intensities of the peaks assigned to protons of isolat-ed hydroxyl groups and hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl groups increase gradually and reach their maxima at 1000℃. After 1100℃ calcination, the hydroxyl groups that classified to strongly hydrogen-bonded ones and the isolated hydroxyl groups condense basically. But some weakly hydrogen-bonded hydroxyl groups may still persist in the micropores.

  20. 29Si and 27AI MAS NMR Study of Alkali Feldspars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲棣; 郭九皋; 袁汉珍; 李丽云

    1994-01-01

    12 natural alkali feldspars have been studied by(29)~Si and(27)~Al MAS NMR as well as XRD,IR,EPMA and chemical analysis.Three kinds of(29)~Si NMR spectra,i.e.the spectra of microcline,perthiteand perthite with minor plagioclase,have been obtained.There are two types of(27)~Al NMR spectra.The(27)~Alspectrum of microcline is the same as that of perthite,but is different from the spectrum for perthite contain-ing plagioclase.Through this study,we found that the results of NMR and IR are inconsistent with that ofXRD,which shows that the transition of alkali feldspar from monoclinic to triclinic system might be a rathercomplicated process.

  1. Adding real data to detect emotions by means of smart resource artifacts in MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime RINCÓN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an application of a social emotional model, which allows to extract, analyse, represent and manage the social emotion of a group of entities. Specifically, the application is based on how music can influence in a positive or negative way over emotional states. The proposed approach employs the JaCalIVE framework, which facilitates the development of this kind of environments. A physical device called smart resource offers to agents processed sensor data as a service. So that, agents obtain real data from a smart resource. MAS uses the smart resource as an artifact by means of a specific communications protocol. The framework includes a design method and a physical simulator. In this way, the social emotional model allows the creation of simulations over JaCalIVE, in which the emotional states are used in the decision-making of the agents.

  2. Badania jakości regeneratu ze zużytych mas ze spoiwem organicznym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available W publikacji przedstawiono uzupełniające metody badań oraz aparaturę do oceny jakości regeneratu i tych właściwości masformierskich ze spoiwami utwardzanymi chemicznie, przygotowywanych z regeneratem, które są istotne dla kompleksowej oceny procesurecyklingu osnowy. Nowoczesne systemy oceny mas formierskich wymagają bardziej wnikliwego podejścia do czynników decydującychzarówno o ich przydatności technologicznej jak również o wpływie na otaczające środowisko naturalne. W tym kontekście pełna ocenajakości zregenerowanej osnowy wykracza poza zwyczajowo stosowane metody instrumentalne i wymaga ich uzupełnienia o bardziejzaawansowane aparaturowo metody badawcze. Pozwala to szerzej spojrzeć na ocenę zregenerowanej osnowy, zarówno w aspekcie jejużycia do sporządzania mas formierskich, jako substytutu świeżego piasku, ale także pod kątem ochrony środowiska. Do takichnowoczesnych metod można zaliczyć między innymi analizę ziarnową regeneratu za pomocą dyfrakcji laserowej, a także ocenęgazotwórczości masy formierskiej oraz identyfikację rodzaju emitowanych gazów i zawartości w nich gazów z grupy BTEX, które sąszczególnie niebezpieczne z punktu widzenia BHP.

  3. Dose reduction in dynamic CT stress myocardial perfusion imaging: comparison of 80-kV/370-mAs and 100-kV/300-mAs protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Makiko; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Ito, Tatsuro; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Kurobe, Yusuke; Nagata, Motonori; Ishida, Masaki; Sakuma, Hajime [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tsu, Mie (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    To determine the effect of reduced 80-kV tube voltage with increased 370-mAs tube current on radiation dose, image quality and estimated myocardial blood flow (MBF) of dynamic CT stress myocardial perfusion imaging (CTP) in patients with a normal body mass index (BMI) compared with a 100-kV and 300-mAs protocol. Thirty patients with a normal BMI (<25 kg/m{sup 2}) with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent adenosine-stress dual-source dynamic CTP. Patients were randomised to 80-kV/370-mAs (n = 15) or 100-kV/300-mAs (n = 15) imaging. Maximal enhancement and noise of the left ventricular (LV) cavity, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and MBF of the two groups were compared. Imaging with 80-kV/370-mAs instead of 100-kV/300-mAs was associated with 40 % lower radiation dose (mean dose-length product, 359 ± 66 vs 628 ± 112 mGy.cm; P < 0.001) with no significant difference in CNR (34.5 ± 13.4 vs 33.5 ± 10.4; P = 0.81) or MBF in non-ischaemic myocardium (0.95 ± 0.20 vs 0.99 ± 0.25 ml/min/g; P = 0.66). Studies obtained using 80-kV/370-mAs were associated with 30.9 % higher maximal enhancement (804 ± 204 vs 614 ± 115 HU; P < 0.005), and 31.2 % greater noise (22.7 ± 3.5 vs 17.4 ± 2.6; P < 0.001). Dynamic CTP using 80-kV/370-mA instead of 100-kV/300-mAs allowed 40 % dose reduction without compromising image quality or MBF. Tube voltage of 80-kV should be considered for individuals with a normal BMI. (orig.)

  4. Beneficial effects of the activation of the angiotensin-(1-7) MAS receptor in a murine model of adriamycin-induced nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Kátia Daniela; Barroso, Lívia Corrêa; Vieira, Angélica Thomáz; Cisalpino, Daniel; Lima, Cristiano Xavier; Bader, Michael; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Dos Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Simões-E-Silva, Ana Cristina; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] is a biologically active heptapeptide that may counterbalance the physiological actions of angiotensin II (Ang II) within the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Here, we evaluated whether activation of the Mas receptor with the oral agonist, AVE 0991, would have renoprotective effects in a model of adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephropathy. We also evaluated whether the Mas receptor contributed for the protective effects of treatment with AT1 receptor blockers. ADR (10 mg/kg) induced significant renal injury and dysfunction that was maximal at day 14 after injection. Treatment with the Mas receptor agonist AVE 0991 improved renal function parameters, reduced urinary protein loss and attenuated histological changes. Renoprotection was associated with reduction in urinary levels of TGF-β. Similar renoprotection was observed after treatment with the AT1 receptor antagonist, Losartan. AT1 and Mas receptor mRNA levels dropped after ADR administration and treatment with losartan reestablished the expression of Mas receptor and increased the expression of ACE2. ADR-induced nephropathy was similar in wild type (Mas(+/+) ) and Mas knockout (Mas (-/-)) mice, suggesting there was no endogenous role for Mas receptor activation. However, treatment with Losartan was able to reduce renal injury only in Mas(+/+) , but not in Mas (-/-) mice. Therefore, these findings suggest that exogenous activation of the Mas receptor protects from ADR-induced nephropathy and contributes to the beneficial effects of AT1 receptor blockade. Medications which target specifically the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis may offer new therapeutic opportunities to treat human nephropathies.

  5. Bisphosphonate ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas; Shackleford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elizabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Sibonga, Jean; Keyak, Joyce; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri, Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Moralez, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    The bisphosphonate study is a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential for antiresorptive drugs to mitigate bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight. Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest (common zero-G analog). We tested whether an antiresorptive drug in combination with in-flight exercise would ameliorate bone loss and hypercalcuria during longduration spaceflight. Measurements include DXA, QCT, pQCT, and urine and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight and the immediate postflight (R+exercise device (ARED) during their missions. We previously reported the pre/postflight results of crew taking alendronate during flight (Osteoporosis Int. 24:2105-2114, 2013). The purpose of this report is to present the 12-month follow-up data in the treated astronauts and to compare these results with preliminary data from untreated crewmembers exercising with ARED (ARED control) or without ARED (Pre-ARED control). Results: the table presents DXA and QCT BMD expressed as percentage change from preflight in the control astronauts (18 Pre-ARED and the current 5 ARED-1-year data not yet available) and the 7 treated subjects. As shown previously the combination of exercise plus antiresorptive is effective in preventing bone loss during flight. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline values. Except in one region, the treated group maintained or gained bone 1 year after flight. Biomarker data are not currently available for either control group and therefore not presented. However, data from other studies with or without ARED show elevated bone resorption and urinary Ca excretion while bisphosphonate treated subjects show decreases during flight. Comparing the two control groups suggests significant but incomplete improvement in maintaining BMD using the newer exercise

  6. Effect of intrapartum oropharyngeal (IP-OP) suction on meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) in developing country: A RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Sushma; Pal, Mansi M; Saili, Arvind; Gupta, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Evidence about IP-OP suction and selective tracheal intubation in meconium stained neonates is from developed countries. Little information is available about their role in developing countries with high incidence of meconium staining and MAS. This randomized trial was planned to evaluate the effectiveness of IP-OP suction in meconium stained term neonates on prevention of MAS and reduction of its severity. Out of 540 meconium stained full term, cephalic presentation, singleton neonates without major congenital malformations born from June'08 to January'09, 31 were excluded and 509 randomized. In the intervention group IP-OP suction was done at the time of delivery of head using a 10 Fr suction catheter with a negative pressure of 100 mmHg. No IP-OP suction was performed in control group. All neonates with MSAF were assessed as vigorous or non-vigorous after birth and provided care as per NRP guidelines 2005. Two hundred and fifty three neonates were randomized to IP-OP suction and 256 to no IP-OP suction. Eighty-two neonates (16%) developed MAS, the primary outcome parameter, with 40 infants in the intervention group (15.8%) and 42 (16.4%) in the non-intervention group (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.60-1.54). Incidence of severe MAS was comparable (3.55% vs. 2.34%) (P value=0.40). Other variables like requirement of oxygen >48 h (9.8% vs. 10.5%) and mortality (2.7% vs. 1.7%) were also comparable. IP-OP suctioning did not reduce the incidence or severity of MAS even in a setting of high incidence of MAS in a developing country. The mortality in two groups was comparable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas Signaling Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced ADAM17 Shedding Activity and Apoptosis in Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinhua; Xu, Daomiao; Ai, Yuhang; Zhao, Shuangping; Zhang, Lina; Ming, Guangfeng; Liu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 17, constitutively expressed in alveolar epithelium, is the pivotal shedding enzyme mediating acute lung inflammation. On the other hand, angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas signaling has been shown to improve acute respiratory distress syndrome and protect alveolar epithelial cells from apoptosis. In this study, we explored the effect of Ang-(1-7)/Mas signaling on the expression and activity of ADAM17 and assessed its impact on apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated human alveolar epithelial cells. LPS markedly induced the shedding activity of ADAM17 in alveolar epithelial cells, which was blocked by selective c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125. Ang-(1-7) concentration-dependently inhibited LPS-induced ADAM17 shedding activity, which was abolished by selective Mas blocker A779 and Mas shRNA. LPS and Ang-(1-7) showed no significant effect on the expression of ADAM17. Overexpression of ADAM17 synergized with LPS on increasing the shedding activity of ADAM17 and apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells, counteracting the inhibitory effects of Ang-(1-7). In addition, LPS significantly increased the JNK activity in alveolar epithelial cells; Ang-(1-7) concentration-dependently inhibited LPS-induced JNK activity, which was abolished by A779 and Mas shRNA. In conclusion, this study suggests that Ang-(1-7)/Mas signaling inhibits LPS-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis by inhibiting LPS-induced shedding activity of ADAM17, likely by a JNK-dependent mechanism. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. MasABK Proteins Interact with Proteins of the Type IV Pilin System to Affect Social Motility of Myxococcus xanthus

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Fremgen; Amanda Williams; Gou Furusawa; Katarzyna Dziewanowska; Matthew Settles; Patricia Hartzell

    2013-01-01

    Gliding motility is critical for normal development of spore-filled fruiting bodies in the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Mutations in mgl block motility and development but one mgl allele can be suppressed by a mutation in masK, the last gene in an operon adjacent to the mgl operon. Deletion of the entire 5.5 kb masABK operon crippled gliding and fruiting body development and decreased sporulation. Expression of pilAGHI, which encodes type IV pili (TFP) components essential for social (S...

  9. Bulk carbohydrate grain filling of barley ß-glucan mutants studied by 1H HR MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Viereck, Nanna;

    2008-01-01

    ) during grain filling. For the first time, 1H HR MAS NMR spectra of flour from immature barley seeds are analyzed. Spectral assignments are made using two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Both α- and β-glucan biosynthesis were characterized by inspection of the spectra as well as by calibration......Temporal and genotypic differences in bulk carbohydrate accumulation in three barley genotypes differing in the content of mixed linkage β-(1→3),(1→4)-D-glucan (β-glucan) and starch were investigated using proton high-resolution, magic angle spinning, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H HR MAS NMR...

  10. Assessing the fate and transformation of plant residues in the terrestrial environment using HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Brian P.; Simpson, Myrna J.; Simpson, Andre J.

    2006-08-01

    Plant litter decomposition plays a fundamental role in carbon and nitrogen cycles, provides key nutrients to the soil environment and represents a potentially large positive feedback to atmospheric CO 2. However, the full details of decomposition pathways and products are unknown. Here we present the first application of HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy on 13C and 15N labeled plant materials, and apply this approach in a preliminary study to monitor the environmental degradation of the pine and wheatgrass residues over time. In HR-MAS, is it possible to acquire very high resolution NMR data of plant biomass, and apply the vast array of multidimensional experiments available in conventional solution-state NMR. High levels of isotopic enrichment combined with HR-MAS significantly enhance the detection limits, and provide a wealth of information that is unattainable by any other method. Diffusion edited HR-MAS NMR data reveal the rapid loss of carbohydrate structures, while two-dimensional (2-D) HR-MAS NMR spectra demonstrate the relatively fast loss of both hydrolysable and condensed tannin structures from all plant tissues studied. Aromatic (partially lignin) and aliphatic components (waxes, cuticles) tend to persist, along with a small fraction of carbohydrate, and become highly functionalized over time. While one-dimensional (1-D) 13C HR-MAS NMR spectra of fresh plant tissue reflect compositional differences between pine and grass, these differences become negligible after decomposition suggesting that recalcitrant carbon may be similar despite the plant source. Two-dimensional 1H- 15N HR-MAS NMR analysis of the pine residue suggests that nitrogen from specific peptides is either selectively preserved or used for the synthesis of what appears to be novel structures. The amount of relevant data generated from plant components in situ using HR-MAS NMR is highly encouraging, and demonstrates that complete assignment will yield unprecedented structural knowledge of plant cell

  11. Supra-molecular structure and chemical reactivity of cellulose I studied using CP/MAS (sup)13 C-NMR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chunilall, Viren

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Supra-Molecular Structure and Chemical Reactivity of Cellulose I Studied Using CP/MAS 13C-NMR Viren Chunilall, Tamara Bush and Per Tomas Larsson Additional information is available at the end... of Cellulose I Studied Using CP/MAS 13C-NMR 71 1.1.2. Dissolving pulp The unbleached pulp that results after acid bi-sulphite pulping is used as raw material for dissolving pulp production. Lignin and hemicelluloses in the unbleached pulp are considered...

  12. Fundamental Science Tools for Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Mineral Carbonation Chemistry: In Situ Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, D. W.; Turcu, R. V.; Sears, J. A.; Rosso, K. M.; Burton, S. D.; Kwak, J.; Felmy, A. R.; Hu, J.

    2010-12-01

    GCS is one of the most promising ways of mitigating atmospheric greenhouse gases. Mineral carbonation reactions are potentially important to the long-term sealing effectiveness of caprock but remain poorly predictable, particularly reactions occurring in low-water supercritical CO2(scCO2)-dominated environments where the chemistry has not been adequately explored. In situ probes that provide molecular-level information is desirable for investigating mechanisms and rates of GCS mineral carbonation reactions. MAS-NMR is a powerful tool for obtaining detailed molecular structure and dynamics information of a system regardless whether the system is in a solid, a liquid, a gaseous, or a supercritical state, or a mixture thereof. However, MAS NMR under scCO2 conditions has never been realized due to the tremendous technical difficulties of achieving and maintaining high pressure within a fast spinning MAS rotor. In this work, we report development of a unique high pressure MAS NMR capability, and its application to mineral carbonation chemistry in scCO2 under geologically relevant temperatures and pressures. Our high pressure MAS rotor has successfully maintained scCO2 conditions with minimal leakage over a period of 72 hours. Mineral carbonation reactions of a model magnesium silicate (forsterite) reacted with 96 bars scCO2 containing varying amounts of H2O (both below and above saturation of the scCO2) were investigated at 50○C. Figure 1 shows typical in situ 13C MAS NMR spectra demonstrating that the peaks corresponding to the reactants, intermediates, and the magnesium carbonation products are all observed in a single spectrum. For example, the scCO2 peak is located at 126.1 ppm. Reaction intermediates include the aqueous species HCO3-(160 ppm), partially hydrated/hydroxylated magnesium carbonates(166-168 ppm), and can easily be distinguished from final product magnesite(170 ppm). The new capability and this model mineral carbonation process will be overviewed in

  13. Relation Between Acid and Catalytic Properties of Chlorinated Gamma-Alumina. a 31p Mas Nmr and Ftir Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume D.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the effect of chlorine on the surface properties of gamma-alumina, especially on their acid properties. The use of FTIR spectroscopy and 31P MAS NMR of adsorbed trimethylphosphine allows to propose a chlorination mechanism. To correlate the surface properties of these chlorinated gamma-alumina with their catalytic properties, we have used a model reaction, the cracking of n-heptane under reforming conditions. The analysis of the correlation between acid properties determined by 31P MAS NMR and the catalytic results (in terms of activities and selectivities allows to identify which sites are involved in the cracking reaction.

  14. Dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xiong; Mao Sun

    2008-01-01

    The longitudinal dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight is studied.The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the aerodynamic derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis are employed for solving the equations of motion.The primary findings are as the following.The forward flight of the bumblebee is not dynamically stable due to the existence of one(or two)unstable or approximately neutrally stable natural modes of motion.At hovering to medium flight speed[flight speed ue=(0-3.5)m s-1;advance ratio J=0-0.44],the flight is weakly unstable or approximately neutrally stable;at high speed(ue=4.5 m s-1;J=0.57),the flight becomes strongly unstable(initial disturbance double its value in only 3.5 wingbeats).

  15. Flight Software Math Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  16. Ordos Takes Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN WEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's vast hinterland has long conjured up images of rugged mountains and countrysides dotted by villages all but untouched by the hands of time. But after a recent one-hour flight west from Beijing,Anna Chennault,Chair of the Council for International Cooperation (CIC),a Washington,D.C.-based non-profit organization that helps promote development in China,found something altogether different-a city called Ordos.

  17. Spontaneous Flapping Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Nicolas; Zhang, Jun; Childress, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    As shown in an earlier work [Vandenberghe, et. al. JFM, Vol 506, 147, 2004], a vertically flapping wing can spontaneously move horizontally as a result of symmetry breaking. In the current experimental study, we investigate the dependence of resultant velocity on flapping amplitude. We also describe the forward thrust generation and how the system dynamically selects a Strouhal number by balancing fluid and body forces. We further compare our model system with examples of biological locomotion, such as bird flight and fish swimming.

  18. Simulations of Levy flights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantaleo, E; Pascazio, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Facchi, P [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)], E-mail: ester.pantaleo@ba.infn.it

    2009-07-15

    Levy flights, also known as {alpha}-stable Levy processes or heavy-tailed statistics, are becoming a commonly used tool in optics. Nonetheless, the different parametrizations and the absence of any analytic expression for the distribution functions (apart from some exceptions) makes it difficult to efficiently simulate such processes. We review and compare three algorithms for the generation of sequences of symmetric stable Levy random variables.

  19. Autolīzinga kompānijas AS "mogo" reklāmas kampaņu izstrāde, izmantojot Facebook reklāmas rīkus

    OpenAIRE

    Ābeltiņš, Elvis

    2017-01-01

    Diplomdarba tēma ir “Autolīzinga kompānijas AS “mogo” reklāmas kampaņu izstrāde, izmantojot Facebook reklāmas rīkus”. Vadošais sociālais tīkls Facebook nodrošina plašas reklāmas izvietošanas iespējas un tā auditorijas apjoms ir sasniedzis tradicionālajiem medijiem līdzvērtīgu izmēru. Darba analītiskajā daļā tiek kategorizētas digitālā mārketinga metodes, kā arī apkopota sociālo tīklu lietotāju statistika Latvijā un pasaulē. Projekta daļā autors salīdzina un analizē Facebook reklāmas izvietoša...

  20. Proton chemical shift tensors determined by 3D ultrafast MAS double-quantum NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Mroue, Kamal H.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy, E-mail: ramamoor@umich.edu [Biophysics and Department of Chemistry, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1055 (United States)

    2015-10-14

    Proton NMR spectroscopy in the solid state has recently attracted much attention owing to the significant enhancement in spectral resolution afforded by the remarkable advances in ultrafast magic angle spinning (MAS) capabilities. In particular, proton chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) has become an important tool for obtaining specific insights into inter/intra-molecular hydrogen bonding. However, even at the highest currently feasible spinning frequencies (110–120 kHz), {sup 1}H MAS NMR spectra of rigid solids still suffer from poor resolution and severe peak overlap caused by the strong {sup 1}H–{sup 1}H homonuclear dipolar couplings and narrow {sup 1}H chemical shift (CS) ranges, which render it difficult to determine the CSA of specific proton sites in the standard CSA/single-quantum (SQ) chemical shift correlation experiment. Herein, we propose a three-dimensional (3D) {sup 1}H double-quantum (DQ) chemical shift/CSA/SQ chemical shift correlation experiment to extract the CS tensors of proton sites whose signals are not well resolved along the single-quantum chemical shift dimension. As extracted from the 3D spectrum, the F1/F3 (DQ/SQ) projection provides valuable information about {sup 1}H–{sup 1}H proximities, which might also reveal the hydrogen-bonding connectivities. In addition, the F2/F3 (CSA/SQ) correlation spectrum, which is similar to the regular 2D CSA/SQ correlation experiment, yields chemical shift anisotropic line shapes at different isotropic chemical shifts. More importantly, since the F2/F1 (CSA/DQ) spectrum correlates the CSA with the DQ signal induced by two neighboring proton sites, the CSA spectrum sliced at a specific DQ chemical shift position contains the CSA information of two neighboring spins indicated by the DQ chemical shift. If these two spins have different CS tensors, both tensors can be extracted by numerical fitting. We believe that this robust and elegant single-channel proton-based 3D experiment provides useful atomistic

  1. Proton detection of MAS solid-state NMR spectra of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Amrit; Hanrahan, Michael P; Rossini, Aaron J

    Fast magic angle spinning (MAS) and proton detection has found widespread application to enhance the sensitivity of solid-state NMR experiments with spin-1/2 nuclei such as (13)C, (15)N and (29)Si, however, this approach is not yet routinely applied to half-integer quadrupolar nuclei. Here we have investigated the feasibility of using fast MAS and proton detection to enhance the sensitivity of solid-state NMR experiments with half-integer quadrupolar nuclei. The previously described dipolar hetero-nuclear multiple quantum correlation (D-HMQC) and dipolar refocused insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (D-RINEPT) pulse sequences were used for proton detection of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei. Quantitative comparisons of signal-to-noise ratios and the sensitivity of proton detected D-HMQC and D-RINEPT and direct detection spin echo and quadrupolar Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill (QCPMG) solid-state NMR spectra, demonstrate that one dimensional proton detected experiments can provide sensitivity similar to or exceeding that obtainable with direct detection QCPMG experiments. 2D D-HMQC and D-RINEPT experiments provide less sensitivity than QCPMG experiments but proton detected 2D hetero-nuclear correlation solid-state NMR spectra of half-integer nuclei can still be acquired in about the same time as a 1D spin echo spectrum. Notably, the rarely used D-RINEPT pulse sequence is found to provide similar, or better sensitivity than D-HMQC in some cases. Proton detected D-RINEPT benefits from the short longitudinal relaxation times (T1) normally associated with half-integer quadrupolar nuclei, it can be combined with existing signal enhancement methods for quadrupolar nuclei, and t1-noise in the indirect dimension can easily be removed by pre-saturation of the (1)H nuclei. The rapid acquisition of proton detected 2D HETCOR solid-state NMR spectra of a range of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei such as (17)O, (27)Al, (35)Cl and (71)Ga is demonstrated. Copyright

  2. Uma “mulher metodista pregadora” em 1775: capaz de mobilizar uma cidade inteira, mas – esquecida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Renders

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma “mulher metodista pregadora” em 1775: capaz de mobilizar uma cidade inteira, mas – esquecida A “woman Methodist preacher” in 1775: capable of mobilizing an entire city, but – forgottenUna “predicadora metodista” en 1775: capaz de movilizar a toda una ciudad, pero – olvidada

  3. Perinatally administered losartan augments renal ACE2 expression but not cardiac or renal Mas receptor in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, Jan; Olvedy, Michael; Ochodnicka-Mackovicova, Katarina; Kruzliak, Peter; Cacanyiova, Sona; Kristek, Frantisek; Krenek, Peter; Ochodnicky, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Since the identification of the alternative angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a new complex target for a pharmacological intervention. We investigated the expression of RAS components in the heart and kidney during the development of hypertension and its perinatal treatment with losartan in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Expressions of RAS genes were studied by the RT-PCR in the left ventricle and kidney of rats: normotensive Wistar, untreated SHR, SHR treated with losartan since perinatal period until week 9 of age (20 mg/kg/day) and SHR treated with losartan only until week 4 of age and discontinued until week 9. In the hypertrophied left ventricle of SHR, cardiac expressions of Ace and Mas were decreased while those of AT1 receptor (Agtr1a) and Ace2 were unchanged. Continuous losartan administration reduced LV weight (0.43 ± 0.02; P Mas and with an increase in ACE2. Continuous losartan administration lowered blood pressure to control levels (105 ± 3 mmHg; P Mas. Increased renal Ace2, and its further increase by losartan suggests the influence of locally generated Ang-(1-7) in organ response to the developing hypertension in SHRs. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  4. Efect of T. harzianumand FitoMas-E® as bioestimulants of the germination y growth of seedlings of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoerlandy Santana Baños

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to evaluate the combined effect of T. harzianum and FitoMas-E® on germination and growth of tomato seedlings. In the first test tomato seeds cv. Vyta they were used to treat with solutions FitoMas-E® (2.0 % v / v and T. harzianum strain A-34 concentration of the solid medium of 1.7 x 109 CFU mL-1 . Germination percentage every six hours by placing 50 seeds per Petri dish of 10 cm diameter with five replicates per treatment is evaluated. In a second test the effect of inoculation of T. harzianum and FitoMas-E® on the growth of tomato seedlings in conditions rootball was evaluated, using trays 264 alveoli and substrate made from peat: soil: rice husks (3:2:1. Speed and percentage germination of tomato seeds treated FitoMas-E® and T. harzianum was found, combined use increases the values of stem diameter and total and radical mass, which can be exploited for transplanting plants tomato, generating a possible diminution in production costs.

  5. EVALUASI DAYA TAHAN IKAN MAS HASIL SELEKSI BERDASARKAN MARKA MOLEKULER MHC-II TERHADAP INFEKSI KOI HERPES VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Primanita Hayuningtyas

    2015-03-01

    mengevaluasi daya tahan benih ikan mas F-1 terseleksi terhadap infeksi KHV melalui uji tantang. Sebagai pembanding, digunakan ikan mas populasi benih F-1 non-seleksi dan populasi benih ikan mas dari unit pembenihan rakyat (UPR. Ikan uji berupa benih ikan mas Rajadanu berumur dua bulan dengan bobot ratarata 5,5±0,5 g. Jumlah benih pada masing-masing wadah perlakuan sebanyak 30 ekor dengan tiga kali pengulangan. Wadah pengujian berupa akuarium berukuran 40 cm x 60 cm x 40 cm dengan kepadatan 1 ekor/L. Parameter yang diamati adalah sintasan, deteksi KHV, analisis ekspresi gen MHC-II, dan gambaran darah ikan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa populasi benih F-1 terseleksi memiliki daya tahan lebih baik dengan sintasan 93,33% dibandingkan populasi benih F-1 non-seleksi sebesar 85,55% dan populasi benih dari UPR sebesar 81,11%. Daya tahan yang tinggi pada populasi benih F-1 terseleksi didukung oleh hasil deteksi KHV yang negatif dan ersentase jumlah limfosit yang lebih tinggi sebesar 91,67%; serta rendahnya persentase monosit dan heterofil, selain itu, tidak adanya eosinofil dan basofil. Ekspresi gen MHC-II terdeteksi pada berbagai organ, ekspresi tertinggi ditemukan pada organ limpa.

  6. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas Axis Regulates the Development of Pancreatic Endocrine Cells in Mouse Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Liang, Juan; Leung, Po Sing

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), its product Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], and Ang-(1-7) receptor Mas, have been shown to regulate organogenesis during embryonic development in various species. However, it is not known whether a local ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis is present in the fetal pancreas. It is hypothesized that there is a local ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the embryonic pancreas in mice that is involved in regulating islet cell development. To address this issue, the endogenous expression profile of axis constituents in embryonic mouse pancreata was examined. Involvement of the ACE2 axis in the regulation of pancreatic development was also examined. The present experiments showed in an in vivo animal model that endogenous expression levels of ACE2 and the Mas receptor were upregulated in mouse pancreata in late embryogenesis, peaking on embryonic day E16.5, when it reached 3 folds compared to that seen at E12.5. Consistently, endogenous expression of Ang-(1-7) also peaked at E16.5. Treatment with the ACE2 inhibitor DX600 did not alter islet development. However, prenatal treatment with A779, a Mas receptor antagonist, reduced the β-cell to α-cell ratio in neonatal islets, impaired islet insulin secretory function, and impaired the pups' glucose tolerance. In ex vivo pancreas explant cultures, A779 again decreased the β-cell to α-cell ratio, apparently through its effects on β-cell proliferation (reduced proliferation shown with Ki67 staining), and also decreased Insulin and Ngn3 mRNA expression. Furthermore, treatment of explant cultures with Ang-(1-7) increased mRNA levels of Insulin and pancreatic progenitor marker Ngn3, as well as Nox4, the ROS generation enzyme; these stimulatory effects were attenuated by co-treatment with A779, suggesting that Ang-(1-7), via Mas receptor signaling, may promote differentiation of pancreatic progenitors into insulin-producing cells via modulation of reactive oxygen species. These data together suggest that a Mas

  7. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  8. MAS-based production scheduling system for manufacturing cell-based workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Hong-yan; CAO Quan-jun; FEI Ren-yuan

    2006-01-01

    The task of production scheduling is to determine the detailed machining path,time,machine tool,etc.,for every work piece,according to the production objective and constraints.It is also an important part of the manufacturing system.In this paper,the manufacturing cell-based workshop is described and its scheduling system structure is established based on MAS (multi-agent system) technology.Through the negotiation and communication of each agent,the machining path is determined and the machining sequence and start time are calculated by GA (genetics algorithm).The communication among agents uses the CORBA (common object request broker architecture) technology of the OMG (Object Management Group).The CORBA-based architecture of the communication is designed and some interfaces for the communication are listed.For the genetics algorithm,chromosome coding,fitness function,parameters selection,and the basic genetics operation including selection,crossover and aberrance,are described.The scheduling system also can deal with some abnormal conditions,such as machine tool failure and urgent tasks.Finally,two scheduling examples are given.

  9. Characterization of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. genotypes - genetic resources for food production in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sochor Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine and compare both technological properties and polyphenol content in fruits of eight cornellian cherry (Cornus mas L. cultivars from Czech Republic. The fruits of cultivar ´Vydubeckij´ had the highest dry matter (17.4% and soluble solid (15.8% content among searched cultivars. The highest crude protein and phosphorus values were determined in the fruits of the ´Titus´ cultivar as 10.9 g of crude protein and 435 mg of phosphorus for per kg fresh weight (FW base. The ´Elegantnyj´ and ´Vydubeckij´ cultivars are found to be more suitable for canning industry. The fruits of the ´Vydubeckij´ cultivar contained 10.8 g of pectin and 22.4 g of citric acid per kg fresh weight base, and could be important for technological use because of their excellent gelling ability. ´Devin´,´Vydubeckij´ and ´Titus´ cultivars had the most valuable source of chlorogenic acid (135.6, 110.9 and 115.1 mg per 100 g FW, respectively and quercetin (24.9, 25.2 and 24.2 mg per 100 g FW, respectively. This work should contribute to the popularization of this fruit specie as a valuable source of technological parameters for human nutrition and the canning industry.

  10. Evidence for cross-linking in tomato cutin using HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Ashish P; Simpson, André J; Hatcher, Patrick G

    2003-11-01

    Cutin is a polyester biopolymer component of plant leaf and fruit cuticles, most often associated with waxes and cuticular polysaccharides, and sometimes with another aliphatic biopolymer called cutan. Insolubility of these cuticular biopolymers has made it difficult to apply traditional analytical techniques for structure determination, because most techniques providing molecular level details require solubility. By using the relatively new technique of one and two-dimensional high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy, with added information from solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy, detailed through-bond connectivities and assignments are made for cutin from Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) fruit. Based on the data obtained, tomato cutin is found to be predominantly an aliphatic polyester with some olefinic and aromatic moieties, consistent with previous studies that employed various degradative approaches. Aside from esters, there are free primary and secondary alcohol groups, as well as free fatty acids. A significant finding is the presence of alpha-branched fatty acids/esters. Mid-chain hydroxyls appear to be generally unesterified, but esters of mid-chain hydroxyls have been identified. The alpha-branched fatty acids/esters and esters of mid-chain hydroxyls could point towards cross-linking.

  11. Observations of radio-quiet quasars at 10mas resolution by use of gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Neal; Roberts, Carl; Sluse, Dominique; Stacey, Hannah; Vives-Arias, Hector; Wucknitz, Olaf; Volino, Filomena

    2015-01-01

    We present VLA detections of radio emission in four four-image gravitational lens systems with quasar sources: HS0810+2554, RXJ0911+0511, HE0435$-$1223 and SDSSJ0924+0219, and e-MERLIN observations of two of the systems. The first three are detected at a high level of significance, and SDSS J0924+0219 is detected. HS0810+2554 is resolved, allowing us for the first time to achieve 10-mas resolution of the source frame in the structure of a radio quiet quasar. The others are unresolved or marginally resolved. All four objects are among the faintest radio sources yet detected, with intrinsic flux densities in the range 1-5$\\mu$Jy; such radio objects, if unlensed, will only be observable routinely with the Square Kilometre Array. The observations of HS0810+2554, which is also detected with e-MERLIN, strongly suggest the presence of a mini-AGN, with a radio core and milliarcsecond scale jet. The flux densities of the lensed images in all but HE0435-1223 are consistent with smooth galaxy lens models without the req...

  12. Quantitative and Structure Analysis of Cellulose in Tobacco by 13C CP / MAS NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xiaolan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method utilizing 13C cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra was developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination and structure analysis of tobacco cellulose from hot water or acid detergent extraction. A reference spectrum of tobacco noncellulose components was subtracted from the spectrum of each sample to obtain a subspectrum of the cellulose components. The NMR spectra in combination with spectral fitting were analyzed in detail and some parameters, such as the content of cellulose, crystallinity, allomorph composition and lateral dimensions for cellulose elementary fibrils and microfibrils were determined. The quantitative results showed that the average recovery was 94.0% with a relative standard deviation (RSD of 4.6–4.8%. The structure results obtained by the spectral fitting for the cellulose C1-region showed that the main allomorph composition in tobacco cellulose was Iβ. The cellulose crystallinity calculated by the spectral fitting in C4 -region was about 50%. The lateral dimensions for cellulose elementary fibrils and microfibrils were in the range of 3.0–6.0 nm and 6.0–13.0 nm, respectively. Therefore, this NMR method could provide important information on both amount and structure of cellulose in tobacco.

  13. 1H HR-MAS NMR of carotenoids in aqueous samples and raw vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietta, M L; Lamanna, R

    2006-07-01

    Carotenoids are linear C40 tetraterpenoid hydrocarbons and represent a wide category of natural pigments. They are components of the pigment system of chloroplasts and are involved in the primary light absorption and the photon canalization of photosynthesis. Moreover, they also behave as quenchers of singlet oxygen, protecting cells and organisms against lipid peroxidation. Carotenoids have a strong lipophilic character and are usually analyzed in organic solvents. However, because of their biological activity, the characterization of these compounds in an aqueous environment or in the natural matrix is very important. One of the most important dietary carotenoids is beta-carotene, which has been extensively studied both in vivo and in model systems, but because of the low concentration and strong interaction with the biological matrix, beta-carotene has never been observed by NMR in solid aqueous samples.In the present work, a model system has been developed for the detection and identification of beta-carotene in solid aqueous samples by 1H HR-MAS NMR. The efficiency of the model has led to the identification of beta-carotene in a raw vegetable matrix.

  14. 1MAS NMR spectra of kao linite/formamide intercalation compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The high spinning speed 1H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (1H MAS NMR) technique was employed to distinguish the two groups of surface hydroxyls of kaolinite and investigate the intercalation mechanism of kaolinite/formamide compound. The proton chemical shifts of the inner hydroxyl and inner surface hydroxyl of kaolinte are in the range of δ-1.3-0.9 and δ 2.4-3.0 respectively. After formamide intercalation three proton peaks were detected. The proton peak of the inner surface hydroxyls of the intercalation compound shifts to high-field with δ 2.3-2.7, which is assigned to the formation of the hydrogen bond between the inner surface hydroxyl and formamide carbonyl group. Whereas, the proton peak of the inner hydroxyl shifts to δ-0.3 toward low-field, that is attributed to van der Waal's effect between the inner hydroxyl proton and the amino group proton of the formamide which may be keyed into the ditrigonal hole of the kaolinite. The third peak, additional proton peak, is in the range of δ5.4-5.6, that is ascribed to the hydrogen bond formation between the amino group proton of formimide and SiO4 tetrahedral oxygen of the kaolinite.

  15. Water suppression without signal loss in HR-MAS 1H NMR of cells and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Hong; Sambol, Elliot B.; Kennealey, Peter T.; O'Connor, Rachael B.; DeCarolis, Penelope L.; Cory, David G.; Singer, Samuel

    2004-11-01

    In cell and tissue samples, water is normally three orders of magnitude more abundant than other metabolites. Thus, water suppression is required in the acquisition of NMR spectra to overcome the dynamic range problem and to recover metabolites that overlap with the broad baseline of the strong water resonance. However, the heterogeneous cellular environment often complicates water suppression and the strong coupling of water to membrane lipids interferes with the NMR detection of membrane associated lipid components. The widely used water suppression techniques including presaturation and double pulsed field gradient selective echo result in more than a 70% reduction in membrane associated lipid components in proton spectra of cells and tissues compared to proton spectra acquired in the absence of water suppression. A water suppression technique based on the combination of selective excitation pulses and pulsed field gradients is proposed to use in the acquisition of high resolution MAS NMR spectra of tissue specimens and cell samples. This pulse sequence methodology enables efficient water suppression for intact cells and tissue samples and eliminates signal loss from cellular metabolites.

  16. Dual action of neurokinin-1 antagonists on Mas-related GPCRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Ehsan; Reddy, Vemuri B.; Shade, Kai-Ting C.; Anthony, Robert M.; Pereira, Paula Juliana Seadi; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of translating findings from animal models to the clinic is well known. An example of this challenge is the striking effectiveness of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonists in mouse models of inflammation coupled with their equally striking failure in clinical investigations in humans. Here, we provide an explanation for this dichotomy: Mas-related GPCRs (Mrgprs) mediate some aspects of inflammation that had been considered mediated by NK-1R. In support of this explanation, we show that conventional NK-1R antagonists have off-target activity on the mouse receptor MrgprB2 but not on the homologous human receptor MRGPRX2. An unrelated tripeptide NK-1R antagonist has dual activity on MRGPRX2. This tripeptide both suppresses itch in mice and inhibits degranulation from the LAD-2 human mast cell line elicited by basic secretagogue activation of MRGPRX2. Antagonists of Mrgprs may fill the void left by the failure of NK-1R antagonists. PMID:27734033

  17. Conformational analysis of capsaicin using 13C, 15N MAS NMR, GIAO DFT and GA calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudem, Paweł; Paradowska, Katarzyna; Bukowicki, Jarosław

    2017-10-01

    Capsaicin produced by plants from genus Capsicum exerts multiple pharmacological effects and has found applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. The alkaloid was studied by a combined approach: solid-state NMR, GA conformational search and GIAO DFT methods. The 13C CPMAS NMR spectra were recorded using variable contact time and dipolar dephasing experiments. The results of cross-polarization (CP) kinetics, such as TCP values and long T1ρH (100-200 ms), indicated that the capsaicin molecule is fairly mobile, especially at the end of the aliphatic chain. The15N MAS NMR spectrum showed one narrow signal at -255 ppm. Genetic algorithm (GA) search with multi modal optimization was used to find low-energy conformations of capsaicin. Theoretical GIAO DFT calculations were performed using different basis sets to characterize five selected conformations. 13C CPMAS NMR was used as a validation method and the experimental chemical shifts were compared with those calculated for selected stable conformers. Conformational analysis suggests that the side chain can be bent or extended. A comparison of the experimental and the calculated chemical shifts indicates that solid capsaicin does not have the same structure as those established by PWXRD.

  18. HACCP sistēmas ieviešana kautuvē "X".

    OpenAIRE

    Šķestere, Ineta

    2007-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „HACCP sistēmas ieviešana kautuvē „X” ”. Šajā darbā tiek apskatīts viens no veidiem, kā pārtikas apritē iesaistītiem uzņēmumiem sakārtot savu darbību atbilstoši Eiropas Savienībā un Latvijā pastāvošās likumdošanas prasībām. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no četrām nodaļām. Pirmajā nodaļā tiek apskatīts: Kas ir pārtikas nekaitīguma nodrošināšanas sistēma HACCP, Kāpēc būtu jāievieš šī sistēma un kādus ieguvumus tā dod. Otrajā nodaļā tiek apskatīts: Vispārējās higiē...

  19. Nutritional value of Rosa spp. l. and Cornus mas l. fruits, as affected by storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craita-Maria Rosu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparison between two storage methods (freezing and drying of fruits, in terms of ascorbic acid, carotenes, total sugar and protein content in Rosa spp. L. species and Cornus mas L. was performed. In the dried rose hips, the major losses were registered at the level of ascorbic acid content (32.04–50.25 %, followed by carotenes (30.85–52.08 %, total sugar (21.57–34.6 % and protein content (21.33–46.89 %. The freezing method resulted in a better preservation of ascorbic acid (only 19.80–29.21 % decrease and total sugar content (3.41–12.94 % increase. In the preserved cornelian cherry fruits, no statistically significant differences were registered between fruits categories, except carotene content, which was dramatically decreased in dried fruits (88.23 %. For cornelian cherry fruits, both storage methods induced a decrease of ascorbic acid and protein contents (57.60 and 46.32 % and an increase of total sugar level (37.60 %.

  20. PENGEMBANGAN EKOWISATA BERBASIS KERAKYATAN DI BANJAR NYUH KUNING, DESA MAS, UBUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUNG SRI SULISTYAWATI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is (1 to identify the potential of Banjar Nyuh Kuning Mas Village, Ubud has to offer as means of attraction in ecotourism which may be accomplished by identifying physical and non physical potential. (2 to develope a community based strategy in ecotourism. The sampling technique used is purposive sampling and accidental sampling. Data collection is accomplished through observatioan, questionaire, focus group discussion and documentation. Data analysis is by qualitative descriptive and SWOT. The result of this study is that Banjar Nyuh Kuning has the potential to be developed as an ecotourism on the basis of physical and non physical grounds. The perception of the community and tourists are in agreement to the developement of ecotourism activity which incorporate local community, nature oriented activity and has the potential to increase their income, thus resulting in a destination for leisure and recreation. There are a few results of alternative strategies such as; development strategies of ecotourism products, development strategies of human resources, development strategies of management and strategies in upgrading security. To make Banjar Nyuh Kuning as an attraction for ecotourism activity which is based on nature then the strategy for development has to be efficient and limited. Further study has to be taken for the marketing aspect and managing ecotourism object to further the developent in a comprehensive manner.

  1. The Neuroprotective Effect of Cornus mas on Brain Tissue of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Francik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas is a valuable source of phenolic antioxidants. Flavonoid derivatives as nonenzymatic antioxidants are important in the pathophysiology of many diseases including neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease or heart disease. In this study, we examined the effect of an addition of freeze-dried fruit of cornelian cherry on three types of diets: control diet, fructose diet, and diet enriched in fats (high-fat diet. This effect was studied by determining the following antioxidant parameters in both brain tissue and plasma in rats: catalase, ferric reducing ability of plasma, paraoxonase, protein carbonyl groups, and free thiol groups. Results indicate that both fructose diet and high-fat diet affect the antioxidant capacity of the organism. Furthermore, an addition of cornelian cherry resulted in increased activity of catalase in brain tissue, while in plasma it caused the opposite effect. In turn, with regard to paraoxonase activity in both brain tissue and plasma, it had a stimulating effect. Adding cornelian cherry to the tested diets increased the activity of PON in both tested tissues. Moreover, protective effect of fruits of this plant was observed in the process of oxidation of proteins by decreasing levels of protein carbonyl groups and thiol groups in brain tissue as well as in plasma.

  2. Dynamic scheduling model of computing resource based on MAS cooperation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG WeiJin; ZHANG LianMei; WANG Pu

    2009-01-01

    Allocation of grid resources aims at improving resource utility and grid application performance. Currently, the algorithms proposed for this purpose do not fit well the autonomic, dynamic, distributive and heterogeneous features of the grid environment. According to MAS (multi-agent system) cooperation mechanism and market bidding game rules, a model of allocating allocation of grid resources based on market economy is introduced to reveal the relationship between supply and demand. This model can make good use of the studying and negotiating ability of consumers' agent and takes full consideration of the consumer's behavior, thus rendering the application and allocation of resource of the consumers rational and valid. In the meantime, the utility function of consumer Is given; the existence and the uniqueness of Nash equilibrium point in the resource allocation game and the Nash equilibrium solution are discussed. A dynamic game algorithm of allocating grid resources is designed. Experimental results demonstrate that this algorithm diminishes effectively the unnecessary latency, improves significantly the smoothness of response time, the ratio of throughput and resource utility, thus rendering the supply and demand of the whole grid resource reasonable and the overall grid load balanceable.

  3. Study on Nitrogen Forms in Phenolic Polymers Incorporating Protien by 15N CP—MAS NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGLILI; WENQIXIAO; 等

    1996-01-01

    Phenolic polymers synthesized by reactions by reactions of p-benzoquinone with 15N-labelled protein or (15NH4)2SO4 were studied by using 15N CP-MAS NMR technique in combination with chemical approaches.Results showed that more than 80% of nitrogen in quinone-protein polymers was in the form of amide with some present as aromatic and /or aliphatic amine and less than 10% of nitrogen occurred as heterocyclic N.The nitrogen distribution in the non-hydrolyzable residue of the quinone-protein polymers was basically similar to that of soil humic acid reported in literature with the exception that a higher proportion of N as heterocyclic N and aromatic amine and a lower proportion of N as amide and aliphatic amine were found in the former than in the latter,More than 70% of total nitrogen in quinone-(NH4)2OS4 polymer was acid resistant ,of which about 53% occurred as pyrrole,nitrile and imion type N.The possible roles of the reactions of phenols or quinones with proteins in the formation of humic acid.especially the non-hydrolyzable nitrogen in humicacid,are discussed.

  4. Tendencias clave para el tercer gobierno del MAS, Bolivia 2015-2019

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Albó

    2016-03-01

    Esta presentación tiene como trasfondo el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo y pretende resaltar algunos de los logros del presidente Evo Morales y los desafíos que enfrenta en su tercer gobierno (2015-2019. Comienza revisando información demográfica básica, según el Censo de 2012, para luego centrarse en la economía: los hidrocarburos, la minería, la producción agropecuaria y la ecología. El boom de la quinua, la expansión de la frontera agrícola y la suspensión de la construcción de una carretera que atraviese el TIPNIS son algunos de los temas que se discuten. Internacionalmente, hay motivos de optimismo con relación a la demanda marítima de Bolivia, mientras que, a nivel nacional, el MAS aseguró una victoria parlamentaria en el año 2014. Las reformas menos exitosas son las del órgano judicial. La presentación termina revisando los movimientos sociales que permitieron la formación la de Asamblea Constituyente y el asunto de la autonomía municipal, departamental e indígena.

  5. Heating and temperature gradients of lipid bilayer samples induced by RF irradiation in MAS solid-state NMR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Zhengfeng; Zhao, Weijing; Wang, Liying; Yang, Jun

    2016-05-09

    The MAS solid-state NMR has been a powerful technique for studying membrane proteins within the native-like lipid bilayer environment. In general, RF irradiation in MAS NMR experiments can heat and potentially destroy expensive membrane protein samples. However, under practical MAS NMR experimental conditions, detailed characterization of RF heating effect of lipid bilayer samples is still lacking. Herein, using (1) H chemical shift of water for temperature calibration, we systematically study the dependence of RF heating on hydration levels and salt concentrations of three lipids in MAS NMR experiments. Under practical (1) H decoupling conditions used in biological MAS NMR experiments, three lipids show different dependence of RF heating on hydration levels as well as salt concentrations, which are closely associated with the properties of lipids. The maximum temperature elevation of about 10 °C is similar for the three lipids containing 200% hydration, which is much lower than that in static solid-state NMR experiments. The RF heating due to salt is observed to be less than that due to hydration, with a maximum temperature elevation of less than 4 °C in the hydrated samples containing 120 mmol l(-1) of salt. Upon RF irradiation, the temperature gradient across the sample is observed to be greatly increased up to 20 °C, as demonstrated by the remarkable broadening of (1) H signal of water. Based on detailed characterization of RF heating effect, we demonstrate that RF heating and temperature gradient can be significantly reduced by decreasing the hydration levels of lipid bilayer samples from 200% to 30%. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test - Ground and Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.

  7. Flight Mechanics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the generation of an outbound Earth to Moon transfer preliminary database consisting of four cases calculated twice a day for a 19 year period. The database was desired as the first step in order for NASA to rapidly generate Earth to Moon trajectories for the Constellation Program using the Mission Assessment Post Processor. The completed database was created running a flight trajectory and optimization program, called Copernicus, in batch mode with the use of newly created Matlab functions. The database is accurate and has high data resolution. The techniques and scripts developed to generate the trajectory information will also be directly used in generating a comprehensive database.

  8. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  9. 14 CFR 125.297 - Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of flight simulators and flight... Flight Crewmember Requirements § 125.297 Approval of flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) Flight simulators and flight training devices approved by the Administrator may be used in training...

  10. 玉米秸秆木质素降解过程的CP/MAS13CNMR和SEM表征%CP/MAS13CNMR and SEM Characterization of Corn Stover Lignin Degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琳; 张全; 孟雪松; 凌凤香

    2013-01-01

    利用黄孢原毛平革茵对玉米秸秆木质素进行降解处理,通过CP/MAS 13CNMR和SEM研究降解过程中木质素的结构变化.CP/MAS 13CNMR结果表明:玉米秸秆木质素降解过程中,作为木质素结构单元主要连接方式的β-O-4键基本上没有被降解;木质素单位苯环的甲氧基含量稍有增加;S/G值降低,推断反应过程中紫丁香基优先参与反应.SEM结果表明:降解后的木质素空穴增多且增大、颗粒物质减少,主要是由于酶解木质素中大量碳水化合物的降解(所)致;比木质素更容易降解的纤维素和半纤维素也存在于样品中.CP/MAS13CNMR为木质纤维原料结构的定性和初步定量提供了可能,是传统定量表征手段的有力补充,具有一定的研究意义.%The structure changes of corn stover lignin treated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium were studied by CP/MAS 13CNMR and SEM.CP/MAS 13CNMR Results showed that bond β-O-4 didn't be degraded,the content of-OCH3 increased after degradation,S/G value decreased,and syringyl structure was priority to take part in the reaction.SEM Results showed that the surface holes of corn stover lignin increased both in number and in volume,and the particle matters reduced,mainly due to the degradation caused by carbohydrate,there were cellulose and hemicellulose more easily degraded than lignin in the sample.CP/MAS 13CNMR Provides the possibility of qualitative and quantitative characterization for wood materials structure,which is a strong supplement to the traditional quantitative characterization methods,and has some research significance.

  11. New Theory of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Johan; Jansson, Johan; Johnson, Claes

    2016-06-01

    We present a new mathematical theory explaining the fluid mechanics of subsonic flight, which is fundamentally different from the existing boundary layer-circulation theory by Prandtl-Kutta-Zhukovsky formed 100 year ago. The new theory is based on our new resolution of d'Alembert's paradox showing that slightly viscous bluff body flow can be viewed as zero-drag/lift potential flow modified by 3d rotational slip separation arising from a specific separation instability of potential flow, into turbulent flow with nonzero drag/lift. For a wing this separation mechanism maintains the large lift of potential flow generated at the leading edge at the price of small drag, resulting in a lift to drag quotient of size 15-20 for a small propeller plane at cruising speed with Reynolds number {Re≈ 107} and a jumbojet at take-off and landing with {Re≈ 108} , which allows flight at affordable power. The new mathematical theory is supported by computed turbulent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations with a slip boundary condition as a model of observed small skin friction of a turbulent boundary layer always arising for {Re > 106} , in close accordance with experimental observations over the entire range of angle of attacks including stall using a few millions of mesh points for a full wing-body configuration.

  12. In-Flight System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1998-01-01

    A method is proposed and studied whereby the system identification cycle consisting of experiment design and data analysis can be repeatedly implemented aboard a test aircraft in real time. This adaptive in-flight system identification scheme has many advantages, including increased flight test efficiency, adaptability to dynamic characteristics that are imperfectly known a priori, in-flight improvement of data quality through iterative input design, and immediate feedback of the quality of flight test results. The technique uses equation error in the frequency domain with a recursive Fourier transform for the real time data analysis, and simple design methods employing square wave input forms to design the test inputs in flight. Simulation examples are used to demonstrate that the technique produces increasingly accurate model parameter estimates resulting from sequentially designed and implemented flight test maneuvers. The method has reasonable computational requirements, and could be implemented aboard an aircraft in real time.

  13. Getting started with Twitter Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Hamshere, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Twitter Flight is written with the intention to educate the readers, helping them learn how to build modular powerful applications with Flight, Twitter's cutting-edge JavaScript framework.This book is for anyone with a foundation in JavaScript who wants to build web applications. Flight is quick and easy to learn, built on technologies you already understand such as the DOM, events, and jQuery.

  14. Who Are the Students Who May Qualify for an Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS)?: Focus Group Results. Synthesis Report 79

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sandra; Ebben, Barbara; Kubinski, Eva; Sim, Grant; Liu, Kristin; Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha; Christian, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 2007, federal regulations to two major education laws gave state departments of education the option to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) for some students with disabilities. The regulations stated that the AA-MAS was intended for students who were being instructed in the grade-level…

  15. Aerial Survey of Ames Research Center - Flight Simulation Complex' Flight simulators create an

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Aerial Survey of Ames Research Center - Flight Simulation Complex' Flight simulators create an authentic aircraft environment by generating the appropriate physical cues that provide the sensations of flight.

  16. Molecular dynamics of spider dragline silk fiber investigated by 2H MAS NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangyan; Holland, Gregory P; Yarger, Jeffery L

    2015-03-09

    The molecular dynamics of the proteins that comprise spider dragline silk were investigated with solid-state (2)H magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR line shape and spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) analysis. The experiments were performed on (2)H/(13)C/(15)N-enriched N. clavipes dragline silk fibers. The silk protein side-chain and backbone dynamics were probed for Ala-rich regions (β-sheet and 31-helical domains) in both native (dry) and supercontracted (wet) spider silk. In native (dry) silk fibers, the side chains in all Ala containing regions undergo similar fast methyl rotations (>10(9) s(-1)), while the backbone remains essentially static (silk is wet and supercontracted, the presence of water initiates fast side-chain and backbone motions for a fraction of the β-sheet region and 31-helicies. β-Sheet subregion 1 ascribed to the poly(Ala) core exhibits slower dynamics, while β-sheet subregion 2 present in the interfacial, primarily poly(Gly-Ala) region that links the β-sheets to disordered 31-helical motifs, exhibits faster motions when the silk is supercontracted. Particularly notable is the observation of microsecond backbone motions for β-sheet subregion 2 and 31-helicies. It is proposed that these microsecond backbone motions lead to hydrogen-bond disruption in β-sheet subregion 2 and helps to explain the decrease in silk stiffness when the silk is wet and supercontracted. In addition, water mobilizes and softens 31-helical motifs, contributing to the increased extensibility observed when the silk is in a supercontracted state. The present study provides critical insight into the supercontraction mechanism and corresponding changes in mechanical properties observed for spider dragline silks.

  17. 13C CP/MAS NMR and DFT studies of thiazides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latosińska, J. N.

    2003-02-01

    The 13C MAS solid state NMR spectra of four sulphonamide derivatives of 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxides, commonly known as thiazides, were recorded and the chemical shifts and chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) were measured. Analysis of the experimental 13C shielding parameters was supported by DFT theoretical calculations carried out within the gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO), semiempirical Typed Neglect of Differential Overlap (TNDO/2) approach and by the spectra estimations performed by ChemNMR Pro 6.0, ACD-I/LAB, SpecInfo and gNMR. It was found that the chemical shifts obtained with ChemNMR Pro 6.0, ACD-I/LAB, SpecInfo and gNMR were insensitive to the substitution effects, whereas the semiempirical TNDO/2 and density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) methods allowed estimation of the influence of substituents on the chemical shielding and consequently, the chemical shift. The influence of the substituents at C3 position of the ring on the chemical shifts was analysed on the basis of the experimental data and results of the DFT calculations. The values of the chemical shifts and the low values of the anisotropy parameter for the C3 atom in HCTZ, TCTZ and ATZ, strongly indicated that three thiazides HCTZ, TCTZ and ATZ occurred in the form of HCTZ type with the C3 carbon atom participating in a single bond. The following ordering of the substituents according to the increasing electron accepting properties was found: -H<-CH 2SCH 2CHCH 2<-CHCl 2. A detailed analysis of the inductive and coupling effects was made on the basis of 13C chemical shifts and chemical shielding tensor asymmetry parameters on the C3 and C6 carbon atoms.

  18. Experimental investigation of drying characteristics of cornelian cherry fruits ( Cornus mas L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgen, Filiz

    2015-03-01

    Major target of present paper is to investigate the drying kinetics of cornelian cherry fruits ( Cornus mas L.) in a convective dryer, by varying the temperature and the velocity of drying air. Freshly harvested fruits are dried at drying air temperature of 35, 45 and 55 °C. The considered drying air velocities are V air = 1 and 1.5 m/s for each temperature. The required drying time is determined by taking into consideration the moisture ratio measurements. When the moisture ratio reaches up to 10 % at the selected drying air temperature, then the time is determined ( t = 40-67 h). The moisture ratio, fruit temperature and energy requirement are presented as the functions of drying time. The lowest drying time (40 h) is obtained when the air temperature is 55 °C and air velocity is 1.5 m/s. The highest drying time (67 h) is found under the conditions of 35 °C temperature and 1 m/s velocity. Both the drying air temperature and the air velocity significantly affect the required energy for drying system. The minimum amount of required energy is found as 51.12 kWh, at 55 °C and 1 m/s, whilst the maximum energy requirement is 106.7 kWh, at 35 °C and 1.5 m/s. It is also found that, air temperature significantly influences the total drying time. Moreover, the energy consumption is decreasing with increasing air temperature. The effects of three parameters (air temperature, air velocity and drying time) on drying characteristics have also been analysed by means of analysis of variance method to show the effecting levels. The experimental results have a good agreement with the predicted ones.

  19. MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION (MAS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF BARLEY AND WHEAT LINES WITH REQUESTED TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hudcovicová

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers closely linked to interesting genes enable early, proper and fast detection of plant individuals with desired allele during backcross breeding, what can make plant breeding faster and cheaper. We are focused on molecular breeding of barley and wheat lines for disease resistance and some important quality traits. As acceptors of interesting genes we use especially elite Slovak and Czech cultivars and lines. After five backcross generations with the help of MAS new created lines carrying markers linked to desired genes undergo resistance, agronomic and technological tests. In breeding of winter barley for resistance to BaYMV/BaMMV viruses we use codominant STS and SSR markers linked to rym4 and rym11 resistance genes. Cultivar Romanze has been used as a donor of rym4 gene and landrace Russia57 as gene rym11 donor. In spring barley we are focused on transfer of Yd2 gene from landraces Shannon and Sutter resistant to BYDV by use of dominant ASPCR marker. We are also working on transfer of effective leaf rust resistance genes Lr19, Lr24 derived from Thinopyrum ponticum and gene Lr35 from Aegilops speltoides into hexaploid wheat by use of dominant STS and SCAR markers. Near isogenic lines with these genes are used in gene pyramiding to develop a single line with all three genes. By use of protein markers we develop near isogenic wheat lines for higher sedimentation values, higher dough strength and better breadmaking quality. These are lines with new combination of HMW glutenin subunits (21*, 7+8, 5+10 as well as wheat lines with new unknown HMW-GS and with new HMW-GS pair.

  20. Cibola flight experiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  1. Stirling to Flight Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Kenneth E.; Mason, Lee S.; Ndu, Obi; Smith, Clayton; Withrow, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Flight (S2F) initiative with the objective of developing a 100-500 We Stirling generator system. Additionally, a different approach is being devised for this initiative to avoid pitfalls of the past, and apply lessons learned from the recent ASRG experience. Two key aspects of this initiative are a Stirling System Technology Maturation Effort, and a Surrogate Mission Team (SMT) intended to provide clear mission pull and requirements context. The S2F project seeks to lead directly into a DOE flight system development of a new SRG. This paper will detail the proposed S2F initiative, and provide specifics on the key efforts designed to pave a forward path for bringing Stirling technology to flight.

  2. SHEFEX II Flight Instrumentation And Preparation Of Post Flight Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Thomas; Siebe, Frank; Gulhan, Ali

    2011-05-01

    A main disadvantage of modern TPS systems for re- entry vehicles is the expensive manufacturing and maintenance process due to the complex geometry of these blunt nose configurations. To reduce the costs and to improve the aerodynamic performance the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is following a different approach using TPS structures consisting of flat ceramic tiles. To test these new sharp edged TPS structures the SHEFEX I flight experiment was designed and successfully performed by DLR in 2005. To further improve the reliability of the sharp edged TPS design at even higher Mach numbers, a second flight experiment SHEFEX II will be performed in September 2011. In comparison to SHEFEX I the second flight experiment has a fully symmetrical shape and will reach a maximum Mach number of about 11. Furthermore the vehicle has an active steering system using four canards to control the flight attitude during re-entry, e.g. roll angle, angle of attack and sideslip. After a successful flight the evaluation of the flight data will be performed using a combination of numerical and experimental tools. The data will be used for the improvement of the present numerical analysis tools and to get a better understanding of the aerothermal behaviour of sharp TPS structures. This paper presents the flight instrumentation of the SHEFEX II TPS. In addition the concept of the post flight analysis is presented.

  3. The Cibola flight experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, Michael Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roussel - Dupre, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katko, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palmer, Joseph [ISE-3; Robinson, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wirthlin, Michael [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Howes, William [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Richins, Daniel [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE) is an experimental small satellite carrying a reconfigurable processing instrument developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that demonstrates the feasibility of using FPGA-based high-performance computing for sensor processing in the space environment. The CFE satellite was launched on March 8, 2007 in low-earth orbit and has operated extremely well since its deployment. The nine Xilinx Virtex FPGAs used in the payload have been used for several high-throughput sensor processing applications and for single-event upset (SEU) monitoring and mitigation. This paper will describe the CFE system and summarize its operational results. In addition, this paper will describe the results from several SEU detection circuits that were performed on the spacecraft.

  4. Digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.

  5. Shrimp Serine Proteinase Homologues PmMasSPH-1 and -2 Play a Role in the Activation of the Prophenoloxidase System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jearaphunt, Miti; Amparyup, Piti; Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-01-01

    Melanization mediated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system is a rapid immune response used by invertebrates against intruding pathogens. Several masquerade-like and serine proteinase homologues (SPHs) have been demonstrated to play an essential role in proPO activation in insects and crustaceans. In a previous study, we characterized the masquerade-like SPH, PmMasSPH1, in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon as a multifunctional immune protein based on its recognition and antimicrobial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio harveyi. In the present study, we identify a novel SPH, known as PmMasSPH2, composed of an N-terminal clip domain and a C-terminal SP-like domain that share high similarity to those of other insect and crustacean SPHs. We demonstrate that gene silencing of PmMasSPH1 and PmMasSPH2 significantly reduces PO activity, resulting in a high number of V. harveyi in the hemolymph. Interestingly, knockdown of PmMasSPH1 suppressed not only its gene transcript but also other immune-related genes in the proPO system (e.g., PmPPAE2) and antimicrobial peptides (e.g., PenmonPEN3, PenmonPEN5, crustinPm1 and Crus-likePm). The PmMasSPH1 and PmMasSPH2 also show binding activity to peptidoglycan (PGN) of Gram-positive bacteria. Using a yeast two-hybrid analysis and co-immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that PmMasSPH1 specifically interacted with the final proteinase of the proPO cascade, PmPPAE2. Furthermore, the presence of both PmMasSPH1 and PmPPAE2 enhances PGN-induced PO activity in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest the importance of PmMasSPHs in the activation of the shrimp proPO system. PMID:25803442

  6. MAS promoter regulation: a role for Sry and tyrosine nitration of the KRAB domain of ZNF274 as a feedback mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Jeremy W; Rauscher, Frank J; Peng, Hongzhuang; Liu, Yuanjie; Araujo, Fabiano C; Watanabe, Ingrid; Reis, Fernando M; Milsted, Amy

    2014-05-01

    The ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2)/Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)]/MAS axis of the RAS (renin-angiotensin system) has emerged as a pathway of interest in treating both cardiovascular disorders and cancer. The MAS protein is known to bind to and be activated by Ang-(1-7); however, the mechanisms of this activation are just starting to be understood. Although there are strong biochemical data regarding the regulation and activation of the AT1R (angiotensin II type 1 receptor) and the AT2R (angiotensin II type 2 receptor), with models of how AngII (angiotensin II) binds each receptor, fewer studies have characterized MAS. In the present study, we characterize the MAS promoter and provide a potential feedback mechanism that could compensate for MAS degradation following activation by Ang-(1-7). Analysis of ENCODE data for the MAS promoter revealed potential epigenetic control by KRAB (Krüppel-associated box)/KAP-1 (KRAB-associated protein-1). A proximal promoter construct for the MAS gene was repressed by the SOX [SRY (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) box] proteins SRY, SOX2, SOX3 and SOX14, of which SRY is known to interact with the KRAB domain. The KRAB-KAP-1 complex can be tyrosine-nitrated, causing the dissociation of the KAP-1 protein and thus a potential loss of epigenetic control. Activation of MAS can lead to an increase in nitric oxide, suggesting a feedback mechanism for MAS on its own promoter. The results of the present study provide a more complete view of MAS regulation and, for the first time, suggest biochemical outcomes for nitration of the KRAB domain.

  7. Effects of the angiotensin-(1-7) receptor Mas on cell proliferation and on the population of doublecortin positive cells within the dentate gyrus and the piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, M; Walther, T; von Bohlen Und Halbach, O

    2014-02-01

    Aside from the well-known biologically active angiotensin II, other biologically active angiotensins have been discovered, including angiotensin IV and angiotensin-(1-7). Some years ago, we and others discovered that the Mas proto-oncogene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor being essential for angiotensin-(1-7) signaling. Mas is not only expressed in the periphery but also within the brain, e.g. in the dentate gyrus (DG) and the piriform cortex (PC). Since the DG is capable of adult neurogenesis, we examined the impact of a deletion of Mas upon adult neurogenesis. Deletion of Mas did not alter cell proliferation in the adult DG (as monitored with phosphohistone H3) and did not alter cell death (as monitored with activated Caspase 3). However, Mas deficiency resulted in an increase in the number of doublecortin (DCX) positive cells, indicating that lack of Mas increases the number of this cell population. Concerning the PC, it is discussed whether adult neurogenesis occurs under physiological conditions in this area. We could demonstrate that Mas deficiency has an impact on cell division and on the population of DCX-positive cells within the PC. Since Mas is not expressed before birth within the brain, our data may suggest that adult hippocampal neurogenesis and neurogenesis occurring during prenatal development share several common mechanisms, but are, at least in part, differentially regulated. Moreover, since deficiency for Mas increases the numbers of DCX-positive young neurons, blockage of Mas might be beneficial in stimulating neurogenesis in adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. X-1 in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-1 (#46-062) in flight. The shock wave pattern in the exhaust plume is visible. The X-1 series aircraft were air-launched from a modified Boeing B-29 or a B-50 Superfortress bombers. The X-1-1 was painted a bright orange by Bell Aircraft. It was thought that the aircraft would be more visable to those doing the tracking during a flight. When NACA received the airplanes they were painted white, which was an easier color to find in the skies over Muroc Air Field in California. This particular craft was nicknamed 'Glamorous Glennis' by Chuck Yeager in honor of his wife, and is now on permanent display in the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all

  9. PENGEMBANGAN METODE ELISA DAN TEKNIK DETEKSI CEPAT DENGAN IMUNOSTIK TERHADAP ANTIBODI ANTI Aeromonas hydrophila PADA IKAN MAS (Cyprinid carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatik Mufidah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan metode ELISA untuk deteksi antibodi anti Aeromonas hydrophila dan membuat alat deteksi cepat terhadap antibodi anti A. hydrophila dengan menggunakan imunostik. Sebanyak enam ekor ikan mas digunakan sebagai hewan uji untuk memproduksi serum seronegatif (baseline dan seropositif. Hewan uji tersebut divaksinasi dengan antigen A. hydrophila dan dikoleksi serumnya tiap minggu. Optimasi metode ELISA dilakukan hingga mendapatkan rasio serum seronegatif dan seropositif yang terbaik. Hasil optimasi metode ELISA kemudian digunakan untuk merakit imunostik dan kemudian mengaplikasikannya pada serum ikan mas. Hasil uji optimasi metode ELISA didapatkan hasil bahwa metode ELISA yang dikembangkan dapat mendeteksi antibodi anti A. hydrophila pada semua serum positif dan menyatakan negatif pada serum seronegatif. Hasil yang sama juga ditunjukkan oleh uji imunostik yang telah dirakit.

  10. DRIFT and HR MAS NMR characterization of humic substances from a soil treated with different organic and mineral fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Erika; Francioso, Ornella; Nardi, Serenella; Saladini, Monica; Ferro, Nicola Dal; Morari, Francesco

    2011-07-01

    In this study, using DRIFT and HR MAS NMR, we analyzed the humic substances isolated from a soil treated, over 40 years, with different organic, mineral and organic plus mineral treatments and cultivated with maize as the main crop. As expected, the structure of humic substances was very complex but by combining both techniques (DRIFT and HR MAS NMR) additional information was obtained on aromatic and aliphatic components, the most recalcitrant parts of these macromolecules. In so doing we wanted to investigate the relationship between HS structure and long-term management practices. An elevated content of lignin, aminoacids, peptides and proteins was observed mainly for farmyard manure treatments with respect to mineral or liquid manure amendments; this supports how the different management practices have greatly influenced the humification process of cultivated soils.

  11. Thermal maturity of type II kerogen from the New Albany Shale assessed by13C CP/MAS NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Zwanziger, U.; Lis, G.; Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, A.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal maturity of oil and gas source rocks is typically quantified in terms of vitrinite reflectance, which is based on optical properties of terrestrial woody remains. This study evaluates 13C CP/MAS NMR parameters in kerogen (i.e., the insoluble fraction of organic matter in sediments and sedimentary rocks) as proxies for thermal maturity in marine-derived source rocks where terrestrially derived vitrinite is often absent or sparse. In a suite of samples from the New Albany Shale (Middle Devonian to the Early Mississippian, Illinois Basin) the abundance of aromatic carbon in kerogen determined by 13C CP/MAS NMR correlates linearly well with vitrinite reflectance. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of felodipine combined with puerarin on ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis in renovascular hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Song; Huang, Zheng-Gui; Chen, Li; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Ding, Bo-Ping

    2013-06-10

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of combination of felodipine+puerarin on ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis, and to explore the protective effect of the combination against kidney in renovascular hypertensive rats. Goldblatt rats were randomly divided into 5 groups as follows: 4 groups which were treated with felodipine (Felo), puerarin (Pue), Felo+Pue, and Felo+captopril (Cap), respectively, and a control group of animals that were administrated with distilled water. Contents of Ang II and Ang (1-7) in renal tissues were determined by ELISA kit. The mRNA expression of ACE2/Mas and ACE/AT1 in kidneys was analyzed by RT-PCR. After 8weeks of treatment, compared with Goldblatt group, Felo+Pue reduced SBP, DBP and HR (pword, a combination of Felo+Pue has a more efficient therapeutic effect on DBP and HR, and contributes to a better protection against renal interstitial fibrosis.

  13. A Comparison of Ozone Measurements Made by the ATMOS, MAS, and SSBUV Instruments During ATLAS 1,2, and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriebel, D. L.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Hilsenrath, E.; Gunson, M.; Hartmann, G. K.; Abrams, M.; Daehler, M.; Pauls, T. A.; Newchurch, M.; Aellig, C. P.; Bories, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    Ozone profile measurements were made by three instruments, ATMOS, MAS, and SSBUV, using distinctly different observing techniques, as part of the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions in March 1992, April 1993, and November 1994. ATMOS makes solar-occultation observations of infrared spectra using a Fourier transform interferometer. MAS uses a limb-scanning antenna to measure emission spectra at millimeter wavelengths. SSBUV is a nadir-viewing instrument measuring the transmission of scattered solar ultraviolet radiation modified by ozone absorption. A sample of zonal-mean mixing ratio profiles indicates that these three ATLAS instruments generally agree to within 10%, although a few potential biases have been noted. There are significant differences in the character of the agreement between ATLAS 1 and ATLAS 2 which will require further study.

  14. Dzimtes un etniskie stereotipi video reklāmas vēstījumos 2006 - 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Koka-Rašmane, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Bakalaura darba temats un nosaukums ir „Dzimtes un etniskie stereotipi video reklāmas vēstījumos 2006-2007”. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izpētīt, kādā mērā un kādi dzimtes un etniskie stereotipi tiek izmantoti TV reklāmas komunikācijā. Darba ietvaros tiek apskatītas teorētiskās pieejas televīzijas reklāmai un patērniecībai, stereotipiem TV reklāmā, sīkāk pievēršoties dzimtes un etniskajiem stereotipiem, kultūras pētniecībai, simboliskajam interakcionismam un biheiviorismam. Pētījums tiek veikts...

  15. Capital flight and political risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R; Hermes, N; Murinde, [No Value

    This paper provides the first serious attempt to examine the relationship between political risk and capital flight for a large set of developing countries. The outcomes of the analysis show that in most cases political risk variables do have a statistically robust relationship to capital flight

  16. In-flight Medical Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Chandra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Research and data regarding in-flight medical emergencies during commercial air travel are lacking. Although volunteer medical professionals are often called upon to assist, there are no guidelines or best practices to guide their actions. This paper reviews the literature quantifying and categorizing in-flight medical incidents, discusses the unique challenges posed by the in-flight environment, evaluates the legal aspects of volunteering to provide care, and suggests an approach to managing specific conditions at 30,000 feet.Methods: We conducted a MEDLINE search using search terms relevant to aviation medical emergencies and flight physiology. The reference lists of selected articles were reviewed to identify additional studies.Results: While incidence studies were limited by data availability, syncope, gastrointestinal upset, and respiratory complaints were among the most common medical events reported. Chest pain and cardiovascular events were commonly associated with flight diversion.Conclusion: When in-flight medical emergencies occur, volunteer physicians should have knowledge about the most common in-flight medical incidents, know what is available in on-board emergency medical kits, coordinate their therapy with the flight crew and remote resources, and provide care within their scope of practice. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:499–504.

  17. Capital flight and political risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R; Hermes, N; Murinde, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides the first serious attempt to examine the relationship between political risk and capital flight for a large set of developing countries. The outcomes of the analysis show that in most cases political risk variables do have a statistically robust relationship to capital flight onc

  18. 49 CFR 1552.3 - Flight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flight training. 1552.3 Section 1552.3..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FLIGHT SCHOOLS Flight Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 1552.3 Flight training. This section describes the procedures a flight school...

  19. Evaluación ecotoxicológica del FitoMas-H en lombriz de tierra y abejas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Mancebo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque constituye una necesidad el aumento de las producciones agrícolas, y actualmente se estimula la disminución del uso de productos químicos, mediante su sustitución por fertilizantes orgánicos y biológicos, es preciso evaluar el impacto de éstos sobre las especies del ecosistema en el cual se liberan. Con el objetivo de realizar la evaluación ecotoxicológica en sistemas terrestres del FitoMas-H, se realizaron los ensayos de toxicidad aguda en lombriz de tierra (Eisenia foetida y de toxicidad aguda por contacto en abejas (Apis mellifera. Se evaluó una concentración de 1000 mg de FitoMas-H /Kg de suelo artificial en el primer caso, mientras en el ensayo con abejas se utilizó una dosis de 100 g de FitoMas - H/animal. El ensayo en lombrices culminó con un 97,5 % de supervivencia en el grupo Tratado, sin diferencias significativas en la mortalidad y la variación de biomasa del grupo Control contra el Tratado. Por otra parte, el estudio por contacto en abejas terminó con una supervivencia del 95.45%, sin diferencias entre la mortalidad del grupo Control contra el Tratado. En ambos casos, se pudo concluir que la exposición al FitoMas-H no produce efectos tóxicos en los invertebrados terrestres utilizados.

  20. Polydisperse methyl β-cyclodextrin–epichlorohydrin polymers: variable contact time 13C CP-MAS solid-state NMR characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, Isabelle; Baudelet, Davy; Castiglione, Franca; Ferro, Monica; Panzeri, Walter; Ragg, Enzio

    2015-01-01

    Summary The polymerization of partially methylated β-cyclodextrin (CRYSMEB) with epichlorohydrin was carried out in the presence of a known amount of toluene as imprinting agent. Three different preparations (D1, D2 and D3) of imprinted polymers were obtained and characterized by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy under cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) conditions. The polymers were prepared by using the same synthetic conditions but with different molar ratios of imprinting agent/monomer, leading to morphologically equivalent materials but with different absorption properties. The main purpose of the work was to find a suitable spectroscopic descriptor accounting for the different imprinting process in three homogeneous polymeric networks. The polymers were characterized by studying the kinetics of the cross-polarization process. This approach is based on variable contact time CP-MAS spectra, referred to as VCP-MAS. The analysis of the VCP-MAS spectra provided two relaxation parameters: T CH (the CP time constant) and T 1ρ (the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame). The results and the analysis presented in the paper pointed out that T CH is sensitive to the imprinting process, showing variations related to the toluene/cyclodextrin molar ratio used for the preparation of the materials. Conversely, the observed values of T 1ρ did not show dramatic variations with the imprinting protocol, but rather confirmed that the three polymers are morphologically similar. Thus the combined use of T CH and T 1ρ can be helpful for the characterization and fine tuning of imprinted polymeric matrices. PMID:26877800

  1. Characterizing crystal disorder of trospium chloride: a comprehensive,(13) C CP/MAS NMR, DSC, FTIR, and XRPD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanova, Martina; Sturcova, Adriana; Brus, Jiri; Benes, Hynek; Skorepova, Eliska; Kratochvil, Bohumil; Cejka, Jan; Sedenkova, Ivana; Kobera, Libor; Policianova, Olivia; Sturc, Antonin

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray powder diffraction data of trospium chloride (TCl) products crystallized from different mixtures of water-ethanol [φ(EtOH) = 0.5-1.0] at various temperatures (0°C, 20°C) and initial concentrations (saturated solution, 30%-50% excess of solvent) revealed extensive structural variability of TCl. Although (13) C CP/MAS NMR spectra indicated broad variety of structural phases arising from molecular disorder, temperature-modulated DSC identified presence of two distinct components in the products. FTIR spectra revealed alterations in the hydrogen bonding network (ionic hydrogen bond formation), whereas the X-ray diffraction reflected unchanged unit cell parameters. These results were explained by a two-component character of TCl products in which a dominant polymorphic form is accompanied by partly separated nanocrystalline domains of a secondary phase that does not provide clear Bragg reflections. These phases slightly differ in the degree of molecular disorder, in the quality of crystal lattice and hydrogen bonding network. It is also demonstrated that, for the quality control of such complex products, (13) C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy combined with factor analysis (FA) can satisfactorily be used for categorizing the individual samples: FA of (13) C CP/MAS NMR spectra found clear relationships between the extent of molecular disorder and crystallization conditions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:1235-1248, 2013.

  2. Agent及Multi-Agent System的理论和应用%Theories and Application of Agent/MAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东云; 郭素娜

    2006-01-01

    Agent和Multi-Agent System(MAS)是人工智能的主要研究方向之一.回顾了Agent及MAS的发展历史,总结了目前Agent及MAS的研究现状,探讨了Agent及MAS的理论与应用,提出了目前Agent和MAS发展所需要解决的问题.

  3. Characterization of solid polymer dispersions of active pharmaceutical ingredients by 19F MAS NMR and factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanova, Martina; Brus, Jiri; Sedenkova, Ivana; Policianova, Olivia; Kobera, Libor

    In this contribution the ability of 19F MAS NMR spectroscopy to probe structural variability of poorly water-soluble drugs formulated as solid dispersions in polymer matrices is discussed. The application potentiality of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a moderately sized active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, Atorvastatin) exhibiting extensive polymorphism. In this respect, a range of model systems with the API incorporated in the matrix of polvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was prepared. The extent of mixing of both components was determined by T1(1H) and T1ρ(1H) relaxation experiments, and it was found that the API forms nanosized domains. Subsequently it was found out that the polymer matrix induces two kinds of changes in 19F MAS NMR spectra. At first, this is a high-frequency shift reaching 2-3 ppm which is independent on molecular structure of the API and which results from the long-range polarization of the electron cloud around 19F nucleus induced by electrostatic fields of the polymer matrix. At second, this is broadening of the signals and formation of shoulders reflecting changes in molecular arrangement of the API. To avoid misleading in the interpretation of the recorded 19F MAS NMR spectra, because both the contributions act simultaneously, we applied chemometric approach based on multivariate analysis. It is demonstrated that factor analysis of the recorded spectra can separate both these spectral contributions, and the subtle structural differences in the molecular arrangement of the API in the nanosized domains can be traced. In this way 19F MAS NMR spectra of both pure APIs and APIs in solid dispersions can be directly compared. The proposed strategy thus provides a powerful tool for the analysis of new formulations of fluorinated pharmaceutical substances in polymer matrices.

  4. High-resolution (19)F MAS NMR spectroscopy: structural disorder and unusual J couplings in a fluorinated hydroxy-silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, John M; Yates, Jonathan R; Berry, Andrew J; Wimperis, Stephen; Ashbrook, Sharon E

    2010-11-10

    High-resolution (19)F magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy is used to study disorder and bonding in a crystalline solid. (19)F MAS NMR reveals four distinct F sites in a 50% fluorine-substituted deuterated hydrous magnesium silicate (clinohumite, 4Mg(2)SiO(4)·Mg(OD(1-x)F(x))(2) with x = 0.5), indicating extensive structural disorder. The four (19)F peaks can be assigned using density functional theory (DFT) calculations of NMR parameters for a number of structural models with a range of possible local F environments generated by F(-)/OH(-) substitution. These assignments are supported by two-dimensional (19)F double-quantum MAS NMR experiments that correlate F sites based on either spatial proximity (via dipolar couplings) or through-bond connectivity (via scalar, or J, couplings). The observation of (19)F-(19)F J couplings is unexpected as the fluorines coordinate Mg atoms and the Mg-F interaction is normally considered to be ionic in character (i.e., there is no formal F-Mg-F covalent bonding arrangement). However, DFT calculations predict significant (19)F-(19)F J couplings, and these are in good agreement with the splittings observed in a (19)F J-resolved MAS NMR experiment. The existence of these J couplings is discussed in relation to both the nature of bonding in the solid state and the occurrence of so-called "through-space" (19)F-(19)F J couplings in solution. Finally, we note that we have found similar structural disorder and spin-spin interactions in both synthetic and naturally occurring clinohumite samples.

  5. Polydisperse methyl β-cyclodextrin–epichlorohydrin polymers: variable contact time 13C CP-MAS solid-state NMR characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Mallard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization of partially methylated β-cyclodextrin (CRYSMEB with epichlorohydrin was carried out in the presence of a known amount of toluene as imprinting agent. Three different preparations (D1, D2 and D3 of imprinted polymers were obtained and characterized by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy under cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS conditions. The polymers were prepared by using the same synthetic conditions but with different molar ratios of imprinting agent/monomer, leading to morphologically equivalent materials but with different absorption properties. The main purpose of the work was to find a suitable spectroscopic descriptor accounting for the different imprinting process in three homogeneous polymeric networks. The polymers were characterized by studying the kinetics of the cross-polarization process. This approach is based on variable contact time CP-MAS spectra, referred to as VCP-MAS. The analysis of the VCP-MAS spectra provided two relaxation parameters: TCH (the CP time constant and T1ρ (the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame. The results and the analysis presented in the paper pointed out that TCH is sensitive to the imprinting process, showing variations related to the toluene/cyclodextrin molar ratio used for the preparation of the materials. Conversely, the observed values of T1ρ did not show dramatic variations with the imprinting protocol, but rather confirmed that the three polymers are morphologically similar. Thus the combined use of TCH and T1ρ can be helpful for the characterization and fine tuning of imprinted polymeric matrices.

  6. ISOLASI FRAGMEN TERTENTU GEN HORMON PERTUMBUHAN IKAN MAS MAJALAYA DAN NILA GIFT DENGAN METODE CTAB–PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Ibnu Dwi Buwono; Maman Herman Suparta

    2016-01-01

    Hormon pertumbuhan (Growth Hormone/GH) pada ikan berperan untuk memacu pertumbuhan, di samping terlibat juga dalam fungsi osmoregulasi, pengaturan keseimbangan cairan elektrolit, dan proses-proses metabolisme. Metode CTAB (Cetyl Trymethyl Ammonium Bromide) digunakan untuk mengisolasi DNA sel ikan (DNA genomik) dari sirip ekor ikan mas Majalaya dan nila GIFT. Isolasi gen hormon pertumbuhan dari DNA genomik kedua jenis ikan dapat disintesis dengan primer cGH (carp Growth Hormone) dan TiGH (Tila...

  7. MAS-NMR study of lithium zinc silicate glasses and glass-ceramics with various ZnO content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Madhumita; Kothiyal, Govind P.; Montagne, Lionel; Delevoye, Laurent

    2008-02-01

    Lithium zinc silicate glasses of composition (mol%): 17.5Li 2O-(72- x)SiO 2- xZnO-5.1Na 2O-1.3P 2O 5-4.1B 2O 3, 5.5⩽ x⩽17.7, were prepared by conventional melt-quenched technique and converted to glass-ceramic by controlled crystallization process. 29Si and 31P MAS-NMR was used to characterize the structure of both glass and glass-ceramic samples. Despite the complex glass composition, Q2, Q3 and Q4 sites are identified from 29Si MAS-NMR, which relative intensities are found to vary with the ZnO content, indicating a network depolymerization by ZnO. Moreover, well separated Q3 and Q4 resonances for low ZnO content indicates the occurrence of phase separation. From 31P MAS-NMR, it is seen that phosphorus is mainly present in the form of ortho-( Q0) and pyro-phosphate ( Q1) structural units and variation of ZnO content did not have much effect on these resonances, which provides an additional evidence for phase separation in the glass. On conversion to glass-ceramics, lithium disilicate (Li 2Si 2O 5), lithium zinc ortho-silicate (Li 3Zn 0.5SiO 4), tridymite (SiO 2) and cristobalite (SiO 2) were identified as major silicate crystalline phases. Using 29Si MAS-NMR, quantification of these silicate crystalline phases is carried out and correlated with the ZnO content in the glass-ceramics samples. In addition, 31P spectra unambiguously revealed the presence of crystalline Li 3PO 4 and (Na,Li) 3PO 4 in the glass-ceramics.

  8. Cardiac ACE2/angiotensin 1-7/Mas receptor axis is activated in thyroid hormone-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Gabriela P; Senger, Nathalia; Carneiro-Ramos, Marcela S; Santos, Robson A S; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza M

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) promotes marked effects on the cardiovascular system, including the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Some studies have demonstrated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key mediator of the cardiac growth in response to elevated TH levels. Although some of the main RAS components are changed in cardiac tissue on hyperthyroid state, the potential modulation of the counter regulatory components of the RAS, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2), angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) levels and Mas receptor induced by hyperthyroidism is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hyperthyroidism on cardiac Ang 1-7, ACE2 and Mas receptor levels. Hyperthyroidism was induced in Wistar rats by daily intraperitoneal injections of T4 for 14 days. Although plasma Ang 1-7 levels were unchanged by hyperthyroidism, cardiac Ang 1-7 levels were increased in TH-induced cardiac hypertrophy. ACE2 enzymatic activity was significantly increased in hearts from hyperthyroid animals, which may be contributing to the higher Ang 1-7 levels observed in the T4 group. Furthermore, elevated cardiac levels of Ang 1-7 levels were accompanied by increased Mas receptor protein levels. The counter-regulatory components of the RAS are activated in hyperthyroidism and may be contributing to modulate the cardiac hypertrophy in response to TH. © The Author(s), 2015.

  9. Effect of combination of renin inhibitor and Mas-receptor agonist in DOCA-salt-induced hypertension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogendra; Singh, Kulwinder; Sharma, P L

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the combined effect of aliskiren, a renin inhibitor, and AVE 0991, a Mas-receptor agonist, in experimental hypertension (HT) in rats. HT was produced by administration of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was assessed by tail-cuff method. Treatments were started from 4th week onwards and were continued for 9 days. A significant increase in MABP was noted after 1 week in DOCA control rats, as compared with the base line value. A stable HT developed after 4 weeks of DOCA administration. Treatments with aliskiren and AVE 0991 alone, dose-dependently decreased MABP in DOCA-treated rats. Further, combination of low doses of aliskiren and AVE 0991 significantly reduced MABP, as compared with DOCA control rats and with either drug alone in low doses. It may be concluded that treatment with aliskiren produced down-regulation of both harmful Ang II-AT1-receptor and survival Ang(1-7)/Mas-receptor axis of RAAS. Treatment with combination of low doses of aliskiren and AVE 0991, for the first time, has been shown to produce synergistic blood pressure lowering effect. Therefore, combination of renin inhibitor with Mas-receptor agonist may prove beneficial for the treatment of hypertensive patients.

  10. Wykonywanie odlewów z żeliwa sferoidalnego w formach warstwowych z ekologicznych mas formierskich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rączka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Artykuł zawiera wyniki uzyskane podczas badań wykonywanych w ramach projektu celowego w odlewni Hardtop w Charsznicy.Celem badań było opracowanie technologii wykonania dobrej jakości odlewów z żeliwa sferoidalnego przy jednoczesnym zachowaniuskutecznych technik ochrony środowiska. Przedstawiono badania wykonywania odlewów o masie od 1 do 300 kg z żeliwa sferoidalnegogatunek 400-15, 500-7 z zastosowaniem form dwuwarstwowych, gdzie masę przymodelową i rdzeniową stanowi masa z alkalicznymspoiwem organicznym, a masę wypełniającą – masa ze spoiwem nieorganicznym - geopolimerowym.Zastosowano uproszczoną regenerację masy z możliwością wykorzystania odzyskanego regeneratu do masy wypełniającej.Przeprowadzono dobór metody sferoidyzacji i modyfikacji żeliwa odpowiednich dla warunków odlewni Hardtop. Wykonano serię próbnąodlewów i przeprowadzono badania poprawności konstrukcji układów zalewania i zasilania z zastosowaniem otulin egzotermicznych nanadlewy. Badania potwierdziły słuszność przyjętej koncepcji wykonywania odlewów z żeliwa sferoidalnego w formach warstwowychprzy zachowaniu maksymalnie 15% udziału mas ze spoiwem organicznym.

  11. Quality of Kelantan drinking water and knowledge, attitude and practice among the population of Pasir Mas, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Razak, N H; Praveena, S M; Aris, A Z; Hashim, Z

    2016-02-01

    Information about the quality of drinking water, together with analysis of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) analysis and health risk assessment (HRA) remain limited. The aims of this study were: (1) to ascertain the level of KAP regarding heavy metal contamination of drinking water in Pasir Mas; (2) to determine the concentration of heavy metals (Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cd) in drinking water in Pasir Mas; and (3) to estimate the health risks (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic) caused by heavy metal exposure through drinking water using hazard quotient and lifetime cancer risk. Information on KAP was collected using a standardized questionnaire. Heavy metal analysis of drinking water samples was performed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The population of Pasir Mas has good knowledge (80%), a less positive attitude (93%) and good practice (81%) towards heavy metal contamination of drinking water. The concentrations of heavy metals analysed in this study were found to be below the permissible limits for drinking water set by the Malaysian Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization. The HRA showed no potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from the intake of heavy metal through drinking water. By investigating the quality of drinking water, KAP and HRA, the results of this study will provide authorities with the knowledge and resources to improve the management of drinking water quality in the future. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Orion Exploration Flight Test Post-Flight Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Berger, E. L.; Bohl, W. E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Deighton, K. D.; Enriquez, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Hyde, J. L.; Oliveras, O. M.

    2017-01-01

    The multipurpose crew vehicle, Orion, is being designed and built for NASA to handle the rigors of crew launch, sustainment and return from scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. In this role, the Orion vehicle is meant to operate in the space environments like the naturally occurring meteoroid and the artificial orbital debris environments (MMOD) with successful atmospheric reentry at the conclusion of the flight. As a result, Orion's reentry module uses durable porous, ceramic tiles on almost thirty square meters of exposed surfaces to accomplish both of these functions. These durable, non-ablative surfaces maintain their surface profile through atmospheric reentry; thus, they preserve any surface imperfections that occur prior to atmospheric reentry. Furthermore, Orion's launch abort system includes a shroud that protects the thermal protection system while awaiting launch and during ascent. The combination of these design features and a careful pre-flight inspection to identify any manufacturing imperfections results in a high confidence that damage to the thermal protection system identified post-flight is due to the in-flight solid particle environments. These favorable design features of Orion along with the unique flight profile of the first exploration flight test of Orion (EFT-1) have yielded solid particle environment measurements that have never been obtained before this flight.

  13. 1H MAS NMR characterization of hydrogen over silica-supported rhodium catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogen species in both SiO2 and Rh/SiO2 catalysts pretreated indifferent atmospheres (H2, O2, helium or air) at different temperatures (773 or 973 K) were investigated by means of 1H MAS NMR. In SiO2 and O2-pretreated catalysts, a series of downfield signals at ~7.0, 3.8-4.0, 2.0 and 1.5-1.0 were detected. The first two signals can be attributed to strongly adsorbed and physisorbed water and the others to terminal silanol (SiOH) and SiOH under the screening of oxygen vacancies in SiO2 lattice, respectively. Besides the above signals, both upfield signal at ~-110 and downfield signals at 3.0 and 0.0 were also detected in H2-pretreated catalyst, respectively. The upfield signal at ~-110 originated from the dissociative adsorption of H2 over rhodium and was found to consist of both the contributions of reversible and irreversible hydrogen. There also probably existed another dissociatively adsorbed hydrogen over rhodium, which was known to be b hydrogen and in a unique form of "delocalized hydrogen". It was presumed that the b hydrogen had an upfield shift of ca. -20- -50, though its 1H NMR signals, which, having been masked by the spinning sidebands of Si-OH, failed to be directly detected out. The downfield signal at 3.0 was assigned to spillover hydrogen weakly bound by the bridge oxygen of SiO2. Another downfield signal at 0.0 was assigned to hydrogen held in the oxygen vacancies of SiO2 (Si-H species), suffering from the screening of trapped electrons. Both the spillover hydrogen and the Si-H resulted from the migration of the reversible hydrogen and the b hydrogen from rhodium to SiO2 in the close vicinity. It was proved that the above migration of hydrogen was preferred to occur at higher temperature than at lower temperature.

  14. The flight data monitoring method for the flight simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.П. Сердюк

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available  Submitted the monitoring of the flight data method  for a flight simulator, which is based on the analysis of probability density of distribution characteristics of the transport plane crew activity in tasks of the Capitan minimum  confirming at meteominimum that corresponding to 1-st and to 2-nd  ICAO  categories on a flight simulator in conditions of small volume of the experimental data. Complexitie degree of an density function estimation, i.e. number of the decompose members, depending on volume of sample and select with the help of a risk structural minimization method. 

  15. NASA test flights with increased flight stress indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I. S., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the objectives, results, and conclusions stemming from a series of six test flights conducted for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) by the National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF). Results from the test flights indicate that: (1) the current two U.S. balloon films are capable of being flown at significantly increased flight stress index values; (2) payload weights less than the design minimum payload can be reliably flown without fear of structural failure due to increased circumferential stress; and (3) large and rapid decreases in payload weight can be tolerated by current balloons without structural failure.

  16. 14 CFR 61.64 - Use of a flight simulator and flight training device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of a flight simulator and flight... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.64 Use of a flight simulator and flight training device. (a) Use of a flight simulator for the airplane rating. If an applicant uses a flight simulator for training or...

  17. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight simulators, flight training devices..., Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.41 Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training... that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the following...

  18. 14 CFR 142.59 - Flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight simulators and flight training... Equipment Requirements § 142.59 Flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) An applicant for, or holder of, a training center certificate must show that each flight simulator and flight training device...

  19. ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis stimulates vascular repair-relevant functions of CD34+ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neha; Joshi, Shrinidh; Guo, Lirong; Baker, Matthew B; Li, Yan; Castellano, Ronald K; Raizada, Mohan K; Jarajapu, Yagna P R

    2015-11-15

    CD34(+) stem/progenitor cells have been identified as a promising cell population for the autologous cell-based therapies in patients with cardiovascular disease. The counter-regulatory axes of renin angiotensin system, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)/Ang II/angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor and ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor, play an important role in the cardiovascular repair. This study evaluated the expression and vascular repair-relevant functions of these two pathways in human CD34(+) cells. CD34(+) cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs), obtained from healthy volunteers. Expression of ACE, ACE2, AT1, and angiotensin type 2 and Mas receptors were determined. Effects of Ang II, Ang-(1-7), Norleu(3)-Ang-(1-7), and ACE2 activators, xanthenone (XNT) and diminazene aceturate (DIZE) on proliferation, migration, and adhesion of CD34(+) cells were evaluated. ACE2 and Mas were relatively highly expressed in CD34(+) cells compared with MNCs. Ang-(1-7) or its analog, Norleu(3)-Ang-(1-7), stimulated proliferation of CD34(+) cells that was associated with decrease in phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 levels and was inhibited by triciribin, an AKT inhibitor. Migration of CD34(+) cells was enhanced by Ang-(1-7) or Norleu(3)-Ang-(1-7) that was decreased by a Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y-27632. In the presence of Ang II, XNT or DIZE enhanced proliferation and migration that were blocked by DX-600, an ACE2 inhibitor. Treatment of MNCs with Ang II, before the isolation of CD34(+) cells, attenuated the proliferation and migration to stromal derived factor-1α. This attenuation was reversed by apocynin, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Adhesion of MNCs or CD34(+) cells to fibronectin was enhanced by Ang II and was unaffected by Ang-(1-7). This study suggests that ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas pathway stimulates functions of CD34(+) cells that are cardiovascular protective, whereas Ang II attenuates these functions by acting on MNCs. These findings

  20. ACE-2/Ang1-7/Mas cascade mediates ACE inhibitor, captopril, protective effects in estrogen-deficient osteoporotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohammed M; Sabry, Dina; Khattab, Mahmoud M; Al-Rejaie, Salim S

    2017-08-01

    The local role of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) was documented recently beside its conventional systemic functions. Studies showed that the effector angiotensin II (AngII) alters bone health, while inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE-1) preserved these effects. The newly identified Ang1-7 exerts numerous beneficial effects opposing the AngII. Thus, the current study examines the role of Ang1-7 in mediating the osteo-preservative effects of ACEI (captopril) through the G-protein coupled Mas receptor using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis. 8 weeks after the surgical procedures, captopril was administered orally (40mgkg(-1) d(-1)), while the specific Mas receptor blocker (A-779) was delivered at infusion rate of 400ngkg(-1)min(-1) for 6 weeks. Bone metabolic markers were measured in serum and urine. Minerals concentrations were quantified in serum, urine and femoral bones by inductive coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Trabecular and cortical morphometry was analyzed in the right distal femurs using micro-CT. Finally, the expressions of RAS peptides, enzymes and receptors along with the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were determined femurs heads. OVX animals markedly showed altered bone metabolism and mineralization along with disturbed bone micro-structure. Captopril significantly restored the metabolic bone bio-markers and corrected Ca(2+) and P values in urine and bones of estrogen deficient rats. Moreover, the trabecular and cortical morphometric features were repaired by captopril in OVX groups. Captopril also improved the expressions of ACE-2, Ang1-7, Mas and OPG, while abolished OVX-induced up-regulation of ACE-1, AngII, Ang type 1 receptor (AT1R) and RANKL. Inhibition of Ang1-7 cascade by A-779 significantly eradicated captopril protective effects on bone metabolism, mineralization and micro-structure. A-779 also restored OVX effects on RANKL expression and ACE-1/AngII/AT1R

  1. SR-71 flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The movie clip shown here runs about 13 seconds and shows an air-to-air shot of the front of the SR-71 aircraft and a head-on view of it coming in for a landing. Two SR-71A aircraft on loan from the U.S. Air Force have been used for high-speed, high-altitude research at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, since 1991. One of them was later returned to the Air Force. A third SR-71 on loan from the Air Force is an SR-71B used for training but not for flight research. Developed for the U.S. Air Force as reconnaissance aircraft more than 30 years ago, SR-71 aircraft are still the world's fastest and highest-flying production aircraft. These aircraft can fly more than 2200 miles per hour (Mach 3+ or more than three times the speed of sound) and at altitudes of over 85,000 feet. This operating environment makes the aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas--aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic-boom characterization. Data from the SR-71 high-speed research program may be used to aid designers of future supersonic or hypersonic aircraft and propulsion systems, including a possible high-speed civil transport. The SR-71 program at Dryden has been part of the NASA overall high-speed aeronautical research program, and projects have involved other NASA research centers, other government agencies, universities, and commercial firms. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air-data collection system. This system used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data such as angle of attack and angle of sideslip. These data are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the air stream, or from tubes with flush openings on the aircraft outer skin. The flights provided information on the presence of

  2. Space Flight Immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William T.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has had sufficient concern for the well-being of astronauts traveling in space to create the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), which is investigating several areas of biomedical research including those of immunology. As part of the Immunology, Infection, and Hematology Team, the co-investigators of the Space Flight Immunodeficiency Project began their research projects on April 1, 1998 and are now just into the second year of work. Two areas of research have been targeted: 1) specific immune (especially antibody) responses and 2) non-specific inflammation and adhesion. More precise knowledge of these two areas of research will help elucidate the potential harmful effects of space travel on the immune system, possibly sufficient to create a secondary state of immunodeficiency in astronauts. The results of these experiments are likely to lead to the delineation of functional alterations in antigen presentation, specific immune memory, cytokine regulation of immune responses, cell to cell interactions, and cell to endothelium interactions.

  3. Flight demonstration of a milliarcsecond pointing system for direct exoplanet imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendillo, Christopher B; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy A; Hicks, Brian A; Lane, Benjamin F

    2012-10-10

    We present flight results from the optical pointing control system onboard the Planetary Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Rocket Experiment (PICTURE) sounding rocket. PICTURE (NASA mission number: 36.225 UG) was launched on 8 October 2011, from White Sands Missile Range. It attempted to directly image the exozodiacal dust disk of ϵ Eridani (K2V, 3.22 pc) down to an inner radius of 1.5 AU using a visible nulling coronagraph. The rocket attitude control system (ACS) provided 627 milliarcsecond (mas) RMS body pointing (~2'' peak-to-valley). The PICTURE fine pointing system (FPS) successfully stabilized the telescope beam to 5.1 mas (0.02λ/D) RMS using an angle tracker camera and fast steering mirror. This level of pointing stability is comparable to that of the Hubble Space Telescope. We present the hardware design of the FPS, a description of the limiting noise sources and a power spectral density analysis of the FPS and rocket ACS in-flight performance.

  4. Morphing Flight Control Surface for Advanced Flight Performance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a new Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) will be developed. The distinction of the research effort is that the SenAnTech team will employ...

  5. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghommem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  6. Bumblebee flight in heavy turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Engels, T; Schneider, K; Lehmann, F -O; Sesterhenn, J

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution numerical simulations of a tethered model bumblebee in forward flight are performed superimposing homogeneous isotropic turbulent fluctuations to the uniform inflow. Despite tremendous variation in turbulence intensity, between 17% and 99% with respect to the mean flow, we do not find significant changes in cycle-averaged aerodynamic forces, moments or flight power when averaged over realizations, compared to laminar inflow conditions. The variance of aerodynamic measures, however, significantly increases with increasing turbulence intensity, which may explain flight instabilities observed in freely flying bees.

  7. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2014-08-19

    We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  8. Korean Air Excellence in Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Korean Air with a fleet of 119 aircraft, is one of the world's top 20 airlines, and oper-ates almost 400 flights everyday to 90 cities in 33 countries. The airline has about 50 flights per week between the US and Asia from nine US gateways: New York, Los Angeles, Washington,Chicago, Dallas, San Francisco, Atlanta, Anchorage and Honolulu.The carrier is a founding member of SkyTeam, the global airline alliance partnering AeroMexico, Air France, Alitalia, CSA Czech Airlines, Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines, KLM and Northwest Airlines to provide customers with extensive worldwide destina-tions, flights and services.

  9. Iced Aircraft Flight Data for Flight Simulator Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Blankenship, Kurt; Rieke, William; Brinker, David J.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is developing and validating technology to incorporate aircraft icing effects into a flight training device concept demonstrator. Flight simulation models of a DHC-6 Twin Otter were developed from wind tunnel data using a subscale, complete aircraft model with and without simulated ice, and from previously acquired flight data. The validation of the simulation models required additional aircraft response time histories of the airplane configured with simulated ice similar to the subscale model testing. Therefore, a flight test was conducted using the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Over 500 maneuvers of various types were conducted in this flight test. The validation data consisted of aircraft state parameters, pilot inputs, propulsion, weight, center of gravity, and moments of inertia with the airplane configured with different amounts of simulated ice. Emphasis was made to acquire data at wing stall and tailplane stall since these events are of primary interest to model accurately in the flight training device. Analyses of several datasets are described regarding wing and tailplane stall. Key findings from these analyses are that the simulated wing ice shapes significantly reduced the C , max, while the simulated tail ice caused elevator control force anomalies and tailplane stall when flaps were deflected 30 deg or greater. This effectively reduced the safe operating margins between iced wing and iced tail stall as flap deflection and thrust were increased. This flight test demonstrated that the critical aspects to be modeled in the icing effects flight training device include: iced wing and tail stall speeds, flap and thrust effects, control forces, and control effectiveness.

  10. Flight Data For Tail 687

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  11. NASA_Airborne_Lidar_Flights

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Data from the 1982 NASA Langley Airborne Lidar flights following the eruption of El Chichon beginning in July 1982 and continuing to January 1984. Data in ASCII...

  12. Flight Data For Tail 653

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  13. Flight Data For Tail 658

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  14. Flight Data For Tail 685

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  15. Flight Data For Tail 677

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  16. Flight Data For Tail 676

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  17. Flight Data For Tail 666

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  18. Flight Data For Tail 682

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  19. Flight Data For Tail 664

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  20. Flight Data For Tail 675

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  1. Flight Data For Tail 654

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  2. Flight Data For Tail 669

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  3. Flight Data For Tail 671

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  4. Flight Data For Tail 660

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  5. Flight Data For Tail 661

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  6. Flight Data For Tail 674

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  7. Flight Data For Tail 684

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  8. Flight selection at United Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, W.

    1980-01-01

    Airline pilot selection proceedures are discussed including psychogical and personality tests, psychomotor performance requirements, and flight skills evaluation. Necessary attitude and personality traits are described and an outline of computer selection, testing, and training techniques is given.

  9. Flight tracks, Northern California TRACON

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the records of all the flights in the Northern California TRACON. The data was provided by the aircraft noise abatement office...

  10. Flight Data For Tail 657

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  11. Flight Data For Tail 681

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  12. Flight Data For Tail 672

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  13. Flight Data For Tail 662

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  14. Flight Data For Tail 665

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  15. Flight Data For Tail 678

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  16. Flight Data For Tail 686

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  17. Flight Data For Tail 652

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  18. Flight Data For Tail 655

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  19. Dynamic stall in flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana; Tropea, Cameron

    2007-11-01

    We report on experiments concerning unsteady effects in flapping flight, conducted in the low-speed wind tunnel of the TU Darmstadt using a mechanical flapping-wing model. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis parallel and perpendicular to the flow field. A sensitivity analysis of the main flight parameters has been performed, with specific attention to the flight envelope of 26,500 dynamic stall effect could be verified by the direct force measurement as well as the flow visualization. The observation of the leading-edge vortex for typical bird flight reduced frequencies shows that this flow cannot be approximated as being quasi- steady. This in effect proves that adaptive wings are necessary to fully control these unsteady flow features, such as dynamic stall.

  20. Flight Data For Tail 680

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  1. Flight Data For Tail 659

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  2. Flight Data For Tail 667

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  3. Flight Data For Tail 673

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  4. Flight Data For Tail 668

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  5. Flight Data For Tail 670

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  6. Flight Data For Tail 663

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  7. Flight Data For Tail 656

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  8. Flight Data For Tail 683

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following zip files contain individual flight recorded data in Matlab file format. There are 186 parameters each with a data structure that contains the...

  9. Sensory Coordination of Insect Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    migratory flight in the neotropical moth Urania fulgens. Biology Letters, 6, 406–409. Sane S.P.* and McHenry M.J. (2009) The biomechanics of sensory...organs. Integrative and Comparative Biology , 49(6):i8-i23. Zhao, L., Huang, Q., Deng, X. and Sane, S.P. (2010). Aerodynamic effects of flexibility...and behavioral insights into insect flight Invited Speaker, International Workshop on Nocturnal Pollination , March 24-27, 2009 Indian Institute of

  10. Ang-(1-7) promotes the migration and invasion of human renal cell carcinoma cells via Mas-mediated AKT signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuai; Yang, Ying; Song, Ran; Yang, Xiaomei; Liu, Hua; Ma, Qian; Yang, Longyan; Meng, Ran; Tao, Tao; Wang, Songlin; He, Junqi

    2015-05-01

    Ang-(1-7) is an active peptide component of renin-angiotensin system and endogenous ligand for Mas receptor. In the current study, we showed that Ang-(1-7) enhanced migratory and invasive abilities of renal cell carcinoma cells 786-O and Caki-1 by wound-healing, transwell migration and transwell invasion assays. Mas antagonist A779 pretreatment or shRNA-mediated Mas knockdown abolished the stimulatory effect of Ang-(1-7). Furthermore, Ang-(1-7)-stimulated AKT activation was inhibited by either A779 pretreatment or Mas knockdown. Blockage of AKT signaling by AKT inhibitor VIII inhibited Ang-(1-7)-induced migration and invasion in 786-O cells. Taken together, our results provided the first evidence for the pro-metastatic role of Ang-(1-7) in RCC, which may help to better understand the molecular mechanism underlying the progression of this tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmacological significance of the interplay between angiotensin receptors: MAS receptors as putative final mediators of the effects elicited by angiotensin AT1 receptors antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernomian, Larissa; Pernomian, Laena; Gomes, Mayara S; da Silva, Carlos H T P

    2015-12-15

    The interplay between angiotensin AT1 receptors and MAS receptors relies on several inward regulatory mechanisms from renin-angiotensin system (RAS) including the functional crosstalk between angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7), the competitive AT1 antagonism exhibited by angiotensin-(1-7), the antagonist feature assigned to AT1/MAS heterodimerization on AT1 signaling and the AT1-mediated downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Recently, such interplay has acquired an important significance to RAS Pharmacology since a few studies have supporting strong evidences that MAS receptors mediate the effects elicited by AT1 antagonists. The present Perspective provides an overview of the regulatory mechanisms involving AT1 and MAS receptors, their significance to RAS Pharmacology and the future directions on the interplay between angiotensin receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Elementos de reflexion para el proposito de convertir a la ciencia en un aliado mas confiable en la lucha por la justicia social

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laverde, Mariluz Nova

    2011-01-01

    ... de equidad, esto es, pretendemos ofrecer pistas para responder a la pregunta acerca de ?Como podemos convertir a la ciencia y la tecnologia en un aliado mas confiable en la lucha por la justicia social...

  13. The Metacognition Assessment Scale (MAS-A): Results of a pilot study applying a German translation to individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröcker, Anna-Lena; Bayer, Samuel; Stuke, Frauke; Giemsa, Patrick; Heinz, Andreas; Bermpohl, Felix; Lysaker, Paul H; Montag, Christiane

    2017-09-01

    Metacognition, the capacity 'to think about thinking' and thus to reflect and to master interpersonal problems on a mentalistic basis, is often impaired among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and has been suggested as a potential treatment target. However, little is known about the reliability of its measurement and links with related phenomena. The aim of this study was to validate a German translation of the Metacognition Assessment Scale (MAS-A) as a measure to assess metacognition from free narratives of patients' personally relevant episodes and relationships. MAS-A was applied to narratives of 22 individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders together with self-ratings and behavioural tests of metacognitive and related functions such as mentalizing and emotional awareness. Multi-level modelling allowed to calculate inter-rater reliability (IRR) and inter-rater agreement (IRA) and to include test results as level-2 predictors of the aggregated scorings on the MAS-A subscales in order to explore convergent validity. After considering neurocognition and symptom scores as further predictors, aggregated scorings were correlated with psychosocial functioning. There were high IRRs and IRAs all over the ratings. None of the related measures accounted for variance in MAS-A scorings, indicating the existence of separable, non-overlapping constructs. Verbal memory and positive symptoms were significant predictors for MAS-A subscales. MAS-A, but no other measure, displayed significant associations with psychosocial functioning. MAS-A is a reliable expert rating to assess metacognition from patients' free narratives. Considering the link to psychosocial functioning, MAS-A appears to be a promising tool for the evaluation of metacognition. MAS-A is a reliable tool to evaluate metacognitive function from narratives about emotionally relevant topics and meaningful relationships. Metacognition appears separate from neighbouring constructs such as mentalizing

  14. Captopril improves postresuscitation hemodynamics protective against pulmonary embolism by activating the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong-Li; Li, Chun-Sheng; Zhao, Lian-Xing; Yang, Jun; Tong, Nan; An, Le; Liu, Qi-Tong

    2016-11-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) has a very high mortality rate, especially at cardiac arrest and even after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). This study investigated the protective effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril on postresuscitation hemodynamics, in a porcine model of cardiac arrest established by APE. Twenty-nine Beijing Landrace pigs were infused with an autologous thrombus leading to cardiac arrest and subjected to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation and thrombolysis. Ten resuscitated pigs were randomly and equally apportioned to receive either captopril (22.22 mg/kg) infusion or the same volume saline, 30 min after ROSC. Hemodynamic changes and ACE-Ang II-angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis levels were determined. APE was associated with a decline in mean arterial pressure and a dramatic increase in pulmonary artery pressure and mean right ventricular pressure. After ROSC, captopril infusion was associated with significantly lower mean right ventricular pressure and systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance, faster heart rate, and higher Ang-(1-7) levels, ACE2/ACE, and Ang-(1-7)/Ang II, compared with the saline infusion. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas pathway correlated negatively with external vascular lung water and pulmonary vascular permeability and positively with the right cardiac index. In conclusion, in a pig model of APE leading to cardiac arrest, captopril infusion was associated with less mean right ventricular pressure overload after resuscitation, compared with saline infusion. The reduction in systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance associated with captopril may be by inhibiting the ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis and activating the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis.

  15. Effects of Cornus mas L. and Morus rubra L. extracts on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity: an electrophysiological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaş, Filiz; Per, Sedat; Taşdemir, Abdulkadir; Bayram, Ayşe Kaçar; Yıldırım, Mehmet; Uzun, Aydın; Saraymen, Recep; Gümüş, Hakan; Elmalı, Ferhan; Per, Hüseyin

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, Morus rubra L. (Moraceae) (red mulberry) and Cornus mas L. (Cornacea) (cornelian cherry) fruits are eaten fresh and are also used in marmalades, juices, jam, natural dyes in Turkey and are believed to have beneficial effects in case of multiple health issues such as antipyretic, diarrhea and intestinal parasites. However, the effects of M. rubra and C. mas on epilepsy has not been known. This study evaluates the effects of M. rubra and C. mas extracts on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity. Sixty Wistar rats randomly divided into ten groups (n=6): control, sham, penicillin, penicillin+M. rubra extract (2.5, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) and penicillin+C. mas extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg). Epileptiform activity was induced by using penicillin (500 IU, i.c.) and electrocorticogram records (150 min) were obtained. Also, biochemical analysis in blood samples were evaluated. According to the electrocorticogram analysis, the effective dose was detected as 10 mg/kg for both C. mas and M. rubra. This dose decreased the spike frequencies of convulsions while amplitude wasn't changed by both substances. In erythrocyte studies, there were significant differences regarding nitric oxide in the control, sham and penicillin groups. There were significant differences regarding malondialdehyde in all groups. In the plasma, there were significant differences among groups regarding xanthine oxidase in the penicillin‑C. mas and penicillin‑M. rubra groups. There were differences regarding malondialdehyde in the penicillin-C. mas and M. rubra-C. mas groups. Both extracts reduced the frequency of epileptiform activity. After administration of the extracts malondialdehyde levels decreased also in both erythrocytes and plasma.

  16. Transforming growth factor type-β inhibits Mas receptor expression in fibroblasts but not in myoblasts or differentiated myotubes; Relevance to fibrosis associated to muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofre, Catalina; Acuña, María José; Contreras, Osvaldo; Morales, María Gabriela; Riquelme, Cecilia; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Brandan, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disorder characterized by myofiber degeneration, muscle weakness, and increased fibrosis. Transforming growth factor type-β (TGF-β), a central mediator of fibrosis, is upregulated in fibrotic diseases. Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] is a peptide with actions that oppose those of angiotensin-II (Ang II). Ang-(1-7) effects are mediated by the Mas receptor. Treatment with Ang-(1-7) produce positive effects in the mdx mouse, normalizing skeletal muscle architecture, decreasing local fibrosis, and fibroblasts, and improving muscle function. Mdx mice deficient for the Mas receptor showed the opposite effects. To identify the cell type(s) responsible for Mas receptor expression, and to characterize whether profibrotic effectors had any effect on its expression, we determined the effect of profibrotic agents on Mas expression. TGF-β, but not connective tissue growth factor or Ang-II, reduced the expression of Mas receptor in fibroblasts isolated from skeletal muscle cells and fibroblasts from two established cell lines. In contrast, no effects were observed in myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. This inhibition was mediated by the Smad-dependent (canonical) and the PI3K and MEK1/2 (noncanonical) TGF-β signaling pathways. When both canonical and noncanonical inhibitors of the TGF-β-dependent pathways were added together, the inhibitory effect of TGF-β on Mas expression was lost. The decrease in Mas receptor induced by TGF-β in fibroblasts reduced the Ang-(1-7) mediated stimulation of phosphorylation of AKT pathway proteins. These results suggest that reduction of Mas receptor in fibroblasts, by TGF-β, could increase the fibrotic phenotype observed in dystrophic skeletal muscle decreasing the beneficial effect of Ang-(1-7). © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  17. Application of 119Sn CPMG MAS NMR for Fast Characterization of Sn Sites in Zeolites with Natural 119Sn Isotope Abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Kolyagin, Yury; V. Yakimo, Alexander; Tolborg, Søren

    2016-01-01

    119Sn CPMG MAS NMR is demonstrated to be a fast and efficient method for characterization of Sn-sites in Sn-containing zeolites. Tuning of the CPMG echo-train sequence decreases the experimental time by a factor of 5–40 in the case of as-synthesized and hydrated Sn-BEA samples and by 3 orders......-BEA zeolites with natural 119Sn isotope abundance using conventional MAS NMR equipment....

  18. Determination of the structural changes by Raman and {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy on native corn starch with plasticizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozar, O. [Academy of Romanian Scientists, Splaiul Independentei 54, 050094, Bucharest, Romania and National Institute of Research-Development for Machines and Installations Designed to Agriculture and Food Industry - INMA Bucureşti - Cluj-Napoca Branch (Romania); Filip, C.; Tripon, C. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cioica, N.; Coţa, C.; Nagy, E. M. [National Institute of Research-Development for Machines and Installations Designed to Agriculture and Food Industry - INMA Bucureşti - Cluj-Napoca Branch, RO-400458 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    The plasticizing - antiplasticizing effect of water and glycerol contents on native corn starch samples is investigated by FT-Raman and {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. The presence of both amorphous and crystalline structural phases was evidenced in pure native corn starch and also in the samples containing plasticizers. Among the crystalline starch structures, the A- and V- types were suggested by CP/MAS NMR spectra.

  19. Mas, afinal, o que é Educação Física?: um exemplo do simplismo intelectual

    OpenAIRE

    Taffarel,Celi Nelza Zulke; Ortega Escobar, Micheli

    1994-01-01

    O trabalho expõe uma crítica às concepções idealistas que se constituem em referências para o autor do artigo "Mas, afinal, o que é educação física?" e procura responder aos problemas, de ordem filosófica, epistemológica, metodológica e política, levantados pela pergunta. As contribuições das autoras surgem da radicalização da crítica a partir do marco teórico e metodológico materialista-histórico-dialético.

  20. Hydration properties and phosphorous speciation in native, gelatinized and enzymatically modified potato starch analyzed by solid-state MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming H.; Kasprzak, Miroslaw Marek; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    Hydration of granular, gelatinized and molecularly modified states of potato starch in terms of molecular mobility were analyzed by 13C and 31P solid-state MAS NMR. Gelatinization (GEL) tremendously reduced the immobile fraction compared to native (NA) starch granules. This effect was enhanced...... by enzyme-assisted catalytic branching with branching enzyme (BE) or combined BE and β-amylase (BB) catalyzed exo-hydrolysis. Carbons of the glycosidic α-1,6 linkages required high hydration rates before adopting uniform chemical shifts indicating solid-state disorder and poor water accessibility...

  1. Benito Juárez: ¿más que un Aprendiz de Masón?

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Moreno, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    El estudio historiográfico muestra que es una idea ampliamente aceptada que Benito Juárez fue iniciado en la masonería en el Rito Nacional Mexicano; sin embargo, hay quien afirma que es improbable que Juárez haya recibido más allá del grado de Aprendiz de Masón, a causa de los movimientos bélicos que provocaron sus constantes viajes por la República Mexicana y el extranjero. El objetivo central del presente artículo es analizar algunas hipótesis para buscar dilucidar si Juárez pudo haber reci...

  2. Hydration properties and phosphorous speciation in native, gelatinized and enzymatically modified potato starch analyzed by solid-state MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming H.; Kasprzak, Miroslaw Marek; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    Hydration of granular, gelatinized and molecularly modified states of potato starch in terms of molecular mobility were analyzed by 13C and 31P solid-state MAS NMR. Gelatinization (GEL) tremendously reduced the immobile fraction compared to native (NA) starch granules. This effect was enhanced....... Comparative analysis of wheat and waxy maize starches demonstrated that starches were similar upon gelatinization independent of botanical origin and that the torsion angles of the glycosidic linkages were averages of the crystalline A and B type structures. In starch suspension phosphorous in immobile...

  3. Improved quantification of alite and belite in anhydrous Portland cements by 29Si MAS NMR: Effects of paramagnetic ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Lundsted; Kocaba, Vanessa; Le Saoût, Gwenn;

    2009-01-01

    The applicability, reliability, and repeatability of 29Si MAS NMR for determination of the quantities of alite (Ca3SiO5) and belite (Ca2SiO4) in anhydrous Portland cement was investigated in detail for 11 commercial Portland cements and the results compared with phase quantifications based...... on powder X-ray diffraction combined with Rietveld analysis and with Taylor-Bogue calculations. The effects from paramagnetic ions (Fe3+) on the spinning sideband intensities, originating from dipolar couplings between 29Si and the spins of the paramagnetic electrons, were considered and analyzed in spectra...

  4. High-resolution and high-temperature {sup 19} F MAS NMR study of fluorozirconate glasses and liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngman, R.E.; Sem, S. [Corning Inc., NY (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper reports the first results of a high-resolution and high-temperature {sup 19}F MAS NMR spectroscopic study of the atomic structure and its temperature dependence in two binary Zr F{sub 4} (Z B) glasses with 62 and 70 mol % Zr F{sub 4} and a multicomponent ZBLAN (51.7% Zr-F{sub 4}-20.7% Ba F{sub 2}-4.5% La F{sub 3}-3.4% Al F{sub 3}-19.7% Na F) glass.

  5. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    EVADES output. As mentioned above, GEnEVADOSE makes extensive use of ROOT version 6, the data analysis framework developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and the code is written to the C++11 standard (as are the other projects). My second project is the Automated Mission Reference Exposure Utility (AMREU).Unlike GEnEVADOSE, AMREU is a combination of three frameworks written in both Python and C++, also making use of ROOT (and PyROOT). Run as a combination of daily and weekly cron jobs, these macros query the SRAG database system to determine the active ISS missions, and query minute-by-minute radiation dose information from ISS-TEPC (Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter), one of the radiation detectors onboard the ISS. Using this information, AMREU creates a corrected data set of daily radiation doses, addressing situations where TEPC may be offline or locked up by correcting doses for days with less than 95% live time (the total amount time the instrument acquires data) by averaging the past 7 days. As not all errors may be automatically detectable, AMREU also allows for manual corrections, checking an updated plaintext file each time it runs. With the corrected data, AMREU generates cumulative dose plots for each mission, and uses a Python script to generate a flight note file (.docx format) containing these plots, as well as information sections to be filled in and modified by the space weather environment officers with information specific to the week. AMREU is set up to run without requiring any user input, and it automatically archives old flight notes and information files for missions that are no longer active. My other projects involve cleaning up a large data set from the Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (CPDS), joining together many different data sets in order to clean up information in SRAG SQL databases, and developing other automated utilities for displaying information on active solar regions, that may be used by the

  6. Microscopic structural analysis of fractured silk fibers from Bombyx mori and Samia cynthia ricini using 13C CP/MAS NMR with a 1 mm microcoil MAS NMR probehead

    KAUST Repository

    Yamauchi, Kazuo

    2010-07-01

    Conformational changes have been studied in silk fibers from the domestic silkworm Bombyx mori and a wild silkworm Samia cynthia ricini as a result of fractured by stretching. About 300 samples consisting of only the fractured regions of [1-13C]Ala or [1-13C]Gly labeled silk fibers were collected and observed by 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra. The total amount of these fractured fibers is only about 1 mg and therefore we used a home-built 1 mm microcoil MAS NMR probehead. A very small increase in the fraction of random coil was noted for the alanine regions of both silk fibroins and for the glycine region of B. mori silk fibroin. However, there is no difference in the spectra before and after fractured for the glycine region of S. c. ricini silk fibroin. Thus, the influence of fracture occurs exclusively at the Ala region for S. c. ricini. The relationship between sequence, fracture and structure is discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Budgerigar flight in a varying environment: flight at distinct speeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffner, Ingo; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2016-06-01

    How do flying birds respond to changing environments? The behaviour of budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus, was filmed as they flew through a tapered tunnel. Unlike flying insects-which vary their speed progressively and continuously by holding constant the optic flow induced by the walls-the birds showed a tendency to fly at only two distinct, fixed speeds. They switched between a high speed in the wider section of the tunnel, and a low speed in the narrower section. The transition between the two speeds was abrupt, and anticipatory. The high speed was close to the energy-efficient, outdoor cruising speed for these birds, while the low speed was approximately half this value. This is the first observation of the existence of two distinct, preferred flight speeds in birds. A dual-speed flight strategy may be beneficial for birds that fly in varying environments, with the high speed set at an energy-efficient value for flight through open spaces, and the low speed suited to safe manoeuvring in a cluttered environment. The constancy of flight speed within each regime enables the distances of obstacles and landmarks to be directly calibrated in terms of optic flow, thus facilitating simple and efficient guidance of flight through changing environments.

  8. 14 CFR 27.151 - Flight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 27.151 Section 27.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.151 Flight controls....

  9. 14 CFR 61.56 - Flight review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight review. 61.56 Section 61.56... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.56 Flight review. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (f) of this section, a flight review consists of a minimum of 1 hour...

  10. 14 CFR 29.151 - Flight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight controls. 29.151 Section 29.151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.151 Flight controls....

  11. 14 CFR 415.115 - Flight safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety. 415.115 Section 415.115... From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.115 Flight safety. (a) Flight safety analysis. An applicant's safety review document must describe each analysis method employed to meet the flight safety...

  12. 14 CFR 91.303 - Aerobatic flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aerobatic flight. 91.303 Section 91.303... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Special Flight Operations § 91.303 Aerobatic flight. No person may operate an aircraft in aerobatic flight— (a) Over any congested area of...

  13. 14 CFR 417.107 - Flight safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... initiate the flight of a launch vehicle only if flight safety analysis performed under paragraph (f) of...) A launch operator may initiate the flight of a launch vehicle only if the risk associated with the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety. 417.107 Section 417.107...

  14. The mechanical power requirements of avian flight

    OpenAIRE

    Askew, G.N.; Ellerby, D.J

    2007-01-01

    A major goal of flight research has been to establish the relationship between the mechanical power requirements of flight and flight speed. This relationship is central to our understanding of the ecology and evolution of bird flight behaviour. Current approaches to determining flight power have relied on a variety of indirect measurements and led to a controversy over the shape of the power–speed relationship and a lack of quantitative agreement between the different techniques. We have use...

  15. Flight of the dragonflies and damselflies

    OpenAIRE

    Bomphrey, Richard J.; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Henningsson, Per; Lin, Huai-Ti

    2016-01-01

    This work is a synthesis of our current understanding of the mechanics, aerodynamics and visually mediated control of dragonfly and damselfly flight, with the addition of new experimental and computational data in several key areas. These are: the diversity of dragonfly wing morphologies, the aerodynamics of gliding flight, force generation in flapping flight, aerodynamic efficiency, comparative flight performance and pursuit strategies during predatory and territorial flights. New data are s...

  16. 14 CFR 91.1091 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator). 91.1091 Section 91.1091 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this... aircraft, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device for a particular type, class, or category...

  17. 14 CFR 61.4 - Qualification and approval of flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... simulators and flight training devices. 61.4 Section 61.4 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.4 Qualification and approval of flight simulators and flight training devices. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) or (c) of this section, each flight simulator and flight...

  18. 14 CFR 93.305 - Flight-free zones and flight corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight-free zones and flight corridors. 93... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.305 Flight-free zones and flight corridors. Except in...

  19. 14 CFR 121.511 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.511 Flight time limitations: Flight engineers: airplanes. (a) In any operation in which...

  20. 14 CFR 125.373 - Original flight release or amendment of flight release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original flight release or amendment of flight release. 125.373 Section 125.373 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Flight Release Rules § 125.373 Original flight release or amendment of flight release. (a) A...

  1. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. 23.865 Section 23.865 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...

  2. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  3. Designing MAS-based Modern Information Processing System: Ideas and Discussions%基于MAS设计现代信息处理系统:思路与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁力力; 胡可云; 陆玉昌; 石纯一

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the ideas for designing modern information processing system,in which we emphasize the observation about the advantages and disadvantages while designing large-scale open system using MAS theory. After brief review and analysis about the study situations or limitations of present information processing techniques and DAI/MAS,this paper discusses many problems in the combination between MAS and information processing. Finally,a brand new MAS organization structural model and new ideas for devising information processing systems are put forward with the consideration about the limitations of MAS' organization structure and the strong requirements of feasibility and efficiency.

  4. 1H HR-MAS NMR Spectroscopy and the Metabolite Determination of Typical Foods in Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Corsaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available NMR spectroscopy has become an experimental technique widely used in food science. The experimental procedures that allow precise and quantitative analysis on different foods are relatively simple. For a better sensitivity and resolution, NMR spectroscopy is usually applied to liquid sample by means of extraction procedures that can be addressed to the observation of particular compounds. For the study of semisolid systems such as intact tissues, High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS has received great attention within the biomedical area and beyond. Metabolic profiling and metabolism changes can be investigated both in animal organs and in foods. In this work we present a proton HR-MAS NMR study on the typical vegetable foods of Mediterranean diet such as the Protected Geographical Indication (PGI cherry tomato of Pachino, the PGI Interdonato lemon of Messina, several Protected Designation of Origin (PDO extra virgin olive oils from Sicily, and the Traditional Italian Food Product (PAT red garlic of Nubia. We were able to identify and quantify the main metabolites within the studied systems that can be used for their characterization and authentication.

  5. Transport Properties of Ibuprofen Encapsulated in Cyclodextrin Nanosponge Hydrogels: A Proton HR-MAS NMR Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Monica; Castiglione, Franca; Punta, Carlo; Melone, Lucio; Panzeri, Walter; Rossi, Barbara; Trotta, Francesco; Mele, Andrea

    2016-08-15

    The chemical cross-linking of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride (EDTA) led to branched polymers referred to as cyclodextrin nanosponges (CDNSEDTA). Two different preparations are described with 1:4 and 1:8 CD-EDTA molar ratios. The corresponding cross-linked polymers were contacted with 0.27 M aqueous solution of ibuprofen sodium salt (IP) leading to homogeneous, colorless, drug loaded hydrogels. The systems were characterized by high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Pulsed field gradient spin echo (PGSE) NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the mean square displacement (MSD) of IP inside the polymeric gel at different observation times td. The data were further processed in order to study the time dependence of MSD: MSD = f(td). The proposed methodology is useful to characterize the different diffusion regimes that, in principle, the solute may experience inside the hydrogel, namely normal or anomalous diffusion. The full protocols including the polymer preparation and purification, the obtainment of drug-loaded hydrogels, the NMR sample preparation, the measurement of MSD by HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy and the final data processing to achieve the time dependence of MSD are here reported and discussed. The presented experiments represent a paradigmatic case and the data are discussed in terms of innovative approach to the characterization of the transport properties of an encapsulated guest within a polymeric host of potential application for drug delivery.

  6. Asynchronous through-bond homonuclear isotropic mixing: application to carbon–carbon transfer in perdeuterated proteins under MAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulminskaya, Natalia; Vasa, Suresh Kumar; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Linser, Rasmus, E-mail: rali@nmr.mpibpc.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of NMR-based Structural Biology (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Multiple-bond carbon–carbon homonuclear mixing is a hurdle in extensively deuterated proteins and under fast MAS due to the absence of an effective proton dipolar-coupling network. Such conditions are now commonly employed in solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Here, we introduce an isotropic homonuclear {sup 13}C–{sup 13}C through-bond mixing sequence, MOCCA, for the solid state. Even though applied under MAS, this scheme performs without rotor synchronization and thus does not pose the usual hurdles in terms of power dissipation for fast spinning. We compare its performance with existing homonuclear {sup 13}C–{sup 13}C mixing schemes using a perdeuterated and partially proton-backexchanged protein. Based on the analysis of side chain carbon–carbon correlations, we show that particularly MOCCA with standard 180-degree pulses and delays leading to non-rotor-synchronized spacing performs exceptionally well. This method provides high magnetization transfer efficiency for multiple-bond transfer in the aliphatic region compared with other tested mixing sequences. In addition, we show that this sequence can also be tailor-made for recoupling within a selected spectral region using band-selective pulses.

  7. ISOLASI FRAGMEN TERTENTU GEN HORMON PERTUMBUHAN IKAN MAS MAJALAYA DAN NILA GIFT DENGAN METODE CTAB–PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnu Dwi Buwono

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hormon pertumbuhan (Growth Hormone/GH pada ikan berperan untuk memacu pertumbuhan, di samping terlibat juga dalam fungsi osmoregulasi, pengaturan keseimbangan cairan elektrolit, dan proses-proses metabolisme. Metode CTAB (Cetyl Trymethyl Ammonium Bromide digunakan untuk mengisolasi DNA sel ikan (DNA genomik dari sirip ekor ikan mas Majalaya dan nila GIFT. Isolasi gen hormon pertumbuhan dari DNA genomik kedua jenis ikan dapat disintesis dengan primer cGH (carp Growth Hormone dan TiGH (Tilapia Growth Hormone menggunakan metode PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. Hasil elektroforegram produk amplifikasi PCR untuk sebagian gen hormon pertumbuhan ikan mas Majalaya dapat dideteksi dengan ukuran fragmen DNA sebesar 615 bp dan 349 bp. Fragmen DNA hormon pertumbuhan ikan nila GIFT dapat dideteksi dengan ukuran 597 bp. The roles of growth hormones in fish are for growth promotion. They are also involved in osmoregulation function, balance regulation of liquid electrolite, and correlated with metabolism processes. CTAB (Cetyl Trymethyl Ammonium Bromide methods was used to isolate fish cell DNA (genomic DNA from caudal fin of Majalaya carp and GIFT nile. Growth hormone gene isolates from two kinds of genomic DNA can be synthesized with primers cGH (carp Growth Hormone and TiGH (Tilapia Growth Hormone using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction method. Electroforegram product of the PCR amplification for partial growth hormone gene of Majalaya carp fish can be detected with DNA fragment size of 615 bp and 349 bp. DNA fragment of growth hormone of GIFT nile tilapia can be detected with size of 597 bp.

  8. Site-resolved 2H relaxation experiments in solid materials by global line-shape analysis of MAS NMR spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, E. L.; Stilbs, P.; Furó, I.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a way one can achieve good spectral resolution in 2H MAS NMR experiments. The goal is to be able to distinguish between and study sites in various deuterated materials with small chemical shift dispersion. We show that the 2H MAS NMR spectra recorded during a spin-relaxation experiment are amenable to spectral decomposition because of the different evolution of spectral components during the relaxation delay. We verify that the results are robust by global least-square fitting of the spectral series both under the assumption of specific line shapes and without such assumptions (COmponent-REsolved spectroscopy, CORE). In addition, we investigate the reliability of the developed protocol by analyzing spectra simulated with different combinations of spectral parameters. The performance is demonstrated in a model material of deuterated poly(methacrylic acid) that contains two 2H spin populations with similar chemical shifts but different quadrupole splittings. In 2H-exchanged cellulose containing two 2H spin populations with very similar chemical shifts and quadrupole splittings, the method provides new site-selective information about the molecular dynamics.

  9. Solid-state (13)C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy of mushrooms gives directly the ratio between proteins and polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzoferrato, L; Manzi, P; Bertocchi, F; Fanelli, C; Rotilio, G; Paci, M

    2000-11-01

    The solid-state (13)C CP MAS NMR technique has the potential of monitoring the chemical composition in the solid state of an intact food sample. This property has been utilized to study mushrooms of different species (Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus pulmunarius, and Lentinula edodes), already characterized by chemical analyses for protein and dietary fiber components. Solid-state (13)C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy reveals a large difference in the ratio between the glucidic and the proteic resonances probably depending on the mushroom species. An accurate inspection by model compounds and suitable mixtures of proteins and saccharides gives a methodology to interpret these experimental data. A good correlation (R(2) = 0.93; R(2) = 0.81) has been obtained by comparing the NMR data with the results of the chemical analyses. The results suggest the possibility to perform a taxonomic study and/or a nutritional study on the basis of the ratio between protein and polysaccharide levels determined by NMR or chemical methodologies.

  10. Structural analysis of alkali cations in mixed alkali silicate glasses by 23Na and 133Cs MAS NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Minami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the structural analysis of Na+ and Cs+ in sodium cesium silicate glasses by using 23Na and 133Cs magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR spectroscopy. In the NMR spectra of cesium silicate crystals, the peak position shifted to higher magnetic field for structures with larger Cs+ coordination numbers and to lower magnetic field for smaller Cs+ coordination numbers. The MAS NMR spectra of xNa2O-yCs2O-2SiO2 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.33, 0.5, 0.66, 0.8, 1.0; x + y = 1 glass reveal that the average coordination number of both the alkali cations decreases with increasing Cs+/(Na+ + Cs+ ratio. In addition, the coordination number of Na+ in xNa2O-yCs2O-2SiO2 glass is smaller than that of Cs+. This difference between the average coordination numbers of the alkali cations is considered to be one structural reason of the mixed alkali effect.

  11. Surface Characterization of Some Novel Bonded Phase Packing Materials for HPLC Columns Using MAS-NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Abia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on the surface properties of three novel chemically bonded phase packing materials for High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were obtained using spectra obtained by solid state cross-polarization (CP magic-angle spinning (MAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopic experiments for the 29Si, and 13C nuclei. These packing materials were: Cogent bidentate C18 bonded to type-C silica, hybrid packing materials XTerra MS C18, and XBridge Prep. C18. The spectra obtained using cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS on the Cogent bidentate C18 bonded to type-C silica show the surface to be densely populated with hydride groups (Si-H, with a relative surface coverage exceeding 80%. The hybrid packing materials XTerra and XBridge gave spectra that reveal the silicon atoms to be bonded to organic moieties embedded in the molecular structure of these materials with over 90% of the alkyl silicon atoms found within the completely condensed silicon environments. The hydrolytic stability of these materials were investigated in acidic aqueous solutions at pHs of 7.0 and 3.0, and it was found that while the samples of XTerra and XBridge were not affected by hydrolysis at this pH range, the sample of Cogent lost a significant proportion of its Si-H groups after five days of treatment in acidic aqueous solution.

  12. Satura pārvaldības sistēmas izmantošana augstskolā

    OpenAIRE

    Dzelmītis, Jānis

    2010-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā “Satura pārvaldības sistēmas izmantošana augstskolā” ir apskatītas vairākas satura pārvaldības sistēmu klasifikācijas, iedalījumi, kā arī tieši apskatītas tādas satura pārvaldības sistēmas, kā WordPress, Joomla!, Drupal. Bakalaura darbā ir arī apskatītas iespējas uzstādīt satura pārvaldības programmas un izveidot ar to palīdzību pilnvērtīgas pasniedzēju vietnes, kur students varētu iegūt visu viņam vajadzīgo informāciju.

  13. 1H and 13C HR-MAS NMR investigations on native and enzymatically digested bovine nasal cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, J; Naji, L; Huster, D; Kaufmann, J; Arnold, K

    2001-08-01

    Rheumatic diseases are accompanied by a progressive destruction of the cartilage layer of the joints. Despite the frequency of the disease, degradation mechanisms are not yet understood and methods for early diagnosis are not available. Although some information on pathogenesis could be obtained from the analysis of degradation products of cartilage supernatants, the most direct information on degradation processes would come from the native cartilage as such. We have used 1H as well as 13C HR-MAS (high resolution magic angle spinning) NMR spectroscopy to obtain suitable line-widths of NMR resonances of native cartilage. 1D and 2D NMR spectra of native cartilage were compared with those of enzymatically-treated (collagenase and papain) samples. In the 1H NMR spectra of native cartilage, resonances of polysaccharides, lipids and a few amino acids of collagen were detectable, whereas the 13C NMR spectra primarily indicated the presence of chondroitin sulfate. Treatment with papain resulted only in small changes in the 1H NMR spectrum, whereas a clear diminution of all resonances was detectable in the 13C NMR spectra. On the other hand, treatment with collagenase caused the formation of peptides with an amino acid composition typical for collagen (glycine, proline, hydroxyproline and lysine). It is concluded that the HR-MAS NMR spectra of cartilage may be of significance for the investigation of cartilage degradation since they allow the fast evaluation of cartilage composition and only very small amounts of sample are required.

  14. Sensitivity gains, linearity, and spectral reproducibility in nonuniformly sampled multidimensional MAS NMR spectra of high dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Paramasivam, Sivakumar; Hou, Guangjin; Sun, Shangjin; Rice, David; Hoch, Jeffrey C.; Rovnyak, David

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that considerable inherent sensitivity gains are attained in MAS NMR spectra acquired by nonuniform sampling (NUS) and introduced maximum entropy interpolation (MINT) processing that assures the linearity of transformation between the time and frequency domains. In this report, we examine the utility of the NUS/MINT approach in multidimensional datasets possessing high dynamic range, such as homonuclear 13C–13C correlation spectra. We demonstrate on model compounds and on 1–73-(U-13C, 15N)/74–108-(U-15N) E. coli thioredoxin reassembly, that with appropriately constructed 50 % NUS schedules inherent sensitivity gains of 1.7–2.1-fold are readily reached in such datasets. We show that both linearity and line width are retained under these experimental conditions throughout the entire dynamic range of the signals. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the reproducibility of the peak intensities is excellent in the NUS/MINT approach when experiments are repeated multiple times and identical experimental and processing conditions are employed. Finally, we discuss the principles for design and implementation of random exponentially biased NUS sampling schedules for homonuclear 13C–13C MAS correlation experiments that yield high-quality artifact-free datasets. PMID:24752819

  15. Sensitivity Gains, Linearity, and Spectral Reproducibility in Nonuniformly Sampled Multidimensional MAS NMR Spectra of High Dynamic Range.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suiter, Christopher L.; Paramasivam, Sivakumar; Hou, Guangjin; Sun, Shangjin; Rice, David M.; Hoch, Jeffrey C.; Rovnyak, David S.; Polenova, Tatyana E.

    2014-04-22

    Recently, we have demonstrated that considerable inherent sensitivity gains are attained in MAS NMR spectra acquired by nonuniform sampling (NUS) and introduced maximum entropy interpolation (MINT) processing that assures the linearity of transformation between the time and frequency domains. In this report, we examine the utility of the NUS/MINT approach in multidimensional datasets possessing high dynamic range, such as homonuclear 13C–13C correlation spectra. We demonstrate on model compounds and on 1–73-(U-13C,15N)/74–108-(U-15N) E. coli thioredoxin reassembly, that with appropriately constructed 50 % NUS schedules inherent sensitivity gains of 1.7–2.1-fold are readily reached in such datasets. We show that both linearity and line width are retained under these experimental conditions throughout the entire dynamic range of the signals. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the reproducibility of the peak intensities is excellent in the NUS/MINT approach when experiments are repeated multiple times and identical experimental and processing conditions are employed. Finally, we discuss the principles for design and implementation of random exponentially biased NUS sampling schedules for homonuclear 13C–13C MAS correlation experiments that yield high quality artifact-free datasets.

  16. CaCl2-Accelerated Hydration of Tricalcium Silicate: A STXM Study Combined with 29Si MAS NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinfei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on tricalcium silicate (C3S hydration was investigated by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM with Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS spectra and 29Si MAS NMR. STXM is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for studying the chemical composition of a cement-based hydration system. The Ca L3,2-edge NEXAFS spectra obtained by examining C3S hydration in the presence of CaCl2 showed that this accelerator does not change the coordination of calcium in the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H, which is the primary hydration product. O K-edge NEXAFS is also very useful in distinguishing the chemical components in hydrated C3S. Based on the Ca L3,2-edge spectra and chemical component mapping, we concluded that CaCl2 prefers to coexist with unhydrated C3S instead of C-S-H. In Si K-edge NEXAFS analysis, CaCl2 increases the degree of silicate polymerization of C-S-H in agreement with the 29Si CP/MAS NMR results, which show that the presence of CaCl2 in hydrated C3S considerably accelerates the formation of middle groups (Q2 and branch sites (Q3 in the silicate chains of C-S-H gel at 1-day hydration.

  17. Immune function during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Shearer, William T.

    2002-01-01

    It is very likely that the human immune system will be altered in astronauts exposed to the conditions of long-term space flight: isolation, containment, microgravity, radiation, microbial contamination, sleep disruption, and insufficient nutrition. In human and animal subjects flown in space, there is evidence of immune compromise, reactivation of latent virus infection, and possible development of a premalignant or malignant condition. Moreover, in ground-based space flight model investigations, there is evidence of immune compromise and reactivation of latent virus infection. All of these observations in space flight itself or in ground-based models of space flight have a strong resonance in a wealth of human pathologic conditions involving the immune system where reactivated virus infections and cancer appear as natural consequences. The clinical conditions of Epstein-Barr-driven lymphomas in transplant patients and Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with autoimmune deficiency virus come easily to mind in trying to identify these conditions. With these thoughts in mind, it is highly appropriate, indeed imperative, that careful investigations of human immunity, infection, and cancer be made by space flight researchers.

  18. Stability in hovering ornithopter flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietl, John M.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2008-03-01

    The quasi-steady aerodynamics model is coupled to a dynamic model of ornithopter flight. Previously, the combined model has been used to calculate forward flight trajectories, each a limit cycle in the vehicle's states. The limit cycle results from the periodic wing beat, producing a periodic force while on the cycle's trajectory. This was accomplished using a multiple shooting algorithm and numerical integration in MATLAB. An analysis of hover, a crucial element to vertical takeoff and landing in adverse conditions, follows. A method to calculate plausible wing flapping motions and control surface deflections for hover is developed, employing the above flight dynamics model. Once a hovering limit cycle trajectory is found, it can be linearized in discrete time and analyzed for stability (by calculating the trajectory's Floquet multipliers a type of discrete-time eigenvalue) are calculated. The dynamic mode shapes are discussed.

  19. Combined zero-quantum and spin-diffusion mixing for efficient homonuclear correlation spectroscopy under fast MAS: broadband recoupling and detection of long-range correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xingyu; Guo, Changmiao; Hou, Guangjin; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Fast magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy is emerging as an essential analytical and structural biology technique. Large resolution and sensitivity enhancements observed under fast MAS conditions enable structural and dynamics analysis of challenging systems, such as large macromolecular assemblies and isotopically dilute samples, using only a fraction of material required for conventional experiments. Homonuclear dipolar-based correlation spectroscopy constitutes a centerpiece in the MAS NMR methodological toolbox, and is used essentially in every biological and organic system for deriving resonance assignments and distance restraints information necessary for structural analysis. Under fast MAS conditions (rotation frequencies above 35-40 kHz), dipolar-based techniques that yield multi-bond correlations and non-trivial distance information are ineffective and suffer from low polarization transfer efficiency. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a family of experiments, CORD-RFDR. These experiments exploit the advantages of both zero-quantum RFDR and spin-diffusion based CORD methods, and exhibit highly efficient and broadband dipolar recoupling across the entire spectrum, for both short-range and long-range correlations. We have verified the performance of the CORD-RFDR sequences experimentally on a U-(13)C,(15)N-MLF tripeptide and by numerical simulations. We demonstrate applications of 2D CORD-RFDR correlation spectroscopy in dynein light chain LC8 and HIV-1 CA tubular assemblies. In the CORD-RFDR spectra of LC8 acquired at the MAS frequency of 40 kHz, many new intra- and inter-residue correlations are detected, which were not observed with conventional dipolar recoupling sequences. At a moderate MAS frequency of 14 kHz, the CORD-RFDR experiment exhibits excellent performance as well, as demonstrated in the HIV-1 CA tubular assemblies. Taken together, the results indicate that CORD-RFDR experiment is beneficial in a broad range of conditions

  20. Indoxyl Sulfate Downregulates Mas Receptor via Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor/Nuclear Factor-kappa B, and Induces Cell Proliferation and Tissue Factor Expression in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Bolati, Wulaer; Lee, Chien-Te; Chien, Yu-Shu; Yisireyili, Maimaiti; Saito, Shinichi; Pei, Sung-Nan; Nishijima, Fuyuhiko; Niwa, Toshimitsu

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase 2/angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis is protective in the development of chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. This study is aimed at investigating whether indoxyl sulfate (IS) affects Mas receptor expression, cell proliferation and tissue factor expression in vascular smooth muscle cells, and if Ang-(1-7), an activator of Mas receptor, counteracts the IS-induced effects. IS was administered to normotensive and hypertensive rats. Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were cultured with IS. IS reduced the expression of Mas receptor in the aorta of normotensive and hypertensive rats. IS downregulated the Mas receptor expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner in HASMCs. Knockdown of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-x03BA;B) inhibited IS-induced downregulation of Mas receptor. Further, IS stimulated cell proliferation and tissue factor expression in HASMCs. Ang-(1-7) attenuated IS-induced cell proliferation and tissue factor expression in HASMCs. Ang-(1-7) suppressed phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and NF-x03BA;B in HASMCs. IS downregulated the expression of Mas receptor via AhR/NF-x03BA;B, and induced cell proliferation and tissue factor expression in HASMCs. Ang-(1-7) inhibited IS-induced cell proliferation and tissue factor expression by suppressing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and NF-x03BA;B p65. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Expression and function of the ACE2/angiotensin(1-7)/Mas axis in osteosarcoma cell lines U-2 OS and MNNG-HOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Stephan Albrecht; Dallmer, Andrea; Lässig, Florian; Lendeckel, Uwe; Wolke, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin-system (RAS), via its classical angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin II/angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-axis, is associated with proliferation and metastasis of numerous types of solid tumor. AT1R blockers reduce tumor volume and decrease liver and lung metastasis in murine models of osteosarcoma. Expression and function of the alternative ACE2/Ang(1-7)/Mas axis in osteosarcoma is yet to be studied. In the present study, the basic and interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated expression of components of this alternative RAS axis were analyzed and the impact of Mas on proliferation and/or migration of U-2 OS and MNNG-HOS osteosarcoma cells was studied. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the two cell lines expressed the Ang(1‑7)-generating peptidases ACE2, neutral endopeptidase 24.11 and prolyl-endopeptidase together with the putative receptor for Ang(1-7), Mas. IL-1β provoked an induction of Mas mRNA and protein expression which was associated with a reduction of proliferation and migration. By contrast, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Mas expression led to increased cell proliferation. In conclusion, osteosarcoma cells express a functional active alternative ACE2/Ang(1-7)/Mas axis. The induction and reinforcement of this axis may be beneficial for the treatment of osteosarcoma by reducing growth and preventing cancer metastasis. These effects may be achieved directly by the administration of Mas agonists or, indirectly, via blocking the classical AngII RAS axis via ACE inhibitors or AT1R antagonists.

  2. Blowfly flight and optic flow II. Head movements during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hateren, JH; Schilstra, C

    The position and orientation of the thorax and head of flying blowflies (Calliphora vicina) were measured using small sensor coils mounted on the thorax and head. During flight, roll movements of the thorax are compensated by counter rolls of the head relative to the thorax, The yaw turns of the

  3. Flight Deck Interval Management Flight Test Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulder, Paul V.

    2017-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the avionics design, implementation, and evaluation activities conducted for the ATD-1 Avionics Phase 2. The flight test data collection and a subset of the analysis results are described. This report also documents lessons learned, conclusions, and recommendations to guide further development efforts.

  4. Orion Exploration Flight Test Post-Flight Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Berger, E. L.; Bohl, W. E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Deighton, K. D.; Enriquez, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Hyde, J. L.; Oliveras, O. M.

    2017-01-01

    The principal mechanism for developing orbital debris environment models, is to make observations of larger pieces of debris in the range of several centimeters and greater using radar and optical techniques. For particles that are smaller than this threshold, breakup and migration models of particles to returned surfaces in lower orbit are relied upon to quantify the flux. This reliance on models to derive spatial densities of particles that are of critical importance to spacecraft make the unique nature of the EFT-1's return surface a valuable metric. To this end detailed post-flight inspections have been performed of the returned EFT-1 backshell, and the inspections identified six candidate impact sites that were not present during the pre-flight inspections. This paper describes the post-flight analysis efforts to characterize the EFT-1 mission craters. This effort included ground based testing to understand small particle impact craters in the thermal protection material, the pre- and post-flight inspection, the crater analysis using optical, X-ray computed tomography (CT) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques, and numerical simulations.

  5. Blowfly flight and optic flow II. Head movements during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hateren, JH; Schilstra, C

    1999-01-01

    The position and orientation of the thorax and head of flying blowflies (Calliphora vicina) were measured using small sensor coils mounted on the thorax and head. During flight, roll movements of the thorax are compensated by counter rolls of the head relative to the thorax, The yaw turns of the tho

  6. Blowfly Flight and Optic Flow. II. Head Movements during Flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Schilstra, C.

    1999-01-01

    The position and orientation of the thorax and head of flying blowflies (Calliphora vicina) were measured using small sensor coils mounted on the thorax and head. During flight, roll movements of the thorax are compensated by counter rolls of the head relative to the thorax. The yaw turns of the tho

  7. Vision based flight procedure stereo display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Wan, Di; Ma, Lan; He, Yuncheng

    2008-03-01

    A virtual reality flight procedure vision system is introduced in this paper. The digital flight map database is established based on the Geographic Information System (GIS) and high definitions satellite remote sensing photos. The flight approaching area database is established through computer 3D modeling system and GIS. The area texture is generated from the remote sensing photos and aerial photographs in various level of detail. According to the flight approaching procedure, the flight navigation information is linked to the database. The flight approaching area vision can be dynamic displayed according to the designed flight procedure. The flight approaching area images are rendered in 2 channels, one for left eye images and the others for right eye images. Through the polarized stereoscopic projection system, the pilots and aircrew can get the vivid 3D vision of the flight destination approaching area. Take the use of this system in pilots preflight preparation procedure, the aircrew can get more vivid information along the flight destination approaching area. This system can improve the aviator's self-confidence before he carries out the flight mission, accordingly, the flight safety is improved. This system is also useful in validate the visual flight procedure design, and it helps to the flight procedure design.

  8. Charakterystyka tworzyw ceramicznych otrzymanych z udziałem zużytych mas odlewniczych ze spoiwem organicznym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pytel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Referat zawiera wyniki badań tworzyw ceramicznych otrzymanych z mas plastycznych, w których składnikiem przeznaczonym doschudzania surowca ilastego były zużyte masy odlewnicze. Wprawdzie masy te pochodziły z różnych odlewni, to jednak wspólną ichcechą był rodzaj spoiwa wykorzystywanego do ich przygotowania. Spoiwa te należały do grupy spoiw organicznych, opartych nażywicach furanowych lub fenolowo-formaldehydowych. Ze względu na potencjalną możliwość emisji do atmosfery szkodliwychsubstancji gazowych w postaci wielopierścieniowych węglowodorów aromatycznych (WWA, mogących się uwalniać w warunkachwysokich temperatur charakterystycznych dla procesu wypalania wyrobów ceramicznych, podjęte badania stanowią próbę utylizacjijednego z najbardziej niebezpiecznych rodzajów zużytych mas odlewniczych.Koncepcja badań przewiduje otrzymanie zasadniczo dwóch rodzajów tworzyw ceramicznych. Pierwszy rodzaj stanowi tworzyworeferencyjne otrzymane z masy ceramicznej, w której rolę dodatku schudzającego surowiec ilasty spełnia tradycyjny dodatek w postacipiasku kwarcowego pochodzenia naturalnego. Drugi rodzaj stanowią tworzywa eksperymentalne otrzymywane również z masceramicznych, lecz w tym przypadku dodatkiem schudzającym był materiał krzemionkowy otrzymany w wyniku odpowiedniegoprzetworzenia zużytych mas odlewniczych zawierających pozostałości spoiw organicznych, wprowadzany w ekwiwalentnej ilościw stosunku do piasku kwarcowego. Ocenę przydatności tego rodzaju surowca wtórnego we wspomnianym kierunku utylizacji,przeprowadzono w oparciu o wynik analizy porównawczej obu rodzajów tworzyw, obejmującej swym zakresem ich podstawowe cechyużytkowe oraz wybrane elementy mikrostruktury. Uzyskane wyniki badań świadczą o braku negatywnego oddziaływania na środowiskonaturalne związane z potencjalną możliwością emisji WWA w trakcie produkcji tworzyw ceramicznych z udziałem zużytych masodlewniczych zawieraj

  9. Incorporation of phosphorus guest ions in the calcium silicate phases of Portland cement from 31P MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Søren L; Jakobsen, Hans J; Skibsted, Jørgen

    2010-06-21

    Portland cements may contain small quantities of phosphorus (typically below 0.5 wt % P(2)O(5)), originating from either the raw materials or alternative sources of fuel used to heat the cement kilns. This work reports the first (31)P MAS NMR study of anhydrous and hydrated Portland cements that focuses on the phase and site preferences of the (PO(4))(3-) guest ions in the main clinker phases and hydration products. The observed (31)P chemical shifts (10 to -2 ppm), the (31)P chemical shift anisotropy, and the resemblance of the lineshapes in the (31)P and (29)Si MAS NMR spectra strongly suggest that (PO(4))(3-) units are incorporated in the calcium silicate phases, alite (Ca(3)SiO(5)) and belite (Ca(2)SiO(4)), by substitution for (SiO(4))(4-) tetrahedra. This assignment is further supported by a determination of the spin-lattice relaxation times for (31)P in alite and belite, which exhibit the same ratio as observed for the corresponding (29)Si relaxation times. From simulations of the intensities, observed in inversion-recovery spectra for a white Portland cement, it is deduced that 1.3% and 2.1% of the Si sites in alite and belite, respectively, are replaced by phosphorus. Charge balance may potentially be achieved to some extent by a coupled substitution mechanism where Ca(2+) is replaced by Fe(3+) ions, which may account for the interaction of the (31)P spins with paramagnetic Fe(3+) ions as observed for the ordinary Portland cements. A minor fraction of phosphorus may also be present in the separate phase Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), as indicated by the observation of a narrow resonance at delta((31)P) = 3.0 ppm for two of the studied cements. (31)P{(1)H} CP/MAS NMR spectra following the hydration of a white Portland cement show that the resonances from the hydrous phosphate species fall in the same spectral range as observed for (PO(4))(3-) incorporated in alite. This similarity and the absence of a large (31)P chemical shift ansitropy indicate that the hydrous (PO(4

  10. Re-entry flight clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juliana, S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the research was to identify and evaluate promising mathematical techniques for re-entry flight clearance. To fulfil this objective, two mathematical methods were investigated and developed: μ analysis for linear models and interval analysis for both linear and non-linear model

  11. Laser Altimeter for Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    Height of flight-simulator probe above model of terrain measured by automatic laser triangulation system. Airplane simulated by probe that moves over model of terrain. Altitude of airplane scaled from height of probe above model. Height measured by triangulation of laser beam aimed at intersection of model surface with plumb line of probe.

  12. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-30

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the EID perspective Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses.  Created: 5/30/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/2/2014.

  13. ALICE Time Of Flight Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Alici, A

    2013-01-01

    Charged particles in the intermediate momentum range are identified in ALICE by the Time Of Flight (TOF) detector. The time measurement with the TOF, in conjunction with the momentum and track length measured by the tracking detector, is used to calculate the particle mass.

  14. Centennial of Flight Educational Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Marianne (Technical Monitor); Miller, Susan (Technical Monitor); Vanderpool, Celia

    2003-01-01

    The Centennial of Flight Education Outreach project worked with community partners to disseminate NASA Education materials and the Centennial of Flight CD-ROM as a vehicle to increase national awareness of NASA's Aerospace Education products, services and programs. The Azimuth Education Foundation and the Ninety Nines, an International Women Pilots Association, Inc. were chartered to conduct education outreach to the formal and informal educational community. The Dryden Education Office supported the development of a training and information distribution program that established a national group of prepared Centennial of Flight Ambassadors, with a mission of community education outreach. These Ambassadors are members of the Ninety Nines and through the Azimuth Foundation, they assisted the AECC on the national level to promote and disseminate Centennial of Flight and other educational products. Our objectives were to explore partnership outreach growth opportunities with consortium efforts between organizations. This project directly responded to the highlights of NASA s Implementation Plan for Education. It was structured to network, involve the community, and provide a solid link to active educators and current students with NASA education information. Licensed female pilots who live and work in local communities across the nation carried the link. This partnership has been extremely gratifying to all of those Ninety-Nines involved, and they eagerly look forward to further work opportunities.

  15. Low Gravity Flight Complement Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, H. C., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The structural and mechanical design and performance requirements for a space transportation system carrier which will accommodate essentially self-supporting low-g MEA and MAUS facilities are described. Also included are the mission requirements for the materials processing facility and MEA/MAUS experiment flight implementation reguirements.

  16. STS-70 Post Flight Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Glen (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    In this post-flight overview, the flight crew of the STS-70 mission, Tom Henricks (Cmdr.), Kevin Kregel (Pilot), Major Nancy Currie (MS), Dr. Mary Ellen Weber (MS), and Dr. Don Thomas (MS), discuss their mission and accompanying experiments. Pre-flight, launch, and orbital footage is followed by the in-orbit deployment of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) and a discussion of the following spaceborne experiments: a microgravity bioreactor experiment to grow 3D body-like tissue; pregnant rat muscular changes in microgravity; embryonic development in microgravity; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX); terrain surface imagery using the HERCULES camera; and a range of other physiological tests, including an eye and vision test. Views of Earth include: tropical storm Chantal; the Nile River and Red Sea; lightning over Brazil. A three planet view (Earth, Mars, and Venus) was taken right before sunrise. The end footage shows shuttle pre-landing checkout, entry, and landing, along with a slide presentation of the flight.

  17. Aerodynamic Simulation of Indoor Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Nelson; De Leon, Matthew N.

    2007-01-01

    We develop a two-dimensional flight simulator for lightweight (less than 10 g) indoor planes. The simulator consists of four coupled time differential equations describing the plane CG, plane pitch and motor. The equations are integrated numerically with appropriate parameters and initial conditions for two planes: (1) Science Olympiad and (2)…

  18. Local sampling for indoor flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Croon, G.C.H.E.; De Wagter, C.; Remes, B.D.W.; Ruijsink, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    A challenging problem in artificial intelligence is to achieve vision-based autonomous indoor flight with Micro Air Vehicles. Approaches to this problem currently do not make use of image appearance features, because these features generally are computationally expensive. In this article, we deliver

  19. Angiotensin-(1-7) attenuated long-term hypoxia-stimulated cardiomyocyte apoptosis by inhibiting HIF-1α nuclear translocation via Mas receptor regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ruey-Lin; Lin, Jing-Wei; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Shen, Chia-Yao; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-02-01

    Extreme hypoxia often leads to myocardial apoptosis and causes heart failure. Angiotensin-(1-7)Ang-(1-7) is well known for its cardio-protective effects. However, the effects of Ang-(1-7) on long-term hypoxia (LTH)-induced apoptosis remain unknown. In this study, we found that Ang-(1-7) reduced myocardial apoptosis caused by hypoxia through the Mas receptor. Activation of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis down-regulated the hypoxia pro-apoptotic signaling cascade by decreasing the protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3). Moreover, the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis further inhibited HIF-1α nuclear translocation. On the other hand, Ang-(1-7) activated the IGF1R/PI3K/Akt signaling pathways, which mediate cell survival. However, the above effects were abolished by A779 treatment or silencing of Mas expression. Taken together, our findings indicate that the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis protects cardiomyocytes from LTH-stimulated apoptosis. The protective effect of Ang-(1-7) is associated with the inhibition of HIF-1α nuclear translocation and the induction of IGF1R and Akt phosphorylation.

  20. Reduced anxiety-like behavior in transgenic rats with chronically overproduction of angiotensin-(1-7): Role of the Mas receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangussu, Lucas M; Almeida-Santos, Ana Flávia; Moreira, Fabrício A; Fontes, Marco A P; Santos, Robson A S; Aguiar, Daniele C; Campagnole-Santos, Maria José

    2017-07-28

    Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], a counterregulatory peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), exerts its cardiovascular and renal functions through the G-protein-coupled receptor Mas. More recently, Ang-(1-7) has also been implicated in the control of emotional states related to fear and anxiety. Here, we tested the hypothesis that transgenic rats overexpressesing Ang-(1-7) (TGR) show reduced anxiety-like behavior in two distinct animals models, the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Vogel Conflict Test (VCT). Sprague-Dawley rats (SDs) were used as controls. In addition, we also verified whether this phenotype depend on activation of the Mas receptor. In line with our hypothesis, TGR rats showed an increase in the percentage of time and entries in the open arms of the EPM. There was also an increase in the number of punished licks in VCT. These phenotypes were reversed by ICV injection of the Mas receptor antagonist, A779, but not by the AT2 and MrgD receptor antagonist, PD123319. These results suggest that chronic elevation of Ang-(1-7) levels results in a phenotype characterized by reduced anxiety-like behavior, possibly due to higher activation of the Mas receptor. Therefore, facilitation of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor signaling may be further investigated as an additional strategy for the treatment of anxiety-related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Valsartan attenuates intimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured rat aortic arteries through modulating the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghong; Cai, Shanglang; Wang, Qixin; Zhou, Jingwei; Hou, Bo; Yu, Haichu; Ge, Zhiming; Guan, Renyan; Liu, Xu

    2016-05-15

    The role of the Mas receptor in the activity of valsartan against intimal hyperplasia is unclear. Herein, we investigated the role of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis on the activity of valsartan against intimal hyperplasiain balloon-injured rat aortic arteries. Wistar rats were randomized equally into the sham control group, injured group, and injured plus valsartan (20 mg/kg/d)-treated group. Valsartan significantly attenuated the vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal and medial thickening on days 14 and 28 after injury. The angiotensin-(1-7) levels as well as ACE2 and Mas receptor mRNA/protein expression were significantly decreased in the injured rats, compared to the uninjured rats; meanwhile, the angiotensin II level as well as the ACE and AT1 receptor mRNA/protein expression were increased (all P Mas receptor mRNA/protein expression but decreased the angiotensin II level, ACE and AT1 receptor mRNA/protein expression, as well as the p-ERK protein expression, compared to the injured group (all P Mas axis as well as inhibition of the ACE-angiotensin II-AT1 and p-ERK pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic Profiling of Cells in Response to Drug Treatment using (1)H High-resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermathen, Martina; Diserens, Gaëlle; Vermathen, Peter; Furrer, Julien

    2017-03-29

    High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) is an NMR technique that provides access to well resolved liquid-like 1H NMR spectra of semi-solid samples. Therefore, 1H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy has become an important tool for the direct analysis of biological samples such as tissues and cells in a mostly non-destructive way. Here, we focus on the application of HR-MAS NMR combined with multivariate statistical methods used for metabolic profiling of cells and in particular for the study of cellular metabolic responses to drug exposure. The principles of HR-MAS and the metabolomic approach are briefly described. As an example, a study on the metabolic response of different cell types towards treatment with a highly cytotoxic hexacationic ruthenium metallaprism as potential anti-cancer drug is presented. Specific metabolites and metabolic pathways are suggested to be associated with the cellular response. The study demonstrates the potential of HR-MAS metabolomics applied to cells for addressing the intracellular processes involved in the treatment with organometallic drugs.

  3. Electronic structures and properties of eight-coordinate metal-polyarsenic complexes MAs8n- (M = V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Tc, Re).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Wu, K

    2000-04-03

    The eight-coordinate early transition metal polyarsenic complexes, MAs(8)3- (M = V, Nb, Ta), MAs(8)2- (M = Cr, Mo, W), and MAs8- (M = Mn, Tc, Re), have been studied using density functional theory (DFT). The geometry optimizations of these complexes indicate that in the most stable structures the transition metal atoms are trapped in a crownlike cavity consisting of a zigzag eight-membered ring of As8 cluster. The scalar-relativistic effects and spin-orbit coupling effects on the electronic structures and energy levels were taken into account. The stabilities of gas-phase MAs8n- ions and bonding between the As8 ring and early transition metals are discussed on the basis of population analysis, atomization energies, and decomposition reaction energies. All these complex ions are found to be diamagnetic with notable HOMO-LUMO energy gaps. The vibrational frequencies and infrared absorption intensities of the MAs8n- series are predicted theoretically. Brief theoretical calculations of the similar MoA(8)2- pnictide ions indicate that the analogous P, Sb, and even Bi complexes are likely to be stable, whereas the crownlike MoN(8)2- is not a stable complex.

  4. Surface characteristics of the iron-oxyhydroxide layer formed during brick coatings by ESEM/EDS, {sup 23}Na and {sup 1}H MAS NMR, and ToF-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahdin, O. [Chaire Unesco « Sur la gestion de l' eau », Laboratoire Hydrosciences Lavoisier, Université de Bangui, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 908 (Central African Republic); Wartel, M. [Université Lille1, Laboratoire LASIR (UMR CNRS 8516), Equipe Physico-chimie de l' Environnement, Bât. C8, 2" è" m" e étage, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Mabingui, J. [Chaire Unesco « Sur la gestion de l' eau », Laboratoire Hydrosciences Lavoisier, Université de Bangui, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 908 (Central African Republic); Revel, B. [Université Lille1, Service RMN, Bât. C4, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Nuns, N. [Université Lille1, Institut Chevreul, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Boughriet, A., E-mail: abdel.boughriet@univ-lille1.fr [Université Lille1, Laboratoire LASIR (UMR CNRS 8516), Equipe Physico-chimie de l' Environnement, Bât. C8, 2" è" m" e étage, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)

    2015-09-01

    Brick made locally by craftsmen in Bangui (Central African Republic) was modified first by HCl activation and second by iron-oxyhydroxide impregnation through the precipitation of ferric ions by NaOH at various fixed pH values (ranging from 3 to 13). The elemental analyses of synthesized compounds were performed using ICP-AES, and their surface chemistry/properties were investigated by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM/EDS), {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectroscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The evidence of different {sup 23}Na chemical environments and the coexistence of Si and Al bound to ferrihydrite were made. The surface properties of this material which was found to be dependent upon synthesis pH, contributed to enhance metal uptake from water. - Highlights: • HCl-activated brick was coated at different Fe(III)-precipitation pH. • Surface properties were determined by ESEM, NMR and ToF-SIMS. • Al- and Si-bearing ferrihydrite and different Na environments were detected. • The pH used for modified-brick synthesis influenced metal uptake from water.

  5. 13C MAS NMR studies of the effects of hydration on the cell walls of potatoes and Chinese water chestnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H; Belton, P S; Ng, A; Ryden, P

    1999-02-01

    13C NMR with magic angle spinning (MAS) has been employed to investigate the cell walls of potatoes and Chinese water chestnuts over a range of hydration levels. Both single-pulse excitation (SPEMAS) and cross-polarization (CPMAS) experiments were carried out. Hydration led to a substantial increase in signal intensities of galactan and galacturonan in the SPEMAS spectra and a decrease in line width, implying mobilization in the backbone and side chains of pectin. In CPMAS spectra of both samples, noncellulose components showed signal loss as hydration increased. However, the signals of some galacturonan in the 3(1) helix configuration remained in the spectra even when the water content was as high as 110%. Cellulose was unaffected. It is concluded that the pectic polysaccharides experience a distribution of molecular conformations and mobility, whereas cellulose remained as typical rigid solid.

  6. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, Angiotensin-(1-7) and Mas: new players of the Renin Angiotensin System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Robson AS; Ferreira, Anderson J; Verano-Braga, Thiago;

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin(Ang)-(1-7) is now recognized as a biologically active component of renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ang-(1-7) appears to play a central role in the RAS because it exerts a vast array of actions, many of them opposite to those attributed to the main effector peptide of the RAS, Ang II....../proliferative arm of the RAS consisting of ACE, Ang II and AT1 receptor. In this brief review, we will discuss recent findings related to the biological role of the ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas arm in the cardiovascular and renal systems, as well as in metabolism. In addition, we will highlight the potential interactions...

  7. The History and the Current Situation on the Research of MAS%MAS研究的历史与现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛丽; 殷建平; 赵建民; 毛晓青

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1引言 MAS(Multi Agent System)是人工智能的一个分支领域.有人把Agent翻译成"主体",也有人把它翻译成"智能体".不管如何翻译,总可把它看成是一个有"感觉"会"思考"有"自主行为"的东西,比如机器人.这时,机器人的"感觉"靠摄像机传感器,"思考"靠逻辑推理,"自主行为"靠规划.Agent是一类在特定环境下能感知环境,并能自治地运行以实现一系列目标的计算实体或程序.其特性有:反应性、自治性、面向目标性和针对环境性.

  8. Residual dipolar couplings in sup 3 sup 1 P MAS spectra of PPh sub 3 substituted cobalt complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Szalontai, G

    2002-01-01

    Residual dipolar couplings between sup 3 sup 1 P- sup 5 sup 9 Co spin pairs were studied in sup 3 sup 1 P MAS spectra of mono- and dinuclear cobalt-triphenylphosphine complexes. These spectra can provide important information such as the scalar coupling between the dipolar phosphorus and the quadrupolar cobalt nuclei normally not available from solution phase studies. In case of complementary (NQR or x-ray) data even the relative orientation of the interacting shielding, dipolar, scalar couplings, and electric field gradient tensors or internuclear distances can be determined. Examples are shown both for well resolved and practically unresolved cases, factors which possibly control the spectral resolution are discussed in detail. (author)

  9. “La simbología masónica en el Cementerio de Colón”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Iglesias Cruz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los monumentos funerarios son parte de la vida de los pueblos. Una puesta en escena, a través de la piedra, de sus sueños, cumplidos o no. Al transitar por el cementerio de Colón de la Ciudad de La Habana, asistimos a la petrificación de parte del “imaginario colectivo” capitalino. En este ensayo centramos nuestra atención en la presencia de la simbología masónica, a partir de algunos monumentos mortuorios presentes en este recinto. Uno de nuestros objetivos fue registrar la presencia de las logias en el Cementerio y constatar las diversas maneras en que su simbología está presente en sus monumentos funerarios.

  10. Dos inventaris del mas Corredor de Camargues (Pals) amb la guerra del francès pel mig

    OpenAIRE

    Corredor Plaja, Anna-Maria

    2008-01-01

    Dos inventaris del mas Corredor de Camargues (Pals) de principis del segle XIX, un d'una certa extensió i l ’altre molt més reduït, ofereixen un modest testimoni de les conseqüències de la Guerra del Francès a casa nostra. Efectivament, vegem com molts dels béns esmentats en el document anterior a la guerra (1802) han desaparegut en l ’altre (1810), dos anys després del començament de l ’esdeveniment. A banda del seu valor històric, com tots els inventaris, aquests documents presenten un inte...

  11. Pathfinder - flight preparation on lakebed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    AeroVironment, Inc., crew members prepare the Pathfinder solar-powered aircraft for its first flight on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after its configuration was shanged from 8 electric motors to 6. Bob Curtin of AeroVironment is in the foreground of the photo. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  12. Visibility of lipid resonances in HR-MAS spectra of brain biopsies subject to spinning rate variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precht, C; Diserens, G; Oevermann, A; Vermathen, M; Lang, J; Boesch, C; Vermathen, P

    2015-12-01

    Lipid resonances from mobile lipids can be observed by ¹H NMR spectroscopy in multiple tissues and have also been associated with malignancy. In order to use lipid resonances as a marker for disease, a reference standard from a healthy tissue has to be established taking the influence of variable factors like the spinning rate into account. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of spinning rate variation on the HR-MAS pattern of lipid resonances in non-neoplastic brain biopsies from different regions and visualize polar and non-polar lipids by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Red staining. ¹H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy demonstrated higher lipid peak intensities in normal sheep brain pure white matter biopsies compared to mixed white and gray matter biopsies and pure gray matter biopsies. High spinning rates increased the visibility particularly of the methyl resonances at 1.3 and the methylene resonance at 0.89 ppm in white matter biopsies stronger compared to thalamus and brainstem biopsies, and gray matter biopsies. The absence of lipid droplets and presence of a large number of myelin sheaths observed in white matter by Nile Red fluorescence microscopy suggest that the observed lipid resonances originate from the macromolecular pool of lipid protons of the myelin sheath's plasma membranes. When using lipid contents as a marker for disease, the variable behavior of lipid resonances in different neuroanatomical regions of the brain and at variable spinning rates should be considered. The findings may open up interesting possibilities for investigating lipids in myelin sheaths.

  13. The protective effect of the Cornus mas fruits (cornelian cherry) on hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerosis through PPARα activation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozański, T; Kucharska, A Z; Szumny, A; Magdalan, J; Bielska, K; Merwid-Ląd, A; Woźniak, A; Dzimira, S; Piórecki, N; Trocha, M

    2014-11-15

    Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits have been used in traditional cuisine and in folk medicine in various countries. This study was conducted to evaluate the constituents and impact of cornelian cherry (C. mas L.) fruits lyophilisate on lipid levels, PPARα protein expression, atheromatous changes in the aorta, oxido-redox state, and proinflammatory cytokines in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The HPLC-MS method was used for determining active constituents in cornelian cherry. In a subsequent in vivo study the protective effect of the cornelian cherry on diet-induced hyperlipidemia was studied using a rabbit model fed 1% cholesterol. Cornelian cherry (100mg/kg b.w.) or simvastatin (5mg/kg b.w.) were administered orally for 60 days. Two iridoids - loganic acid and cornuside - and five anthocyanins were identified as the main constituents of the cornelian cherry. The administering of the cornelian cherry led to a 44% significant decrease in serum triglyceride levels, as well as prevented development of atheromatous changes in the thoracic aorta. Cornelian cherry significantly increased PPARα protein expression in the liver, indicating that its hypolipidemic effect may stem from enhanced fatty acid catabolism. Simvastatin treatment did not affect PPAR-α expression. Moreover, the cornelian cherry had a significant protective effect on diet-induced oxidative stress in the liver, as well as restored upregulated proinflammatory cytokines serum levels. In conclusion, we have shown loganic acid to be the main iridoid constituent in the European cultivar of the cornelian cherry, and proven that the cornelian cherry could have protective effects on diet-induced hypertriglicerydemia and atherosclerosis through enhanced PPARα protein expression and via regulating oxidative stress and inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Fetal betamethasone exposure attenuates angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor expression in the dorsal medulla of adult sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Allyson C; Shaltout, Hossam A; Nautiyal, Manisha; Rose, James C; Chappell, Mark C; Diz, Debra I

    2013-06-01

    Glucocorticoids including betamethasone (BM) are routinely administered to women entering into early preterm labor to facilitate fetal lung development and decrease infant mortality; however, fetal steroid exposure may lead to deleterious long term consequences. In a sheep model of fetal programming, BM-exposed (BMX) offspring exhibit elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP) and decreased baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) for control of heart rate by 0.5-years of age associated with changes in the circulating and renal renin-angiotensin systems (RAS). In the brain solitary tract nucleus, angiotensin (Ang) II actions through the AT1 receptor oppose the beneficial actions of Ang-(1-7) at the Mas receptor for BRS regulation. Therefore, we examined Ang peptides, angiotensinogen (Aogen), and receptor expression in this brain region of exposed and control offspring of 0.5- and 1.8-years of age. Mas protein expression was significantly lower (>40%) in the dorsal medulla of BMX animals at both ages; however, AT1 receptor expression was not changed. BMX offspring exhibited a higher ratio of Ang II to Ang-(1-7) (2.30±0.36 versus 0.99±0.28; p<0.01) and Ang II to Ang I at 0.5-years. Although total Aogen was unchanged, Ang I-intact Aogen was lower in 0.5-year BMX animals (0.78±0.06 vs. 1.94±0.41; p<0.05) suggesting a greater degree of enzymatic processing of the precursor protein in exposed animals. We conclude that in utero BM exposure promotes an imbalance in the central RAS pathways of Ang II and Ang-(1-7) that may contribute to the elevated MAP and lower BRS in this model.

  15. Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System (FACTS) is a Web-based application that provides an overall management and tracking tool of FAA Airmen performing Flight...

  16. Flight management concepts development for fuel conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Morello, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that increased airspace congestion will produce increased flight delay unless advanced flight management concepts are developed to compensate. It has been estimated that a 5 percent reduction in delay is approximately equivalent, in terms of direct operating costs, to a 5 percent reduction in drag. The present investigation regarding the development of the required flight management concepts is organized into three sections, related to background, current research, and future effort. In the background section, a summary is provided of past technical effort concerning flight management. The second section is concerned with on-going efforts to integrate flight management with ground-based flight planning, and with an advanced concepts simulator to test the new developments. In the third section, attention is given to research concerning airborne flight management integration with other flight functions.

  17. Investigation on Acute Biochemical Effects of Ce(NO3)3 on Liver and Kidney Tissues by MAS 1H NMR Spectroscopic-Based Metabonomic Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High resolution magic angle spinning (MAS)-1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic-based metabonomic approach was applied to the investigation on the acute biochemical effects of Ce(NO3)3. Male Wistar rats were liver and kidney tissues were analyzed using principal component analysis to extract toxicity information. The biochemical effects of Ce(NO3)3 were characterized by the increase of triglycerides and lactate and the decrease of glycogen in rat liver tissue, together with an elevation of the triglyceride level and a depletion of glycerophosphocholine and betaine in kidney tissues. The target lesions of Ce(NO3)3 on liver and kidney were found by MAS NMR-based metabonomic method. This study demonstrates that the combination of MAS 1H NMR and pattern recognition analysis can be an effective method for studies of biochemical effects of rare earths.

  18. CONCEPTUALIZACIÓN Y ANÁLISIS DE UN SISTEMA MULTI-AGENTE PEDAGÓGICO UTILIZANDO LA METODOLOGÍA MAS-COMMONKADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOVANI ALBERTO JIMÉNEZ BUILES

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan la conceptualización y el análisis de un sistema multi-agente (MAS pedagógico utilizando la metodología MAS-CommonKADS; la cual es una de las más reconocidaspara el modelado de MAS. El propósito de la fase de conceptualización es comprender el problema, identificar los actores activos y pasivo, además de elaborar los requisitos que permitan formular unos objetivos para generar la solución. En la fase de análisis se definen los modelos de agente, tareas, coordinación, comunicación, organizacióny experiencia (conocimientos. Ambas fases fueron validadas mediante la construcción del ambiente multi agente pedagógico ALLEGRO.

  19. Solid-state 51V MAS NMR spectroscopy determines component concentration and crystal phase in co-crystallised mixtures of vanadium complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Hazell, Alan Charles; Skibsted, Jørgen Bengaard

    2010-01-01

    resonances are sensitive to intermolecular interactions specific to each crystal phase. The solid-state V-51 MAS NMR spectroscopic data show that the different phases do not co-precipitate but the concentration of the solute (which can be either 1 or 2) can vary. Thus co-crystallised mixtures of 1 and 2 can...... be classed as a molecular mixture capable of forming continuous solid solutions....... for the vanadium atoms of the two complexes mean that V-51 solution state and MAS NMR spectroscopy can be used to determine the concentration of 1 and 2 in bulk samples. Significantly, however, V-51 MAS NMR spectroscopy also reports on the identity of the crystal phase. This is possible because the isotropic V-51...

  20. The dynamics of parabolic flight: flight characteristics and passenger percepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 seconds of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 seconds of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity. " Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments.

  1. The dynamics of parabolic flight: flight characteristics and passenger percepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 seconds of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 seconds of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30–60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity. " Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments. PMID:19727328

  2. Update of Bisphosphonate Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Jones, J.; Shapiro, J.; Lang, T.; Shackelford, L.; Smith, S. M.; Evans, H.; Spector, E.; Snyder, R. P.; Sibonga, J.; Keyak, J.; Nakamura, T.; Kohri, K.; Ohshima, H.; Moralez, G.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest indicating that elevated remodeling is a major factor in the etiology of space flight bone loss. In a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies, we are testing whether an antiresorptive drug would provide additional benefit to in-flight exercise to ameliorate bone loss and hypercalciuria during long-duration spaceflight. Measurements of bone loss include DXA, QCT, pQCT, urinary and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of R+1year data from 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight, as well as immediate post flight (R+<2wks) data from 6 of 10 concurrent controls without treatment. The treated astronauts used the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) during their missions. The purpose of this report is twofold: 1) to report the results of inflight, post flight and one year post flight bone measures compared with available controls with and without the use of ARED; and 2) to discuss preliminary data on concurrent controls. The figure below compares the BMD changes in ISS crewmembers exercising with and without the current ARED protocol and the alendronate treated crewmembers also using the ARED. This shows that the use of ARED prevents about half the bone loss seen in early ISS crewmembers and that the addition of an antiresorptive provides additional benefit. Resorption markers and urinary Ca excretion are not impacted by exercise alone but are significantly reduced with antiresorptive treatment. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline. DXA data for the 6 concurrent controls using the ARED device are similar to DXA data shown in the figure below. QCT data for these six indicate that the integral data are consistent with the DXA data, i.e., comparing the two control groups suggests significant but incomplete improvement in maintaining BMD using the ARED protocol. Biochemical data of the concurrent

  3. Angiotensin (1-7) ameliorates the structural and biochemical alterations of ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats via activation of ACE-2/Mas receptor axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohammed M; Sabry, Dina; Khattab, Mahmoud M; Al-Rejaie, Salim S

    2017-05-23

    The local and systemic renin angiotensin system (RAS) influences the skeletal system micro-structure and metabolism. Studies suggested angiotensin 1-7 (Ang(1-7)) as the beneficial RAS molecule via Mas receptor activation. This study examines the function of Ang(1-7) in bone micro-architecture and metabolism in an ovariectomized (OVX) rodent model of osteoporosis. OVX rats showed structural and bone metabolic degeneration in parallel with suppressed expressions of the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2)/Ang(1-7)/Mas components. The infusion of Ang(1-7) markedly alleviated the altered bone metabolism and significantly enhanced both trabecular (metaphyseal) and cortical (metaphyseal-diaphyseal) morphometry. Urinary and bones minerals were also improved in OVX rats by Ang(1-7). The infusion of the heptapeptide enhanced ACE-2/Mas receptor expressions, while down-regulated AngII, ACE, and AngII type-1 receptor (AT1R) in OVX animals. Moreover, Ang(1-7) markedly improved osteoprotegerin (OPG) and lowered receptor activator NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expressions. The defensive properties of Ang(1-7) on bone metabolism, structure and minerals were considerably eradicated after blockage of Mas receptor with A-779. Ang(1-7)-induced up-regulated ACE-2/Ang(1-7)/Mas cascade and OPG expressions were abolished and the expressions of ACE/AngII/AT1R and RANKL were provoked by A-779. These findings shows for the first time the novel valuable therapeutic role of Ang(1-7) on bone health and metabolism through the ACE-2/Mas cascade.

  4. Downregulation of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis promotes breast cancer metastasis by enhancing store-operated calcium entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changhui; Tang, Wei; Wang, Yuhao; Shen, Qiang; Wang, Bin; Cai, Chunqing; Meng, Xiaojing; Zou, Fei

    2016-07-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important component of the tumor microenvironment and plays a key role in promoting cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, metabolism, migration and invasion. Meanwhile, the arm of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)2/angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]/Mas axis in connection with RAS is associated with anti-proliferative, vasodilatory and anti-metastatic properties. Previous studies have shown that Ang-(1-7) reduces the proliferation of orthotopic human breast tumor growth by inhibiting cancer-associated fibroblasts. However, the role of ACE/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the metastasis of breast cancer cells is still unknown. In the present study, we found that ACE2 protein level is negatively correlated with the metastatic ability of breast cancer cells and breast tumor grade. Upregulation of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis inhibits breast cancer cell migration and invasion in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis activation inhibits store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and PAK1/NF-κB/Snail1 pathways, and induces E-cadherin expression. In summary, our results demonstrate that downregulation of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis stimulates breast cancer metastasis through the activation of SOCE and PAK1/NF-κB/Snail1 pathways. These results provide new mechanisms by which breast cancer develop metastasis and shed light on developing novel anti-metastasis therapeutics for metastatic breast cancer by modulating ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determining the transferability of flight simulator data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David

    1992-01-01

    This paper presented a method for collecting and graphically correlating subjective ratings and objective flight test data. The method enables flight-simulation engineers to enhance the simulator characterization of rotor craft flight in order to achieve maximum transferability of simulator experience.

  6. Lessons from 30 Years of Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation takes a brief historical look at flight software over the past 30 years, extracts lessons learned and shows how many of the lessons learned are embodied in the Flight Software product line called the core Flight System (cFS). It also captures the lessons learned from developing and applying the cFS.

  7. 14 CFR 437.71 - Flight rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.71 Section 437.71... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.71 Flight rules. (a) Before initiating rocket-powered flight, a permittee must confirm that all systems and operations necessary to ensure...

  8. 14 CFR 93.323 - Flight plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight plans. 93.323 Section 93.323... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.323 Flight plans. Each certificate holder conducting a commercial...

  9. 14 CFR 437.39 - Flight rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.39 Section 437.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Documentation § 437.39 Flight rules. An applicant must provide flight rules as required by § 437.71....

  10. 14 CFR 23.333 - Flight envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight envelope. 23.333 Section 23.333... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.333 Flight envelope. (a) General. Compliance with the strength requirements of this subpart must be shown...

  11. 14 CFR 121.387 - Flight engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineer. 121.387 Section 121.387..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airman and Crewmember Requirements § 121.387 Flight engineer. No..., having a maximum certificated takeoff weight of more than 80,000 pounds without a flight...

  12. Energetic influence on gull flight strategy selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; van Loon, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    During non-migratory flight, gulls (Larids) use a wide variety of flight strategies. We investigate the extent to which the energy balance of a bird explains flight strategy selection. We develop a model based on optimal foraging and aerodynamic theories, to calculate the ground speeds and airspeeds

  13. Electromagnetic Scattering Analysis of Coated Conductors With Edges Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) in Conjunction With the Standard Impedance Boundary Condition (SIBC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anastassiu, H.T.; D.I.Kaklamani, H.T.; Economou, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    A novel combination of the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) and the standard impedance boundary condition (SIBC) is employed in the analysis of transverse magnetic (TM) plane wave scattering from infinite, coated, perfectly conducting cylinders with square cross sections. The scatterer is initia......A novel combination of the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) and the standard impedance boundary condition (SIBC) is employed in the analysis of transverse magnetic (TM) plane wave scattering from infinite, coated, perfectly conducting cylinders with square cross sections. The scatterer...

  14. Hydration kinetics for the alite, belite, and calcium aluminate phase in Portland cements from 27Al and 29Si MAS NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Jørgen; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Jakobsen, Hans Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    29Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy is shown to be a valuable tool for obtaining the quantities of alite and belite in hydrated Portland cements. The hydration (1-180 days) of a white Portland cement with 10 wt.% silica fume added is investigated and the degrees of hydration for alite...... belite, and silica fume are determined. It is demonstrated that 27Al MAS NMR spectra of hydrated Portland cements can give quantitative information about the formation of ettringite and the conversion of this phase to monosulphate during hydration....

  15. In-Flight Injuries Involving Children on Commercial Airline Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Paulo M; Nerwich, Neil; Rotta, Alexandre T

    2016-12-09

    More than 3 billion passengers are transported every year on commercial airline flights worldwide, many of whom are children. The incidence of in-flight medical events (IFMEs) affecting children is largely unknown. This study seeks to characterize pediatric IFMEs, with particular focus on in-flight injuries (IFIs). We reviewed the records of all IFMEs from January 2009 to January 2014 involving children treated in consultation with a ground-based medical support center providing medical support to commercial airlines. Among 114 222 IFMEs, we identified 12 226 (10.7%) cases involving children. In-flight medical events commonly involved gastrointestinal (35.4%), infectious (20.3%), neurological (12.2%), allergic (8.6%), and respiratory (6.3%) conditions. In addition, 400 cases (3.3%) of IFMEs involved IFIs. Subjects who sustained IFIs were younger than those involved in other medical events (3 [1-8] vs 7 [3-14] y, respectively), and lap infants were overrepresented (35.8% of IFIs vs 15.9% of other medical events). Examples of IFIs included burns, contusions, and lacerations from falls in unrestrained lap infants; fallen objects from the overhead bin; and trauma to extremities by the service cart or aisle traffic. Pediatric IFIs are relatively infrequent given the total passenger traffic but are not negligible. Unrestrained lap children are prone to IFIs, particularly during meal service or turbulence, but not only then. Children occupying aisle seats are vulnerable to injury from fallen objects, aisle traffic, and burns from mishandled hot items. The possible protection from using in-flight child restraints might extend beyond takeoff and landing operations or during turbulence.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used

  16. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 121.414: (1) A flight instructor (airplane) is a person who is qualified to instruct in an airplane, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device...

  17. 14 CFR 135.338 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator). 135.338 Section 135.338 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 135.340... flight simulator, or in a flight training device for a particular type, class, or category aircraft. (2...

  18. 14 CFR 125.405 - Disposition of load manifest, flight release, and flight plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of load manifest, flight release, and flight plans. 125.405 Section 125.405 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AIRCRAFT Records and Reports § 125.405 Disposition of load manifest, flight release, and flight plans....

  19. 14 CFR 121.425 - Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight training. 121.425 Section 121.425 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 121.425 Flight engineers: Initial and transition flight training. (a) Initial and transition...

  20. 14 CFR 437.27 - Pre-flight and post-flight operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-flight and post-flight operations. 437.27 Section 437.27 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION... Experimental Permit Operational Safety Documentation § 437.27 Pre-flight and post-flight operations....