WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-military research covers

  1. High plains cover crop research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some recent statements have been made about the benefits of growing cover crops in mixtures as compared with single-species plantings of cover crops. Those stated benefits have included greatly reduced water use, enhanced soil microbiological activity, increased biomass productivity, and enhanced wa...

  2. A globally complete map of supraglacial debris cover and a new toolkit for debris cover research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Sam; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    A growing canon of literature is focused on resolving the processes and implications of debris cover on glaciers. However, this work is often confined to a handful of glaciers that were likely selected based on criteria optimizing their suitability to test a specific hypothesis or logistical ease. The role of debris cover in a glacier system is likely to not go overlooked in forthcoming research, yet the magnitude of this role at a global scale has not yet been fully described. Here, we present a map of debris cover for all glacierized regions on Earth including the Greenland Ice Sheet using 30 m Landsat data. This dataset will begin to open a wider context to the high quality, localized findings from the debris-covered glacier research community and help inform large-scale modeling efforts. A global map of debris cover also facilitates analysis attempting to isolate first order geomorphological and climate controls of supraglacial debris production. Furthering the objective of expanding the inclusion of debris cover in forthcoming research, we also present an under development suite of open-source, Python based tools. Requiring minimal and often freely available input data, we have automated the mapping of: i) debris cover, ii) ice cliffs, iii) debris cover evolution over the Landsat era and iv) glacier flow instabilities from altered debris structures. At the present time, debris extent is the only globally complete quantity but with the expanding repository of high quality global datasets and further tool development minimizing manual tasks and computational cost, we foresee all of these tools being applied globally in the near future.

  3. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  4. COVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>This issue of Virologica Sinica is to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of "filterable lytic factor" or "bacteriophage"(1915-2015).During the past 100 years,both basic knowledge and applications of bacteriophages have been substantially explored and developed.In recent years,bacteriophage research is booming and holding the hope

  5. COVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of hepatic B virus(HBV)infection is the result of complex interactions between replicating HBV and the innate/adaptive immune system.As an important lectin complement pathway activator,human ficolin-2 is secreted from liver cells and contributes to the clearance of viral infections and lysis of enveloped virions,which has been implicated as an anti-infection innate immune molecule.In this issue,a research group lead by Drs.XiaoLian Zhang and Fengling Luo,investigated the serum and liver tissue ficolin-2

  6. Knowledge and Practice of Nursing Staff about Sharp Waste Management in Selected Hospitals of Military (Tehran and Non- Military (Qom in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norouz Mohmoudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare wastes are a major challenge in public health and comprise all types of wastes generated by healthcare centers, research facilities, and laboratories. The aim of this study was surveying the knowledge and practice of nursing staff about sharp waste management in selected military (Tehran and non- military (Qom hospitals in 2012. This was a descriptive-analytical study on 143 nursing stuff in Military and Non-Military hospitals. Data was collected using a self-report questionnaire. Statistical tests such as the student t-test, one-way analysis of variance and Pearson correlation were used to data analysis. The mean age of participants was 32(±6.3 and the majority were female. The mean score of knowledge was 54.7(±14.4 and their knowledge classified on a moderate level. Also, the mean score of practice was 65.44(±11.6 and was classified on a moderate level. The means of these variables were higher among personnel of Military than Non-Military. There were positive correlations between knowledge, practice and age variables (P

  7. Intimate partner violence among female service members and veterans: information and resources available through military and non-military websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Joshi, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    With the expansion of women's roles in the military, the number of female service members and veterans has increased. Considerable knowledge about intimate partner violence (IPV) in civilian couples exists but little is known about IPV among female service members and veterans. Prevalence rates of IPV range from 17% to 39% for female service members, and 21.9% to 74% for veterans. Most service members and veterans indicated using the Internet at least occasionally and expressed willingness to seek information about services via the Internet. Informed by data, we conducted a systematic review of military (Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps) and non-military (Veterans Affairs and Google) websites to explore the availability and presentation of information and resources related to IPV. The websites search revealed a variety of resources and information available, and important differences between sites with regard to what and how information is presented. Implications for practice and further research are discussed.

  8. [Research progress of cover crop in Chinese orchard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Yan-ting; Ji, Xiao-hao; Wu, Yu-sen; Mao, Zhi-quan; Jiang, Yuan-mao; Peng, Fu-tian; Whang, Zhi-qiang; Chen, Xue-sen

    2015-06-01

    Grass growing in orchard is implemented in most fruit cultivation advanced countries, but only China carries out grass weeding. To effectively resolve the puzzle on harmful or beneficial effect on fruit production imparted by grass growing, and promote grass growing management in orchard in China, more and more domestic research was reported in recent years. Combined the results of our research and domestic related research, we reviewed the latest research progress about the effect of growing grass on soil, microclimate, fruit tree diseases and insect pests, tree growth and fruit quali- ty, etc. in this paper. We pointed out that grass growing in orchard must consider the local conditions, economic efficiency, the critical period, and the supporting technique.

  9. Writing Cover Letters That Address Instructor Feedback Improves Final Papers in a Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Frances; Gaze, Catherine M.; Braasch, Jason L. G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how writing cover letters to the instructor influenced final papers in research methods courses. After receiving instructor feedback on drafts of each section of an American Psychological Association style research paper throughout the semester, students in two classes wrote cover letters to the instructor explaining how the instructor…

  10. Writing Cover Letters That Address Instructor Feedback Improves Final Papers in a Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Frances; Gaze, Catherine M.; Braasch, Jason L. G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how writing cover letters to the instructor influenced final papers in research methods courses. After receiving instructor feedback on drafts of each section of an American Psychological Association style research paper throughout the semester, students in two classes wrote cover letters to the instructor explaining how the instructor…

  11. Research destruction ice under dynamic loading. Part 1. Modeling explosive ice cover into account the temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomolov Gennady N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the research, the behavior of ice under shock and explosive loads is analyzed. Full-scale experiments were carried out. It is established that the results of 2013 practically coincide with the results of 2017, which is explained by the temperature of the formation of river ice. Two research objects are considered, including freshwater ice and river ice cover. The Taylor test was simulated numerically. The results of the Taylor test are presented. Ice is described by an elastoplastic model of continuum mechanics. The process of explosive loading of ice by emulsion explosives is numerically simulated. The destruction of the ice cover under detonation products is analyzed in detail.

  12. [Advance in researches on vegetation cover and management factor in the soil erosion prediction model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Jianping; Liu, Baoyuan

    2002-08-01

    Vegetation cover and land management are the main limiting factors of soil erosion, and quantitative evaluation on the effect of different vegetation on soil erosion is essential to land use and soil conservation planning. The vegetation cover and management factor (C) in the universal soil loss equation (USLE) is an index to evaluate this effect, which has been studied deeply and used widely. However, the C factor study is insufficient in China. In order to strengthen the research of C factor, this paper reviewed the developing progress of C factor, and compared the methods of estimating C value in different USLE versions. The relative studies in China were also summarized from the aspects of vegetation canopy coverage, soil surface cover, and root density. Three problems in C factor study were pointed out. The authors suggested that cropland C factor research should be furthered, and its methodology should be unified in China to represent reliable C values for soil loss prediction and conservation planning.

  13. The System Dynamics of Forest Cover in the Developing World: Researcher Versus Community Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Schmitt Olabisi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to increase forest cover in the developing world will only succeed if the root causes of deforestation are addressed. Researchers designing reforestation initiatives tend to emphasize macro-level drivers of deforestation, about which they have extensive data and knowledge. On the other hand, local people have contextually based knowledge of forest cover dynamics in their region—about which external researchers may be largely ignorant. This type of perception gap between researchers and community members has led to many failed or insufficiently implemented projects. An emerging tool—group model-building with system dynamics—shows promise in its ability to integrate different perspectives on a complex problem such as forest cover loss. In this study, I use system dynamics modeling methodology to compare causal loop diagrams of forest cover dynamics on Negros Island, Philippines generated by researchers working for the World Wildlife Fund with causal loop diagrams generated by community members in upland Negros. The diagrams were significantly different, with very few variables in common, but both illuminate critical aspects of the deforestation problem on the island. I conclude that reforestation initiatives in the Philippines would benefit from incorporating all relevant information into a single, coherent model.

  14. NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change (LCLUC): an interdisciplinary research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Chris; Gutman, Garik; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad

    2015-01-15

    Understanding Land Cover/Land Use Change (LCLUC) in diverse regions of the world and at varied spatial scales is one of the important challenges in global change research. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the NASA LCLUC program, its focus areas, and the importance of satellite remote sensing observations in LCLUC research including future directions. The LCLUC Program was designed to be a cross-cutting theme within NASA's Earth Science program. The program aims to develop and use remote sensing technologies to improve understanding of human interactions with the environment. Since 1997, the NASA LCLUC program has supported nearly 280 research projects on diverse topics such as forest loss and carbon, urban expansion, land abandonment, wetland loss, agricultural land use change and land use change in mountain systems. The NASA LCLUC program emphasizes studies where land-use changes are rapid or where there are significant regional or global LCLUC implications. Over a period of years, the LCLUC program has contributed to large regional science programs such as Land Biosphere-Atmosphere (LBA), the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), and the Monsoon Area Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS). The primary emphasis of the program will remain on using remote sensing datasets for LCLUC research. The program will continue to emphasize integration of physical and social sciences to address regional to global scale issues of LCLUC for the benefit of society.

  15. C-CAP Land Cover, National Estuarine Research Reserve, Wells, Maine, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land cover derived from high resolution orthoimagery, LiDAR data and ancillary data sources such as National Wetlands Inventory, and was...

  16. 2006 C-CAP Land Cover of Old Woman Creek, Ohio, National Estuarine Research Reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land cover derived from high resolution orthoimagery, LiDAR data and ancillary data sources such as SSURGO and National Wetlands Inventory,...

  17. Spatial Analyses in the Research of Land Cover Changes (A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurek Kinga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing human activity significantly influences the geographic environment. The effects of excessive anthropogenic pressure are manifested by changes in land cover and in landscape structure, and land cover changes can particularly well observed in river valleys. In this study we aimed to determine the transformations of land use in 13.9 sq km of the Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland, including parts of the city of Ruda Slaska and Mikolow County by analyzing changes in land cover that occurred from 1827-2012 and archival and contemporary topographic maps, and aerial photos were used as primary source materials. All materials were prepared with the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS, using spatial analyses, such as kernel density and point density in order to define land cover structure changes.

  18. Spatial Analyses in the Research of Land Cover Changes (A Case Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Kinga

    2015-10-01

    Increasing human activity significantly influences the geographic environment. The effects of excessive anthropogenic pressure are manifested by changes in land cover and in landscape structure, and land cover changes can particularly well observed in river valleys. In this study we aimed to determine the transformations of land use in 13.9 sq km of the Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland, including parts of the city of Ruda Slaska and Mikolow County by analyzing changes in land cover that occurred from 1827-2012 and archival and contemporary topographic maps, and aerial photos were used as primary source materials. All materials were prepared with the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), using spatial analyses, such as kernel density and point density in order to define land cover structure changes. Results show the development of residential areas and the fragmentation of large structures that have occurred over the time period.

  19. USDA Human Nutrition Research and Education Activities. A Report to Congress Covering the Period January-December 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Jacqueline; And Others

    This document is the sixth annual, legislatively mandated report on the human nutrition research and education activities of the United States Department of Agriculture for fiscal year 1992 in which directions and highlights are emphasized. The report contains six sections. Section 1 is an introduction. Section 2 covers human nutrition research…

  20. Land change monitoring, assessment, and projection (LCMAP) revolutionizes land cover and land change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven

    2017-05-02

    When nature and humanity change Earth’s landscapes - through flood or fire, public policy, natural resources management, or economic development - the results are often dramatic and lasting.Wildfires can reshape ecosystems. Hurricanes with names like Sandy or Katrina will howl for days while altering the landscape for years. One growing season in the evolution of drought-resistant genetics can transform semiarid landscapes into farm fields.In the past, valuable land cover maps created for understanding the effects of those events - whether changes in wildlife habitat, water-quality impacts, or the role land use and land cover play in affecting weather and climate - came out at best every 5 to 7 years. Those high quality, high resolution maps were good, but users always craved more: even higher quality data, additional land cover and land change variables, more detailed legends, and most importantly, more frequent land change information.Now a bold new initiative called Land Change Monitoring, Assessment, and Projection (LCMAP) promises to fulfill that demand.Developed at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, LCMAP provides definitive, timely information on how, why, and where the planet is changing. LCMAP’s continuous monitoring process can detect changes as they happen every day that Landsat satellites acquire clear observations. The result will be to place near real-time information in the hands of land and resource managers who need to understand the effects these changes have on landscapes.

  1. Research relative to angular distribution of snow reflectance/snow cover characterization and microwave emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Jeff; Davis, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    Remote sensing has been applied in recent years to monitoring snow cover properties for applications in hydrologic and energy balance modeling. In addition, snow cover has been recently shown to exert a considerable local influence on weather variables. Of particular importance is the potential of sensors to provide data on the physical properties of snow with high spatial and temporal resolution. Visible and near-infrared measurements of upwelling radiance can be used to infer near-surface properties through the calculation of albedo. Microwave signals usually come from deeper within the snow pack and thus provide depth-integrated information, which can be measured through clouds and does not relay on solar illumination.Fundamental studies examining the influence of snow properties on signals from various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum continue in part because of the promise of new remote sensors with higher spectral and spatial accuracy. Information in the visible and near-infrared parts of the spectrum comprise nearly all available data with high spatial resolution. Current passive microwave sensors have poor spatial resolution and the data are problematic where the scenes consist of mixed landscape features, but they offer timely observations that are independent of cloud cover and solar illumination.

  2. Information Resources for Training: A Survey of Non-Military Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-05

    Instructional and Research Materials in Vocational at.’’ Technical Education BatteRe Memoria ] Institute Catalog of National Institute of...abstract journaJs. Moreover, users may order all documents announced in a given category, or only those announced as of prime relevance, which

  3. 15 CFR 734.11 - Government-sponsored research covered by contract controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or other categories of persons; or restrictions on participation of non-U.S. citizens or other... Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT... security controls are agreed on to protect information resulting from the research, § 734.3(b)(3) of...

  4. Fossil debris-covered glaciers in Demanda Sierra (Northern Spain): geomorphological research and 10Be cosmogenic exposure dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, José M.; Palacios, David; Andrés, Nuria; Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Gómez-Villar, Amelia; Santos-González, Javier; Álvarez-Martínez, Javier; Arnáez, José; Úbeda, José; García-Ruiz, José M.

    2017-04-01

    masses, which partially cover the adjacent moraines. The CED analysis indicated a minimum age of 17.8 ± 2.2 ka for the outermost moraine in the San Lorenzo cirque, attributed to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) or even prior glacial stages, and an age of 16.5 ka (GS-2a stadial, Oldest Dryas) for small moraines located close to the cirque headwall. Thus, the debris-covered glacier developed in the intense deglaciation occurred between the LGM and the Oldest Dryas. The isolating effect of the debris mantle over the ice masses enabled them to endure for thousands years, especially in the western Mencilla Cirque, which melted during the Holocene Thermal Optimum, favored by its northern aspect, whereas the San Lorenzo debris-covered glacier did it earlier during the Late Pleistocene. The ELAs fluctuated between 1673 and 1807 m a.s.l. (Mencilla Peak) and between 1904 and 2007 m a.s.l. (San Lorenzo Peak) within the three/four glacial stages identified in the cirques. Research funded by the projects ESPAS (CGL2015-65569_R) (MINECO/FEDER), CRYOCRISIS (CGL2012-35858), and Deglaciation (CGL2015-65813-R), Government of Spain.

  5. Aspects of public opinion research in risk perception studies covering the nuclear field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, Katia Suemi; Hiromoto, Goro, E-mail: ktanimoto@ipen.b, E-mail: hiromoto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A project for site selection and construction of a national radioactive waste repository is underway at the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. Public acceptance is determinant to the deployment of an undertaking of this size. A major concern regarding the use of nuclear energy are the problems related to safe management of the radioactive waste. For effective communication between decision makers and the public, a mutual understanding of views, as well as attitudes towards risk, is needed. The use of opinions polls is necessary in order to achieve it. This work aims to point out the major aspects to be approached by an opinion poll for the study of risk perception on the candidate regions for repository construction. A risk perception research model is presented, to be applied to the case of radioactive waste disposal, along with theoretical support to the organization and implementation of its structure. (author)

  6. Research of wind and snow cover loads on the roofs of the vertical cylindrical tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Semenov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of vertical cylindrical tanks puts the question of their sustainable design. Snow load brings the greatest contribution to the stress-strain state of the supporting structures of vertical tanks spherical domed coatings in the IV-VIII snowy areas of Russia.New geometrical forms of the tank coatings with volume 20 000 m3 were developed. The results of aerodynamic research of proposed coatings model were presented.The coefficients of the external pressure on the surface of the walls and coating of the tank were determined. Qualitative and quantitative picture of the snowy mass under the influence of the wind were also determined.The obtained results can be used to develop effective design solutions for domed coatings of the oil tanks.

  7. Assimilation of MODIS Snow Cover Through the Data Assimilation Research Testbed and the Community Land Model Version 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Fei; Hoar, Tim J.; Yang, Zong-Liang; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Toure, Ally M.; Rodell, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    To improve snowpack estimates in Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover fraction (SCF) was assimilated into the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) via the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART). The interface between CLM4 and DART is a flexible, extensible approach to land surface data assimilation. This data assimilation system has a large ensemble (80-member) atmospheric forcing that facilitates ensemble-based land data assimilation. We use 40 randomly chosen forcing members to drive 40 CLM members as a compromise between computational cost and the data assimilation performance. The localization distance, a parameter in DART, was tuned to optimize the data assimilation performance at the global scale. Snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow depth are adjusted via the ensemble adjustment Kalman filter, particularly in regions with large SCF variability. The root-mean-square error of the forecast SCF against MODIS SCF is largely reduced. In DJF (December-January-February), the discrepancy between MODIS and CLM4 is broadly ameliorated in the lower-middle latitudes (2345N). Only minimal modifications are made in the higher-middle (4566N) and high latitudes, part of which is due to the agreement between model and observation when snow cover is nearly 100. In some regions it also reveals that CLM4-modeled snow cover lacks heterogeneous features compared to MODIS. In MAM (March-April-May), adjustments to snowmove poleward mainly due to the northward movement of the snowline (i.e., where largest SCF uncertainty is and SCF assimilation has the greatest impact). The effectiveness of data assimilation also varies with vegetation types, with mixed performance over forest regions and consistently good performance over grass, which can partly be explained by the linearity of the relationship between SCF and SWE in the model ensembles. The updated snow depth was compared to the Canadian Meteorological

  8. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  9. Is digital cover photography a viable method for measuring leaf index for phenological research in closed forest ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, E. S.; Sonnentag, O.; Ryu, Y.; Macfarlane, C.; Hufkens, K.; Keenan, T. F.; Friedl, M. A.; Richardson, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    The use of the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer as instrument for calculating plant area index (PAI), and ultimately leaf area index (LAI), based on hemispherical gap-fraction measurements has been established through past studies. Ideally, these measurements are taken under diffuse light, which restricts their application to overcast conditions or short time windows during dusk and dawn. A promising and less restrictive alternative is digital cover photography (DCP), which provides estimates of crown porosity (φ), and foliage (ff) and crown cover fractions (fc). From these, PAI can be calculated, which can then be corrected for the influence of woody canopy elements to obtain LAI. The method has been developed and tested in Eucalyptus forests and oak-savanna woodland, i.e. in open ecosystems where enough light can penetrate the canopy for sufficient scene illumination. This research seeks to explore the viability of DCP as a method of obtaining PAI and LAI for phenological research in closed forest ecosystems such as temperate broadleaf deciduous forests, where limited scene illumination especially under fully developed canopies and the seasonally changing influence of woody canopy elements to φ, ff and fc might pose methodological challenges. To test the performance of DCP under these conditions, weekly imaging of 33 long-term incremental biomass plots at a temperate broadleaf-deciduous-dominated forest (Harvard Forest) was undertaken with a digital single-lens reflex camera (Pentax K100D). To examine the role of changing scene illumination at different canopy development stages, the images were acquired in RAW format to allow maximum control over image exposure in the post-processing. Using a range of different exposure settings, DCP-based PAI estimates were then compared to PAI estimates obtained from gap-fraction measurements made with the LAI-2000 instrument (recomputed using only the first 7° ring) at the same plots, and with canopy greenness obtained with

  10. Land use and cover change as an overarching topic in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change : issues for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fresco, L.O.; Berg, van den M.M.; Zeijl-Rozema, van A.E.

    1996-01-01

    The integration study 'Land Use and Cover Change as an overarching topic in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP)' aims at identifying research fields in which the NRP can contribute most effectively to the international scientific know-how

  11. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  12. Research on Land Surface Thermal-Hydrologic Exchange in Southern China under Future Climate and Land Cover Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwu Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change inevitably leads to changes in hydrothermal circulation. However, thermal-hydrologic exchanging caused by land cover change has also undergone ineligible changes. Therefore, studying the comprehensive effects of climate and land cover changes on land surface water and heat exchanges enables us to well understand the formation mechanism of regional climate and predict climate change with fewer uncertainties. This study investigated the land surface thermal-hydrologic exchange across southern China for the next 40 years using a land surface model (ecosystem-atmosphere simulation scheme (EASS. Our findings are summarized as follows. (i Spatiotemporal variation patterns of sensible heat flux (H and evapotranspiration (ET under the land cover scenarios (A2a or B2a and climate change scenario (A1B are unanimous. (ii Both H and ET take on a single peak pattern, and the peak occurs in June or July. (iii Based on the regional interannual variability analysis, H displays a downward trend (10% and ET presents an increasing trend (15%. (iv The annual average H and ET would, respectively, increase and decrease by about 10% when woodland converts to the cultivated land. Through this study, we recognize that land surface water and heat exchanges are affected greatly by the future climate change as well as land cover change.

  13. Overview of research activities associated with the World Health Organization: results of a survey covering 2006/07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Robert F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the first comprehensive effort to provide an overview of the research associated with the World Health Organization (WHO headquarters in 2006/07. Methods Information was obtained by questionnaire and interviews with senior staff operating at WHO headquarters in Geneva. Research type, purpose and resources (both financial and staff were defined and compared for each of the 37 departments identified and a comparative analysis was made with the global burden of disease as expressed by Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY. Results Research expenditure in 2006/07 was estimated at US$215 million. WHO is involved in more than 60 research networks/partnerships and often WHO itself is the network host. Using the DALY model, 84% of the funding WHO allocates to research goes to DALY Type I diseases (communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional diseases which represents 40% of DALY. 4% is allocated to Daly Type II (non-communicable diseases which contributes to 48% of DALY. 45% of WHO permanent staff are involved with health research and the WHO's approach to research is predominantly focused on policy, advocacy, health systems and population based research. The Organization principally undertakes secondary research using published data and commissions others to conduct this work through contracts or research grants. This approach is broadly in line with the stated strategy of the Organization. Conclusions The difficulty in undertaking this survey highlights the complexity of obtaining an Organization-wide assessment of research activity in the absence of common standards for research classification, methods for priority setting and a mechanism across WHO, or within the governance of global health research more generally, for managing a research portfolio. This paper presents a strategic birds-eye view of the WHO research portfolio using methodologies that, with further development, may provide the strategic

  14. Flat covers of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinzhong

    1996-01-01

    Since the injective envelope and projective cover were defined by Eckmann and Bas in the 1960s, they have had great influence on the development of homological algebra, ring theory and module theory. In the 1980s, Enochs introduced the flat cover and conjectured that every module has such a cover over any ring. This book provides the uniform methods and systematic treatment to study general envelopes and covers with the emphasis on the existence of flat cover. It shows that Enochs' conjecture is true for a large variety of interesting rings, and then presents the applications of the results. Readers with reasonable knowledge in rings and modules will not have difficulty in reading this book. It is suitable as a reference book and textbook for researchers and graduate students who have an interest in this field.

  15. Understanding controls on flow permanence in intermittent rivers to aid ecological research: integrating meteorology, geology and land cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermittent rivers, those channels that periodically cease to flow, constitute over half of the total discharge of the global river network and will likely increase in their extent due to climatic shifts and/or water resources development. Burgeoning research on intermittent riv...

  16. Understanding controls on flow permanence in intermittent rivers to aid ecological research: integrating meteorology, geology and land cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermittent rivers, those channels that periodically cease to flow, constitute over half of the total discharge of the global river network and will likely increase in their extent due to climatic shifts and/or water resources development. Burgeoning research on intermittent riv...

  17. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7917.2014v19n1p158 Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  18. Cover Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuning; Ruben; Lehn; Renz; Garcia; Ksenofontov; Gütlich; Wegelius; Rissanen

    2000-07-17

    The cover picture shows how both, fine arts and science, avail themselves of a system of intertwined symbolic and iconic languages. They make use of a common set of abstracted signs to report on their results. Thus, already in 1925, Wassily Kandinsky painted a masterpiece (bottom), which now, 75 years later, might be regarded as a blueprint for a scientific project. In his painting, Kandinsky pictured a grid-shaped sign that resembles in effect an actual molecular switch. Apparently following an enigmatic protocol, the groups of Lehn and Gütlich (see p. 2504 ff. for more details) constructed a grid-type inorganic architecture that operates as a three-level magnetic switch (center) triggered by three external perturbations (p, T, hnu). The switching principle is based on the spin-crossover phenomenon of Fe(II) ions and can be monitored by Mössbauer spectroscopy (left) and magnetic measurements (rear). Maybe not by chance, the English translation of the title of the painting "signs" is a homonym of "science", since both presented works are a product of the insatiable curiosity of man and his untiring desire to recognize his existence.

  19. The ISO/IEC 11179 norm for metadata registries: does it cover healthcare standards in empirical research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngouongo, Sylvie M N; Löbe, Matthias; Stausberg, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    In order to support empirical medical research concerning reuse and improvement of the expressiveness of study data and hence promote syntactic as well as semantic interoperability, services are required for the maintenance of data element collections. As part of the project for the implementation of a German metadata repository for empirical research we assessed the ability of ISO/IEC 11179 "Information technology - Metadata registries (MDR)" part 3 edition 3 Final Committee Draft "Registry metamodel and basic attributes" to represent healthcare standards. First step of the evaluation was a reformulation of ISO's metamodel with the terms and structures of the different healthcare standards. In a second step, we imported instances of the healthcare standards into a prototypical database implementation representing ISO's metamodel. Whereas the flat structure of disease registries as well as some controlled vocabularies could be easily mapped to the ISO's metamodel, complex structures as used in reference models of electronic health records or classifications could be not exhaustively represented. A logical reconstruction of an application will be needed in order to represent them adequately. Moreover, the correct linkage between elements from ISO/IEC 11179 edition 3 and concepts of classifications remains unclear. We also observed some restrictions of ISO/IEC 11179 edition 3 concerning the representation of items of the Operational Data Model from the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium, which might be outside the scope of a MDR. Thus, despite the obvious strength of the ISO/IEC 11179 edition 3 for metadata registries, some issues should be considered in its further development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Computer implemented land cover classification using LANDSAT MSS digital data: A cooperative research project between the National Park Service and NASA. 3: Vegetation and other land cover analysis of Shenandoah National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibula, W. G.

    1981-01-01

    Four LANDSAT frames, each corresponding to one of the four seasons were spectrally classified and processed using NASA-developed computer programs. One data set was selected or two or more data sets were marged to improve surface cover classifications. Selected areas representing each spectral class were chosen and transferred to USGS 1:62,500 topographic maps for field use. Ground truth data were gathered to verify the accuracy of the classifications. Acreages were computed for each of the land cover types. The application of elevational data to seasonal LANDSAT frames resulted in the separation of high elevation meadows (both with and without recently emergent perennial vegetation) as well as areas in oak forests which have an evergreen understory as opposed to other areas which do not.

  1. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  2. Research on remote sensing image segmentation based on ant colony algorithm: take the land cover classification of middle Qinling Mountains for example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xin; Wang, Qian; Wang, Quanfang; Lin, Wenfang

    2009-10-01

    Remote sensing image based on the complexity of the background features, has a wealth of spatial information, how to extract huge amounts of data in the region of interest is a serious problem. Image segmentation refers to certain provisions in accordance with the characteristics of the image into different regions, and it is the key of remote sensing image recognition and information extraction. Reasonably fast image segmentation algorithm is the base of image processing; traditional segmentation methods have a lot of the limitations. Traditional threshold segmentation method in essence is an ergodic process, the low efficiency impacts on its application. The ant colony algorithm is a populationbased evolutionary algorithm heuristic biomimetic, since proposed, it has been successfully applied to the TSP, job-shop scheduling problem, network routing problem, vehicle routing problem, as well as other cluster analysis. Ant colony optimization algorithm is a fast heuristic optimization algorithm, easily integrates with other methods, and it is robust. Improved ant colony algorithm can greatly enhance the speed of image segmentation, while reducing the noise on the image. The research background of this paper is land cover classification experiments according to the SPOT images of Qinling area. The image segmentation based on ant colony algorithm is carried out and compared with traditional methods. Experimental results show that improved the ant colony algorithm can quickly and accurately segment target, and it is an effective method of image segmentation, it also has laid a good foundation of image classification for the follow-up work.

  3. Covering walks in graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Fujie, Futaba

    2014-01-01

    Covering Walks  in Graphs is aimed at researchers and graduate students in the graph theory community and provides a comprehensive treatment on measures of two well studied graphical properties, namely Hamiltonicity and traversability in graphs. This text looks into the famous Kӧnigsberg Bridge Problem, the Chinese Postman Problem, the Icosian Game and the Traveling Salesman Problem as well as well-known mathematicians who were involved in these problems. The concepts of different spanning walks with examples and present classical results on Hamiltonian numbers and upper Hamiltonian numbers of graphs are described; in some cases, the authors provide proofs of these results to illustrate the beauty and complexity of this area of research. Two new concepts of traceable numbers of graphs and traceable numbers of vertices of a graph which were inspired by and closely related to Hamiltonian numbers are introduced. Results are illustrated on these two concepts and the relationship between traceable concepts and...

  4. What Medicare Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Part A covers Medicare Part A hospital insurance covers inpatient hospital care, skilled nursing facility, hospice, lab tests, surgery, ... Medicare Covers Drug Coverage (Part D) Supplements & Other Insurance Claims & ... doctors, providers, hospitals & plans Where can I get covered medical items? ...

  5. A Research on Improving the NVH Performance of Flywheel Cover%飞轮壳NVH性能研究与改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焕宇; 郝志勇; 陈渊博

    2011-01-01

    Simulations on a flywheel cover are conducted by adopting FEM, multi-body dynamics and BEM methods to analyze its NVH performance. Firstly the finite element model for flywheel cover is set up and validated by modal test. Multi-body dynamics technique is used to calculate the vibration response of the coupled model for the cylinder block and crankshaft-connecting rod mechanism of a six-cylinder diesel engine with the load spectra transferred to flywheel end from cylinder block obtained. The frequency response characteristics of flywheel cover are worked out by finite element analysis. Then the noise characteristics of flywheel cover are predicted with its boundary element model. Finally the measures for reducing flywheel cover noise are studied. The results show that the method adopted can effectively suppress the radiated noise from cover surface.%采用有限元/多体动力学/边界元等方法对某飞轮壳进行仿真,以分析其NVH性能.首先建立飞轮壳有限元模型并通过模态试验验证其准确性;采用多体动力学方法计算六缸柴油机缸体与曲柄连杆机构耦合模型的振动响应,得到缸体传递到飞轮端的载荷频谱,通过有限元分析获得飞轮壳的频率响应特性,然后在边界元模型中预测出飞轮壳的噪声特性,最后研究了飞轮壳降噪的方法.结果表明,采用的方法能有效抑制飞轮壳的表面辐射噪声.

  6. COVER FIGURE in Nucleic Acids Research (Volume 39, Issue 9) entitled "The involvement of the nuclear-encoded human 2'-phosphodiesterase in mitochondrial RNA turnover"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Buchhave

    2011-01-01

    (English) Cover: The involvement of the nuclear-encoded human 2'-phosphodiesterase (2'-PDE) in mitochondrial RNA turnover. The 2'-PDE precursor (upper left corner) gets directed into the mitochondrial matrix by an N-terminal mitochondrial signaling peptide (blue). Inside the matrix, this signalin...

  7. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  8. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  9. UAS-SfM for coastal research: Geomorphic feature extraction and land cover classification from high-resolution elevation and optical imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdivant, Emily; Lentz, Erika; Thieler, E. Robert; Farris, Amy; Weber, Kathryn; Remsen, David P.; Miner, Simon; Henderson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The vulnerability of coastal systems to hazards such as storms and sea-level rise is typically characterized using a combination of ground and manned airborne systems that have limited spatial or temporal scales. Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry applied to imagery acquired by unmanned aerial systems (UAS) offers a rapid and inexpensive means to produce high-resolution topographic and visual reflectance datasets that rival existing lidar and imagery standards. Here, we use SfM to produce an elevation point cloud, an orthomosaic, and a digital elevation model (DEM) from data collected by UAS at a beach and wetland site in Massachusetts, USA. We apply existing methods to (a) determine the position of shorelines and foredunes using a feature extraction routine developed for lidar point clouds and (b) map land cover from the rasterized surfaces using a supervised classification routine. In both analyses, we experimentally vary the input datasets to understand the benefits and limitations of UAS-SfM for coastal vulnerability assessment. We find that (a) geomorphic features are extracted from the SfM point cloud with near-continuous coverage and sub-meter precision, better than was possible from a recent lidar dataset covering the same area; and (b) land cover classification is greatly improved by including topographic data with visual reflectance, but changes to resolution (when <50 cm) have little influence on the classification accuracy.

  10. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... such as lowpermeability clay soils and geomembranes are required. The avoidance of water input to organic waste may impede the microbial stabilization processes including gas generation. Therefore watertight top covers may be in conflict with the purposes of reactor landfills (see Chapter 10.6). At some sites covers...... sometimes are made to include components for recirculation of landfill leachate (see Section 10.9.2 for more details). The top cover is an important factor in the water management of landfills. Details about water infiltration through top covers and its influence on the hydrology of the landfill is covered...

  11. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...... the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... however, top covers may be the only environmental protection measure. In some landfill regulations (for instance the Subtitle D landfills receiving municipal solid waste in the USA) it is required to minimize infiltration into the waste layers. Therefore top covers containing liner components...

  12. Research on the Exploded Deep Drawing Technology of Concave Cover Shells%凹盖壳爆炸拉深工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清泉; 周晖

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces the manufacturing process of exploded deep drawing of stainless concave cover shells',and it focuses on elaborating the determination of shaping technical process,the design of exploded deep drawing model and the choice of the exploded technology parameters.The results prove that the exploded deep drawing technology of cave cover shells have advantages of simple method,little investment,needing no large equipments and high precision.Thus,such technology can be widely used in producing similar parts in low and medium quantity.%介绍了不锈钢凹盖壳爆炸拉深的研制过程,重点阐述成形工艺方法的确定,爆炸拉深模的设计和爆炸工艺参数的选择。研究结果表明,凹盖壳爆炸拉深具有工艺方法简单、投资少、无需大型设备、成形精度高等优点,工艺方法是可行的,可广泛应用于类似零件的中小批量生产。

  13. A Numerical Analysis Research on Earlier Behavior of Molten Droplet Covered with Vapor Film at the Stage of Triggering and Propagation in Steam Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the molten fuel with high temperature falls into the cavity water, it will be dispersed into droplets which are covered with vapor films due to the rapid heat transfer with phase transition. This situation cannot be simply described by liquid-liquid or gas-liquid systems. And there are no sufficient experimental studies on the behavior of droplet covered with vapor film because of the rapid reaction and the difficulty in capture of the film configuration. In this paper, a multiphase code with the volume of fluid (VOF method is used to simulate the earlier behavior of droplet when vapor film exits. The earlier behavior is defined as behavior of the droplet before its disintegration. Thermal effect and pure hydrodynamic effect are, respectively, considered. The simulation results indicate that the film thickness and material density have significant effect on the earlier behavior of droplet. The situation assumed in Ciccarelli and Frost’s model (1994 is observed in current simulation of earlier thermal droplet behavior. The effect of triggering pressure pulse on earlier hydrodynamic behavior is also discussed and it indicates that vapor film has little effect on the hydrodynamic droplet deformation when the intensity of the pressure pulse is very high.

  14. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  15. Saturated Domino Coverings

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, Andrew; Ryba, Alex

    2011-01-01

    A domino covering of a board is saturated if no domino is redundant. We introduce the concept of a fragment tiling and show that a minimal fragment tiling always corresponds to a maximal saturated domino covering. The size of a minimal fragment tiling is the domination number of the board. We define a class of regular boards and show that for these boards the domination number gives the size of a minimal X-pentomino covering. Natural sequences that count maximal saturated domino coverings of square and rectangular boards are obtained. These include the new sequences A193764, A193765, A193766, A193767, and A193768 of OEIS.

  16. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  17. A Research on Closed Valve Cover Production Process Quality Control%常闭阀罩生产过程质量控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵会珍; 赵虎

    2014-01-01

    Observing the quality problems in a closed valve cover enterprise , quality control theory and methods are used to improve the quality of closed valve cover .First, a praetor diagram method is used to analyze the product quality problems;and then , using measurement system analysis , process capability a-nalysis is made to find the key factors;using a fishbone diagram , a linear regression analysis is made to de-sign the improvement scheme;using Minitab software , data is analyzed .Finally , improved improved im-provedtithe project is successfully implemented , whose result shows that failure rate is reduced largely , and the process capability improved from 0.54 to 1.22.%为了解决某公司常闭阀罩生产过程中质量不稳定、生产过程能力低等问题,将质量管理方法应用于常闭阀罩生产的管理过程。利用测量系统分析、过程能力分析、一元线性回归分析等方法进行产品质量的分析,并结合Minit-ab软件里面的功能模块,精确计算过程能力指数,生成控制图,根据判定准则,给出判定结论。企业应用实例表明,该公司在实施了质量控制后,过程能力提高,废品率降低,有效地提高了产品质量。

  18. Land Cover Characterization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover mapping. The USGS Anderson system defined the principles for land use and land cover mapping that have been the model both nationally and internationally for more than 20 years. The Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP) is founded on the premise that the Nation's needs for land cover and land use data are diverse and increasingly sophisticated. The range of projects, programs, and organizations that use land cover data to meet their planning, management, development, and assessment objectives has expanded significantly. The reasons for this are numerous, and include the improved capabilities provided by geographic information systems, better and more data-intensive analytic models, and increasing requirements for improved information for decision making. The overall goals of the LCCP are to:

  19. Land Cover Trends Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  20. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2000 - 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  1. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  2. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  3. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  4. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  5. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  6. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  7. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  8. Modeled conterminous United States Crop Cover datasets for 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Crop cover maps have become widely used in a range of research applications. Multiple crop cover maps have been developed to suite particular research interests. The...

  9. Changes of snow cover in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwed, Małgorzata; Pińskwar, Iwona; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Graczyk, Dariusz; Mezghani, Abdelkader

    2017-02-01

    The present paper examines variability of characteristics of snow cover (snow cover depth, number of days with snow cover and dates of beginning and end of snow cover) in Poland. The study makes use of a set of 43 long time series of observation records from the stations in Poland, from 1952 to 2013. To describe temporal changes in snow cover characteristics, the intervals of 1952-1990 and of 1991-2013 are compared and trends in analysed data are sought (e.g., using the Mann-Kendall test). Observed behaviour of time series of snow-related variables is complex and not easy to interpret, for instance because of the location of the research area in the zone of transitional moderate climate, where strong variability of climate events is one of the main attributes. A statistical link between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and the snow cover depth, as well as the number of snow cover days is found.

  10. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  11. RESEARCH OF GAS-FORMING ABILITY OF THE MATERIALS USED AT DEVELOPMENT OF DIVIDING COVERINGS FOR THE MOLDS OF CASTING OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS UNDER PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Mihaltsov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods of carrying out of experiments by determination of gas creating ability of different materials which are of interest from the point of view of molding of aluminum alloys under pressure are given and described, and the results of research are presented as well.

  12. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  13. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  14. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  15. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  16. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  17. Projected 2020 Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Projected 2020 land cover was developed to provide one scenario of development in the year 2020. It was used to generate several metrics to compare to 1992 metrics...

  18. Elementary particle physics. Progress report covering the five year period November 1, 1974 to October 31, 1979. [Summaries of research activities at Florida State Univ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical research in high energy physics is summarized. Preparations and proposals for future experiments include high mass states decaying into phi..pi../sup + -/, phi..pi../sup + -/..gamma.. and phiphi produced centrally in 300 GeV/c ..pi../sup -/p interactions, search for baryonium and for hyperonium, exotic states and charm decays, and dilepton production by neutrinos. A list of publications is included. (JFP)

  19. Managing cover crops on strawberry furrow bottoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare furrows in strawberry fields with plastic mulch covered beds can lead to lots of soil erosion and runoff during winter rainy periods. This article describes how growers can plant and manage cover crops in these furrows to minimize runoff and soil erosion. This is based on on-going research at...

  20. 农村800 MHz FDD-LTE覆盖能力研究%Research on Covering Capacity for Rural 800 MHz FDD-LTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓江

    2015-01-01

    目前中国电信在城区的LTE建设已趋于饱和,建设重心逐步向乡镇农村倾斜,由于1800 MHz所处频段较高,在农村广覆盖时存在一定问题,而现有800 MHz的低频特性则相对更适合于广域覆盖。在相同的覆盖目标场景下,通过设定合理的工程参数和设备参数,计算800和1800 MHz 2种频段的最大路径损耗,并选取对应的传播模型,分析两者各自不同的覆盖能力;通过ATOLL仿真平台,结合现网站点参数进行仿真,分析2种频段的下行RSRP、SINR、FTP下载速率等指标差异,验证800 MHz LTE在覆盖上的优势。%At present,China Telecom’s LTE construction in the city has become saturated,the rural area became the focus of construc-tion. Because 1800 MHz is a high frequency,there are some problems in rural wide coverage,however the existing 800 MHz band is more suitable for wide area coverage. In the premise of the same scene,by setting reasonable project parameters and device parameters,calculating the MAPL on 800 MHz and 1800 MHz and selecting the appropriate propagation model,analyz-ing the different covering capacity between the two frequency bands,then according to the simulation results based on the parameters of the network,analyzing the index difference of RSRP,SINR,FTP download speed between the two frequency, verifying 800 MHz LTE advantage in coverage.

  1. The Image Segmentation Research on The Land Cover of Fujian National Geographical Conditions Investigation%福建省地理国情普查地表覆盖影像分割技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩尚

    2014-01-01

    地表覆盖是地理国情普查中一项极为重要的内容之一,地表覆盖分类的第一步是基于影像的分割,准确的分割结果有助于提高分类的正确性。本文结合福建省地理国情普查试点项目,通过选取大量样本实例,对地表覆盖影像分割进行了深入地研究,研究成果已经广泛应用于地理国情普查工作。%Part of the very important job is the land cover in National Geographical Conditions Investigation , the first step in land cov-er classification is based on image segmentation ,the accurate segmentation results directly contributes to improve the correct classifica-tion.In this paper , by choosing a lot of samples , combined with the geographical conditions in Fujian province investigation pilot pro-ject, the land cover image segmentation are deeply studied , Research results have been widely applied to the actual work situation census geography .

  2. 烟草“前膜后草”双覆盖模式研究现状与展望%Research Progress of Tobacco Dual-mode Covering Cultivation Mode with Straw Mulching after Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅淋; 屠乃美; 邹湘香; 王可; 樊芬; 何康; 王靖渊; 易镇邪

    2013-01-01

    The straw mulching after film uncovered technique is an improved tobacco cultivation mode based on the plastic firm mulching and straw mulching cover patterns. This paper reviews the cause and efficacy of dual-mode covering culti-vation mode with straw mulching after film cover pattern, and raised the prospect of research direction on double coverage model.%烟草“前膜后草”双覆盖是在地膜覆盖与秸秆覆盖的基础上改进的覆盖栽培模式。综述了双覆盖模式的形成原因及其保温保湿效果,对烟株根系活力和病虫害防御、烟叶品质以及经济性状等方面的影响,并展望了“前膜后草”双覆盖模式的研究方向。

  3. Covering radii are not matroid invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britz, Thomas Johann; Rutherford, Carrie G.

    We show by example that the covering radius of a binary linear code is not generally determined the Tutte polynomial of the matroid. This answers Problem 361 (P. J. Cameron (ed.), Research problems, Discrete Math. 231 (2001) 469--478)....

  4. Lightweight composite fighting cover prototype development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Frame, B.J.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Akerman, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Army Field Assistance Science and Technology Program requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the use of lightweight composite materials in construction of overhead covers for reinforced infantry fighting positions. In recent years, ORNL researchers have designed and tested several concepts for lightweight ballistic protection structures, and they have developed numerous prototype composite structures for military and civilian applications. In the current program, composite panel designs and materials are tested and optimized to meet anticipated static and dynamic load conditions for the overhead cover structure. Ten prototype composite covers were built at ORNL for use in Army field tests. Each composite cover has a nominal surface area of 12 ft[sup 2] and a nominal weight of 8 lb. Four of the prototypes are made with folding sections to improve their handling characteristics. The composite covers exhibit equivalent performance in Army field tests to covers made with conventional materials that weigh four times as much.

  5. Covering radii are not matroid invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britz, Thomas Johann; Rutherford, Carrie G.

    We show by example that the covering radius of a binary linear code is not generally determined the Tutte polynomial of the matroid. This answers Problem 361 (P. J. Cameron (ed.), Research problems, Discrete Math. 231 (2001) 469--478).......We show by example that the covering radius of a binary linear code is not generally determined the Tutte polynomial of the matroid. This answers Problem 361 (P. J. Cameron (ed.), Research problems, Discrete Math. 231 (2001) 469--478)....

  6. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  7. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  8. Reusable pipe flange covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, James Elliott (Simpsonville, SC); Perez, Julieta (Houston, TX)

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  9. Mapping the existing body of health policy implementation research in lower income settings: what is covered and what are the gaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, E; Orgill, M; Schneider, H; Gilson, L

    2014-12-01

    This article uses 85 peer-reviewed articles published between 1994 and 2009 to characterize and synthesize aspects of the health policy analysis literature focusing on policy implementation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It seeks to contribute, first, to strengthening the field of LMIC health policy analysis by highlighting gaps in the literature and generating ideas for a future research agenda and, second, to thinking about the value and applicability of qualitative synthesis approaches to the health policy analysis field. Overall, the article considers the disciplinary perspectives from which LMIC health policy implementation is studied and the extent to which the focus is on systems or programme issues. It then works with the more specific themes of the key thrusts of the reviewed articles, the implementation outcomes studied, implementation improvement recommendations made and the theories used in the reviewed articles. With respect to these more specific themes, the article includes explorations of patterns within the themes themselves, the contributions of specific disciplinary perspectives and differences between systems and programme articles. It concludes, among other things, that the literature remains small, fragmented, of limited depth and quite diverse, reflecting a wide spectrum of health system dimensions studied and many different suggestions for improving policy implementation. However, a range of issues beyond traditional 'hardware' health system concerns, such as funding and organizational structure, are understood to influence policy implementation, including many 'software' issues such as the understandings of policy actors and the need for better communication and actor relationships. Looking to the future, there is a need, given the fragmentation in the literature, to consolidate the existing body of work where possible and, given the often broad nature of the work and its limited depth, to draw more explicitly on theoretical

  10. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  11. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  12. Covering All Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The day a school opens its doors for the first time, the flooring will be new and untarnished. When the flooring is in such pristine condition, many flooring materials--carpeting, vinyl, terrazzo, wood or some other surface--will look good. But school and university planners who decide what kind of material covers the floors of their facilities…

  13. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  14. CORINE Land Cover 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael

    "CORINE land cover" er en fælleseuropæisk kortlægning af arealanvendelse/arealdække. Arealanvendelse/arealdække er i Danmark kortlagt efter CORINE metode og klasseopdeling med satellitbilleder fra 3 forskellige tidsperioder, fra begyndelsen af 1990'erne (CLC90), fra år 2000 (CLC2000) og fra år 2006...

  15. Land cover changes and their biogeophysical effects on climate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahmood, Rezaul; Pielke, Roger A; Hubbard, Kenneth G; Niyogi, Dev; Dirmeyer, Paul A; McAlpine, Clive; Carleton, Andrew M; Hale, Robert; Gameda, Samuel; Beltrán‐Przekurat, Adriana; Baker, Bruce; McNider, Richard; Legates, David R; Shepherd, Marshall; Du, Jinyang; Blanken, Peter D; Frauenfeld, Oliver W; Nair, U.S; Fall, Souleymane

    2014-01-01

    Land cover changes ( LCCs ) play an important role in the climate system. Research over recent decades highlights the impacts of these changes on atmospheric temperature, humidity, cloud cover, circulation, and precipitation...

  16. Singular coverings of toposes

    CERN Document Server

    Bunge, Marta

    2006-01-01

    The self-contained theory of certain singular coverings of toposes called complete spreads, that is presented in this volume, is a field of interest to topologists working in knot theory, as well as to various categorists. It extends the complete spreads in topology due to R. H. Fox (1957) but, unlike the classical theory, it emphasizes an unexpected connection with topos distributions in the sense of F. W. Lawvere (1983). The constructions, though often motivated by classical theories, are sometimes quite different from them. Special classes of distributions and of complete spreads, inspired respectively by functional analysis and topology, are studied. Among the former are the probability distributions; the branched coverings are singled out amongst the latter. This volume may also be used as a textbook for an advanced one-year graduate course introducing topos theory with an emphasis on geometric applications. Throughout the authors emphasize open problems. Several routine proofs are left as exercises, but...

  17. On directed coverings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    In [1], we study coverings in the setting of directed topology. Unfortunately, there is a condition missing in the definition of a directed covering. Some of the results in [1] require this extra condition and in fact it was claimed to follow from the original definition. It is the purpose...... of this note to give the right definition and point out how this affects the statements in that paper. Moreover, we give an example of a dicovering in the sense of [1], which does not satisfy the extra condition. Fortunately, with the extra condition, the subsequent results are now correct. [1] L. Fajstrup......, Dicovering spaces, Homology Homotopy Appl. 5 (2003), no. 2, 1-17....

  18. Covering R-trees

    CERN Document Server

    Berestovskii, V N

    2007-01-01

    We show that every inner metric space X is the metric quotient of a complete R-tree via a free isometric action, which we call the covering R-tree of X. The quotient mapping is a weak submetry (hence, open) and light. In the case of compact 1-dimensional geodesic space X, the free isometric action is via a subgroup of the fundamental group of X. In particular, the Sierpin'ski gasket and carpet, and the Menger sponge all have the same covering R-tree, which is complete and has at each point valency equal to the continuum. This latter R-tree is of particular interest because it is "universal" in at least two senses: First, every R-tree of valency at most the continuum can be isometrically embedded in it. Second, every Peano continuum is the image of it via an open light mapping. We provide a sketch of our previous construction of the uniform universal cover in the special case of inner metric spaces, the properties of which are used in the proof.

  19. 垃圾填埋场覆盖土CH4氧化影响因素的研究进展%Research on Main Factors for CH4 Oxidation in Landfill Cover Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫风; 彭禹; 张后虎; 吴世东

    2014-01-01

    温室气体CH4是导致气候变化、引起全球变暖的因素之一。垃圾填埋场是CH4重要的人为释放源,而填埋场覆盖土CH4氧化能有效削减CH4排放。本文对近年来国内外在影响覆盖土CH4氧化的主要因素方面取得的研究成果进行了总结,提出影响覆盖土CH4氧化的主要因素有:土壤含水率、土壤pH、土壤温度、土壤碳氮含量、土壤粒径、气象条件、CH4及O2浓度、重金属及覆盖土材料。最后,对其后的研究方向进行了展望,指出通过优选覆盖土材料以及控制环境状态,可以有效提高覆盖土CH4氧化速率,减小垃圾填埋场CH4释放。%CH4, as a serious greenhouse gas, is one of the reasons for climate change and global warming. Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill is a significant source of anthropogenic CH4, but the use of landfill cover soil (LCS) is seen as a key technology for the mitigation of CH4 emissions from landfill. In this paper, research progress about the main factors affecting CH4 oxidation in LCS were reviewed, and the major factors influencing CH4 oxidation potential in LCS included soil water content, soil pH, soil temperature, soil carbon and nitrogen content, soil particle, weather condition, CH4 and O2 concentrations, metal content and landfill final cover material. Finally, the future research directions of MOP in LCS were discussed, and through optimizing cover material and controlling environment condition, MOP can be effectively improved and mitigation of CH4 emissions from MSW landfills can be decreased.

  20. Covered Clause Elimination

    CERN Document Server

    Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

  1. Research on Similarity Law of Physical Model Experiments for Ice Cover Thickening in the Conveyance Channel%输水渠道冰盖增厚物理模型试验相似律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新; 王旭; 张雅卓

    2012-01-01

    随着南水北调中线工程冰期输水相关问题研究的深入,理论研究成果亟需物理模型试验和原型观测数据的支持和验证,由于原型观测难度较大,且影响因素不可控,物理模型试验方法成为解决冰水力学问题的有效途径.现在国内外学者开展冰水力学模型试验的成果基础上,结合冰水力学理论研究成果,对以冻结模型冰为试验材料的输水渠道冰盖增厚物理模型试验相似律展开研究,并通过物理模型试验进行了验证.研究表明:冰凌下潜临界流速的比尺为λ0.5,水力加厚冰盖沉积厚度的比尺为λ,均遵循重力相似准则;对于力学加厚冰盖,由于冰凌黏结力不遵循重力相似准则,结冰期需设法控制黏结力;融冰期可按照重力相似准则设计,但需控制环境温度在结冰点以上,以减小冰凌间的黏结力;因此输水渠道冰盖增厚物理模型试验宜采用冻结模型冰为试验对象,试验应按照重力相似准则进行设计.%With the research development on water diversion during the ice period in the South-to-North Water Diversion project, the theoretical research results need to be proved and supported by the physical model experiments and in-situ measured data. The in-situ measurements are usually difficult to obtain and their influencing factors are difficult to control, thus the physical model experiments have become an effective approach to solve the ice hydraulics problems. Based on the existing research results for the ice hydraulics experiments from the domestic and foreign scholars and the ice hydraulics theory, the frozen model ice was used as the experiment material,and then the similarity law of the physical model experiments was studied and verified for the ice cover thickening in the conveyance channel in this paper. The results showed that (1) The scale of the critical flow velocity for the submergence of ice slush is ,and the scale of the thickness of the

  2. RESEARCH ON CHARACTERISTICS OF LAND- USE/COVER CHANGE BASED ON RS AND GIS IN DATONG COUNTY%基于RS和GIS的大通县土地利用/覆被变化特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾俊姝; 宋桂萍; 高国雄; 马金明

    2011-01-01

    利用1995年和2005年两期TM遥感影像,综合利用RS和GIS技术,研究了大通县实施退耕还林政策以来从1995年到2005年10年期间土地利用/覆被时空变化特征.结果表明:大通县土地利用/覆被类型及面积变化明显,林地、水域及建设用地呈现增长趋势,其中林地增长最显著,成为最大的土地利用/覆被类型;草地总面积呈现减少趋势,但高覆被草地面积明显增加;耕地及未利用地均呈减少趋势;不同土地利用/覆被类型之间的转换很强烈,相互转换面积186 894.97hm2,占总面积的60.18%,其中草地转出为林地面积达68 040.88hm2,占发生转变总量的36.41%.研究结果可为该区退耕还林工程的管理和决策提供科学依据.%By the application of remote sensing 1995 and 2005 and using RS and GIS. The paper researched the space - time characteristics of Land - use/cover change ( LUCC) during the past 10 - year from 1995 to 2005 since the policies and measures of " converting farmland to forests" implemented. The result showed that the type and area of land use/cover of DaTong County had changed obviously by the project of converting farmland to forest. The woodland, water area and construction land showed on a growth trend, and woodland becomes the largest land - use/cover types in 2005; Grassland, cultivated land and unused land displayed a decreasing trend, the grassland turned into the second type from the advantage types of 1995, because of a remarkable reduction of low - cover grassland; The mutual conversion between different land - use/cover type was strong, the area 186 894. 97hm2 , accounting for the total area of 60. 18% ; The transition of grassland to woodland, area of 68 040. 88hm2 , is the most amount accounting for the total change of 36.41%. The conclusion would provide evidence for management and policy of converting farmland to forest in this area.

  3. 环境友好型替代铜及其合金基体镀金的工艺研究%Research of Environment Friendly Electrical Contact Protective lubricant Instead of Gold Plated Covering on Copper and Its Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾成林; 张宝根; 段练

    2014-01-01

    通过长期研究试验,研制出代替镀金用的铜及其合金表面的保护材料SP-2085C和LP-1087C电接触润滑保护剂,经过反复试验,大批量生产实践证明:SP-2085C和LP-1087C电接触润滑保护剂不仅能替代银、铜、镍等金属及其合金上的镀金层,而且保护后的银、铜、镍表面耐蚀能力优于替代前的镀金表面,且电气性能和微波传输性能没有影响。在滑动摩擦的接触表面上,还解决了金、银或铜滑动摩擦的接触表面上的磨损问题。%Through long-term research and test, the electrical contact protective lubricant SP-2085C and LP-1087C instead of gold plated covering on copper and its alloy have been manufactured. after repeated testing, mass production practice has proved that SP-2085C and LP-1087C electrical contact protective lubricant can not only replacing the gold-plating on the silver, copper, nickel and their alloys, but also have no influence on the electricity function and microwave transmission, and with using the protective agent, the corrosion resistance of silver, copper and nickel's surface is better than the gold plated covering before. In addition, the attrition issues of the sliding friction of gold or copper's contact surface have also been solved.

  4. Land Use and Land Cover - Montana Land Cover Framework 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This statewide land cover theme is a baseline digital map of Montana's natural and human land cover. The baseline map is adapted from the Northwest ReGAP project...

  5. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  6. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description...

  7. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  8. Space Constrained Dynamic Covering

    CERN Document Server

    Antonellis, Ioannis; Dughmi, Shaddin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we identify a fundamental algorithmic problem that we term space-constrained dynamic covering (SCDC), arising in many modern-day web applications, including ad-serving and online recommendation systems in eBay and Netflix. Roughly speaking, SCDC applies two restrictions to the well-studied Max-Coverage problem: Given an integer k, X={1,2,...,n} and I={S_1, ..., S_m}, S_i a subset of X, find a subset J of I, such that |J| <= k and the union of S in J is as large as possible. The two restrictions applied by SCDC are: (1) Dynamic: At query-time, we are given a query Q, a subset of X, and our goal is to find J such that the intersection of Q with the union of S in J is as large as possible; (2) Space-constrained: We don't have enough space to store (and process) the entire input; specifically, we have o(mn), sometimes even as little as O((m+n)polylog(mn)) space. The goal of SCDC is to maintain a small data structure so as to answer most dynamic queries with high accuracy. We present algorithms a...

  9. Cover crops and N credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops often provide many short- and long-term benefits to cropping systems. Legume cover crops can significantly reduce the N fertilizer requirement of non-legume cash crops that follow. The objectives of this presentation were to: I) educate stakeholders about the potential benefits of cover ...

  10. THE RESEARCH AND DESIGN FOR MULTIFUNCTIONAL PLASTIC SPIRAL COVER PRODUCTION LINE%多功能塑料螺旋护套生产线的研发设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王镇江

    2011-01-01

    The multifunctional plastic spiral cover production line used for protecting high-pressure soft pipe was researched.Changing thick section extruding, an unique soft shaft revolving forming technology was adopted in this line. The results after use showed that the machine forming was excellent. Products fully met the requirements of engineering machinery industry and obtained better social and economic benefits.%研制了一种高压软管用多功能塑料螺旋保护套的生产线.该生产线采用变厚截面塑料挤出,是一种独特的软轴旋转成型技术.用户使用后证明,该生产线成型性能优良.生产的产品完全符合工程机械行业的要求,取得了较好的社会效益和经济效益.

  11. Impact Analysis of Climate Change on Snow over a Complex Mountainous Region Using Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF Simulation and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Data (MODIS-Terra Fractional Snow Cover Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoduo Pan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has a complex effect on snow at the regional scale. The change in snow patterns under climate change remains unknown for certain regions. Here, we used high spatiotemporal resolution snow-related variables simulated by a weather research and forecast model (WRF including snowfall, snow water equivalent and snow depth along with fractional snow cover (FSC data extracted from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Data (MODIS-Terra to evaluate the effects of climate change on snow over the Heihe River Basin (HRB, a typical inland river basin in arid northwestern China from 2000 to 2013. We utilized Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF analysis and Mann-Kendall/Theil-Sen trend analysis to evaluate the results. The results are as follows: (1 FSC, snow water equivalent, and snow depth across the entire HRB region decreased, especially at elevations over 4500 m; however, snowfall increased at mid-altitude ranges in the upstream area of the HRB. (2 Total snowfall also increased in the upstream area of the HRB; however, the number of snowfall days decreased. Therefore, the number of extreme snow events in the upstream area of the HRB may have increased. (3 Snowfall over the downstream area of the HRB decreased. Thus, ground stations, WRF simulations and remote sensing products can be used to effectively explore the effect of climate change on snow at the watershed scale.

  12. Caption of The Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zongzhi

    1992-01-01

    @@ The airport scheduled flight dynamic management and information image display system type JHP-1 automatic display system developed recently by Shanghai Ship & Shipping Research Institute,Ministry of Communications. This system was first time installed in the international waiting building of Guangzhou Baiyun Airport in the Octoter of 1991 and put into use successfully.

  13. Introduction of Cover Picture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Cypripedium guttatum Sw is a plant of Cypripedium L. (Orchidaceae), which has biological effects such as sedation, analgesia, sweating, and antipyretic. Modern research shows that this Chinese herbal medicine can be used for the treatment of neurasthenia, epilepsy, febrile convulsion, headache, and stomachache. It is widely distributed in Northeast China, and Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, and Yunnan

  14. On L-injective Covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德旭

    2004-01-01

    We use the class of L-injective modules to define L-injective covers, and provide the characterizations of L-injective covers by the properties of kernels of homomorphisms. We prove that the right L-noetherian right L-hereditary ring is just such that every right R-module has an L-injective cover which is monic. We also use kernels of homomorphisms to investigate L-simple L-injective covers and give some constructions ofL-simple L-iniective covers.

  15. The Best Use of a Cover Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    So when should you use a cover letter? Only as part of a limited, targeted campaign to reach potential employers. Take the time to research and understand a company before committing yourself on paper as a potential employee, if you have no idea what the company does,

  16. Covering radii are not matroid invariants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Britz, Thomas Johann; Rutherford, Carrie G.

    2005-01-01

    We show by example that the covering radius of a binary linear code is not generally determined by the Tutte polynomial of the matroid. This answers Problem 361 (P.J. Cameron (Ed.), Research problems, Discrete Math. 231 (2001) 469–478)....

  17. Do cover crop mixtures have the same ability to suppress weeds as competitive monoculture cover crops?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brust, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of farmers use cover crop mixtures instead of monoculture cover crops to improve soil and crop quality. However, only little information is available about the weed suppression ability of cover crop mixtures. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted in Baden-Württemberg between 2010 and 2012, to compare growth and weed suppression of monoculture cover crops and cover crop mixtures. In the first experiment, heterogeneous results between yellow mustard and the cover crop mixture occurred. For further research, a field experiment was conducted in 2012 to compare monocultures of yellow mustard and hemp with three cover crop mixtures. The evaluated mixtures were: “MELO”: for soil melioration; “BETA”: includes only plant species with no close relation to main cash crops in Central Europe and “GPS”: for usage as energy substrate in spring. Yellow mustard, MELO, BETA and GPS covered 90% of the soil in less than 42 days and were able to reduce photosynthetically active radiation (PAR on soil surface by more than 96% after 52 days. Hemp covered 90% of the soil after 47 days and reduced PAR by 91% after 52 days. Eight weeks after planting, only BETA showed similar growth to yellow mustard which produced the highest dry matter. The GPS mixture had comparatively poor growth, while MELO produced similar dry matter to hemp. Yellow mustard, MELO and BETA reduced weed growth by 96% compared with a no cover crop control, while hemp and GPS reduced weeds by 85% and 79%. In spring, weed dry matter was reduced by more than 94% in plots with yellow mustard and all mixtures, while in hemp plots weeds were only reduced by 71%. The results suggest that the tested cover crop mixtures offer similar weed suppression ability until spring as the monoculture of the competitive yellow mustard.

  18. Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover depending on land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Köster

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover of normally developed (or postlithogenic mineral soils are analysed on the basis of four sampling soil groups. The four-link pedo-ecological sequence of analysed soils, rendzinas → brown soils → pseudopodzolic soils → gley-podzols, forms a representative cross section in relation to the normal mineral soils of Estonia. All groups differ substantially from each other in terms of soil properties (calcareousness, acidity, nutrition conditions, profile fabric and humus cover. The primary tasks of the research were (1 to elucidate the main pedo-ecological characteristics of the four soil groups and their suitability for plant cover, (2 to evaluate comparatively soils in terms of productivity, sustainability, biodiversity and environmental protection ability and (3 to analyse possibilities for ecologically sound matching of soil cover with suitable plant cover. On the basis of the same material, the influence of land-use change on humus cover (epipedon fabric, properties of the entire soil cover and soil–plant interrelationship were also analysed. An ecosystem approach enables us to observe particularities caused by specific properties of a soil type (species, variety in biological turnover and in the formation of biodiversity.

  19. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  20. The Monitoring Research of Land Use/Cover Disturbance in Puguang Gas Field Development Zone%普光气田开发区土地利用/覆盖扰动监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪东川; 黄勇; 张利辉

    2014-01-01

    Gas field development engineering project often exerts damage to vegetation,changing land use status,lead to soil and water losses,and increase soil erosion intensity of the project area. Based on 3S technology,taking Puguang gas field development zone as the research area,the ecosystem destruction and recovery situation of the gas field development zone were monitored through layer overlay,buffering analysis and land use/cover change trajectory extraction using spatial analysis method. Results showed that during the process of the project,great impacts were brought about on the vegetation and the surrounding ecosystem. Land use/cover conversions were mainly between forest,farmland,grassland and con-structive land before and after the project. Among those conversions,the occupied farmland was the main land use during gas field development construction. While because appropriate measures,such as soil and water conservation,ecological res-toration,had been taken during the construction,no obvious soil erosion and ecological destruction arose. The later engi-neering protection measures produced better vegetation restoration in the project area.%气田开发施工工程常常对植被造成破坏,改变土地利用现状,产生水土流失,因而加剧了项目区土壤侵蚀强度。以普光气田开发区为研究区,在3S技术支持下,运用空间分析方法,通过图层叠加、缓冲区分析与土地利用/覆盖变化轨迹提取,对气田开发区的生态系统破坏与恢复情况进行监测。结果表明:气田开发工程过程中会对植被和周围生态系统产生较大影响;工程前后土地利用变化主要体现在林地、耕地、草地和建设用地之间的转换上,其中气田开发区建设以占用耕地为主。但由于采取了相应的水土保持、生态恢复等措施,没有引发明显的水土流失和生态破坏,故工程中采取的措施有效,后期植被恢复较好。

  1. Dualities in Covering Rough Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Rough set theory is a technique of granular computing. In this paper, we study a type of generalized rough sets based on covering. There are several literatures[ 1,40-43 ] exploring covering-based rough sets. Our focus of this paper is on the dualities in rough operations.

  2. Midwest Cover Crops Field Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers who want to prevent soil erosion, improve nutrient cycling, sustain their soils, and protect/maintain the environment have been returning to a very old practice: planting cover crops. Cover crops are effective tools for reducing soil erosion and increasing nutrient recycling on farmlands, ...

  3. Automatic design of magazine covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  4. Investigación matemática argentina recogida en MathSci (2000-2005 Mathematical Research in Argentina Covered by MathSci (2000-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Merlino-Santesteban

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la investigación matemática argentina recogida en la base de datos MathSci correspondiente al período 2000-2005. Durante este período el total de la producción científica matemática tuvo un incremento del 10%. Teoría cuántica, Ecuaciones y derivadas parciales, y Relatividad y teoría gravitatoria son las tres áreas temáticas con mayor contribución matemática argentina, seguidas por Anillos y álgebras asociativos, y Mecánica estadística, estructura de la materia. La Universidad de Buenos Aires fue la institución líder en el número de trabajos publicados (35% y presentó la mayor diversidad productiva. Cerca del 89% de los trabajos se distribuyó en 406 revistas y prácticamente 46 títulos concentraron el 50% de los documentos. El 36% de la producción fue realizada en coautoría con colegas extranjeros. Estados Unidos y España fueron las naciones con las cuales se establecieron relaciones más estrechas. La tasa de colaboración internacional aumentó del 30 al 42%.Argentinean mathematical research covered by MathSci database for the period 2000-2005 is analyzed. During those years, the mathematical scientific production showed a growing rate of 10%. Quantum theory, Partial differential equations, and Relativity and gravitational theory are the three subject areas with more Argentinean mathematical contribution followed by Associative rings and algebra, and Statistical mechanics, structure of matter. The University of Buenos Aires was the leading institution in the number of published papers (35% and it presented the greatest productive diversity. About 89% of the articles have appeared in 406 journals and almost 46 titles concentrated 50% of the documents. Thirty six per cent of the production was performed in conjunction with foreign colleagues. United States and Spain were the most important collaborating nations. The international collaboration rate showed an increasu from 30 to 42%.

  5. 北方林区冰雪路面直线段驾驶员眼动规律研究%DRIVERS EYE MOVEMENT RESEARCH ABOUT STRAIGHT SEGMENT OF SNOW-COVERED ROAD IN NORTH FOREST REGION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锋; 朱守林; 高明星

    2014-01-01

    The snow-covered road has some basic characteristics in the north-forest such as low level,small short line-of-sight and road surface adhesion,small plane curve radius,vertical curve change drastically.It make the drivers have been a strong sense of higher physical and psychological pressure.In this paper,the authors analysed 6 drivers'eye movement data about 25 blink,fixation and Saccade,found the same periodic change about average blink continuous time and average pupil-area change rate,found average saccade amplitude had significant changes in the long distance.Also determined the length of straight-line roads which made the drivers feel the most comfortable on their eye-moving,for the next research of physiological change rule to provide theoretical reference.%林区冰雪道路具有等级低、视距短、路面附着力小、平曲线半径小、纵曲线变化剧烈等基本特征,给木材生产运输的驾驶员带来了较大的生理和心理压力.本文以北方林区冰雪道路上6名驾驶员的眼动实驾试验数据为基础,分析了驾驶员在不同直线长度下的冰雪道路上的眨眼、注视和扫视行为,得出了驾驶员在冰雪道路上行车时的平均眨眼持续时间、平均瞳孔面积变化率呈现相似的周期性变化规律,平均扫视幅度在中长距离上具有显著变化规律,确定了在北方林区冰雪路面上驾驶员的最佳视觉舒适性直线段长度,为下一步研究驾驶员的生理指标变化规律提供理论参考.

  6. Circulant Double Coverings of a Circulant Graph of Valency Five

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Quan FENG; Jin Ho KWAK

    2007-01-01

    Enumerating the isomorphism classes of several types of graph covering projections is one of the central research topics in enumerative topological graph theory. A covering of G is called circulant if its covering graph is circulant. Recently, the authors [Discrete Math., 277, 73-85 (2004)]enumerated the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a certain type, called a typicalcovering, and showed that no double covering of a circulant graph of valency three is circulant. Also, in [Graphs and Combinatorics, 21, 386-400 (2005)], the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a circulant graph of valency four are enumerated. In this paper, the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a circulant graph of valency five are enumerated.

  7. EDGE COVERING COLORING AND FRACTIONAL EDGE COVERING COLORING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAOLianying; LIUGuizhen

    2002-01-01

    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G).S E(G)is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S.The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xc(G),is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G.It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ,δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G,denoted by Xcf(G),is the fractional matiching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hypereges the edge covers of G.In this paper,we study the relation between Xc(G) and δfor any graph G,and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ-1≤Xc(G)≤δ by the technique of graph coloring.For any graph G,we give an exact formula o Xcf(G),that is,Xcf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)},where λ(G)=minCS/S/2 and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.δ

  8. EDGE COVERING COLORING AND FRACTIONAL EDGE COVERING COLORING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Lianying; LIU Guizhen

    2002-01-01

    Let G be a graph with edge set E(G). S _C E(G) is called an edge cover of G if every vertex of G is an end vertex of some edges in S. The edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'c(G) , is the maximum size of a partition of E(G) into edge covers of G. It is known that for any graph G with minimum degree δ, δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ.The fractional edge covering chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by X'cf(G), is the fractional matching number of the edge covering hypergraph H of G whose vertices are the edges of G and whose hyperedges the edge covers of G. In this paper, we study the relation between X'c(G) and δ for any graph G, and give a new simple proof of the inequalities δ - 1 ≤ X'c(G) ≤ δ by the technique of graph coloring. For any graph G, we give an exact formula of X'cf(G), that is, X'cf(G)=min{δ,λ(G)}, where λ(G)=min |C[S]|/[|S|/2]and the minimum is taken over all noempty subsets S of V(G) and C[S] is the set of edges that have at least one end in S.

  9. Determining Covers in Combinational Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Cvetkovic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a procedure for determining 0- or 1-cover of an arbitrary line in a combinational circuit. When determining a cover we do not need Boolean expression for the line; only the circuit structure is used. Within the proposed procedure we use the tools of the cube theory, in particular, some operations defined on cubes. The procedure can be applied for determining 0- and 1- covers of output lines in programmable logic devices. Basically, this procedure is a method for the analysis of a combinational circuit.

  10. Cover

    OpenAIRE

    Frontiers of Biogeography, Editorial Office

    2017-01-01

    Frontiers of Biogeography new logo. This logo feeds on the theme created for the new IBS corporate image, and represents four overlapping hypervolumes in the form of a butterfly’s wings, flying over four niche response curves in the form of hills, mountains and the sea (see Dawson et al. in this issue for details).

  11. Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Soybean growth habit is an important agronomic trait,and related genes have been cloned recently,while the variation of the major gene and how this gene was selected during the soybean breeding in China remain unknown.In the diverse soybean germplasm,it is hard to distinguish the determinate from the semi‐determinate phenotype.The development of functional Indel and CAPS markers from the Gm Tfl1 gene of the Dt1 locus makes it possible to evaluate genotype of the germplasm.The different allele

  12. COVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV)infection remains a major global health problem because current therapies rarely eliminate the replicative template of HBV,which is the covalently closed circular DNA(ccc DNA).As an accurate and efficient genome editing tool,clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat(CRISPR)-associated(Cas)9 system represents a very promising potential

  13. GAP Land Cover - Tiled Raster

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  14. Forest Cover Types - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays general forest cover types for the United States. Data were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) composite images...

  15. Land-cover change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  16. Good covers are algorithmically unrecognizable

    CERN Document Server

    Tancer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A good cover in R^d is a collection of open contractible sets in R^d such that the intersection of any subcollection is either contractible or empty. Motivated by an analogy with convex sets, intersection patterns of good covers were studied intensively. Our main result is that intersection patterns of good covers are algorithmically unrecognizable. More precisely, the intersection pattern of a good cover can be stored in a simplicial complex called nerve which records which subfamilies of the good cover intersect. A simplicial complex is topologically d-representable if it is isomorphic to the nerve of a good cover in R^d. We prove that it is algorithmically undecidable whether a given simplicial complex is topologically d-representable for any fixed d \\geq 5. As an auxiliary result we prove that if a simplicial complex is PL embeddable into R^d, then it is topologically d-representable. We also supply this result with showing that if a "sufficiently fine" subdivision of a k-dimensional complex is d-represen...

  17. Cover crops use in agrosystems: Innovations and applications. Chapter 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholberg, J.M.S.; Dogliotti, S.; Zotarelli, L.; Cherr, C.M.; Leoni, C.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Cover crops can reduce the dependence of farmers on agrochemicals while enhancing overall agrosystem’s performance. However, the inherent complexity of cover-crop-based systems hampers their adoption by conventional farmers. Therefore, special management skills and alternative research and technolog

  18. Cover Crop Chart: An Intuitive Educational Resource for Extension Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Mark A.; Johnson, Holly; Archer, David; Hendrickson, John; Nichols, Kristine; Schmer, Marty; Tanaka, Don

    2013-01-01

    Interest in cover crops by agricultural producers has increased the need for information regarding the suitability of crops for addressing different production and natural resource goals. To help address this need, staff at the USDA-ARS Northern Great Plains Research Laboratory developed a decision aid called the Cover Crop Chart (CCC). Visually…

  19. Land cover changes and their biogeophysical effects on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaul Mahmood; Roger A. Pielke; Kenneth G. Hubbard; Dev Niyogi; Paul A. Dirmeyer; Clive McAlpine; Andrew M. Carleton; Robert Hale; Samuel Gameda; Adriana Beltrán-Przekurat; Bruce Baker; Richard McNider; David R. Legates; Marshall Shepherd; Jinyang Du; Peter D. Blanken; Oliver W. Frauenfeld; U.S. Nair; Souleymane. Fall

    2013-01-01

    Land cover changes (LCCs) play an important role in the climate system. Research over recent decades highlights the impacts of these changes on atmospheric temperature, humidity, cloud cover, circulation, and precipitation. These impacts range from the local- and regional-scale to sub-continental and global-scale. It has been found that the impacts of regional-scale...

  20. Engineered soil covers for management of salt impacted sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, D.A. [SEACOR Environmental Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Tratch, D.J. [Watermark Consulting Ltd., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The use of engineered soil cover systems to mitigate environmental impacts from tailings and waste rock piles is becoming an accepted practice. This paper presented design concepts for soil covers related to reclamation practices in the mining industry as an effective risk management practice at salt impacted sites. Research and field programs have demonstrated that a layered engineered soil cover can reduce or eliminate infiltration. Key components of the system included re-establishing surface vegetation to balance precipitation fluxes with evapotranspiration potential, and design of a capillary break below the rooting zone to minimize deeper seated infiltration. It was anticipated that the incorporation of a vegetation cover and a capillary break would minimize infiltration into the waste rock or tailing pile and reduce the generation of acid rock drainage (ARD). Design of a layered soil cover requires the incorporation of meteorological data, moisture retention characteristics of the impacted soils, and proposed engineered cover materials. Performance of the soil cover was predicted using a finite element model combined with meteorological data from the site area, unsaturated soil properties of the parent sub-surface soils and potential covered materials. The soil cover design consisted of re-vegetation and a loose clay cover overlying a compacted till layer. The design was conducted for an off site release of salt impacted pasture land adjacent to a former highway maintenance yard. The model predicted minimal infiltration during high precipitation events and no infiltration during low precipitation events. Results indicated that the proposed soil cover would enable re-establishment of a productive agricultural ground cover, as well as minimizing the potential for additional salt migration. It was concluded that further research and development is needed to ensure that the cover system is an acceptable method for long-term risk management. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Soybean growth and yield under cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems can provide better conditions for the development of soybean plants with positive effects on grain yield and growth analysis techniques allow researchers to characterize and understand the behavior of soybean plants under different straw covers. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize, using growth analysis, yield components and agronomic performance of soybean under common bean, Brachiaria brizantha and pearl millet straws. The experiment was performed on a soil under cerrado in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three treatments (cover crops and five replications. Soybean grain yield was lower in the B. brizantha straw treatment (3,708 kg ha-1 than both in the pearl millet (4.772 kg ha-1 and common bean straw treatments (5,200 kg ha-1. The soybean growth analysis in B. brizantha, pearl millet and common bean allowed characterizing the variation in the production of dry matter of leaves, stems, pods and total and leaf area index that provided different grain yields. The cover crop directly affects the soybean grain yield.

  2. 小湾水电站顶盖取水试验研究%Research on the Experiment of Getting Unit Cooling Water from Turbine Head Cover in Xiaowan Hydropower Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽辉; 武赛波

    2013-01-01

      介绍澜沧江小湾水电站顶盖取水试验,并对试验情况进行一定研究分析,供相关人员参考。%A brief introduction to the experiment of getting unit cooling water from turbine head cover in Xiaowan hydropower plant was presented. Several important findings are achieved based on the analysis of the results of the experiment.

  3. Research on the Spatial-temporal Change Characteristics of Land-cover in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region%广西壮族自治区土地覆盖时空变化特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易玲; 赵晓丽; 刘斌; 汪潇

    2009-01-01

    采用"国家科技基础条件平台建设-地球系统科学数据共享网"中"中国1∶25万比例尺的土地覆盖数据库"数据资料,归纳广西全区尺度的土地覆盖特征,通过转换矩阵分析1980~2005年广西全区土地覆盖的时空变化特点,以期为实现可持续发展提供科学数据支持.%Based on "1∶25 million scale of China's land-cover database" from "Basic conditions for national science and technology platform- Earth System Science Data Sharing Network", the land-cover characteristics of Guangxi whole region scale were summarized. The spatial-temporal change characteristics of land-cover in Guangxi whole region from 1980 to 2005 were analyzed through conversion matrix, so as to provide scientific data support for achieving the sustainable development.

  4. Research on the Management of Dispersion Covering Internship in the Major of Manufacturing in Vocational High School%高职制造类专业分散顶岗实习管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕莹; 张静; 辛庆旭

    2015-01-01

    Covering internship is an important part in the process of higher vocational education. In the article, it studied the main problems existing in the process of covering internship in the major of manufacturing in vocational high school, presented to fulfill practice process supervision by the participation of school, enterprises and students, and build up the dispersion practice management mechanism by establishing evaluation index system and perfecting operation conditions, provided the guarantee for the teaching quality of covering internship.%顶岗实习是高等职业教育过程中的重要组成部分。针对高职院校制造类专业顶岗实习过程中所出现的主要问题,提出学校、企业、学生三方共同参与并完成实习过程监督的顶岗实习管理方法。通过建立评价指标体系、完善运行条件等途径,构建协同创新的分散实习管理机制,为顶岗实习的教学质量提供保障。

  5. The Changing Midwest Assessment: land cover, natural resources, and people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Potts; Eric Gustafson; Susan I. Stewart; Frank R. Thompson; Kathleen Bergen; Daniel G. Brown; Roger Hammer; Volker Radeloff; David Bengston; John Sauer; Brian Sturtevant

    2004-01-01

    Documents changes in land cover, forests, selected natural resources, and human demographics and attitudes across the Midwest from roughly 1980 to 2000. The changing Midwest assessment: data and shapefiles are available from the Forest Service Research Data Archive....

  6. Research on algorithm of automatically recognizing andpositioning road manhole covers based on vehicle-mounted sensors%基于车载传感器的路面井盖自动定位识别算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建华

    2011-01-01

    The fast recognizing and positioning of municipal manhole covers is an important problem needed to be addressed for promoting digital management of modern cities. In view of the above problem, this paper proposed an algorithm, to automatically recognize and position road manhole covers under complex background in natural scene based on vehicle-mounted sensors. Taking the elliptical geometrical characteristic of manhole cover in perspective image captured by vehicle-mounted sensors as criterion, the algorithm firstly extracted edge information by employing vector edge detection method. Secondly constructed a contour list with boundary through contour tracing, then imitated and quickly generated all the possible elliptical targets in the contour list by means of least square fitting method. Subsequently eliminated the elliptical targets without relationship corresponding to road manhole covers according to their shape features, and last formed accurate results of recognition and position. Experiment shows that generally the algorithm is able to achieve real-time manhole cover targets recognition rapidly and effectively for images conforming to quality standard of data capturing.%市政井盖快速定位与识别是提升现代城市部件空间数字化管理水平需要解决的重要问题,针对该问题提出基于车载传感器的复杂背景下路面井盖目标自动定位识别算法.该算法以车载传感器获取的透视图像中井盖所具有的椭圆形几何特征为判据,先利用矢量边缘检测方法提取边缘信息,再运用轮廓跟踪法将边缘构造成轮廓链表,然后通过最小二乘法拟合与快速生成轮廓链表中可能存在的椭圆目标,并根据井盖的形状特征排除透视图中与路面井盖无对应关系的虚假椭圆目标,最终形成高精度定位识别结果.实证研究表明,对达到数据采集质量标准的图像,在一般情况下该算法能较好地实现其中市政井盖的实时定位识别.

  7. Validation of Land Cover Products Using Reliability Evaluation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhong Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Validation of land cover products is a fundamental task prior to data applications. Current validation schemes and methods are, however, suited only for assessing classification accuracy and disregard the reliability of land cover products. The reliability evaluation of land cover products should be undertaken to provide reliable land cover information. In addition, the lack of high-quality reference data often constrains validation and affects the reliability results of land cover products. This study proposes a validation schema to evaluate the reliability of land cover products, including two methods, namely, result reliability evaluation and process reliability evaluation. Result reliability evaluation computes the reliability of land cover products using seven reliability indicators. Process reliability evaluation analyzes the reliability propagation in the data production process to obtain the reliability of land cover products. Fuzzy fault tree analysis is introduced and improved in the reliability analysis of a data production process. Research results show that the proposed reliability evaluation scheme is reasonable and can be applied to validate land cover products. Through the analysis of the seven indicators of result reliability evaluation, more information on land cover can be obtained for strategic decision-making and planning, compared with traditional accuracy assessment methods. Process reliability evaluation without the need for reference data can facilitate the validation and reflect the change trends of reliabilities to some extent.

  8. Covering Numbers for Convex Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Guntuboyina, Adityanand

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the covering numbers of the space of convex and uniformly bounded functions in multi-dimension. We find optimal upper and lower bounds for the $\\epsilon$-covering number of $\\C([a, b]^d, B)$, in the $L_p$-metric, $1 \\le p 0$, and $\\C([a,b]^d, B)$ denotes the set of all convex functions on $[a, b]^d$ that are uniformly bounded by $B$. We summarize previously known results on covering numbers for convex functions and also provide alternate proofs of some known results. Our results have direct implications in the study of rates of convergence of empirical minimization procedures as well as optimal convergence rates in the numerous convexity constrained function estimation problems.

  9. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  10. Mekong Land Cover Dasboard: Regional Land Cover Mointoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D. S.; Towashiraporn, P.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Anderson, E.

    2016-12-01

    SERVIR-Mekong, a USAID-NASA partnership, helps decision makers in the Lower Mekong Region utilize GIS and Remote Sensing information to inform climate related activities. In 2015, SERVIR-Mekong conducted a geospatial needs assessment for the Lower Mekong countries which included individual country consultations. The team found that many countries were dependent on land cover and land use maps for land resource planning, quantifying ecosystem services, including resilience to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and other critical social issues. Many of the Lower Mekong countries have developed national scale land cover maps derived in part from remote sensing products and geospatial technologies. However, updates are infrequent and classification systems do not always meet the needs of key user groups. In addition, data products stop at political boundaries and are often not accessible making the data unusable across country boundaries and with resource management partners. Many of these countries rely on global land cover products to fill the gaps of their national efforts, compromising consistency between data and policies. These gaps in national efforts can be filled by a flexible regional land cover monitoring system that is co-developed by regional partners with the specific intention of meeting national transboundary needs, for example including consistent forest definitions in transboundary watersheds. Based on these facts, key regional stakeholders identified a need for a land cover monitoring system that will produce frequent, high quality land cover maps using a consistent regional classification scheme that is compatible with national country needs. SERVIR-Mekong is currently developing a solution that leverages recent developments in remote sensing science and technology, such as Google Earth Engine (GEE), and working together with production partners to develop a system that will use a common set of input data sources to generate high

  11. Sky cover from MFRSR observations: cumulus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their model clear-sky counterparts are two main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumulus clouds. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumulus clouds. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  12. Performance of geotextiles in landfills covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, L.J.; Holtz, R.D.

    1997-11-01

    As part of the research into the performance of geotextiles in landfill covers, 14 test pits were excavated in five landfill covers constructed between 1988 and 1992 in Washington State. Materials used in the drainage system were examined and documented. Specimens of geotextiles (all 8 oz/yd{sup 2}, needle punched nonwovens) as well as samples of the vegetative and sand drainage soils, were obtained for laboratory analyses. Laboratory tests indicated that the geotextiles satisfactorily performed their intended filtration function. No apparent migration of fines into the drainage layer was detected. The degree of clogging was evaluated by performing permittivity tests on specimens of the exhumed geotextiles, as retrieved and after washing. Washing typically resulted in permittivity increases on the order of 30 to 90 percent.

  13. Comparing network covers using mutual information

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel, Alcides Viamontes

    2012-01-01

    In network science, researchers often use mutual information to understand the difference between network partitions produced by community detection methods. Here we extend the use of mutual information to covers, that is, the cases where a node can belong to more than one module. In our proposed solution, the underlying stochastic process used to compare partitions is extended to deal with covers, and the random variables of the new process are simply fed into the usual definition of mutual information. With partitions, our extended process behaves exactly as the conventional approach for partitions, and thus, the mutual information values obtained are the same. We also describe how to perform sampling and do error estimation for our extended process, as both are necessary steps for a practical application of this measure. The stochastic process that we define here is not only applicable to networks, but can also be used to compare more general set-to-set binary relations.

  14. Historical Snow Cover and Water Resources Change in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHOU, H.; Aizen, E.; Aizen, V. B.

    2012-12-01

    Seasonal snow cover is a vital source of river runoff in arid and semi-arid regions of central Asia. Decrease of seasonal snow cover is one of the major consequences of climate change in central Asia. To quantify the historical snow cover change, its relationship to global and regional atmospheric processes, and its impact on water resources, a new database for cryospheric research in central Asia has been created in Asiacryoweb.org. It serves a data portal for snow cover, glacier, meteorology, hydrology and ice core data in central Asia, as well as a platform for further research collaborations. We analyze the historical snow cover change using data derived from AVHRR and MODIS images in 1986 - 2008. The results suggest that the snow cover extent in central Asia has declined significantly in general. We found significant decrease of seasonal snow cover in alpine regions surrounding major mountains (Tienshan, Pamir and Altai-Sayan) in summer; while in winter, northern part of Kazakhstan Steppe, mountains in Altai-Sayan and peripheral regions of Tienshan and Pamir mountains have seen significant strong increase of snow cover. Analysis of the relationship between snow cover extent and climate pattern indices shows a significant negative relationship between snow cover in Pamir mountains and Altai-Sayan mountains with Eastern Atlantic Pattern, and a significant negative relationship between snow cover in northern Aral-Caspian desert, Tienshan and the East Atlantic / West Russia pattern. And the Polar / Euraisa Pattern has a positive relationship with snow in Kazakhstan Steppe, Pamir, and Tienshan. The changing snow cover regime will affect not only the amount but also the timing of available water melting from snow.

  15. Kummer covers and braid monodromy

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Enrique Artal; Ortigas-Galindo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In this work we describe a method to reconstruct the braid monodromy of the preimage of a curve by a Kummer cover. This method is interesting, since it combines two techniques, namely, the reconstruction of a highly non-generic braid monodromy with a systematic method to go from a non-generic to a generic braid monodromy. This "generification" method is independent from Kummer covers and can be applied in more general circumstances since non generic braid monodromies appear more naturally and are oftentimes much easier to compute. Explicit examples are computed using these techniques.

  16. Research on Fire Safety Design of Thermal Insulation Materials Covering on Exterior Wall of Building%建筑外墙外保温材料防火安全的选型设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏朝晖

    2011-01-01

    近年来,我国因建筑外墙外保温材料防火安全问题而导致特大火灾事故频发,尤其是上海胶州路教师公寓火灾、沈阳皇朝万鑫大厦火灾和北京央视大楼火灾,造成重大人员伤亡和财产损失,使得建筑外墙外保温材料防火安全成为人们关注的焦点.该文针对目前建筑外墙外保温材料选型设计中不注重防火安全的实际问题,分析了各种建筑外墙外保温材料防火性能,探讨其不同的使用局限性和优缺点,为建筑外墙外保温材料的选型设计提供参考.%In recent years the thermal insulation materials covering on the exterior wall for building fire safety problems caused the serious fire accidents, especially in the teacher apartment fire at Jiaozhou Road in Shanghai, the Dynasty wan Xin building fire in Shenyang and the CCTV building fire in Beijing, which caused the heavy casualties and the property losses, Therefore, the fire safety of the thermal insulation materials covering on the exterior wall has been a focus of attention.For solving the problem of the current moterials selection not paying attention to fire safety design, This paper analyzes the various fire performances of thermal insulation material covering on exterior wall, and their advantages and disadvantages, as a reference of selecting the thermal insulation material in the fire safety design.

  17. 混流式水轮机顶盖振动信号的精细分频研究%Research on fine frequency division of vibration signal of head cover for francis turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海军; 郑韩慈

    2015-01-01

    高水头长引水隧洞电站在水力过渡过程中具有振荡周期长、振幅大、波动衰减周期长等特点,水轮机顶盖振动可以较好地反映该规律。本文依据真机试验,采用小波和小波包联合分析方法,对一大型电站变负荷振动试验中顶盖的振动响应测试信号进行了精细分频分析。结果表明:高水头长引水隧洞电站的水流脉动、尾水涡带和水击波频率较为接近,三者共同作用,导致顶盖强烈的振动响应;其中,水流脉动和尾水涡带是引起顶盖振动的最主要原因;同时也证明了小波和小波包联合分析方法是处理水电站振动信号的一种较好的方法。%The hydropower stations with high water head and long diversion tunnel have some characteris-tics such as long period of oscillation , large oscillation range and slow -attenuation wave in the process of hydraulic transient .The vibration of Francis turbine's head cover can reflect these characteristics .Based on a hydropower station with high water head and long diversion tunnel , the paper described the vibration of its head cover with a combination method of wavelet and wavelet packet analysis .The results show that the strong vibration resonance of head cover results from the three factors such as flow pulsation , tail wa-ter vortex and water hammer ,for their frequencies are close in the hydropower station with high head and long diversion tunnel .Flow pulsation and tail water vortex are the most main factors which cause the vi-bration of head cover .This paper also proved that the method combing wavelet with wavelet packet is a better tool in the treatment of vibration signal of hydropower station .

  18. Research of auto-sealing device for coal mine explosion protection door and cover%矿井防爆门、盖自动封堵装置研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董腾; 王海桥; 张永青; 柳光磊

    2012-01-01

    Explosion protection door and cover would be damaged if gas and dust exploded in coal mine underground , which caused air escape branch from main draught fan, ventilation system underground air chaos and invalid, poison gas diffusion, mash gas accumulation and caused secondary explosion. In order to reduce the loss and disaster consequence, maintain continuous regular ventilation underground after the disasters to improve the condition for survive and save, an auto-sealing device was designed. It could seal the coal mine ventilation shaft instead of explosion protection door and cover automatic and timely. When the sensor, which was set below the explosion-proof covers, sense the non-normal work state of the explosion-proof covers, it will produce the trigger signal, which will trigger the circuit control system and let it start the inflatable power equipment. The folded body of the sealing airbag will pop-up storage cavern under the control of inflated power. It will roll and expand along the support structure, fill the entire wellbore cross-section soon through the effect of the inflatable inflation and negative pressure which is created by main fan ventilation.%煤矿井底发生煤尘瓦斯爆炸事故时产生的冲击波会冲开风井防爆门、盖,引起主风机风流短路,井底风流紊乱、通风系统瘫痪,导致毒害气体扩散、瓦斯积聚,引发二次爆炸.为了减少因此造成的损失,研发了一种在防爆门、盖被摧毁后能自动封堵的装置,通过感应防爆门盖的损毁信号控制充气动力设备对气囊折叠体进行充气,折叠体被充气弹出储藏硐室,沿支撑架构延展、膨胀并充满井筒横截面,实施对风井的密封,以维持灾后井底持续通风,降低灾害后果,为井底幸存人员的生存与自救提供有利条件.

  19. Gambia Land Use Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  20. Emerging Infectious Diseases Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-26

    Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art.  Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/26/2017.

  1. Covering Numbers for Semicontinuous Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    di Matematica pura ed applicata, CLX:303–320, 1991. [3] H. Attouch and R. J-B Wets. A convergence theory for saddle functions. Transactions of the...P. L. Bartlett, J. Shawe-Taylor, and R. C. Williamson. Covering numbers for support vector machines. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 48(1

  2. 紫外激光切割覆盖膜速度提升研究%The research on the UV laser cutting speed improvement for the cover layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗均涛

    2012-01-01

      Based on the characteristics of laser basic mode in laser cutting applications, this paper studies and verifies the effect of the laser frequency and the laser power in cutting cover layer, respectively. The experiment results show that the cutting speed can be improved form 200mm per second to 350mm per second in cutting the 39 µm thick cover layer.%  文章针对基模激光束在切割运用中的特点,分别从激光频率,激光功率两个方面对紫外激光切割覆盖膜速度的影响条件进行研究,并进行相关的实验验证。同时运用我们的研究结果将39µm厚的覆盖膜切割速度由200 mm/s提升到350 mm/s。

  3. 敷设去耦层水下简支撑板的振动特性%Research on the vibration characteristics of simply supported plate covered by a decoupling layer and immersed in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵军; 何世平

    2013-01-01

    Simplying decoupling layer as spring,mean velocity and dry mean velocity loss of a pointing-excited finite plate covered by a decoupling layer are provided using modal analysis.Theoretical analysis show that the decoupling layer has little effect on the vibration of base plate at low frequency ( koa > 1 ) .This is because the vibration of base plate covered with a decoupling layer tend to the vibration of base plate in vacuo.The phenomenon of amplification decrease when the loss factor of decoupling layer increase.%将去耦层等效为弹性元件,利用简正模式法推导出重流体作用下敷设去耦层的有限薄板在点激励下的均方速度和干面均方速度插入损失.理论分析得出,在低频区域(k0α<<1),去耦层对板的振动影响较小;在高频区域(k0α>>1),敷设去耦层后板的振动趋向于真空中的振动,因此敷设后板的振动相对未敷设的板是放大的.随着去耦层的阻尼因子增加,放大现象减弱.

  4. Land Cover Indicators for U.S. National Climate Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channan, S.; Thomson, A. M.; Collins, K. M.; Sexton, J. O.; Torrens, P.; Emanuel, W. R.

    2014-12-01

    Land is a critical resource for human habitat and for the vast majority of human activities. Many natural resources are derived from terrestrial ecosystems or otherwise extracted from the landscape. Terrestrial biodiversity depends on land attributes as do people's perceptions of the value of land, including its value for recreation or tourism. Furthermore, land surface properties and processes affect weather and climate, and land cover change and land management affect emissions of greenhouse gases. Thus, land cover with its close association with climate is so pervasive that a land cover indicator is of fundamental importance to U.S. national climate assessments and related research. Moderate resolution remote sensing products (MODIS) were used to provide systematic data on annual distributions of land cover over the period 2001-2012. Selected Landsat observations and data products further characterize land cover at higher resolution. Here we will present the prototype for a suite of land cover indicators including land cover maps as well as charts depicting attributes such as composition by land cover class, statistical indicators of landscape characteristics, and tabular data summaries indispensable for communicating the status and trends of U.S. land cover at national, regional and state levels.

  5. 柔性石墨金属波齿复合垫片的分级研究%Research on Classification of Flexible Graphite Covered Wave-Serrated Metal Gaskets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元; 任建民

    2015-01-01

    Standards of flexible graphite covered wave-serrated metal gaskets were analyzed. It’s found that the gasket pretightening in the condition of same pressure levels and different nominal size fluctuated around a certain value,gasket pretightening in the condition of same nominal size and different pressure levels were not identical.The finite element simulation of flexible graphite covered wave-serrated metal gaskets was carried out by using ANSYS WORKBENCH. The compression ratio of flexible graphite corrugated metal gaskets under different structural parameters was calculated. The result shows that the gaskets can be classified by pressure through adjusting the structural parameters. Accordingly, flexible graphite covered wave-serrated metal gaskets can be classified according to pressure.%对柔性石墨金属波齿复合垫片的标准进行了剖析,发现同一压力级别不同名义尺寸的垫片,绝大部分的预紧比压在某一应力水平附近波动,同一名义尺寸不同压力级别的垫片预紧比压各不相同。利用ANSYS WORKBENCH 对柔性石墨金属波齿复合垫片进行有限元数值模拟,计算出在规定预紧比压下不同结构参数的柔性石墨金属波齿复合垫片的压缩率,结果表明在相同预紧比压作用下不同结构的垫片压缩率各不相同。即可以通过调整垫片结构参数达到调整垫片压缩回弹性能的目的。据此,可以实现柔性石墨金属波齿复合垫片生产按压力等级区分。

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A possible strategy to influence students' understanding and perception ... researcher in higher education teaching and learning facilitated the data- ..... B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: Concepts, procedures and measures.

  7. Research on Remote Sensing Fusion Method of Land Cover Classification Based on DEM and MODIS%DEM和MODIS数据融合的土地覆盖分类遥感方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张思琪

    2016-01-01

    随着搭载在TERRA卫星上的中分辨率成像光谱仪(MODIS)的出现,它以数据丰富、时间分辨率高和覆盖范围广等特点,为植被遥感估产提供了较好的数据源。本文利用植被受坡度影响的特性,从数字高程模型(digital elevation models,简称DEM)中提取坡度信息,考虑到MODIS能提供多时相及丰富的数据,采用DEM产生的坡度和两个时相MODIS影像数据及植被指数复合提取植被面积,经过比较试验证明,在南方丘陵山区的复杂地形区域,多源信息复合相对于单纯利用单景影像数据可以明显提高土地分类估算的精度。%Because of the hilly region, more cloud and variety of plants, it is very difficult to perform the land cover classification. With the launch of TERRA, Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), with abundant information, quickly acquiring data and wide range of coverage, is a new data for estimation of rice yield. This study considered the characteristics of hilly region, and the digital slope image derived from the DEM map and multitemporal MODIS were used for the purpose of improving the classification accuracy of MODIS in large hilly region. The results showed that the slope and mutitemporal MODIS image can improve the accuracy of land cover classification in hilly region than only one MODIS image.

  8. Prym varieties of spectral covers

    CERN Document Server

    Hausel, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    Given a possibly reducible and non-reduced spectral cover X over a smooth projective complex curve C we determine the group of connected components of the Prym variety Prym(X/C). We also describe the sublocus of characteristics a for which the Prym variety Prym(X_a/C) is connected. These results extend special cases of work of Ng\\^o who considered integral spectral curves.

  9. Slotted Antenna with Anisotropic Covering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    08-2015 Publication Slotted Antenna with Anisotropic Covering David A. Tonn et al Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St...NUWC 300055 Distribution A An antenna includes a tubular, conductive radiator having a longitudinal slot formed therein from a first end of the...conductive radiator to a second end of the conductive radiator. An antenna feed can be joined to the conductive radiator adjacent to and across the slot

  10. Land Cover Classification Using ALOS Imagery For Penang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, C. K.; Abdullah, K.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the potential of integrating optical and radar remote sensing data to improve automatic land cover mapping. The analysis involved standard image processing, and consists of spectral signature extraction and application of a statistical decision rule to identify land cover categories. A maximum likelihood classifier is utilized to determine different land cover categories. Ground reference data from sites throughout the study area are collected for training and validation. The land cover information was extracted from the digital data using PCI Geomatica 10.3.2 software package. The variations in classification accuracy due to a number of radar imaging processing techniques are studied. The relationship between the processing window and the land classification is also investigated. The classification accuracies from the optical and radar feature combinations are studied. Our research finds that fusion of radar and optical significantly improved classification accuracies. This study indicates that the land cover/use can be mapped accurately by using this approach.

  11. Research projects into the safety of nuclear power plants. Period cover 01. January - 30. June 2016. Progress report; Forschungsvorhaben auf dem Gebiet der Reaktorsicherheit. Berichtszeitraum 01. Januar - 30. Juni 2016. Fortschrittsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    Within its competence for energy research the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) sponsors research projects on the safety of nuclear power plants currently in operation. The objective of these projects is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such research projects by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work. The progress reports are published by the Project Management Agency/ Authority Support Division of GRS. The reports as of the year 2000 are available in the internet-based information system on results and data of reactor safety research (https://www.grs-fbw.de). The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research as well as to the classification system ''Joint Safety Research Index (JSRI)''. The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties.

  12. The Research of Removing the Affect of Clouds Cover by Combining the Mulit-Sensor lmages%联合应用多传感器影象消除云层遮挡影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方勇; 常本义

    2001-01-01

    In the process of mapping using optical remote sensing images, due to the limit of the conditions obtaining the remote sensing data and the affect of weather, the obtained images often are covered by clouds, which causes the losing of the information in local area and affects the quality of image map in some degree. In this paper, a method is proposed by fusion of multi-sensor images collected at different date to remove the affect due to cloud cover. It consists in two steps: firstly the auto registration is done around the region with clouds. In this step area-based grey match is used to get tie point, and statistical relational matching is done iterative to adjust the initial match result more reliable. So the two image can be registrated local area with high accuracy according to the final matching points. Secondly the image with cloud is replaced automatically by the other sensor image which has been radiation corrected through histogram matching so as to prevent the false edge from emerging during image mosaicing. At last, the test that SPOT image with clouds is replaced by TM image is done. The result demonstrates that the proposed method is possible and valuable, and the information in cloud area is recovered properly.%在利用光学遥感影象进行制图的过程中,由于受到获取遥感资料技术条件的限制,所获取的影象常常受到云层遮挡的影响,而造成局部地区信息丢失,针对此问题,提出了一种联合使用多传感器在不同时间段接收的影象,以消除云层遮挡影响的方法.该方法主要分为两个步骤,即首先是对云层覆盖地区不同时间的影象进行自动配准;然后对用来替换云层覆盖地区的影象进行辐射改正,以消除替换过程中出现的接缝.同时利用SPOT和TM影象进行了实验,实验结果表明该方法是有效的、可行的,能够较好地恢复云层遮挡地区的信息.

  13. 基于最优覆盖法的变电站无功补偿容量优化配置研究%Research on the optimal allocation of reactive power compensation capacity based on optimal cover method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一杰; 赵舫; 丁颖; 李丰伟; 蔡振华

    2011-01-01

    为有效寻找电网无功补偿配置的薄弱点,提出了一种新的无功补偿设备优化配置的方法.该方法根据110 kV变电站全年的无功负荷情况统计出无功负荷概率分布曲线,采用最优覆盖法建立无功补偿配置优化模型,并通过全局搜索寻求优化配置方案.通过对优化配置方案与实际补偿容量配置的比较,给出了无功补偿配置相对薄弱的变电站,为电力系统规划人员提供决策依据.%To find the weak points of power system reactive power compensation allocation, this paper presents an optimized configuration of the method, which gathers reactive power loads of 110 kV substation throughout the year to get the optimal probability curve, adopts optimal cover method to establish the optimized configuration model, and uses global search to find the optimal solution. Through the comparison between the optimized configuation scheme and the actual compensation capacity, this paper presents the substation with insufficient reactive power compensation allocation, which supplies effective recommendations for the power system planners.

  14. 液压缸端盖螺纹配合间隙划伤问题研究%Research on the Problem of the Thread Tit Clearance for the Hydraulic Cylinder End Cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋爱民

    2016-01-01

    Thread and sealing with various structures, due to its simple and compact structure, convenient assembly and disassembly, can save installation space and a large number of advantages applied in hydraulic components, especially as an end cover, a first port block seals are widely used in the hydraulic cylinder. However, the dismantling of the hydraulic cylinder has repeatedly found that the thread or seal seg-ment scratch. In this paper, through the mechanism analysis of the structure of the scratch, from the design and production of various aspects to find out the cause and influence factors, and put forward the solution measures.%螺纹与密封配合一体结构,由于其结构简单、紧凑,拆装方便,能节约安装空间等优点而大量应用在液压元件中,尤其作为端盖、堵头等端口密封件普遍应用在液压缸中.但是,拆解液压缸时多次发现螺纹或者密封段划伤的问题.该文通过对这种结构发生划伤的机理分析,从设计、生产各方面找出螺纹或密封划伤产生的原因和影响因素,并提出解决措施.

  15. Seasonal land-cover regions of the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Merchant, James W.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Ohlen, Donald O.; Reed, Bradley C.; Olson, Paul; Hutchinson, John

    1995-01-01

    Global-change investigations have been hindered by deficiencies in the availability and quality of land-cover data. The US Geological Survey and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln have collaborated on the development of a new approach to land-cover characterization that attempts to address requirements of the global-change research community and others interested in regional patterns of land cover. An experimental 1-km-resolution database of land-cover characteristics for the coterminous US has been prepared to test and evaluate the approach. Using multidate Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data complemented by elevation, climate, ecoregions, and other digital spatial datasets, the authors define 15?? seasonal land-cover regions. Data are used in the construction of an illustrative 1:7500 000-scale map of the seasonal land-cover regions as well as of smaller-scale maps portraying general land cover and seasonality. The seasonal land-cover characteristics database can also be tailored to provide a broad range of other landscape parameters useful in national and global-scale environmental modeling and assessment. -from Authors

  16. Smoke and Pollution Aerosol Effect on Cloud Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Koren, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Pollution and smoke aerosols can increase or decrease the cloud cover. This duality in the effects of aerosols forms one of the largest uncertainties in climate research. Using solar measurements from Aerosol Robotic Network sites around the globe, we show an increase in cloud cover with an increase in the aerosol column concentration and an inverse dependence on the aerosol absorption of sunlight. The emerging rule appears to be independent of geographical location or aerosol type, thus increasing our confidence in the understanding of these aerosol effects on the clouds and climate. Preliminary estimates suggest an increase of 5% in cloud cover.

  17. Research projects into the safety of nuclear power plants. Period covered: 01. July - 31. Dezember 2004. Progress report; Forschungsvorhaben auf dem Gebiet der Reaktorsicherheit. Berichtszeitraum: 01. Juli - 31. Dezember 2004. Fortschrittsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Within its competence for energy research, the Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Technology (BMWi) (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) sponsors investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of these investigations is to provide fundamental knowledge, procedures and methods to contribute to realistic safety assessments of nuclear installations, to the further development of safety technology and to make use of the potential of innovative safety-related approaches. The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of such investigations by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Management Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research. Further, use is made of the classification system 'Joint Safety Research Index' of the CEC (Commission of the European Communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. It has to be pointed out that the authors of the reports are responsible for the contents of this compilation. The BMWi does not take any responsibility for the correctness, exactness and completeness of the information nor for the observance of private claims of third parties. (orig.)

  18. EXACT ALGORITHM FOR BIN COVERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new arc flow model for the one-dimensional bin covering problem and an algorithm to solve the problem exactly through a branch-and-bound procedure and the technique of column generation. The subproblems occuring in the procedure of branch-and-bound have the same structure and therefore can be solved by the same algorithm. In order to solve effectively the subproblems which are generally large scale, a column generation algorithm is employed. Many rules found in this paper can improve the performance of the methods.

  19. Green's conjecture for general covers

    CERN Document Server

    Aprodu, Marian

    2011-01-01

    We establish Green's syzygy conjecture for classes of covers of curves of higher Clifford dimension. These curves have an infinite number of minimal pencils, in particular they do not verify a well-known Brill-Noether theoretic sufficient condition that implies Green's conjecture. Secondly, we study syzygies of curves with a fixed point free involution and prove that sections of Nikulin surfaces of minimal Picard number 9, verify the classical Green Conjecture but fail the Prym-Green Conjecture on syzygies of Prym-canonical curves. This provides an explicit locus in the moduli space R_g where Green's Conjecture is known to hold.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sequential mixed-methods research design was chosen. This research ... development of the questionnaire used in the second phase of the survey. Quantitative data ... Microsoft Office Excel 2010 spreadsheet, descriptive data analysis was applied .... undergraduate curriculum, and implementation and evaluation thereof,.

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Shared and mutually beneficial resources within international research ... organizations[1-9]. ... facilitate research career paths, but few career models exist in Africa ..... international and local resources to clinical studies locally. The ability of ... investigators were seen as an important asset for the transfer of.

  2. A new patch antenna with metamaterial cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jun; YAN Chun-sheng; LIN Qing-chun

    2006-01-01

    A metamaterial was introduced into the cover of a patch antenna and its band structure was analyzed. The metamaterial cover with correct selection of the working frequency increases by 9.14 dB the patch antenna's directivity. The mechanism of metamaterial cover is completely different from that of a photonic bandgap cover. The mechanism of the metamaterial cover,the number of the cover's layers, and the distance between the layers, were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the metamaterial cover, which works like a lens, could effectively improve the patch antenna's directivity. The physical reasons for the improvement are also given.

  3. Commutator coverings of Siegel threefolds

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsenko, V

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the existence and non-existence of modular forms of low weight with a character with respect to the paramodular group $\\Gamma_t$ and discuss the resulting geometric consequences. Using an advanced version of Maa\\ss\\ lifting one can construct many examples of such modular forms and in particular examples of weight 3 cusp forms. Consequently we find many abelian coverings of low degree of the moduli space ${\\Cal A}_t$ of (1,t)-polarized abelian surfaces which are not unirational. We also determine the commutator subgroups of the paramodular group $\\Gamma_t$ and its degree 2 extension $\\Gamma^+_t$. This has applications for the Picard group of the moduli stack ${\\underline{\\Cal A}}_t$. Finally we prove non-existence theorems for low weight modular forms. As one of our main results we obtain the theorem that the maximal abelian cover ${\\Cal A}_t^{com}$ of ${\\Cal A}_t$ has geometric genus 0 if and only if t=1, 2, 4 or 5. We also prove that ${\\Cal A}_t^{com}$ has geometric genus 1 for t=3 and 7.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-02-17

    Feb 17, 2012 ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative ..... However, this system has great potential to negatively affect access to ... Dr. Samuel Yaw Opoku: Defining the Concept and Research Design; ...

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... Management of biomedical waste in two medical laboratories in Bangui, Central ... Research .... Central African Republic Ministry of Health and corresponding ethics ..... In CAR, the management of BW remains embryonic. It is.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-08-28

    Aug 28, 2015 ... Ethiopia, 2Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Department ... of Public Health, 4Institute of Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious .... active ingredient x 10,000 dilution rate of product): 0.1%.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-03-11

    Mar 11, 2011 ... ... to General Organization of Teaching Hospitals and Institutes, Egypt, 2Department of .... Ethiopia at Max-Burger Research Institute, Leipzig, Germany ... [22] than Croatia (50%), Australia (53%), Thailand (41%), Italy (32.6%), ...

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7, No. 1 AJHPE. Research. A comprehensive approach to curriculum evaluation is deemed ... While evaluators are guided by the experiences of using different methods, ..... provided a follow-up in-depth exploration of the quantitative results.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... community in the design, conduct and/or evaluation of these activities. ... During Phase I of the mixed-methods research design, data were collected by ... A questionnaire survey was administered to all students registered for ... Data analysis.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-02-03

    Feb 3, 2016 ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net) .... What is known about this topic ... India Co-ordinated Research Project. Ministry .... African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005 ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-12-06

    Dec 6, 2011 ... Asia indicate a high incidence of Kikuchi lymphadenitis [6]. However ... It is believed that information derived from this study will be of immense value to the attending physician and also form a baseline data for future research.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual ... [5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined ... to evidence-based practice in final-year undergraduate physiotherapy students.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    curricula to address health systems changes and challenges .... Likert scale questions were used, along with open-ended qualitative questions. ... Clear communicator: Able to communicate important aspects of theory, research findings clearly ...

  14. researchers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    levels who is fluent in only Afrikaans and English. Differences in race .... The lack of knowledge of a particular vernacular often places a researcher firmly as an ..... discourse of African American women', Black women in the academy. Promises.

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, ... This design is useful to explore a topic, using qualitative ... interview a Delphi questionnaire was used to gather additional quantitative.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. Clinical teaching is a technique used in the education of nurses. It ... learnt in a contextualised learning environment, which should support them in their ..... development of continuing professional development strategies. This study ...

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-03-03

    Mar 3, 2016 ... radiation therapy [9, 10]. The signs of obstructive ... year's undergraduate medical student: socio-demographic including age (in years), sex. .... awareness and enhance further research in this domain. Conclusion. Patients ...

  18. Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... performance hence workplace training is tied to achieving organizational aims and objectives. .... Ethical consideration: Permission to conduct research was sought from the County ..... Everybody Business: Strengthening.

  20. Research Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL.

    The five parts of this report are: research on instruction; faculty dissertations; inter-institutional research; in-college research; and college-endorsed research. The first covers experiments in teaching French, practical nursing, English, math, and chemistry, and in giving examinations. Faculty dissertations include studies of post-graduate…

  1. The covering number of $M_{24}$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Epstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A  finite cover $\\mathcal{C}$ of a group $G$ is a finite collection of proper subgroups of $G$ such that $G$ is equal to the union of all of the members of $\\mathcal{C}$. Such a cover is called {\\em minimal} if it has the smallest cardinality among all finite covers of $G$. The  covering number of $G$, denoted by $\\sigma(G$, is the number of subgroups in a minimal cover of $G$. In this paper the covering number of the Mathieu group $M_{24}$ is shown to be 3336.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-02-25

    Feb 25, 2013 ... Of these 56 eyes, the visual acuity in 49 eyes (87.5%) improved with pinhole. Twenty seven pupils had ... (www.afenet.net). Research ... primary basic 1 to 6 and aged 5 to 15 years were included in the study. The United ...

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    collaboration, but also in less tangible ways affecting quality of research.[5] ... Methods. A 40-hour workshop in biostatistical reasoning was conducted ... test median score was 68% (IQR 62 - 76%), with p<0.0001 for the overall comparison of pre- v. post-scores. ... limitations of a traditional lecture-based mode of instruction.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-03-13

    Mar 13, 2014 ... &Corresponding author: Dr. Oliver Ezechi, Clinical Sciences Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, ... with Hepatitis B and C Virus infection in pregnant HIV positive Nigerians. ... Whether or not HCV directly impacts HIV disease ..... natural history, fibrosis, and impact of antiretroviral treatment:.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    understood in the profession, evolved from therapeutic activity (within a medi- cal model ... facilitate students' ability to examine institutional systems that hinder ..... don't have connections with each other … we went to the schools and were told ... for change or conduct action research projects that deal with occupational.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-12-11

    Dec 11, 2015 ... ... Dschang, Cameroon, 2Division of Health Operations Research, Ministry of Public ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons ... not yet been investigated but may can be explained by weakness of .... Cameroonian market and why not apply for surveillance of.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by teaching them skills on how to acquire and appraise knowledge for a particular ... [3] Similarities have been noted in the roles of lecturers that facilitate learning rather than ..... Student feedback related to facilitators of and barriers to learning. Facilitators of ... 'Sometimes time (clinical, research, social, sport) was limited.'.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-08-25

    Aug 25, 2011 ... completely replaced animals with computer modeling, manikins and ... distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original ... developed internal guidelines on the use of animals in research in 2004 [13]. ... Only one institution used human cell cultures as a replacement to live animal use.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... In 2007, The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended ... are taken nearer to the community through clinical outreach ... Sample size and Sampling procedure ... researchers shared and debated the way each of them understood .... this may involve selling off assets to get the money for transport.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... ... Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative ... diabetes mellitus, obesity, family history of premature CHD in a first ... was reviewed and approved by the Hospital's Research and Ethics .... apoptosis of peripheral adipocytes, decreased pre-adipocyte.

  11. A review on soil cover in Waste and contaminant containment: design, monitoring, and modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng PENG; Huilian JIANG

    2009-01-01

    Soil cover is a widely-used but relatively new method for solid waste containment. Standard while site-specific procedures for cover design, monitoring, and evluation are needed to insure reliable cover performance. This paper presents a review of soil cover types, design principles and procedures, cover monitoring, and long-term performance modeling. Cover types and cover design are introduced with the general concepts and discussed on their specific applicabilities in different circumstances. Detailed discussion is given on unsaturated flow system properties and their field measurements, including meth-ods, apparatuses/equipments and their advantages and disadvantages. Several unsaturated flow simulators are discussed and compared with regards to their simulation capacities for critical parameters closely related to soil cover performance such as runoff, infiltration and evaporation. Finally, research subjects are suggested for future work for better soil cover monitoring and modeling.

  12. The value of snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  13. Observing snow cover using unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallek, Waldemar; Witek, Matylda; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Snow cover is a key environmental variable that influences high flow events driven by snow-melt episodes. Estimates of snow extent (SE), snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) allow to approximate runoff caused by snow-melt episodes. These variables are purely spatial characteristics, and hence their pointwise measurements using terrestrial monitoring systems do not offer the comprehensive and fully-spatial information on water storage in snow. Existing satellite observations of snow reveal moderate spatial resolution which, not uncommonly, is not fine enough to estimate the above-mentioned snow-related variables for small catchments. High-resolution aerial photographs and the resulting orthophotomaps and digital surface models (DSMs), obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), may offer spatial resolution of 3 cm/px. The UAV-based observation of snow cover may be done using the near-infrared (NIR) cameras and visible-light cameras. Since the beginning of 2015, in frame of the research project no. LIDER/012/223/L-5/13/NCBR/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development of Poland, we have performed a series of the UAV flights targeted at four sites in the Kwisa catchment in the Izerskie Mts. (part of the Sudetes, SW Poland). Observations are carried out with the ultralight UAV swinglet CAM (produced by senseFly, lightweight 0.5 kg, wingspan 80 cm) which enables on-demand sampling at low costs. The aim of the field work is to acquire aerial photographs taken using the visible-light and NIR cameras for a purpose of producing time series of DSMs and orthophotomaps with snow cover for all sites. The DSMs are used to calculate SD as difference between observational (with snow) and reference (without snow) models. In order to verify such an approach to compute SD we apply several procedures, one of which is the estimation of SE using the corresponding orthophotomaps generated on a basis of visual-light and NIR images. The objective of this

  14. National Land Cover Database: 1986-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 92 (National Land Cover Dataset 1992) is a 21-category land cover classification scheme that has been applied consistently over the conterminous U.S. It is...

  15. 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns Update

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — In 2008, an update of the 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) database was undertaken. The 1990 KLCP database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State...

  16. VT National Land Cover Dataset - 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The NLCD2001 layer available from VCGI is a subset of the the National Land Cover Database 2001 land cover layer for mapping zone 65 was produced...

  17. National Land Cover Database: 1986-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 92 (National Land Cover Dataset 1992) is a 21-category land cover classification scheme that has been applied consistently over the conterminous U.S. It is...

  18. A Citizen's Guide to Evapotranspiration Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide explains Evapotranspiration Covers which are Evapotranspiration (ET) covers are a type of cap placed over contaminated material, such as soil, landfill waste, or mining tailings, to prevent water from reaching it.

  19. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  20. 资阳市中心城区土地利用与土地覆被时空动态变化分析%Research of Land Use/Cover Spatial dynamic change in Downtown of Ziyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪喆; 何政伟; 邓辉; 陈晔

    2013-01-01

    According to the 1996 and 2008 two period Landsat images, This paper analyses Ziyang city12 years of land use change by using Geographic Information System spatial overlay analysis and mathematical statistics. The paper reveal the land use Variation characteristics of the area and spatial in the study area, The results show that construction land through expansion of culti-vated land occupied, the construction land use structure change greatly. Research results for sustainable use of land use planning and provide valid decision support.%  根据1996年和2008年两个时期的LandsatTM卫星影像资料,运用地理信息系统空间叠加分析和数理统计的方法,全面分析资阳市中心城区12年间土地利用方式的变化,从土地利用分布面积和空间两个方面分析其变化特征,结果表明建设用地通过占用耕地扩展,非建设用地结构发生明显变化。研究成果为土地利用规划和可持续利用提供有效的决策支持。

  1. Thermodestruction of components of anticorrosion polymer cover

    OpenAIRE

    Тихомирова, Татьяна Сергеевна

    2012-01-01

    This article concerns the processes of thermodestruction of multilayer polymer cover, which is widely used to protect the external surface of steel pipelines. The main purpose of the work is to prove the possibility of combination of various polymer components in one cover preserving the thermostability of the cover. The behavior of the separate modified components of the cover at high temperatures was analyzed using the differential-thermal analysis and the derivative thermogravimetry...

  2. [Snow cover pollution monitoring in Ufa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daukaev, R A; Suleĭmanov, R A

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of examining the snow cover polluted with heavy metals in the large industrial town of Ufa. The level of man-caused burden on the snow cover of the conventional parts of the town was estimated and compared upon exposure to a wide range of snow cover pollutants. The priority snow cover pollutants were identified among the test heavy metals.

  3. Estimating mean plant cover from different types of cover data: a coherent statistical framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damgaard, C

    2014-01-01

    Plant cover is measured by different methods and it is important to be able to estimate mean cover and to compare estimates of plant cover across different sampling methods in a coherent statistical framework...

  4. Managing cover crops: an economic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common reasons given by producers as to why they do not adopt cover crops are related to economics: time, labor, and cost required for planting and managing cover crops. While many of the agronomic benefits of cover crops directly relate to economics, there are costs associated with adopting the pra...

  5. Reducibility of Covers of AFT shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, Teresa; Eilers, Søren; Pask, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that the reducibility structure of several covers of sofic shifts is a flow invariant. In addition, we prove that for an irreducible subshift of almost finite type the left Krieger cover and the past set cover are reducible. We provide an example which shows that there are n...

  6. National land-cover pattern data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; James E. Vogelmann; K. Bruce Jones

    2000-01-01

    Land cover and its spatial patterns are key ingredients in ecological studies that consider large regions and the impacts of human activities. Because humanity is a principal driver of land-cover change over large regions (Turner et al. 1990), land-cover data provide direct measures of human activity, and both direct and indirect measures of ecological conditions...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2167 - Covered systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered systems. 193.2167 Section 193.2167...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2167 Covered systems. A covered impounding system is prohibited except for concrete wall designed tanks where the concrete wall is an outer...

  8. Covering, Packing and Logical Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    of Operations Research 43 (1993). [34] *Hooker, J. N., Generalized resolution for 0-1 linear inequalities, Annals of Mathematics and A 16 271-286. [35...Hooker, J. N. and C. Fedjki, Branch-and-cut solution of inference prob- lems in propositional logic, Annals of Mathematics and AI 1 (1990) 123-140. [40

  9. Bibliography of Military and Non-Military Personnel Turnover Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    satisfaction and productivity. The authors wish to express their appreciation to SRA Gerald P. Yates and Ms. Kathleen Donahue for their assistance in...Chicago, IL: St. Clair Press, 1974. Karp , H. B., & Nickson, J. W., Jr. Motivator-hygiene deprivation as a predictor of job turnover. Personnel

  10. Warrior Civilians - Non-Military Personnel on the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    used extensively in supply functions,2 and later amidst the War of 1812, they completed the majority of the labor in the field under the complete...strugglevetstatus.html 21 Bibliography Albrisketa, Joana. Blackwater: Mercenaries and International Law, Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el

  11. Science Outreach through Art: A Journal Article Cover Gallery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Research faculty journal covers were used to create a gallery in the Science & Technology branch library at the University of Akron. The selection, presentation, and promotion process is shared along with copyright considerations and a review of galleries used for library outreach. The event and display was a great success attracting faculty…

  12. Cover-Copy-Compare and Spelling: One versus Three Repetitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erion, Joel; Davenport, Cindy; Rodax, Nicole; Scholl, Bethany; Hardy, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Cover, copy, compare (CCC) has been used with success to improve spelling skills. This study adds to existing research by completing an analysis of the rewriting component of the intervention. The impact of varying the number of times a subject copied a word following an error was examined with four elementary age students. An adaptive alternating…

  13. A blending snow cover data base on MODIS and AMSR-E snow cover in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaohua, H.; Wang, J.; Che, T.; Dai, L. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The algorithms of MODIS Terra and MODIS Aqua versions of the snow products have been developed by the NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The MODIS global snow-cover products have been available through the NSIDC Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since February 24, 2000 to Terra and July 4, 2002 to Aqua. The MODIS snow-cover maps represent a potential improvement relative to hemispheric-scale snow maps that are available today mainly because of the improved spatial resolution and snow/cloud discrimination capabilities of MODIS, and the frequent global coverage. In China, the snow distribution is different to other regions. Their accuracy on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), however, has not yet been established. There are some drawbacks about NSIDC global snow cover products on QTP: 1. The characteristics of snow depth distribution on QTP: Thin, discontinuous. Our research indicated the MODIS snow-cover products underestimated the snow cover area in QTP. 2. The daily snow cover product from MODIS-Terra and Aqua can include the data gaps. 3. The snow products can separate snow from most obscuring clouds. However, there are still many cloud pixels in daily snow cover products. The study developed a new blending daily snow cover algorithm through improving the NSIDC snow algorithms and combining MODIS and AMSR-E data in QTP. The new snow cover products will provide daily snow cover at 500-m resolution in QTP. The new snow cover algorithm employs a grouped-criteria technique using the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) and other spectral threshold tests and image fusion technology to identify and classify snow on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The usefulness of the NDSI is based on the fact that snow and ice are considerably more reflective in the visible than in the shortwave IR part of the spectrum, and the reflectance of most clouds remains high in the short-wave IR, while the reflectance of snow is low. We propose a set of three steps, based on a

  14. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at p<0.05. These findings show that green areas appears to have a lower temperature difference, which is between 2° to 3° Celsius compared to urban areas. The findings also show that the average temperature and the built up percentage has a moderate correlation with R2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  15. UMTRA project disposal cell cover biointrusion sensitivity assessment, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This study provides an analysis of potential changes that may take place in a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell cover system as a result of plant biointrusion. Potential changes are evaluated by performing a sensitivity analysis of the relative impact of root penetrations on radon flux out of the cell cover and/or water infiltration into the cell cover. Data used in this analysis consist of existing information on vegetation growth on selected cell cover systems and information available from published studies and/or other available project research. Consistent with the scope of this paper, no new site-specific data were collected from UMTRA Project sites. Further, this paper does not focus on the issue of plant transport of radon gas or other contaminants out of the disposal cell cover though it is acknowledged that such transport has the potential to be a significant pathway for contaminants to reach the environment during portions of the design life of a disposal cell where plant growth occurs. Rather, this study was performed to evaluate the effects of physical penetration and soil drying caused by plant roots that have and are expected to continue to grow in UMTRA Project disposal cell covers. An understanding of the biological and related physical processes that take place within the cover systems of the UMTRA Project disposal cells helps the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determine if the presence of a plant community on these cells is detrimental, beneficial, or of mixed value in terms of the cover system`s designed function. Results of this investigation provide information relevant to the formulation of a vegetation control policy.

  16. Report of radioactivity survey research in fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    In National Institute of Radiological Sciences, a survey was made on radioactivities in the environment due to the substances released from nuclear installations and radioactive fall-out brought out by nuclear explosion tests since 1959. As the marked progress of non-military utilization of nuclear energy the national concern on environmental radioactivity has been increasing in Japan and thus it has become more and more important to make a survey research of radioactivities, which might affect the environment and human health. In these situations, the institute attempted to make the following six surveys in the fiscal year of 1996; `a survey on radioactive levels in environment, foods and human bodies`, `survey on the radioactive level in the regions around nuclear installations`, `works in radioactive data center`, `fundamental survey on the evaluation of the results from radioactivity survey`, `workshop for technical experts of environmental radioactivity monitoring` and `survey research on the measurement and countermeasures for emergency exposure`. (M.N.)

  17. Report of radioactivity survey research in fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    In National Institute of Radiological Sciences, a survey was made on radioactivities in the environment due to the substances released from nuclear installations and radioactive fall-out brought out by nuclear explosion tests since 1959. As the marked progress of non-military utilization of nuclear energy the national concern on environmental radioactivity has been increasing in Japan and thus it has become more and more important to make a survey research of radioactivities, which might affect the environment and human health. In these situations, the institute attempted to make the following six surveys in the fiscal year of 1997; `a survey on radioactive levels in environment, foods and human bodies`, `survey on the radioactive level in the regions around nuclear installations`, `works in radioactive data center`, `fundamental survey on the evaluation of the results from radioactivity survey`, `workshop for technical experts of environmental radioactivity monitoring` and `survey research on the measurement and countermeasures for emergency exposure`. (J.P.N.)

  18. Physiological functions of plant cell coverings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, Takayuki

    2002-08-01

    The cell coverings of plants have two important functions in plant life. Plant cell coverings are deeply involved in the regulation of the life cycle of plants: each stage of the life cycle, such as germination, vegetative growth, reproductive growth, and senescence, is strongly influenced by the nature of the cell coverings. Also, the apoplast, which consists of the cell coverings, is the field where plant cells first encounter the outer environment, and so becomes the major site of plant responses to the environment. In the regulation of each stage of the life cycle and the response to each environmental signal, some specific constituents of the cell coverings, such as xyloglucans in dicotyledons and 1,3,1,4-beta-glucans in Gramineae, act as the key component. The physiological functions of plant cell coverings are sustained by the metabolic turnover of these components. The components of the cell coverings are supplied from the symplast, but then they are modified or degraded in the apoplast. Thus, the metabolism of the cell coverings is regulated through the cross-talk between the symplast and the apoplast. The understanding of physiological functions of plant cell coverings will be greatly advanced by the use of genomic approaches. At the same time, we need to introduce nanobiological techniques for clarifying the minute changes in the cell coverings that occur in a small part within each cell.

  19. Clique Cover Width and Clique Sum

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrokhi, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    For a clique cover $C$ in the undirected graph $G$, the clique cover graph of $C$ is the graph obtained by contracting the vertices of each clique in $C$ into a single vertex. The clique cover width of G, denoted by $CCW(G)$, is the minimum value of the bandwidth of all clique cover graphs of $G$. When $G$ is the clique sum of $G_1$ and $G_2$, we prove that $CCW(G) \\le 3/2(CCW(G_1) + CCW(G_2))$.

  20. Wildfire selectivity for land cover type: does size matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Ana M G; Pereira, José M C

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that fires burn certain land cover types disproportionally to their abundance. We used quantile regression to study land cover proneness to fire as a function of fire size, under the hypothesis that they are inversely related, for all land cover types. Using five years of fire perimeters, we estimated conditional quantile functions for lower (avoidance) and upper (preference) quantiles of fire selectivity for five land cover types - annual crops, evergreen oak woodlands, eucalypt forests, pine forests and shrublands. The slope of significant regression quantiles describes the rate of change in fire selectivity (avoidance or preference) as a function of fire size. We used Monte-Carlo methods to randomly permutate fires in order to obtain a distribution of fire selectivity due to chance. This distribution was used to test the null hypotheses that 1) mean fire selectivity does not differ from that obtained by randomly relocating observed fire perimeters; 2) that land cover proneness to fire does not vary with fire size. Our results show that land cover proneness to fire is higher for shrublands and pine forests than for annual crops and evergreen oak woodlands. As fire size increases, selectivity decreases for all land cover types tested. Moreover, the rate of change in selectivity with fire size is higher for preference than for avoidance. Comparison between observed and randomized data led us to reject both null hypotheses tested ([Formula: see text] = 0.05) and to conclude it is very unlikely the observed values of fire selectivity and change in selectivity with fire size are due to chance.

  1. Land cover detection with SAR images of Delta del Llobregat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, R.; Borges, P. A. V.; Calado, H.; Broquetas, A.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a study of a multitemporal set of C-band images collected by ERS-2, aiming to understand the differentiations of the backscatter intensity and the phase coherence of different land covers to find possible synergies that could improve land cover detection. The land cover analysis allowed to observe the perfect differentiation of urban areas from intensity images. The observation of multitemporal RGB compositions combining key dates of the different points of crops growth make possible to differentiate this land cover and also to observe fluctuations inside the class itself. This fluctuations present a pattern that correspond to the crop field structure, which suggests that more information can be obtained. The shrubs are difficult to detect from the intensity images, but once the observation is combined with coherence images the detection is possible. However, the coherence image must be generated from pairs of images with a temporal interval lower than three months, independently from the year of registration of each image due to the general decrease of coherence when larger intervals are used. The analysis allowed to observe the potential of this data to perfect distinguish urban, crops and shrubs. The study of the seasonal fluctuations of intensity for the crops land cover with precise ground truth for crops type and points of growth is proposed as a future line of research.

  2. Use of Cover Crops in Hardwood Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy Rentz

    2005-01-01

    Cover crops are as essential a practice in hardwood production as in pine production or any other nursery operation. Without proper cover crop rotation in a nursery plan, we open ourselves up to an array of problems: more diseases, wrong pH, more weeds, reduced fertility, and less downward percolation of soil moisture due, in part, to compaction....

  3. AsMA journal covers, a history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Pamela C

    2014-01-01

    The cover of our journal has changed quite often over the years. As we look forward to changing the name and design of the journal, it seems appropriate to reflect on the previous journal titles and covers. A brief history follows.

  4. Winter cover crops influence Amaranthus palmeri establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crops were evaluated for their effect on Palmer amaranth (PA) suppression in cotton production. Cover crops examined included rye and four winter legumes: narrow-leaf lupine, crimson clover, Austrian winter pea, and cahaba vetch. Each legume was evaluated alone and in a mixture with rye...

  5. Well-covered graphs and factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randerath, Bert; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    2006-01-01

    A maximum independent set of vertices in a graph is a set of pairwise nonadjacent vertices of largest cardinality α. Plummer defined a graph to be well-covered, if every independent set is contained in a maximum independent set of G. Every well-covered graph G without isolated vertices has a perf...

  6. 29 CFR 1904.31 - Covered employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covered employees. 1904.31 Section 1904.31 Labor... Requirements § 1904.31 Covered employees. (a) Basic requirement. You must record on the OSHA 300 Log the recordable injuries and illnesses of all employees on your payroll, whether they are labor, executive,...

  7. 14 CFR 120.215 - Covered employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered employees. 120.215 Section 120.215... Alcohol Testing Program Requirements § 120.215 Covered employees. (a) Each employee, including any... accordance with this subpart. This includes full-time, part-time, temporary, and intermittent...

  8. "Lolita": Genealogy of a Cover Girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…

  9. "Lolita": Genealogy of a Cover Girl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…

  10. Liquidity in Government versus Covered Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Sangill, Thomas

    We present findings on the secondary market liquidity of government and covered bonds in Denmark before, during and after the 2008 financial crisis. The analysis focuses on wholesale trading in the two markets and is based on a complete transaction level dataset covering November 2007 until end...... 2011. Overall, our findings suggest that Danish benchmark covered bonds by and large are as liquid as Danish government bonds - including in periods of market stress. Before the financial crisis of 2008, government bonds were slightly more liquid than covered bonds. During the crisis, trading continued...... in both markets but the government bond market experienced a brief but pronounced decline in market liquidity while liquidity in the covered bond market was more robust - partly reflective of a number of events as well as policy measures introduced in the autumn of 2008. After the crisis, liquidity...

  11. Liquidity in Government versus Covered Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Sangill, Thomas

    in both markets but the government bond market experienced a brief but pronounced decline in market liquidity while liquidity in the covered bond market was more robust - partly reflective of a number of events as well as policy measures introduced in the autumn of 2008. After the crisis, liquidity......We present findings on the secondary market liquidity of government and covered bonds in Denmark before, during and after the 2008 financial crisis. The analysis focuses on wholesale trading in the two markets and is based on a complete transaction level dataset covering November 2007 until end...... 2011. Overall, our findings suggest that Danish benchmark covered bonds by and large are as liquid as Danish government bonds - including in periods of market stress. Before the financial crisis of 2008, government bonds were slightly more liquid than covered bonds. During the crisis, trading continued...

  12. Un/covering: Making Disability Identity Legible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Dawn Evans

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines one aspect of disability identity among people with non-apparent or "invisible" disabilities: the decision to emphasize, remind others about, or openly acknowledge impairment in social settings. I call this process "un/covering," and situate this concept in the sociological and Disability Studies literature on disability stigma, passing, and covering. Drawing on interviews with people who have acquired a non-apparent impairment through chronic illness or injury, I argue that decisions to un/cover (after a disability disclosure has already been made play a pivotal role for this group in developing a strong, positive disability identity and making that identity legible to others. Decisions to pass, cover, or un/cover are ongoing decisions that stitch together the fabric of each person's daily life experiences, thus serving as primary mechanisms for identity negotiation and management.

  13. Interactive Design and Visualization of Branched Covering Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Lawrence; Kumar, Prashant; Golbabaei, Sanaz; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Eugene

    2017-08-29

    Branched covering spaces are a mathematical concept which originates from complex analysis and topology and has applications in tensor field topology and geometry remeshing. Given a manifold surface and an N-way rotational symmetry field, a branched covering space is a manifold surface that has an N-to-1 map to the original surface except at the ramification points, which correspond to the singularities in the rotational symmetry field. Understanding the notion and mathematical properties of branched covering spaces is important to researchers in tensor field visualization and geometry processing, and their application areas. In this paper, we provide a framework to interactively design and visualize the branched covering space (BCS) of an input mesh surface and a rotational symmetry field defined on it. In our framework, the user can visualize not only the BCSs but also their construction process. In addition, our system allows the user to design the geometric realization of the BCS using mesh deformation techniques as well as connecting tubes. This enables the user to verify important facts about BCSs such as that they are manifold surfaces around singularities, as well as the Riemann-Hurwitz formula which relates the Euler characteristic of the BCS to that of the original mesh. Our system is evaluated by student researchers in scientific visualization and geometry processing as well as faculty members in mathematics at our university who teach topology. We include their evaluations and feedback in the paper.

  14. Production and economic viability of banana managed with cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca E. L. Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research aimed to evaluate the yield and economic viability of three crop cycles of the banana cv. ‘Prata Anã’ in association with perennial herbaceous legumes, natural vegetation, or compared with the conventional management. The research was conducted using a complete randomized block design with split-split plots and four replicates. The plots were formed by four irrigation depths: 50, 75, 100 and 125% of crop evapotranspiration, and the subplots by cover crops (Calopogonium muconoides, Pueraria phaseoloides, and natural cover without N addition or no cover crops with addition of N fertilization (conventional management. The subsubplots were formed by the second, third and fourth banana production cycles. Yield and economic viability of the cultivation were estimated for a period of seven years. The conventional management promoted greater yield and economic viability in the cultivation of ‘Prata Anã’ banana, due to the N fertilization. Managements with leguminous cover crops were also economically viable, but they should be investigated in combination with N fertilization and compared with the conventional method.

  15. Landscape Level Analyses of Vegetation Cover in Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, T.; Hollister, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Many International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) studies have been conducted to identify vegetation changes due to warming. However, knowledge gaps remain. For example, most of these studies are conducted at the plot level, not the landscape level, potentially masking larger scale impacts of climate change. An Arctic Systems Science (ARCSS) grid was established in Atqasuk, Alaska and Barrow, Alaska in the mid 1990's. In 2010, approximately 100 untreated vegetation plots were implemented at each grid site. These vegetation plots are 1 meter squared, spaced 100 meters apart, and span 1 kilometer squared. Each vegetation plot represents 100 square meters along the grid. This project will focus on how vegetation cover has changed at the landscape level, using the point frame method, from 2010 to 2013. Preliminary data analysis indicates that in Atqasuk, graminoids, deciduous shrubs, and evergreen shrubs show increased cover, while little change has occurred with bryophytes, forbs and lichens. In Barrow, graminoids, lichens and forbs have shown an increase in cover, while little change has occurred with bryophytes and deciduous shrubs. At both sites, graminoids represent the greatest increase in cover of all growth forms analyzed. This study will be the foundation for later work, with the purpose of predicting what ARCSS grid vegetation community compositions will be in the future. These expectations will be based on anticipated warming data from ITEX passively warmed vegetation plots. This will be the first time that ITEX vegetation warming research is applied to landscape level research in Barrow and Atqasuk.

  16. EASE-Grid Land Cover Classifications Derived from Boston University MODIS/Terra Land Cover Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data provide land cover classifications derived from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 MODIS/Terra 1 km Land Cover Product (Friedl et al. 2002). The data are...

  17. Himalayan glacier retreat delayed by debris cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherler, D.; Bookhagen, B.; Strecker, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Variable retreat rates and paucity of mass-balance data complicate a coherent picture of the current state and future fate of Himalayan glaciers. We report frontal changes and remotely-sensed surface velocities from >250 glaciers in the greater Himalayan realm (Hindu Kush, Karakoram, Himalaya, West Kunlun Shan) between 2000 and 2008 that provide evidence for widespread meltdown, which is obscured by debris cover. While debris-free glaciers in Tibet and other low-relief areas have been mainly retreating, debris-covered glaciers in high-relief areas, such as the central Himalaya, were mostly stagnating and in-situ down wasting but not retreating. Only Karakoram glaciers show no signs of stagnation or appreciable retreat, despite high debris cover, suggesting no recent mass loss. Our study shows that regional differences in topographic relief account for substantial differences in debris cover and thus retreat behaviour that need to be considered when comparing glacier retreat rates. The combination of melt rates lowered by debris cover and healthier glaciers in the strongly glaciated Karakoram slows down current glacier wastage in High Asia. Predictions of future water availability and global sea level have so far neglected the effect of debris cover on glacier melt rates and thus likely overestimate the speed of glacier meltdown in the Himalaya and other steep mountain ranges where debris covered glaciers are common.

  18. Assessing uncertainties in land cover projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Peter; Prestele, Reinhard; Verburg, Peter H; Arneth, Almut; Baranzelli, Claudia; Batista E Silva, Filipe; Brown, Calum; Butler, Adam; Calvin, Katherine; Dendoncker, Nicolas; Doelman, Jonathan C; Dunford, Robert; Engström, Kerstin; Eitelberg, David; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Harrison, Paula A; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Holzhauer, Sascha; Humpenöder, Florian; Jacobs-Crisioni, Chris; Jain, Atul K; Krisztin, Tamás; Kyle, Page; Lavalle, Carlo; Lenton, Tim; Liu, Jiayi; Meiyappan, Prasanth; Popp, Alexander; Powell, Tom; Sands, Ronald D; Schaldach, Rüdiger; Stehfest, Elke; Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Tabeau, Andrzej; van Meijl, Hans; Wise, Marshall A; Rounsevell, Mark D A

    2017-02-01

    Understanding uncertainties in land cover projections is critical to investigating land-based climate mitigation policies, assessing the potential of climate adaptation strategies and quantifying the impacts of land cover change on the climate system. Here, we identify and quantify uncertainties in global and European land cover projections over a diverse range of model types and scenarios, extending the analysis beyond the agro-economic models included in previous comparisons. The results from 75 simulations over 18 models are analysed and show a large range in land cover area projections, with the highest variability occurring in future cropland areas. We demonstrate systematic differences in land cover areas associated with the characteristics of the modelling approach, which is at least as great as the differences attributed to the scenario variations. The results lead us to conclude that a higher degree of uncertainty exists in land use projections than currently included in climate or earth system projections. To account for land use uncertainty, it is recommended to use a diverse set of models and approaches when assessing the potential impacts of land cover change on future climate. Additionally, further work is needed to better understand the assumptions driving land use model results and reveal the causes of uncertainty in more depth, to help reduce model uncertainty and improve the projections of land cover. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Estimating juniper cover from NAIP imagery and evaluating relationships between potential cover and environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper management is constrained by limited tools to estimate juniper cover and potential cover at stand closure across landscapes. We evaluated if remotely sensed imagery (NAIP) could be used to estimate juniper cover and if environmental characteristic could be used to determine potential junipe...

  20. Orbifold groups, quasi-projectivity and covers

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Enrique Artal; Matei, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We discuss properties of complex algebraic orbifold groups, their characteristic varieties, and their abelian covers. In particular, we deal with the question of (quasi)-projectivity of orbifold groups. We also prove a structure theorem for the variety of characters of normal-crossing quasi-projective orbifold groups. Finally, we extend Sakuma's formula for the first Betti number of abelian covers of orbifold fundamental groups. Several examples are presented, including a compact orbifold group which is not projective and a Zariski pair of plane projective curves that can be told by considering an unbranched cover of the projective plane with an orbifold structure.

  1. Dicycle Cover of Hamiltonian Oriented Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid A. Alsatami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A dicycle cover of a digraph D is a family F of dicycles of D such that each arc of D lies in at least one dicycle in F. We investigate the problem of determining the upper bounds for the minimum number of dicycles which cover all arcs in a strong digraph. Best possible upper bounds of dicycle covers are obtained in a number of classes of digraphs including strong tournaments, Hamiltonian oriented graphs, Hamiltonian oriented complete bipartite graphs, and families of possibly non-Hamiltonian digraphs obtained from these digraphs via a sequence of 2-sum operations.

  2. Precipitation Response to Land Cover Changes in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, E.; Lenderink, G.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Holtslag, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation has increased by 25% over the last century in the Netherlands. In this period, conversion of peat areas into grassland, expansion of urban areas, and the creation of new land in Lake Ijssel were the largest land cover changes. Both station data analysis (Daniels et al. 2014) and high-resolution (2.5 km) simulations with the atmospheric Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model suggest that the observed increase in precipitation is not due to these land cover changes. Instead, the change from historical (1900) to present (2000) land cover decreases precipitation in WRF (Figure). However, WRF seems to be very sensitive to changes in evapotranspiration. The creation of new land and the expansion of urban areas are similar from a moisture perspective, since they locally decrease evapotranspiration, and therefore affect the soil moisture-precipitation feedback mechanism. In our simulations, the resulting feedback is always positive, as a reduction in evapotranspiration causes a reduction of precipitation. There is a difference between urban areas and land in WRF however. Over urban areas, the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height increases more than the lifting condensation level (LCL), and the potential to trigger precipitation hereby increases. This in turn decreases the strength, but not sign, of the soil moisture-precipitation feedback. WRF is therefore unable to reproduce the observed precipitation enhancement downwind of urban areas. In all, it seems the sensitivity of WRF to changes in surface moisture might be too high and this questions the applicability of the model to investigate land cover changes. Daniels, E. E., G. Lenderink, R. W. A. Hutjes, and A. A. M. Holtslag, 2014: Spatial precipitation patterns and trends in The Netherlands during 1951-2009. International Journal of Climatology, 34, 1773-1784. Figure: Composite summer precipitation (mm) based on 19 single day cases (a), showing the decreases resulting from changing present to

  3. Landsat continuity: Issues and opportunities for land cover monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulder, M.A.; White, Joanne C.; Goward, S.N.; Masek, J.G.; Irons, J.R.; Herold, M.; Cohen, W.B.; Loveland, T.R.; Woodcock, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Initiated in 1972, the Landsat program has provided a continuous record of earth observation for 35??years. The assemblage of Landsat spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, over a reasonably sized image extent, results in imagery that can be processed to represent land cover over large areas with an amount of spatial detail that is absolutely unique and indispensable for monitoring, management, and scientific activities. Recent technical problems with the two existing Landsat satellites, and delays in the development and launch of a successor, increase the likelihood that a gap in Landsat continuity may occur. In this communication, we identify the key features of the Landsat program that have resulted in the extensive use of Landsat data for large area land cover mapping and monitoring. We then augment this list of key features by examining the data needs of existing large area land cover monitoring programs. Subsequently, we use this list as a basis for reviewing the current constellation of earth observation satellites to identify potential alternative data sources for large area land cover applications. Notions of a virtual constellation of satellites to meet large area land cover mapping and monitoring needs are also presented. Finally, research priorities that would facilitate the integration of these alternative data sources into existing large area land cover monitoring programs are identified. Continuity of the Landsat program and the measurements provided are critical for scientific, environmental, economic, and social purposes. It is difficult to overstate the importance of Landsat; there are no other systems in orbit, or planned for launch in the short-term, that can duplicate or approach replication, of the measurements and information conferred by Landsat. While technical and political options are being pursued, there is no satellite image data stream poised to enter the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive should system failures

  4. Geomorphology and dynamics of supraglacial debris covers in the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deline, P.; Gardent, M.; Kirkbride, M. P.; Le Roy, M.; Martin, B.

    2012-04-01

    In the alpine regions of France and NW Italy, many glaciers of a variety of sizes are at least partly debris-covered, but these have received less scientific research than clean glaciers. During the present period of glacier shrinkage - the area of glacier cover in France has reduced by 26% over the last 40 years -, growing debris cover needs to be understood as an influence on continuing retreat, with consequences for natural hazards, water resources and tourism. We present the results of a combined ongoing study of an inventory of debris-covered glaciers in France with site-specific studies of c. 12 glaciers of contrasting types, in order to understand spatial and temporal changes in supraglacial debris cover. Our specific aims are: 1. To understand the geomorphology of debris-covers and their formation, investigating the types of debris cover in relation to formative processes including extraglacial supply and development during transport. 2. To document the changing extents of supraglacial debris covers, using historical documents and aerial photographs. 3. To interpret areal changes in terms of glaciological and topographical controls on different glacier and debris cover types (catchment morphology, glacier structure, mass balance history, and rock wall collapse magnitude and frequency). 4. To understand the effect of debris cover on glacier dynamics and geomorphological evolution, related to insulation-related modifications to AAR, long profiles, and length changes on both short and long timescales. This includes investigation of the characteristics of debris-covered glacier depositional systems resulting from their modified dynamics.

  5. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  6. 45 CFR 152.19 - Covered benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... offered by a PCIP shall not cover the following services: (1) Cosmetic surgery or other treatment for cosmetic purposes except to restore bodily function or correct deformity resulting from disease....

  7. Global Land Cover Characterization: 1992-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long history of involvement in multi-scale, and multi-temporal land cover characterization and mapping of the world. During...

  8. 5 CFR 890.903 - Covered services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Limit on Inpatient Hospital Charges, Physician Charges, and FEHB Benefit... inpatient hospital services apply to inpatient hospital services which are: (1) Covered under both...

  9. The Results: WLB's Cover Contest for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnofsky, Ruth

    1970-01-01

    Lists winners of a contest for a cover design among elementary school children, with entries submitted by school librarians from all over the country. Includes reproductions of some winning entries. (JS)

  10. Expansion of Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Expansionof Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services - Maternal Smoking and Birth Outcomes. To assess whether Medicaid coverage of smoking cessation services...

  11. Determinants of woody cover in African savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sankaran, M

    2005-12-08

    Full Text Available Savannas are globally important ecosystems of great significance to human economies. In these biomes, which are characterized by the co-dominance of trees and grasses, woody cover is a chief determinant of ecosystem properties (1...

  12. C-CAP Niihau 2005 Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land cover derived from high resolution imagery according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol. This data set utilized 1...

  13. 49 CFR 192.327 - Cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... locations 36 (914) 24 (610) Drainage ditches of public roads and railroad crossings 36 (914) 24 (610) (b... least 24 inches (610 millimeters) of cover. (c) Where an underground structure prevents the installation...

  14. Orbifoldization, covering surfaces and uniformization theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bántay, P

    1998-01-01

    The connection between the theory of permutation orbifolds, covering surfaces and uniformization is investigated, and the higher genus partition functions of an arbitrary permutation orbifold are expressed in terms of those of the original theory.

  15. 7 CFR 1.183 - Proceedings covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards Act (7 U.S.C. 79(g)(3), 85, 86) U.S. Warehouse Act (7 U.S.C. 246, 253) Virus-Serum-Toxin Act (21 U... the filing of an application by a party who believes the proceeding is covered by EAJA; whether the proceeding is covered will then be an issue for resolution in proceedings on the application. (c) If a...

  16. Regulatory guidance on soil cover systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, J.D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in September 1991, completed revisions to 14 sections of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. The major purposes of the SRP are to ensure the quality and uniformity of the NRC staff`s safety reviews, and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate the acceptability of information and data provided in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) portion of the license application. SRP 3.2, entitled, Design Considerations for Normal and Abnormal/Accident Conditions, was one of the sections that was revised by the NRC staff. This revision was completed to provide additional regulatory guidance on the important considerations that need to be addressed for the proper design and construction of soil cover systems that are to be placed over the LLW. The cover system over the waste is acknowledged to be one of the most important engineered barriers for the long-term stable performance of the disposal facility. The guidance in revised SRP 3.2 summarizes the previous efforts and recommendations of the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and a peer review panel on the placement of soil cover systems. NRC published these efforts in NUREG/CR-5432. The discussions in this paper highlight selected recommendations on soil cover issues that the NRC staff considers important for ensuring the safe, long-term performance of the soil cover systems. The development phases to be discussed include: (1) cover design; (2) cover material selection; (3) laboratory and field testing; (4) field placement control and acceptance; and (5) penetrations through the constructed covers.

  17. Edge covers and independence: Algebraic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, E. A.; Khitrov, G. M.; Pogozhev, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, linear algebra methods are applied to solve some problems of graph theory. For ordinary connected graphs, edge coverings and independent sets are considered. Some results concerning minimum edge covers and maximum matchings are proved with the help of linear algebraic approach. The problem of finding a maximum matching of a graph is fundamental both practically and theoretically, and has numerous applications, e.g., in computational chemistry and mathematical chemistry.

  18. Assessing alternative measures of tree canopy cover: Photo-interpreted NAIP and ground-based estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Toney; Greg Liknes; Andy Lister; Dacia Meneguzzo

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for the development of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2011 tree canopy cover layer, a pilot project for research and method development was completed in 2010 by the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program and Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC).This paper explores one of several topics investigated during the NLCD...

  19. Integrating global land cover datasets for deriving user-specific maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsendbazar, Nandika; Bruin, de Sytze; Herold, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Global scale land cover (LC) mapping has interested many researchers over the last two decades as it is an input data source for various applications. Current global land cover (GLC) maps often do not meet the accuracy and thematic requirements of specific users. This study aimed to create an improv

  20. Assessing the Accuracy of MODIS-NDVI Derived Land-Cover Across the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research describes the accuracy assessment process for a land-cover dataset developed for the Great Lakes Basin (GLB). This land-cover dataset was developed from the 2007 MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day composite (MOD13Q) 250 m time-series data. Tr...

  1. Texture classification of vegetation cover in high altitude wetlands zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentao, Zou; Bingfang, Wu; Hongbo, Ju; Hua, Liu

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of datasets composed of texture measures and other features for the classification of vegetation cover, specifically wetlands. QUEST decision tree classifier was applied to a SPOT-5 image sub-scene covering the typical wetlands area in Three River Sources region in Qinghai province, China. The dataset used for the classification comprised of: (1) spectral data and the components of principal component analysis; (2) texture measures derived from pixel basis; (3) DEM and other ancillary data covering the research area. Image textures is an important characteristic of remote sensing images; it can represent spatial variations with spectral brightness in digital numbers. When the spectral information is not enough to separate the different land covers, the texture information can be used to increase the classification accuracy. The texture measures used in this study were calculated from GLCM (Gray level Co-occurrence Matrix); eight frequently used measures were chosen to conduct the classification procedure. The results showed that variance, mean and entropy calculated by GLCM with a 9*9 size window were effective in distinguishing different vegetation types in wetlands zone. The overall accuracy of this method was 84.19% and the Kappa coefficient was 0.8261. The result indicated that the introduction of texture measures can improve the overall accuracy by 12.05% and the overall kappa coefficient by 0.1407 compared with the result using spectral and ancillary data.

  2. Validation of Fractional Snow Cover from AVHRR using Landsat TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, C.; Rittger, K.; Dozier, J.; Davis, R.

    2008-12-01

    The suite of NOAA satellites carrying the AVHRR sensor provides daily coverage of the world's snowpack. While another satellite-borne sensor, MODIS, may provide more accurate estimates of snow cover for operational forecasting, AVHRR provides a retrospective view, gaining a perspective of historical snowpack, which in turn can supplement operational forecasting. Here we validate a fractional snow cover algorithm for AVHRR in use by the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. The approach uses a binary decision tree trained from the theoretical reflectance of snow and non-snow spectra convolved to AVHRR bandwidths. The binary decision tree, which estimates fractional snow cover, uses bands 1 and 2 calibrated with an atmosphere optical model 6S, and a derived band 3, which estimates a reflectance component separated from the emitance component by using temperature data from channel 4, and assumptions about the surface emissivity. Using 26 Landsat TM scenes we validate 79 scenes from NOAA 9, 11, 12 and 14. We investigate the absolute differences from the fine resolution data as well as the relative differences between sensors on the two satellites. Errors of commission are eliminated with a temperature and/or elevation mask. Like most moderate resolution satellite data, georegistration errors contribute to the overall error and can be accounted for when comparing images. The AVHRR algorithm demonstrates sensitivity to fractional snow cover and performs well in comparison to TM.

  3. Researching research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2012-01-01

    We discuss contemporary theories in mathematics education in order to do research on research. Our strategy consists of analysing discursively and ideologically recent key publications addressing the role of theory in mathematics education research. We examine how the field fabricates its object...... to a reflexivity of research on its discourses and effects. Furthermore, they enable us to present a clear distinction between what has been called the sociopolitical turn in mathematics education research and what we call a positioning of mathematics education (research) practices in the Political....

  4. Adding structure to land cover - using fractional cover to study animal habitat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevanda, Mirjana; Horning, Ned; Reineking, Bjoern; Heurich, Marco; Wegmann, Martin; Mueller, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Linking animal movements to landscape features is critical to identify factors that shape the spatial behaviour of animals. Habitat selection is led by behavioural decisions and is shaped by the environment, therefore the landscape is crucial for the analysis. Land cover classification based on ground survey and remote sensing data sets are an established approach to define landscapes for habitat selection analysis. We investigate an approach for analysing habitat use using continuous land cover information and spatial metrics. This approach uses a continuous representation of the landscape using percentage cover of a chosen land cover type instead of discrete classes. This approach, fractional cover, captures spatial heterogeneity within classes and is therefore capable to provide a more distinct representation of the landscape. The variation in home range sizes is analysed using fractional cover and spatial metrics in conjunction with mixed effect models on red deer position data in the Bohemian Forest, compared over multiple spatio-temporal scales. We analysed forest fractional cover and a texture metric within each home range showing that variance of fractional cover values and texture explain much of variation in home range sizes. The results show a hump-shaped relationship, leading to smaller home ranges when forest fractional cover is very homogeneous or highly heterogeneous, while intermediate stages lead to larger home ranges. The application of continuous land cover information in conjunction with spatial metrics proved to be valuable for the explanation of home-range sizes of red deer.

  5. Land Cover and Landscape Diversity Analysis in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Szymon; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J.; Tompalski, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this research was to present the land cover structure and landscape diversity in the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve. The land cover classification was performed using Object Based Image Analysis in Trimble eCognition Developer 8 software. The retrospective land cover changes analysis in 3 lake catchments (Kleszczów, Moszne, Bia³eW³odawskie Lakes)was performed on the basis of archival aerial photos taken in 1952, 1971, 1984, 1992, 2007 and one satellite scene from 2003 (IKONOS).On the basis of land cover map structure, Shannon diversity index was estimated with the moving window approach enabled in Fragstats software. The conducted research has shown that the land cover structure of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve is diverse and can be simply described by selected landscape metrics. The highest level of land cover diversity, as showed by Shannon Diversity Index, was identified in the western part of the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve, which is closely related to the agricultural character of land cover structure in those regions. The examples of three regional retrospective land cover analyses demonstrated that the character of land cover structure has changed dramatically over the last 40 years.

  6. INFLUENCE OF DIVIDING COVERINGS ON QUALITY OF CASTINGS AT MOLDING OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS UNDER PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Pivovarchik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of researches on influence of separating coverings on such properties of castings as corrosion resistance, roughness of cast surface, casting density are given in article.

  7. EnviroAtlas - New Bedford, MA - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover Data (2010) Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The New Bedford, MA land cover...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - One Meter Resolution Urban Land Cover (2010) Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The Portland, ME land cover...

  9. Risk of Death Due to Birth Defects Higher if Baby Covered by Medicaid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163268.html Risk of Death Due to Birth Defects Higher If Baby Covered ... defects cause about one in every five infant deaths in the United States. Now, new research finds ...

  10. COVERS Neonatal Pain Scale: Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan L. Hand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Newborns and infants are often exposed to painful procedures during hospitalization. Several different scales have been validated to assess pain in specific populations of pediatric patients, but no single scale can easily and accurately assess pain in all newborns and infants regardless of gestational age and disease state. A new pain scale was developed, the COVERS scale, which incorporates 6 physiological and behavioral measures for scoring. Newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit or Well Baby Nursery were evaluated for pain/discomfort during two procedures, a heel prick and a diaper change. Pain was assessed using indicators from three previously established scales (CRIES, the Premature Infant Pain Profile, and the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale, as well as the COVERS Scale, depending upon gestational age. Premature infant testing resulted in similar pain assessments using the COVERS and PIPP scales with an r=0.84. For the full-term infants, the COVERS scale and NIPS scale resulted in similar pain assessments with an r=0.95. The COVERS scale is a valid pain scale that can be used in the clinical setting to assess pain in newborns and infants and is universally applicable to all neonates, regardless of their age or physiological state.

  11. Floating geomembrane cover improves biogas collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, J.

    2009-07-15

    Canadian corn products refiner, Casco Inc., recently upgraded a wastewater anaerobic digester at its automated corn wet milling facility on the St. Lawrence River, in Cardinal Ontario. The upgrade includes an improved floating and insulated geomembrane cover, designed and installed by Geomembrane Technologies Inc. The cover effectively streamlines biogas collection, improves biogas odour control and optimizes bioreactor heat retention. Casco's bulk volume fermenter (BVF) was designed and built in 1988 by ADI Systems Inc. It is limited to receiving 641,000 gallons of wastewater per day from several areas of the plant. Wastewater sludge is usually treated by anaerobic digestion. At Casco, raw solids are added directly to the BVF bioreactor, where they are digested, minimizing waste sludge handling. In essence, anaerobic digestion is a renewable energy source which converts wastewater to a methane- and carbon dioxide-rich biogas suitable for energy production, replacing fossil fuels. The insulated geomembrane cover captures and reclaims all the biogas from the treatment process that is going on inside the tank. Without a cover, the biogas would be released to the atmosphere. The new geomembrane cover collects an average of 236,000 cubic feet of biogas per day, at a 65 per cent methane concentration, from the BVF bioreactor. 2 figs.

  12. Cloud cover estimation optical package: New facility, algorithms and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitskiy, Mikhail

    2017-02-01

    Short- and long-wave radiation is an important component of surface heat budget over sea and land. For estimating them accurate observations of the cloud cover are needed. While massively observed visually, for building accurate parameterizations cloud cover needs also to be quantified using precise instrumental measurements. Major disadvantages of the most of existing cloud-cameras are associated with their complicated design and inaccuracy of post-processing algorithms which typically result in the uncertainties of 20% to 30% in the camera-based estimates of cloud cover. The accuracy of these types of algorithm in terms of true scoring compared to human-observed values is typically less than 10%. We developed new generation package for cloud cover estimating, which provides much more accurate results and also allows for measuring additional characteristics. New algorithm, namely SAIL GrIx, based on routine approach, also developed for this package. It uses the synthetic controlling index ("grayness rate index") which allows to suppress the background sunburn effect. This makes it possible to increase the reliability of the detection of the optically thin clouds. The accuracy of this algorithm in terms of true scoring became 30%. One more approach, namely SAIL GrIx ML, we have used to increase the cloud cover estimating accuracy is the algorithm that uses machine learning technique along with some other signal processing techniques. Sun disk condition appears to be a strong feature in this kind of models. Artificial Neural Networks type of model demonstrates the best quality. This model accuracy in terms of true scoring increases up to 95,5%. Application of a new algorithm lets us to modify the design of the optical sensing package and to avoid the use of the solar trackers. This made the design of the cloud camera much more compact. New cloud-camera has already been tested in several missions across Atlantic and Indian oceans on board of IORAS research vessels.

  13. Ant Colony Optimization and Hypergraph Covering Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Pat, Ankit

    2011-01-01

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a very popular metaheuristic for solving computationally hard combinatorial optimization problems. Runtime analysis of ACO with respect to various pseudo-boolean functions and different graph based combinatorial optimization problems has been taken up in recent years. In this paper, we investigate the runtime behavior of an MMAS*(Max-Min Ant System) ACO algorithm on some well known hypergraph covering problems that are NP-Hard. In particular, we have addressed the Minimum Edge Cover problem, the Minimum Vertex Cover problem and the Maximum Weak- Independent Set problem. The influence of pheromone values and heuristic information on the running time is analysed. The results indicate that the heuristic information has greater impact towards improving the expected optimization time as compared to pheromone values. For certain instances of hypergraphs, we show that the MMAS* algorithm gives a constant order expected optimization time when the dominance of heuristic information is ...

  14. Spatial Scaling of Land Cover Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Small, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Spatial networks of land cover are well-described by power law rank-size distributions. Continuous field proxies for human settlements, agriculture and forest cover have similar spatial scaling properties spanning 4 to 5 orders of magnitude. Progressive segmentation of these continuous fields yields spatial networks with rank-size distributions having slopes near -1 for a wide range of thresholds. We consider a general explanation for this scaling that does not require different processes for each type of land cover. The same conditions that give rise to scale-free networks in general can produce power law distributions of component sizes for bounded spatial networks confined to a plane or surface. Progressive segmentation of a continuous field naturally results in growth of the network while the increasing perimeters of the growing components result in preferential attachment to the larger components with the longer perimeters. Progressive segmentation of two types of random continuous field results in progr...

  15. Cover song identification by sequence alignment algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Li; Zhong, Qian; Wang, Szu-Ying; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2011-10-01

    Content-based music analysis has drawn much attention due to the rapidly growing digital music market. This paper describes a method that can be used to effectively identify cover songs. A cover song is a song that preserves only the crucial melody of its reference song but different in some other acoustic properties. Hence, the beat/chroma-synchronous chromagram, which is insensitive to the variation of the timber or rhythm of songs but sensitive to the melody, is chosen. The key transposition is achieved by cyclically shifting the chromatic domain of the chromagram. By using the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to obtain the time sequences of songs, the system is made even more robust. Similar structure or length between the cover songs and its reference are not necessary by the Smith-Waterman Alignment Algorithm.

  16. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  17. Sediment transport in ice-covered channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian KNACK; Hung-tao SHEN

    2015-01-01

    The existence of ice cover has important effects on sediment transport and channel morphology for rivers in areas with an annual occurrence of an ice season. The interaction of sediment transport and surface ice is poorly understood. In this paper, data from existing flume experiments, each with a limited range of flow and sediment transport conditions, are analyzed. The analysis showed that the bed load transport in ice-covered channels can be described by conventional relationships for the equivalent free-surface flow if the flow strength is expressed in terms of the bed shear stress. A modified Rouse formulation considering the effect of the ice cover on velocity and turbulent diffusion is shown to be applicable for calculating the suspended sediment transport discharge.

  18. Soil Water Improvements with the Long Term Use of a Winter Rye Cover Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basche, A.; Kaspar, T.; Archontoulis, S.; Jaynes, D. B.; Sauer, T. J.; Parkin, T.; Miguez, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Midwestern United States, a region that produces one-third of maize and one-quarter of soybeans globally, is projected to experience increasing rainfall variability with future climate change. One approach to mitigate climate impacts is to utilize crop and soil management practices that enhance soil water storage, reducing the risks of flooding and runoff as well as drought-induced crop water stress. While some research indicates that a winter cover crop in a maize-soybean rotation increases soil water, producers continue to be concerned that water use by cover crops will reduce water for a following cash crop. We analyzed continuous in-field soil moisture measurements over from 2008-2014 at a Central Iowa research site that has included a winter rye cover crop in a maize-soybean rotation for thirteen years. This period of study included years in the top third of wettest years on record (2008, 2010, 2014) as well as years in the bottom third of driest years (2012, 2013). We found the cover crop treatment to have significantly higher soil water storage from 2012-2014 when compared to the no cover crop treatment and in most years greater soil water content later in the growing season when a cover crop was present. We further found that the winter rye cover crop significantly increased the field capacity water content and plant available water compared to the no cover crop treatment. Finally, in 2012 and 2013, we measured maize and soybean biomass every 2-3 weeks and did not see treatment differences in crop growth, leaf area or nitrogen uptake. Final crop yields were not statistically different between the cover and no cover crop treatment in any of the years of this analysis. This research indicates that the long-term use of a winter rye cover crop can improve soil water dynamics without sacrificing cash crop growth.

  19. Thematic accuracy of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 land cover for Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkowitz, D.J.; Stehman, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 Alaska land cover classification is the first 30-m resolution land cover product available covering the entire state of Alaska. The accuracy assessment of the NLCD 2001 Alaska land cover classification employed a geographically stratified three-stage sampling design to select the reference sample of pixels. Reference land cover class labels were determined via fixed wing aircraft, as the high resolution imagery used for determining the reference land cover classification in the conterminous U.S. was not available for most of Alaska. Overall thematic accuracy for the Alaska NLCD was 76.2% (s.e. 2.8%) at Level II (12 classes evaluated) and 83.9% (s.e. 2.1%) at Level I (6 classes evaluated) when agreement was defined as a match between the map class and either the primary or alternate reference class label. When agreement was defined as a match between the map class and primary reference label only, overall accuracy was 59.4% at Level II and 69.3% at Level I. The majority of classification errors occurred at Level I of the classification hierarchy (i.e., misclassifications were generally to a different Level I class, not to a Level II class within the same Level I class). Classification accuracy was higher for more abundant land cover classes and for pixels located in the interior of homogeneous land cover patches. ?? 2011.

  20. Commentary: A cautionary tale regarding use of the National Land Cover Dataset 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Gallant, Alisa L.; Knutson, Melinda G.; Fox, Timothy J.; Suarez, Manuel J.

    2004-01-01

    Digital land-cover data are among the most popular data sources used in ecological research and natural resource management. However, processes for accurate land-cover classification over large regions are still evolving. We identified inconsistencies in the National Land Cover Dataset 1992, the most current and available representation of land cover for the conterminous United States. We also report means to address these inconsistencies in a bird-habitat model. We used a Geographic Information System (GIS) to position a regular grid (or lattice) over the upper midwestern United States and summarized the proportion of individual land covers in each cell within the lattice. These proportions were then mapped back onto the lattice, and the resultant lattice was compared to satellite paths, state borders, and regional map classification units. We observed mapping inconsistencies at the borders between mapping regions, states, and Thematic Mapper (TM) mapping paths in the upper midwestern United States, particularly related to grass I and-herbaceous, emergent-herbaceous wetland, and small-grain land covers. We attributed these discrepancies to differences in image dates between mapping regions, suboptimal image dates for distinguishing certain land-cover types, lack of suitable ancillary data for improving discrimination for rare land covers, and possibly differences among image interpreters. To overcome these inconsistencies for the purpose of modeling regional populations of birds, we combined grassland-herbaceous and pasture-hay land-cover classes and excluded the use of emergent-herbaceous and small-grain land covers. We recommend that users of digital land-cover data conduct similar assessments for other regions before using these data for habitat evaluation. Further, caution is advised in using these data in the analysis of regional land-cover change because it is not likely that future digital land-cover maps will repeat the same problems, thus resulting in

  1. Capo Verde, Land Use Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  2. 19 CFR 212.03 - Proceedings covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proceedings covered. 212.03 Section 212.03 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE... fees and expenses related to those portions of the proceedings conducted for the consideration...

  3. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  4. Outer Rail for Wall Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The outer rail retains two lateral screw webs of an intermediate rail to construct a base for wall plate covering. Two retention devices are disposed oppositely on respective inner sides of each retention web for retaining a respective screw web of the intermediate rail. Each retention device...

  5. 16 CFR 436.3 - Cover page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with a cover page, in the order and form as follows: (a) The title “FRANCHISE DISCLOSURE DOCUMENT” in... begin operation of a franchise is . This includes that must be paid to the franchisor or affiliate. (2) This disclosure document summarizes certain provisions of your franchise agreement and...

  6. 18 CFR 46.5 - Covered entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... organization primarily engaged in the business of providing financial services or credit, a mutual savings bank... FOR PERSONS HOLDING INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 46.5 Covered entities. Entities to which the general rule in § 46.4(b) applies are the following: (a) Any investment bank, bank holding company, foreign...

  7. 49 CFR 1520.7 - Covered persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (e) Each person performing the function of a computer reservation system or global distribution system for airline passenger information. (f) Each person participating in a national or area security... SECURITY INFORMATION § 1520.7 Covered persons. Persons subject to the requirements of part 1520 are: (a...

  8. Emerging Infectious Disease Journal Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-04

    Polyxeni Potter discusses the art used on the covers of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 4/4/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  9. On label graphoidal covering number-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugaperumal Anitha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Let G = (V,E be a graph with p vertices and q edges. An acyclicgraphoidal cover of G is a collection of paths in G which are internallydisjointand covering each edge of the graph exactly once. Let f : V !{1, 2, . . . , p} be a bijective labeling of the vertices of G. Let " Gf bethe directed graph obtained by orienting the edges uv of G from u tov provided f(u < f(v. If the set f of all maximal directed paths in"Gf , with directions ignored, is an acyclic graphoidal cover of G, then fis called a graphoidal labeling of G and G is called a label graphoidal graphand l = min{| f | : f is a graphoidal labeling of G} is called the labelgraphoidal covering number of G. In this paper we characterize graphsfor which (i l = q − m, where m is the number of vertices of degree 2and (ii l = q. Also, we determine the value of label graphoidal coveringnumber for unicyclic graphs.

  10. Determinants of woody cover in African savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sankaran, M.; Hanan, N.P.; Scholes, R.J.; Ratnam, J.; Augustine, D.J.; Cade, B.S.; Gignoux, J.; Higgins, S.I.; Roux, Le X.; Ludwig, F.; Ardo, J.; Banyikwa, F.; Bronn, A.; Bicini, G.; Caylor, K.K.; Coughenour, M.B.; Diouf, A.; Ekaya, W.; Feral, C.J.; February, E.C.; Frost, P.G.H.; Hiernaux, P.; Hrabar, H.; Metzger, K.L.; Prins, H.H.T.; Ringrose, S.; Sea, W.; Tews, J.; Worden, J.; Zambatis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Savannas are globally important ecosystems of great significance to human economies. In these biomes, which are characterized by the co-dominance of trees and grasses, woody cover is a chief determinant of ecosystem properties 1-3. The availability of resources (water, nutrients) and disturbance

  11. 31 CFR 800.207 - Covered transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covered transaction. 800.207 Section 800.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF..., which could result in control of a U.S. business by a foreign person....

  12. Geometric orbit datum and orbit covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁科; 侯自新

    2001-01-01

    Vogan conjectured that the parabolic induction of orbit data is independent of the choice of the parabolic subgroup. In this paper we first give the parabolic induction of orbit covers, whose relationship with geometric orbit datum is also induced. Hence we show a geometric interpretation of orbit data and finally prove the conjugation for geometric orbit datum using geometric method.

  13. 22 CFR 171.41 - Covered employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC Ethics in Government Act Provisions § 171.41 Covered employees. (a) Officers and employees (including special Government employees as defined in 18 U.S.C. 202) whose positions are classified at...

  14. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  15. 17 CFR 148.3 - Proceedings covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proceedings covered. 148.3 Section 148.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF... 14 of the Commodity Exchange Act, 7 U.S.C. 18, Commission review of exchange disciplinary and access...

  16. Outer Rail for Wall Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The outer rail retains two lateral screw webs of an intermediate rail to construct a base for wall plate covering. Two retention devices are disposed oppositely on respective inner sides of each retention web for retaining a respective screw web of the intermediate rail. Each retention device...

  17. 77 FR 48733 - Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents-Definitions of Covered Business Method...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ...); (5) Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents-- Definition of Technological Invention...--Definition of Technological Invention, 77 FR 7095 (Feb. 10, 2012). This final rule revises the rules of... definition for technological invention for covered business method patent review proceedings. The...

  18. 7 CFR 1437.503 - Covered losses and recordkeeping requirements for covered tropical crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered losses and recordkeeping requirements for covered tropical crops. 1437.503 Section 1437.503 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS...

  19. feasibility of winter cover crop production under rainfed conditions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Low winter rainfall poses a challenge to production of high biomass from cover ... February planted cover crops had the lowest residues remaining at maize ..... Interaction effects of planting date and cover crop species on cover crop dry weight at termination in Eastern Cape ... to weed species density (per m2) at cover crop.

  20. A simple semi-automatic approach for land cover classification from multispectral remote sensing imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jiang

    Full Text Available Land cover data represent a fundamental data source for various types of scientific research. The classification of land cover based on satellite data is a challenging task, and an efficient classification method is needed. In this study, an automatic scheme is proposed for the classification of land use using multispectral remote sensing images based on change detection and a semi-supervised classifier. The satellite image can be automatically classified using only the prior land cover map and existing images; therefore human involvement is reduced to a minimum, ensuring the operability of the method. The method was tested in the Qingpu District of Shanghai, China. Using Environment Satellite 1(HJ-1 images of 2009 with 30 m spatial resolution, the areas were classified into five main types of land cover based on previous land cover data and spectral features. The results agreed on validation of land cover maps well with a Kappa value of 0.79 and statistical area biases in proportion less than 6%. This study proposed a simple semi-automatic approach for land cover classification by using prior maps with satisfied accuracy, which integrated the accuracy of visual interpretation and performance of automatic classification methods. The method can be used for land cover mapping in areas lacking ground reference information or identifying rapid variation of land cover regions (such as rapid urbanization with convenience.

  1. The estimation of methane emissions from landfills with different cover systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Lee, K.; Sung, K.

    2006-12-01

    Methane is a very potent greenhouse gas, second only to CO2 as an anthropogenic contributor to global warming. Landfills are important anthropogenic source in the CH4 emissions. Microbially mediated CH4 oxidation in landfills with conventional soil covers can serve as an efficient biological sink. Methane from modern sanitary landfills equipped with composite covers and gas collection system is vented directly to the atmosphere, except for some of the largest landfills at which it is collected and burned. However, previous laboratory research has shown that biofilters have the potential to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills with modern composite covers. In this study a CH4 emission model was developed. The model used the calculated CH4 oxidation rates to estimate CH4 emissions from landfills constructed with conventional soil covers, modern composite covers, and modern composite covers plus biofilters. According to the CH4 emission rates predicted by CH4 emission model, it was estimated that 90% of the generated CH4 was emitted to the atmosphere for landfills with modern composite cover. For landfills with modern composite cover plus biofilters, an average of only 9% of the generated CH4 was estimated to be emitted. For landfills with conventional covers, an average of 83% of the generated CH4 was estimated to be emitted. By comparing the CH4 emission rates from three different landfill types, the use of a properly managed biofilter should be an effective technique to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills.

  2. Analysis of the pattern of potential woody cover in Texas savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuebin; Crews, Kelley A.; Yan, Bowei

    2016-10-01

    While woody plant encroachment has been observed worldwide in savannas and adversely affected the ecosystem structure and function, a thorough understanding of the nature of this phenomenon is urgently required for savanna management and restoration. Among others, potential woody cover (the maximum realizable woody cover that a given site can support), especially its variation over environment has huge implication on the encroachment management in particular, and on tree-grass interactions in general. This project was designed to explore the pattern of potential woody cover in Texas savanna, an ecosystem with a large rainfall gradient in west-east direction. Substantial random pixels were sampled across the study area from MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) tree cover layer (250 m). Since potential woody cover is suggested to be limited by water availability, a nonlinear 99th quantile regression was performed between the observed woody cover and mean annual precipitation (MAP) to model the pattern of potential woody cover. Research result suggests a segmented relationship between potential woody cover and MAP at MODIS scale. Potential biases as well as the practical and theoretical implications were discussed. Through this study, the hypothesis about the primary role of water availability in determining savanna woody cover was further confirmed in a relatively understudied US-located savanna.

  3. A Simple Semi-Automatic Approach for Land Cover Classification from Multispectral Remote Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong; Huang, Yaohuan; Zhuang, Dafang; Zhu, Yunqiang; Xu, Xinliang; Ren, Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    Land cover data represent a fundamental data source for various types of scientific research. The classification of land cover based on satellite data is a challenging task, and an efficient classification method is needed. In this study, an automatic scheme is proposed for the classification of land use using multispectral remote sensing images based on change detection and a semi-supervised classifier. The satellite image can be automatically classified using only the prior land cover map and existing images; therefore human involvement is reduced to a minimum, ensuring the operability of the method. The method was tested in the Qingpu District of Shanghai, China. Using Environment Satellite 1(HJ-1) images of 2009 with 30 m spatial resolution, the areas were classified into five main types of land cover based on previous land cover data and spectral features. The results agreed on validation of land cover maps well with a Kappa value of 0.79 and statistical area biases in proportion less than 6%. This study proposed a simple semi-automatic approach for land cover classification by using prior maps with satisfied accuracy, which integrated the accuracy of visual interpretation and performance of automatic classification methods. The method can be used for land cover mapping in areas lacking ground reference information or identifying rapid variation of land cover regions (such as rapid urbanization) with convenience. PMID:23049886

  4. MONITORING OF SNOW COVER VARIATION USING MODIS SNOW PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fayaz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Snow is one of the integral components of hydrological and climatic systems. Needless to say, snow cover areas (SCA are considered as indispensable input of hydrological and general circulation models. Studying the spatial and temporal variability of SCA is of the paramount importance for tremendous variety of research such as climate change, water supply and properly managing water resources. In this study by means of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS snow cover product, the variation of snow cover extent (SCE in Karoun basin located in western part of Iran is evaluated for twelve years' duration; since 2000 to 2012. The results show that the paramount occurrence of SCE is observed during February months of 2003, 2010 and 2011 as well as during December months of 2006 and 2009.The utmost occurrence of SCE is considered during January months of the other remaining years. Annual average shows that SCE varies from 11% in 2011 to 22% in 2006. According to Mann-Kendal trend test, throughout twelve years; 2000 to 2012, a majority of the pixels in the study area have no considerable trend although there is a decreasing trend on a small portion of the pixels located in the eastern part the study domain.

  5. Computational modelling of final covers for uranium mill tailings impoundments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Guilherme Luís Menegassi; Almeida, Márcio de Souza Soares; Fernandes, Horst Monken

    2004-07-05

    To properly design a final cover for uranium mill tailings impoundments the designer must attempt to find an effective geotechnical solution which addresses the radiological and non-radiological potential impact and prevents geochemical processes from occurring within the tailings. This paper presents a computer-based method for evaluating the performance of engineered final covers for the remediation of uranium mill tailings impoundments. Three hypothetical final covers were taken from scientific literature to investigate the proposed method: (i) a compacted clay liner (CCL); (ii) a composite liner (CL) and (iii) a capillary barrier (CB). The processes investigated: (i) the saturated hydraulic flux; (ii) the unsaturated hydraulic flux (exclusively for the capillary barrier) and (iii) the radon exhalation to the atmosphere. The computer programs utilised for the analyses are: (i) Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP); (ii) SEEP/W and (iii) RADON. The site considered for the development of the research presented herein was the uranium mill tailings impoundment located at the Brazilian city of Poços de Caldas, in the Minas Gerais State.

  6. Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Navy Personnel Research and Development Center REPORT NUMBER San Diego, California 92152-6800 BK -92-05 9. SPONSORING...other interneurons , IN2, which inhibit the ganglion cell. By preferentially stimulating the suround, green light covering the receptive field lowers

  7. Holocene land-cover reconstructions for studies on land cover-climate feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-J. Gaillard

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The major objectives of this paper are: (1 to review the pros and cons of the scenarios of past anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC developed during the last ten years, (2 to discuss issues related to pollen-based reconstruction of the past land-cover and introduce a new method, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites, to infer long-term records of past land-cover from pollen data, (3 to present a new project (LANDCLIM: LAND cover – CLIMate interactions in NW Europe during the Holocene currently underway, and show preliminary results of REVEALS reconstructions of the regional land-cover in the Czech Republic for five selected time windows of the Holocene, and (4 to discuss the implications and future directions in climate and vegetation/land-cover modeling, and in the assessment of the effects of human-induced changes in land-cover on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. The existing ALCC scenarios show large discrepancies between them, and few cover time periods older than AD 800. When these scenarios are used to assess the impact of human land-use on climate, contrasting results are obtained. It emphasizes the need of REVEALS model-based land-cover reconstructions. They might help to fine-tune descriptions of past land-cover and lead to a better understanding of how long-term changes in ALCC might have influenced climate. The REVEALS model is proved to provide better estimates of the regional vegetation/land-cover changes than the traditional use of pollen percentages. Thus, the application of REVEALS opens up the possibility of achieving a more robust assessment of land cover at regional- to continental-spatial scale throughout the Holocene. We present maps of REVEALS estimates for the percentage cover of 10 plant functional types (PFTs at 200 BP and 6000 BP, and of the two open-land PFTs "grassland" and "agricultural land" at five time-windows from 6000 BP to recent time. The LANDCLIM results are

  8. Impact of land cover change on the environmental hydrology characteristics in Kelantan river basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatkhah, Nader; Mansor, Shattri; Khuzaimah, Zailani; Asmat, Arnis; Adnan, Noraizam; Adam, Siti Noradzah

    2016-09-01

    Changing the land cover/ land use has serious environmental impacts affecting the ecosystem in Malaysia. The impact of land cover changes on the environmental functions such as surface water, loss water, and soil moisture is considered in this paper on the Kelantan river basin. The study area at the east coast of the peninsular Malaysia has suffered significant land cover changes in the recent years. The current research tried to assess the impact of land cover changes in the study area focused on the surface water, loss water, and soil moisture from different land use classes and the potential impact of land cover changes on the ecosystem of Kelantan river basin. To simulate the impact of land cover changes on the environmental hydrology characteristics, a deterministic regional modeling were employed in this study based on five approaches, i.e. (1) Land cover classification based on Landsat images; (2) assessment of land cover changes during last three decades; (3) Calculation the rate of water Loss/ Infiltration; (4) Assessment of hydrological and mechanical effects of the land cover changes on the surface water; and (5) evaluation the impact of land cover changes on the ecosystem of the study area. Assessment of land cover impact on the environmental hydrology was computed with the improved transient rainfall infiltration and grid based regional model (Improved-TRIGRS) based on the transient infiltration, and subsequently changes in the surface water, due to precipitation events. The results showed the direct increased in surface water from development area, agricultural area, and grassland regions compared with surface water from other land covered areas in the study area. The urban areas or lower planting density areas tend to increase for surface water during the monsoon seasons, whereas the inter flow from forested and secondary jungle areas contributes to the normal surface water.

  9. Land Use and Land Cover - LAND_COVER_2006_USGS_IN: Land Cover in Indiana, Derived from the 2006 National Land Cover Database (United States Geological Survey, 30-Meter TIFF Image)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — LAND_COVER_2006_USGS_IN is a grid (30-meter cell size) showing 2006 Land Cover data in Indiana. This grid is a subset of the National Land Cover Data (NLCD 2006)...

  10. Propagation of food and cover plants for waterfowl

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the propagation of food and cover plants for waterfowl. The report covers the general conditions of development of aquatic plants. Please note...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Land Cover for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the percentage of land area that is classified as forest land cover, modified forest land cover, and natural land cover using the 2006...

  12. Interaction between temperature, precipitation and snow cover trends in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Brox Nilsen, Irene; Stagge, James Howard; Gisnås, Kjersti; Merete Tallaksen, Lena

    2016-04-01

    Northern latitudes are experiencing faster warming than other regions, partly due to the snow--albedo feedback. A reduction in snow cover, which has a strong positive feedback on the energy balance, leads to a lowering of the albedo and thus, an amplification of the warming signal. Norway, in particular, can be considered a "cold climate laboratory" with large gradients in geography and climate that allows studying the effect of changing temperature and precipitation on snow in highly varying regions. Previous research showed that during last decades there has been an increase in air temperature for the entire country and a concurrent reduction in the land surface area covered by snow. However, these studies also demonstrate the sensitivity of the trend analysis to the period of record, to the start and end of the period, and to the presence of extreme years. In this study, we analyse several variables and their spatial and temporal variability across Norway, including mean, minimum and maximum daily temperature, daily precipitation, snow covered area and total snow water equivalent. Climate data is retrieved from seNorge (http://www.senorge.no), an operationally gridded dataset for Norway with a resolution of 1 km2. Analysis primarily focused on three overlapping 30-year periods (i.e., 1961-1990, 1971-2000, 1981-2010), but also tested trend sensitivity by varying period lengths. For each climate variable the Theil-Sen trend was calculated for each 30-year period along with the difference between 30-year mean values. In addition, indices specific to each variable were calculated (e.g. the number of days with a shift from negative to positive temperature values). The analysis was performed for the whole of Norway as well as for separate climatological regions previously defined based on temperature, precipitation and elevation. Results confirm a significant increase in mean daily temperatures and accelerating warming trends, especially during winter and spring

  13. Satellite Image Processing for Land Use and Land Cover Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashoka Vanjare

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, urban growth of Bangalore region is analyzed and discussed by using multi-temporal and multi-spectral Landsat satellite images. Urban growth analysis helps in understanding the change detection of Bangalore region. The change detection is studied over a period of 39 years and the region of interest covers an area of 2182 km2. The main cause for urban growth is the increase in population. In India, rapid urbanization is witnessed due to an increase in the population, continuous development has affected the existence of natural resources. Therefore observing and monitoring the natural resources (land use plays an important role. To analyze changed detection, researcher’s use remote sensing data. Continuous use of remote sensing data helps researchers to analyze the change detection. The main objective of this study is to monitor land cover changes of Bangalore district which covers rural and urban regions using multi-temporal and multi-sensor Landsat - multi-spectral scanner (MSS, thematic mapper (TM, Enhanced Thematic mapper plus (ETM+ MSS, TM and ETM+ images captured in the years 1973, 1992, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2011. Temporal changes were determined by using maximum likelihood classification method. The classification results contain four land cover classes namely, built-up, vegetation, water and barren land. The results indicate that the region is densely developed which has resulted in decrease of water and vegetation regions. The continuous transformation of barren land to built-up region has affected water and vegetation regions. Generally, from 1973 to 2011 the percentage of urban region has increased from 4.6% to 25.43%, mainly due to urbanization.

  14. Ontology Research

    OpenAIRE

    Welty, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In this issue, I have collected a fairly broad, although by no means exhaustive, sampling of work in the field of ontology research. To define a field is often quite difficult; it is more a collection of people and ideas than it is a specific technology. To represent our field, I present six articles that cover several of the major thrusts of ontology research from the past decade.

  15. Reconstruction of Intensity From Covered Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabash, Rozaliya [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watkins, Thomas R [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Meisner, Roberta Ann [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burchell, Timothy D [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rosseel, Thomas M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The safe handling of activated samples requires containment and covering the sample to eliminate any potential for contamination. Subsequent characterization of the surface with x-rays ideally necessitates a thin film. While many films appear visually transparent, they are not necessarily x-ray transparent. Each film material has a unique beam attenuation and sometimes have amorphous peaks that can superimpose with those of the sample. To reconstruct the intensity of the underlying activated sample, the x-ray attenuation and signal due to the film needs to be removed from that of the sample. This requires the calculation of unique deconvolution parameters for the film. The development of a reconstruction procedure for a contained/covered sample is described.

  16. Lifetime cover in private insurance markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H Shelton; Connelly, Luke B

    2005-03-01

    In the last few decades, private health insurance rates have declined in many countries. In countries and states with community rating, a major cause is adverse selection. In order to address age-based adverse selection, Australia has recently begun a novel approach which imposes stiff penalties for buying private insurance later in life, when expected costs are higher. In this paper, we analyze Australia's Lifetime Cover in the context of a modified version of the Rothschild-Stiglitz insurance model (Rothschild and Stiglitz, 1976). We allow empirically-based probabilities to increase by age for low-risk types. The model highlights the shortcomings of the Australian plan. Based on empirically-based probabilities of illness, we predict that Lifetime Cover will not arrest adverse selection. The model has many policy implications for government regulation encouraging long-term health coverage.

  17. Georadar Measurements for the Snow Cover Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Godio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground Probing Radar (GPR devices is adopted for the analysis of thickness and the mechanical properties (density of the snow cover in some test site in Alps, in Northern Italy. The performances of standard radar systems for the snow cover characterisation are analysed, the main aim is to assess the reliability of the method to estimate the snow density, the snowpack thickness and the depth resolution in terms of capability to detect thin layers. The main relationships between the electrical permittivity and the density of the dry-snow are applied to estimate the density vertical profiles inferred by the GPR investigation. The data were calibrated and compared with the results coming from direct measurements of the density and thickness.

  18. Automorphisms of double coverings of curves

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, F

    1994-01-01

    We study automorphisms of curves that commute with each other. We prove that the order and the number of fixed points of one of them satisfy certain relations involving those of the other. Then, we specialize our results to the case of double coverings of curves. For instance, if the genus of the curve is at least 4\\gamma+2 and \\gamma \\geqq 1 (\\gamma = the genus of the covered curve) we prove that the order of an automorphism is bounded above by 2\\gamma+1 (resp. 4\\gamma+2) provided it is prime (resp. it has at least five fixed points). We also improve Farkas' bound on the number of fixed points namely 4\\gamma+4 by showing that it involves the order of the automorphism except in the case of even order when such an improvement is obtained provided the automorphism and the \\gamma-involution has at least one common fixed point.

  19. Alternating group covers of the affine line

    CERN Document Server

    Muskat, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    We prove Abhyankar's Inertia Conjecture for the alternating group A_{p+2} on p+2 letters when p = 2 mod 3, by showing that every possible inertia group occurs for a (wildly ramified) A_{p+2}-Galois cover of the projective k-line branched only at infinity where k is an algebraically closed field of characteristic p > 0. More generally, when 1 < s < p and gcd(p-1, s+1)=1, we prove that all but finitely many rational numbers which satisfy the obvious necessary conditions occur as the upper jump in the filtration of higher ramification groups of an A_{p+s}-Galois cover of the projective line branched only at infinity.

  20. Cooling experiments using dummies covered by leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, L; Stückradt, S; Henssge, C; Bajanowski, T

    2007-03-01

    One main method to estimate the time of death is the measurement of the body temperature. The cooling of a corpse depends on a number of conditions including the surroundings. In cases where the cooling conditions differ from the defined standard, a corrective factor is used to characterise the influence of clothing, air movement, the properties of the supporting base and the humidity. Nothing is known about the significance of other circumstances, for example of a tegument by leaves or wet leaves. Therefore, the cooling of dummies which were placed on a 2-cm-thick layer of wet/dry leaves and covered by a 10-cm-thick layer of leaves was investigated. Corrective factors of 1.0 for wet leaves on the ground and of 1.3 and 1.5 for drier leaves were found. If the dummies were additionally covered, corrective factors ranged between 1.8 and 2.7.

  1. Land cover and water yield: inference problems when comparing catchments with mixed land cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. J. M. van Dijk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlled experiments provide strong evidence that changing land cover (e.g. deforestation or afforestation can affect mean catchment streamflow (Q. By contrast, a similarly strong influence has not been found in studies that interpret Q from multiple catchments with mixed land cover. One possible reason is that there are methodological issues with the way in which the Budyko framework was used in the latter type studies. We examined this using Q data observed in 278 Australian catchments and by making inferences from synthetic Q data simulated by a hydrological process model (the Australian Water Resources Assessment system Landscape model. The previous contrasting findings could be reproduced. In the synthetic experiment, the land cover influence was still present but not accurately detected with the Budyko- framework. Likely sources of interpretation bias demonstrated include: (i noise in land cover, precipitation and Q data; (ii additional catchment climate characteristics more important than land cover; and (iii covariance between Q and catchment attributes. These methodological issues caution against the use of a Budyko framework to quantify a land cover influence in Q data from mixed land-cover catchments. Importantly, however, our findings do not rule out that there may also be physical processes that modify the influence of land cover in mixed land-cover catchments. Process model simulations suggested that lateral water redistribution between vegetation types and recirculation of intercepted rainfall may be important.

  2. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap

    2013-04-01

    We give exact and approximation algorithms for two-center problems when the input is a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in D intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap

    2011-01-01

    We consider new versions of the two-center problem where the input consists of a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. We give exact and approximation algorithms for these versions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Domination, Eternal Domination, and Clique Covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klostermeyer William F.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Eternal and m-eternal domination are concerned with using mobile guards to protect a graph against infinite sequences of attacks at vertices. Eternal domination allows one guard to move per attack, whereas more than one guard may move per attack in the m-eternal domination model. Inequality chains consisting of the domination, eternal domination, m-eternal domination, independence, and clique covering numbers of graph are explored in this paper.

  5. Extreme Learning Machine for land cover classification

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Mahesh

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of extreme learning machine based supervised classification algorithm for land cover classification. In comparison to a backpropagation neural network, which requires setting of several user-defined parameters and may produce local minima, extreme learning machine require setting of one parameter and produce a unique solution. ETM+ multispectral data set (England) was used to judge the suitability of extreme learning machine for remote sensing classifications...

  6. Stream discharge measurements under ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, K. Michael; Jacobson, Nathan D.

    2000-01-01

    This training presentation shows procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey to measure streamflow when streams are covered by ice. Although 'Ice Measurements' are generally more difficult to make than open-water measurements and are often made under uncomfortable conditions it is very important that ice measurements be made regularly during the winter. This is because a large part of many winter discharge records depend on such measurements.

  7. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  8. Optimal Covering Tours with Turn Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Arkin, Esther M.; Bender, Michael A.; Demaine, Erik D.; Fekete, Sandor P.; Mitchell, Joseph S.B.; Sethia, Saurabh

    2003-01-01

    We give the first algorithmic study of a class of ``covering tour'' problems related to the geometric Traveling Salesman Problem: Find a polygonal tour for a cutter so that it sweeps out a specified region (``pocket''), in order to minimize a cost that depends mainly on the number of em turns. These problems arise naturally in manufacturing applications of computational geometry to automatic tool path generation and automatic inspection systems, as well as arc routing (``postman'') problems w...

  9. Decadal land cover change dynamics in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Hammad; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Phuntso, Phuntso; Pradhan, Sudip; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta

    2015-01-15

    Land cover (LC) is one of the most important and easily detectable indicators of change in ecosystem services and livelihood support systems. This paper describes the decadal dynamics in LC changes at national and sub-national level in Bhutan derived by applying object-based image analysis (OBIA) techniques to 1990, 2000, and 2010 Landsat (30 m spatial resolution) data. Ten LC classes were defined in order to give a harmonized legend land cover classification system (LCCS). An accuracy of 83% was achieved for LC-2010 as determined from spot analysis using very high resolution satellite data from Google Earth Pro and limited field verification. At the national level, overall forest increased from 25,558 to 26,732 km(2) between 1990 and 2010, equivalent to an average annual growth rate of 59 km(2)/year (0.22%). There was an overall reduction in grassland, shrubland, and barren area, but the observations were highly dependent on time of acquisition of the satellite data and climatic conditions. The greatest change from non-forest to forest (277 km(2)) was in Bumthang district, followed by Wangdue Phodrang and Trashigang, with the least (1 km(2)) in Tsirang. Forest and scrub forest covers close to 75% of the land area of Bhutan, and just over half of the total area (51%) has some form of conservation status. This study indicates that numerous applications and analyses can be carried out to support improved land cover and land use (LCLU) management. It will be possible to replicate this study in the future as comparable new satellite data is scheduled to become available. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Set Covering Problems with General Objective Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Cardinal, Jean

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a parameterized version of set cover that generalizes several previously studied problems. Given a ground set V and a collection of subsets S_i of V, a feasible solution is a partition of V such that each subset of the partition is included in one of the S_i. The problem involves maximizing the mean subset size of the partition, where the mean is the generalized mean of parameter p, taken over the elements. For p=-1, the problem is equivalent to the classical minimum set cover problem. For p=0, it is equivalent to the minimum entropy set cover problem, introduced by Halperin and Karp. For p=1, the problem includes the maximum-edge clique partition problem as a special case. We prove that the greedy algorithm simultaneously approximates the problem within a factor of (p+1)^1/p for any p in R^+, and that this is the best possible unless P=NP. These results both generalize and simplify previous results for special cases. We also consider the corresponding graph coloring problem, and prove several tr...

  11. Mixed methods research for TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, James; Farr, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Defining and discussing the relevance of theoretical and practical issues involved in mixed methods research. Covering the basics of research methodology, this textbook shows you how to choose and combine quantitative and qualitative research methods to b

  12. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2015 Meramec Land Cover (GDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — MoRAP produced and integrated data to map land cover and wetlands for the Meramec River bottomland in Missouri. LiDAR elevation and vegetation height information and...

  13. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2015 Silver Land Cover (GDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — MoRAP produced and integrated data to map land cover and wetlands for the Upper Silver Creek Watershed in Illinois. LiDAR elevation and vegetation height information...

  14. National Land Cover Database 1992/2001 Retrofit Land Cover Change Product: 1999-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 1992-2001 Retrofit Change Product What is the NLCD 1992/2001 Retrofit Land Cover Change Product? Although one of the guiding principles of the NLCD 2001 design...

  15. ANALYSIS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVER SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS BY IMAGING SPECTROMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Kouznetsov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper deals with the problems of detection and identification of objects in hyperspectral imagery. The possibility of object type determination by statistical methods is demonstrated. The possibility of spectral image application for its data type identification is considered. Method. Researching was done by means of videospectral equipment for objects detection at "Fregat" substrate. The postprocessing of hyperspectral information was done with the use of math model of pattern recognition system. The vegetation indexes TCHVI (Three-Channel Vegetation Index and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index were applied for quality control of object recognition. Neumann-Pearson criterion was offered as a tool for determination of objects differences. Main Results. We have carried out analysis of the spectral characteristics of summer-typecamouflage cover (Germany. We have calculated the density distribution of vegetation indexes. We have obtained statistical characteristics needed for creation of mathematical model for pattern recognition system. We have shown the applicability of vegetation indices for detection of summer camouflage cover on averdure background. We have presented mathematical model of object recognition based on Neumann-Pearson criterion. Practical Relevance. The results may be useful for specialists in the field of hyperspectral data processing for surface state monitoring.

  16. Mapping land cover through time with the Rapid Land Cover Mapper—Documentation and user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.; Mathis, Melissa L.

    2017-02-15

    The Rapid Land Cover Mapper is an Esri ArcGIS® Desktop add-in, which was created as an alternative to automated or semiautomated mapping methods. Based on a manual photo interpretation technique, the tool facilitates mapping over large areas and through time, and produces time-series raster maps and associated statistics that characterize the changing landscapes. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in can be used with any imagery source to map various themes (for instance, land cover, soils, or forest) at any chosen mapping resolution. The user manual contains all essential information for the user to make full use of the Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in. This manual includes a description of the add-in functions and capabilities, and step-by-step procedures for using the add-in. The Rapid Land Cover Mapper add-in was successfully used by the U.S. Geological Survey West Africa Land Use Dynamics team to accurately map land use and land cover in 17 West African countries through time (1975, 2000, and 2013).

  17. Sensitivity of surface air temperature change to land use/cover types in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XuChao; ZHANG YiLi; LIU LinShan; ZHANG Wei; DING MingJun; WANG ZhaoFeng

    2009-01-01

    Using CRU high resolution grid observational temperature and ERA40 reanalysie surface air temperature data during 1960--1999, we investigated the sensitivity of surface air temperature change to land use/cover types in China by subtracting the reanalysis from the observed surface air temperature (observation minus reanalysis, OMR). The results show that there is a stable and systemic impact of land use/cover types on surface air temperature. The surface warming of each land use/cover type reacted differently to global warming. The OMR trends of unused land (≥0.17℃/decade), mainly comprised by sandy land, Gobi and bare rock gravel land, are obviously larger than those of the other land use/cover types. The OMR over grassland, farmland and construction land shows a moderate decadal a significant warming trend (0.06"C/decade). The overall assessment indicates that the surface warming is larger for areas that are barren and anthropogenically developed. The better the vegetation cover, the smaller the OMR warming trend. Responses of surface air temperature to land use/cover types with similar physical and chemical properties and biological processes have no significant difference. The surface air temperature would not react significantly until the intensity of land cover changes reach a certain degree. Within the same land use/cover type, areas in eastern China with intensive human activities exhibit larger warming trend. The results provide observational evidence for modeling research on the impact of land use/cover change on regional climate. Thus, projecting further surface climate of China in regional scale should not only take greenhouse gas increase into account, but also consider the impact of land use/cover types and land cover change.

  18. Effect of cover crop extracts on cotton and radish radicle elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy L. Raper

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that some cover crops are allelopathic and can inhibit weed germination and growth. Additionally, negative allelopathic effects have been documented in cash crops planted into cover crop residue. However, little literature exists comparing relative the allelopathic potential of cover crops producers utilize in conservation-agriculture systems. This study assessed the effects of twelve cover crop extracts on radish (Raphanus sativus L. and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. radicle elongation, in three trials, using an extract-agar bioassay. In Trial 1 the cover crops were black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. SoilSaver, crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L. cv. AU Robin, white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cvs. AU Homer and AU Alpha, rye (Secale cereale L. cv. Elbon, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vigoro Grazer, and triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack cv. Trical 2700. In Trial 2 the cover crops were forage rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus cv. Licapo, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., Austrian winter field pea (Pisum sativum spp. arvense L. Poir, black medic (Medicago lupilina L., hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth, black oat cv. SoilSaver, and crimson clover cv. AU Robin. Cotton was evaluated using the same bioassay and all of the cover crops mentioned above in a single trial (Trial 3. All cover crop extracts inhibited radicle elongation compared to water. Allelopathic potential was highly variable among cultivars within a cover crop species, and within a cultivar. Allelopathic differences among cover crops give an additional weed control tool in conservation systems. However, winter cover selection may impact on cash crop performance if producers plant their crop into green residue.

  19. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Robertson, G Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN) and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management in row

  20. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Ladoni

    Full Text Available Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover and non-leguminous (winter rye cover crops on potentially mineralizable N (PMN and [Formula: see text] levels across a topographically diverse landscape. We studied conventional, low-input, and organic managements in corn-soybean-wheat rotation. The rotations of low-input and organic managements included rye and red clover cover crops. The managements were implemented in twenty large undulating fields in Southwest Michigan starting from 2006. The data collection and analysis were conducted during three growing seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Observational micro-plots with and without cover crops were laid within each field on three contrasting topographical positions of depression, slope and summit. Soil samples were collected 4-5 times during each growing season and analyzed for [Formula: see text] and PMN. The results showed that all three managements were similar in their temporal and spatial distributions of NO3-N. Red clover cover crop increased [Formula: see text] by 35% on depression, 20% on slope and 32% on summit positions. Rye cover crop had a significant 15% negative effect on [Formula: see text] in topographical depressions but not in slope and summit positions. The magnitude of the cover crop effects on soil mineral nitrogen across topographically diverse fields was associated with the amount of cover crop growth and residue production. The results emphasize the potential environmental and economic benefits that can be generated by implementing site-specific topography-driven cover crop management

  1. Sensitivity of surface air temperature change to land use/cover types in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Using CRU high resolution grid observational temperature and ERA40 reanalysis surface air temperature data during 1960-1999, we investigated the sensitivity of surface air temperature change to land use/cover types in China by subtracting the reanalysis from the observed surface air temperature (observation minus reanalysis, OMR). The results show that there is a stable and systemic impact of land use/cover types on surface air temperature. The surface warming of each land use/cover type reacted differently to global warming. The OMR trends of unused land (≥0.17℃/decade), mainly comprised by sandy land, Gobi and bare rock gravel land, are obviously larger than those of the other land use/cover types. The OMR over grassland, farmland and construction land shows a moderate decadal warming about 0.12℃ /decade, 0.10℃/decade, 0.12 ℃ /decade, respectively. Woodland areas do not show a significant warming trend (0.06 ℃ /decade). The overall assessment indicates that the surface warming is larger for areas that are barren and anthropogenically developed. The better the vegetation cover, the smaller the OMR warming trend. Responses of surface air temperature to land use/cover types with similar physical and chemical properties and biological processes have no significant difference. The surface air temperature would not react significantly until the intensity of land cover changes reach a certain degree. Within the same land use/cover type, areas in eastern China with intensive human activities exhibit larger warming trend. The results provide observational evidence for modeling research on the impact of land use/cover change on regional climate. Thus, projecting further surface climate of China in regional scale should not only take greenhouse gas increase into account, but also consider the impact of land use/cover types and land cover change.

  2. Challenges to Nordic Police Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research.......The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research....

  3. Challenges to Nordic Police Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research.......The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research....

  4. Estimating Achievable Accuracy for Global Imaging Spectroscopy Measurement of Non-Photosynthetic Vegetation Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, P. E.; Kokaly, R. F.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Roberts, D. A.; Thompson, D. R.; Chambers, J. Q.; Nagler, P. L.; Okin, G. S.; Scarth, P.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial vegetation is dynamic, expressing seasonal, annual, and long-term changes in response to climate and disturbance. Phenology and disturbance (e.g. drought, insect attack, and wildfire) can result in a transition from photosynthesizing "green" vegetation to non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV). NPV cover can include dead and senescent vegetation, plant litter, agricultural residues, and non-photosynthesizing stem tissue. NPV cover is poorly captured by conventional remote sensing vegetation indices, but it is readily separable from substrate cover based on spectral absorption features in the shortwave infrared. We will present past research motivating the need for global NPV measurements, establishing that mapping seasonal NPV cover is critical for improving our understanding of ecosystem function and carbon dynamics. We will also present new research that helps determine a best achievable accuracy for NPV cover estimation. To test the sensitivity of different NPV cover estimation methods, we simulated satellite imaging spectrometer data using field spectra collected over mixtures of NPV, green vegetation, and soil substrate. We incorporated atmospheric transmittance and modeled sensor noise to create simulated spectra with spectral resolutions ranging from 10 to 30 nm. We applied multiple methods of NPV estimation to the simulated spectra, including spectral indices, spectral feature analysis, multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis, and partial least squares regression, and compared the accuracy and bias of each method. These results prescribe sensor characteristics for an imaging spectrometer mission with NPV measurement capabilities, as well as a "Quantified Earth Science Objective" for global measurement of NPV cover. Copyright 2016, all rights reserved.

  5. Relationship Between Maximum Aerobic Speed Performance and Distance Covered in Rugby Union Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaby, Rick; Jones, Paul A; Comfort, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Swaby, R, Jones, PA, and Comfort, P. Relationship between maximum aerobic speed performance and distance covered in rugby union games. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2788-2793, 2016-Researchers have shown a clear relationship between aerobic fitness and the distance covered in professional soccer, although no research has identified such a relationship in rugby union. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify whether there was a relationship between maximal aerobic speed (MAS) and the distance covered in rugby union games. Fourteen professional rugby union players (age = 26 ± 6 years, height = 1.90 ± 0.12 m, mass = 107.1 ± 24.1 kg) participated in this investigation. Each player performed a MAS test on 3 separate occasions during the preseason, to determine reliability and provide baseline data, and participated in 6 competitive games during the early stages of the season. Game data were collected using global positioning system technology. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in total distance covered was observed between games. Relationships between players' MAS and the average distance covered from 6 competitive games were explored using Pearson's correlation coefficients, with MAS performance showing a strong relationship with distance covered during match play (r = 0.746, p aerobic fitness to increase the distance that the athlete covers in the game.

  6. Land cover change in Ningbo and its surrounding area of Zhejiang Province,1987~2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Ningbo and its surrounding area is the forefront in the rapid economic development in the Yangtse delta, and the main production area for food supplies, cotton, edible oil and hemp;and at the same time, is the main area for wetland protection in Zhejiang Province. Our objectives were to quantify land cover change in Ningbo and its surrounding area from 1987 to 2000 and to analyze the causative factors of the change. Using 30-m resolution Landsat TM/ETM+ data and maximum likelihood classification method, we classified the study area into six land cover types: forest, agriculture, urban, freshwater, seawater and bottomland.The research results showed that significant changes in land cover occurred in the study area, and that agriculture and urban land cover change dominated most of the land cover change and were main causes for the changes of other types with human activities,such as urbanization, industrialization, etc. being the main factor while it was not very obvious whether climatic conditions have any role in the land cover changes. Agriculture, bottomland and other nature dominated land cover types are undergoing significant changes due to industrialization and urbanization, which threaten the stabilization of the environment. The study conclusion called for finding reasonable ways to solve the problems between land cover change and land use.

  7. Covering of milled peat stockpile with wood chips; Jyrsinturveauman peittaeminen hakkeella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franssila, T.; Leinonen, A.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this project is to research the applicability of wooden materials for protection of milled peat stockpile against losses during storaging. Water transmission features of sawdust, wastewood chip and whole tree chip were investigated in laboratory with raining experiments. The plan for raining experiments was made with experiment planning program and results were analysed with multivariate analysis. Freezing features were investigated thorough breaking tests with hydraulic piston vice. Laboratory experiments were completed with field tests in Laakasuo near Sotkamo. On the basis of results covering peat stockpiles with sawdust is fully competitive comparing to present covering methods. Chip materials are technically not as good covering materials as sawdust

  8. Limits and prospects of photovoltaic covers in Mediterranean greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Marucci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of plastic film coverings has made a significant contribution to the development of greenhouses in Italy and to a new generation of greenhouses that differ from those of Central and Northern Europe: the so called Mediterranean Greenhouse. This is a simple structure with cheap coverings and emergency artificial heating systems. During the winter season, the available solar energy is more than sufficient to meet energy requirements. During the hot season, however, the intense solar radiation and the high air temperatures are problematic. Different active and passive strategies are, therefore, used to counteract this excessive energy intake with a considerable increase in costs. We believe that using this surplus energy to produce electricity would: i provide an income from the sale of electricity; ii allow the greenhouse to be used throughout the year; iii reduce the costs of cooling the greenhouse. This paper aims to identify the energy surplus in relation to cultivation requirements that could be used to produce electricity with new and innovative solutions based on flexible and semi-transparent photovoltaic modules. The research was carried out with reference to the southern coast of the Lazio region, central Italy, by evaluating energy supply and demand to determine the surplus of solar energy produced in a greenhouse covered with double plastic film. Besides the shape of the greenhouse, the surplus depends on the covering material and the location. The degree of cloud cover and the type of cultivation carried out in the greenhouse also have an impact. We calculated the surplus energy under extreme conditions: clear sky and cloudy sky, and according to different crop species (tomato 12 months, tomato 8 months, aubergine 12 months. Results showed: i the surplus of energy available in the greenhouse for the production of energy from new generation solar cells with varying degrees of sky coverage and crop species; ii the times of the year

  9. Organic broccoli production on transition soils: Comparing cover crops, tillage and sidedress N

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberg, D.L.; Morse, R.D.; Welbaum, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record Little information is available about how farmers in transition to organic practices should manage short- and long-term N fertility. The objectives of this research were (1) to evaluate the leguminous cover crops lablab (Dolichos lablab L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and a mixture of sunn hemp and cowpea (Vigna sinensis Endl.) as N sources; (2) to compare N availability and broccoli yield when cover crops were incorporated with conventi...

  10. A probabilistic graphical model approach in 30 m land cover mapping with multiple data sources

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jie; Ji, Luyan; Huang, Xiaomeng; Fu, Haohuan; Xu, Shiming; Li, Congcong

    2016-01-01

    There is a trend to acquire high accuracy land-cover maps using multi-source classification methods, most of which are based on data fusion, especially pixel- or feature-level fusions. A probabilistic graphical model (PGM) approach is proposed in this research for 30 m resolution land-cover mapping with multi-temporal Landsat and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Independent classifiers were applied to two single-date Landsat 8 scenes and the MODIS time-series data, ...

  11. The reflectance characteristics of snow covered surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, E. S.

    1979-01-01

    Data analysis techniques were developed to most efficiently use available satellite measurements to determine and understand components of the surface energy budget for ice and snow-covered areas. The emphasis is placed on identifying the important components of the heat budget related to snow surfaces, specifically the albedo and the energy consumed in the melting process. Ice and snow charts are prepared by NOAA from satellite observations which map areas into three relative reflectivity zones. Field measurements are analyzed of the reflectivity of an open snow field to assist in the interpretation of the NOAA reflectivity zones.

  12. Making meaning(s with cover designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Reed

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article Halliday’s systemic functional grammar, Kress and Van Leeuwen’s grammar of visual design and Bernstein’s work on pedagogic discourse are drawn on in order to analyze some of the ways in which meanings are made and some meanings privileged over others in the designing, both visual and discursive, of the covers of three course books prepared for teacher education programmes in South Africa. The primary aim of this analysis is to understand what meanings are offered to readers as entrants into or as established members of communities of practice in the teaching profession and the academy.

  13. Focusing on Concepts by Covering Them Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Pete

    2017-05-01

    "Parallel" pedagogy covers the four mechanics concepts of momentum, energy, forces, and kinematics simultaneously instead of building each concept on an understanding of the previous one. Course content is delivered through interactive videos, allowing class time for group work and student-centered activities. We start with simple examples, building complexity throughout the course with the introduction of springs, two dimensions, vectors, energy diagrams, universal gravitation, and rotation. Success means that students ponder underlying physics concepts rather than hunt for formulas. Surveys indicate that students accept this learning model well and have considerable improvement in applied conceptual understanding.

  14. Lock-in thermography of OLEDs through cover glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Lovera, T.; Van der Tempel, S.

    2010-01-01

    Many photovoltaic cells and OLEDs are covered by cover glass or foil to protect the device against oxygen and moisture. The cover glassor foil is semitransparent for infrared radiation and conducts the heat and blurs lock-in thermograms. In lock-in thermograms of OLEDs with cover glass short circu

  15. 21 CFR 1404.200 - What is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a covered transaction? 1404.200 Section 1404.200 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Covered Transactions § 1404.200 What is a covered transaction? A covered transaction is...

  16. Using cash cover crops to provide pollinator provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    To date, the use of winter cover crops in MN and SD has been slow to be adopted. The short growing season and potential for late wet springs make cover crops risky to farmers with little economic return. The use of cash cover crops in this area offers the standard advantages of other cover crops, wi...

  17. Cover crop biomass harvest for bioenergy: implications for crop productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crops, such as rye (Secale cereale), are usually used in conservation agriculture systems in the Southeast. Typically, the cover crop is terminated two to three weeks before planting the summer crop, with the cover biomass left on the soil surface as a mulch. However, these cover crops ...

  18. Electrohydrodynamics of a particle-covered drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouriemi, Malika; Vlahovska, Petia

    2014-11-01

    We study the dynamics of a drop nearly-completely covered with a particle monolayer in a uniform DC electric field. The weakly conducting fluid system consists of a silicon oil drop suspended in castor oil. A broad range of particle sizes, conductivities, and shapes is explored. In weak electric fields, the presence of particles increases drop deformation compared to a particle-free drop and suppresses the electrohydrodynamic flow. Very good agreement is observed between the measured drop deformation and the small deformation theory derived for surfactant-laden drops (Nganguia et al., 2013). In stronger electric fields, where drops are expected to undergo Quincke rotation (Salipante and Vlahovska, 2010), the presence of the particles greatly decreases the threshold for rotation and the stationary tilted drop configuration observed for clean drop is replaced by a spinning drop with either a wobbling inclination or a very low inclination. These behaviors resemble the predicted response of rigid ellipsoids in uniform electric fields. At even stronger electric fields, the particles can form dynamic wings or the drop implodes. The similar behavior of particle-covered and surfactant-laden drops provides new insights into understanding stability of Pickering emulsions. Supported by NSF-CBET 1437545.

  19. Alliance Free and Alliance Cover Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Alberto RODRIGUEZ-VELAZQUEZ; José María SIGARRETA; Ismael GONZALEZ YERO; Sergio BERMUDO

    2011-01-01

    A defensive (offensive) k-alliance in T = (V, E) is a set S (∪) V such that every v in S (in the boundary of S) has at least k more neighbors in S than it has in V \\ S. A set X (∪) V is defensive (offensive) k-alliance free, if for all defensive (offensive) k-alliance S, S\\X ≠ φ, i.e., X does not contain any defensive (offensive) k-alliance as a subset. A set Y (∪) V is a defensive (offensive) k-alliance cover,if for all defensive (offensive) k-alliance S, S ∩ Y ≠ φ, i.e., Y contains at least one vertex from each defensive (offensive) k-alliance of T. In this paper we show several mathematical properties of defensive (offensive) k-alliance free sets and defensive (offensive) k-alliance cover sets, including tight bounds on their cardinality.

  20. Stiefel-Whitney classes of curve covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selander, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Let D be a Dedekind scheme with the characteristic of all residue fields not equal to 2. To every tame cover Cto D with only odd ramification we associate a second Stiefel-Whitney class in the second cohomology with mod 2 coefficients of a certain tame orbicurve [D] associated to D. This class is then related to the pull-back of the second Stiefel-Whitney class of the push-forward of the line bundle of half of the ramification divisor. This shows (indirectly) that our Stiefel-Whitney class is the pull-back of a sum of cohomology classes considered by Esnault, Kahn and Viehweg in `Coverings with odd ramification and Stiefel-Whitney classes'. Perhaps more importantly, in the case of a proper and smooth curve over an algebraically closed field, our Stiefel-Whitney class is shown to be the pull-back of an invariant considered by Serre in `Revêtements à ramification impaire et thêta-caractéristiques', and in this case our arguments give a new proof of the main result of that article.

  1. Cross recurrence quantification for cover song identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Joan; Serra, Xavier; Andrzejak, Ralph G [Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Roc Boronat 138, 08018 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: joan.serraj@upf.edu

    2009-09-15

    There is growing evidence that nonlinear time series analysis techniques can be used to successfully characterize, classify, or process signals derived from real-world dynamics even though these are not necessarily deterministic and stationary. In the present study, we proceed in this direction by addressing an important problem our modern society is facing, the automatic classification of digital information. In particular, we address the automatic identification of cover songs, i.e. alternative renditions of a previously recorded musical piece. For this purpose, we here propose a recurrence quantification analysis measure that allows the tracking of potentially curved and disrupted traces in cross recurrence plots (CRPs). We apply this measure to CRPs constructed from the state space representation of musical descriptor time series extracted from the raw audio signal. We show that our method identifies cover songs with a higher accuracy as compared to previously published techniques. Beyond the particular application proposed here, we discuss how our approach can be useful for the characterization of a variety of signals from different scientific disciplines. We study coupled Roessler dynamics with stochastically modulated mean frequencies as one concrete example to illustrate this point.

  2. Research Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, S; Philomination, P

    2006-01-01

    In this manuscript various components of research are listed and briefly discussed. The topics considered in this write-up cover a part of the research methodology paper of Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) course and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) course. The manuscript is intended for students and research scholars of science subjects such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, statistics, biology and computer science. Various stages of research are discussed in detail. Special care has been taken to motivate the young researchers to take up challenging problems. Ten assignment works are given. For the benefit of young researchers a short interview with three eminent scientists is included at the end of the manuscript.

  3. Snow cover and soil moisture in mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, N.; Lehning, M.

    2012-04-01

    Soil moisture is an important parameter of the climate system. It constrains evapotranspiration of plants and it functions as a storage of water, giving it an economic value, e.g. for agriculture. Furthermore, soil moisture is an important factor for predicting flood risk. In mountainous areas with a seasonal snow cover, the spatial distribution of snow depth is strongly influencing the spatial variation of soil moisture. To assess potential flooding situations during snow melt and rain on snow events in particular but for any heavy precipitation event in the mountains, it is important to understand the influence of the snow cover on soil status with respect to liquid and solid water. Only if this is known, the reaction of the soil i.e. amount of runoff, storage or melt, on additional water input can be assessed. For an operational assessment of the soil moisture state in the Swiss Alps at 140 measurement sites for snow and avalanche forecasting (IMIS network), the SNOWPACK model has been extended with a soil module, solving the Richards equation for the matrix flow. The modelling is validated with vertical profile measurements of soil moisture at meteorological stations in an Alpine catchment near Davos, Switzerland. It was found that the combination of a physical based snowpack model with a Richards equation solver seems to provide an adequate description of soil moisture fluctuations, especially in near surface layers. Soil moisture fluctuations, both measured and modelled, are strongly reduced when a snow cover is present. The measurements also revealed a strong increase in soil moisture, accompanied by a daily cycle in soil moisture during snow melt, extending down to 120cm depth. When soil properties from literature were assumed for the soil type in the vertical profile, the daily cycle in the model during snow melt was restricted mainly to the top layers, while observations show also a reaction in deeper layers. These observations are consistent with the

  4. Spatial analysis and statistical modelling of snow cover dynamics in the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidinger, Johannes; Gerlitz, Lars; Böhner, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    General circulation models are able to predict large scale climate variations in global dimensions, however small scale dynamic characteristics, such as snow cover and its temporal variations in high mountain regions, are not represented sufficiently. Detailed knowledge about shifts in seasonal ablation times and spatial distribution of snow cover are crucial for various research interests. Since high mountain areas, for instance the Central Himalayas in Nepal, are generally remote, it is difficult to obtain data in high spatio-temporal resolutions. Regional climate models and downscaling techniques are implemented to compensate coarse resolution. Furthermore earth observation systems, such as MODIS, also permit bridging this gap to a certain extent. They offer snow (cover) data in daily temporal and medium spatial resolution of around 500 m, which can be applied as evaluation and training data for dynamical hydrological and statistical analyses. Within this approach two snow distribution models (binary snow cover and fractional snow cover) as well as one snow recession model were implemented for a research domain in the Rolwaling Himal in Nepal, employing the random forest technique, which represents a state of the art machine learning algorithm. Both bottom-up strategies provide inductive reasoning to derive rules for snow related processes out of climate (temperature, precipitation and irradiance) and climate-related topographic data sets (elevation, aspect and convergence index) obtained by meteorological network stations, remote sensing products (snow cover - MOD10-A1 and land surface temperatures - MOD11-A1) along with GIS. Snow distribution is predicted reliably on a daily basis in the research area, whereas further effort is necessary for predicting daily snow cover recession processes adequately. Swift changes induced by clear sky conditions with high insolation rates are well represented, whereas steady snow loss still needs continuing effort. All

  5. Absence of snow cover reduces understory plant cover and alters plant community composition in boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyling, Juergen; Haei, Mahsa; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2012-02-01

    Snow regimes affect biogeochemistry of boreal ecosystems and are altered by climate change. The effects on plant communities, however, are largely unexplored despite their influence on relevant processes. Here, the impact of snow cover on understory community composition and below-ground production in a boreal Picea abies forest was investigated using a long-term (8-year) snow cover manipulation experiment consisting of the treatments: snow removal, increased insulation (styrofoam pellets), and control. The snow removal treatment caused longer (118 vs. 57 days) and deeper soil frost (mean minimum temperature -5.5 vs. -2.2°C) at 10 cm soil depth in comparison to control. Understory species composition was strongly altered by the snow cover manipulations; vegetation cover declined by more than 50% in the snow removal treatment. In particular, the dominant dwarf shrub Vaccinium myrtillus (-82%) and the most abundant mosses Pleurozium schreberi (-74%) and Dicranum scoparium (-60%) declined strongly. The C:N ratio in V. myrtillus leaves and plant available N in the soil indicated no altered nitrogen nutrition. Fine-root biomass in summer, however, was negatively affected by the reduced snow cover (-50%). Observed effects are attributed to direct frost damage of roots and/ or shoots. Besides the obvious relevance of winter processes on plant ecology and distribution, we propose that shifts in the vegetation caused by frost damage may be an important driver of the reported alterations in biogeochemistry in response to altered snow cover. Understory plant performance clearly needs to be considered in the biogeochemistry of boreal systems in the face of climate change.

  6. Land cover for Ukraine: the harmonization of remote sensing and ground-based data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiv, M.; Shchepashchenko, D.; Shvidenko, A.; See, L. M.; Bun, R.

    2012-12-01

    This study focuses on the development of a land cover map of the Ukraine through harmonization of remote sensing and ground-based data. At present there is no land cover map of the Ukraine available that is of sufficient accuracy for use in environmental modeling. The existing remote sensing data are not enough accurate. In this study we compare the territory of the Ukraine from three global remote sensing products (GlobCover 2009, MODIS Land Cover and GLC-2000) using a fuzzy logic methodology in order to capture the uncertainty in the classification of land cover. The results for the Ukraine show that GlobCover 2009, MODIS Land Cover and GLC-2000 have a fuzzy agreement of 65%. We developed a weighted algorithm for the creation of a land cover map based on an integration of a number of global land cover and remote sensing products including the GLC-2000, GlobCover 2009, MODIS Land Cover, the Vegetation Continuous Fields product, digital map of administrative units and forest account data at the local level. This weighted algorithm is based on the results of comparing these products and an analysis of a dataset of validation points for different land cover types in the Ukraine. We applied this algorithm to generate a forest land cover type map. This raster map contains a forest expectation index that was calculated for each pixel. Forest land was then allocated based on forest statistics at the local level. Areas with a higher forest expectation index were allocated with forest first until the results matched the forest statistics. The result is the first digital map of forest (with a spatial resolution of 300m) for the Ukraine, which consistent with forest and land accounts, remote sensing datasets and GIS products. The forest land was well defined in forest rich areas (i.e. in the northern part of the Ukraine, the Carpathians and the Crimea); well less accurate areas were identified in the steppe due to heterogeneous land cover. Acknowledgements. This research was

  7. CASA Forest Cover Change Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation and forest fires are global land cover changes that can be caused by both natural and human factors. Although monitoring forest fires in near-real time is critical for operational wildfire management, mapping historical wildfires in a spatially explicit fashion is also important for a number of reasons, including climate change studies (e.g., examining the relationship between rising temperatures and frequency of fires), fuel load management (e.g., deciding when and where to conduct controlled burns), and carbon cycle studies (e.g., quantifying how much CO2 is emitted by fires and for emissions reduction efforts under the United Nations programs for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation -- REDD).

  8. On Approximating Four Covering and Packing Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ashley, Mary; Berman, Piotr; Chaovalitwongse, Wanpracha; DasGupta, Bhaskar; Kao, Ming-Yang; 10.1016/j.jcss.2009.01.002

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider approximability issues of the following four problems: triangle packing, full sibling reconstruction, maximum profit coverage and 2-coverage. All of them are generalized or specialized versions of set-cover and have applications in biology ranging from full-sibling reconstructions in wild populations to biomolecular clusterings; however, as this paper shows, their approximability properties differ considerably. Our inapproximability constant for the triangle packing problem improves upon the previous results; this is done by directly transforming the inapproximability gap of Haastad for the problem of maximizing the number of satisfied equations for a set of equations over GF(2) and is interesting in its own right. Our approximability results on the full siblings reconstruction problems answers questions originally posed by Berger-Wolf et al. and our results on the maximum profit coverage problem provides almost matching upper and lower bounds on the approximation ratio, answering a...

  9. The Effects of Copy, Cover, and Compare with and without Additional Error Drill on Multiplication Fact Fluency and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Angela; McLaughlin, Thomas; Weber, Kimberly P.; Gower, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The use of copy, cover and compare has been suggested as an effective class-room intervention procedure. The present case report examined the use of copy, cover, and compare with math facts for an elementary student with learning disabilities. Objectives: The purpose of this research was to increase the correct rate and decrease the…

  10. Remote sensing of land use/cover changes and its effect on wind erosion potential in southern Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei, Mahrooz; Sameni, Abdolmajid; Fallah Shamsi, Seyed Rashid; Bartholomeus, Harm

    2016-01-01

    Wind erosion is a complex process influenced by different factors. Most of these factors are stable over time, but land use/cover and land management practices are changing gradually. Therefore, this research investigates the impact of changing land use/cover and land management on wind erosion pote

  11. USE OF COVER CROPS FOR WEED SUPPRESSION IN HAZELNUT (CORYLUS AVELLANA L.) IN TURKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, D; Dok, M; Ak, K; Macit, I; Demir, Z; Mennan, H

    2014-01-01

    Weed management is critical in hazelnut (Corylus avellana) production. Weeds reduce nutrient availability, interfere with tree growth, and reduce hand-harvesting efficiency. Field experiments were conducted to test effects of cover crops as alternative weed management strategies in hazelnut. The cover crop treatments consisted of Trifolium repens L., Festuca rubra subsp. rubra L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Vicia villosa Roth. And Trifolium meneghinianum Celmand fallow with no cover crop. Control plots such as weedy control, herbicide control and mechanical control were added as reference plots. The lowest weed dry biomass was obtained from Vicia villosa plots, and there were no significant differences among all other cover crop treatments. The highest cover crop dry biomass was measured in the Trifolium meneghinianum plots. Regarding the effect of cover crops on hazelnut yields, the lowest yield was ob- tained from weedy control plots, while the highest yield was obtained from F. arundinacea plots. This research indicated that cover crops could be used as living mulch in integrated weed management programs to manage weeds in the hazelnut orchards.

  12. Projection of the Spatially Explicit Land Use/Cover Changes in China, 2010–2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use/cover change (LUCC is an important part of the global environmental change. This study predicted the future structure of land use/cover on the basis of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM and an econometric model with the socioeconomic factors as the driving forces. The future spatial pattern of land use/cover in China was simulated with the Dynamics of Land System (DLS under the Business as Usual scenario, Rapid Economic Growth scenario and Cooperate Environmental Sustainability scenario. The simulation results showed that the land use/land cover in China will change continually due to the human activities and climate change, and the spatial pattern of land use/cover will also change as time goes by. Besides, the spatial pattern of land cover in China under the three scenarios is consistent on the whole, but with some regional differences. Built-up area will increase rapidly under the three scenarios, while most land cover types will show a decreasing trend to different degrees under different scenarios. The simulation results can provide an underlying land surface data and reference to the methodology research on the prediction of LUCC.

  13. Determination of Land Cover/land Use Using SPOT 7 Data with Supervised Classification Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas Balcik, F.; Karakacan Kuzucu, A.

    2016-10-01

    Land use/ land cover (LULC) classification is a key research field in remote sensing. With recent developments of high-spatial-resolution sensors, Earth-observation technology offers a viable solution for land use/land cover identification and management in the rural part of the cities. There is a strong need to produce accurate, reliable, and up-to-date land use/land cover maps for sustainable monitoring and management. In this study, SPOT 7 imagery was used to test the potential of the data for land cover/land use mapping. Catalca is selected region located in the north west of the Istanbul in Turkey, which is mostly covered with agricultural fields and forest lands. The potentials of two classification algorithms maximum likelihood, and support vector machine, were tested, and accuracy assessment of the land cover maps was performed through error matrix and Kappa statistics. The results indicated that both of the selected classifiers were highly useful (over 83% accuracy) in the mapping of land use/cover in the study region. The support vector machine classification approach slightly outperformed the maximum likelihood classification in both overall accuracy and Kappa statistics.

  14. CLC2000 land cover database of the Netherlands; monitoring land cover changes between 1986 and 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeu, G.W.

    2003-01-01

    The 1986 CORINE land cover database of the Netherlands was revised and updated on basis of Landsat satellite images and ancillary data. Interpretation of satellite images from 1986 and 2000 resulted in the CLC2000, CLC1986rev and CLCchange databases. A standard European legend and production methodo

  15. CLC2000 land cover database of the Netherlands; monitoring land cover changes between 1986 and 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeu, G.W.

    2003-01-01

    The 1986 CORINE land cover database of the Netherlands was revised and updated on basis of Landsat satellite images and ancillary data. Interpretation of satellite images from 1986 and 2000 resulted in the CLC2000, CLC1986rev and CLCchange databases. A standard European legend and production

  16. Locally optimized separability enhancement indices for urban land cover mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina L.; Meilby, Henrik; Darrel Jenerette, G.

    2016-01-01

    Landsat data were used to assess urbanization-induced dynamics in Land use/cover (LULC), surface thermal intensity, and its relationships with urban biophysical composition. The study was undertaken in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia. Ground-based data and high resolution images were used as reference...... data in LULC classification. To more accurately quantify landscape patterns and their changes, we applied new locally optimized separability enhancement indices and decision rules (SEI–DR approach) to address commonly observed classification accuracy problems in urban environments. We tested the SEI...... classification method, use of hotspot analysis, and the investigations of the UHI for an African city fill important research gaps for studies of urban thermal variation....

  17. National Level Assessment of Mangrove Forest Cover in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, S.; Qamer, F. M.; Hussain, N.; Saleem, R.; Nitin, K. T.

    2011-09-01

    . GIS and Remote Sensing based technologies and methods are in use to map forest cover since the last two decades in Pakistan. The national level forest cover studies based upon satellite images include, Forestry Sector Master Plan (FSMP) and National Forest & Range Resources Assessment Study (NFRRAS). In FSMP, the mangrove forest extent was visually determined from Landsat images of 1988 - 1991, and was estimated to be 155,369 ha; whereas, in NFRRAS, Landsat images of 1997 - 2001 were automated processed and the mangroves areas was estimated to be 158,000 ha. To our knowledge, a comprehensive assessment of current mangroves cover of Pakistan has not been made over the last decade, although the mangroves ecosystems have become the focus of intention in context of recent climate change scenarios. This study was conducted to support the informed decision making for sustainable development in coastal areas of Pakistan by providing up-todate mangroves forest cover assessment of Pakistan. Various types of Earth Observation satellite images and processing methods have been tested in relation to mangroves mapping. Most of the studies have applied classical pixel - based approached, there are a few studies which used object - based methods of image analysis to map the mangroves ecosystems. Object - based methods have the advantage of incorporating spatial neighbourhood properties and hierarchical structures into the classification process to produce more accurate surface patterns recognition compared with classical pixel - based approaches. In this research, we applied multi-scale hierarchical approach of object-based methods of image analysis to ALOS - AVNIR-2 images of the year 2008-09 to map the land cover in the mangroves ecosystems of Pakistan. Considering the tide height and phonological effects of vegetation, particularly the algal mats, these data sets were meticulously chosen. Incorporation of multi-scale hierarchical structures made it easy to effectively discriminate

  18. Investigation of daily covering material for biocells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendere, R.; Smigins, R.; Medne, O.; Berzina-Cimdina, L.; Rugele, K.

    2014-02-01

    Bioreactor landfilling, with the acceptance of landfill Directive 1999/31/EC has lost its actuality in European Union; at the same time, this method can still be used for acceleration of biowaste degradation and biogas production. One of the possibilities to reduce the disposal of biowaste is to use biocells for its anaerobic pre-treatment before landfilling. The daily filling up of such a cell requires isolation of the main volume to limit gas emissions, reduce smells, etc. Bioprocesses that are of the utmost importance for biocell treatment are often not taken into account in selection of materials to be used as daily landfill covers. Based on physical, chemical and biological methods the investigations have been carried out into different covering materials offered in the market, with identification of parameters that are the most important for daily covering the biocells. It is found that the materials fitted best this purpose should be of biological origin and consist of small bio-particles with large surface, without the inhibitors of anaerobic processes such as sulphuric compounds. Bioreaktoru pielietošana atkritumu uzglabāšanas sfērā, sakarā ar Direktīvas 1999/31/EC pieņemšanu, ir zaudējusi savu aktualitāti, taču šī metode vēl joprojām var tikt izmantota bioatkritumu noārdīšanai un biogāzes ražošanai. Viena no iespējām kā samazināt bioatkritumu izvietošanu ir biošūnu izmantošana bioatkritumu anaerobai pirmsapstrādei pirms to noglabāšanas. Šūnas piepildīšana ikdienā prasa nepieciešamību izolēt lielāko tās daļu, lai samazinātu gāzes emisiju, smakas, utt. Materiāli, kas ikdienā tiek izmantoti atkritumu pārklāšanai, nepietiekami ietekmē bioprocesus, kas pamatā ir galvenais biošūnas izmantošanas mērķis. Šajā sakarā ir veikta dažādu tirdzniecībā pieejamu pārklājuma materiālu izpēte, pielietojot virkni fizikālo, ķīmisko un bioloģisko metožu, un nosakot svarīgākos parametrus, kas ir b

  19. Development of large Area Covering Height Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, K.

    2014-04-01

    Height information is a basic part of topographic mapping. Only in special areas frequent update of height models is required, usually the update cycle is quite lower as for horizontal map information. Some height models are available free of charge in the internet; for commercial height models a fee has to be paid. Mostly digital surface models (DSM) with the height of the visible surface are given and not the bare ground height, as required for standard mapping. Nevertheless by filtering of DSM, digital terrain models (DTM) with the height of the bare ground can be generated with the exception of dense forest areas where no height of the bare ground is available. These height models may be better as the DTM of some survey administrations. In addition several DTM from national survey administrations are classified, so as alternative the commercial or free of charge available information from internet can be used. The widely used SRTM DSM is available also as ACE-2 GDEM corrected by altimeter data for systematic height errors caused by vegetation and orientation errors. But the ACE-2 GDEM did not respect neighbourhood information. With the worldwide covering TanDEM-X height model, distributed starting 2014 by Airbus Defence and Space (former ASTRIUM) as WorldDEM, higher level of details and accuracy is reached as with other large area covering height models. At first the raw-version of WorldDEM will be available, followed by an edited version and finally as WorldDEM-DTM a height model of the bare ground. With 12 m spacing and a relative standard deviation of 1.2 m within an area of 1° x 1° an accuracy and resolution level is reached, satisfying also for larger map scales. For limited areas with the HDEM also a height model with 6 m spacing and a relative vertical accuracy of 0.5 m can be generated on demand. By bathymetric LiDAR and stereo images also the height of the sea floor can be determined if the water has satisfying transparency. Another method of getting

  20. Evaluating cover depth of steel fiber reinforced concrete using impact-echo testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Feng

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate of the cover depth of steel fiber reinforced concrete using the impact-echo testing. In order to evaluate the security of the construction, usually need to estimate the cover depth of the reinforced concrete. At present, the examination technique of the cover depth of the reinforced concrete without the steel fiber is mainly applied in the magnetic and electrical methods, its rapid detection and good results. But the research of the reactive powder concrete be gradually progress, with the steel fiber concrete structure will be increased, if should still operate the examination with the magnetic and electrical methods, theoretically the steel fiber will have the interference to its electromagnetism field. Therefore, this research designs four kinds of reinforced concrete plate that include different steel fiber contents, to evaluate test results of estimate of the cover depth of the reinforcing bar. The results showed that: estimate of the cover depth of steel fiber reinforced concrete reinforcing bar using the impact-echo testing, the variety of the steel fiber content does not have much influence, the test measurement error within ± 10%, and the most important source of uncertainty is the velocity of concrete.

  1. Effects of Forest Cover Change on Flood Characteristics in the Upper Citarum Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dwi Dasanto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Information on the effect of forest cover changes on streamflow (river discharge in large-scale catchment is important to be studied. The rate of forest cover change in the Upper Citarum Watershed as a large-scale catchment is high enough to drive streamflow change, such as increase of discharge level, or flood volume. Within the research area, flood would occur when the volume of streamflow exceeded the canal capacity and inundated areas that were normally dry. Therefore, this research focused on identifying the effects of forest cover change on flood events and its distribution. The research consisted of 2 main stages; firstly, building geometric data of river and performing frequency analysis of historical and scenario discharges using an approach of probability distribution; and, secondly, flood inundation mapping using HEC-RAS model. The results showed that forest reduction have affected water yield in the downstream of Upper Citarum Watershed. In each return period, this reduction have increased river discharge level and affected the spread of flooded areas. In 2-year return period, the extent of flood as an impact of forest reduction was estimated to decrease slowly. However, in the return period of more than 2 years, the spread of flooded areas increased sharply. These proved that forest cover reduction would always increase the discharge value, but it did not always expand the inundated area.Keywords: geometric data, forest cover, water yield, return period

  2. National Land Cover Database 2006: 2005-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 2006 quantifies land cover and land cover change between the years 2001 to 2006 and provides an updated version of NLCD 2001. These products represent the...

  3. National Land Cover Database 2006: 2005-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 2006 quantifies land cover and land cover change between the years 2001 to 2006 and provides an updated version of NLCD 2001. These products represent the first...

  4. Land cover change and soil fertility decline in tropical regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; Veldkamp, A.; Bai, Zhanguo

    2008-01-01

    Land cover changes influence the biogeochemistry, hydrology, and climate of the earth. Studies that assessed land cover changes at the global scale mostly focused on: deforestation, cropland expansion, dry land degradation, urbanisation, pasture expansion, and agricultural intensification. For the a

  5. National Land Cover Data for the National Wildlife Refuge System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Natural Resources Program Center conducted a land cover analysis to determine land cover types, acres and their subsequent percentages for the National Wildlife...

  6. National Land Cover Database 2006: 2005-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NLCD 2006 quantifies land cover and land cover change between the years 2001 to 2006 and provides an updated version of NLCD 2001. These products represent the first...

  7. Water Balance Covers For Waste Containment: Principles and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Balance Covers for Waste Containment: Principles and Practices introduces water balance covers and compares them with conventional approaches to waste containment. The authors provided detailed analysis of the fundamentals of soil physics and design issues, introduce appl...

  8. Enhanced National Land Cover Data 1992 (NLCDe 92)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The enhanced National Land Cover Data 1992 ("NLCDe 92") served as the primary source for nationally consistent mapped land cover during the first decade of sampling...

  9. National Land Cover Data for the National Wildlife Refuge System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Natural Resources Program Center conducted a land cover analysis to determine land cover types, acres and their subsequent percentages for the National Wildlife...

  10. 25 CFR 900.215 - What does this subpart cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Award Contract Disputes § 900.215 What does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart covers: (1) All HHS and DOI self-determination contracts, including construction contracts; and (2) All disputes regarding an...

  11. User's guide for Bristol Bay land cover maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Users Guide is to explain how to use the land cover maps and field data generated by the Bristol Bay Land Cover Mapping Project. The complete...

  12. MULCHES AND OTHER COVER MATERIALS TO REDUCE WEED GROWTH IN CONTAINER-GROWN NURSERY STOCK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, F; Van Wesemael, D; Van Haecke, D; Mechant, E; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent EU-wide implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), alternative methods to reduce weed growth in container-grown nursery stock are needed to cut back the use of herbicides. Covering the upper layer of the substrate is known as a potential method to prevent or reduce weed growth in plant containers. As a high variety of mulches and other cover materials are on the market, however, it is no longer clear for growers which cover material is most efficient for use in containers. Therefore, we examined the effect on weed growth of different mulches and other cover materials, including Pinus maritima, P. sylvestris, Bio-Top Basic, Bio-Top Excellent, coco chips fine, hemp fibres, straw pellets, coco disk 180LD and jute disk. Cover materials were applied immediately after repotting of Ligustrum ovalifolium or planting of Fagus sylvatica. At regular times, both weed growth and side effects (e.g., plant growth, water status of the substrate, occurrence of mushrooms, foraging of birds, complete cover of the substrate and fixation) were assessed. All examined mulches or other cover materials were able to reduce weed growth on the containers during the whole growing season. Weed suppression was even better than that of a chemical treated control. Although all materials showed some side effects, the impact on plant growth is most important to the grower and depends not only on material characteristics (e.g., biodegradation, nutrient leaching and N-immobilisation) but also on container size and climatic conditions. In conclusion, mulches and other cover materials can be a valuable tool within IPM to lower herbicide use. To enable a deliberate choice of which cover material is best used in a specific situation more research is needed on lifespan and stability as well as on economic characteristics of the materials.

  13. Analysis of Vegetative on Six Different Landfill Cover Profiles in an Arid Environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; McClellan, Yvonne; Reavis, Bruce A.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Newman, Gretchen; Wolters, Gale

    2005-05-01

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing final landfill cover designs was constructed and monitored at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle 'D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle 'C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side with four alternative cover test plots designed for arid environments. The demonstration was intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. A portion of this project involves the characterization of vegetation establishment and growth on the landfill covers. The various prototype landfill covers were expected to have varying flux rates (Dwyer et al 2000). The landfill covers were further expected to influence vegetation establishment and growth, which may impact site erosion potential and long-term site integrity. Objectives of this phase were to quantify the types of plants occupying each site, the percentage of ground covered by these plants, the density (number of plants per unit area) of plants, and the plant biomass production. The results of this vegetation analysis are presented in this report.3 DRAFT07/06/14AcknowledgementsWe would like to thank all technical and support staff from Sandia and the USDA Forest Service's Rocky Mountain Station not included in the authors' list of this document for their valuable contributions to this research. We would also like to acknowledge the Department of Energy's Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area for funding this work.4

  14. Effects of shrub and tree cover increase on the near-surface atmosphere in northern Fennoscandia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydsaa, Johanne H.; Stordal, Frode; Bryn, Anders; Tallaksen, Lena M.

    2017-09-01

    Increased shrub and tree cover in high latitudes is a widely observed response to climate change that can lead to positive feedbacks to the regional climate. In this study we evaluate the sensitivity of the near-surface atmosphere to a potential increase in shrub and tree cover in the northern Fennoscandia region. We have applied the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Noah-UA land surface module in evaluating biophysical effects of increased shrub cover on the near-surface atmosphere at a fine resolution (5.4 km × 5.4 km). Perturbation experiments are performed in which we prescribe a gradual increase in taller vegetation in the alpine shrub and tree cover according to empirically established bioclimatic zones within the study region. We focus on the spring and summer atmospheric response. To evaluate the sensitivity of the atmospheric response to inter-annual variability in climate, simulations were conducted for two contrasting years, one warm and one cold. We find that shrub and tree cover increase leads to a general increase in near-surface temperatures, with the highest influence seen during the snowmelt season and a more moderate effect during summer. We find that the warming effect is stronger in taller vegetation types, with more complex canopies leading to decreases in the surface albedo. Counteracting effects include increased evapotranspiration, which can lead to increased cloud cover, precipitation, and snow cover. We find that the strength of the atmospheric feedback is sensitive to snow cover variations and to a lesser extent to summer temperatures. Our results show that the positive feedback to high-latitude warming induced by increased shrub and tree cover is a robust feature across inter-annual differences in meteorological conditions and will likely play an important role in land-atmosphere feedback processes in the future.

  15. Bi covered Si(111) surface revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Miwa, R H; Srivastava, G P

    2003-01-01

    We have performed an ab initio study of the stability, atomic geometry and electronic structure of the Bi-covered (sq root 3 x sq root 3) reconstructed Si(111) surface. We find that the energetically stable structure changes from the milkstool model (for 1 monolayer (ML) coverage) to the T sub 4 model (for 1/3 ML coverage), without going through a stable structure for the honeycomb model (2/3 ML coverage). Our theoretical scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) simulation for the 1 ML coverage reveals the formation of Bi trimers for occupied states, and a honeycomb image for empty states. This result, together with the energetically unstable structure for 2/3 ML coverage, suggests that the experimentally observed STM image in the form of the honeycomb structure does not mean that the minimum energy configuration corresponds to Bi coverage of 2/3 ML, but rather represents current tunnelling into the empty states localized between Bi trimers for the milkstool model with 1 ML coverage.

  16. GEOTECNOLOGY FOR FOREST COVER TEMPORAL ANALISYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Suemi Saito

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The landscape ecology metrics associated with data mining can be used to increase the potential of remote sensing data analysis and applications, being an important tool for decision making. The present study aimed to use data mining techniques and landscape ecology metrics to classify and quantify different types of vegetation using a multitemporal analysis (2001 and 2011, in São Luís do Paraitinga city, São Paulo, Brazil. Object-based image analyses and the C4.5 data-mining algorithm were used for automated classification. Classification accuracies were assessed using the kappa index of agreement and the recently proposed allocation and quantity disagreement measures. Four land use and land cover classes were mapped, including Eucalyptus plantations, whose area increased from 4.4% to 8.6%. The automatic classification showed a kappa index of 0.79 and 0.80, quantity disagreements of 2% e 3.5% and allocation measures of 5.5% and 5% for 2001 and 2011, respectively. We therefore concluded that the data mining method and landscape ecology metrics were efficient in separating vegetation classes.

  17. EDXRF analysis of Marajoara pubic covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br; ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Lima, Tania Andrade [Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: talima@montreal.com.br

    2005-07-01

    This work evaluated the elemental composition of decorated pottery pubic covers (tangas) from the Marajoara culture of Marajo Island (located at the mouth of the Amazon River, Brazil). The tangas were used by Marajoara girls probably as part of puberty rites and were anatomically adjustable to the body, containing holes on its corners for string attachment. The samples included two tangas and four fragments from the National Museum collection. One fragment (sample 22245) presented a different design pattern that seemed to indicate a different provenance. EDXRF was performed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory (COPPE/UFRJ), using a Si(Li) detector from ORTEC with resolution of 180 eV at 5.9 keV and a mini x-ray tube with Mo anode. The angle of the incident x-ray beam was 16 deg and the detector was placed at 90 deg to the sample surface. The elements identified in the samples were: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the provenance of the samples. (author)

  18. Covering Points by Disjoint Boxes with Outliers

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Hee-Kap; Demaine, Erik D; Demaine, Martin L; Kim, Sang-Sub; Korman, Matias; Reinbacher, Iris; Son, Wanbin

    2009-01-01

    For a set of n points in the plane, we consider the axis--aligned (p,k)-Box Covering problem: Find p axis-aligned, pairwise-disjoint boxes that together contain n-k points. In this paper, we consider the boxes to be either squares or rectangles, and we want to minimize the area of the largest box. For general p we show that the problem is NP-hard for both squares and rectangles. For a small, fixed number p, we give algorithms that find the solution in the following running times: For squares we have O(n+k log k) time for p=1, and O(n log n+k^p log^p k time for p = 2,3. For rectangles we get O(n + k^3) for p = 1 and O(n log n+k^{2+p} log^{p-1} k) time for p = 2,3. In all cases, our algorithms use O(n) space.

  19. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future…

  20. 16 CFR 501.5 - Paper table covers, bedsheets, pillowcases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paper table covers, bedsheets, pillowcases... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.5 Paper table covers, bedsheets, pillowcases. Table covers, bedsheets, and pillowcases, fabricated from paper, are exempt from the requirements of § 500.12 of this...

  1. Cover Art, Consumerism, and YA [Young Adult] Reading Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Cosette

    Cover art has long been used as a marketing device for books, particularly with books aimed at young adults (YAs) aged 12 to 18. An examination of some of the teen thrillers published by novelist Lois Duncan since the 1970s yields several discoveries about changes in cover art that come with various editions. Many covers have been resigned to…

  2. Effective UV surface albedo of seasonally snow-covered lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanskanen, A.; Manninen, T.

    2007-05-01

    At ultraviolet wavelengths the albedo of most natural surfaces is small with the striking exception of snow and ice. Therefore, snow cover is a major challenge for various applications based on radiative transfer modelling. The aim of this work was to determine the characteristic effective UV range surface albedo of various land cover types when covered by snow. First we selected 1 by 1 degree sample regions that met three criteria: the sample region contained dominantly subpixels of only one land cover type according to the 8 km global land cover classification product from the University of Maryland; the average slope of the sample region was less than 2 degrees according to the USGS's HYDRO1K slope data; the sample region had snow cover in March according to the NSIDC Northern Hemisphere weekly snow cover data. Next we generated 1 by 1 degree gridded 360 nm surface albedo data from the Nimbus-7 TOMS Lambertian equivalent reflectivity data, and used them to construct characteristic effective surface albedo distributions for each land cover type. The resulting distributions showed that each land cover type experiences a characteristic range of surface albedo values when covered by snow. The result is explained by the vegetation that extends upward beyond the snow cover and masks the bright snow covered surface.

  3. 10 CFR 950.21 - Notification of covered event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of covered event. 950.21 Section 950.21... Process § 950.21 Notification of covered event. (a) A sponsor shall submit in writing to the Claims Administrator a notification that a covered event has occurred that has delayed the schedule for construction or...

  4. 26 CFR 31.3121(j)-1 - Covered transportation service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Covered transportation service. 31.3121(j)-1... § 31.3121(j)-1 Covered transportation service. (a) Transportation systems acquired in whole or in part... operation of a public transportation system constitutes covered transportation service if any part of...

  5. Compilation and Assessment of Pan-European Land Cover Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeu, G.W.; Mucher, C.A.; Kramer, H.; Kienast, F.

    2008-01-01

    Land cover is changing in many parts of Europe at an increasing rate. The knowledge on these land cover changes is important for spatial planning, resource evaluation, ecological modelling etc. Modification of ecosystems is most visible through changing land cover. Furthermore, spatio-temporal

  6. 10 CFR 950.31 - Covered event dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covered event dispute resolution. 950.31 Section 950.31 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Dispute Resolution Process § 950.31 Covered event dispute resolution. (a) If a sponsor disagrees with the Covered...

  7. Applying High Resolution Imagery to Understand the Role of Dynamics in the Diminishing Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Role of Dynamics in the Diminishing Arctic Sea Ice Cover ” Dr. Sinead L. Farrell University of Maryland, ESSIC, 5825 University Research Court...day Arctic ice cover , enabling the improvement of models used to forecast ice drift. APPROACH Our research is centered on the application of...resolution visible band imagery for deriving geophysical information on the sea ice pack of the Arctic Ocean , and improve understanding of key

  8. Smart Materials Research at NRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matic, Peter

    1996-01-01

    This presentation covers the use of smart materials in Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) research for sensors, actuators, and modeling and control. Emphasis is on optical fiber Bragg gratings, piezoelectric actuators, shape memory alloy actuators, and polymer matrix and interfaces.

  9. EASE-Grid 2.0 Land Cover Classifications Derived from Boston University MODIS/Terra Land Cover Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data provide land cover classifications derived from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 MODIS/Terra 1 km Land Cover Product (Friedl et al. 2002). The data are...

  10. Mapping Forest Cover and Forest Cover Change with Airborne S-Band Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Ningthoujam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of forest cover, forest carbon stocks and carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation are increasingly important components of sustainable resource management, for combating biodiversity loss and in climate mitigation policies. Satellite remote sensing provides the only means for mapping global forest cover regularly. However, forest classification with optical data is limited by its insensitivity to three-dimensional canopy structure and cloud cover obscuring many forest regions. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR sensors are increasingly being used to mitigate these problems, mainly in the L-, C- and X-band domains of the electromagnetic spectrum. S-band has not been systematically studied for this purpose. In anticipation of the British built NovaSAR-S satellite mission, this study evaluates the benefits of polarimetric S-band SAR for forest characterisation. The Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering (MIMICS-I radiative transfer model is utilised to understand the scattering mechanisms in forest canopies at S-band. The MIMICS-I model reveals strong S-band backscatter sensitivity to the forest canopy in comparison to soil characteristics across all polarisations and incidence angles. Airborne S-band SAR imagery over the temperate mixed forest of Savernake Forest in southern England is analysed for its information content. Based on the modelling results, S-band HH- and VV-polarisation radar backscatter and the Radar Forest Degradation Index (RFDI are used in a forest/non-forest Maximum Likelihood classification at a spatial resolution of 6 m (70% overall accuracy, κ = 0.41 and 20 m (63% overall accuracy, κ = 0.27. The conclusion is that S-band SAR such as from NovaSAR-S is likely to be suitable for monitoring forest cover and its changes.

  11. Research Effect Technology Integration on Watermelon Growth,Quality, Yield and Economic Benefit under Deference Covering Conservation Measures in Dry Lands%不同覆盖保墒措施对旱地西瓜生长、品质及经济效益影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军; 孙兆军; 韩磊; 焦炳忠

    2015-01-01

    For shortage of arid and water resources in arid areas ,less rainfall and uneven distribution of time and space ,in this arti‐cle ,through the field contrast test ,the test set three processing of white film mulch ,liquid film mulching and white film + grass lo‐tus mulching ,using randomized block arrangement ,repeat 3 times ,researched effect technology integration on watermelon growth , quality ,yield and economic benefit under deference covering conservation measures in Dry Lands .The results showed that the white film mulching + grass lotus mulching bulk density is 1 .17 g/cm3 in 0~20 cm average soil ,lower 0 .12 g/cm3 than white film mulc‐hing ,porosity is 53 .96% ,higher 1 .51% than white film mulching ;white film mulching ,liquid film mulching and white film +grass lotus mulching average ground temperature difference was not significant ,the difference between 0 .2~0 .8 ℃ ,white grass membrane and liquid membrane process average ground temperature was vary significantly difference between 1 .0~2 .0 ℃ ;The white film mulching + grass lotus mulching treatment mean temperature difference was lower than the white film and liquid film , white film and liquid membrane process mean temperature difference was not significant ,the white film + grass lotus mulching was1 .3~3 .1 ℃ lower than the white film mulching temperature difference;Soil microflora per gram dry soil fungi ,bacteria ,actinomy‐ces and the total number of bacteria of white film mulching + grass lotus mulching respectively increased by 20 .1% ,4 .3% ,7 .5%and 20 .1% than white film mulching treatment ;Ha output value and net income of white film mulching + grass lotus mulching were significantly higher than that of white film mulching ,respectively increased by 1 111 .4 yuan and 971 .4 yuan ,ratio of 3 .71∶1 ,the white membrane and liquid film mulching output value ,net income was generally low ;White film mulching + grass lotus mulching than white film mulching sugar content increased

  12. 2016 Electrochemistry Gordon Research Conference and Gordon Research Seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-23

    2016 Electrochemistry Gordon Research Conference & Gordon Research Seminar Operational Summary The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) and Gordon...Research Seminar (GRS) on Electrochemistry were held at the Ventura Beach Marriott in Ventura, California from January 9-15, 2016. The meeting covered...TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Gordon Research Conferences, Inc. 512 Liberty Lane West Kingston, RI 02892 -1502 ABSTRACT Final Report: 2016 Electrochemistry

  13. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under

  14. USING PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS FOR VERIFICATION OF CAP AND COVER SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEISER,J.; SULLIVAN,T.

    2001-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) office has committed itself to an accelerated cleanup of its national facilities. The goal is to have much of the DOE legacy waste sites remediated by 2006. This includes closure of several sites (e.g., Rocky Flats and Fernald). With the increased focus on accelerated cleanup, there has been considerable concern about long-term stewardship issues in general, and verification and long-term monitoring (LTM) of caps and covers, in particular. Cap and cover systems (covers) are vital remedial options that will be extensively used in meeting these 2006 cleanup goals. Every buried waste site within the DOE complex will require some form of cover system. These covers are expected to last from 100 to 1000 years or more. The stakeholders can be expected to focus on system durability and sustained performance. DOE EM has set up a national committee of experts to develop a long-term capping (LTC) guidance document. Covers are subject to subsidence, erosion, desiccation, animal intrusion, plant root infiltration, etc., all of which will affect the overall performance of the cover. Very little is available in terms of long-term monitoring other than downstream groundwater or surface water monitoring. By its very nature, this can only indicate that failure of the cover system has already occurred and contaminants have been transported away from the site. This is unacceptable. Methods that indicate early cover failure (prior to contaminant release) or predict approaching cover failure are needed. The LTC committee has identified predictive monitoring technologies as a high priority need for DOE, both for new covers as well as existing covers. The same committee identified a Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technology as one approach that may be capable of meeting the requirements for LTM. The Environmental Research and Technology Division (ERTD) at BNL developed a novel methodology for verifying and monitoring

  15. Historical Snow Cover Variability Data Reconstructed from AVHRR and MODIS over High Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H.; Aizen, E.; Aizen, V. B.

    2010-12-01

    Seasonal snow cover (SSC) contributes up to 60% of river runoff in Central Asia (CA) river basins. Decrease in SSC area is one of the major consequences of CA low lands desertification. The dynamics of seasonal snow that covered huge territory of CA has strong teleconnection with global and regional atmospheric processes. Accurate, high resolution SSC data over CA, from Mongolia (113°E) to Caspian Sea (51°E) and from Western Siberia (56°N) to Tibetan Plateau (32°N) for the last 25 years reconstructed from AVHRR and MODIS data may have very large scope of applications in developing different scale hydrological models and climate study. In our research we present a 24 years (1986-2009) SSC area product computed from AVHRR and MODIS that demonstrate the variability of SSC areas over CA. Daily and 8-day cloud free snow cover product in 500m spatial resolution have been generated from existing MODIS snow cover products since March 2000. Level 1 AVHRR swath data has been used to generate snow cover with 1km spatial resolution since 1986. The georeferencing accuracy of snow cover product derived from AVHRR is better than 1/3 of one pixel, which is achieved by using the new GCP image correction method and automated image matching technique. A new aggregated rating snow detection scheme has been designed to work over CA for each AVHRR image. It makes use of the spectral properties of AVHRR, as well as the surface skin temperature from the NCEP reanalysis dataset. Maximum snow cover composite strategy has been used to generate the 8-day composite product. Validation against MODIS snow cover product suggests the performance of AVHRR 8-day composite snow cover product is similar to MODIS 8-day snow cover. This product is a valuable asset for our further climate and hydrological simulations in CA. Using newly developed product the following information has been calculated: SSC area, SSC days and SSC index, maximum SSC area and day of maximum SSC areas, snow cover onset

  16. 电解铝阳极保温覆盖料震荡输送撒布机的电机控制系统研究%Research on the Motor Control System of Vibration Conveying Spreader Covered with Insulation Material of Electrolytic Aluminium Anode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭天圣; 姜惠敏; 柴兆森

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows the fuzzy control algorithm for motor control system of electrolytic aluminum anode insu⁃lation material covered vibration conveying spreader,and introduces the the design idea, structure and realization of the algorithm. The results show that the system can solve the problem in the process of the electrolytic aluminum an⁃ode heat insulation material covering well, improve the working efficiency, and improve the working environment.%本文说明了电解铝阳极保温覆盖料震荡输送撒布机的电机控制系统模糊控制算法,介绍了算法的设计思想、结构以及实现。实践结果表明,该系统能较好地解决人工进行电解铝阳极保温覆盖料过程的问题,提高了工作效率,改善了工作环境。

  17. Accuracy assessment of global land cover maps: lessons learnt from the GlobCover and GlobCorine experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Defourny, P.; Bontemps, S.; Obsomer, V.; Schouten, L.; Bartalev, S.; Herold, M.; Bicheron, P.; Bogaert, van E.; Leroy, M.; Arino, O.

    2010-01-01

    The validation of global land cover products becomes a critical and challenging issue as more global products are made available more regularly to the international community. The GlobCover 2005 product delivered in 2008 was the first global land cover product at 300 m resolution. Later on, the

  18. Increasing tree cover in degrading landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Rahman, Md Faizar; Sunderland, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Research was conducted in Alutilla Valley in eastern Bangladesh to identify the nature of existing agroforestry systems and to identify potential agroforestry models that could ameliorate currently degrading forest resources Data were collected through farmer participatory research and a structured...... quarterly survey in two villages. Qualitative and supplementary quantitative analysis methods were used to assess the financial potential of agroforestry systems. Various patterns of agroforestry exist in the study site, but all have two common principles, namely ‘integration with agriculture’ and ‘multi......-functionality’. Two agroforestry models suitable for adoption by farmers have been identified. Multi-strata agroforestry, based on a fruit and timber tree canopy with vegetables and tuber species in the understorey, can be practiced in the shifting cultivation fields near settlements. Fruit and timber tree...

  19. Earth-covered buildings and settlements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, F L [ed.

    1978-01-01

    Opening remarks were made by Wilbur T. Coyle, Program Manager in the Buildings and Community Systems Division, Department of Energy, wherein he discussed briefly DOE's plans for innovative shelter for energy conservation as well as the role of his Division. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 26 presentations in this volume; all abstracts will appear in both Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  20. Earth-covered buildings: technical notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, F L; Higgs, F; Shih, J [eds.

    1978-01-01

    John Cable, Architectural and Engineering Systems Branch, Division of Buildings and Community Systems, Department of Energy, kicked off the conference and spelled out the role of DOE in this area. One of his points was that the technical problems are easier than the institutional problems. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 18 papers of this volume; all of the abstracts will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA), and 16 were selected for Energy Abstractss for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (DCK)

  1. The mechanism for weed suppression by a forage radish cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Mid-Atlantic region, forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus) winter cover crops planted prior to 1 September suppress winter annual weeds from fall until early April. Little is known about the mechanism of this weed suppression. Published research reports suggest that allelopat...

  2. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment ovipositio

  3. Non-commutative covering spaces and their symmetries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canlubo, Clarisson

    dened and its corresponding Galois theory. Using this and basic concepts from algebraic geometryand spectral theory, we will give a full description of the general structure of non-centralcoverings. Examples of coverings of the rational and irrational non-commutative tori will alsobe studied. Using......-commutative covering space using Galois theory of Hopfalgebroids. We will look at basic properties of classical covering spaces that generalize to thenon-commutative framework. Afterwards, we will explore a series of examples. We will startwith coverings of a point and central coverings of commutative spaces and see...... how these areclosely tied up. Coupled Hopf algebras will be presented to give a general description of coveringsof a point. We will give a complete description of the geometry of the central coverings ofcommutative spaces using the coverings of a point. A topologized version of Hopf categories willbe...

  4. Dihedral Galois covers of algebraic varieties and the simple cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, , Fabrizio; Perroni, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    In this article we investigate the algebra and geometry of dihedral covers of smooth algebraic varieties. To this aim we first describe the Weil divisors and the Picard group of divisorial sheaves on normal double covers. Then we provide a structure theorem for dihedral covers, that is, given a smooth variety Y, we describe the algebraic ;building data; on Y which are equivalent to the existence of such covers π : X → Y. We introduce then two special very explicit classes of dihedral covers: the simple and the almost simple dihedral covers, and we determine their basic invariants. For the simple dihedral covers we also determine their natural deformations. In the last section we give an application to fundamental groups.

  5. Covering-Based Rough Sets on Eulerian Matroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rough set theory is an efficient and essential tool for dealing with vagueness and granularity in information systems. Covering-based rough set theory is proposed as a significant generalization of classical rough sets. Matroid theory is a vital structure with high applicability and borrows extensively from linear algebra and graph theory. In this paper, one type of covering-based approximations is studied from the viewpoint of Eulerian matroids. First, we explore the circuits of an Eulerian matroid from the perspective of coverings. Second, this type of covering-based approximations is represented by the circuits of Eulerian matroids. Moreover, the conditions under which the covering-based upper approximation operator is the closure operator of a matroid are presented. Finally, a matroidal structure of covering-based rough sets is constructed. These results show many potential connections between covering-based rough sets and matroids.

  6. Research Highlights of CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1. Basic Research Basic research has always been one of the major tasks of CAS. Over the more than 50 years since its founding, CAS has gradually branched out to cover many fundamental fields of the natural sciences, such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, mechanics,astronomy, space science, life science, geoscience and environmental science - with nearly 10,000 research professionals and 117 open laboratories (including 50 key State laboratories). At present, there are 29 research institutes (including observatories) covering such fields as physical science, mathematics, mechanics and astronomy; with 31 open laboratories (nine key State laboratories, four State laboratories and 18 CAS open laboratories).

  7. Soil erosion control, plant diversity, and arthropod communities under heterogeneous cover crops in an olive orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José Alfonso; Campos, Mercedes; Guzmán, Gema; Castillo-Llanque, Franco; Vanwalleghem, Tom; Lora, Ángel; Giráldez, Juan V

    2017-01-30

    A 3-year experiment compared in an olive orchard the effect of different cover crops' composition on runoff, water erosion, diversity of annual plants, and arthropod communities which could provide an alternative to conventional management based on tillage (CT). The cover crops evaluated were a seeded homogeneous grass (GC), a seeded mix of ten different species (MCseeded), and a non-seeded cover by vegetation naturally present at the farm after 20 years of mowing (MCnatural). The results suggest that heterogeneous cover crops can provide a viable alternative to homogeneous ones in olives, providing similar benefits in reducing runoff and soil losses compared to management based on bare soil. The reduction in soil loss was particularly large: 46.7 in CT to 6.5 and 7.9 t ha(-1) year(-1) in GC and MCseeded, respectively. The heterogeneous cover crops resulted in greater diversity of plant species and a modification of the arthropod communities with an increased number of predators for pests. The reduction of the cost of implanting heterogeneous cover crops, improvement of the seeding techniques, and selection of species included in the mixes require additional research to promote the use of this practice which can deliver enhanced environmental benefits.

  8. Field note: comparative efficacy of a woody evapotranspiration landfill cover following the removal of aboveground biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, William; Munk, Jens; Byrd, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Woody vegetation cultivated for moisture management on evapotranspiration (ET) landfill covers could potentially serve a secondary function as a biomass crop. However, research is required to evaluate the extent to which trees could be harvested from ET covers without significantly impacting their moisture management function. This study investigated the drainage through a six-year-old, primarily poplar/cottonwood ET test cover for a period of one year following the harvest of all woody biomass exceeding a height of 30 cm above ground surface. Results were compared to previously reported drainage observed during the years leading up to the coppice event. In the first year following coppice, the ET cover was found to be 93% effective at redirecting moisture during the spring/summer season, and 95% effective during the subsequent fall/winter season. This was slightly lower than the 95% and 100% efficacy observed in the spring/summer and fall/winter seasons, respectively, during the final measured year prior to coppice. However, the post-coppice efficacy was higher than the efficacy observed during the first three years following establishment of the cover. While additional longer-term studies are recommended, this project demonstrated that woody ET covers could potentially produce harvestable biomass while still effectively managing aerial moisture.

  9. Performance of quantitative vegetation sampling methods across gradients of cover in Great Basin plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Arkle, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Resource managers and scientists need efficient, reliable methods for quantifying vegetation to conduct basic research, evaluate land management actions, and monitor trends in habitat conditions. We examined three methods for quantifying vegetation in 1-ha plots among different plant communities in the northern Great Basin: photography-based grid-point intercept (GPI), line-point intercept (LPI), and point-quarter (PQ). We also evaluated each method for within-plot subsampling adequacy and effort requirements relative to information gain. We found that, for most functional groups, percent cover measurements collected with the use of LPI, GPI, and PQ methods were strongly correlated. These correlations were even stronger when we used data from the upper canopy only (i.e., top “hit” of pin flags) in LPI to estimate cover. PQ was best at quantifying cover of sparse plants such as shrubs in early successional habitats. As cover of a given functional group decreased within plots, the variance of the cover estimate increased substantially, which required more subsamples per plot (i.e., transect lines, quadrats) to achieve reliable precision. For GPI, we found that that six–nine quadrats per hectare were sufficient to characterize the vegetation in most of the plant communities sampled. All three methods reasonably characterized the vegetation in our plots, and each has advantages depending on characteristics of the vegetation, such as cover or heterogeneity, study goals, precision of measurements required, and efficiency needed.

  10. Calculation set for design and optimization of vegetative soil covers Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-01

    This study demonstrates that containment of municipal and hazardous waste in arid and semiarid environments can be accomplished effectively without traditional, synthetic materials and complex, multi-layer systems. This research demonstrates that closure covers combining layers of natural soil, native plant species, and climatic conditions to form a sustainable, functioning ecosystem will meet the technical equivalency criteria prescribed by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. In this study, percolation through a natural analogue and an engineered cover is simulated using the one-dimensional, numerical code UNSAT-H. UNSAT-H is a Richards. equation-based model that simulates soil water infiltration, unsaturated flow, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, and deep percolation. This study incorporates conservative, site-specific soil hydraulic and vegetation parameters. Historical meteorological data are used to simulate percolation through the natural analogue and an engineered cover, with and without vegetation. This study indicates that a 3-foot (ft) cover in arid and semiarid environments is the minimum design thickness necessary to meet the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-prescribed technical equivalency criteria of 31.5 millimeters/year and 1 x 10{sup -7} centimeters/second for net annual percolation and average flux, respectively. Increasing cover thickness to 4 or 5 ft results in limited additional improvement in cover performance.

  11. Local scour around bridge abutments under ice covered condition- an experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng WU; Faye HIRSHFIELD; Jue-yi SUI

    2015-01-01

    The local scour around bridge abutments has been an active research topic for many decades. But very few studies have been conducted regarding the impacts of ice cover on the local scour phenomenon around bridge abutments. A series of ice covered flume experiments were conducted in this study. The shape factors of different abutment types in the local scour were compared. Under ice cover, the shape factor for semi-circular abutments ranges from 0.66~0.71. Three different non-uniform sediments were used withD50s of 0.58 mm, 0.50 mm, and 0.47 mm respectively. Two types of ice cover, namely smooth and rough cover, were created to simulate the impacts of ice cover around the abutments. Maximum scour depth was analyzed under different conditions. The contours of the scour holes were plotted to show the bed morphology and sediment deposition around bridge abutments. An empirical relationship between maximum scour depth, densimetric Froude number and sediment size was developed.

  12. Relative Efficiency of Surface Energy Budgets Over Different Land Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachuan

    The partitioning of available solar energy into different fluxes at the Earth's surface is important in determining different physical processes, such as turbulent transport, subsurface hydrology, land-atmospheric interactions, etc. Direct measurements of these turbulent fluxes were carried out using eddy-covariance (EC) towers. However, the distribution of EC towers is sparse due to relatively high cost and practical difficulties in logistics and deployment. As a result, data is temporally and spatially limited and is inadequate to be used for researches at large scales, such as regional and global climate modeling. Besides field measurements, an alternative way is to estimate turbulent fluxes based on the intrinsic relations between surface energy budget components, largely through thermodynamic equilibrium. These relations, referred as relative efficiency, have been included in several models to estimate the magnitude of turbulent fluxes in surface energy budgets such as latent heat and sensible heat. In this study, three theoretical models based on the lumped heat transfer model, the linear stability analysis and the maximum entropy principle respectively, were investigated. Model predictions of relative efficiencies were compared with turbulent flux data over different land covers, viz. lake, grassland and suburban surfaces. Similar results were observed over lake and suburban surface but significant deviation is found over vegetation surface. The relative efficiency of outgoing longwave radiation is found to be orders of magnitude deviated from theoretic predictions. Meanwhile, results show that energy partitioning process is influenced by the surface water availability to a great extent. The study provides insight into what property is determining energy partitioning process over different land covers and gives suggestion for future models.

  13. Parametric analyses of evapotranspiration landfill covers in humid regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjie Zhang; Cheng Sun

    2014-01-01

    Natural soils are more durable than almost all man-made materials. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers use vegetated soil layers to store water until it is either evaporated from the soil surface or transpired through vegetation. ET covers rely on the water storage capacity of soil layer, rather than low permeability materials, to minimize percolation. While the use of ET covers in landfills increased over the last decade, they were mainly used in arid or semi-arid regions. At present, the use of ET covers has not been thoroughly investigated in humid areas. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of ET covers in humid areas where there is an annual precipitation of more than 800 mm. Numerical analyses were carried out to investigate the influences of cover thickness, soil type, vegetation level and distribution of precipitation on performance of ET covers. Performance and applicability of capillary barriers and a new-type cover were analyzed. The results show that percolation decreases with an increasing cover thickness and an increasing vegetation level, but the increasing trend becomes unclear when certain thickness or LAI (leaf area index) is reached. Cover soil with a large capability of water storage is recommended to minimize percolation. ET covers are significantly influenced by distribution of precipitation and are more effective in areas where rainy season coincides with hot season. Capillary barriers are more efficient than monolithic covers. The new cover is better than the monolithic cover in performance and the final percolation is only 0.5%of the annual precipitation.

  14. Rock fragment cover controls the sediment detachment in citrus plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Brevik, Eric; Giménez Morera, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Masto, Reginald E.; Jordán, Antonio; Wang, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Citrus orchards are seen as a source of sediments and water due to the lack of vegetation cover, the widespread use of herbicides, the compaction due to the use of heavy machinery, the lack of organic amendments and the removal of the pruned branches (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011; Li et al, 2011). This is not unusual in agriculture, where high soil erosion losses are found in the orchards (Dai et al., 2015; Erkossa et al., 2015; Ochoa-Cueva et al., 2015). Therefore, there is a need to reduce the sediment delivery, and to achieve a sustainable situation with lower and renewable soil erosion rates (Cerdà et al., 2015; Nanko et al., 2015; Mwango et al., 2016). Vegetation cover is the most efficient strategy to control soil and water losses at different scales (Cerdà, 1999; Keesstra, 2007; Zhao et al., 2014), but farmers in the Mediterranean Regions prefer bare soils as this reduces the amount of water used by the plants, and also because of aesthetic concerns, as bare soils are perceived as tidy and therefore seen by farmers as the way their orchards should look. So therefore, there is a need to find an efficient strategy that reduces soil losses and will be accepted by the farmers also. One potential option for this may be to use rock fragments (stones) as a mulch to reduce the soil losses. Other researchers already found rock fragments to be an effective tool to reduce erosion (Poesen et al., 1994; Poesen and Lavee, 1994; Cerdà, 2001; Jomaa et al., 2012; Martínez Zavala and Jordán, 2008; Jordán and Martínez Zavala, 2008; Jordán et al., 2009; Zavala et al., 2010). Furthermore, rock fragments can improve soil quality and contribute to the restoration of ecosystems (Jiménez et al., 2015). However, most previous research on soil erosion and rock fragment cover was done under laboratory conditions or in forest soils. Meanwhile, little is known about the role of rock fragments in agriculture land under field

  15. Deriving a per-field land use and land cover map in an agricultural mosaic catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Seo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Detailed data on land use and land cover constitutes important information for Earth system models, environmental monitoring and ecosystem services research. Global land cover products are evolving rapidly, however, there is still a lack of information particularly for heterogeneous agricultural landscapes. We censused land use and land cover field by field in an agricultural mosaic catchment Haean, South Korea. We recorded the land cover types with additional information on agricultural practice and make this data available at the public repository Pangaea (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.823677. In this paper we introduce the data, its collection and the post-processing protocol. During the studied period, a large portion of dry fields was converted to perennial crops. A comparison between our dataset and MODIS Land Cover Type (MCD12Q1 suggested that the MODIS product was restricted in this area since it does not distinguish irrigated fields from general croplands. In addition, linear landscape elements such as water bodies were not detected in the MODIS product due to its coarse spatial resolution. The data presented here can be useful for earth science and ecosystem services research.

  16. Root characteristics of cover crops and their erosion-reducing potential during concentrated runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baets, S.; Poesen, J.

    2009-04-01

    In the loam region in central Belgium, a lot of research has been conducted on the effects of cover crops for preventing splash and interrill erosion and on their nutrient pumping effectiveness. As this is a very effective erosion and environment conservation technique, planting cover crops during the winter season is widely applied in the loess belt. Most of these cover crops freeze at the beginning of the winter period. Consequently, the above-ground biomass becomes less effective in protecting the soil from water erosion. Apart from the effects of the above-ground biomass in protecting the soil against raindrop impacts and reducing flow velocities by the retarding effects of their stems, plant roots also play an important role in improving soil strength. Previous research showed that roots contribute to a large extent to the resistance of topsoils against concentrated flow erosion. Unfortunately, information on root properties of common cover crops (e.g. Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus) is very scarce. Therefore, root density distribution with depth and their erosion-reducing effects during concentrated flow erosion were assessed by conducting root auger measurements and concentrated flow experiments at the end of the growth period (December). The preliminary results indicate that the studied cover crops are not equally effective in preventing soil loss by concentrated flow erosion at the end of the growing season. Cover crops with thick roots, such as Sinapis alba and Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus are less effective than cover crops with fine-branched roots such as Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne (Ryegrass), Avena sativa (Oats) and Secale cereale (Rye) in preventing soil losses by concentrated flow erosion. These results enable soil managers to select the most suitable crops and maximize soil protection.

  17. Watershed-Scale Cover Crops Reduce Nutrient Export From Agricultural Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, J. L.; Hanrahan, B.; Christopher, S. F.; Trentman, M. T.; Royer, T. V.; Prior, K.

    2016-12-01

    The Midwestern US has undergone extensive land use change as forest, wetlands, and prairies have been converted to agroecosystems. Today, excess fertilizer nutrients from farm fields enter Midwestern agricultural streams, which degrades both local and downstream water quality, resulting in algal blooms and subsequent hypoxic "dead zones" far from the nutrient source. We are quantifying the benefits of watershed-scale conservation practices that may reduce nutrient runoff from adjacent farm fields. Specifically, research is lacking on whether the planting of winter cover crops in watersheds currently dominated by row-crop agriculture can significantly reduce nutrient inputs to adjacent streams. Since 2013, farmers have planted cover crops on 70% of croppable acres in the Shatto Ditch Watershed (IN), and "saturation level" implementation of this conservation practice has been sustained for 3 years. Every 14 days, we have quantified nutrient loss from fields by sampling nutrient fluxes from multiple subsurface tile drains and longitudinally along the stream channel throughout the watershed. Cover crops improved stream water quality by reducing dissolved inorganic nutrients exported downstream; nitrate-N and DRP concentrations and fluxes were significantly lower in tiles draining fields with cover crops compared to those without. Annual watershed nutrient export also decreased, and reductions in N and P loss ( 30-40%) exceeded what we expected based on only a 6-10% reduction in runoff due to increased watershed water holding capacity. We are also exploring the processes responsible for increased nutrient retention, where they are occurring (terrestrial vs. aquatic) and when (baseflow vs. storms). For example, whole-stream metabolism also responded to cover crop planting, showing reduced variation in primary production and respiration in years after watershed-scale planting of cover crops. In summary, widespread land cover change, through cover crop planting, can

  18. Land-Cover Change in the Central Irregular Plains, 1973-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, Krista A.

    2009-01-01

    Spearheaded by the Geographic Analysis and Monitoring Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Land Cover Trends is a research project focused on understanding the rates, trends, causes, and consequences of contemporary United States land-use and land-cover change. Using the EPA Level III ecoregions as the geographic framework, scientists process geospatial data collected between 1973 and 2000 to characterize ecosystem responses to land-use changes. The 27-year study period was divided into five temporal periods: 1973-1980, 1980-1986, 1986-1992, 1992-2000 and 1973-2000. General land-cover classes for these periods were interpreted from Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery to categorize land-cover change and evaluate using a modified Anderson Land Use Land Cover Classification System for image interpretation. The rates of land-cover change are estimated using a stratified, random sampling of 10-kilometer (km) by 10-km blocks allocated within each ecoregion. For each sample block, satellite images are used to interpret land-cover change. Additionally, historical aerial photographs from similar timeframes and other ancillary data such as census statistics and published literature are used. The sample block data are then incorporated into statistical analyses to generate an overall change matrix for the ecoregion. These change statistics are applicable for different levels of scale, including total change for the individual sample blocks and change estimates for the entire ecoregion. The results illustrate that there is no single profile of land-cover change but instead point to geographic variability that results from land uses within ecoregions continuously adapting to various factors including environmental, technological, and socioeconomic.

  19. Local- and landscape-scale land cover affects microclimate and water use in urban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Brenda B; Egerer, Monika H; Liere, Heidi; Jha, Shalene; Bichier, Peter; Philpott, Stacy M

    2017-08-16

    Urban gardens in Central California are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, experiencing both extended high heat periods as well as water restrictions because of severe drought conditions. This puts these critical community-based food production systems at risk as California is expected to experience increasing weather extremes. In agricultural systems, increased vegetation complexity, such as greater structure or biodiversity, can increase the resilience of food production systems from climate fluctuations. We test this theory in 15 urban gardens across California's Central Coast. Local- and landscape-scale measures of ground, vegetation, and land cover were collected in and around each garden, while climate loggers recorded temperatures in each garden in 30min increments. Multivariate analyses, using county as a random factor, show that both local- and landscape-scale factors were important. All factors were significant predictors of mean temperature. Tallest vegetation, tree/shrub species richness, grass cover, mulch cover, and landscape level agricultural cover were cooling factors; in contrast, garden size, garden age, rock cover, herbaceous species richness, and landscape level urban cover were warming factors. Results were similar for the maximum temperature analysis except that agriculture land cover and herbaceous species richness were not significant predictors of maximum temperature. Analysis of gardener watering behavior to observed temperatures shows that garden microclimate was significantly related to the number of minutes watered as well as the number of liters of water used per watering event. Thus gardeners seem to respond to garden microclimate in their watering behavior even though this behavior is most probably motivated by a range of other factors such as water regulations and time availability. This research shows that local management of ground cover and vegetation can reduce mean and maximum temperatures in gardens, and the

  20. Interannual changes in snow cover and its impact on ground surface temperatures in Livingston Island (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Ramos, Miguel; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2015-04-01

    , which prevents cooling. Reina Sofia shows a very different behavior from the other sites, with a frequent stabilization of ground temperatures during all the winters, and last until late-fall. This situation could be related to the structure, and physical and thermal properties of snow cover. The analysis of the Freezing Degree Days (FDDs) and freezing n-factor reveals significant interannual variations. Ohridski shows the highest FDDs values followed by Reina Sofia. Nuevo Incinerador showed the lowest FDDs values. The freezing n-factor shows highest values at Ohridski, followed by Collado Ramos and Reina Sofia with very similar values. Nuevo Incinerador shows the lowest n-factor values. Snow cover doesn't insulate the ground from freezing, but depending on its thickness, density and the amount of heat in the ground, it decreases ground temperatures amplitudes and increases delays relative to air temperature changes. Even where snow cover remains several centimeters thick for several months, slow decrease of bottom temperature is possible, reaching a minimum value at the end of the winter. The results demonstrate that Reina Sofia and Ohridski sites, because of the seasonal behavior, FDDs and freezing n-factor, demonstrate higher winter ground cooling. This research was funded by PERMANTAR-3 (PTDC/AAG-GLO/3908/2012) project (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia of Portugal)

  1. Land cover changes and greenhouse gas emissions in two different soil covers in the Brazilian Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Kelly; Sousa-Neto, Eráclito Rodrigues de; Carvalho, João Andrade de; Sousa Lima, José Romualdo de; Menezes, Rômulo Simões Cezar; Duarte-Neto, Paulo José; da Silva Guerra, Glauce; Ometto, Jean Pierre Henry Baulbaud

    2016-11-15

    The Caatinga biome covers an area of 844,453km(2) and has enormous endemic biodiversity, with unique characteristics that make it an exclusive Brazilian biome. It falls within the earth's tropical zone and is one of the several important ecoregions of Brazil. This biome undergoes natural lengthy periods of drought that cause losses in crop and livestock productivity, having a severe impact on the population. Due to the vulnerability of this ecosystem to climate change, livestock has emerged as the main livelihood of the rural population, being the precursor of the replacement of native vegetation by grazing areas. This study aimed to measure GHG emissions from two different soil covers: native forest (Caatinga) and pasture in the municipality of São João, Pernambuco State, in the years 2013 and 2014. GHG measurements were taken by using static chamber techniques in both soil covers. According to a previous search, so far, this is the first study measuring GHG emissions using the static chamber in the Caatinga biome. N2O emissions ranged from -1.0 to 4.2mgm(-2)d(-1) and -1.22 to 3.4mgm(-2)d(-1) in the pasture and Caatinga, respectively, and they did not significantly differ from each other. Emissions were significantly higher during dry seasons. Carbon dioxide ranged from -1.1 to 14.1 and 1.2 to 15.8gm(-2)d(-1) in the pasture and Caatinga, respectively. CO2 emissions were higher in the Caatinga in 2013, and they were significantly influenced by soil temperature, showing an inverse relation. Methane emission ranged from 6.6 to 6.8 and -6.0 to 4.8mgm(-2)d(-1) in the pasture and Caatinga, respectively, and was significantly higher only in the Caatinga in the rainy season of 2014. Soil gas fluxes seemed to be influenced by climatic and edaphic conditions as well as by soil cover in the Caatinga biome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ragan

    2002-08-09

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent

  3. Roe deer tracking activity on the snow cover in steppe forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Mikheyev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of field research data the characteristics of the roe deer tracking activity in steppe forests of a southeast of Ukraine under the snow cover conditions were presented. The pattern of biogeocenotic and spatial distribution of signs were established. The estimation of qualitative and quantitative parameters of an information field (set of signs of this species was carried out. Its formation at this season was determined by a range of factors which included snow cover physical characteristics and its age, periodicity of snow deposition, habitat structure and human presence.

  4. Mosaics of Change: Cross-Scale Forest Cover Dynamics and Drivers in Tibetan Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hoek, Jamon

    In reaction to devastating floods on the Yangtze River in the summer of 1998, the Chinese Central Government introduced a logging ban as part of the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP) with the goal of dramatically increasing national forest cover. Since then, over 11 billion USD has been allocated to the program, but the NFPP's success at promoting reforestation is unclear as neither the extent of forest cover change, nor the potential factors influencing the spatial variability of change have been examined. This research employs a case study in northwest Yunnan Province, southwest China, to evaluate the spatial variability of forest cover change under the NFPP and investigate drivers that have influenced recent patterns of change. I employ a mixed methods, cross-scale research framework that includes the analysis of areal trajectories and spatial variability of Landsat-5 imagery-derived forest cover change at three administrative levels before and after the NFPP's introduction; landscape ecology-based metrics to measure the shifting patterns of forest cover change at the patch level; and household interview data on village-level forest resource use patterns and processes in three neighboring villages. Prefecture- and county-level analyses suggest rather stable forest cover across the three-county study area since the introduction of the ban, though township-level measures of forest cover change show a degree of spatial variability as well as a temporal delay in policy implementation effectiveness. Village-level remote sensing analysis shows comparable amounts of forest cover change between study villages but disparate forest resource use patterns in terms of location and amount. Though all research villages continue to exploit local forests for firewood and timber relatively unfettered by policy restrictions, villagers with tourism-derived income are able to buy forest products collected in outside forests much more often; this redistributes local

  5. Analisis Degradasi Hutan Angkola Dengan Fungsi Ekologi Melalui Interpretasi Land Cover Provinsi Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Hasbollah, M. Hasby

    2012-01-01

    Research Analysis of Degradation Angkola with Ecological Function Through interpretation of Land Cover of North Sumatra has been conducted in March to July in 2011 in South Tapanuli and Mandailing Natal district. Interpretation of the results of this study found indications of changes in land cover area Angkola ecosystem. Since 1994-2009 there has been degradation, especially in areas of degraded dry lands forest reach 8480.35 ha (6.58%) and primary swamp forest ha 7943.92 (6.16%), and the de...

  6. Oxygen influx and geochemistry of percolate water from reactive mine waste rock underlying a sloping channelled soil cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Qing, E-mail: qsong3@uwo.ca [Geotechnical Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, N6A 5B9 (Canada); Yanful, Ernest K., E-mail: eyanful@eng.uwo.ca [Geotechnical Research Center, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    Research Highlights: > A channelled cover with preferential flow can still mitigate ARD to some extent. > Oxygen ingress was more sensitive to the location of the channel than to K{sub s}. > The channel in the barrier layer was a major passage for O{sub 2} ingress. > Actual flushing was an important factor when estimating O{sub 2} decay coefficient. - Abstract: An ideal engineered soil cover can mitigate acid rock drainage (ARD) by limiting water and gaseous O{sub 2} ingress into an underlying waste rock pile. However, the barrier layer in the soil cover almost invariably tends to develop cracks or fractures after placement. These cracks may change water flow and O{sub 2} transport in the soil cover and decrease performance in the long run. The present study employed a 10-cm-wide sand-filled channel installed in a soil barrier layer (silty clay) to model the aggregate of cracks or fractures that may be present in the cover. The soil cover had a slope of 20%. Oxygen transport through the soil cover and oxidation of the underlying waste rock were investigated and compared to a controlled column test with bare waste rock (without soil cover). Moreover, gaseous O{sub 2} transport in the soil cover with channel and its sensitivity to channel location as well as the influence of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the channel material were modeled using the commercial software VADOSE/W. The results indicted that the waste rock underlying the soil cover with channel had a lower oxidation rate than the waste rock without cover because of reduced O{sub 2} ingress and water flushing in the soil cover with channel, which meant a partial soil cover might still be effective to some extent in reducing ARD generation. Gaseous O{sub 2} ingress into the covered waste rock was more sensitive to the channel location than to the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the material filling the channel. Aqueous equilibrium speciation modeling and scanning electron microscopy with energy

  7. Estimation of fractional snow cover based on FengYun2E/VISSR over the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L.; Yang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Fractional snow cover (FSC) is an important snow parameter in global climate change research and hydrological applications. Most of current fractional snow cover products are mainly determined from polar-orbit satellites sensors, such as Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). However, snow cover extent and fractional snow cover derived from polar-orbit satellites sensors show serious cloud obscuration daily, which can't satisfy the meteorological and hydrological applications. Taking advantage of high temporal resolution, geostationary satellites show potential to retrieve fractional snow cover with lower cloud obscuration in daily scale. In this paper, we propose a technique to estimate fractional snow cover over the Tibetan Plateau by Chinese geostationary satellite Fengyun-2E (FY2E) in two winters of 2011 and 2012. Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI), Ratio Snow Index (RSI) and Difference Snow Index (DSI) based on 0.6μm and 3.9μm channel of Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer (VISSR) onboard FY2E are used to estimate the fractional snow cover. Landsat ETM+ data is treated as true value of fractional snow cover to develop the models based on VISSR snow indexes. When validated by ETM+ fractional snow cover, the model based on VISSR DSI with exponential curve fitting show the best performance in estimating fractional snow cover, with R-square of 0.62 and RMSE of 0.17. There are much more temporal data can be used to estimate the fractional snow cover based on FY2E VISSR in one day, which show lower cloud obscuration compared with MODIS fractional snow cover products.

  8. Effects of Forest Cover Change on Flood Characteristics in the Upper Citarum Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dwi Dasanto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on the effect of forest cover changes on streamflow (river discharge in large-scale catchment is important to be studied. The rate of forest cover change in the Upper Citarum Watershed as a large-scale catchment is high enough to drive streamflow change, such as increase of discharge level, or flood volume. Within the research area, flood would occur when the volume of streamflow exceeded the canal capacity and inundated areas that were normally dry. Therefore, this research focused on identifying the effects of forest cover change on flood events and its distribution. The research consisted of 2 main stages; firstly, building geometric data of river and performing frequency analysis of historical and scenario discharges using an approach of probability distribution; and, secondly, flood inundation mapping using HEC-RAS model. The results showed that forest reduction have affected water yield in the downstream of Upper Citarum Watershed. In each return period, this reduction have increased river discharge level and affected the spread of flooded areas. In 2-year return period, the extent of flood as an impact of forest reduction was estimated to decrease slowly. However, in the return period of more than 2 years, the spread of flooded areas increased sharply. These proved that forest cover reduction would always increase the discharge value, but it did not always expand the inundated area.

  9. Babes and boobs? Analysis of JAMA cover art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jocalyn P

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine the representation of the sexes in JAMA cover art. Design Review of 50 consecutive issues. Setting JAMA, March 1997-March 1998. Main outcome measures Numbers and nature of covers portraying men and women. Results Of the 50 covers, 34 depicted humans. 15 depicted women, 13 men, and 6 were of mixed or indeterminate sex. 11 pictures of women included a child and five included nudity. One cover showed a man with a child (not as a father) and none depicted nudity. Men were depicted exclusively in authoritative roles. Conclusions Much of the cover art gives strong messages about sexual stereotypes that are inappropriate in modern society. JAMA should consider reviewing its policy for choosing cover art. PMID:10600956

  10. Land cover diversity increases predator aggregation and consumption of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Hannah J; Athey, Kacie J; Lee, Brian D

    2017-05-01

    A lower diversity of land cover types is purported to decrease arthropod diversity in agroecosystems and is dependent on patterns of land use and fragmentation. Ants, important providers of ecosystem services such as biological control, are susceptible to landscape-level changes. We determined the relationships between land cover diversity and fragmentation on the within-field spatial associations of ants to pests and resulting predation events by combining mapping and molecular tools. Increased land cover diversity and decreased fragmentation increased ant abundance, spatial association to pests and predation. Land cover diversity and fragmentation were more explanatory than land cover types. Even so, specific land cover types, such as deciduous forest, influenced ant and pest diversity more so than abundance. These results indicate that geospatial techniques and molecular gut content analysis can be combined to determine the role of land use in influencing predator-prey interactions and resulting predation events in agroecosystems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  11. Cover crops in cereals – better companions than weeds?

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Jukka; Zarina, Livija; Melander, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cover crops have gained popularity in cereal cropping now that they are one of the subsidized options in agri-environmental schemes of the EU. Several studies on cover/catch crops affecting nutrient leaching have been published but less information is available concerning their applicability for weed management. In our opinion, combinations of crop and cover crop types as well as crop sequencing conform IPM principles and optimize weed management. The PRODIVA project (ERA-Net Core Organic Plu...

  12. Towards an Integrated Global Land Cover Monitoring and Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Herold

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Global land cover mapping has evolved in a number of ways over the past two decades including increased activity in the areas of map validation and inter-comparison, which is the main focus of this Special Issue in Remote Sensing. Here we describe the major trends in global land cover mapping that have occurred, followed by recent advances as exemplified by the papers in the Special Issue. Finally, we consider what the future holds for global land cover mapping.

  13. The potential of cover crops for improving soil function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoate, Chris; Crotty, Felicity

    2017-04-01

    Cover crops can be grown over the autumn and winter ensuring green cover throughout the year. They have been described as improving soil structure, reducing soil erosion and potentially even a form of grass weed control. These crops retain nutrients within the plant, potentially making them available for future crops, as well as increasing soil organic matter. Over the last three years, we have investigated how different cover crop regimes affect soil quality. Three separate experiments over each autumn/winter period have investigated how different cover crops affect soil biology, physics and chemistry, with each experiment building on the previous one. There have been significant effects of cover crops on soil structure, as well as significantly lower weed biomass and increased yields in the following crop - in comparison to bare stubble. For example, the effect of drilling the cover crops on soil structure in comparison to a bare stubble control that had not been driven on by machinery was quantified, and over the winter period the soil structure of the cover crop treatments changed, with compaction reduced in the cover crop treatments, whilst the bare stubble control remained unchanged. Weeds were found in significantly lower biomass in the cover crop mixes in comparison to the bare stubble control, and significantly lower weed biomass continued to be found in the following spring oat crop where the cover crops had been, indicating a weed suppressive effect that has a continued legacy in the following crop. The following spring oats have shown similar results in the last two years, with higher yields in the previous cover crop areas compared to the bare stubble controls. Overall, these results are indicating that cover crops have the potential to provide improvements to soil quality, reduce weeds and improve yields. We discuss the economic implications.

  14. Tree and impervious cover change in U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    Paired aerial photographs were interpreted to assess recent changes in tree, impervious and other cover types in 20 U.S. cities as well as urban land within the conterminous United States. National results indicate that tree cover in urban areas of the United States is on the decline at a rate of about 7900 ha/yr or 4.0 million trees per year. Tree cover in 17 of the...

  15. Lower Bound for Convex Hull Area and Universal Cover Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Khandhawit, Tirasan; Sriswasdi, Sira

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a lower bound for an area of the convex hull of points and a rectangle in a plane. We then apply this estimate to establish a lower bound for a universal cover problem. We showed that a convex universal cover for a unit length curve has area at least 0.232239. In addition, we show that a convex universal cover for a unit closed curve has area at least 0.0879873.

  16. Quantitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Roger

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the basic tenets of quantitative research. The concepts of dependent and independent variables are addressed and the concept of measurement and its associated issues, such as error, reliability and validity, are explored. Experiments and surveys – the principal research designs in quantitative research – are described and key features explained. The importance of the double-blind randomised controlled trial is emphasised, alongside the importance of longitudinal surveys, as opposed to cross-sectional surveys. Essential features of data storage are covered, with an emphasis on safe, anonymous storage. Finally, the article explores the analysis of quantitative data, considering what may be analysed and the main uses of statistics in analysis.

  17. Experimental study and simulations of infiltration in evapotranspiration landfill covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-xian ZHANG; Zhan-yu ZHANG; Kang WANG

    2009-01-01

    Various cover systems have been designed for landfill sites in order to minimize infiltration (percolation) into the underlying waste.This study evaluated the soil water balance performance of evapotranspiration covers (ET covers) and simulated percolation in the systems using the active region model (ARM).Experiments were conducted to measure water flow processes and water balance components in a bare soil cover and different ET covers.Results showed that vegetation played a critical role in controlling the water balance of the ET covers.In soil profiles of 60-cm depth with and without vegetation cover,the maximum soil water storage capacities were 97.2 mm and 62.8 mm,respectively.The percolation amount in the bare soil was 2.1 times that in the vegetation-covered soil.The ARM simulated percolation more accurately than the continuum model because it considered preferential flow.Numerical simulation results also indicated that using the ET cover system was an effective way of removing water through evapotranspiration,thus reducing percolation.

  18. Experimental study and simulations of infiltration in evapotranspiration landfill covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xian ZHANG

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Various cover systems have been designed for landfill sites in order to minimize infiltration (percolation into the underlying waste. This study evaluated the soil water balance performance of evapotranspiration covers (ET covers and simulated percolation in the systems using the active region model (ARM. Experiments were conducted to measure water flow processes and water balance components in a bare soil cover and different ET covers. Results showed that vegetation played a critical role in controlling the water balance of the ET covers. In soil profiles of 60-cm depth with and without vegetation cover, the maximum soil water storage capacities were 97.2 mm and 62.8 mm, respectively. The percolation amount in the bare soil was 2.1 times that in the vegetation-covered soil. The ARM simulated percolation more accurately than the continuum model because it considered preferential flow. Numerical simulation results also indicated that using the ET cover system was an effective way of removing water through evapotranspiration, thus reducing percolation.

  19. Numerical simulation of mechanical breakup of river ice-cover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; HE Liang; CHEN Pang-pang; SUI Jueyi

    2013-01-01

    Ice jams and ice dams in rivers will cause significant rises of water levels.Under extreme conditions,the ice flooding during winter or early spring may occur.In this paper,by considering the fluid-solid coupling effect caused by the water and the ice cover,the mechanisms of the mechanical breakup of the river ice cover are studied.A formula is obtained for determining whether or not the mechanical breakup process would happen under the hydraulic pressure of the flow.Combined with the hydraulic model under the ice covered flow,a numerical model is built and the interaction between the discharge,the hydraulic pressure under the ice cover and the date for the mechanical breakup of the river ice cover is simulated.The simulated results of the dates for the mechanical breakup of the river ice cover agree very well with the field observations of the breakups of the river ice cover in the Hequ Reach of the Yellow River.Therefore,the numerical model might serve as a good preliminary step in studying the breakup of the river ice-cover,evidencing many important parameters that affect the ice-cover process.

  20. Analysis of BY-106 pump pit cover plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1994-11-14

    A new cover for the pump pit of Tank 241-BY-106 has been designed to allow the rotary core exhauster to be hooked up without requiring pit entry, riser modification, or equipment removal. The new pit cover is necessary to allow installation of two risers for reducing exposure, contamination, and waste. Computer analysis indicates that the safety margin of the pit cover plate with two risers is adequate. The computer stress model and input files are attached. The pit cover plate is a replacement for an existing plate; therefore seismic and wind loads were considered for the plate only.

  1. Thermal performance of honeywell double covered liquid solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losey, R.

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures and results obtained during an evaluation test program to determine the outdoor performance characteristics of the Honeywell liquid solar collector are presented. The program was based on the thermal evaluation of a Honeywell double covered liquid solar collection. Initial plans included the simultaneous testing of a single covered Honeywell collector. During the initial testing, the single covered collector failed due to leakage; thus, testing continued on the double covered collector only. To better define the operating characteristics of the collector, several additional data points were obtained beyond those requested.

  2. Two ultraviolet radiation datasets that cover China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Hu, Bo; Wang, Yuesi; Liu, Guangren; Tang, Liqin; Ji, Dongsheng; Bai, Yongfei; Bao, Weikai; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yunming; Ding, Weixin; Han, Xiaozeng; He, Fei; Huang, Hui; Huang, Zhenying; Li, Xinrong; Li, Yan; Liu, Wenzhao; Lin, Luxiang; Ouyang, Zhu; Qin, Boqiang; Shen, Weijun; Shen, Yanjun; Su, Hongxin; Song, Changchun; Sun, Bo; Sun, Song; Wang, Anzhi; Wang, Genxu; Wang, Huimin; Wang, Silong; Wang, Youshao; Wei, Wenxue; Xie, Ping; Xie, Zongqiang; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Zeng, Fanjiang; Zhang, Fawei; Zhang, Yangjian; Zhang, Yiping; Zhao, Chengyi; Zhao, Wenzhi; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhu, Bo

    2017-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has significant effects on ecosystems, environments, and human health, as well as atmospheric processes and climate change. Two ultraviolet radiation datasets are described in this paper. One contains hourly observations of UV radiation measured at 40 Chinese Ecosystem Research Network stations from 2005 to 2015. CUV3 broadband radiometers were used to observe the UV radiation, with an accuracy of 5%, which meets the World Meteorology Organization's measurement standards. The extremum method was used to control the quality of the measured datasets. The other dataset contains daily cumulative UV radiation estimates that were calculated using an all-sky estimation model combined with a hybrid model. The reconstructed daily UV radiation data span from 1961 to 2014. The mean absolute bias error and root-mean-square error are smaller than 30% at most stations, and most of the mean bias error values are negative, which indicates underestimation of the UV radiation intensity. These datasets can improve our basic knowledge of the spatial and temporal variations in UV radiation. Additionally, these datasets can be used in studies of potential ozone formation and atmospheric oxidation, as well as simulations of ecological processes.

  3. Simulation of the influence of historical land cover changes on the global climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). College of Civil Aviation; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Regional Climate-Environment for East Asia; Yan, X. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Regional Climate-Environment for East Asia; Beijing Normal Univ. (China). State Key Lab. of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology (ESPRE); Wang, Z. [British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-01

    In order to estimate biogeophysical effects of historical land cover change on climate during last three centuries, a set of experiments with a climate system model of intermediate complexity (MPM-2) is performed. In response to historical deforestation, the model simulates a decrease in annual mean global temperature in the range of 0.07-0.14 C based on different grassland albedos. The effect of land cover changes is most pronounced in the middle northern latitudes with maximum cooling reaching approximately 0.6 C during northern summer. The cooling reaches 0.57 C during northern spring owing to the large effects of land surface albedo. These results suggest that land cover forcing is important for study on historical climate change and that more research is necessary in the assessment of land management options for climate change mitigation. (orig.)

  4. Citizen science land cover classification based on ground and satellite imagery: Case study Day River in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Son Tung; Minkman, Ellen; Rutten, Martine

    2016-04-01

    Citizen science is being increasingly used in the context of environmental research, thus there are needs to evaluate cognitive ability of humans in classifying environmental features. With the focus on land cover, this study explores the extent to which citizen science can be applied in sensing and measuring the environment that contribute to the creation and validation of land cover data. The Day Basin in Vietnam was selected to be the study area. Different methods to examine humans' ability to classify land cover were implemented using different information sources: ground based photos - satellite images - field observation and investigation. Most of the participants were solicited from local people and/or volunteers. Results show that across methods and sources of information, there are similar patterns of agreement and disagreement on land cover classes among participants. Understanding these patterns is critical to create a solid basis for implementing human sensors in earth observation. Keywords: Land cover, classification, citizen science, Landsat 8

  5. Researcher / Researched: Repositioning Research Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwald, Agnes May Lin

    2013-01-01

    "Researcher / Researched" calls for a complementary research methodology by proposing autoethnography as both a method and text that crosses the boundaries of conventional and alternative methodologies in higher education. Autoethnography rearticulates the researcher / researched positions by blurring the boundary between them. This…

  6. Use of Sentinels to aid the global monitoring of snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliainen, Jouni; Salminen, Miia; Luojus, Kari; Metsämäki, Sari; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Takala, Matias; Cohen, Juval; Böttcher, Kristine

    2014-05-01

    Earth observation instruments onboard Sentinel satellites provide a unique opportunity for the monitoring and investigation of global snow processes. The issue of the possible decay of seasonal snow cover is highly relevant for climate research. In addition to water cycle, the extent and amount of snow affects to surface albedo, and indirectly to carbon cycling. The latter issue includes snow-induced changes in permafrost regions (active layer characteristics), as well as the effect of snow (melt) to vegetation growth and soil respiration. Recent advances in ESA DUE GlobSnow project have shown that by combining data from optical satellite sensors and passive microwave instruments advanced Climate Data Records (CDR) on seasonal snow cover can be produced, extending to time periods of over 30 years. The combined snow cover products provide information both on Snow Extent (SE) and Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) on a daily basis. The applicable instruments providing historical data for CDR generation include such microwave radiometers as SMMR, AMSR and SSMI/I, and such optical sensors as AVHRR, AATSR and VIIRS. Sentinel 3, especially its SLSTR instrument, is a prominent tool for expanding the snow CDR for forthcoming years. The developed global snow cover monitoring methodology, demonstrated and discussed here, derives the SWE information from passive microwave data (accompanied with in situ observations of snow depth at synoptic weather stations). The snow extent and fractional snow cover (FSC) on ground is derived from optical satellite data, in order to accurately map the continental line of seasonal snow cover, and to map regions of ephemeral snow cover. An advanced feature in the developed methodology is the provision of uncertainty information on snow cover characteristics associated with each individual satellite data footprint on ground and moment of time. In addition to assisting the generation and extension of the global snow cover CDR, Sentinel missions provide

  7. SPECIAL ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONAL STORMWATER RUNOFF COVERS OVER SLIT TRENCHES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L; Luther Hamm, L

    2008-12-18

    Solid Waste Management (SWM) commissioned this Special Analysis (SA) to determine the effects of placing operational stormwater runoff covers (referred to as covers in the remainder of this document) over slit trench (ST) disposal units ST1 through ST7 (the center set of slit trenches). Previously the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entered into an agreement with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to place covers over Slit Trenches 1 and 2 to be able to continue disposing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) solid waste (see USDOE 2008). Because the covers changed the operating conditions, DOE Order 435.1 (DOE 1999) required that an SA be performed to assess the impact. This Special Analysis has been prepared to determine the effects of placing covers over slit trenches at about years 5, 10 and 15 of the 30-year operational period. Because some slit trenches have already been operational for about 15 years, results from analyzing covers at 5 years and 10 years provide trend analysis information only. This SA also examined alternatives of covering Slit Trenches 1 and 2 with one cover and Slit Trenches 3 and 4 with a second cover versus covering them all with a single cover. Based on modeling results, minimal differences exist between covering Slit Trench groups 1-2 and 3-4 with two covers or one large cover. This SA demonstrates that placement of covers over slit trenches will slow the subsequent release and transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone in the early time periods (from time of placement until about 100 years). Release and transport of some radionuclides in the vadose zone beyond 100 years were somewhat higher than for the case without covers. The sums-of-fractions (SOFs) were examined for the current waste inventory in ST1 and ST2 and for estimated inventories at closure for ST3 through ST7. In all

  8. Deforestation and benthic indicators: how much vegetation cover is needed to sustain healthy Andean streams?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Iñiguez-Armijos

    Full Text Available Deforestation in the tropical Andes is affecting ecological conditions of streams, and determination of how much forest should be retained is a pressing task for conservation, restoration and management strategies. We calculated and analyzed eight benthic metrics (structural, compositional and water quality indices and a physical-chemical composite index with gradients of vegetation cover to assess the effects of deforestation on macroinvertebrate communities and water quality of 23 streams in southern Ecuadorian Andes. Using a geographical information system (GIS, we quantified vegetation cover at three spatial scales: the entire catchment, the riparian buffer of 30 m width extending the entire stream length, and the local scale defined for a stream reach of 100 m in length and similar buffer width. Macroinvertebrate and water quality metrics had the strongest relationships with vegetation cover at catchment and riparian scales, while vegetation cover did not show any association with the macroinvertebrate metrics at local scale. At catchment scale, the water quality metrics indicate that ecological condition of Andean streams is good when vegetation cover is over 70%. Further, macroinvertebrate community assemblages were more diverse and related in catchments largely covered by native vegetation (>70%. Our results suggest that retaining an important quantity of native vegetation cover within the catchments and a linkage between headwater and riparian forests help to maintain and improve stream biodiversity and water quality in Andean streams affected by deforestation. This research proposes that a strong regulation focused to the management of riparian buffers can be successful when decision making is addressed to conservation/restoration of Andean catchments.

  9. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosytstems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Breckenridge

    2005-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

  10. The analysis accuracy assessment of CORINE land cover in the Iberian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grullón, Yraida R.; Alhaddad, Bahaaeddin; Cladera, Josep R.

    2009-09-01

    Corine land cover 2000 (CLC2000) is a project jointly managed by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the European Environment Agency (EEA). Its aim is to update the Corine land cover database in Europe for the year 2000. Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) satellite images were used for the update and were acquired within the framework of the Image2000 project. Knowledge of the land status through the use of mapping CORINE Land Cover is of great importance to study of interaction land cover and land use categories in Europe scale. This paper presents the accuracy assessment methodology designed and implemented to validate the Iberian Coast CORINE Land Cover 2000 cartography. It presents an implementation of a new methodological concept for land cover data production, Object- Based classification, and automatic generalization to assess the thematic accuracy of CLC2000 by means of an independent data source based on the comparison of the land cover database with reference data derived from visual interpretation of high resolution satellite imageries for sample areas. In our case study, the existing Object-Based classifications are supported with digital maps and attribute databases. According to the quality tests performed, we computed the overall accuracy, and Kappa Coefficient. We will focus on the development of a methodology based on classification and generalization analysis for built-up areas that may improve the investigation. This study can be divided in these fundamental steps: -Extract artificial areas from land use Classifications based on Land-sat and Spot images. -Manuel interpretation for high resolution of multispectral images. -Determine the homogeneity of artificial areas by generalization process. -Overall accuracy, Kappa Coefficient and Special grid (fishnet) test for quality test. Finally, this paper will concentrate to illustrate the precise accuracy of CORINE dataset based on the above general steps.

  11. Deforestation and benthic indicators: how much vegetation cover is needed to sustain healthy Andean streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos; Leiva, Adrián; Frede, Hans-Georg; Hampel, Henrietta; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Deforestation in the tropical Andes is affecting ecological conditions of streams, and determination of how much forest should be retained is a pressing task for conservation, restoration and management strategies. We calculated and analyzed eight benthic metrics (structural, compositional and water quality indices) and a physical-chemical composite index with gradients of vegetation cover to assess the effects of deforestation on macroinvertebrate communities and water quality of 23 streams in southern Ecuadorian Andes. Using a geographical information system (GIS), we quantified vegetation cover at three spatial scales: the entire catchment, the riparian buffer of 30 m width extending the entire stream length, and the local scale defined for a stream reach of 100 m in length and similar buffer width. Macroinvertebrate and water quality metrics had the strongest relationships with vegetation cover at catchment and riparian scales, while vegetation cover did not show any association with the macroinvertebrate metrics at local scale. At catchment scale, the water quality metrics indicate that ecological condition of Andean streams is good when vegetation cover is over 70%. Further, macroinvertebrate community assemblages were more diverse and related in catchments largely covered by native vegetation (>70%). Our results suggest that retaining an important quantity of native vegetation cover within the catchments and a linkage between headwater and riparian forests help to maintain and improve stream biodiversity and water quality in Andean streams affected by deforestation. This research proposes that a strong regulation focused to the management of riparian buffers can be successful when decision making is addressed to conservation/restoration of Andean catchments.

  12. Modeling the effect of reflective calf hutch covers on reducing heat loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binion, W. R.; Friend, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    This study determined if a reflective film could theoretically be useful in moderating the rate of heat loss from calves housed in polyethylene hutches during cold weather. An engineering approach was used in which rate of heat loss was modeled using 38-l steel drums filled with body temperature water and covered by fresh calf hide. The reflective film (cover) consisted of aluminized 0.0635 mm low-density olive color polyethylene. The non-reflective olive side was sprayed with flat black paint. Covers were 1.8 × 3 m with the aluminized side facing the hutch. Two of four hutches were either uncovered or had covers across the top and sides. During the night, (mean temperature ± SE -13.6 ± 0.29 °C), the rate of temperature loss was -0.21 °C per 5-min interval over 28 temperature readings in the covered and -0.25 °C in the uncovered ( R 2 = 0.99). During the daytime (mean ± SE 14.3 ± 0.52 °C), rate of heat loss was -0.15 °C per 5-min interval over 33 temperature readings in the covered and -0.11 °C in the uncovered ( R 2 = 0.99). Reflective film reduced the rate of heat loss during cold nights, but when the sun was shining on the hutches during midday, the uncovered hutches warmed up more and, hence, reduced the rate of heat loss when compared to the covered. Further research is needed on the orientation of hutches in relationship to the sun and with live calves because calves would be able to move into the sun during cold sunny days.

  13. Woody Plant Cover Dynamics in Sahelian Drylands from Earth Observation Based Seasonal Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, M.; Hiernaux, P.; Fensholt, R.; Tagesson, T.; Rasmussen, K.; Mbow, C.

    2015-12-01

    Woody plants play an important role in drylands primary productivity and peoples' livelihood, however, due to their scattered appearance, quantifying and monitoring their abundance over a large area is challenging. From in situ measured woody cover we develop a phenology driven model to estimate the canopy cover of woody species in the Sahelian drylands. Annual maps are applied to monitor dynamics of woody populations in relation to climate and anthropogenic interference. The model estimates the total canopy cover of all woody phanerophytes and the concept is based on the significant difference in phenophases of dryland trees, shrubs and bushes as compared to that of the herbaceous plants. Whereas annual herbaceous are only green during the rainy season and senescence occurs shortly after flowering towards the last rains, most woody plants remain photosynthetically active over large parts of the year. We use Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and SPOT VEGETATION (VGT) seasonal metrics representing the dry season to reproduce in situ woody cover at 77 field sites (178 observations in 3x3 km plots between 2000 and 2014) in Niger, Mali and Senegal. The extrapolation to Sahel scale shows agreement between VGT and MODIS at an almost nine times higher woody cover than in the global tree cover product MOD44B which only captures trees of a certain minimum size. Trends over 15 years show that the pattern is closely related to population density and land cover/use. A negative woody cover change can be observed in densely populated areas, but a positive change is seen in sparsely populated regions. Whereas woody cover in cropland is generally stable, it is strongly positive in savannas and woodland. Discrepancies between the countries are huge and also deforestation can be observed at a more local scale. The method is applicable and derived woody cover maps of the Sahel are freely available. They represent an improvement of existing products and a

  14. Ecosystem services from converted land: the importance of tree cover in Amazonian pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kirsten; Valentim, Judson; Turner, B. L.

    2013-01-01

    area-weighted fractional tree cover for the study area was 1.85 %, corrected for a slight bias associated with the coarser sampling resolution. The pastures sampled for fractional tree cover were divided between ‘high’ and ‘low’ tree cover, which may be the result of intentional incorporation of arboreal species in pasture. Further research involving those ranchers that have a higher fractional tree cover may indicate ways to promote the practice on a broader scale in the region.

  15. United states national land cover data base development? 1992-2001 and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.

    2008-01-01

    An accurate, up-to-date and spatially-explicate national land cover database is required for monitoring the status and trends of the nation's terrestrial ecosystem, and for managing and conserving land resources at the national scale. With all the challenges and resources required to develop such a database, an innovative and scientifically sound planning must be in place and a partnership be formed among users from government agencies, research institutes and private sectors. In this paper, we summarize major scientific and technical issues regarding the development of the NLCD 1992 and 2001. Experiences and lessons learned from the project are documented with regard to project design, technical approaches, accuracy assessment strategy, and projecti imiplementation.Future improvements in developing next generation NLCD beyond 2001 are suggested, including: 1) enhanced satellite data preprocessing in correction of atmospheric and adjacency effect and the topographic normalization; 2) improved classification accuracy through comprehensive and consistent training data and new algorithm development; 3) multi-resolution and multi-temporal database targeting major land cover changes and land cover database updates; 4) enriched database contents by including additional biophysical parameters and/or more detailed land cover classes through synergizing multi-sensor, multi-temporal, and multi-spectral satellite data and ancillary data, and 5) transform the NLCD project into a national land cover monitoring program. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  16. The international geosphere biosphere programme data and information system global land cover data set (DIScover)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, T.R.; Belward, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The International Geosphere Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS), through the mapping expertise of the U.S. Geological Survey and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, recently guided the completion of a 1-km resolution global land cover data set from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data. The 1-km resolution land cover product, 'DISCover,' was based on monthly normalized difference vegetation index composites from 1992 and 1993. The development of DISCover was coordinated by the IGBP-DIS Land Cover Working Group as part of the IGBP-DIS Focus 1 activity. DISCover is a 17-class land cover data set based on the scientific requirements of IGBP elements. The mapping used unsupervised classification and postclassification refinement using ancillary data. The development of this data set was motivated by the need for global land cover data with higher spatial resolution, improved temporal specificity, and known classification accuracy. The completed DISCover data set will soon be validated to determine the accuracy of the global classification.

  17. Assessment of Classification Accuracies of SENTINEL-2 and LANDSAT-8 Data for Land Cover / Use Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale Topaloğlu, Raziye; Sertel, Elif; Musaoğlu, Nebiye

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to compare classification accuracies of land cover/use maps created from Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 data. Istanbul metropolitan city of Turkey, with a population of around 14 million, having different landscape characteristics was selected as study area. Water, forest, agricultural areas, grasslands, transport network, urban, airport- industrial units and barren land- mine land cover/use classes adapted from CORINE nomenclature were used as main land cover/use classes to identify. To fulfil the aims of this research, recently acquired dated 08/02/2016 Sentinel-2 and dated 22/02/2016 Landsat-8 images of Istanbul were obtained and image pre-processing steps like atmospheric and geometric correction were employed. Both Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 images were resampled to 30m pixel size after geometric correction and similar spectral bands for both satellites were selected to create a similar base for these multi-sensor data. Maximum Likelihood (MLC) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) supervised classification methods were applied to both data sets to accurately identify eight different land cover/ use classes. Error matrix was created using same reference points for Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 classifications. After the classification accuracy, results were compared to find out the best approach to create current land cover/use map of the region. The results of MLC and SVM classification methods were compared for both images.

  18. Effectiveness Evaluation of Skin Covers against Intravascular Brachytherapy Sources Using VARSKIN3 Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghani HR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The most common intravascular brachytherapy sources include 32P, 188Re, 106Rh and 90Sr/90Y. In this research, skin absorbed dose for different covering materials in dealing with these sources were evaluated and the best covering material for skin protection and reduction of absorbed dose by radiation staff was recognized and recommended. Method: Four materials including polyethylene, cotton and two different kinds of plastic were proposed as skin covers and skin absorbed dose at different depths for each kind of the materials was calculated separately using the VARSKIN3 code. Results: The results suggested that for all sources, skin absorbed dose was minimized when using polyethylene. Considering this material as skin cover, maximum and minimum doses at skin surface were related to 90Sr/90Y and 106Rh, respectively. Conclusion: polyethylene was found the most effective cover in reducing skin dose and protecting the skin. Furthermore, proper agreement between the results of VARSKIN3 and other experimental measurements indicated that VRASKIN3 is a powerful tool for skin dose calculations when working with beta emitter sources. Therefore, it can be utilized in dealing with the issue of radiation protection.

  19. Microwave remote sensing of the snow and ice cover: The Russian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratyev, K. Ya.; Melentyev, V. V.

    Microwave remote sensing techniques are useful for deriving properties of snow and ice. There has been substantial Russian research in developing such techniques, as well as their scientific application. The main centers of such activities are described, and results of fundamental research are summarized. Results from selected case studies are presented and compared with those from western research. Included are results on retrieving ice concentration, ice type, ice thickness, and ice state during the melt period. These airborne microwave remote sensing investigations provide information on the ice cover in several regions in the eastern Arctic.

  20. 78 FR 4855 - Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of minimum random drug testing rate. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has set the calendar year 2013 minimum random drug testing rate at 25 percent of covered crewmembers. The Coast Guard will continue to...