WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-metallic plumbing systems

  1. Virtual design and construction of plumbing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, João Bosco P. Dantas; Angelim, Bruno Maciel; Guedes, Joana Pimentel; de Castro, Marcelo Augusto Farias; Neto, José de Paula Barros

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally, the design coordination process is carried out by overlaying and comparing 2D drawings made by different project participants. Detecting information errors from a composite drawing is especially challenging and error prone. This procedure usually leaves many design errors undetected until construction begins, and typically lead to rework. Correcting conflict issues, which were not identified during design and coordination phase, reduces the overall productivity for everyone involved in the construction process. The identification of construction issues in the field generate Request for Information (RFIs) that is one of delays causes. The application of Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) tools to the coordination processes can bring significant value to architecture, structure, and mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) designs in terms of a reduced number of errors undetected and requests for information. This paper is focused on evaluating requests for information (RFI) associated with water/sanitary facilities of a BIM model. Thus, it is expected to add improvements of water/sanitary facility designs, as well as to assist the virtual construction team to notice and identify design problems. This is an exploratory and descriptive research. A qualitative methodology is used. This study adopts RFI's classification in six analyzed categories: correction, omission, validation of information, modification, divergence of information and verification. The results demonstrate VDC's contribution improving the plumbing system designs. Recommendations are suggested to identify and avoid these RFI types in plumbing system design process or during virtual construction.

  2. Legionnaires' Hiding in Hospital, Nursing Home Plumbing Systems: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_166302.html Legionnaires' Hiding in Hospital, Nursing Home Plumbing Systems: CDC Effective water management, sanitation programs can reduce the risk of exposure to this deadly bacteria To use the sharing ...

  3. Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens Legionella pneumophila and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in hospital plumbing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens Legionella pneumophila and non-tuberculous mycobacteria in hospital plumbing systems Jill Hoelle, Michael Coughlin, Elizabeth Sotkiewicz, Jingrang Lu, Stacy Pfaller, Mark Rodgers, and Hodon Ryu U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati...

  4. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Plumbing. Course: Supply Piping Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, R.; And Others

    One of three individualized courses included in a plumbing curriculum, this course covers installing, servicing, and repairing supply lines and fixtures commonly found in residential/commercial structures. The course is comprised of four units: (1) Pipe and Fittings, (2) Cold Water Supply, (3) Hot Water Supply, and (4) Fixtures. Each unit begins…

  5. A Systems Framework for Assessing Plumbing Products-Related Water Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Lutz, James

    2011-12-02

    Reducing the water use of plumbing products—toilets, urinals, faucets, and showerheads —has been a popular conservation measure. Improved technologies have created opportunities for additional conservation in this area. However, plumbing products do not operate in a vacuum. This paper reviews the literature related to plumbing products to determine a systems framework for evaluating future conservation measures using these products. The main framework comprises the following categories: water use efficiency, product components, product performance, source water, energy, and plumbing/sewer infrastructure. This framework for analysis provides a starting point for professionals considering future water conservation measures to evaluate the need for additional research, collaboration with other standards or codes committees, and attachment of additional metrics to water use efficiency (such as performance).

  6. Structure of volcano plumbing systems: A review of multi-parametric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaldi, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    Magma is transported and stored in the crust mostly through networks of planar structures (intrusive sheets), ranging from vertical dykes to inclined sheets and horizontal sills, and magma chambers, which make up the plumbing system of volcanoes. This study presents an overview of plumbing systems imaged at different depths and geodynamic settings, in order to contribute to assessing the factors that control their geometry. Data were derived from personal field surveys and through the analysis of publications; observations include local lithology and tectonics of the host rock with special reference to local fault kinematics and related stress tensor, regional tectonics (general kinematics and far-field stress tensors), geology and shape of the volcano, topographic settings, and structural and petrochemical characteristics of the plumbing system. Information from active volcanoes and eroded extinct volcanoes is discussed; the shallow plumbing system of active volcanoes has been reconstructed by combining available geophysical data with field information derived from outcropping sheets, morphometric analyses of pyroclastic cones, and the orientation and location of eruptive fissures. The study of eroded volcanoes enabled to assess the plumbing system geometry at deeper levels in the core of the edifice or underneath the volcano-substratum interface. Key sites are presented in extensional, transcurrent and contractional tectonic settings from North and South-America, Iceland, the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea and Africa. The types of sheet arrangements illustrated include swarms of parallel dykes, diverging rift patterns, centrally-inclined sheets, ring and radial dykes, circum-lateral collapse sheets, sills, and mixed members. This review shows that intrusive sheet emplacement at a volcano depends upon the combination of several local and regional factors, some of which are difficult to be constrained. While much progress has been made, it is still very challenging to

  7. System definition study of deployable, non-metallic space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimler, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art for nonmetallic materials and fabrication techniques suitable for future space structures are summarized. Typical subsystems and systems of interest to the space community that are reviewed include: (1) inflatable/rigidized space hangar; (2) flexible/storable acoustic barrier; (3) deployable fabric bulkhead in a space habitat; (4) extendible tunnel for soft docking; (5) deployable space recovery/re-entry systems for personnel or materials; (6) a manned habitat for a space station; (7) storage enclosures external to the space station habitat; (8) attachable work stations; and (9) safe haven structures. Performance parameters examined include micrometeoroid protection; leakage rate prediction and control; rigidization of flexible structures in the space environment; flammability and offgassing; lifetime for nonmetallic materials; crack propagation prevention; and the effects of atomic oxygen and space debris. An expandable airlock for shuttle flight experiments and potential tethered experiments from shuttle are discussed.

  8. Volcano plumbing system geometry: The result of multi-parametric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaldi, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    Magma is transported from magma chambers towards the surface through networks of planar structures (intrusive sheets) spanning from vertical dikes to inclined sheets and horizontal sills. This study presents an overview of intrusive sheets at several volcanoes located in different settings in order to contribute to assess the factors controlling the geometry of magma plumbing systems. Data have been mainly acquired in the field and secondarily through a collection and analysis of geophysical publications; data include local lithology and tectonics of the substratum surrounding the volcano with special reference to local fault kinematics and related stress tensor, regional tectonics (general kinematics and far-field stress tensors), crustal thickness, geology and shape of the volcano, topographic setting, and characteristics of the plumbing system. Data from active volcanoes and eroded extinct volcanoes are discussed; the shallow plumbing system of active volcanoes has been reconstructed by combining available geophysical data with field information derived from outcropping sheets, morphometric analyses of pyroclastic cones, and the orientation and location of eruptive fissures. The study of eroded volcanoes enabled to assess the plumbing system geometry at lower levels in the core of the edifice or under the volcano-substratum interface. Key sites are presented in extensional, transcurrent and contractional tectonic settings, and different geodynamic areas have been investigated in North and South-America, Iceland, Southern Tyrrhenian Sea and Africa. The types of sheet arrangements that are illustrated include swarms of parallel dikes, diverging rift patterns, centrally-inclined sheets, radial dikes, bi-modal dike strikes, circum-lateral collapse sheets, and mixed members. This review shows that intrusive sheet emplacement at a volcano depends upon the combination of several local and regional factors, some of which are difficult to be constrained. While much

  9. Maintenance Task Data Base for Buildings: Plumbing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    March 1984) TB 420-30, Emergency/Service Handbook (August 1979) TB 420-12, Machine Shop , Machine Repairs Handbook (April 1983). When infbmation was not...0813600 116 TASK DATA FORM Task Code: 0813602 Coff ient. VALVE,_DRAIN System: SANITARY Sub~system: COLD WATER SYSTEMS Tas Description: Mi REPLACE

  10. Volcanic tremors: Good indicators of change in plumbing systems during volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárraga, Marta; Martí, Joan; Abella, Rafael; Carniel, Roberto; López, Carmen

    2014-03-01

    Geophysical and geochemical signals recorded during episodes of unrest preceding volcanic eruptions provide information on movements of magma inside the lithosphere and on how magma prepares to reach the surface. When the eruption ensues continuous volcanic monitoring can reveal the nature of changes occurring in the volcano's plumbing system, which may be correlated with changes in both eruption behaviour and products. During the 2011-2012 submarine eruption of El Hierro (Canary Islands), the seismic signal, surface deformation, a broad stain on the sea surface of the eruption site, and the occasional appearance of floating lava balloons and pyroclastic fragments were the main observable signs. A strong continuous tremor in the vent accompanied the eruption and varied significantly in amplitude, frequency and dynamical parameters. We analysed these variations and correlated them with changes in the distribution of earthquakes and in the petrology of the erupting magma. This enabled us to relate variations in tremors to changes in the (i) stress conditions of the plumbing system, (ii) dimensions of the conduit and vent, (iii) intensity of the explosive episodes, and (iv) rheological changes in the erupting magma. The results obtained show how the tremor signal was strongly influenced by stress changes in the host rock and in the rheological variations in the erupting magma. We conclude that the tracking of real-time syn-eruptive tremor signals via the observation of variations in plumbing systems and magma physics is a potentially effective tool for interpreting eruption dynamics, and suggest that similar variations observed in pre-eruptive tremors will have a similar origin.

  11. Pathogen cross-transmission via building sanitary plumbing systems in a full scale pilot test-rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspray, Thomas J.; Kelly, David A.; Rodriguez-Gil, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The WHO Consensus Document on the epidemiology of the SARS epidemic in 2003, included a report on a concentrated outbreak in one Hong Kong housing block which was considered a ‘super-spreading event’. The WHO report conjectured that the sanitary plumbing system was one transmission route for the virus. Empty U-traps allowed the aerosolised virus to enter households from the sewerage system. No biological evidence was presented. This research reports evidence that pathogens can be aerosolised and transported on airstreams within sanitary plumbing systems and enter buildings via empty U-traps. A sanitary plumbing system was built, representing two floors of a building, with simulated toilet flushes on the lower floor and a sterile chamber with extractor fan on the floor above. Cultures of a model organism, Pseudomonas putida at 106–109 cfu ml-1 in 0·85% NaCl were flushed into the system in volumes of 6 to 20 litres to represent single or multiple toilet flushes. Air and surface samples were cultured on agar plates and assessed qualitatively and semi-quantitatively. Flushing from a toilet into a sanitary plumbing system generated enough turbulence to aerosolise pathogens. Typical sanitary plumbing system airflows (between 20–30 ls-1) were sufficient to carry aerosolised pathogens between different floors of a building. Empty U-traps allowed aerosolised pathogens to enter the chamber, encouraging cross-transmission. All parts of the system were found to be contaminated post-flush. Empty U-traps have been observed in many buildings and a risk assessment indicates the potential for high risk cross-transmission under defect conditions in buildings with high pathogen loading such as hospitals. Under defective conditions (which are not uncommon) aerosolised pathogens can be carried on the airflows within sanitary plumbing systems. Our findings show that greater consideration should be given to this mode of pathogen transmission. PMID:28187135

  12. The magmatic plumbing system of the Askja central volcano, Iceland, as imaged by seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.; Roecker, Steven

    2016-10-01

    The magmatic plumbing system beneath Askja, a volcano in the central Icelandic highlands, is imaged using local earthquake tomography. We use a catalog of more than 1300 earthquakes widely distributed in location and depth to invert for the P wave velocity (Vp) and the Vp/Vs ratio. Extensive synthetic tests show that the minimum size of any velocity anomaly recovered by the model is 4 km in the upper crust (depth < 8 km below sea level (bsl)), increasing to 10 km in the lower crust at a depth of 20 km bsl. The plumbing system of Askja is revealed as a series of high-Vp/Vs ratio bodies situated at discrete depths throughout the crust to depths of over 20 km. We interpret these to be regions of the crust which currently store melt with melt fractions of 10%. The lower crustal bodies are all seismically active, suggesting that melt is being actively transported in these regions. The main melt storage regions lie beneath Askja volcano, concentrated at depths of 5 km bsl with a smaller region at 9 km bsl. Their total volume is 100 km3. Using the recorded waveforms, we show that there is also likely to be a small, highly attenuating magmatic body at a shallower depth of about 2 km bsl.

  13. Advanced magnetic visualization of Mt. Vesuvius shallow plumbing system by probability tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Patella

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We show the results of the application of a new magnetic probability tomography imaging method to the aeromagnetic dataset collected by AGIP on Mt. Vesuvius in 1978. A magnetic dipole occurrence probability function is defined in such a way as to contain all information about the whole class of equivalent sources compatible with the original survey dataset. An advanced 3D visual system is also applied for the first time to visualise the spacial pattern of the magnetic dipole occurrence probability function. It is shown that in the case of Vesuvius, the shallow plumbing system is characterised by a high probability of occurrence of a dipole at 2 km of depth b.s.l., nearly directed along the present main earth’s magnetic field. This leads to hypothesize that the top terminal portion of the volcanic apparatus is completely filled with magnetised volcanic material.

  14. Structural and petrogenetical insights of the crustal plumbing system on Santorini Volcano, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drymoni, Kyriaki; Browning, John; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2017-04-01

    Magma plumbing systems represent the magma transport and storage from the source in the mantle, through the crust, to the surface in a volcanic eruption. Characterising the different aspects of shallow crustal magma storage, the associated magma-crust interaction as well as the arrangement and chemistry of dykes and eruptive units are of key importance to help constrain the behaviour of individual volcanoes. Santorini is an active volcano that hosts a crustal magma plumbing system which has been disturbed by several caldera collapse episodes. To study this system, we have undertaken a field campaign at the northern part of the island. We have mapped, in detail, sections of the northern caldera wall with a specific interest in the dyke swarm, associated lavas and eruptive units which are partially cut by a series of historic caldera collapses. Preliminary results show that most of the studied dykes strike mostly N-S except 4 dykes which strike NW-SE. In contrast, the caldera strikes E-W in the northernmost section of Santorini. Dyke thickness ranges between 20 cm - 8m but the average thickness is 0.8 m. Most of the dykes studied are vertical to sub-vertical, only 5 dykes dip at angles less than 60 degrees. Compositionally the dykes range from basaltic to rhyolitic and their textures are glomeroporphyric to aphanitic. By coupling the field and geochemical data with numerical and analytical models we aim to 1) understand the distribution of stresses within the edifices, 2) to define and address the variables that contribute to dyke initiation, propagation and lead to a volcanic eruption, 3) group the different populations of dykes based on their composition, thickness and orientation, 4) find the different populations of eruptive units based on their lithology and composition and 5) discover the relationship (cross-cutting) between eruptive units and dykes, which help to constrain the timing of dyke propagation and the relative ages of the dykes.

  15. Release of drinking water contaminants and odor impacts caused by green building cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plumbing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Keven M; Stenson, Alexandra C; Dey, Rajarashi; Whelton, Andrew J

    2014-12-15

    Green buildings are increasingly being plumbed with crosslinked polyethylene (PEX) potable water pipe. Tap water quality was investigated at a six month old plumbing system and chemical and odor quality impacts of six PEX pipe brands were examined. Eleven PEX related contaminants were found in the plumbing system; one regulated (toluene) and several unregulated: Antioxidant degradation products, resin solvents, initiator degradation products, or manufacturing aides. Water chemical and odor quality was monitored for new PEX-a, -b and -c pipes with (2 mg/L free chlorine) and without disinfectant over 30 days. Odor and total organic carbon (TOC) levels decreased for all pipes, but odor remained greater than the USA's Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level. Odors were not attributed to known odorants ethyl-tert-butyl ether (ETBE) or methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Free chlorine caused odor levels for PEX-a1 pipe to increase from 26 to 75 threshold odor number (TON) on day 3 and affected the rate at which TOC changed for each brand over 30 days. As TOC decreased, the ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm increased. Pipes consumed as much as 0.5 mg/L as Cl2 during each 3 day stagnation period. Sixteen organic chemicals were identified, including toluene, pyridine, methylene trichloroacetate and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Some were also detected during the plumbing system field investigation. Six brands of PEX pipes sold in the USA and a PEX-a green building plumbing system impacted chemical and drinking water odor quality.

  16. Three-phase-flow dynamics in the upper plumbing system at Stromboli volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckale, J.; Cashman, K. V.

    2013-12-01

    With the potential exception of paroxysms and major explosions, eruptive activity at Stromboli volcano is thought to be driven by gas, as evidenced by the relative masses of erupted gas and pyroclastic rocks. The insight that degassing drives eruptions led to the development of models that explain the observed eruptive activity with reference to diverse two-phase flow regimes in gas-rich fluids. Numerous petrological studies, however, have established the existence of two different types of magma at Stromboli that vary drastically in crystallinity. Highly-porphyritic (HP) and water-poor magma is confined to the upper few hundred meters of the plumbing system; low-porphyritic (LP) and water-rich magma originates much deeper. This observational evidence raises the question of how the presence of a third phase, the solid fraction, affects degassing at Stromboli. The goal of this study is to develop a three-phase-flow model for degassing processes in the upper plumbing system at Stromboli, where the HP magma resides. Contrary to previous two-phase flow models, we do not assume the existence of pipe-like conduits that traverse the upper plumbing system. To explore whether the relative stability of the three-crater morphology can be understood self-consistently in our modeling framework, we devise a numerical model that couples stress and gas flux in the HP magma. We approximate the crater terrace as an elliptic surface and assume that the HP magma extends several hundred meters below. The drastic contrast in crystallinity between HP and LP magma is represented as a similarly drastic transition from a highly nonlinear creep rheology to a Newtonian rheology. One important ramification of this rheological transition is that ascending gas will accumulate underneath the HP magma. The HP magma is thus reminiscent of a plug that slows gas flux, although the prevalence of passive degassing at Stromboli shows that the plug does not inhibit gas invasion entirely. At high gas

  17. Amphibole megacrysts as a probe into the deep plumbing system of Merapi volcano, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stefan T. M.; Troll, Valentin R.; Weis, Franz A.; Dallai, Luigi; Chadwick, Jane P.; Schulz, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Amphibole has been discussed to potentially represent an important phase during early chemical evolution of arc magmas, but is not commonly observed in eruptive arc rocks. Here, we present an in-depth study of metastable calcic amphibole megacrysts in basaltic andesites of Merapi volcano, Indonesia. Radiogenic Sr and Nd isotope compositions of the amphibole megacrysts overlap with the host rock range, indicating that they represent antecrysts to the host magmas rather than xenocrysts. Amphibole-based barometry suggests that the megacrysts crystallised at pressures of >500 MPa, i.e., in the mid- to lower crust beneath Merapi. Rare-earth element concentrations, in turn, require the absence of magmatic garnet in the Merapi feeding system and, therefore, place an uppermost limit for the pressure of amphibole crystallisation at ca. 800 MPa. The host magmas of the megacrysts seem to have fractionated significant amounts of amphibole and/or clinopyroxene, because of their low Dy/Yb ratios relative to the estimated compositions of the parent magmas to the megacrysts. The megacrysts' parent magmas at depth may thus have evolved by amphibole fractionation, in line with apparently coupled variations of trace element ratios in the megacrysts, such as e.g., decreasing Zr/Hf with Dy/Yb. Moreover, the Th/U ratios of the amphibole megacrysts decrease with increasing Dy/Yb and are lower than Th/U ratios in the basaltic andesite host rocks. Uranium in the megacrysts' parent magmas, therefore, may have occurred predominantly in the tetravalent state, suggesting that magmatic fO2 in the Merapi plumbing system increased from below the FMQ buffer in the mid-to-lower crust to 0.6-2.2 log units above it in the near surface environment. In addition, some of the amphibole megacrysts experienced dehydrogenation (H2 loss) and/or dehydration (H2O loss), as recorded by their variable H2O contents and D/ H and Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios, and the release of these volatile species into the shallow plumbing

  18. Nyamulagira’s magma plumbing system inferred from 15 years of InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauthier, Christelle; Cayol, Valerie; Poland, Michael; Kervyn, François; D'Oreye, Nicolas; Hooper, Andrew; Samsonov, Sergei; Tiampo, Kristy; Smets, Benoit; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T.A.; Biggs, J.

    2013-01-01

    Nyamulagira, located in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo on the western branch of the East African rift, is Africa’s most active volcano, with an average of one eruption every 3 years since 1938. Owing to the socio-economical context of that region, the volcano lacks ground-based geodetic measurements but has been monitored by interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) since 1996. A combination of 3D Mixed Boundary Element Method and inverse modelling, taking into account topography and source interactions, is used to interpret InSAR ground displacements associated with eruptive activity in 1996, 2002, 2004, 2006 and 2010. These eruptions can be fitted by models incorporating dyke intrusions, and some (namely the 2006 and 2010 eruptions) require a magma reservoir beneath the summit caldera. We investigate inter-eruptive deformation with a multi-temporal InSAR approach. We propose the following magma plumbing system at Nyamulagira by integrating numerical deformation models with other available data: a deep reservoir (c. 25 km depth) feeds a shallower reservoir (c. 4 km depth); proximal eruptions are fed from the shallow reservoir through dykes while distal eruptions can be fed directly from the deep reservoir. A dyke-like conduit is also present beneath the upper southeastern flank of Nyamulagira.

  19. Magma plumbing system and seismicity of an active mid-ocean ridge volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Florian; Schlindwein, Vera; Koulakov, Ivan; Plötz, Aline; Scholz, John-Robert

    2017-02-01

    At mid-ocean ridges volcanism generally decreases with spreading rate but surprisingly massive volcanic centres occur at the slowest spreading ridges. These volcanoes can host unexpectedly strong earthquakes and vigorous, explosive submarine eruptions. Our understanding of the geodynamic processes forming these volcanic centres is still incomplete due to a lack of geophysical data and the difficulty to capture their rare phases of magmatic activity. We present a local earthquake tomographic image of the magma plumbing system beneath the Segment 8 volcano at the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. The tomography shows a confined domain of partial melt under the volcano. We infer that from there melt is horizontally transported to a neighbouring ridge segment at 35 km distance where microearthquake swarms and intrusion tremor occur that suggest ongoing magmatic activity. Teleseismic earthquakes around the Segment 8 volcano, prior to our study, indicate that the current magmatic spreading episode may already have lasted over a decade and hence its temporal extent greatly exceeds the frequent short-lived spreading episodes at faster opening mid-ocean ridges.

  20. Magma plumbing system and seismicity of an active mid-ocean ridge volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Florian; Schlindwein, Vera; Koulakov, Ivan; Plötz, Aline; Scholz, John-Robert

    2017-02-20

    At mid-ocean ridges volcanism generally decreases with spreading rate but surprisingly massive volcanic centres occur at the slowest spreading ridges. These volcanoes can host unexpectedly strong earthquakes and vigorous, explosive submarine eruptions. Our understanding of the geodynamic processes forming these volcanic centres is still incomplete due to a lack of geophysical data and the difficulty to capture their rare phases of magmatic activity. We present a local earthquake tomographic image of the magma plumbing system beneath the Segment 8 volcano at the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. The tomography shows a confined domain of partial melt under the volcano. We infer that from there melt is horizontally transported to a neighbouring ridge segment at 35 km distance where microearthquake swarms and intrusion tremor occur that suggest ongoing magmatic activity. Teleseismic earthquakes around the Segment 8 volcano, prior to our study, indicate that the current magmatic spreading episode may already have lasted over a decade and hence its temporal extent greatly exceeds the frequent short-lived spreading episodes at faster opening mid-ocean ridges.

  1. LiDAR observations of an Earth magmatic plumbing system as an analog for Venus and Mars distributed volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jacob; Connor, Charles; Malservisi, Rocco; Bleacher, Jacob; Connor, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Clusters of tens to thousands of small volcanoes (diameters generally system of these clusters can constrain magma ascent processes as well as the regional magma production budget and heat flux beneath each cluster. Unfortunately, directly observing the plumbing systems of volcano clusters on Mars and Venus eludes our current geologic abilities. Because erosion exposes such systems at the Earth's surface, a better understanding of magmatic processes and migration can be achieved via field analysis. The terrestrial plumbing system of an eroded volcanic field may be a valuable planetary analog for Venus and Mars clusters. The magmatic plumbing system of a Pliocene-aged monogenetic volcanic field, emplaced at 0.8 km depth, is currently exposed as a sill and dike swarm in the San Rafael Desert of Central Utah, USA. The mafic bodies in this region intruded into Mesozoic sedimentary units and now make up the most erosion resistant units as sills, dikes, and plug-like conduits. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) can identify volcanic units (sills, dikes, and conduits) at high resolution, both geomorphologically and with near infrared return intensity values. Two Terrestrial LiDAR Surveys and an Airborne LiDAR Survey have been carried out over the San Rafael volcanic swarm, producing a three dimensional point cloud over approximately 36 sq. km. From the point clouds of these surveys, 1-meter DEMs are produced and volcanic intrusions have been mapped. Here we present reconstructions of the volcanic instrusions of the San Rafael Swarm. We create this reconstruction by extrapolating mapped intrustions from the LiDAR surveys into a 3D space around the current surface. We compare the estimated intrusive volume to the estimated conduit density and estimates of extrusive volume at volcano clusters of similar density. The extrapolated reconstruction and conduit mapping provide a first-order estimate of the final intrustive/extrusive volume ratio for the now eroded volcanic field

  2. Predictive parameters of Legionella pneumophila occurrence in hospital water: HPCs and plumbing system installation age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ghader; Mirmohamadlou, Ali; Esmaeli, Davoud

    2016-09-01

    Occurrence of Legionella pneumophila can be relevant to the installation age and the presence of heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs). This research illustrates L. pneumophila contamination of hospital water in accordance with the installation age and the presence of HPCs. One hundred and fifty samples were collected from hot and cold water systems and cultured on R2A and BCYE agar. L. pneumophila identification was done via specific biochemical tests. HPCs and L. pneumophila were detected in 96 and 37.3 % of the samples, respectively. The mean of HPCs density was 947 ± 998 CFU/ml; therefore, 52 % of the samples had higher densities than 500 CFU/ml. High densities of HPCs (>500 CFU/ml) led to colonization of L. pneumophila (≥1000 CFU/ml), mainly observed in cooling systems, gynecological, sonography, and NICU wards. Chi(2) test demonstrated that higher densities (>500 CFU/ml) of HPCs and L. pneumophila contamination in cold water were more frequent than warm water (OR: 2.3 and 1.49, respectively). Univariate regressions implied a significant difference between HPCs density and installation age in positive and negative tests of L. pneumophila (OR = 1.1, p pneumophila occurrences (p pneumophila and HPCs densities (r s  = 0.33, p pneumophila, HPCs, and installation age are relevant; so, plumbing system renovation with appropriate materials and promotion of the effective efforts for hospital's water quality assurance is highly recommended.

  3. Attenuation and Scattering Tomography of the Deep Plumbing System of Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Siena, L.; Thomas, C.; Waite, G. P.; Moran, S. C.; Klemme, S.

    2014-12-01

    We present a combined 3D P-wave attenuation, 2D S-coda attenuation, and 3D S-coda scattering tomography model of fluid pathways, feeding systems, and sediments below Mount St. Helens (MSH) volcano between depths of 0 and 18 km. High-scattering and high-attenuation shallow anomalies are indicative of magma and fluid-rich zones within and below the volcanic edifice down to 6 km depth, where a high-scattering body outlines the top of a deeper aseismic velocity anomaly. Both the volcanic edifice and these structures induce a combination of strong scattering and attenuation on any seismic wave-field, particularly those recorded on the northern and eastern flanks of the volcanic cone. North of the cone, between depths of 0 and 10 km, a low-velocity, high-scattering, and high-attenuation north-south trending trough is attributed to thick piles of Tertiary marine sediments within the St. Helens Seismic Zone. A laterally-extended 3D scattering contrast at depths of 10 to 14 km is related to the boundary between upper and lower crust, and caused in our interpretation by the large scale interaction of the Siletz terrane with the Cascade arc crust. This contrast presents a low scattering, 4-6 km2 "hole" under the north-eastern flank of the volcano. We infer that this section represents the main path of magma ascent from depths greater than 6 km at MSH, with a small north-east shift in the lower plumbing system of the volcano. We conclude that combinations of different non-standard tomographic methods, and particularly the application of full-waveform tomography to highly heterogeneous media, represent the future of seismic volcano imaging.

  4. Attenuation and scattering tomography of the deep plumbing system of Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Siena, Luca; Thomas, Christine; Waite, Greg P.; Moran, Seth C.; Klemme, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We present a combined 3-D P wave attenuation, 2-D S coda attenuation, and 3-D S coda scattering tomography model of fluid pathways, feeding systems, and sediments below Mount St. Helens (MSH) volcano between depths of 0 and 18 km. High-scattering and high-attenuation shallow anomalies are indicative of magma and fluid-rich zones within and below the volcanic edifice down to 6 km depth, where a high-scattering body outlines the top of deeper aseismic velocity anomalies. Both the volcanic edifice and these structures induce a combination of strong scattering and attenuation on any seismic wavefield, particularly those recorded on the northern and eastern flanks of the volcanic cone. North of the cone between depths of 0 and 10 km, a low-velocity, high-scattering, and high-attenuation north-south trending trough is attributed to thick piles of Tertiary marine sediments within the St. Helens Seismic Zone. A laterally extended 3-D scattering contrast at depths of 10 to 14 km is related to the boundary between upper and lower crust and caused in our interpretation by the large-scale interaction of the Siletz terrane with the Cascade arc crust. This contrast presents a low-scattering, 4–6 km2 “hole” under the northeastern flank of the volcano. We infer that this section represents the main path of magma ascent from depths greater than 6 km at MSH, with a small north-east shift in the lower plumbing system of the volcano. We conclude that combinations of different nonstandard tomographic methods, leading toward full-waveform tomography, represent the future of seismic volcano imaging.

  5. Connected magma plumbing system between Cerro Negro and El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua revealed by gravity survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Patricia; Zurek, Jeffrey; Williams-Jones, Glyn

    2016-11-01

    Cerro Negro, near León, Nicaragua is a young, relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan. Multiple explosive eruptions have deposited significant amounts of ash on León and the surrounding rural communities. While a number of studies investigate the geochemistry and stress regime of the volcano, subsurface structures have only been studied by diffuse soil gas surveys. These studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring volcanic features. To address these questions, we collected 119 gravity measurements around Cerro Negro volcano in an attempt to delineate deep structures at the volcano. The resulting complete Bouguer anomaly map revealed local positive gravity anomalies (wavelength 0.5 to 2 km, magnitude +4 mGal) and regional positive (10 km wavelength, magnitudes +10 and +8 mGal) and negative (12 and 6 km wavelength, magnitudes -18 and -13 mGal) Bouguer anomalies. Further analysis of these gravity data through inversion has revealed both local and regional density anomalies that we interpret as intrusive complexes at Cerro Negro and in the Nicaraguan Volcanic Arc. The local density anomalies at Cerro Negro have a density of 2700 kg m-3 (basalt) and are located between -250 and -2000 m above sea level. The distribution of recovered density anomalies suggests that eruptions at Cerro Negro may be tapping an interconnected magma plumbing system beneath El Hoyo, Cerro La Mula, and Cerro Negro, and more than seven other proximal volcanic features, implying that Cerro Negro should be considered the newest cone of a Cerro Negro-El Hoyo volcanic complex.

  6. Petrological mapping of Volcanic Plumbing Systems using amphiboles in mixed intermediate magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Balázs; Harangi, SzZabolcs; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Mason, Paul R. D.

    2016-04-01

    Petrological mapping of volcanic plumbing systems (VPS) is essential to understand the magma evolution and to interpret geophysical signals of monitored volcanoes. The mapping includes the determination of the compositions of magmas feed the system and their storage depths. Intermediate magmas are usually formed by magma mixing a processes that mask the real compositional variation of magmas feed the VPS. However phenocrysts can preserve this information in their chemical stratigraphy. Amphibole can be a powerful tool in these studies because it can incorporate petrogenetically important trace elements primarily controlled by the coexisting melt composition, additionally the major element composition can be used to calculate pressure. We studied the zoning, texture and major and trace element composition of amphiboles from the Ciomadul, a late pleistocen dacite volcano. The erupted dacites contain abundant amphibole phenocrysts. Amphibole coexist with all of the rock forming minerals (e.g. with quartz or with olivine) indicating their diverse origin. The amphiboles show large major element compositional variation (e.g. Al2O3: 6-15 wt%) accompanied with large variation in trace element (e.g. Cr: 10-3000 ppm, Sr: 55-855 ppm, Eu/Eu*: 0.62-1.19) even in a single sample or single crystal and they represent antecryst (reworked) and phenocryst (in situ crystallized) populations. Such a large compositional variation of amphiboles is commonly observed at andesite-dacite arc volcanoes. Hornblendes (antecryst1) have low Al, Mg/Fe, and negative Eu-anomaly; they equilibrated with rhyolitic melt at near-solidus temperature. Antecryst2 is represented by Cr-, Mg-rich amphiboles; they can contain Cr-spinel inclusions suggesting near-liquidus crystallization from primitive mafic melts. Phenocrysts show large compositional variation sample by sample that is different from the antecrysts suggesting variable pre-eruptive conditions. The antecrysts are derived from a stratified (mafic

  7. Cl constrains on shallow plumbing system and pre-eruptive conditions of the Phlegrean Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdanowicz, Géraldine; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Boudon, Georges; Civetta, Lucia; Orsi, Giovanni; D'Antonio, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    superficial magma reservoir using the Cl solubility law that perfectly matches the magma composition studied. Using the H2O solubility law of the same composition it's also possible to estimate the pre-eruptive H2O content dissolved in the magma prior eruption. The systematic analysis performed in this study evidences a reproducible Cl buffering effect within the superficial magma reservoirs at the Phlegrean Fields. This characteristic allows us to precise a complex geometry of the shallow plumbing system between 35 and 165 MPa.

  8. Evolution of the Plumbing System Beneath a Primitive Cinder Cone: Volcan Jorullo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E.; Wallace, P.; Cashman, K.; Delgado Granados, H.

    2006-12-01

    Detailed studies of the explosive products of monogenetic cinder cones can provide insight into the evolution of the plumbing systems beneath these volcanoes. We have studied tephra deposits from the 1759-1774 eruption of Volcan Jorullo in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The lava from Jorullo evolved during the eruption from primitive basalts to basaltic andesites (Luhr and Carmichael, 1985). In addition to lava flows, Jorullo erupted explosively, depositing a thick blanket of tephra and ash. We analyzed melt inclusions and their olivine hosts from two thick proximal ash fall sequences. Olivine are abundant as loose crystals in the tephra and their compositions evolve from the base (Fo88-91 cores) to the top (Fo84-87 cores) of the tephra sequence. Crystallization pressures for olivine, obtained from the concentration of CO2 and H2O in melt inclusions, decreased from early (50-4200 bars) to late (40-100 bars) in the eruption. The early erupted olivine crystallized over a much wider range in pressures, and interestingly, the most Fo-rich olivine (Fo90- 91) crystallized at the shallowest depths (~50 bars pressure) beneath the volcano, requiring rapid ascent rates of primitive melts. Olivine zoning profiles allow us to calculate crystal residence times, which increase from the early (~1-45 days) to late (~12-225 days) stages of the eruption. This increase in residence time, combined with the decrease in crystallization depth over time, suggest the formation of a shallow reservoir beneath the volcano as the eruption progressed. Formation of a shallow reservoir of degassed magma in which plagioclase and minor augite fractionation occurred together with assimilation of granitic wall rock is consistent with the temporal changes in lava flow and melt inclusion compositions. While the olivine and melt inclusion compositions evolve throughout our tephra section, we never see the most evolved values present in the lava flows. Although this may be the result of erosion of the

  9. Comparative assessment of chlorine, heat, ozone, and UV light for killing Legionella pneumophila within a model plumbing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraca, P; Stout, J E; Yu, V L

    1987-02-01

    Nosocomial Legionnaires disease can be acquired by exposure to the organism from the hospital water distribution system. As a result, many hospitals have instituted eradication procedures, including hypercholorination and thermal eradication. We compared the efficacy of ozonation, UV light, hyperchlorination, and heat eradication using a model plumbing system constructed of copper piping, brass spigots, Plexiglas reservoir, electric hot water tank, and a pump. Legionella pneumophila was added to the system at 10(7) CFU/ml. Each method was tested under three conditions; (i) nonturbid water at 25 degrees C, (ii) turbid water at 25 degrees C, and (iii) nonturbid water at 43 degrees C. UV light and heat killed L. pneumophila most rapidly and required minimal maintenance. Both UV light and heat (60 degrees C) produced a 5 log kill in less than 1 h. In contrast, both chlorine and ozone required 5 h of exposure to produce a 5 log decrease. Neither turbidity nor the higher temperature of 43 degrees C impaired the efficacy of any of the disinfectant methods. Surprisingly, higher temperature enhanced the disinfecting efficacy of chlorine. However, higher temperature accelerated the decomposition of the chlorine residual such that an additional 120% volume of chlorine was required. All four methods proved efficacious in eradicating L. pneumophila from a model plumbing system.

  10. Seismic constraints on Late Mesozoic magmatic plumbing system in the onshore-offshore area of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, S.; Qiu, X.; Wan, K.

    2015-12-01

    We used active source wide-angle seismic data to determine a crustal structure beneath the onshore-offshore area of Hong Kong at the southern end of a broad belt dominated by Late Mesozoic intrusive and extrusive rocks in the coastal region of Southeast China. High-resolution tomographic images provide direct seismic evidence for the magmatic plumbing system of Late Mesozoic calderas. A localized high-velocity anomaly is revealed in the lower crust offshore between Hong Kong and Dangan Island, which may reflect basaltic underplating that induced voluminous silicic eruptions and granitoid plutons in the onshore-offshore area of Hong Kong. Tilted high-velocity zones are revealed in the entire crust beneath Dangan Island and the Late Mesozoic calderas of Hong Kong, which may reflect ascending magma chambers. We propose a paleo-Pacific plate subduction model to interpret our tomographic results and the generation of strong granitic magmatism in the Hong Kong area. Combining the tomographic image beneath the Lianhuashan Fault Zone with the distribution of Late Mesozoic calderas, we infer that the Lianhuashan Fault Zone might be the dominant magmatic conduit for mantle-derived magmas ascending to the upper crust. In addition, intersecting faults with different orientations could control the distribution and geometry of the vents, calderas, dykes and plutons and play an important role in forming magma conduits for individual volcanoes. Keywords: Basaltic underplating; Magmatic plumbing; Southeast China; Calderas; Active-source seismic tomography

  11. The plumbing system of the Pagosa thermal Springs, Colorado: Application of geologically constrained geophysical inversion and data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revil, A.; Cuttler, S.; Karaoulis, M.; Zhou, J.; Raynolds, B.; Batzle, M.

    2015-06-01

    Fault and fracture networks usually provide the plumbing for movement of hydrothermal fluids in geothermal fields. The Big Springs of Pagosa Springs in Colorado is known as the deepest geothermal hot springs in the world. However, little is known about the plumbing system of this hot spring, especially regarding the position of the reservoir (if any) or the position of the major tectonic faults controlling the flow of the thermal water in this area. The Mancos shale, a Cretaceous shale, dominates many of the surface expressions around the springs and impede an easy recognition of the fault network. We use three geophysical methods (DC resistivity, self-potential, and seismic) to image the faults in this area, most of which are not recognized in the geologic fault map of the region. Results from these surveys indicate that the hot Springs (the Big Spring and a warm spring located 1.8 km further south) are located at the intersection of the Victoire Fault, a major normal crustal fault, and two north-northeast trending faults (Fault A and B). Self-potential and DC resistivity tomographies can be combined and a set of joint attributes defined to determine the localization of the flow of hot water associated with the Eight Miles Mesa Fault, a second major tectonic feature responsible for the occurrence of warm springs further West and South from the Big Springs of Pagosa Springs.

  12. Plumbing systems to cope with the global environmental age; Chikyu kankyo jidai ni mukete no kyuhaisui eisei system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, M.

    1998-01-05

    Tasks to be fulfilled in relation to the plumbing system for reduction in environmental loads are discussed. They are the effective use of water (saving), extension of equipment life, and the adoption of materials imposing less load on the environment (ecomaterial). In the case of a hot-spring hotel M of Tottori Prefecture, water saving efforts are exerted by guiding the hot-spring water through a radiation coil placed in a fall-provided pond for temperature reduction. In the case of a hot-spring hotel S of Iwate Prefecture, for the effective utilization of hot-spring water gushing out in abundance, a heat exchanger is installed for exchanging heat between the hot spring water and city water. The thus-warmed city water is fed to room baths and to taps in the public bath, and the hot water overflowing the public bath is utilized as the heat source for a wastewater heat recovery heat pump before being discharged into the river. As for equipment life extension, there is for instance the case of vinyl chloride pipe which has been in use for the purpose of cost reduction. Since it is expected that the life of plastic pipes will be more than 10-20 years longer than that of metal pipes, it has become necessary to consider the issue of ecomaterials. 5 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. The magma plumbing system for the 1971 Teneguía eruption on La Palma, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Abigail K.; Troll, Valentin R.; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Nicholls, Peter A.

    2015-12-01

    The 1971 Teneguía eruption is the most recent volcanic event of the Cumbre Vieja rift zone on La Palma. The eruption produced basanite lavas that host xenoliths, which we investigate to provide insight into the processes of differentiation, assimilation and magma storage beneath La Palma. We compare our results to the older volcano magmatic systems of the island with the aim to reconstruct the temporal development of the magma plumbing system beneath La Palma. The 1971 lavas are clinopyroxene-olivine-phyric basanites that contain augite, sodic-augite and aluminium augite. Kaersutite cumulate xenoliths host olivine, clinopyroxene including sodic-diopside, and calcic-amphibole, whereas an analysed leucogabbro xenolith hosts plagioclase, sodic-augite-diopside, calcic-amphibole and hauyne. Mineral thermobarometry and mineral-melt thermobarometry indicate that clinopyroxene and plagioclase in the 1971 Teneguía lavas crystallised at 20-45 km depth, coinciding with clinopyroxene and calcic-amphibole crystallisation in the kaersutite cumulate xenoliths at 25-45 km and clinopyroxene, calcic-amphibole and plagioclase crystallisation in the leucogabbro xenolith at 30-50 km. Combined mineral chemistry and thermobarometry suggest that the magmas had already crystallised, differentiated and formed multiple crystal populations in the oceanic lithospheric mantle. Notably, the magmas that supplied the 1949 and 1971 events appear to have crystallised deeper than the earlier Cumbre Vieja magmas, which suggests progressive underplating beneath the Cumbre Vieja rift zone. In addition, the lavas and xenoliths of the 1971 event crystallised at a common depth, indicating a reused plumbing system and progressive recycling of Ocean Island plutonic complexes during subsequent magmatic activity.

  14. The magmatic plumbing system beneath El Hierro (Canary Islands): constraints from phenocrysts and naturally quenched basaltic glasses in submarine rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroncik, Nicole A.; Klügel, Andreas; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2009-05-01

    A thermobarometric and petrologic study of basanites erupted from young volcanic cones along the submarine portions of the three El Hierro rift zones (NE-Rift, NW-Rift and S-Ridge) has been performed to reconstruct magma plumbing and storage beneath the island. Mineral-melt thermobarometry applied to naturally quenched glass and clinopyroxene rims yields pressures ranging from 350 to 1070 MPa with about 80% of the calculated pressures being in the range of 600-800 MPa. This corresponds to a depth range of 19-26 km, implying that the main level of final crystal fractionation is within the uppermost mantle. No systematic dependence between sample locality and fractionation pressures could be observed. Olivine and clinopyroxene crystals in the rocks are complexly zoned and have, on an inter-sample as well as on an intra-sample scale, highly variable core and rim compositions. This can best be explained by mixing of multiply saturated (olivine, magnetite, clinopyroxene, ilmenite), moderately evolved magmas with more mafic magmas being either only saturated with olivine + spinel or with olivine + spinel + clinopyroxene. The inter-sample differences indicate derivation from small, isolated magma chambers which have undergone distinct fractionation and mixing histories. This is in contrast to oceanic intraplate volcanoes situated on plumes with high melt supply rates, e.g. Kilauea Volcano (Hawaii), where magma is mainly transported through a central conduit system and stored in a shallow magma chamber prior to injection into the rift zones. The plumbing system beneath El Hierro rather resembles the magma storage systems beneath, e.g. Madeira or La Palma, indicating that small, intermittent magma chambers might be a common feature of oceanic islands fed by plumes with relatively low fluxes, which results in only limited and periodic magma supply.

  15. Thermo-mechanical evolution of the magmatic plumbing system of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, and resultant ground deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottsmann, Joachim; Odbert, Henry

    2014-05-01

    We exploit cyclic ground deformation timeseries from Soufrière Hills volcano expressed by ground uplift during reservoir priming and subsidence during extrusion. This study focuses on the period of eruptive repose between July 2003 and August 2005 marked by ground uplift prior to renewed dome growth thereafter. Using finite - element analysis we simulate the stress and pressure evolution in the magmatic plumbing system using a time-dependent, non-linear pressure-time history and inelastic thermo-mechanical properties of the upper crust. We compare two models of the plumbing system assembly: 1) two stacked spheroidal reservoirs and 2) a single prolate reservoir. In addition, two different crustal rheology models are tested for each of the plumbing models, with one order of magnitude difference in near-surface (beeswax - to fit both near and far-field deformation data. Although one might invoke such low rigidities in the immediate (heated) vicinity of an active magmatic plumbing system, they are unreasonable to assume over a large subsurface volume. Our results show that the thermal perturbation of the geotherm by the presence of a hot plumbing system is significant and fundamentally alters the portioning of subsurface stresses and strains. We further find that the thermal perturbation caused by best-fitting dual source and single source models are very similar, yielding practically identical relaxation times of encasing rocks if generalised Maxwell visco-elastic properties are invoked for the crust. The reservoir excess pressures upon simulated periodic recharge over the 15 months of uplift reach 4 MPa for a single large pressurised volume of 100 km3 extending from 6 to 17 km depth before reservoir failure and the onset of depressurisation. The pressure increase in the stacked reservoir assembly is predicted at 6 MPa almost exclusively incurred by pressurisation of a deep reservoir at 12 km depth. On the basis of the simulations and their fit to observations, we

  16. A LiDAR Survey of an Exposed Magma Plumbing System in the San Rafael Desert, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J. A.; Kinman, S.; Connor, L.; Connor, C.; Wetmore, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    Fields of dozens to hundreds of volcanoes are a common occurrence on Earth and are created due to distributed-style volcanism often referred to as "monogenetic." These volcanic fields represent a significant hazard on both local and regional scales. While it is important to understand the physical states of active volcanic fields, it is difficult or impossible to directly observe active magma emplacement. Because of this, observing an exposed magmatic plumbing system may enable further efforts to describe active volcanic fields. The magmatic plumbing system of a Pliocene-aged monogenetic volcanic field is currently exposed as a sill and dike swarm in the San Rafael Desert of Central Utah. Alkali diabase and shonkinitic sills and dikes in this region intruded into Mesozoic sedimentary units of the Colorado Plateau and now make up the most erosion resistant units, forming mesas, ridges, and small peaks associated with sills, dikes, and plug-like bodies respectively. Diez et al. (Lithosphere, 2009) and Kiyosugi et al. (Geology, 2012) provide evidence that each cylindrical plug-like body represents a conduit that once fed one volcano. The approximate original depth of the currently exposed swarm is estimated to be 0.8 km. Volcanic and sedimentary materials may be discriminated at very high resolution with the use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). LiDAR produces a three dimensional point cloud, where each point has an associated return intensity. High resolution, bare earth digital elevation models (DEMs) can be produced after vegetation is identified and removed from the dataset. The return intensity at each point can enable classification as either sedimentary or volcanic rock. A Terrestrial LiDAR Survey (TLS) has been carried out to map a large hill with at least one volcanic conduit at its core. This survey implements a RIEGL VZ-400 3D Laser Scanner, which successfully maps solid objects in line-of-sight and within 600 meters. The laser used has a near

  17. Barometry of lavas from the 1951 eruption of Fogo, Cape Verde Islands: Implications for historic and prehistoric magma plumbing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildner, Elliot; Klügel, Andreas; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2012-03-01

    Fogo is one of the most active oceanic volcanoes in the world. The island was affected by a prehistoric giant lateral collapse that decapitated the summit of the former Monte Amarelo volcano. Subsequent volcanism has partly filled the collapse scar and built up the present-day Cha das Caldeiras plain and the Pico do Fogo stratovolcano. We have conducted a thermobarometric study of historic and prehistoric, basanitic to tephritic rocks in order to gain insight into Fogo's magma plumbing system and the impact of the collapse event on fractionation depths. A main focus was the penultimate 1951 eruption, which produced basanites to tephrites (5.0-8.2 wt.% MgO) at two sites south and northwest of Pico do Fogo. Clinopyroxene-melt barometry of phenocrysts yields a well-confined pressure range of 480-650 MPa for the final crystallization level. Microthermometric data of CO2-dominated fluid inclusions in olivine and clinopyroxene phenocrysts yield systematically lower pressures of 250-430 MPa. Inclusions in cumulate xenoliths yield pressures of 100-290 MPa. The combined data indicate pre-eruptive magma storage in the uppermost mantle between 17 and 22 km depth and syn-eruptive short-term magma stalling within the lower crust at 8-13 km depth. The lower pressures revealed by fluid inclusions in xenoliths may indicate that they originate from pre-1951 magma pulses that stalled and crystallized at variable levels in the crust. There is, however, no petrologic evidence for persistent crustal magma chambers. Clinopyroxene-melt barometric data of other historic and prehistoric eruptions indicate that magma storage and differentiation occurred in the uppermost mantle at pressures between 420 and 870 MPa (15-30 km depth) throughout the subaerial evolution of Fogo. Our data indicate that fractionation depths decreased significantly during a period of about 100 ka representing a strong growth phase of Fogo edifice leading up to the giant Monte Amarelo flank collapse at 123-62 ka

  18. Modelling characteristics to predict Legionella contamination risk - Surveillance of drinking water plumbing systems and identification of risk areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Sebastian; Schreiber, Christiane; Kistemann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    For the surveillance of drinking water plumbing systems (DWPS) and the identification of risk factors, there is a need for an early estimation of the risk of Legionella contamination within a building, using efficient and assessable parameters to estimate hazards and to prioritize risks. The precision, accuracy and effectiveness of ways of estimating the risk of higher Legionella numbers (temperature, stagnation, pipe materials, etc.) have only rarely been empirically assessed in practice, although there is a broad consensus about the impact of these risk factors. We collected n = 807 drinking water samples from 9 buildings which had had Legionella spp. occurrences of >100 CFU/100mL within the last 12 months, and tested for Legionella spp., L. pneumophila, HPC 20°C and 36°C (culture-based). Each building was sampled for 6 months under standard operating conditions in the DWPS. We discovered high variability (up to 4 log(10) steps) in the presence of Legionella spp. (CFU/100 mL) within all buildings over a half year period as well as over the course of a day. Occurrences were significantly correlated with temperature, pipe length measures, and stagnation. Logistic regression modelling revealed three parameters (temperature after flushing until no significant changes in temperatures can be obtained, stagnation (low withdrawal, qualitatively assessed), pipe length proportion) to be the best predictors of Legionella contamination (>100 CFU/100 mL) at single outlets (precision = 66.7%; accuracy = 72.1%; F(0.5) score = 0.59).

  19. Identifying elements of the plumbing system beneath Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, from the source locations of very-long-period signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendros, J.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.; Bond, T.

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed 16 seismic events recorded by the Hawaiian broad-band seismic network at Kilauca Volcano during the period September 9-26, 1999. Two distinct types of event are identified based on their spectral content, very-long-period (VLP) waveform, amplitude decay pattern and particle motion. We locate the VLP signals with a method based on analyses of semblance and particle motion. Different source regions are identified for the two event types. One source region is located at depths of ~1 km beneath the northeast edge of the Halemaumau pit crater. A second region is located at depths of ~8 km below the northwest quadrant of Kilauea caldera. Our study represents the first time that such deep sources have been identified in VLP data at Kilauea. This discovery opens the possibility of obtaining a detailed image of the location and geometry of the magma plumbing system beneath this volcano based on source locations and moment tensor inversions of VLP signals recorded by a permanent, large-aperture broad-band network.

  20. Effectiveness of Devices to Monitor Biofouling and Metals Deposition on Plumbing Materials Exposed to a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Scott; Wylie, Jason; Krishna, K. C. Bal

    2017-01-01

    A Modified Robbins Device (MRD) was installed in a full-scale water distribution system to investigate biofouling and metal depositions on concrete, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and stainless steel surfaces. Bulk water monitoring and a KIWA monitor (with glass media) were used to offline monitor biofilm development on pipe wall surfaces. Results indicated that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and metal concentrations on coupons increased with time. However, bacterial diversities decreased. There was a positive correlation between increase of ATP and metal deposition on pipe surfaces of stainless steel and HDPE and no correlation was observed on concrete and glass surfaces. The shared bacterial diversity between bulk water and MRD was less than 20% and the diversity shared between the MRD and KIWA monitor was only 10%. The bacterial diversity on biofilm of plumbing material of MRD however, did not show a significant difference suggesting a lack of influence from plumbing material during early stage of biofilm development. PMID:28060947

  1. Effectiveness of Devices to Monitor Biofouling and Metals Deposition on Plumbing Materials Exposed to a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Garbin, Scott; Wylie, Jason; Krishna, K C Bal

    2017-01-01

    A Modified Robbins Device (MRD) was installed in a full-scale water distribution system to investigate biofouling and metal depositions on concrete, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and stainless steel surfaces. Bulk water monitoring and a KIWA monitor (with glass media) were used to offline monitor biofilm development on pipe wall surfaces. Results indicated that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and metal concentrations on coupons increased with time. However, bacterial diversities decreased. There was a positive correlation between increase of ATP and metal deposition on pipe surfaces of stainless steel and HDPE and no correlation was observed on concrete and glass surfaces. The shared bacterial diversity between bulk water and MRD was less than 20% and the diversity shared between the MRD and KIWA monitor was only 10%. The bacterial diversity on biofilm of plumbing material of MRD however, did not show a significant difference suggesting a lack of influence from plumbing material during early stage of biofilm development.

  2. Controls of Walker Lane Belt Pull-aparts on the Plumbing System in the Ancestral Cascades Arc, Central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, C.; Putirka, K. D.; Renne, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    Extinct volcanic fields exposed by erosion or tectonism provide the opportunity to study structural controls on volcano-tectonic basins, vents, and plumbing systems, on a timescale of millions of years. The Miocene-Pliocene Ancestral Cascades arc in the central Sierra Nevada is spectacularly well-exposed in three dimensions over rugged topography with high structural relief. The Miocene ( 12 to 5 Ma) Sierra Crest-Little Walker volcanic center and the Miocene-Pliocene ( 6 to 4.6 Ma) Ebbetts Pass volcanic center formed in pull-apart basins in the Walker Lane belt (WLB), a NNW zone of dextral strike-slip and oblique normal faults at the western edge of the Basin and Range. The Sierra Crest-Little Walker volcanic field is as large as the active Long Valley volcanic field and the Ebbetts Pass volcanic center is as large as the active Lassen volcanic field (which also lie within the WLB). Petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data are used to understand these volcanic centers, but detailed mapping of volcanic/subvolcanic lithofacies and faults forms the core of these studies. We present a time-slice series of block diagrams that illustrate the structural controls on the Ancestral Cascades arc plumbing system in the early stages of WLB transtension. Extreme transtension in the very large Sierra Crest-Little Walker pull-apart triggered rapid ascent of low-degree partial melts, causing outpouring of high-K2O lava "flood andesites" along fissure vents that resemble flood basalt vents. These fissure vents were plumbed up NNW dextral-oblique normal faults that bound the largest graben; growth faulting relations demonstrate that the focus of subsidence shifted over the field with time synchronous with eruption from the fissure vents. Smaller, point-source vents were plumbed through faults bounding smaller NNW half grabens, as well as a series of NE-SW sinistral-oblique normal faults that define a major transfer zone. The area of maximum transtension ultimately

  3. Volcanic pulses determined by local re-melting throughout plumbing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, V.; Moretti, R.; neuville, D. R.; Le Losq, C.; Allard, P.; Arienzo, I.; Civetta, L.; D'Antonio, M.; Flank, A.; Lagarde, P.; Metrich, N.; Orsi, G.; Papale, P.

    2012-12-01

    We present results from a thorough surveys of magma features from active southern Italy Volcanoes (Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Stromboli) which are clearly related to a common subduction setting. In fact, the geochemical signatures of volcanic products from these sites show that their source regions are invested by melt/fluids released from the de-volatilizing slab. Volcanism at these volcanic sites is commonly seen as due to magmas ascending and differentiating from the parental melts originated in the mantle source. However, these volcanoes and their products, melt inclusions (MIs) particularly, show common features, such as: 1) a relatively modest magma production in recent times; 2) high total volatile contents and abundant gas emission at surface; 3) abundant CO2 in the gas phase coexisting with the melts at large depths, prior to any interaction with the carbonatic basement, if present; 4) CO2 fluxing of magmas; 5) vapor buffered trends bounding MIs on H2O-CO2 saturation diagrams; 6) evidences of isotopic disequilibria between minerals and melts; 7) high oxidation states also in deep mafic parental magmas, essentially governed by Fe2+/Fe3+ around 1; 8) relatively low-MgO contents of mafic parental magmas. All these features can be ascribed to multiple paths of magma mixing/mingling + degassing + fractional crystallization. Here we present a complementary hypothesis and suggest that the ascending slab-derived supercritical fluids may (re)melt pre-existing crystal mushes (e.g., Gaetani and Grove, 2003) at great crustal depths and then mobilize small batches of fluid-rich magmas, contributing to the above features. In this view, mafic magmas emitted at studied volcanoes during the last 10 ka could represent molten patches, formed under hydrous and oxidized conditions, of mush compositionally akin to mafic trachybasaltic rocks. Iron is in fact the most abundant multiple valence element within the mushy system, and during the fluid-driven melting at depth it

  4. Seismic and structural characterization of the fluid bypass system using 3D and partial stack seismic from passive margin: inside the plumbing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacopini, David; Maestrelli, Daniele; Jihad, Ali; Bond, Clare; Bonini, Marco

    2017-04-01

    In recent years enormous attention has been paid to the understanding of the process and mechanism controlling the gas seepage and more generally the fluid expulsion affecting the earth system from onshore to offshore environment. This is because of their demonstrated impact to our environment, climate change and during subsea drilling operation. Several example from active and paleo system has been so far characterized and proposed using subsurface exploration, geophysical and geochemical monitoring technology approaches with the aims to explore what trigger and drive the overpressure necessary maintain the fluid/gas/material expulsion and what are the structure that act as a gateway for gaseous fluid and unconsolidated rock. In this contribution we explore a series of fluid escape structure (ranging from seepage pipes to large blowout pipes structure of km length) using 3D and partial stack seismic data from two distinctive passive margin from the north sea (Loyal field, West Shetland) and the Equatorial Brazil (Ceara' Basin). We will focuses on the characterization of the plumbing system internal architecture and, for selected example, exploring the AVO response (using partial stack) of the internal fluid/unconsolidated rock. The detailed seismic mapping and seismic attributes analysis of the conduit system helped us to recover some detail from the signal response of the chimney internal structures. We observed: (1) small to medium seeps and pipes following structural or sedimentary discontinuities (2) large pipes (probably incipient mud volcanoes) and blowup structures propagating upward irrespective of pre-existing fault by hydraulic fracturing and assisted by the buoyancy of a fluidised and mobilised mud-hydrocarbon mixture. The reflector termination observed inside the main conduits, the distribution of stacked bright reflectors and the AVO analysis suggests an evolution of mechanisms (involving mixture of gas, fluid and probably mud) during pipe birth and

  5. Field testing hot water temperature reduction as an energy-saving measure--does the Legionella presence change in a clinic's plumbing system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Legionella spp. represent a significant health risk for humans. To ensure hygienically safe drinking water, technical guidelines recommend a central potable water hot (PWH) supply temperature of at least 60°C at the calorifier. In a clinic building we monitored whether slightly lowered temperatures in the PWH system led to a systemic change in the growth of these pathogens. In four separate phases we tested different scenarios concerning PWH supply temperatures and disinfection with chlorine dioxide (ClO2). In each phase, we took 5 sets of samples at 17 representative sampling points in the building's drinking water plumbing system. In total we collected 476 samples from the PWH system. All samples were tested (culture-based) for Legionella spp. and serogroups. Additionally, quantitative parameters at each sampling point were collected, which could possibly be associated with the presence of Legionella spp. (Pseudomonas aeruginsoa, heterotrophic plate count at 20°C and 36°C, temperatures, time until constant temperatures were reached, and chlorine dioxide concentration). The presence of Legionella spp. showed no significant reactions after reducing the PWH supply temperature from 63°C to 60°C and 57°C, as long as disinfection with ClO2 was maintained. After omitting the disinfectant, the PWH system showed statistically significant growth rates at 57°C. PWH temperatures which are permanently lowered to less than recommended values should be carefully accompanied by frequent testing, a thorough evaluation of the building's drinking water plumbing system, and hygiene expertise.

  6. Dynamics and evolution of the plumbing system source of three major pumiceous eruptions in Dominica (Lesser Antilles): crystal system analysis and diffusion modeling on orthopyroxenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaro, Clara; Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Boudon, Georges; Martel, Caroline; Morgan, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Modern volcanology studies have demonstrated that the crystal "cargo" of magmas can be used to unravel the dynamics of magmatic plumbing systems and constrain timescales of magmatic processes. Specifically, several studies focusing on large silicic eruptions (10 to 100 km3 DRE/eruption) have shown that crystal populations may be rapidly re-mobilized over short timescales of decades to centuries prior to eruption, making these systems more dynamic than previously believed. We present a petrological study of three, major, pumiceous, dacitic eruptions produced on Dominica (Lesser Antilles Arc) in the last 50ky: Layou (~50ka), Roseau (~30ka) and Rosalie (~20ka). We combine crystal texture and chemical analyses with modeling of diffusional relaxation of chemical gradients in orthopyroxene crystals. A systems analysis approach is used to decipher remobilization processes of crystals before each eruption, and to map the plumbing system evolution over time. Timescales are calculated by Fe2+-Mg interdiffusion modeling on selected orthopyroxenes, by inter-calibration of high resolution BSE-images and EMPA analysis profiles. Textural analyses show that for each of the three eruptions about 80-85% of orthopyroxenes are unzoned, while about 15-20% exhibit normal, reverse and multiple zoning. Systems analysis of the zoned crystals reveals the presence of four different magmatic environments (ME): En46-51(ME1), En52-53(ME2), En54-58(ME3) and En59-63(ME4). During the eruptive history, the main magmatic environment, represented by the 80% of unzoned orthopyroxenes, moves from ME2 (for Layou and Roseau) to ME3 (for Rosalie), indicating a shift of the system to less-evolved compositions. For all eruptions, a main crystal transfer pathway can be identified between ME2-ME3, describing a progressive sinking of crystals from the main environment En52-53(ME2) to the less-evolved En54-58 (ME3), which receives crystals, and, by the Rosalie eruption, becomes the volumetrically most

  7. A computer controlled mass spectrometer system for investigating the decomposition of non-metallic materials under atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A PDP 11/23 quadrupole mass spectrometer system was coupled to a nondiscriminating gas inlet system permitting gases at atmospheric pressure to be admitted into a high vacuum chamber containing the ion source of the mass spectrometer without separation of the gaseous components. The resolution of related software problems has resulted in a convenient computer-mass spectrometer system capable of generating masses, relative intensities and related data on the gaseous products resulting from the atmospheric thermal decomposition of nonmetallic materials.

  8. A computer controlled mass spectrometer system for investigating the decomposition of non-metallic materials under atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A PDP 11/23 quadrupole mass spectrometer system was coupled to a nondiscriminating gas inlet system permitting gases at atmospheric pressure to be admitted into a high vacuum chamber containing the ion source of the mass spectrometer without separation of the gaseous components. The resolution of related software problems has resulted in a convenient computer-mass spectrometer system capable of generating masses, relative intensities and related data on the gaseous products resulting from the atmospheric thermal decomposition of nonmetallic materials.

  9. Fluid origin, gas fluxes and plumbing system in the sediment-hosted Salton Sea Geothermal System (California, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Adriano; Svensen, Henrik; Etiope, Giuseppe; Onderdonk, Nathan; Banks, David

    2011-08-01

    The Salton Sea Geothermal System (California) is an easily accessible setting for investigating the interactions of biotic and abiogenic geochemical processes in sediment-hosted hydrothermal systems. We present new temperature data and the molecular and isotopic composition of fluids seeping at the Davis-Schrimpf seep field during 2003-2008. Additionally, we show the first flux data for CO 2 and CH 4 released throughout the field from focused vents and diffuse soil degassing. The emitted gases are dominated by CO 2 (~ 98%) and CH 4 (~ 1.5%). By combining δ 13C CO2 (as low as - 5.4‰) and δ 13C CH4 (- 32‰ to - 17.6‰) with 3He/ 4He (R/Ra > 6) and δD CH4 values (- 216‰ to - 150‰), we suggest, in contrast to previous studies, that CO 2 may have a significant Sub-Continental Mantle source, with minimal crustal contamination, and CH 4 seems to be a mixture of high temperature pyrolitic (thermogenic) and abiogenic gas. Water seeps show that δD and δ 18O increase proportionally with salinity (Total Dissolved Solids in g/L) ranging from 1-3 g/L (gryphons) to 145 g/L (hypersaline pools). In agreement with elemental analyses, the isotopic composition of the waters indicate a meteoric origin, modified by surface evaporation, with little or no evidence of deep fossil or magmatic components. Very high Cl/Br (> 3,000) measured at many seeping waters suggests that increased salinities result from dissolution of halite crusts near the seep sites. Gas flux measurements from 91 vents (pools and gryphons) give a conservative estimate of ~ 2,100 kg of CO 2 and 11.5 kg of CH 4 emitted per day. In addition soil degassing measured at 81 stations (20x20 m grid over 51,000 m 2) revealed that 7,310 kg/d CO 2 and 33 kg/d CH 4 are pervasively released to the atmosphere. These results emphasise that diffuse gas emission from soil can be dominant (~ 75%) even in hydrothermal systems with large and vigorous gas venting. Sediment-hosted hydrothermal systems may represent an

  10. Crustal Assimilation and Magma Recharge in the Recent Mt. Etna Magma Plumbing System: Evidence from In Situ Plagioclase Textural and Compositional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, B. W.; Bohrson, W. A.; Viccaro, M.

    2011-12-01

    Mt. Etna is Europe's largest and most active volcano, and as a result of its proximity to populated areas, understanding the structure of its magma plumbing system and the nature of its magmatic processes is essential for better predicting eruptive hazards. The aim of this study is to document core to rim textural, chemical, and isotopic variations in plagioclase, in order to investigate the physical characteristics of the subvolcanic magma system and processes by which magmas evolve. Nomarski Differential Interference Contrast (NDIC) imaging was used to characterize the complex textures of plagioclase crystals in six trachybasaltic samples from eruption years 1974, 1981, 2001, and 2004. Approximately 30 NDIC images per sample revealed 6 textural categories defined by combinations of monotonous, oscillatory, sieve, and patchy zoning. Core to rim electron microprobe analyses carried out at distinct textural boundaries revealed variable anorthite (An) (mol %) values ranging from 92 to 44. In most phenocrysts, An decreases non-monotonically from core to rim, and simple correlations among An, FeO (wt. %), textural type, and eruption year are lacking, indicating intricate crystallization histories that likely reflect changing magma chamber conditions. Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-ICPMS) 87Sr/86Sr analyses were performed on cores and rims of selected crystals from each textural type within each sample. Phenocryst 87Sr/86Sr values ranged from ~0.70300 to 0.70370 (±.00002), and were significantly lower than preliminary groundmass 87Sr/86Sr values, which ranged from ~0.70466 to 0.70498. Whole-rock 87Sr/86Sr values are between groundmass and crystal values. The Δ87Sr/86Sr within each crystal, defined as rim minus core, varied from -0.00030 to +0.00011; while most crystals exhibit a core to rim increase, some showed a decrease and some had constant 87Sr/86Sr. The prevalence of core to rim increases, combined with whole rock and preliminary

  11. Surface deformation versus eruption rates of the two Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruptions; implications for the magma plumbing system and origin of melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, R.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Arnadottir, T.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Magnusson, E.

    2010-12-01

    Repeated geodetic measurements reveal how active volcanoes deform at the surface, and data inversion facilitates inferences about the related volume changes of underlying deformation sources. During an eruption, drainage from a shallow magma chamber can lead to direct correlation between magma flow rate and deformation rates, as observed previously in Iceland. In the simplest case, a constant scale factor relates magma flow rates, deformation rates on the surface, and inferred volume contraction of subsurface sources. The scale factor will depend on magma source geometry, compressibility of residing magma and rheological properties of the crustal rocks. During the two eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, in 2010 an entirely different behaviour was observed. This behaviour may be related to the rather unique plumbing system of this particular Icelandic volcano, which appears to have no shallow magma chamber. For the initial flank eruption, where olivine basalt were erupted during a period of about 3 weeks, the average eruption rate was comparable to the inferred flow rate during formation of a pre-eruptive network of intrusions. Detailed GPS and InSAR measurements have revealed a model for the subsurface magma plumbing system active prior to and during the events with multiple sills around 5 km depth. Such intrusions have occurred intermittently in this particular volcano for the past 18 years. During the subsequent explosive trachy-andesitic summit eruption, the relation between deformation rate and magma flow rate is more complex. A large discrepancy exists between the inferred erupted volume and the computed volume change based on the associated surface deformation. When recalculated to dense rock equivalent, the inferred volume change responsible for the main deformation is about one order of magnitude smaller than the sum of mapped erupted volumes. Furthermore, the spatial pattern of the deformation is complex, and not directly related to the

  12. The Shallow Plumbing System of Piton de la Fournaise Volcano (La Réunion island, Indian Ocean) Revealed by the Major 2007 Caldera Forming Eruption (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Muro, A.; Metrich, N.; Daniele, V.; Rosi, M.; Armienti, P.; Fougeroux, T.; Deloule, E.; Arienzo, I.; Civetta, L.

    2013-12-01

    The 2007 eruption represents a major event in the recent history of Piton de la Fournaise volcano because it produced: i) the most voluminous lava field (at least 0.21 km3), ii) the most intense lava fountaining activity (>200 m high), iii) the largest SO2 plume (>230 kt), iv) the largest summit collapse (1 km wide x 0.34 km deep) and v) the main flank slip event (up to 1.4 m eastwards) ever documented at PdF. The bulk magma volume extruded during the 2007 eruptive sequence is similar to that emitted during the entire 1998-2006 period. As a whole, the volume of magma emitted during the whole 1998-2007 activity cycle is remarkably close to that estimated (~0.35 km3) for the shallow plumbing system of Piton de la Fournaise. The 2007 eruptive sequence consisted of three successive phases (February, March and April). The main caldera forming phase of April ended a 9 years long period (1998-2007) of continuous edifice inflation and frequent eruptive activity (3 eruptions per year on average). On the contrary, post-2007 activity punctuates a trend of continuous deflation and consists of small-volume summit eruptions of moderate/low MgO magmas and frequent shallow magma intrusions. The 2007 lavas and pyroclasts cover the complete range of textures and crystal content an composition typically found in PdF products. The broad range of textures and the large volumes of pyroclasts, lava and gas emitted in 2007 provide an unique and exceptional record of the time-integrated evolution of PdF magma, and represent an unique opportunity to image the volcano plumbing system and bring new constraints on the processes controlling its magmatic and volatile budget. We here address these issues by using an unprecedented geochemical dataset (major, volatile and trace elements, Sr-Nd isotopes) on bulk rocks, minerals, glass inclusions and glass matrices from a very detailed sample set, representative of the time evolution of extruded magma during the entire 2007 eruptive sequence.

  13. Magnetic links among lava flows, tuffs and the underground plumbing system in a monogenetic volcano, derived from magnetics and paleomagnetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Trigo-Huesca, Alfonso; Pérez-Cruz, Ligia

    2012-12-01

    A combined study using magnetics and paleomagnetism of the Toluquilla monogenetic volcano and associated lavas and tuffs from Valsequillo basin in Central Mexico provides evidence on a 'magnetic' link between the lavas, ash tuffs and the underground volcanic conduit system. Paleomagnetic analyses show that the lava and ash tuff carry reverse polarity magnetizations, which correlate with the inversely polarized dipolar magnetic anomaly over the volcano. The magnetizations in the lava and tuff show similar southward declinations and upward inclinations, supporting petrological inferences that the tuff was emplaced while still hot and indicating a temporal correlation for lava and tuff emplacement. Modeling of the dipolar anomaly gives a reverse polarity source magnetization associated with a vertical prismatic body with southward declination and upward inclination, which correlates with the reverse polarity magnetizations in the lava and tuff. The study documents a direct correlation of the paleomagnetic records with the underground magmatic conduit system of the monogenetic volcano. Time scale for cooling of the volcanic plumbing system involves a longer period than the one for the tuff and lava, suggesting that magnetization for the source of dipolar anomaly may represent a long time average as compared to the spot readings in the lava and tuff. The reverse polarity magnetizations in lava and tuff and in the underground source body for the magnetic anomaly are interpreted in terms of eruptive activity of Toluquilla volcano at about 1.3 Ma during the Matuyama reverse polarity C1r.2r chron.

  14. Inverse modelling of the reversely magnetized, shallow plumbing system hosting oil reservoirs of the Auca Mahuida volcano (Payeina retroarc, Neuquén Basin, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, John; De Ritis, Riccardo; Ventura, Guido; Longo, Mariana; Ravat, Dhananjay; Speranza, Fabio; Chiappini, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    The Auca Mahuida volcano (2.03-0.88 Ma) located east of the Andean thrust front in the Neuquén basin (Argentina) hosts an oil system of thermogenic origin and is affected by the NW-SE striking-faults. Intrusive bodies and the underlying Jurassic sediments constitute the reservoir rocks. Aeromagnetic data collected in the Auca Mahuida area detected multiple dipolar magnetic anomalies, many of which have reverse polarity. Palaeomagnetic measurements on rock samples collected in the field together with available age determinations indicate that the reversely magnetized sources were mainly emplaced during the Matuyama reverse polarity chron while the normal polarity sources were emplaced during the Olduvai and/or Jaramillo subchrons. The location and geometry of the intrusive bodies is poorly known and the customary magnetic inversion is rendered difficult because of multiple natural remanent magnetization directions. To address these difficulties, a voxel inversion was applied to model the vector residual magnetic intensity (VRMI) transformation of the observed total magnetic intensity data. The modelling showed a 1.5 km deep, subcircular ring-shaped intrusion below the summit of the volcano and a series of NW-SE elongated, fault-controlled intrusive bodies to depths up to 3-4 km. Our results show that magnetic data and VRMI modelling help resolve the geometry of the shallow plumbing system of volcanoes with remanently magnetized sources, and estimate the depth and geometry of potential oil reservoirs in volcanic areas.

  15. Shallow earthquake swarms in southern Ryukyu area: manifestation of dynamics of fluid and/or magma plumbing system revealed by teleseismic and regional datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Earthquake swarm occurrence beneath volcanic domains is one of the indicators of current magmatic activity in the Earth's crust. Repeated occurrence of teleseismically recorded earthquake swarms has been observed in the lithospheric wedge of the southern Ryukyu area above the subducting slab of the Philippine Sea Plate. The swarms were analyzed using the EHB, ISC and JMA catalogs of hypocenter parameters. The swarm earthquakes are shallow (1-60 km), in the body-wave magnitude range up to 5.8. The swarms are distributed beneath the seafloor, parallel to the Ryukyu Trench along a belt connecting active subaerial volcanoes Io-Torishima north-east and Kueishantao west of the investigated area. Epicentral zones of the swarms often coincide with distinct elevations at the seafloor—seamounts and seamount ranges. The top of the subducting slab reaches a depth of about 100 km beneath the zones of earthquake swarm occurrence, which is an average depth of a slab beneath volcanoes in general. The repeated occurrence of relatively strong, teleseismically recorded earthquake swarms thus probably reflects fluid and/or magma migration in the plumbing system of the volcanic arc and points to brittle character of the lithospheric wedge at respective depths. In addition to the factual results, this study documents the high accuracy of hypocenter parameter determinations published by the International Seismological Centre and the usefulness of the EHB relocation procedure.

  16. Subterranean fragmentation of magma during conduit initiation and evolution in the shallow plumbing system of the small-volume Jagged Rocks volcanoes (Hopi Buttes Volcanic Field, Arizona, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Giuseppe; White, James D. L.; Muirhead, James D.; Ort, Michael H.

    2016-08-01

    Monogenetic volcanoes have limited magma supply and lack long-lived sustained magma plumbing systems. They erupt once, often from multiple vents and sometimes over several years, and are rarely or never re-activated. Eruptive behavior is very sensitive to physical processes (e.g., volatile exsolution, magma-water interaction) occurring in the later stages of magma ascent at shallow crustal depths (flowing through dikes fragmented and conduits were formed. We have identified three main types of fragmental deposits, (1) buds (which emerge from dikes), (2) pyroclastic massifs, and (3) diatremes; these represent three different styles and intensities of shallow-depth magma fragmentation. They may develop successively and at different sites during the evolution of a monogenetic volcano. The deposits consist of a mixture of pyroclasts with varying degrees of welding and country-rock debris in various proportions. Pyroclasts are commonly welded together, but also reveal in places features consistent with phreatomagmatism, such as blocky shapes, dense groundmasses, and composite clasts (loaded and cored). The extent of fragmentation and the formation of subterranean open space controlled the nature of the particles and the architecture and geometry of these conduit structures and their deposits.

  17. Geochemical and isotopic insights into the assembly, evolution and disruption of a magmatic plumbing system before and after a cataclysmic caldera-collapse eruption at Ischia volcano (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. J.; Civetta, L.; Arienzo, I.; D'Antonio, M.; Moretti, R.; Orsi, G.; Tomlinson, E. L.; Albert, P. G.; Menzies, M. A.

    2014-09-01

    New geochemical and isotopic data on volcanic rocks spanning the period ~75-50 ka BP on Ischia volcano, Italy, shed light on the evolution of the magmatic system before and after the catastrophic, caldera-forming Monte Epomeo Green Tuff (MEGT) eruption. Volcanic activity during this period was influenced by a large, composite and differentiating magmatic system, replenished several times with isotopically distinct magmas of deep provenance. Chemical and isotopic variations highlight that the pre-MEGT eruptions were fed by trachytic/phonolitic magmas from an isotopically zoned reservoir that were poorly enriched in radiogenic Sr and became progressively less radiogenic with time. Just prior to the MEGT eruption, the magmatic system was recharged by an isotopically distinct magma, relatively more enriched in radiogenic Sr with respect to the previously erupted magmas. This second magma initially fed several SubPlinian explosive eruptions and later supplied the climactic, phonolitic-to-trachytic MEGT eruption(s). Isotopic data, together with erupted volume estimations obtained for MEGT eruption(s), indicate that >5-10 km3 of this relatively enriched magma had accumulated in the Ischia plumbing system. Geochemical modelling indicates that it accumulated at shallow depths (4-6 km), over a period of ca. 20 ka. After the MEGT eruption, volcanic activity was fed by a new batch of less differentiated (trachyte-latite) magma that was slightly less enriched in radiogenic Sr. The geochemical and Sr-Nd-isotopic variations through time reflect the upward flux of isotopically distinct magma batches, variably contaminated by Hercynian crust at 8-12 km depth. The deep-sourced latitic to trachytic magmas stalled at shallow depths (4-6 km depth), differentiated to phonolite through crystal fractionation and assimilation of a feldspar-rich mush, or ascended directly to the surface and erupted.

  18. Complex subvolcanic magma plumbing system of an alkali basaltic maar-diatreme volcano (Elie Ness, Fife, Scotland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernon, T. M.; Upton, B. G. J.; Ugra, R.; Yücel, C.; Taylor, R. N.; Elliott, H.

    2016-11-01

    Alkali basaltic diatremes such as Elie Ness (Fife, Scotland) expose a range of volcanic lithofacies that points to a complex, multi-stage emplacement history. Here, basanites contain phenocrysts including pyrope garnet and sub-calcic augites from depths of 60 km. Volcanic rocks from all units, pyroclastic and hypabyssal, are characterised by rare earth element (REE) patterns that show continuous enrichment from heavy REE (HREE) to light REE (LREE), and high Zr/Y that are consistent with retention of garnet in the mantle source during melting of peridotite in a garnet lherzolite facies. Erupted garnets are euhedral and unresorbed, signifying rapid ascent through the lithosphere. The magmas also transported abundant pyroxenitic clasts, cognate with the basanite host, from shallower depths ( 35-40 km). These clasts exhibit wide variation in texture, mode and mineralogy, consistent with growth from a range of compositionally diverse melts. Further, clinopyroxene phenocrysts from both the hypabyssal and pyroclastic units exhibit a very wide compositional range, indicative of polybaric fractionation and magma mixing. This is attributed to stalling of earlier magmas in the lower crust - principally from 22 to 28 km - as indicated by pyroxene thermobarometry. Many clinopyroxenes display chemical zoning profiles, occasionally with mantles and rims of higher magnesium number (Mg#) suggesting the magmas were mobilised by juvenile basanite magma. The tuffs also contain alkali feldspar megacrysts together with Fe-clinopyroxene, zircon and related salic xenoliths, of the 'anorthoclasite suite' - inferred to have crystallised at upper mantle to lower crustal depths from salic magma in advance of the mafic host magmas. Despite evidence for entrainment of heterogeneous crystal mushes, the rapidly ascending melts experienced negligible crustal contamination. The complex association of phenocrysts, megacrysts and autoliths at Elie Ness indicates thorough mixing in a dynamic system

  19. Insights into the Mount St. Helens Magma Plumbing System from Coarse-grained, Crystal-rich Enclaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, M.; Bachmann, O.; Ellis, B. S.; Guillong, M.; Clynne, M. A.; Pallister, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Co-magmatic plutonic enclaves provide information about the conditions of magmatic storage and magmatic processes. The deposits of Mount St. Helens contain a variety of coarse-grained, crystal-rich enclaves, dominantly derived from the Tertiary basement. However, zircons in two enclaves returned ages of 5-108 ka (n=29) and 45-486 ka (n=16), overlapping with zircon ages from the volcanics. From textures and mineralogy, we define five enclave types, interpreted as crystal mush from the current magmatic system: hbl-gabbros with ad-cumulate structure (type 1), dioritic meso-cumulates with partly decomposed minerals (type 2), and dioritic rocks enriched in incompatible elements (type 3). All three occur in Pine Creek dacite domes ( 2900 BP), and comprise amphibole, plagioclase, orthopyroxene and oxides (±apatite and zircon) with variable amounts of residual melt. A heterad-cumulate (type 4) from 1980 dacite consists of olivine, plagioclase, ortho- and clinopyroxene (±oxides and apatite) with poikilitic overgrowth of amphibole. Inclusions of pyroxene-plagioclase-oxide-bearing crystal aggregates (type 5) are found in Late Pine Creek andesites ( 2600 BP). Compositional similarity between amphiboles in type 1 and 2 cumulates and those from their dacitic host rock suggests these cumulates co-erupted with their extracted melt. Modelled trace element compositions of coexisting liquids indicate that the high-Al amphibole cores (up to 14.5 wt.% Al2O3) crystallized from andesitic melts that are parental to the dacites. In contrast, andesites erupted during the same eruptive period lack amphibole suggesting drier/shallower crystallization resulting in the predominant fractionation of pyroxene seen in type 5 inclusions. Different cumulates represent residues from basaltic andesitic to dacitic melts. Mid to upper crustal pressures determined via barometry are consistent with crystallization within the bottle-shaped magma reservoir ( 7-20 km) imaged during the recent activity.

  20. Evolution of the crustal magma plumbing system during the build-up to the 22-ka caldera-forming eruption of Santorini (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, G. N.; Druitt, T. H.; Scaillet, S.

    2013-12-01

    the mixing of olivine basalt and dacite in approximately equal proportions) in the Cape Riva and late Therasia products. Pressurisation of the upper crustal plumbing system by sustained, high-flux injection of dacite and basalt may have triggered the transition from prolonged, largely effusive activity to explosive eruption and caldera collapse.

  1. Magma plumbing system at the beginning of repeated caldera eruption: A case study on Aso-1 erupted about 270 ky ago from Aso caldera, SW Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, I.; Hoshizumi, H.; Miyabuchi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the commencement of magma plumbing system of a polygenetic caldera, we started petrological study on the earliest eruptive product of Aso caldera, SW Japan. Aso caldera is one of the active volcano in Japan which have produced four stages (Aso-1, -2, -3, -4) of large-scale pyroclastic flow deposits 270 to 90 ky. ago. A suite of samples were collected from the bottom of Aso-1 pyroclastic flow deposit and from the underlying tephra layer (Ono et al., 1979). The tephra comprises more than 10 pumice fall units inter-layered by dark gray volcanic ash. For whole rock chemistry, coarser pumice fragments were separated. For mineral and glass chemistry, phenocrysts and glass particles were handpicked from the sieved 500-1000 um fractions under a binocular microscope. This fraction consist of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, variably vesiculated volcanic glass fragments, and clinopyroxene phenocrysts. They were analyzed using an electron micro-probe. The suite of samples are similar and major temporal change is the chemical composition of orthopyroxenes; those from upper horizon are relatively Mg rich. Anorthite content of plagioclase phenocryst is bimodal 49-53 mol. % (major) and 57-70 mol. % (minor). Silica content of matrix glass fall in a narrow range 68-70 wt. %. Temperature and oxygen fugacity were estimated to be 865-905 deg-C and FMQ+2 log unit, respectively, using ILMAT (Lepage, 2003). Pressure and water content of the magma are estimated to be 5-7 kbar and 0.5-1 wt. % H2O, respectively, using rhyolite-MELTS (Gualda et al., 2012) on the most undifferentiated tholeiitic basalt of Aso 4KC-03 (Hunter, 1998) to reproduce the observed composition of matrix glass (68-70 wt. % SiO2) and plagioclase (An 49-53 mol. %). The calcic plagioclase (An 57-70 mol. %), however, suggest that the basalt was initially hydrous and require magma degassing before the differentiation. If we assume degassing by magma convection in a conduit (Kazahaya et al., 1994), the

  2. On the plumbing system of volcanic complexes: field constraints from the Isle of Skye (UK) and FEM elasto-plastic modelling including gravity and tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistacchi, A.; Pisterna, R.; Romano, V.; Rust, D.; Tibaldi, A.

    2009-04-01

    The plumbing system that connects a sub-volcanic magma reservoir to the surface has been the object of field characterization and mechanical modelling efforts since the pioneering work by Anderson (1936), who produced a detailed account of the spectacular Cullin Cone-sheet Complex (Isle of Skye, UK) and a geometrical and mechanical model aimed at defining the depth to the magma chamber. Since this work, the definition of the stress state in the half space comprised between the magma reservoir and the surface (modelled either as a flat surface or a surface comprising a volcanic edifice) was considered the key point in reconstructing dike propagation paths from the magma chamber. In fact, this process is generally seen as the propagation in an elastic media of purely tensional joints (mode I or opening mode propagation), which follow trajectories perpendicular to the least compressive principal stress axis. Later works generally used different continuum mechanics methodologies (analytic, BEM, FEM) to solve the problem of a pressure source (the magma chamber, either a point source or a finite volume) in an elastic (in some cases heterogeneous) half space (bounded by a flat topography or topped by a "volcano"). All these models (with a few limited exceptions) disregard the effect of the regional stress field, which is caused by tectonic boundary forces and gravitational body load, and consider only the pressure source represented by the magma chamber (review in Gudmundsson, 2006). However, this is only a (sometimes subordinate) component of the total stress field. Grosfils (2007) first introduced the gravitational load (but not tectonic stresses) in an elastic model solved with FEM in a 2D axisymmetric half-space, showing that "failure to incorporate gravitational loading correctly" affect the calculated stress pattern and many of the predictions that can be drawn from the models. In this contribution we report on modelling results that include: 2D axisymmetric or true

  3. Common features of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkinham, Joseph O

    2015-04-24

    Recently it has been estimated that the annual cost of diseases caused by the waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is $500 million. For the period 2001-2012, the estimated cost of hospital admissions for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease, the majority caused by M. avium, was almost $1 billion. These three waterborne opportunistic pathogens are normal inhabitants of drinking water--not contaminants--that share a number of key characteristics that predispose them to survival, persistence, and growth in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. Herein, I list and describe these shared characteristics that include: disinfectant-resistance, biofilm-formation, growth in amoebae, growth at low organic carbon concentrations (oligotrophic), and growth under conditions of stagnation. This review is intended to increase awareness of OPPPs, identify emerging OPPPs, and challenge the drinking water industry to develop novel approaches toward their control.

  4. Investigating the deepest part of a volcano plumbing system: Evidence for an active magma path below the western flank of Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion Island)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudoire, G.; Liuzzo, M.; Di Muro, A.; Ferrazzini, V.; Michon, L.; Grassa, F.; Derrien, A.; Villeneuve, N.; Bourdeu, A.; Brunet, C.; Giudice, G.; Gurrieri, S.

    2017-07-01

    Peripheral diffuse degassing of CO2 from the soil occurs across the western flank of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean) along a narrow zone. In this area, carbon isotopic analysis on soil gas samples highlights significant mixing between magmatic and organic end-members. The zones with the strongest magmatic signature (highest δ13C) overlap spatial distribution of hypocenters recorded shortly before and during volcano reactivation and allow discriminating a N135° degassing lineament, with a minimum length of 11 km and 140 ± 20 m-width. Such orientation is in accordance with that of an old dyke network along the rift zone and with N120-130° and N140-155° lineaments related to the inheritance of oceanic lithosphere structures. Our findings show that this N135° lineament represents a preferential magmatic pathway for deep magma transfer below the volcano flank. Moreover, spatial distributions of recent eccentric cones indicate a well-founded possibility that future eruptions may by-pass the shallow plumbing system of the central area of the volcano, taking a lateral pathway along this structure. Our results also confirm that Piton de la Fournaise activity is linked to a laterally shifted plumbing system and represent a major improvement in identifying the main high-risk area on the densely populated western flank of the volcano.

  5. Development of Non-metal Material Query System for Satellite-borne Radar Based on .NET Framework%基于.NET框架的星载雷达非金属材料查询系统开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程丹; 欧屹

    2011-01-01

    Based on .NET framework,the non-metal material query system for satellite-borne radar was developed in the environment of Visual Studio 2005.The web pages were written by ASP.NET while the database was developed using Oracle9i.This system realizes query of non-metal material data for satellite-borne radar in enterprise LAN.It can also carry out data maintenance via administrator account.This system effectively realizes knowledge sharing,and also provides a good cooperative working environment for the enterprise.%基于.NET框架,在Visual Studio 2005环境中开发了星载雷达非金属材料查询系统,前台Web页面和后台数据库分别采用ASP.NET和Oracle9i进行开发。该系统能够在企业局域网范围内实现对星载雷达非金属材料相关信息的查询,且通过登录管理员帐户,可以实现对材料信息的数据维护。该系统有效实现了知识共享,为企业提供了理想的协同工作环境。

  6. Magma plumbing for the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Harri; Mattsson, Tobias; Deegan, Frances M.; Troll, Valentin R.; Burchardt, Steffi; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Tryggvason, Ari; Krumbholz, Michael; Harris, Chris

    2016-08-01

    The 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption on Iceland was located within the Askja fissure swarm but was accompanied by caldera subsidence in the Bárðarbunga central volcano 45 km to the southwest. Geophysical monitoring of the eruption identified a seismic swarm that migrated from Bárðarbunga to the Holuhraun eruption site over the course of two weeks. In order to better understand this lateral connection between Bárðarbunga and Holuhraun, we present mineral textures and compositions, mineral-melt-equilibrium calculations, whole rock and trace element data, and oxygen isotope ratios for selected Holuhraun samples. The Holuhraun lavas are compositionally similar to recorded historical eruptions from the Bárðarbunga volcanic system but are distinct from the historical eruption products of the nearby Askja system. Thermobarometry calculations indicate a polybaric magma plumbing system for the Holuhraun eruption, wherein clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystallized at average depths of ˜17 km and ˜5 km, respectively. Crystal resorption textures and oxygen isotope variations imply that this multilevel plumbing system facilitated magma mixing and assimilation of low-δ18O Icelandic crust prior to eruption. In conjunction with the existing geophysical evidence for lateral migration, our results support a model of initial vertical magma ascent within the Bárðarbunga plumbing system followed by lateral transport of aggregated magma batches within the upper crust to the Holuhraun eruption site.

  7. Fate of free chlorine in drinking water during distribution in premise plumbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Muzi; He, Chunguang; He, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Free chlorine is a potent oxidizing agent and has been used extensively as a disinfectant in processes including water treatment. The presence of free chlorine residual is essential for the prevention of microbial regrowth in water distribution systems. However, excessive levels of free chlorine can cause adverse health effects. It is a major challenge to maintain appropriate levels of free chlorine residual in premise plumbing. As the first effort to assessing the fate of chlorine in premise plumbing using actual premise plumbing pipe sections, three piping materials frequently used in premise plumbing, i.e. copper, galvanized iron, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), were investigated for their performance in maintaining free chlorine residual. Free chlorine decay was shown to follow first-order kinetics for all three pipe materials tested. The most rapid chlorine decay was observed in copper pipes, suggesting the need for higher chlorine dosage to maintain appropriate levels of free chlorine residual if copper piping is used. PVC pipes exhibited the least reactivity with free chlorine, indicative of the advantage of PVC as a premise plumbing material for maintaining free chlorine residual. The reactivity of copper piping with free chlorine was significantly hindered by the accumulation of pipe deposits. In contrast, the impact on chlorine decay by pipe deposits was not significant in galvanized iron and PVC pipes. Findings in this study are of great importance for the development of effective strategies for the control of free chlorine residual and prevention of microbiological contamination in premise plumbing.

  8. Micro-textures in plagioclase from 1994e1995 eruption, Barren Island Volcano:Evidence of dynamic magma plumbing system in the Andaman subduction zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.L. Renjith

    2014-01-01

    A systematic account of micro-textures and a few compositional profiles of plagioclase from high-alumina basaltic aa lava erupted during the year 1994e1995, from Barren Island Volcano, NE India ocean, are presented for the first time. The identified micro-textures can be grouped into two categories:(i) Growth related textures in the form of coarse/fine-sieve morphology, fine-scale oscillatory zoning and resorption surfaces resulted when the equilibrium at the crystal-melt interface was fluctuated due to change in temperature or H2O or pressure or composition of the crystallizing melt;and (ii) morphological texture, like glomerocryst, synneusis, swallow-tailed crystal, microlite and broken crystals, formed by the influence of dynamic behavior of the crystallizing magma (convection, turbulence, degassing, etc.). Each micro-texture has developed in a specific magmatic environment, accordingly, a first order magma plumbing model and crystallization dynamics are envisaged for the studied lava unit. Magma generated has undergone extensive fractional crystallization of An-rich plagioclase in stable magmatic environment at a deeper depth. Subsequently they ascend to a shallow chamber where the newly brought crystals and pre-existing crystals have undergone dynamic crystallization via dissolution-regrowth processes in a convective self-mixing environment. Such repeated recharge-recycling processes have produced various populations of plagioclase with different micro-textural stratigraphy in the studied lava unit. Intermittent degassing and eruption related decompression have also played a major role in the final stage of crystallization dynamics.

  9. Corrosion control in water supply systems: effect of pH, alkalinity, and orthophosphate on lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Y S; Elefsiniotis, P

    2009-10-01

    This study explored the potential of lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing in the Auckland region of New Zealand. A five-month field investigation, at six representative locations, indicated that Auckland's water can be characterized as soft and potentially corrosive, having low alkalinity and hardness levels and a moderately alkaline pH. More than 90% of the unflushed samples contained lead above the maximum acceptable value (MAV) of 10 microg/L (New Zealand Standards). In contrast, the copper level of unflushed samples remained consistently below the corresponding MAV of 2 mg/L. Flushing however reduced sharply metal concentrations, with lead values well below the MAV limit. Generally, metal leaching patterns showed a limited degree of correlation with the variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen and free chlorine residual at all sampling locations. Furthermore, a series of bench-scale experiments was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of pH and alkalinity adjustment, as well as orthophosphate addition as corrosion control tools regarding lead and copper dissolution. Results demonstrated that lead and copper leaching was predominant during the first 24 hr of stagnation, but reached an equilibrium state afterwards. Since the soluble fraction of both metals was small (12% for lead, 29% for copper), it is apparent that the non-soluble compounds play a predominant role in the dissolution process. The degree of leaching however was largely affected by the variations in pH and alkalinity. At pH around neutrality, an increase in alkalinity promoted metal dissolution, while at pH 9.0 the effect of alkalinity on leaching was marginal. Lastly, addition of orthophosphate as a corrosion inhibitor was more effective at pH 7.5 or higher, resulting in approximately 70% reduction in both lead and copper concentrations.

  10. Imaging magma plumbing beneath Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes during repose periods are not commonly monitored by dense instrumentation networks and so activity during periods of unrest is difficult to put in context. We have operated a dense seismic network of 3-component, broadband instruments around Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland, since 2006. Askja last erupted in 1961, with a relatively small basaltic lava flow. Since 1975 the central caldera has been subsiding and there has been no indication of volcanic activity. Despite this, Askja has been one of the more seismically active volcanoes in Iceland. The majority of these events are due to an extensive geothermal area within the caldera and tectonically induced earthquakes to the northeast which are not related to the magma plumbing system. More intriguing are the less numerous deeper earthquakes at 12-24km depth, situated in three distinct areas within the volcanic system. These earthquakes often show a frequency content which is lower than the shallower activity, but they still show strong P and S wave arrivals indicative of brittle failure, despite their location being well below the brittle-ductile boundary, which, in Askja is ~7km bsl. These earthquakes indicate the presence of melt moving or degassing at depth while the volcano is not inflating, as only high strain rates or increased pore fluid pressures would cause brittle fracture in what is normally an aseismic region in the ductile zone. The lower frequency content must be the result of a slower source time function as earthquakes which are both high frequency and low frequency come from the same cluster, thereby discounting a highly attenuating lower crust. To image the plumbing system beneath Askja, local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Travel-time tables were created using a finite difference technique and the residuals were used to solve simultaneously for both the earthquake locations

  11. A study on non-metallic structure of heliostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaobin; Zang Chuncheng; Zhang Xiliang; Wang Yangzhong; Du Fengli [Himin Solar Energy Group Co., Ltd, Dezhou City (China); Wang Zhifeng [Inst. of Electrical Engineering, CAS, BJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    Heliostat constitutes a very important component in the solar power tower system. Its importance derives from three aspects: one is the large proportion in the total cost, accounting for about 50% of the whole, the other is its concentration efficiency and reflectivity heavily determining the power conversion from solar thermal energy to electrical energy, another is itself power consumption amount highly expressing failure or success of the power plant. Therefore, serious efforts and considerations from the structure, motion and control mode to material selection have to be given in the design and optimization of heliostat. In the present paper, the mechanical and aging performance of non-metallic materials is investigated and compared. The possibility of these non-metallic materials in the application of heliostat structure is discussed. (orig.)

  12. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing Part I: System Analysis, Component Identification, Additive Manufacturing, and Testing of Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Haller, William J.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Schnulo, Sydney L.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Weir, Don; Wali, Natalie; Vinup, Michael; Jones, Michael G.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom; Mehl, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The research and development activities reported in this publication were carried out under NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) funded project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing." The objective of the project was to conduct evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. The results of the activities are described in three part report. The first part of the report contains the data and analysis of engine system trade studies, which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. The technical scope of activities included an assessment of the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composites, which were accomplished by fabricating prototype engine components and testing them in simulated engine operating conditions. The manufacturing process parameters were developed and optimized for polymer and ceramic composites (described in detail in the second and third part of the report). A number of prototype components (inlet guide vane (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included turbine nozzle components. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  13. Topological gravity on plumbed V-cobordisms

    OpenAIRE

    Efremov, Vladimir N.; Mitskievich, Nikolai V.; Magdaleno, Alfonso M. Hernandez; Bautista, Ramona Serrano

    2005-01-01

    An ensemble of cosmological models based on generalized BF-theory is constructed where the role of vacuum (zero-level) coupling constants is played by topologically invariant rational intersection forms (cosmological-constant matrices) of 4-dimensional plumbed V-cobordisms which are interpreted as Euclidean spacetime regions. For these regions describing topology changes, the rational and integer intersection matrices are calculated. A relation is found between the hierarchy of certain elemen...

  14. Topological gravity on plumbed V-cobordisms

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, V N; Magdaleno, A M H; Bautista, R S; Efremov, Vladimir N.; Mitskievich, Nikolai V.; Magdaleno, Alfonso M. Hernandez; Bautista, Ramona Serrano

    2005-01-01

    An ensemble of cosmological models based on generalized BF-theory is constructed where the role of vacuum (zero-level) coupling constants is played by topologically invariant rational intersection forms (cosmological-constant matrices) of 4-dimensional plumbed V-cobordisms which are interpreted as Euclidean spacetime regions. For these regions describing topology changes, the rational and integer intersection matrices are calculated. A relation is found between the hierarchy of certain elements of these matrices and the hierarchy of coupling constants of the universal (low-energy) interactions. PACS numbers: 0420G, 0240, 0460

  15. Topological gravity on plumbed V-cobordisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efremov, Vladimir N [Mathematics Department, CUCEI, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara (Mexico); Mitskievich, Nikolai V [Physics Department, CUCEI, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara (Mexico); Magdaleno, Alfonso M Hernandez [Physics Department, CUCEI, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara (Mexico); Bautista, Ramona Serrano [Mathematics Department, CUCEI, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara (Mexico)

    2005-09-07

    An ensemble of cosmological models based on generalized BF-theory is constructed where the role of vacuum (zero-level) coupling constants is played by topologically invariant rational intersection forms (cosmological-constant matrices) of four-dimensional plumbed V-cobordisms which are interpreted as Euclidean spacetime regions. For these regions describing topology changes, the rational and integer intersection matrices are calculated. A relation is found between the hierarchy of certain elements of these matrices and the hierarchy of coupling constants of the universal (low-energy) interactions.

  16. Sustainable Non-Metallic Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Tretsiakova-McNally

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the largest energy consumers and greenhouse gases emitters, both in the developed and developing countries. In continental Europe, the energy use in buildings alone is responsible for up to 50% of carbon dioxide emission. Urgent changes are, therefore, required relating to energy saving, emissions control, production and application of materials, use of renewable resources, and to recycling and reuse of building materials. In addition, the development of new eco-friendly building materials and practices is of prime importance owing to the growing environmental concerns. This review reflects the key tendencies in the sector of sustainable building materials of a non-metallic nature that have occurred over the past decade or so.

  17. Plumbing and Piping: Construction, Supervision, and Inspection. Course of Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Lester; Turley, John

    This course of study on plumbing and piping is part of a construction, supervision, and inspection series, which provides instructional materials for community or junior college technical courses in the inspection program. Material covered in this volume pertains to: uniform plumbing code; pipes, fittings, supports, and connections; sewer and…

  18. Prevalence of Legionella in premise plumbing in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, Zsófia; Kádár, Mihály; Kálmán, Emese; Scheirich Szax, Anita; Vargha, Márta

    2016-03-01

    Legionella is one of the emerging concerns of water quality in built water environments. Premise plumbing systems are among the recognised sources of infection. In the present study, colonisation of hot water networks in health care facilities, schools, hotels, private residences, office and industrial buildings was investigated. Data was analysed in connection with building and premise plumbing characteristics. Over 60% of all buildings were colonised by Legionella; counts were over 1000 CFU/L in 49%. The most prevalent type was Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2-14, isolated from 75% of the positive samples. Centrally produced hot water was found to be a key risk factor (46% of the samples were positive vs. 16% in individual systems); within this group the type of the building was less relevant. Colonisation levels in schools were similar to hotels or hospitals, representing a previously underestimated risk setting. Systems supplied by water from deep groundwater sources were significantly less likely to be colonised than more vulnerable sources (bank-wall filtration, surface water abstraction or karstic water; 28% vs. 51% positive), regardless of the type of treatment applied, including the presence of disinfection. The aggravating effect of larger, more complex and older buildings on colonisation was also confirmed. The present study represents the first baseline analysis, pre-empting regulation or monitoring requirements for Legionella. The prevalence of legionellae and the identified risk factors are indicative for other settings lacking targeted interventions. The statistically confirmed risk factors can serve as indicators for preliminary risk assessment and the prioritisation of interventions.

  19. Volatile constraints on the magma supply, dynamics and plumbing system of a top-ranking basaltic gas emitter: Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    P. Allard1,2, A. Aiuppa3,4, P. Bani5, N. Métrich1,6, A. Bertagnini6, M. Burton7, P-J. Gauthier5, F. Parello3, H. Shinohara8, G. Sawyer9, E. Bagnato3, E. Garaebiti10 1IPGP, UMR7154 CNRS, Paris France; 2INGV, Sezione di Catania, Italy; 3DiSTEM, Palermo University, Italy; 4INGV, Sezione di Palermo, Italy; 5LMV-OPGC, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 6INGV, Sezione di Pisa, Italy; 7SEAES, University of Manchester, UK; 8Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Japan; 9Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, UK; 10GEOHAZARD, Port Vila, Vanuatu. Ambrym basaltic volcano (central Vanuatu arc) is one of the most active volcanic systems of the Southwest Pacific region, where recurrent lava lake activity sustains voluminous gas release from two main cones, Benbow and Marum, in a 12 km-wide summit caldera. In 2007-2008 we could perform the first detailed investigations of gas emissions from this very active but remote and hardly accessible intra-oceanic arc volcano, combining ground-based and airborne measurements and using both in situ and remote sensing tools. The degassing budget of major, minor, trace and radioactive volatile species reveals that Ambrym ranks amongst the three most powerful persistent emitters of magmatic volatiles at global scale [1]. Coupled with the analysis of dissolved volatiles in the feeding basalt (olivine-hosted melt inclusions), the gas emission rates imply a very high average magma supply/degassing rate of 25 m3/s - 6 times the rate at Mount Etna - from a reservoir emplaced at about 4 km depth beneath the caldera floor. The chemical composition of emitted volcanic gases is compatible with dominant closed-system ascent and degassing of the basalt, followed by open degassing at shallow depth as water exsolution becomes extensive. The modest time-averaged extrusion rate, estimated from caldera infilling over the past 2 ka, requires convective downward recycling of the denser degassed magma in conduits with diameter of order 10 m. High resolution OP

  20. Transition from ultra-enriched to ultra-depleted primary MORB melts in a single volcanic suite (Macquarie Island, SW Pacific): Implications for mantle source, melting process and plumbing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husen, Anika; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Everard, John L.; Kamenetsky, Maya B.

    2016-07-01

    less enriched and depleted melt fractions are affected by mixing and crystal fractionation. Continuous melt generation, extraction, replenishment of the plumbing system, mixing and eruption of "integrated" melts lead to obliteration of the initially enriched geochemical characteristics and ultimately result in dominantly "normal", depleted MORB compositions.

  1. Modelling of non-metallic particles motion process in foundry alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Żak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of non-metallic particles in the selected composites was analysed, in the current study. The calculations of particles floating in liquids differing in viscosity were performed. Simulations based on the Stokes equation were made for spherical SiC particles and additionally the particle size influence on Reynolds number was analysed.The movement of the particles in the liquid metal matrix is strictly connected with the agglomerate formation problem.Some of collisions between non-metallic particles lead to a permanent connection between them. Creation of the two spherical particles and a metallic phase system generates the adhesion force. It was found that the adhesion force mainly depends on the surface tension of the liquid alloy and radius of non-metallic particles.

  2. Solar-heat transport fluids for solar energy collection systems (a collection of quarterly reports)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This document consists of several quarterly reports that cover the progress made by the Houston Chemical Company, who is developing noncorrosive fluid subsystem(s) compatible with closed-loop solar heating and combined heating and hot water systems. The system is also to be compatible with both metallic and non-metallic plumbing systems, and any combination of these. At least 100 gallons of each type of fluid recommended by the contractor will be delivered, and a number of fluids will be performance tested.

  3. Plumbing and Environmental Support Specialties AFSCs 552X5/566X1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    GRP419) XIII. WORK CREW SUPERVISORS (N=9, GRP =308) XIV. WATER SYSTEMS INSPECTORS (N=1O, GRP275) XV. PIPE AND FIXTURE INSTALLERS (N=7, GRP261) XVI...ASSEMBLE COPPER TUBING USING SWEAT SOLDERED FITTINGS 92 10 REAM PIPING 91 7 BEND TUBING BY HAND 91 14 REMOVE OR REPLACE TRAPS 90 4 REMOVE OR REPLACE...plumbing job, such as: assembling, disassembling, reaming, bending , and installing pipes and tubing; removing and replacing faucets, traps, flush

  4. Impact of Water Chemistry, Pipe Material and Stagnation on the Building Plumbing Microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Ji

    Full Text Available A unique microbiome establishes in the portion of the potable water distribution system within homes and other buildings (i.e., building plumbing. To examine its composition and the factors that shape it, standardized cold water plumbing rigs were deployed at the treatment plant and in the distribution system of five water utilities across the U.S. Three pipe materials (copper with lead solder, CPVC with brass fittings or copper/lead combined pipe were compared, with 8 hour flush cycles of 10 minutes to simulate typical daily use patterns. High throughput Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was employed to profile and compare the resident bulk water bacteria and archaea. The utility, location of the pipe rig, pipe material and stagnation all had a significant influence on the plumbing microbiome composition, but the utility source water and treatment practices were dominant factors. Examination of 21 water chemistry parameters suggested that the total chlorine concentration, pH, P, SO42- and Mg were associated with the most of the variation in bulk water microbiome composition. Disinfectant type exerted a notably low-magnitude impact on microbiome composition. At two utilities using the same source water, slight differences in treatment approaches were associated with differences in rare taxa in samples. For genera containing opportunistic pathogens, Utility C samples (highest pH of 9-10 had the highest frequency of detection for Legionella spp. and lowest relative abundance of Mycobacterium spp. Data were examined across utilities to identify a true universal core, special core, and peripheral organisms to deepen insight into the physical and chemical factors that shape the building plumbing microbiome.

  5. Promoting plumbing fixture and fitting replacement: Recommendations and review for state and local water resource authorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, C.; Lutz, J.D.; Pickle, S.J.

    1995-06-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has prepared this report to facilitate compliance with the requirements of Section 123 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). Section 123 requires the Department of Energy to issue recommendations for establishing state and local incentive programs to encourage acceleration of voluntary consumer replacement of existing water closets, urinals, showerheads and faucets with water-saving products meeting EPACT standards. The authors recommend that state and local authorities working together and also with utilities: (A) investigate the cost-effectiveness of voluntary replacement of plumbing fixtures and fittings as an effective component of a water efficiency incentive program; (B) allow utilities to distribute the costs of water saving products by billing at pre-installation rates until devices have been paid for; (C) encourage decreased water usage by establishing rate structures such as increasing block rates or seasonal pricing; (D) add additional incentive to rebate programs by making the rebates untaxable income. (E) require municipalities or utilities to exhaust every reasonable method of water conservation before applying for permits to construct water supply or water treatment systems; (F) require high-efficiency toilets, urinals, showerheads, and faucets in new construction and changing plumbing codes to incorporate different pipe sizing needs; and (G) and mandate installation of meters to correctly measure water consumption. Following the introduction, a general overview of these recommendations is presented. Each recommendation is discussed briefly. After determining the cost-effectiveness of a plumbing replacement program (or plumbing replacement aspect of a larger program) states can encourage replacement of toilets, urinals, showerheads, and faucets in a number of ways. This report lists both legislative and economic measures that can be implemented on the state level that impact local programs.

  6. Widespread Occurrence of Diverse Human Pathogenic Types of the Fungus Fusarium Detected in Plumbing Drains ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Dylan P. G.; O'Donnell, Kerry; Zhang, Ning; Juba, Jean H.; Geiser, David M.

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that plumbing systems might serve as a significant environmental reservoir of human-pathogenic isolates of Fusarium. We tested this hypothesis by performing the first extensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) survey of plumbing drain-associated Fusarium isolates and comparing the diversity observed to the known diversity of clinical Fusarium isolates. We sampled 471 drains, mostly in bathroom sinks, from 131 buildings in the United States using a swabbing method. We found that 66% of sinks and 80% of buildings surveyed yielded at least one Fusarium culture. A total of 297 isolates of Fusarium collected were subjected to MLST to identify the phylogenetic species and sequence types (STs) of these isolates. Our survey revealed that the six most common STs in sinks were identical to the six most frequently associated with human infections. We speculate that the most prevalent STs, by virtue of their ability to form and grow in biofilms, are well adapted to plumbing systems. Six major Fusarium STs were frequently isolated from plumbing drains within a broad geographic area and were identical to STs frequently associated with human infections. PMID:21976755

  7. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  8. Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) that persist and grow in household plumbing, habitats they share with humans. Infections caused by these OPPPs involve individuals with preexis...

  9. 云峰大坝监测系统倒垂孔钻孔施工%Drilling Construction of Inverted Plumb Holes in the Monitoring System of Yunfeng Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洪文

    2015-01-01

    In dam monitoring sys tems, there are many construction methods to dril inverted plumb holes. Based on practical experience,one of the methods called pilot-hole-method is discussed, which is of referential value to coleagues. This method reduces the error probability in drilling large diameter holes and guarantees the dril precision. It improves effi ciency and decreases duration. Therefore, this method saves the expense of constructions and reduces project cost.%对于大坝监测系统,倒垂孔钻孔施工方法有多种。根据经验,现介绍一种倒垂孔钻孔施工方法——先导孔法,供同行参考。该方法降低了大孔径废孔率,保证了钻孔精度,提高了工效,缩短了工期,从而节约了投资,降低工程造价。

  10. Vibration in metal and non-metal incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblut, J M; Lewandowski, W; Casper, G R; Youngblut, W R

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of vibration transmitted to the surface of an incubator mattress. Empty incubators with metal (n = 12) and non-metal (n = 12) bases were monitored for vibration levels when the incubators were turned "off" and when they were turned "on." High levels of low-frequency vibration were detected in both types of incubators in both conditions. The metal incubators transmitted significantly less vibration to the mattress than did the non-metal incubators at several frequencies in the "off," the "on," and the "adjusted" conditions. These results suggest that infants experience significant whole-body vibration while lying in incubators.

  11. Non-metallic inclusions in high manganese austenitic alloys

    OpenAIRE

    A. Grajcar; L. Bulkowski; U. Galisz

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to identify the type, fraction and chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions modified by rare-earth elements in an advanced group of high-manganese austenitic C-Mn-Si-Al-type steels with Nb and Ti microadditions.Design/methodology/approach: The heats of 3 high-Mn steels of a various content of Si, Al and Ti were melted in a vacuum induction furnace and a modification of non-metallic inclusions was carried out by the mischmetal in the amount of 0.87 g or ...

  12. Interaction mechanism of non-metallic particles with crystallization front

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żak P. L.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of steel solidification in the CCS mould is accompanied by a number of phenomena relating to the formation of non-metallic phase, as well as the mechanism of its interaction with the existing precipitations and the advancing crystallization front. In the solidification process the non-metallic inclusions may be absorbed or repelled by the moving front. As a result a specific distribution of non-metallic inclusions is obtained in the solidified ingot, and their distribution is a consequence of these processes. The interaction of a non-metallic inclusion with the solidification front was analyzed for alumina, for different values of the particle radius. The simulation was performed with the use of own computer program. Each time a balance of forces acting on a particle in its specific position was calculated. On this basis the change of position of alumina particle in relation to the front was defined for a specific radius and original location of the particle with respect to the front.

  13. Brief introduction of the Shanghai East Gym Center plumbing system and fire protection system design%上海东方体育中心给排水及消防设计简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    脱宁; 周耀寰; 吴健斌

    2012-01-01

    Shanghai East Gym Center is an architectural complex including a comprehensive gym with 18 000 seats, a swimming and diving hall with 5 000 seats, a service center, and a outdoor swimming and diving hall with 5 000 seats. This paper introduced the comprehensive sym and swimming and diving hall design parameters of water supply system, hot water system, fire protection system, drainage system, reclaimed water system, and swimming pool water treatment system. The engineering characteristics were also summarized, including water saving and non-traditional water source utilization, energy- saving and recyclable energy utilization, swimming pool water treatment process selection, special requirement for fire protection system, and the pipe and equipment layout%上海东方体育中心包括18000座的综合体育馆、5000座的游泳跳水馆、赛事服务中心和5000座的室外游泳跳水场.介绍了综合体育馆和游泳跳水馆的给水系统、热水系统、消防系统、排水系统、中水系统及游泳池水处理系统的设计参数,并对工程设计特点如节水与非传统水源利用、节能与可再生能源利用、游泳池水处理工艺选用、水消防特殊要求、管道和设备布置等进行了总结.

  14. Non-metallic Inclusions in Continuously Cast Aluminum Killed Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In aluminum killed steels, the size, shape, quantity and formation of non-metallic inclusions in ladle steel (before and after RH vacuum treatment) and in tundish as well as in slabs were studied by EPMA (Electron Probe Microanalysis) and by analyzing the total oxygen. The results showed that in the slabs the total oxygen was quite low and the inclusions discovered were mainly small-sized angular alumina inclusions. This indicates that most inclusions have been removed by floating out during the continuous casting process. In addition, the countermeasures were discussed to decrease the alumina inclusions in the slabs further.

  15. Testing theOdour Quality of Non-Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AVIJIT SINGH GANGWAR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This report has been compiled on the completion of 3 week summer training at ICAT. It discusses about a very necessary and least popular part of the Automotive Industry i.e. Testing and Certification. It discusses about one of the government notified Testing body ICAT which is one of just 6 such organisations in India.This report deals with the odour quality testing of non-metallic materials that are used for automobile compartment and parts associated with the compartment.

  16. Plumbing noise: Pressure levels and perception in a luxury condominium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watry, Derek

    2005-09-01

    A consulting project has recently been completed that addressed a number of noise concerns in a 9-unit, 20-year-old luxury condominium building in the San Francisco Bay Area. Among other tasks, the noise levels of four bathroom plumbing functions (flushing, showering, bath filling, bath draining) were measured in adjoining units and an inventory of noise concerns was collected. This paper reports the measured noise levels (nearly a 20-dBA range for every function!) and looks at the corresponding resident assessments not always clearly correlated with sound-pressure level.

  17. Solution behavior of hydrogen isotopes and other non-metallic elements in liquid lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroni, V.A.; Calaway, W.F.; Veleckis, E.; Yonco, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Results of experimental studies to measure selected thermodynamic properties for systems of lithium with non-metallic elements are reported. Investigations of the Li-H, Li-D, and Li-T systems have led to the elucidation of the dilute solution behavior and the H/D/T isotope effects. In the case of the Li-H and Li-D systems, the principal features of the respective phase diagrams have been delineated. The solubility of Li-D in liquid lithium has been measured down to 200/sup 0/C. The solubility of Li/sub 3/N in liquid lithium and the thermal decomposition of Li/sub 3/N have also been studied. From these data, the free energy of formation of Li/sub 3/N and the Sieverts' constant for dissolution of nitrogen in lithium have been determined. Based on studies of the distribution of non-metallic elements between liquid lithium and selected molten salts, it appears that molten salt extraction offers promise as a means of removing these impurity elements (e.g., H, D, T, O, N, C) from liquid lithium.

  18. “Lead Leached into Water from Select Plumbing Fixtures” Could Lead to Health Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsey Coles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead is an inert metal and is resistant to corrosion. It also increases tensile strength of many common materials in daily use. Lead was used during the Roman period to transport water (hence the name plumbing/plumber is common terminology even in the present day. Lead enters the biological system through the air, water, and dust. Fine particles of lead, having diameter less than 5 nm are directly absorbed by lungs. Inorganic lead is absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, and organic lead is absorbed by the skin. Lead has long been known to be a toxic heavy metal and exposure is associated with many deleterious health effects. Still, lead remains a popular ingredient in products ranging from paint to batteries. The lead content in any given material is estimated using various methods. The least cumbersome method is found to be X-Ray Fluorescence technique (XRF. A portable XRF device was used in the present study. Aim: The main aim of this study to investigate whether lead is present in various commonly used plumbing materials. Material and Methods: All types of branded and commonly used pipes were gathered from a market in Bangalore and tested using the XRF machine. In order to evaluate to what extent lead from the pipes could leach into water, seven pipes were randomly selected and filled with Aquafina water (having undetectable level of lead for a 24 hour period. This water was tested at an NABL accredited laboratory in Bangalore, India for lead content. Result: It was determined that lead was present in many of the samples, at an unacceptable levels ranging from, well above the globally accepted level of 0.01 mg/L proof that lead was able to leach from the samples into water. Conclusions: As lead in drinking water represents a direct pathway for human exposure, the authors recommend that significant measures be taken to prevent use of lead in the plumbing industry for prevention of it’s deleterious effects. Authors have also

  19. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    In a NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) sponsored program entitled "A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing", evaluation of emerging materials and additive manufacturing technologies was carried out. These technologies may enable fully non-metallic gas turbine engines in the future. This paper highlights the results of engine system trade studies which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. In addition, feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composite were demonstrated. A wide variety of prototype components (inlet guide vanes (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included first stage nozzle segments and high pressure turbine nozzle segments for a cooled doublet vane. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  20. Plumb line deflection varied with time obtained by repeated gravimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 付广裕; 李正心

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the plumb line deflection varied with time (PLV) are calculated with the Vening-Meinesz formula for Xiaguan and Beijing point based on the 28 and 39 campaigns of gravimetry at the local gravity networks in the Western Yunnan Earthquake Prediction Experiment Area and the North China, respectively. Based on the results, we conclude that: ① the maximum of PLV is under 0.12 and amplitudes of interannual variation are under 0.022.②PLV can be determined with the reliability of 0.012 by the modeling based on the precession of repeated gravimetry. This implies that repeated gravimetry could be used to determine the PLV. ③There exist some common and different characteristics for the different places and different components. It may provide a new approach for the study on the local or global geodynamic by using repeated gravimetry.

  1. Plumb as a cause of kidney cancer (case study: Iran from 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mazdak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to plumb (Pb, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic. Some hazards that threat human health are the results of environmental factors and the relevant pollutions. Some important categories of diseases including (cancers have considerable differences in various places, as observed in their spatial prevalence and distribution maps. The present study sets out to investigate the correlation between kidney cancer and the concentration of Pb in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, the first challenge was to collect some relevant information. In this connection, the authors managed to gain access to data concerning kidney cancer in Iran. The data were collected by a health centre for the period of 2008-2010. Besides, a map of Pb distribution in soil, drawn by the Mineral Exploration Organization, and Plumb Concentration Information, collected by Agriculture Jihad Organization, were used. Using a geographic information system (GIS software such as ArcGIS (USA, the researchers drew the map of the spatial distribution of kidney cancer in the Iran country. In the indirect methods, one measures vegetation stress caused by heavy metal soil contamination. In direct methods, target detection algorithms are used to detect a selected material on the basis of its unique spectral signature. In this research, we applied target detection algorithms on moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS images to detect Pb. MODIS is a sensor placed on the Terra satellite that collects data in 35 spectral bands with 250-1,000 m special resolutions. Results: The spatial distribution of kidney cancer in Iran country delineated above revealed a positive correlation between the amount of lead and the high frequency of kidney cancer. Regression analyses also confirmed this relationship (R2 = 0.77 and R = 0.87. Conclusion: The findings of the current study underscore not only the

  2. An aviation security (AVSEC) screening demonstrator for the detection of non-metallic threats at 28-33 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Neil A.; Bowring, Nick; Hutchinson, Simon; Southgate, Matthew; O'Reilly, Dean

    2013-10-01

    The unique selling proposition of millimetre wave technology for security screening is that it provides a stand-off or portal scenario sensing capability for non-metallic threats. The capabilities to detect some non-metallic threats are investigated in this paper, whilst recommissioning the AVSEC portal screening system at the Manchester Metropolitan University. The AVSEC system is a large aperture (1.6 m) portal screening imager which uses spatially incoherent illumination at 28-33 GHz from mode scrambling cavities to illuminate the subject. The imaging capability is critically analysed in terms of this illumination. A novel technique for the measurement of reflectance, refractive index and extinction coefficient is investigated and this then use to characterise the signatures of nitromethane, hexane, methanol, bees wax and baking flour. Millimetre wave images are shown how these liquids in polycarbonate bottles and the other materials appear against the human body.

  3. Two Issues in Premise Plumbing: Contamination Intrusion at Service Line and Choosing Alternative Plumbing Material

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Juneseok

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide water distribution infrastructure system is old and deteriorating. A water system with its myriad appurtenances (including pumps and valves and tanks) is susceptible to hydraulic transients resulting in high and low pressure waves alternatively passing through the network. While both low and high pressure events structurally tax the already weak system, there is copious evidence indicating intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes from the pipeâ s exterior environment...

  4. Evolution Of An Upper Crustal Plutonic-Volcanic Plumbing System:Insights From High Precision U-Pb Zircon Geochronology Of Intracaldera Tuff And Intrusions In Silver Creek Caldera, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Mundil, R.; Miller, C. F.; Miller, J. S.; Paterson, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    Study of both plutonic and volcanic regimes in one single magmatic system is a powerful approach towards obtaining a more complete view of the long-term evolution of magma systems. The recently discovered Silver Creek caldera is the source of the voluminous Peach Spring Tuff (PST) (Ferguson, 2008) and presents a unique opportunity to study a field laboratory of a linked plutonic-volcanic system. This relict west-facing half caldera is predominantly filled with trachytic intracaldera tuff with the caldera margin intruded by several petrologically distinct hypabyssal intrusions. These include porphyritic granite with granophyric texture, felsic leucogranite, porphyritic monzonite exposed on NE side of the caldera that is zoned from more felsic to more mafic, and quartz-phyric dikes that intrude the caldera fill. We present preliminary single zircon ages from 4 samples that have been analyzed using the CA-TIMS method after thermal annealing and chemical leaching (Mattinson 2005), including 1 sample from intracaldera tuff and 3 samples from caldera-related intrusions. 3-D total U/Pb isochron ages from all four samples fall within a range of 18.32-18.90 Ma with uncertainties between 0.09 and 0.39 Ma, although some of them lack precision and are compromised by elevated common Pb. For example, zircon from the dated porphyritic monzonite yields an age of 18.32±0.42 Ma (MSWD=2.7) where the excess scatter may result from real age dispersion and/or different compositions of the common Pb contribution. The PST had been dated to ~18.5 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar techniques (Nielson et al., 1990). In order to be compared to U/Pb ages the 40Ar/39Ar age must be adjusted for a revised age for the then used flux monitor (MMbh-1) and corrected for the now quantified systematic bias between 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb ages (Renne et al., 2010), which results in a corrected age of 18.8 Ma. Thus, the ages for our samples match that of the PST within error. Based on current results, the age difference

  5. Interaction of silicene and germanene with non-metallic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssa, M.; Scalise, E.; van den Broek, B.; Lu, A.; Pourtois, G.; Afanas'ev, V. V.; Stesmans, A.

    2015-01-01

    By using first-principles simulations, we investigate the interaction of silicene and germanene with various non-metallic substrates. We first consider weak van der Waals interactions between the 2D layers and dichalcogenide substrates, like MoX2 (X=S, Se, Te). The buckling of the silicene or germanene layer is correlated to the lattice mismatch between the 2D material and the MoX2 template. The electronic properties of silicene or germanene on these different templates then largely depend on the buckling of the 2D material layer: highly buckled silicene or germanene on MoS2 are predicted to be metallic, while low buckled silicene on MoTe2 is predicted to be semi-metallic, with preserved Dirac cones at the K points. We next study the covalent bonding of silicene and germanene on (0001) ZnS and ZnSe surfaces. On these substrates, silicene or germanene are found to be semiconducting. Remarkably, the nature and magnitude of their energy band gap can be controlled by an out-of-plane electric field.

  6. Morphology and Orientation Selection of Non-metallic Inclusions in Electrified Molten Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z. C.; Qin, R. S.

    2017-10-01

    The effect of electric current on morphology and orientation selection of non-metallic inclusions in molten metal has been investigated using theoretical modeling and numerical calculation. Two geometric factors, namely the circularity ( fc ) and alignment ratio ( fe ) were introduced to describe the inclusions shape and configuration. Electric current free energy was calculated and the values were used to determine the thermodynamic preference between different microstructures. Electric current promotes the development of inclusion along the current direction by either expatiating directional growth or enhancing directional agglomeration. Reconfiguration of the inclusions to reduce the system electric resistance drives the phenomena. The morphology and orientation selection follow the routine to reduce electric free energy. The numerical results are in agreement with our experimental observations.

  7. Cleavage of hydrogen by activation at a single non-metal centre - towards new hydrogen storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Sławomir J

    2015-05-28

    Molecular surfaces of non-metal species are often characterized by both positive and negative regions of electrostatic potential (EP) at a non-metal centre. This centre may activate molecular hydrogen which further leads to the addition reaction. The positive EP regions at the non-metal centres correspond to σ-holes; the latter sites are enhanced by electronegative substituents. This is why the following simple moieties; PFH2, SFH, AsFH2, SeFH, BrF3, PF(CH3)2 and AsF(CH3)2, were chosen here to analyze the H2 activation and its subsequent splitting at the P, As, S, Se and Br centres. Also the reverse H-H bond reforming process is analyzed. MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations were performed for systems corresponding to different stages of these processes. The sulphur centre in the SFH moiety is analyzed in detail since the potential barrier height for the addition reaction for this species is the lowest of the moieties analyzed here. The results of calculations show that the SFH + H2 → SFH3 reaction in the gas phase is endothermic but it is exothermic in polar solvents.

  8. A RISK MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY FOR NON-METALLIC PROCESS EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Viviers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Many companies in South Africa have implemented the risk-based inspection (RBI methodology as a maintenance strategy. The risk involved in operating a piece of equipment, past history, non-destructive examination techniques, failure modes, and many other aspects determine the frequency of inspections required to meet legislation. The main purpose of the RBI methodology is to prevent failures of process equipment. The methodology for risk-based inspection for metal equipment is well-established and has been proven in industry, becoming the norm nationally and internationally. However, it is not possible to apply all the techniques to nonmetallic equipment owing to vast differences between the two types of materials. This paper discusses the results of data gathered on the RBI methodology for nonmetallic equipment, and proposes a risk-based model that can be used to perform a risk assessment for non-metallic equipment in a process plant. The risk assessment can be used to formulate the next inspection interval for the asset.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskeie maatskappye in Suid-Afrika het reeds die metodologie van risikogebaseeerde inspeksie (RBI geïmplementeer as deel van ‘n omvattende instandhoudingstrategie. Die risiko betrokke by ‘n fisiese item, bedryfsgeskiedenis, nie-vernietigende toetstegnieke, falingsmodusse, en vele ander aspekte bepaal die frekwensie van inspeksies wat benodig word om aan wetlike vereistes te voldoen. Die hoofdoel van die risiko-gebaseerde metodologie is om faling van prosestoerusting te verhinder. Die metodologie vir risiko-gebaseerde inspeksie van metaaltoerusting is goed bekend en word suksesvol toegepas in die industrie. Dis is egter nie moontlik om al die tegnieke toe te pas op nie-metaaltoerusting nie weens die groot verskeidenheid van materiaaltipes. Hierdie artikel bespreek die data wat ingewin is op die risiko-gebaseerde metodologie vir nie-metaaltipeprosestoerusting, en stel

  9. Size of Non-Metallic Inclusions in High-Grade Medium Carbon Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Lipiński T.; Wach A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-metallic inclusions found in steel can affect its performance characteristics. Their impact depends not only on their quality, but also, among others, on their size and distribution in the steel volume. The literature mainly describes the results of tests on hard steels, particularly bearing steels. The amount of non-metallic inclusions found in steel with a medium carbon content melted under industrial conditions is rarely presented in the literature. The tested steel was melted in an el...

  10. The Effect of Different Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Niclas Ånmark; Andrey Karasev; Pär Göran Jönsson

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non-metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, ...

  11. Convective Mixing in Distal Pipes Exacerbates Legionella pneumophila Growth in Hot Water Plumbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Rhoads

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is known to proliferate in hot water plumbing systems, but little is known about the specific physicochemical factors that contribute to its regrowth. Here, L. pneumophila trends were examined in controlled, replicated pilot-scale hot water systems with continuous recirculation lines subject to two water heater settings (40 °C and 58 °C and three distal tap water use frequencies (high, medium, and low with two pipe configurations (oriented upward to promote convective mixing with the recirculating line and downward to prevent it. Water heater temperature setting determined where L. pneumophila regrowth occurred in each system, with an increase of up to 4.4 log gene copies/mL in the 40 °C system tank and recirculating line relative to influent water compared to only 2.5 log gene copies/mL regrowth in the 58 °C system. Distal pipes without convective mixing cooled to room temperature (23–24 °C during periods of no water use, but pipes with convective mixing equilibrated to 30.5 °C in the 40 °C system and 38.8 °C in the 58 °C system. Corresponding with known temperature effects on L. pneumophila growth and enhanced delivery of nutrients, distal pipes with convective mixing had on average 0.2 log more gene copies/mL in the 40 °C system and 0.8 log more gene copies/mL in the 58 °C system. Importantly, this work demonstrated the potential for thermal control strategies to be undermined by distal taps in general, and convective mixing in particular.

  12. Modification of Non-Metallic Inclusions by Rare-Earth Elements in Microalloyed Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Opiela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The modification of the chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions by rare-earth elements in the new-developed microalloyed steels was discussed in the paper. The investigated steels are assigned to production of forged elements by thermo- mechanical treatment. The steels were melted in a vaccum induction furnace and modification of non-metallic inclusions was carried out by the michmetal in the amount of 2.0 g per 1 kg of steel. It was found that using material charge of high purity and a realization of metallurgical process in vacuous conditions result in a low concentration of sulfur (0.004%, phosphorus (from 0.006 to 0.008% and oxygen (6 ppm. The high metallurgical purity is confirmed by a small fraction of non-metallic inclusions averaging 0.075%. A large majority of non-metallic inclusions are fine, globular oxide-sulfide or sulfide particles with a mean size 17m2. The chemical composition and morphology of non-metallic inclusions was modified by Ce, La and Nd, what results a small deformability of non- metallic inclusions during hot-working.

  13. Factors affecting catalysis of copper corrosion products in NDMA formation from DMA in simulated premise plumbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Andrews, Susan A

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of corrosion products of copper, a metal commonly employed in household plumbing systems, on N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation from a known NDMA precursor, dimethylamine (DMA). Copper-catalyzed NDMA formation increased with increasing copper concentrations, DMA concentrations, alkalinity and hardness, but decreased with increasing natural organic matter (NOM) concentration. pH influenced the speciation of chloramine and the interactions of copper with DMA. The transformation of monochloramine (NH2Cl) to dichloramine and complexation of copper with DMA were involved in elevating the formation of NDMA by copper at pH 7.0. The inhibiting effect of NOM on copper catalysis was attributed to the rapid consumption of NH2Cl by NOM and/or the competitive complexation of NOM with copper to limit the formation of DMA-copper complexes. Hardness ions, as represented by Ca(2+), also competed with copper for binding sites on NOM, thereby weakening the inhibitory effect of NOM on NDMA formation. Common copper corrosion products also participated in these reactions but in different ways. Aqueous copper released from malachite [Cu2CO3(OH)2] was shown to promote NDMA formation while NDMA formation decreased in the presence of CuO, most likely due to the adsorption of DMA.

  14. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    The Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine project, funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute, represents the first comprehensive evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. This will be achieved by assessing the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate polymer matrix composite and ceramic matrix composite turbine engine components. The benefits include: 50 weight reduction compared to metallic parts, reduced manufacturing costs, reduced part count and rapid design iterations. Two high payoff metallic components have been identified for replacement with PMCs and will be fabricated using fused deposition modeling (FDM) with high temperature polymer filaments. The CMC effort uses a binder jet process to fabricate silicon carbide test coupons and demonstration articles. Microstructural analysis and mechanical testing will be conducted on the PMC and CMC materials. System studies will assess the benefits of fully nonmetallic gas turbine engine in terms of fuel burn, emissions, reduction of part count, and cost. The research project includes a multidisciplinary, multiorganization NASA - industry team that includes experts in ceramic materials and CMCs, polymers and PMCs, structural engineering, additive manufacturing, engine design and analysis, and system analysis.

  15. Synthesis and Catalytic Applications of Non-Metal Doped Mesoporous Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Z. Islam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous titania (mp-TiO2 has drawn tremendous attention for a diverse set of applications due to its high surface area, interfacial structure, and tunable combination of pore size, pore orientation, wall thickness, and pore connectivity. Its pore structure facilitates rapid diffusion of reactants and charge carriers to the photocatalytically active interface of TiO2. However, because the large band gap of TiO2 limits its ability to utilize visible light, non-metal doping has been extensively studied to tune the energy levels of TiO2. While first-principles calculations support the efficacy of this approach, it is challenging to efficiently introduce active non-metal dopants into the lattice of TiO2. This review surveys recent advances in the preparation of mp-TiO2 and their doping with non-metal atoms. Different doping strategies and dopant sources are discussed. Further, co-doping with combinations of non-metal dopants are discussed as strategies to reduce the band gap, improve photogenerated charge separation, and enhance visible light absorption. The improvements resulting from each doping strategy are discussed in light of potential changes in mesoporous architecture, dopant composition and chemical state, extent of band gap reduction, and improvement in photocatalytic activities. Finally, potential applications of non-metal-doped mp-TiO2 are explored in water splitting, CO2 reduction, and environmental remediation with visible light.

  16. The extent of non-compliant plumbing components used in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plumbers should have adequate training and the public should be made aware .... us to their website, which contained a list of companies that are SABS mark ..... of the house tenant to inspect the plumbing components, after which the outside ...

  17. Fatigue Strength Prediction of Drilling Materials Based on the Maximum Non-metallic Inclusion Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dezhi; Tian, Gang; Liu, Fei; Shi, Taihe; Zhang, Zhi; Hu, Junying; Liu, Wanying; Ouyang, Zhiying

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the statistics of the size distribution of non-metallic inclusions in five drilling materials were performed. Based on the maximum non-metallic inclusion size, the fatigue strength of the drilling material was predicted. The sizes of non-metallic inclusions in drilling materials were observed to follow the inclusion size distribution rule. Then the maximum inclusion size in the fatigue specimens was deduced. According to the prediction equation of the maximum inclusion size and fatigue strength proposed by Murakami, fatigue strength of drilling materials was obtained. Moreover, fatigue strength was also measured through rotating bending tests. The predicted fatigue strength was significantly lower than the measured one. Therefore, according to the comparison results, the coefficients in the prediction equation were revised. The revised equation allowed the satisfactory prediction results of fatigue strength of drilling materials at the fatigue life of 107 rotations and could be used in the fast prediction of fatigue strength of drilling materials.

  18. The Effect of Different Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ånmark, Niclas; Karasev, Andrey; Jönsson, Pär Göran

    2015-02-16

    Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non‑metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, etc.) are discussed and summarized. Finally, some methods for modification of non-metallic inclusions in the liquid steel are considered to obtain a desired balance between mechanical properties and machinability of various steel grades.

  19. Modification of Non-Metallic Inclusions by Rare-Earth Elements in Microalloyed Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Opiela M.; Grajcar A.

    2012-01-01

    The modification of the chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions by rare-earth elements in the new-developed microalloyed steels was discussed in the paper. The investigated steels are assigned to production of forged elements by thermo- mechanical treatment. The steels were melted in a vaccum induction furnace and modification of non-metallic inclusions was carried out by the michmetal in the amount of 2.0 g per 1 kg of steel. It was found that using material charge of high purity and...

  20. The Effect of Different Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas Ånmark

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non‑metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, etc. are discussed and summarized. Finally, some methods for modification of non-metallic inclusions in the liquid steel are considered to obtain a desired balance between mechanical properties and machinability of various steel grades.

  1. Laser -Based Joining of Metallic and Non-metallic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabham, G.; Shanmugarajan, B.

    Laser as a high intensity heat source can be effectively used for joining of materials by fusion welding and brazing in autogenous or in hybrid modes. In autogenous mode, welding is done in conduction , deep penetration , and keyhole mode. However, due to inherently high energy density available from a laser source, autogenous keyhole welding is the most popular laser welding mode. But, it has certain limitations like need for extremely good joint fit-up, formation of very hard welds in steel , keyhole instability, loss of alloying elements, etc. To overcome these limitations, innovative variants such as laser-arc hybrid welding , induction-assisted welding , dual beam welding , etc., have been developed. Using laser heat, brazing can be performed by melting a filler to fill the joints, without melting the base materials. Accomplishing laser-based joining as mentioned above requires appropriate choice of laser source, beam delivery system, processing head with appropriate optics and accessories. Basic principles of various laser-based joining processes, laser system technology, process parameters, metallurgical effects on different base materials, joint performance, and applications are explained in this chapter.

  2. A Fully Non-metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    The Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine project, funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI), represents the first comprehensive evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. This will be achieved by assessing the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies for fabricating polymer matrix composite (PMC) and ceramic matrix composite (CMC) gas turbine engine components. The benefits of the proposed effort include: 50 weight reduction compared to metallic parts, reduced manufacturing costs due to less machining and no tooling requirements, reduced part count due to net shape single component fabrication, and rapid design change and production iterations. Two high payoff metallic components have been identified for replacement with PMCs and will be fabricated using fused deposition modeling (FDM) with high temperature capable polymer filaments. The first component is an acoustic panel treatment with a honeycomb structure with an integrated back sheet and perforated front sheet. The second component is a compressor inlet guide vane. The CMC effort, which is starting at a lower technology readiness level, will use a binder jet process to fabricate silicon carbide test coupons and demonstration articles. The polymer and ceramic additive manufacturing efforts will advance from monolithic materials toward silicon carbide and carbon fiber reinforced composites for improved properties. Microstructural analysis and mechanical testing will be conducted on the PMC and CMC materials. System studies will assess the benefits of fully nonmetallic gas turbine engine in terms of fuel burn, emissions, reduction of part count, and cost. The proposed effort will be focused on a small 7000 lbf gas turbine engine. However, the concepts are equally applicable to large gas turbine engines. The proposed effort includes a multidisciplinary, multiorganization NASA - industry team that includes experts in

  3. Causes and effects of the corrosion of a plumbing galvanised steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandre Sánchez, F. J.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Hot dip galvanising life as a corrosion protective coatings on steel depends basically on three factors: coatings quality (thickness, correct installation of the galvanised article, and weathering effects. The aim of this research it is to study the decaying causes and effects of a plumbing installation made with hot dip galvanised steel tubes. The mentioned installation was of use during 30 years in the water supply system of the Parque Alcosa market (Sevilla, Spain. The research was divided in three parts: in the first one, shape analysis and XDR of internal decayed products was carried out: in the second one, physical properties were determined according to UNE 37- 505-89, corrosion morphology was conducted by metalographic microscopy, and it was evaluated also water quality: and finally, in the third one, diameter, section, and internal volume decrease was calculated in order to evaluate friction increase and pressure decrease in the installation. The results obtained show the correct plumbing installation according to quality requirements (UNE 37-509-89, so corrosion causes are mainly attributed to an aggressive environment for the hot dip galvanising.

    La durabilidad de los galvanizados en caliente como recubrimientos protectores de la corrosión del acero dependen básicamente de tres factores: la calidad del recubrimiento (espesor, la correcta instalación del elemento galvanizado, y la agresividad del medio al que se encuentren expuestos. En este trabajo se estudian las causas y consecuencias del deterioro sufrido por una tubería de acero galvanizado, destinada durante unos 30 años a la conducción de agua potable de la red en el mercado del Parque Al cosa (Sevilla. La investigación se ha dividido en tres etapas: en la primera, se ha realizado el análisis formal y la caracterización mediante DRX de los productos de alteración generados en el interior del tubo: en la segunda, se han determinado las características f

  4. Stepped-Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar for Detection of Small Non-metallic Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Nymann, Ole

    1997-01-01

    A monostatic amplitude and phase stepped-frequency radar approach have been proposed to detect small non-metallic buried anti-personnel (AP) mines. An M-56 AP-mine with a diameter of 54 mm and height of 40 mm, only, has been successfully detected and located in addition to small metallic mine...

  5. Soil effects on GPR detection of buried non-metallic mines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, J.M.H.; Hong, S.H.; Miller, T.; Borchers, B.; Rhebergen, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Landmines are a major problem in many areas of the world. In spite of the fact that many different types of landmine sensors have been developed, the detection of non-metallic landmines remains very difficult. The objective of this contribution is to synthesize our work related to the effects of soi

  6. The Measurement of Hardness and Elastic Modulus of non-Metallic Inclusions in Steely Welding Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatova Anna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trunk pipelines work under a cyclic dynamical mechanical load because when oil or gas is pumped, the pressure constantly changes - pulsates. Therefore, the fatigue phenomenon is a common reason of accidents. The fatigue phenomenon more often happens in the zone of non-metallic inclusions concentration. To know how the characteristics of nonmetallic inclusions influence the probability of an accident the most modern research methods should be used. It is determined with the help of the modern research methods that the accident rate of welded joints of pipelines is mostly influenced by their morphological type, composition and size of nonmetallic inclusions, this effect is more important than the common level of pollution by non-metallic inclusions. The article presents the results of the investigations of welded joints, obtained after the use of different common welding materials. We used the methods, described in the state standards: scanning electronic microscopy, spectral microprobe analysis and nano-indentation. We found out that non-metallic inclusions act like stress concentrators because they shrink, forming a blank space between metal and nonmetallic inclusions; it strengthens the differential properties on this boundary. Nonmetallic inclusion is not fixed, it can move. The data that we have received mean that during welded joints’ contamination (with non-metallic inclusions monitoring process, more attention should be paid to the content of definite inclusions, but not to total contamination.

  7. Size of Non-Metallic Inclusions in High-Grade Medium Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiński T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-metallic inclusions found in steel can affect its performance characteristics. Their impact depends not only on their quality, but also, among others, on their size and distribution in the steel volume. The literature mainly describes the results of tests on hard steels, particularly bearing steels. The amount of non-metallic inclusions found in steel with a medium carbon content melted under industrial conditions is rarely presented in the literature. The tested steel was melted in an electric arc furnace and then desulfurized and argonrefined. Seven typical industrial melts were analyzed, in which ca. 75% secondary raw materials were used. The amount of non-metallic inclusions was determined by optical and extraction methods. The test results are presented using stereometric indices. Inclusions are characterized by measuring ranges. The chemical composition of steel and contents of inclusions in every melts are presented. The results are shown in graphical form. The presented analysis of the tests results on the amount and size of non-metallic inclusions can be used to assess them operational strength and durability of steel melted and refined in the desulfurization and argon refining processes.

  8. Nucleate boiling incipience over metallic/non-metallic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralanda, Naiara

    Incipience wall superheats over super-smooth Si, Al and Ti surfaces were collected at 1atm saturation conditions with FC-72 as the working fluid. Before experimentation, the fluid was put through a 2 hour degassing process to remove vapor. In addition a novel micro-heater was designed and fabricated that provided a constant temperature surface condition with slow heating rates. The average incipience wall superheats were 23.5K for Si, 26.4K for Al and 27.7K for Ti with a variance of less than 0.8K for all three cases. Contact angles were also measured; however, due to the highly wettability of the fluid, the resulting measurements showed large variability. For all cases, incipience occurred at approximately 30% of the homogeneous superheat limit predicted from classical theory. The observed differences in the wall superheat for the three surfaces was small. The primary surface heating element has a surface area of 250 mu m x 250mum which resulted in a very small Grashof number for the system. Consequently, the temperature profile over the heating element was evaluated from the steady Laplace equation using the Fourier integral method. Based on the critical radius at the time of incipience, it was determined that the temperature gradient over the vapor embryo is very small, and thus it can be assumed that the embryo is approximately equal to the wall temperature. Finally, since the measured surface roughness is an order of magnitude less than the critical radius for incipience it is concluded that nucleation could not have been initiated due to any vapor trapped within asperities on the surface. A theoretical framework based on homogeneous-like nucleation and the macroscopic contact angle is proposed. By analyzing the free energy barrier in terms of the vapor cluster, the liquid/vapor interface and the solid/vapor interface, the chemical potential at incipience for FC-72 and water can be determined from experimental measurements of wall superheat and liquid

  9. Study of the physicochemical effects on the separation of the non-metallic fraction from printed circuit boards by inverse flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Campos, R; Estrada-Ruiz, R H; Velarde-Sánchez, E J

    2017-09-06

    Recycling printed circuit boards using green technology is increasingly important due to the metals these contain and the environmental care that must be taken when separating the different materials. Inverse flotation is a process that can be considered a Green Technology, which separates metallic from non-metallic fractions. The degree of separation depends on how much material is adhered to air bubbles. The contact angle measurement allows to determine, in an easy way, whether the flotation process will occur or not and thus establish a material as hydrophobic or not. With the material directly obtained from the milling process, it was found that the contact angle of the non-metallic fraction-liquid-air system increases as temperature increases. In the same way, the increments in concentration of frother in the liquid increase the contact angle of the non-metallic fraction-liquid-air system. 10ppm of Methyl Isobutyl Carbinol provides the highest contact angle as well as the highest material charging in the bubble. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Entropy Generation Analysis for a CNT Suspension Nanofluid in Plumb Ducts with Peristalsis

    OpenAIRE

    Noreen Sher Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to discuss the entropy generation analysis for a carbon nanotube (CNT) suspension nanofluid in a plumb duct with peristalsis. The entropy generation number due to heat transfer and fluid friction is formulated. The velocity and temperature distributions across the tube are presented along with pressure attributes. Exact analytical solution for velocity and temperature profile are obtained. It is found that the entropy generation number attains high...

  11. Plumb line variation at Tangshan during 1987―1998 and its relation with the earthquakes around

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Plumb line variations(PLV) at Tangshan during the years of 1987―1998 are determined by using the 46 batch repeated gravity observations of the Beijing-Tangshan network.It has been found that PLV at Tangshan are related with the 38 earthquakes in this period.It appears that the time of an earthquake around Tangshan is usually quite the same when PLV at Tangshan begins moving in opposite direction.

  12. Magma plumbing beneath Anak Krakatau volcano, Indonesia: evidence for multiple magma storage regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahren, Börje; Troll, Valentin R.; Andersson, Ulf B.; Chadwick, Jane P.; Gardner, Màiri F.; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Koulakov, Ivan

    2012-04-01

    Understanding magma plumbing is essential for predicting the behaviour of explosive volcanoes. We investigate magma plumbing at the highly active Anak Krakatau volcano (Indonesia), situated on the rim of the 1883 Krakatau caldera by employing a suite of thermobarometric models. These include clinopyroxene-melt thermobarometry, plagioclase-melt thermobarometry, clinopyroxene composition barometry and olivine-melt thermometry. Petrological studies have previously identified shallow magma storage in the region of 2-8 km beneath Krakatau, while existing seismic evidence points towards mid- to deep-crustal storage zone(s), at 9 and 22 km, respectively. Our results show that clinopyroxene in Anak Krakatau lavas crystallized at a depth of 7-12 km, while plagioclase records both shallow crustal (3-7 km) and sub-Moho (23-28 km) levels of crystallization. These magma storage regions coincide with well-constrained major lithological boundaries in the crust, implying that magma ascent and storage at Anak Krakatau is strongly controlled by crustal properties. A tandem seismic tomography survey independently identified a separate upper crustal (7 km). Both petrological and seismic methods are sensitive in detecting magma bodies in the crust, but suffer from various limitations. Combined geophysical and petrological surveys, in turn, offer increased potential for a comprehensive characterization of magma plumbing at active volcanic complexes.

  13. The mineral base and productive capacities of metals and non-metals of Kosovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizaj, M.; Beqiri, E.; McBow, I.; O' Brien, E.Z.; Kongoli, F. [University of Prishtina, Prishtina (Kosovo)

    2008-08-15

    All historical periods of Kosovo - Ilirik, Roman, Medieval, Turkish, and former Yugoslavian - are linked with the intensive development of mining and metallurgy. This activity influenced and still is influencing the overall position of Kosovo as a country. For example, according to a 2006 World Bank report as well as other studies, Kosovo has potential lignite resources (geological reserves) of about 1.5 billion tonnes, which are ranked fifth in the world in importance. Other significant Kosovan mineral resources include lead, zinc, gold, silver, bauxite, and uranium, and rare metals accompanying those minerals, including indium, cadmium, thallium, gallium, and bismuth. These rare metals are of particular importance in developing advanced industrial technologies. Kosovo also has reserves of high-quality non-metals, including magnesite, quartz grit, bentonite, argil, talc, and asbestos. No database exists for these non-metal reserves, and further research and studies are needed.

  14. The mineral base and productive capacities of metals and non-metals of Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaj, M.; Beqiri, E.; McBow, I.; O'Brien, E. Z.; Kongoli, F.

    2008-08-01

    All historical periods of Kosovo—Ilirik, Roman, Medieval, Turkish, and former Yugoslavian—are linked with the intensive development of mining and metallurgy. This activity influenced and still is influencing the overall position of Kosovo as a country. For example, according to a 2006 World Bank report as well as other studies, Kosovo has potential lignite resources (geological reserves) of about 1.5 billion tonnes, which are ranked fifth in the world in importance. Other significant Kosovan mineral resources include lead, zinc, gold, silver, bauxite, and uranium, and rare metals accompanying those minerals, including indium, cadmium, thallium, gallium, and bismuth. These rare metals are of particular importance in developing advanced industrial technologies. Kosovo also has reserves of high-quality non-metals, including magnesite, quartz grit, bentonite, argil, talc, and asbestos. No database exists for these non-metal reserves, and further research and studies are needed.

  15. Computer Simulation of the Formation of Non-Metallic Precipitates During a Continuous Casting of Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalisz D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors own computer software, based on the Ueshima mathematical model with taking into account the back diffusion, determined from the Wołczyński equation, was developed for simulation calculations. The applied calculation procedure allowed to determine the chemical composition of the non-metallic phase in steel deoxidised by means of Mn, Si and Al, at the given cooling rate. The calculation results were confirmed by the analysis of samples taken from the determined areas of the cast ingot. This indicates that the developed computer software can be applied for designing the steel casting process of the strictly determined chemical composition and for obtaining the required non-metallic precipitates.

  16. Non-metallic catalysts for diamond synthesis under high pressure and high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙力玲; 吴奇; 戴道扬; 张君; 秦志成; 王文魁

    1999-01-01

    Recent results on conversion from graphite to diamond by aid of non-metallic catalysts are reviewed. The current status of experimental advances is presented and typical examples from relevant literature are provided for understanding the mechanism of the graphite-diamond conversion by aid of these non-metallic catalysts. Furthermore, a tendency of graphite-diamond transformation assisted by carbonates, sulfates or phosphorus under high pressure and high temperature has been investigated by calculating the activation energy and transformation probability of the carbon atoms over a potential barrier. It was found that the activation energy is highly sensitive to the catalyst chosen. The probability sequence of graphite-diamond transformation with these catalysts was put forward.

  17. Motion behavior of non-metallic particles under high frequency magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-tao; GUO Qing-tao; YU Feng-yun; LI Jie; ZHANG Jian; LI Ting-ju

    2009-01-01

    Non-metallic particles, especially alumina, are the main inclusions in aluminum and its alloys. Numerical simulation and the corresponding experiments were carried out to study the motion behavior of alumina particles in commercial pure aluminum under high frequency magnetic field. At the meantime, multi-pipe experiment was also done to discuss the prospect of continuous elimination of non-metallic particles under high frequency magnetic field. It is shown that: 1) results of numerical simulation are in good agreement with the experimental results, which certificates the rationality of the simulation model; 2) when the intensity of high frequency magnetic field is 0.06 T, the 30 μm alumina particles in melt inner could migrate to the edge and be removed within 2 s; 3) multi-pipe elimination of alumina particles under high frequency magnetic field is also effective and has a good prospect in industrial application.

  18. Color stability, water sorption and cytotoxicity of thermoplastic acrylic resin for non metal clasp denture

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Dae-Eun; Lee, Ji-Young; Jang, Hyun-Seon; Lee, Jang-Jae; Son, Mee-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to compare the color stability, water sorption and cytotoxicity of thermoplastic acrylic resin for the non-metal clasp dentures to those of thermoplastic polyamide and conventional heat-polymerized denture base resins. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three types of denture base resin, which are conventional heat-polymerized acrylic resin (Paladent 20), thermoplastic polyamide resin (Bio Tone), thermoplastic acrylic resin (Acrytone) were used as materials for this study...

  19. NON-METALLIC IMPURITIES AND FORMING OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE MODIFIED HIGH-MANGANESE STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Garost

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition and morphology of chemical associations (non-metallic impurities and other ‘‘secondary” phases at modification of high-manganese steel by nitrogen and nitrideforming elements (vanadium are investigated. The optimal compositions of steel for production of castings are offered. The technology of the steel wear-resistance modification by vanadium of waste of industrial enterprises is worked out.

  20. PROVIDING OF SAFETY AT WORKS IMPLEMENTATION ON RECONSTRUCTION OF PLUMBINGS NETWORKS IN THE STRAITENED TERMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIDENKO L. M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Raising of problem. In all regions of our country plumbings networks have a considerable physical and moral wear, because in the majority they were laid in the middle of the last century. It is known that more than 50 % on-the-road pipelines are made from steel, here middle tenure of employment of metallic pipes for plumbings networks makes 30. [1]. Statistical data testify that more than 34 % plumbings and sewage networks are in the emergency state. Thus, a large enough stake in building industry of Ukraine is on works on the reconstruction of this type of engineering networks. Thus complete replacement of all pipes requires heavy material tolls, a reconstruction and major repairs of separate emergency areas are mainly produced on this account. Logically to assert that providing of safe production of the examined type of works becomes complicated by the presence of harmful and dangerous productive factors arising up due to the complex factor of straitened. This factor is stipulated by that plumbings networks are laid within the limits of folded municipal building and on territory of operating industrial enterprises. About the danger of production of works on a reconstruction the high level of traumatism testifies at their production. According to the law of Ukraine "On a labour (item 13 protection", an employer is under an obligation to create in the workplace the terms of labour accordingly normatively - to the legal acts, requirements of legislation on the observance of rights of workers in area of labour protection. [2] Providing of safety at implementation of works on the reconstruction of plumbings networks, maybe only at the complex going near the study of this problem, that plugs in itself: research of influence of factors of straitened; exposure of features of technology of production building, assembling, breaking-down, earthen and other types of works executable on a site area at a reconstruction; perfection of existent

  1. Behavior of Non-metallic Inclusions in Centrifugal Induction Electroslag Castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    (para)In order to know the behavior of non-metallic inclusions in centrifugal induction electroslag castings (CIESC), non-metallic inclusions in 5CrMnMo and 4Cr5MoSiV1 were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The largest size of inclusions in the casting and the thermodynamic possibility of TiN precipitation in steel were also calculated. The results show that sulfide inclusions are evenly distributed and the content is low. The amount of oxide inclusions in CIESC 4Cr5MoSiV1 steel is close to the ESR steel and lower than that in the EAF steel, and there are some differences along radial direction. Nitride inclusions are fine and the diameter of the largest one is 3~4um. With the increase of the centrifugal machine's rotational speed, the ratio of round inclusions increases and the ratio of sharp inclusions decreases. According to the experiment and the calculation results, it is pointed out that the largest diameter of non-metallic inclusions in the CIESC 4Cr5MoSiV1 casting is only 6.6mu, and [N%][Ti%] in 4Cr5MoSiV1 steel should be controlled less than 4.4~#U00d7tex010^{-5} in order to further reduce the amount and size of TiN inclusions.

  2. Communication between earthquake clusters separated by over 30 km supports simple volcano plumbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, K.; Jonasson, K.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Hensch, M.; Hooper, A. J.; Holohan, E. P.; Sigmundsson, F.; Halldorsson, S. A.; Hognadottir, T.; Magnússon, E.; Pálsson, F.; Walter, T. R.; Ofeigsson, B.; Parks, M.; Roberts, M. J.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Cesca, S.; Guðmundsson, G.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Jarosch, A. H.; Dumont, S.; Fridriksdóttir, H. M.; Barsotti, S.; Einarsson, P.

    2015-12-01

    thus suggests mechanical coupling over long distances between the distal end of the dyke and the magma chamber and support a simple plumbing system.

  3. Re-plumbing the Terrestrial Hydrosphere: Scope and Impact of Major Inter-basin Water Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhmacheva, K. V.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.; Afshari, S.; Aside, B.; Chibisova, Y.; Dopson, I.; Link, H.; Mouden, A.

    2013-12-01

    The availability of water has become one of the main concerns in modern history and it is an important policymaking strategy. Increasing population, agricultural intensification, rapid urbanization, industrial expansion and environmental changes increase water demand on region and global scales. Inter-Basin Water Transfer (IBWT) is an important element of satisfying immediate water requirements. The complex engineering structures divert water flow between watersheds, thus ';re-plumbing' terrestrial hydrosphere. We report here an analysis of inter-basin water transfer for the Northeast region, which is a part of an NSF funded project entitled 'The NorthEast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM).' In addition, this work is also a part of a global IBWT study. First, we present the IBWT geo-referenced assembled data set, derived from from maps, published documents and online resources. The information in the data base was classified by project name, diverted volume, source location, usage, status of construction, transport distance and purpose. The key feature of the dataset is geo-location of the projects, that allows further analysis of the hydrologic impact of each of the projects as well as their collective significance. Upon completion of the data-collection phase, the inputs were verified using RiverGIS and ArcGIS software. In addition, we investigated some key measures of IBWT distortion of regional-scale hydrology as well as their socio-economic impacts across the Northeast region. We calculated several indicators to assess these impacts, for example the donor-to-recipient basin flow ratio, which represents the 'gain' and 'loss' of water relative to the natural flow on a basin scale. Elements of the regional IBWT data base will be incorporated into the regional-scale Water Balance Model (WBM), and linked to the operation of reservoirs and dams. While focused on the Northeastern U.S., we believe that this data, its testing and applications will yield broad use

  4. Magma storage and plumbing of adakite-type post-ophiolite intrusions in the Sabzevar ophiolitic zone, NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jamshidi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Subduction-related adakite-type intrusive rocks emplaced into the late Cretaceous-Paleocene Sabzevar ophiolite zone, NE Iran, range from Mg-andesite to rhyodacite in composition. Here we investigate the magma supply system to these subvolcanic intrusive rocks by applying thermobarometric mineral and mineral-melt equilibrium models, including amphibole thermobarometry, plagioclase-melt thermobarometry and clinopyroxene-melt barometry. Based on the results of these thermobarometric models, plagioclase crystallized dominantly at pressures of ~ 350 (468–130 MPa, while amphiboles record both low pressures (~ 300 MPa and very high pressures (> 700 MPa of crystallization. The latter is supported by the calculated pressures for clinopyroxene crystallization (550 to 730 MPa. The association of amphibole with clinopyroxene and no plagioclase in the most primitive samples (Mg-andesites is consistent with amphibole fractionation from very hydrous magmas at deep crustal levels of the plumbing system, which may have been a key process to intensify adakite-type affinities in this rock suite. Barometry, combined with frequent disequilibrium features, such as oscillatory-zoned and sieve-textured plagioclase crystals with An-rich overgrowths in more evolved samples, imply final magma differentiation occurred in an open upper crustal magma system that developed progressively stronger compositional modifications during high-level magma storage.

  5. Magma storage and plumbing of adakite-type post-ophiolite intrusions in the Sabzevar ophiolitic zone, northeast Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, K.; Ghasemi, H.; Troll, V. R.; Sadeghian, M.; Dahren, B.

    2015-01-01

    Subduction-related adakite-type intrusive rocks emplaced into the late Cretaceous-Paleocene Sabzevar ophiolite zone, northeast Iran, range from Mg-andesite to rhyodacite in composition. Here we investigate the magma supply system to these subvolcanic intrusive rocks by applying thermobarometric mineral and mineral-melt equilibrium models, including amphibole thermobarometry, plagioclase-melt thermobarometry and clinopyroxene-melt barometry. Based on the results of these thermobarometric models, plagioclase crystallized dominantly at pressures of ~350 (130 to 468) MPa, while amphiboles record both low pressures (~300 MPa) and very high pressures (>700 MPa) of crystallization. The latter is supported by the calculated pressures for clinopyroxene crystallization (550 to 730 MPa). The association of amphibole with clinopyroxene and no plagioclase in the most primitive samples (Mg-andesites) is consistent with amphibole fractionation from very hydrous magmas at deep crustal levels of the plumbing system, which may have been a key process in intensifying adakite-type affinities in this rock suite. Barometry, combined with frequent disequilibrium features such as oscillatory-zoned and sieve-textured plagioclase crystals with An-rich overgrowths in more evolved samples, implies that final magma differentiation occurred in an open upper crustal magma system that developed progressively stronger compositional modifications during high-level magma storage.

  6. Magma storage and plumbing of adakite-type post-ophiolite intrusions in the Sabzevar ophiolitic zone, NE Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, K.; Ghasemi, H.; Troll, V. R.; Sadeghian, M.; Dahren, B.

    2014-08-01

    Subduction-related adakite-type intrusive rocks emplaced into the late Cretaceous-Paleocene Sabzevar ophiolite zone, NE Iran, range from Mg-andesite to rhyodacite in composition. Here we investigate the magma supply system to these subvolcanic intrusive rocks by applying thermobarometric mineral and mineral-melt equilibrium models, including amphibole thermobarometry, plagioclase-melt thermobarometry and clinopyroxene-melt barometry. Based on the results of these thermobarometric models, plagioclase crystallized dominantly at pressures of ~ 350 (468-130) MPa, while amphiboles record both low pressures (~ 300 MPa) and very high pressures (> 700 MPa) of crystallization. The latter is supported by the calculated pressures for clinopyroxene crystallization (550 to 730 MPa). The association of amphibole with clinopyroxene and no plagioclase in the most primitive samples (Mg-andesites) is consistent with amphibole fractionation from very hydrous magmas at deep crustal levels of the plumbing system, which may have been a key process to intensify adakite-type affinities in this rock suite. Barometry, combined with frequent disequilibrium features, such as oscillatory-zoned and sieve-textured plagioclase crystals with An-rich overgrowths in more evolved samples, imply final magma differentiation occurred in an open upper crustal magma system that developed progressively stronger compositional modifications during high-level magma storage.

  7. Evaluation of Characteristics of Non-Metallic Inclusions in P/M Ni-Base Superalloy by Automatic Image Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Xinggang; Ge; Changchun; Shen; Weiping

    2007-01-01

    Non-metallic inclusions,especially the large ones,within P/M Ni-base superalloy have a major influence on fatigue characteristics,but are not directly measurable by routine inspection.In this paper,a method,automatic image analysis,is proposed for estimation of the content,size and amount of non-metallic inclusions in superalloy.The methodology for the practical application of this method is described and the factors affecting the precision of the estimation are discussed.In the experiment,the characteristics of the non-metallic inclusions in Ni-base P/M superalloy are analyzed.

  8. The Moon's perigee and plumb-in line

    CERN Document Server

    Kiryan, D G

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we have established a functional relationship between deflection of a gravitational field line and lunar perigee location. Physical nature of the process inducing the Chandler wobble has been shown. We have proved that the Chandler wobble results from a combination of two types of motion: additional rotation of the Earth and cyclic motion of the Moon around the Earth. We suggest here a physical model of the Earth's interior structure as a system of two separate masses: the Core and the Earth. The cause-and-effect relationship between the lunar perigee coordinates and the Core location within the Earth has been revealed. The results obtained fit well the presently available data from astronomical and gravimetrical observations.

  9. Non-metallic, non-Fermi-liquid resistivity of FeCrAs from 0 to 17 GPa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, F F; Wu, W; Julian, S R

    2013-09-25

    An unusual, non-metallic resistivity of the 111 iron-pnictide compound FeCrAs is shown to be relatively unchanged under pressures of up to 17 GPa. Combined with our previous finding that this non-metallic behaviour persists from at least 80 mK to 800 K, this shows that the non-metallic phase is exceptionally robust. Antiferromagnetic order, with a Néel temperature TN ∼ 125 K at ambient pressure, is suppressed by pressure at a rate of 7.0 ± 0.4 K GPa(-1), falling to ∼50 K at 10 GPa. We conclude that the formation of a spin-density-wave gap at TN does not play an important role in the non-metallic resistivity of FeCrAs at low temperatures.

  10. Entropy Generation Analysis for a CNT Suspension Nanofluid in Plumb Ducts with Peristalsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen Sher Akbar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current investigation was to discuss the entropy generation analysis for a carbon nanotube (CNT suspension nanofluid in a plumb duct with peristalsis. The entropy generation number due to heat transfer and fluid friction is formulated. The velocity and temperature distributions across the tube are presented along with pressure attributes. Exact analytical solution for velocity and temperature profile are obtained. It is found that the entropy generation number attains high values in the region close to the walls of the tube, while it attains low values near the center of the tube.

  11. Non-metallic inclusions structure dimension in high quality steel with medium carbon contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lipiński

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental material consisted of semi-finished products of high-grade, medium-carbon structural steel. The production process involved two melting technologies: steel melting in a 140-ton basic arc furnace with desulfurization and argon refining variants, and in a 100-ton oxygen converter. Billet samples were collected to analyze the content of non-metallic inclusions with the use of an optical microscope and a video inspection microscope. The results were processed and presented in graphic form.

  12. The Effect of Fine Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Fatigue Strength of Structural Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiński T.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of a study investigating the effect of the number of fine non-metallic inclusions (up to 2 µm in size on the fatigue strength of structural steel during rotary bending. The study was performed on 21 heats produced in an industrial plant. Fourteen heats were produced in 140 ton electric furnaces, and 7 heats were performed in a 100 ton oxygen converter. All heats were desulfurized. Seven heats from electrical furnaces were refined with argon, and heats from the converter were subjected to vacuum circulation degassing.

  13. Separation of the metallic and non-metallic fraction from printed circuit boards employing green technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Ruiz, R H; Flores-Campos, R; Gámez-Altamirano, H A; Velarde-Sánchez, E J

    2016-07-05

    The generation of electrical and electronic waste is increasing day by day; recycling is attractive because of the metallic fraction containing these. Nevertheless, conventional techniques are highly polluting. The comminution of the printed circuit boards followed by an inverse flotation process is a clean technique that allows one to separate the metallic fraction from the non-metallic fraction. It was found that particle size and superficial air velocity are the main variables in the separation of the different fractions. In this way an efficient separation is achieved by avoiding the environmental contamination coupled with the possible utilization of the different fractions obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Review of Post and Core Application with Emphasize on Non Metallic Posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahroodi MH

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Many different methods are suggested to restore endodontically treated teeth. Prefabricated posts can not be indicated for all teeth and cast posts require extra time and cost. In addition, with the introduction of full ceramic restorations, achieving the ideal esthetic with metal post underneath them may be problematic or impossible because the darkness of the metallic posts may show through the highly translucent all ceramic restorations. In this article the review of litature and describiton of applied methods of different procedure in restoring the root canal therapied teeth and few techniques of non metallic posts fabrication such as fiber reinforced composite and zirconium oxide posts have been described.

  15. [An optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer for soil non-metallic nutrient determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong-xian; Hu, Juan-xiu; Lu, Shao-kun; He, Hou-yong

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve rapid, convenient and efficient soil nutrient determination in soil testing and fertilizer recommendation, a portable optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer including immersed fiber sensor, flat field holographic concave grating, and diode array detector was developed for soil non-metallic nutrient determination. According to national standard of ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer with JJG 178-2007, the wavelength accuracy and repeatability, baseline stability, transmittance accuracy and repeatability measured by the prototype instrument were satisfied with the national standard of III level; minimum spectral bandwidth, noise and excursion, and stray light were satisfied with the national standard of IV level. Significant linear relationships with slope of closing to 1 were found between the soil available nutrient contents including soil nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, available phosphorus, available sulfur, available boron, and organic matter measured by the prototype instrument compared with that measured by two commercial single-beam-based and dual-beam-based spectrophotometers. No significant differences were revealed from the above comparison data. Therefore, the optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer can be used for rapid soil non-metallic nutrient determination with a high accuracy.

  16. Bacterial assimilation reduction of iron in the treatment of non-metallics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Malachovský

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural non-metallics, including granitoide and quartz sands, often contain iron which decreases the whiteness of these raw materials. Insoluble Fe3+ in these samples could be reduced to soluble Fe2+ by bacteria of Bacillus spp. and Saccharomyces spp. The leaching effect, observed by the measurement of Fe2+concentration in a solution, showed higher activities of a bacterial kind isolated from the Bajkal lake and also by using of yeast Saccharomyces sp. during bioleaching of quartz sands. However, allkinds of Bacillus spp. isolated from the Slovak deposit and from Bajkal lake were very active in the iron reduction during bioleaching of the feldspar raw material. This metal was efficiently removed from quartz sands as documented by the Fe2O3 decrease (from 0,317 % to 0,126 % and from feldpars raw materials by the Fe2O3 decrease (from 0,288 % to 0,115 % after bioleaching. The whiteness of these non-metallics was increased during a visual comparison of samples before and after bioleaching but samples contain selected magnetic particles. A removal of iron as well as a release of iron minerals from silicate matrix should increase the effect of the magnetic separation and should give a product which is suitable for industrial applications.

  17. PVC-based composite material containing recycled non-metallic printed circuit board (PCB) powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinjie; Guo, Yuwen; Liu, Jingyang; Qiao, Qi; Liang, Jijun

    2010-12-01

    The study is directed to the use of non-metallic powders obtained from comminuted recycled paper-based printed circuit boards (PCBs) as an additive to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrate. The physical properties of the non-metallic PCB (NMPCB) powders were measured, and the morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of the NMPCB/PVC composite material were investigated. The results show that recycled NMPCB powders, when added below a threshold, tended to increase the tensile strength and bending strength of PVC. When 20 wt% NMPCB powders (relative to the substrate PVC) of an average diameter of 0.08 mm were added, the composite tensile strength and bending strength reached 22.6 MPa and 39.83 MPa, respectively, representing 107.2% and 123.1% improvement over pure PVC. The elongation at break of the composite material reached 151.94% of that of pure PVC, while the Vicat softening temperature of the composite material did not increase significantly compared to the pure PVC. The above results suggest that paper-based NMPCB powders, when used at appropriate amounts, can be effective for toughening PVC. Thus, this study suggests a new route for reusing paper-based NMPCB, which may have a significant beneficial environmental impact.

  18. X-ray detection of ingested non-metallic foreign bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saps, Miguel; Rosen, John M; Ecanow, Jacob

    2014-05-08

    To determine the utility of X-ray in identifying non-metallic foreign body (FB) and assess inter-radiologist agreement in identifying non-metal FB. Focus groups of nurses, fellows, and attending physicians were conducted to determine commonly ingested objects suitable for inclusion. Twelve potentially ingested objects (clay, plastic bead, crayon, plastic ring, plastic army figure, glass bead, paperclip, drywall anchor, eraser, Lego™, plastic triangle toy, and barrette) were embedded in a gelatin slab placed on top of a water-equivalent phantom to simulate density of a child's abdomen. The items were selected due to wide availability and appropriate size for accidental pediatric ingestion. Plain radiography of the embedded FBs was obtained. Five experienced radiologists blinded to number and types of objects were asked to identify the FBs. The radiologist was first asked to count the number of items that were visible then to identify the shape of each item and describe it to a study investigator who recorded all responses. Overall inter-rater reliability was analyzed using percent agreement and κ coefficient. We calculated P value to assess the probability of error involved in accepting the κ value. Fourteen objects were radiographed including 12 original objects and 2 duplicates. The model's validity was supported by clear identification of a radiolucent paperclip as a positive control, and lack of identification of plastic beads (negative control) despite repeated inclusion. Each radiologist identified 7-9 of the 14 objects (mean 8, 67%). Six unique objects (50%) were identified by all radiologists and four unique objects (33%) were not identified by any radiologist (plastic bead, Lego™, plastic triangle toy, and barrette). Identification of objects that were not present, false-positives, occurred 1-2 times per radiologist (mean 1.4). An additional 17% of unique objects were identified by less than half of the radiologists. Agreement between radiologists was

  19. Differential growth of Legionella pneumophila strains within a range of amoebae at various temperatures associated with in-premise plumbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential effect of in-premise plumbing temperatures (24, 32, 37 and 41 °C) on the growth of five different L. pneumophila strains within free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba polyphaga, Hartmannella vermiformis and Naegleria fowleri) was examined. Compared to controls only fed E...

  20. Home Plumbing Simulator for the Study of Copper and Lead Corrosion and Release, Disinfectant Demand, and Biofilm Activity - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The corrosion of household or premise plumbing materials (such as copper, brass, and solder) and the metal release that results from that corrosion can cause numerous problems, ranging from “blue” water to copper pinhole leaks. If left untreated, these problems can lead to health...

  1. Home Plumbing Simulator for the Study of Copper and Lead Corrosion and Release, Disinfectant Demand, and Biofilm Activity - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The corrosion of household or premise plumbing materials (such as copper, brass, and solder) and the metal release that results from that corrosion can cause numerous problems, ranging from “blue” water to copper pinhole leaks. If left untreated, these problems can lead to health...

  2. Calculating the Carrying Capacity of Flexural Prestressed Concrete Beams with Non-Metallic Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Atutis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews moment resistance design methods of prestressed concrete beams with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP reinforcement. FRP tendons exhibit linear elastic response to rupture without yielding and thus failure is expected to be brittle. The structural behaviour of beams prestressed with FRP tendons is different from beams with traditional steel reinforcement. Depending on the reinforcement ratio, the flexural behaviour of the beam can be divided into several groups. The numerical results show that depending on the nature of the element failure, moment resistance calculation results are different by using reviewed methods. It was found, that the use of non-metallic reinforcement in prestressed concrete structures is effective: moment capacity is about 5% higher than that of the beams with conventional steel reinforcement.Article in Lithuanian

  3. The share of non-metallic inclusions in high-grade steel for machine parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lipiński

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the differences in the purity steel in the dimensions of inclusion particles as dependent on various steel production processes. The experimental material consisted of semi-finished products of high-grade, medium-carbon constructional steel with: manganese, chromium, nickel, molybdenum and boron. The impurity content of steel was low as phosphorus and sulphur levels did not exceed 0.025%. The experimental material consisted of steel products obtained in three metallurgical processes: electric, electric with argon refining and oxygen converter with vacuum degassing of steel. Billet samples were collected to determine: chemical composition, relative volume of non-metallic inclusions, dimensions of impurities. The results were processed and presented in graphic form.

  4. Nuclide, metal and non metal levels in percolated water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Camilla Bof; Knupp, Eliana Aparecida Nonato; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano, E-mail: cgbs@cdtn.b [Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena; Ciqueira, Maria Celia [Pocos de Caldas Lab., (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Systematic generation of residues is more and more worrying in today.s world; adequate storage and reutilization are of great importance. Since generation of residues has become impossible to avoid, the possibility of reuse must be studied and researched. An example of these residues is phosphogypsum, which is generated in phosphoric acid production at the rate of around 4.8 tons for each ton of phosphoric acid produced. Many studies seek to reuse phosphogypsum in agriculture as a source of calcium and sulfur, potassium or aluminum, especially in soils from Brazil's cerrado regions. Though phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of heavy metals, non metals (As and Se), fluorides and natural radionuclides. Thus, its uncontrolled use as a soil conditioner can lead to contamination of underground water. (author)

  5. Analysis and simulation of non-metallic inclusions in spheroidal graphite iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustal, B.; Schelnberger, B.; Bührig-Polaczek, A.

    2016-03-01

    Non-metallic inclusions in spheroidal cast iron (SGI) reduce fatigue strength and yield strength. This type of inclusion usually accumulates at grain boundaries. Papers addressing this topic show the overall impact of both the fraction of so-called white (carbides) and black (non-metallic) inclusions on mechanical properties. In the present work we focus on the origin and the formation conditions of black Mg-bearing inclusions, further distinguishing between Si-bearing and non-Si-bearing Mg inclusions. The formation was simulated applying thermodynamic approaches. Moreover, appropriate experiments have been carried out and a large number of particles have been studied applying innovative feature analysis with regard to shape, size, and composition. Magnesium silicates are predicted at elevated oxygen concentrations, whereas at low levels of oxygen sulphides and carbides appear at a late stage of solidification. Experiments with three consecutive flow obstacles show that the amount of magnesium silicates decrease after each of the three obstacles, whereas the fraction of non-Si-bearing inclusions remains approximately constant. The size of inclusions divides in halves over the flow path and the number of particles increases accordingly. We point out that based on feature analysis Mg-O-C bearing inclusion show disadvantageous form factors for which reason this kind of inclusions may be extremely harmful in terms of crack initiation. All results obtained indicate that magnesium silicates are entrapped on mould filling, whereas Mg-(O, C, S, P, N) bearing particles are precipitates at late stages of solidification. Consequently, the only avoidance strategy is setting up optimum retained magnesium content.

  6. Study of the nature of non-metallic inclusions in samples of aluminum and silicon killed low carbon steels, collected in the refining treatment and continuous casting stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Santos Pires

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The amount, distribution, size and chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions have a direct influence on steel properties. By controlling size and chemical composition of these inclusions, it is possible to get a product with good quality. The identification of the nature and the control of inclusion formation are very important for steel cleanness. The behavior of these inclusions is predictable, in some extent, by the determination of the chemical composition of non-metallic phases that form such inclusions. With the objective of studying the chemical composition, the size and the distribution of such inclusions, samples of aluminum and silicon killed low carbon steels were collected in a national steel industry in the secondary refining and continuous casting stages. These samples were analyzed in the scanning electron microscope (SEM coupled to an energy dispersive analysis system (EDS. From the results, it was possible to evaluate the nature of inclusions and to analyze the effectiveness of the refining process in the reduction of the number and area fraction of the inclusions. It was also possible to verify that the inclusions that remained after treatment, are less damage both to the steel properties as to the continuous casting process (clogging of the submerged valve.

  7. Tunable electronic structures of germanium monochalcogenide nanosheets via light non-metallic atom functionalization: a first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Yanli

    2016-08-17

    Germanium monochalcogenides, i.e. GeS and GeSe sheets, are isoelectronic analogues of phosphorene, which have been synthesized in recent experiments (P. Ramasamy et al., J. Mater. Chem. C, 2016, 4, 479). Utilizing first-principles calculations, we have investigated their tunable electronic and magnetic properties via light non-metallic atom (B, C, N, O, Si, P, S) functionalization. We find that on these GeS and GeSe sheets O and S adatoms prefer to locate at the top site above the Ge atom, while the other ones like to occupy the anion site, which push the original S/Se atom to the hollow site instead. O and S adatoms slightly affect the semiconducting behaviour of the doped systems, while B, C, N, Si, P ones will drastically modify their band structures and induce versatile spintronic properties. Through the supercell calculations, B and C adatoms are found to induce a bipolar semiconducting behaviour in the decorated systems, while the N/P adatom will cause a spin-gapless-semiconducting/nearly-half-metallic feature in them. The B/C/N/Si/P-substituted GeS/GeSe sheet can be formed by removing the hollow-site S/Se atom from the adatom-decorated structures, which exhibit an opposite semiconducting/metallic behaviour to their phosphorene counterparts. A general odd-even rule is proposed for this phenomenon, which shows that an odd (even) number of valence electron difference between the substitution and host atoms would cause a metallic (semiconducting) feature in the substituted systems. Our study demonstrates that atom functionalization is an efficient way to tailor the properties of GeS and GeSe nanosheets, which have adaptable electronic properties for potential applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics.

  8. Influence of non-metallic inclusions on the strength properties of screws made of 35B2+Cr steel after softening

    OpenAIRE

    Krawczyk, J.; Pawłowski, B

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the results of the research on the influence of non-metallic inclusions on strength properties of 35B2+Cr steel screws.Design/methodology/approach: The investigations were carried out on screws after softening. The investigated steels with different fraction of non-metallic inclusions were delivered by three different suppliers.Findings: It was proved, that in spite of the level of fraction of non-metallic inclusions compatible with the corresponding standards, th...

  9. The diesel exhaust in miners study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Lubin, J.H.; Portengen, L.; Blair, A.; Attfield, M.D.; Silverman, D.T.; Stewart, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no histori

  10. Lipophilic super-absorbent polymer gels as surface cleaners for oil and grease from metal and non-metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research is to develop a new cleaning technology based on lipophilic super-absorbent swelling gels for the removal of oil, grease and particulate matters from metal and non-metal surfaces. It is desired that the cleaner is in solid form and is VOC-exempt, HAP-free, non-toxic, n...

  11. Super-Absorbent polymer gels for oil and grease removal from metal and non-metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research is to develop a new surface cleaning technology for removal of oil, grease and particulate matters from metal and non-metal surfaces. It is desired that the cleaner is in solid form and is VOC-exempt, HAP-free, non-toxic, non-corrosive, non-ozone depleting, recyclable...

  12. Metals, non-metals and PCB in electrical and electronic waste--actual levels in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morf, Leo S; Tremp, Josef; Gloor, Rolf; Schuppisser, Felix; Stengele, Markus; Taverna, Ruedi

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of waste of small electrical and electronic equipment (s-WEEE), a rapidly growing waste stream, was determined for selected metals (Cu, Sb, Hg etc.) and non-metals (Cl, Br, P) and PCBs. During a 3-day experiment, all output products and the s-WEEE input mass flows in a WEEE recycling plant were measured. Only output products were sampled and analyzed. Material balances were established, applying substance flow analysis (SFA). Transfer coefficients for the selected substances were also determined. The results demonstrate the capability of SFA to determine the composition of the highly heterogeneous WEEE for most substances with rather low uncertainty (2 sigma +/- 30%). The results confirm the growing importance of s-WEEE regarding secondary resource metals and potential toxic substances. Nowadays, the thirty times smaller s-WEEE turns over larger flows for many substances, compared to municipal solid waste. Transfer coefficient results serve to evaluate the separation efficiency of the recycling process and confirm--with the exception of PCB and Hg--the limitation of hand-sorting and mechanical processing to separate pollutants (Cd, Pb, etc.) out of reusable fractions. Regularly applied SFA would serve to assess the efficacy of legislative, organizational and technical measures on the WEEE.

  13. Absorption of non-metallic inclusions by steelmaking slags—a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Henrique Reis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The formation of non-metallic inclusions during steelmaking is inevitable and, when not properly controlled, can cause performance and production problems. Slag is one of the resources available to carry out this control. In steelmaking, it is generally understood that inclusions are naturally absorbed by slag when flotation is sufficient. However, separation and dissolution may define the inclusion absorption capacity of slag. The discussion in this review explains the relationship between separation and the contact angle at the steel/inclusion interface, which differentiates the mechanism from liquid and solid inclusions. Whereas liquid particles show more predictable behavior in experimental observations, thermodynamic analysis is necessary in order to describe the removal of solid particles. Among other findings, it is evident that slag viscosity and the formation of compounds at the inclusion/slag interface strongly influence inclusion dissolution capacity. Following a detailed description of findings in the literature, this review considers the most influential factors to aid in optimizing slags for inclusion absorption.

  14. Strength and deformability of concrete beams reinforced by non-metallic fiber and composite rebar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudyakov, K. L.; Plevkov, V. S.; Nevskii, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Production of durable and high-strength concrete structures with unique properties has always been crucial. Therefore special attention has been paid to non-metallic composite and fiber reinforcement. This article describes the experimental research of strength and deformability of concrete beams with dispersed and core fiber-based reinforcement. As composite reinforcement fiberglass reinforced plastic rods with diameters 6 mm and 10 mm are used. Carbon and basalt fibers are used as dispersed reinforcement. The developed experimental program includes designing and production of flexural structures with different parameters of dispersed fiber and composite rebar reinforcement. The preliminary testing of mechanical properties of these materials has shown their effectiveness. Structures underwent bending testing on a special bench by applying flexural static load up to complete destruction. During the tests vertical displacements were recorded, as well as value of actual load, slippage of rebars in concrete, crack formation. As a result of research were obtained structural failure and crack formation graphs, value of fracture load and maximum displacements of the beams at midspan. Analysis of experimental data showed the effectiveness of using dispersed reinforcement of concrete and the need for prestressing of fiberglass composite rebar.

  15. Stepped-Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar for Detection of Small Non-metallic Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Nymann, Ole

    1997-01-01

    to an HP8753C Network Analyzer through a 5 m long Sucoflex coaxial cable. The data are collected automatically using an HPIB interface. The collected data contains both the amplitude and phase information of the reflection coefficient. Data are measured at up to a maximum of 401 different frequencies...... at each measurement point using a mesh-grid with a resolution down to 1 mm by 1 mm. The size of the scan area is 1410 mm by 210 mm. Measurements have been performed on loamy soil containing a buried M-56, a non-metallic AP-mine, and various other mine-like objects made of solid plastic, brass, aluminum......, steel, and wood. The presented results are based on probe-data measured at 100 different frequencies at each measurement point and a coarser mesh-grid of 10 mm by 10 mm, since it is found that less probe-data is needed. Our experiments show that even less amount of probe-data may be necessary....

  16. Attachment of Surface "Fermi Arcs" to the Bulk Fermi Surface: "Fermi-Level Plumbing" in Topological Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Haldane, F. D. M.

    2014-01-01

    The role of "Fermi arc" surface-quasiparticle states in "topological metals" (where some Fermi surface sheets have non-zero Chern number) is examined. They act as "Fermi-level plumbing" conduits that transfer quasiparticles among groups of apparently-disconnected Fermi sheets with non-zero Chern numbers to maintain equality of their chemical potentials, which is required by gauge invariance. Fermi arcs have a chiral tangential attachment to the surface projections of sheets of the bulk Fermi ...

  17. Detection of Non-metallic Inclusions in Centrifugal Continuous Casting Steel Billets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Lifeng; Seetharaman, Sridhar; Yang, Shufeng; Yang, Wen; Wang, Yi

    2016-06-01

    In the current study, automated particle analysis was employed to detect non-metallic inclusions in steel during a centrifugal continuous casting process of a high-strength low alloy steel. The morphology, composition, size, area fraction, amount, and spatial distribution of inclusions in steel were obtained. Etching experiment was performed to reveal the dendrite structure of the billet and to discuss the effect of centrifugal force on the distribution of oxide inclusions in the final solidified steel by comparing the solidification velocity with the critical velocity reported in literature. It was found that the amount of inclusions was highest in samples from the tundish (~250 per mm2), followed by samples from the mold (~200 per mm2), and lowest in billet samples (~86 per mm2). In all samples, over 90 pct of the inclusions were smaller than 2μm. In steel billets, the content of oxides, dual-phase oxide-sulfides, and sulfides in inclusions were found to be 10, 30, and 60 pct, respectively. The dual-phase inclusions were oxides with sulfides precipitated on the outer surface. Oxide inclusions consisted of high Al2O3 and high MnO which were solid at the molten steel temperature, implying that the calcium treatment was insufficient. Small oxide inclusions very uniformly distributed on the cross section of the billet, while there were more sulfide inclusions showing a banded structure at the outside 25 mm layer of the billet. The calculated solidification velocity was higher than the upper limit at which inclusions were entrapped by the solidifying front, revealing that for oxide inclusions smaller than 8μm in this study, the centrifugal force had little influence on its final distribution in billets. Instead, oxide inclusions were rapidly entrapped by solidifying front.

  18. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-01

    The world's waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite before the reutilization of the cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass, and the recycling of liquid crystal display (LCD) glass is economically viable for the containing of precious metals (indium and tin). However, the environmental assessment of the recycling process is essential and important before the industrialized production stage. For example, noise and dust should be evaluated during the glass cutting process. This study could contribute

  19. Numerical analysis of the non-metallic inclusions distribution and separation in a two-strand tundish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Merder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The tundish plays an important role in the challenging task of a “clean steel” production process. The flow of the liquid steel in tundish has a crucial influence on non-metallic inclusions distribution and separation. The article presents computational studies of non-metallic inclusions separation in a two-strand industrial tundish during steady-state casting. Tundish capacity is 7,5 t. First, flow structure in the tundish was investigated using water model of the industrial tundish in a 1:2 scale. The experimental results, regarding RTD characteristics were used to validate numerical model. With validated model, particle distribution and separation in the two-strand tundish were investigated numerically. For modelling the separation of particles at the fluid surface, a modified boundary condition has been implemented.

  20. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • NMFs from WEEE were treated by incineration or land filling in the past. • Environmental risks such as heavy metals and BFRs will be the major problems during the NMFs recycling processes. • Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glasses are reviewed. • More environmental impact assessment should be carried out to evaluate the environmental risks of the recycling products. - Abstract: The world’s waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite

  1. Plumbing the Aquatic Conduit for Terrestrial Carbon: How far can we get with Hydrological Connectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, K. H.; Campeau, A.; Billett, M. F.; Wallin, M.

    2016-12-01

    The water cycle is maddeningly difficultyto pin down with the level of detail that is desired for resolving issues about the fate of pollutants, nutrient cycling and the global carbon balance, etc. "Connectivity" is increasingly talked of in hydrology and water resources management as a way to better conceptualize how different parts of the catchment dynamically interact to influence runoff generation and water quality. Runoff is a major C flux (aquatic conduit) that is particularly sensitive to changes in climate and hydrological regimes. This paper uses three dimensions of connectivity (vertical, latitudinal and longitudinal), to plumb the sources of carbon leaving a boreal landscape via the aquatic conduit. We used the distributed sources and age of aquatic C export to help assess the role and stability of a boreal landscape in the global C cycle. We combined hydrometric data and mass balances with isotopic tracers of water and carbon, including both radiogenic (14C) and stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) of DOC, CO2 and CH4 in catchment soils and the stream network to define the connectivity of riparian, peatland and upland sources to the carbon in runoff throughout the year. The radiocarbon age of DOC, CO2 and CH4were predominantly modern, even in peat catotelm, but with localized excursions to millennial ages. The sources and processes that transport dissolved C species varied strongly with flow rates and the associated patterns of connectivity, mediated by seasonal variation that influence carbon cycling. The age of the C and other tracers exported to streams enabled us to "connect" the aquatic C exports to their origins in the mosaic of landscape elements. The effort also identified ways in which the concept of hydrological connectivity can be refined to strengthen the testing of biogeochemical hypotheses across temporal and spatial scales in specific landscapes.

  2. The Impact of Water Quality, Corrosion Inhibitors and Plumbing Age on Copper Release in Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) in 1991, which established a copper action level of 1.3 mg/L in the consumers’ tap water. As a result, researchers have examined the effects of water chemistry on the solubility of copper to esta...

  3. Earthquake studies reveal the magmatic plumbing system of the Katmai volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Clifford; Murphy, Rachel; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Haney, Matthew M.; Bennington, Ninfa; Powell, Lee; Paskievitch, John F.

    2012-01-01

    The 1912 eruption of Novarupta was the largest of the 1900s (Fierstein and Hildreth 2001, Hildreth et al. 2003). A century later, fundamental questions remain regarding the source of the magma for that eruption. A previous seismic study of the Katmai area (Jolly et al. 2007) identified a single large area of anomalous structure in the subsurface centered beneath Katmai Pass (Figure 2), but the magma source for the 1912 eruption is thought to have been beneath Mt. Katmai (Hildreth et al. 2003). This mystery was a prime motivation for the research project described here.

  4. A new petrological and geophysical investigation of the present-day plumbing system of Mount Vesuvius

    OpenAIRE

    Pommier, Anne; Tarits, Pascal; Hautot, Sophie; Pichavant, Michel; Scaillet, Bruno; Gaillard, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    Article in Press; International audience; A model of the electrical resistivity of Mt. Vesuvius has been elaborated to investigate the present structure of the volcanic edifice. The model is based on electrical conductivity measurements in the laboratory, on geophysical information, in particular, magnetotelluric (MT) data, and on petrological and geochemical constraints. Both 1-D and 3-D simulations explored the effect of depth, volume and resistivity of either one or two reservoirs in the s...

  5. A new petrological and geophysical investigation of the present-day plumbing system of Mount Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, A.; Tarits, P.; Hautot, S.; Pichavant, M.; Scaillet, B.; Gaillard, F.

    2010-07-01

    A model of the electrical resistivity of Mt. Vesuvius has been elaborated to investigate the present structure of the volcanic edifice. The model is based on electrical conductivity measurements in the laboratory, on geophysical information, in particular, magnetotelluric (MT) data, and on petrological and geochemical constraints. Both 1-D and 3-D simulations explored the effect of depth, volume and resistivity of either one or two reservoirs in the structure. For each configuration tested, modeled MT transfer functions were compared to field transfer functions from field magnetotelluric studies. The field electrical data are reproduced with a shallow and very conductive layer (˜0.5 km depth, 1.2 km thick, 5 ohm.m resistive) that most likely corresponds to a saline brine present beneath the volcano. Our results are also compatible with the presence of cooling magma batches at shallow depths ( ˜100 ohm.m. According to a petro-physical conductivity model, such a resistivity value is in agreement either with a low-temperature, crystal-rich magma chamber or with a small quantity of hotter magma interconnected in the resistive surrounding carbonates. However, the low quality of MT field data at long periods prevent from placing strong constraints on a potential deep magma reservoir. A comparison with seismic velocity values tends to support the second hypothesis. Our findings would be consistent with a deep structure (8-10 km depth) made of a tephriphonolitic magma at 1000°C, containing 3.5 wt%H2O, 30 vol.% crystals, and interconnected in carbonates in proportions ˜45% melt -55% carbonates.

  6. Age and Duration of the Paraná-Etendeka Flood Basalts and Related Plumbing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renne, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka Igneous Province (PEIP) comprises a large volume sequence of continental flood basalts presently distributed assymetrically between South America (mainly southern Brazil but also parts of Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina) and southwestern Africa (Namibia, Angola), following opening of the South Atlantic ocean. The PEIP is dominated by tholeiitic basalts to basaltic andesites, with subordinate silicic rocks spanning the dacite-trachyte-rhyolite fields, which occur as lava flows, sills and dike swarms as well as intrusive complexes closely related to the eruptive rocks. The PEIP has long been subject of 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic and paleomagnetic studies which led to conclude its rapid formation near the Hauterivian stage (~133 Ma) with onward progression to Barremian from the intrusive equivalents exposed northwards. Two decades after publication of the first 40Ar/39Ar ages for the Paraná flood basalts (Renne et al., 1992) we report here an updated study of the age and duration of this magmatic event. We calibrated a set of sixty published and new results to the calibration of Renne et al. (2011), which indicates an inception age of the volcanism now estimated at 135 ± 1 Ma, before the initiation of sea floor spreading. Lava extrusion progressed over ~2 Ma from south to north. A protracted duration of ~10 Ma inferred by Stewart et al. (1996) for PEIP volcanism is clearly incorrect, as also concluded by Thiede and Vasconcelos (2010). Low-Ti mafic magmas prevailed during the earlier stages followed over time by enhanced dominance of their silicic equivalents. Eruption of the high-Ti (mafic and silicic) magmas initiated simultaneously ~0.5 m.y. later, continuing up to ~133 Ma with injection of the Ponta Grossa dyke swarm. Despite several paleomagnetic polarity intervals recorded by the lava piles in the southern (> 27°S) and central (latitudes of ~24-27°S) domains of the Brazilian PEIP, the paleomagnetic data show small dispersion in agreement with the short time intervals indicated by the 40Ar/39Ar ages.

  7. Numerical 2D and 3D Investigation of Non-Metallic (Glass, Carbon) Fiber Pull-Out Micromechanics 9in Concrete Matrix)

    OpenAIRE

    Khabaz, A; Krasņikovs, A; Kononova, O; Mačanovskis, A

    2010-01-01

    Short non-metallic (glass, carbon) fibre use for concrete disperse reinforcment is of particular interest, because of much higher fibre/matrix interface area value comparing to industrially produced steel fibres.

  8. Experimental and numerical investigation of concrete structures with metal and non-metal reinforcement at impulse loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, P. A.; Batuev, S. P.; Radchenko, A. V.; Plevkov, V. S.; Kudyakov, K. L.

    2016-11-01

    Manufacturing durable and high-strength concrete structures has always been a relevant objective. Therefore special attention has been paid to non-metallic composite reinforcement. This paper considers experimental and numerical studies of nature of fracture and crack formation in concrete beams with rod composite reinforcement. Fiber glass rods, 6 mm in diameter, have been used as composite reinforcement. Concrete elements have been tested under dynamic load using special pile driver. The obtained results include patterns of fracture and crack formation, maximum load value and maximum element deflection. Comparative analysis of numerical and experimental studies has been held.

  9. Influence of Low-Alloy Cast Steel Modification on Primary Structure Refinement, Type and Shape of Non-Metallic Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartocha D.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are presented methods and results of investigation which main aim were determination of influence of melting technology (gas extraction, vacuum refining, slag refining and extraction, deoxidation and degassing and type of used modifiers on the type and shape of non-metallic inclusions and the primary structure refining. Low alloy cast steel melted in laboratory conditions, in an inductive furnace was investigated. Additions of FeNb, FeV, FeTi and FeZr modifiers were applied. The contents of oxygen and nitrogen in obtained cast steel were determined.

  10. 非金属矿物在医药行业的应用与前景%Medicinal Application and Prospect of Non-metallic Mineral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍康德; 周春晖

    2012-01-01

    Deep procession of non-metallic mineral and application on bio-/medicinal area is a new high-technical industry. This paper summarizes the appl ication history and status in quo of non-metallic minerals in pharmaceutical industry; identification, classification and development tendency of non-metallic minerals for pharmaceutical use. The focus is to introduce the development history of non-metallic minerals for pharmaceutical use, and explore the application prospect of non-metallic minerals in pharmaceutical industry, so as to provide theory basis for sufficiently exploring the potential of non-metallic minerals.%非金属矿物深加工并被用于生物医药领域系高新技术产业.本文综述了非金属矿物的医药应用历史、现状;药用非金属矿物的鉴别、分类和发展趋势.重点介绍了非金属矿物的药用开发历程,并展望了非金属矿物在医药行业的应用前景,以期为充分发掘非金属矿物的潜能提供理论指导.

  11. Study on Non-Metallic Inclusions in Laser-Welded TRIP-Aided Nb-Microalloyed Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grajcar A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The work concerns the studies on non-metallic inclusions occuring in laser-welded Si-Al TRIP steel containing Nb and Ti microadditions. Laser welding tests of 2 mm thick thermomechanically rolled sheets were carried out using keyhole welding and a solid-state laser. The results of laser welding in the air atmosphere for the heat input value of 0.048 kJ/mm are included. The distribution, type and chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions formed in the base metal, heat-affected zone, and fusion zone are analysed in detail. It was found that the base metal contains rare, fine oxysulphides. Their chemical composition was modified by rare earth elements. Numerous oxide inclusions of a various size and a chemical composition occur in the fusion zone. The dependence between a size of particles and their chemical composition was observed. A microstructure of steel was assessed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques.

  12. Non-Metallic Inclusions and Hot-Working Behaviour of Advanced High-Strength Medium-Mn Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grajcar A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The work addresses the production of medium-Mn steels with an increased Al content. The special attention is focused on the identification of non-metallic inclusions and their modification using rare earth elements. The conditions of the thermomechanical treatment using the metallurgical Gleeble simulator and the semi-industrial hot rolling line were designed for steels containing 3 and 5% Mn. Hot-working conditions and controlled cooling strategies with the isothermal holding of steel at 400°C were selected. The effect of Mn content on the hot-working behaviour and microstructure of steel was addressed. The force-energetic parameters of hot rolling were determined. The identification of structural constituents was performed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The addition of rare earth elements led to the total modification of non-metallic inclusions, i.e., they replaced Mn and Al forming complex oxysulphides. The Mn content in a range between 3 and 5% does not affect the inclusion type and the hot-working behaviour. In contrast, it was found that Mn has a significant effect on a microstructure.

  13. AES and SIMS analysis of non-metallic inclusions in a low-carbon chromium-steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammer, Katharina; Rosner, M; Poeckl, G; Hutter, H

    2003-05-01

    In the final step of secondary metallurgical steel processing, calcium is added. Besides Mg, Ca is the most powerful deoxidiser and desulfurisation agent. It reacts with dissolved oxygen and sulfur and reduces oxides and sulfides thereby forming non-metallic inclusions. Within this paper we present the analysis of such inclusions in a low-carbon chromium-steel. Depending on the time of quenching of the steel sample, different structures were revealed by REM, Auger and SIMS: If the steel was quenched immediately after Ca-addition, non-metallic inclusions that appeared to have "cavities" could be detected with SEM. SIMS investigations of these particles showed ring-shaped structures and revealed that the ring is made up of Al, Ca, Mg, O and S. No secondary ions however could be retrieved from the core inside the ring, thus leaving the nature of the "cavities" unclear. If the steel sample was quenched 3 min after Ca addition, inclusions did not have a ring-shaped structure but a compact one.

  14. THE SCHOOL PLANT GUIDE FOR PLANNING SCHOOL PLANTS OF PENNSYLVANIA. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND GENERAL, ELECTRIC, HEATING AND VENTILATING, AND PLUMBING STANDARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Instruction, Harrisburg.

    A GUIDE COVERING ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS, ELECTRIC, HEATING AND VENTILATING, AND PLUMBING STANDARDS AS APPROVED BY THE STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION IN 1966. THE FOLLOWING MINIMUM STANDARD FOR NEW BUILDING, ALTERATIONS, AND ADDITIONS ARE OUTLINED--(1) SPATIAL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS, SUCH AS CEILING HEIGHTS, INTERIOR SANITARY FACILITIES, ROOMS…

  15. Triboelectric separation technology for removing inorganics from non-metallic fraction of waste printed circuit boards: Influence of size fraction and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangwen; Wang, Haifeng; He, Yaqun; Yang, Xing; Peng, Zhen; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Shuai

    2017-02-01

    Removing inorganics from non-metallic fraction (NMF) of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) is an effective mean to improve its usability. The effect of size fraction on the triboelectric separation of NMF of WPCBs was investigated in a lab triboelectric separation system and the separation process was optimized in this paper. The elements distribution in raw NMF collected from typical WPCBs recycling plant and each size fraction obtained by sieving were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results show that the main inorganic elements in NMF are P, Ba, Mn, Sb, Ti, Pb, Zn, Sn, Mg, Fe, Ca, Cu, Al and Si. The inorganic content of each size fraction increased with the size decreasing. The metal elements are mainly distributed in -0.2mm size fraction, and concentrated in middle product of triboelectric separation. The loss on ignition (LOI) of positive product and negative product is higher than that of the middle product for the -0.355mm size fraction, while the LOI presents gradually increasing trend from negative to positive plate for the +0.355mm size fraction. Based on the separation results and mineralogical characterizations of each size fraction of NMF, the pretreatment process including several mineral processing operations was added before triboelectric separation and better separation result was obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-metal doped TiO2 nanotube arrays for high efficiency photocatalytic decomposition of organic species in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkoda, Mariusz; Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Titanium dioxide is a well-known photoactive semiconductor with a variety of possible applications. The procedure of pollutant degradation is mainly performed using TiO2 powder suspension. It can also be exploited an immobilized catalyst on a solid support. Morphology and chemical doping have a great influence on TiO2 activity under illumination. Here we compare photoactivity of titania nanotube arrays doped with non-metal atoms: nitrogen, iodine and boron applied for photodegradation of organic dye - methylene blue and terephtalic acid. The doped samples act as a much better photocatalyst in the degradation process of methylene blue and lead to the formation of much higher amount of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) than undoped TiO2 nanotube arrays. The use of a catalyst active under solar light illumination in the form of thin films on a stable substrate can be scaled up for an industrial application.

  17. Effect of Non-metallic Inclusions in Fe-Al-Ti-O-N-S Alloy on Grain Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonjin; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka

    2016-06-01

    The effect of characteristics of non-metallic inclusions in Fe-Al-Ti-O-N-S alloys with various compositions at 1473 K (1200 °C) on the microstructure was studied. The ASTM grain size number was determined in as-cast and heated samples by the optical microscopy, and the inclusion types in each sample were determined from composition analysis by field-emission scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The TiN-based inclusions certainly had a positive effect on the grain refinement. On the other hand, TiS-based inclusions exhibited no influence on the decrease of grain size. In addition, the formation and evolution behavior of inclusions by heating solid-state Fe-Al-Ti-O-N-S alloys with those locations were clarified. A different change of inclusions in alloys was observed depending on the distribution and composition of inclusions.

  18. Characteristics and Modification of Non-metallic Inclusions in Titanium-Stabilized AISI 409 Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Dirk; Garbers-Craig, Andrie

    2017-06-01

    This study describes an investigation into the improvement of castability, final surface quality and formability of titanium-stabilized AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel on an industrial scale. Non-metallic inclusions found in this industrially produced stainless steel were first characterized using SEM-EDS analyses through the INCA-Steel software platform. Inclusions were found to consist of a MgO·Al2O3 spinel core, which acted as heterogeneous nucleation site for titanium solubility products. Plant-scale experiments were conducted to either prevent the formation of spinel, or to modify it by calcium treatment. Modification to spherical dual-phase spinel-liquid matrix inclusions was achieved with calcium addition, which eliminated submerged entry nozzle clogging for this grade. Complete modification to homogeneous liquid calcium aluminates was achieved at high levels of dissolved aluminum. A mechanism was suggested to explain the extent of modification achieved.

  19. Detection of Surface and Subsurface Cracks in Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials Using a Complementary Split-Ring Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Albishi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Available microwave techniques for crack detection have some challenges, such as design complexity and working at a high frequency. These challenges make the sensing apparatus design complex and relatively very expensive. This paper presents a simple method for surface and subsurface crack detection in metallic and non-metallic materials based on complementary split-ring resonators (CSRRs. A CSRR sensor can be patterned on the ground plane of a microstrip line and fabricated using printed circuit board technology. Compared to available microwave techniques for sub-millimeter crack detection, the methods presented here show distinct advantages, such as high spatial resolution, high sensitivity and design simplicity. The response of the CSRR as a sensor for crack detection is studied and analysed numerically. Experimental validations are also presented.

  20. Characteristics and Modification of Non-metallic Inclusions in Titanium-Stabilized AISI 409 Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Dirk; Garbers-Craig, Andrie

    2017-02-01

    This study describes an investigation into the improvement of castability, final surface quality and formability of titanium-stabilized AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel on an industrial scale. Non-metallic inclusions found in this industrially produced stainless steel were first characterized using SEM-EDS analyses through the INCA-Steel software platform. Inclusions were found to consist of a MgO·Al2O3 spinel core, which acted as heterogeneous nucleation site for titanium solubility products. Plant-scale experiments were conducted to either prevent the formation of spinel, or to modify it by calcium treatment. Modification to spherical dual-phase spinel-liquid matrix inclusions was achieved with calcium addition, which eliminated submerged entry nozzle clogging for this grade. Complete modification to homogeneous liquid calcium aluminates was achieved at high levels of dissolved aluminum. A mechanism was suggested to explain the extent of modification achieved.

  1. Standard practice for process compensated resonance testing via swept sine input for metallic and Non-Metallic parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a general procedure for using the process compensated resonance testing (PCRT) via swept sine input method to identify metallic and non-metallic parts’ resonant pattern differences that can be used to indentify parts with anomalies causing deficiencies in the expected performance of the part in service. This practice is intended for use with instruments capable of exciting, measuring, recording, and analyzing multiple whole body mechanical vibration resonant frequencies within parts exhibiting acoustical ringing in the audio, or ultrasonic, resonant frequency ranges, or both. PCRT is used in the presence of manufacturing process variance to distinguish acceptable parts from those containing significant anomalies in physical characteristics expected to significantly alter the performance. Such physical characteristics include, but are not limited to, cracks, voids, porosity, shrink, inclusions, discontinuities, grain and crystalline structure differences, density related anomalies...

  2. The uncertainties calculation of acoustic method for measurement of dissipative properties of heterogeneous non-metallic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мaryna O. Golofeyeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective use of heterogeneous non-metallic materials and structures needs measurement of reliable values of dissipation characteristics, as well as common factors of their change during the loading process. Aim: The aim of this study is to prepare the budget for measurement uncertainty of dissipative properties of composite materials. Materials and Methods: The method used to study the vibrational energy dissipation characteristics based on coupling of vibrations damping decrement and acoustic velocity in a non-metallic heterogeneous material is reviewed. The proposed method allows finding the dependence of damping on vibrations amplitude and frequency of strain-stress state of material. Results: Research of the accuracy of measurement method during the definition of decrement attenuation of fluctuations in synthegran was performed. The international approach for evaluation of measurements quality is used. It includes the common practice international rules for uncertainty expression and their summation. These rules are used as internationally acknowledged confidence measure to the measurement results, which includes testing. The uncertainties budgeting of acoustic method for measurement of dissipative properties of materials were compiled. Conclusions: It was defined that there are two groups of reasons resulting in errors during measurement of materials dissipative properties. The first group of errors contains of parameters changing of calibrated bump in tolerance limits, displacement of sensor in repeated placement to measurement point, layer thickness variation of contact agent because of irregular hold-down of resolvers to control surface, inaccuracy in reading and etc. The second group of errors is linked with density and Poisson’s ratio measurement errors, distance between sensors, time difference between signals of vibroacoustic sensors.

  3. Effect of Acid-Soluble Aluminum on the Evolution of Non-metallic Inclusions in Spring Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Tang, Haiyan; Wu, Tuo; Wu, Guanghui; Li, Jingshe

    2017-04-01

    The content of acidic soluble aluminum in molten steel ([Al]s) is of significance to the control of total oxygen (TO), the formation of non-metallic inclusions, and the improvement of the surface quality of billets. Industrial trials and thermodynamic calculations were performed to study the effects of [Al]s content on the TO and the evolution of non-metallic inclusions in 60Si2Mn-Cr spring steel that was deoxidized by Si-Mn ((low aluminum process (LAP)) and Si-Mn-Al (high aluminum process (HAP)). The results show that the [Al]s contents in billets are within 0.0060 to 0.0069 mass pct in the LAP and 0.016 to 0.055 mass pct in the HAP. The TO content at each station of the LAP is higher than that in the HAP; the inclusions of billets were mainly of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 type in the former, and of the CaO-Al2O3-MgO and CaS-Al2O3-MgO types in the latter. A tendency is found that the higher the [Al]s, the easier it is to deviate from the low melting point region of the inclusion distribution and the larger the size of the inclusions. The relationships between [Al]s and the melting point of the oxide inclusions and the Al2O3 content in the oxide inclusions are also discussed in terms of experiment and calculation.

  4. Enhanced hydrogen desorption properties of magnesium hydride by coupling non-metal doping and nano-confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Daliang; Wang, Yulong; Wu, Chengzhang; Li, Qian; Ding, Weizhong; Sun, Chenghua

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium hydride (MgH2) offers excellent capacity to store hydrogen, but it suffers from the high desorption temperature (>283 °C for starting release hydrogen). In this work, we calculated the hydrogen desorption energy of Mg76H152 clusters with/without non-metal dopants by density functional theory method. Phosphorus (P), as identified as the best dopant, can reduce the reaction energy for releasing one hydrogen molecule from 0.75 eV (bulk MgH2) to 0.20 eV. Inspired by the calculation, P-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) was synthesized by one-step method and employed as the scaffold for loading MgH2 nanoparticles, forming MgH2@P/CMK-3. Element analysis shows that phosphorus dopants have been incorporated into the CMK-3 scaffold and magnesium and phosphorus elements are well-distributed in carbon scaffold hosts. Tests of hydrogen desorption confirmed that P-doping can remarkably enhance the hydrogen release properties of nanoconfined MgH2 at low temperature, specifically ˜1.5 wt. % H2 released from MgH2@P/CMK-3 below 200 °C. This work, based on the combination of computational calculations and experimental studies, demonstrated that the combined approach of non-metal doping and nano-confinement is promising for enhancing the hydrogen desorption properties of MgH2, which provides a strategy to address the challenge of hydrogen desorption from MgH2 at mild operational conditions.

  5. Synthesis of high molecular weight PEO using non-metal initiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jin; Sivanandan, Kulandaivelu; Pistorino, Jonathan; Eitouni, Hany Basam

    2015-05-19

    A new synthetic method to prepare high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) with a very narrow molecular weight distribution (PDI<1.5) is described. The method involves a metal free initiator system, thus avoiding dangerous, flammable organometallic compounds.

  6. Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials for the Primary Support Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RA Wolf; RP Corson

    2006-02-21

    The primary support structure (PSS) is required for mechanical support of reactor module (RM) components and mounting of the RM to the spacecraft. The PSS would provide support and accept all loads associated with dynamic (e. g., launch and maneuvering) or thermally induced loading. Prior to termination of NRPCT involvement in Project Prometheus, the NRPCT Mechanical Systems team developed preliminary finite element models to gain a basic understanding of the behavior of the structure, but optimization of the models, specification of the final design, and materials selection were not completed. The Space Plant Materials team had evaluated several materials for potential use in the primary support structure, namely titanium alloys, beryllium, aluminum alloys and carbon-carbon composites. The feasibility of application of each material system was compared based on mass, stiffness, thermal expansion, and ease of fabrication. Due to insufficient data on environmental factors, such as temperatures and radiation, and limited modeling support, a final materials selection was not made.

  7. Realistic tunnelling states for the magnetic effects in non-metallic real glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug, Giancarlo; Bonfanti, Silvia; Kob, Walter

    2016-03-01

    The discovery of magnetic and compositional effects in the low-temperature properties of multi-component glasses has prompted the need to extend the standard two-level systems (2LSs) tunnelling model. A possible extension assumes that a subset of tunnelling quasi-particles is moving in a three-welled potential (TWP) associated with the ubiquitous inhomogeneities of the disordered atomic structure of the glass. We show that within an alternative, cellular description of the intermediate-range atomic structure of glasses the tunnelling TWP can be fully justified. We then review how the experimentally discovered magnetic effects can be explained within the approach where only localized atomistic tunnelling 2LSs and quasi-particles tunnelling in TWPs are allowed. We discuss the origin of the magnetic effects in the heat capacity, dielectric constant (real and imaginary parts), polarization echo and SQUID magnetization in several glassy systems. We conclude by commenting on a strategy to reveal the mentioned tunnelling states (2LSs and TWPs) by means of atomistic computer simulations and discuss the microscopic nature of the tunnelling states in the context of the potential energy landscape of glass-forming systems

  8. Converting non-metallic printed circuit boards waste into a value added product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniyandi, Shantha Kumari; Sohaili, Johan; Hassan, Azman; Mohamad, Siti Suhaila

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using nonmetallic printed circuit board (PCB) waste as filler in recycled HDPE (rHDPE) in production of rHDPE/PCB composites. Maleic anhydride modified linear low-density polyethylene (MAPE) was used as compatibilizer. In particular, the effects of nonmetallic PCB and MAPE on mechanical properties of the composites were assessed through tensile, flexural and impact testing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the dispersion of nonmetallic PCB and MAPE in the matrix. Nonmetallic PCB was blended with rHDPE from 0-30 wt% and prepared by counter-rotating twin screw extruder followed by molding into test samples via hot press for analysis. A good balance between stiffness, strength and toughness was achieved for the system containing 30 wt% PCB. Thus, this system was chosen in order to investigate the effect of the compatibilizer on the mechanical properties of the composites. The results indicate that MAPE as a compatiblizer can effectively promote the interfacial adhesion between nonmetallic PCB and rHDPE. The addition of 6 phr MAPE increased the flexural strength, tensile strength and impact strength by 71%, 98% and 44% respectively compared to the uncompatibilized composites.

  9. Converting Non-Metallic Printed Circuit Boards Waste Into A Value Added Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantha Kumari Muniyandi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using nonmetallic printed circuit board (PCB waste as filler in recycled HDPE (rHDPE in production of rHDPE/PCB composites. Maleic anhydride modified linear low-density polyethylene (MAPE was used as compatibilizer. In particular, the effects of nonmetallic PCB and MAPE on mechanical properties of the composites were assessed through tensile, flexural and impact testing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to study the dispersion of nonmetallic PCB and MAPE in the matrix. Nonmetallic PCB was blended with rHDPE from 0--30 wt% and prepared by counter-rotating twin screw extruder followed by molding into test samples via hot press for analysis. A good balance between stiffness, strength and toughness was achieved for the system containing 30 wt% PCB. Thus, this system was chosen in order to investigate the effect of the compatibilizer on the mechanical properties of the composites. The results indicate that MAPE as a compatiblizer can effectively promote the interfacial adhesion between nonmetallic PCB and rHDPE. The addition of 6 phr MAPE increased the flexural strength, tensile strength and impact strength by 71%, 98% and 44% respectively compared to the uncompatibilized composites.

  10. Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions of China’s Non-Metallic Mineral Products Industry: Present State, Prospects and Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available China is the largest non-metallic mineral producer in the world and one of the key consumers of four major non-metallic mineral products, including cement, refractories, plate glass and ceramics. The non-metallic mineral products industry’s rapid growth has brought about a large demand for energy. The present study provides an overview of China’s non-metallic mineral products industry in terms of production, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. In this industry, the energy efficiency is relatively low and the level of carbon dioxide emission is much higher than developed countries’ average. This study interprets the effects of some newly issued policies and analyses the influential factors in achieving energy conservation and emission reduction goals. It also discusses the prospects for saving energy and emission reduction in the industry. Retrofitting facilities and using new production technologies is imperative. Additionally, implementing market-based policies, promoting industrial transformation and effective international cooperation would help decrease carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption.

  11. Effect of Calcium Treatment on Non-Metallic Inclusions in Ultra-Low Oxygen Steel Refined by High Basicity High Al2O3 Sla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun; WANG Xin-hua; JIANG Min; WANG Wan-jun

    2011-01-01

    The influence of calcium treatment on non-metallic inclusions had been studied when control technology of refining top slag in ladle furnace was used in ultra-low oxygen steelmaking. A sufficient amount aluminium was added to experimental heats for final

  12. Effect of the structural parameters changes in the multi-strand tundish on the non-metallic inclusions distribution and separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Warzecha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented studies was to investigate the fluid flow change and non-metallic inclusions removal changes due to tundish construction modifications. In presented study, numerical simulations were used. Numerical simulations are carried out with the finite-volume commercial code ANSYS Fluent. Steady-state casting conditions for the flow structure and the inclusions removal process are analysed.

  13. Deformation and fracture properties of metals with non-metallic inclusions; Verformung und Bruch von Metallen mit nichtmetallischen Einschluessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmauder, S.; Soppa, E. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt

    1998-12-31

    Microstructural effects due to formation of non-uniform lines of non-metallic inclusions in the matrix are examined with respect to their macro-, meso-, and micromechanical effects in the alloy Al(6061) reinforced by SiC inclusions. A comparative analysis of results obtained with various microstructures reveals essential differences in the formation of shear bands, stress peaks, and strain concentrations in the material structure. The maxima and the distribution of those field variables are determined not only by the arrangement of inclusions clusters in the stringers but also depend on the presence and number of single-particle inclusions in pure matrix material. The banding of the microstructure causes a strongly anisotropic behaviour in terms of stress and strain distributions. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] In diesem Beitrag werden Gefuegeeinfluesse aufgrund unterschiedlich starker zeiliger Anordnungen der Teilchen in der Matrix im Hinblick auf ihre makro-, meso- und mikromechanischen Auswirkungen am Beispiel einer SiC-teilchenverstaerkten Aluminiumlegierung Al(6061) untersucht. Ein Vergleich der Ergebnisse verschiedener Gefuege zeigt wesentliche Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Ausbildung von Scherbaendern, Spannungsspitzen und von Dehnungskonzentrationen im Werkstoffgefuege. Die Maxima und die Verteilung dieser Feldgroessen sind nicht nur abhaengig davon, wie die Teilchen in den Zeilen angeordnet sind, sondern auch davon, ob einzelne Teilchen in reinen Matrixbereichen vorhanden sind. Die Zeiligkeit des Gefueges fuehrt zu einem stark anisotropen Verhalten hinsichtlich Spannungs- und Dehnungsverteilungen. (orig.)

  14. Assessment of Different Turbulence Models for the Motion of Non-metallic Inclusion in Induction Crucible Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, H.; Wu, M.; Kharicha, A.; Ludwig, A.

    2016-07-01

    Turbulent fluid flow due to the electromagnetic forces in induction crucible furnace (ICF) is modeled using k-ɛ, k-ω SST and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence models. Fluid flow patterns calculated by different turbulence models and their effects on the motion of non-metallic inclusions (NMI) in the bulk melt have been investigated. Results show that the conventional k-ɛ model cannot solve the transient flow in ICF properly. With k-ω model transient flow and oscillation behavior of the flow pattern can be solved, and the motion of NMI can be tracked fairly well. LES model delivers the best modeling result on both details of the transient flow pattern and motion trajectories of NMI without the limitation of NMI size. The drawback of LES model is the long calculation time. Therefore, for general purpose to estimate the dynamic behavior of NMI in ICF both k-ω SST and LES are recommended. For the precise calculation of the motion of NMI smaller than 10 μm only LES model is appropriate.

  15. Effectiveness of Shot Peening In Suppressing Fatigue Cracking At Non-Metallic Inclusions In Udimet(Registered Trademark)720

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, Robert L.; Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Kantzos, Peter T.; Prescenzi, Anthony; Biles, T.; Bonacuse, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    The fatigue lives of modern powder metallurgy disk alloys can be reduced over an order of magnitude by cracking at inherent non-metallic inclusions. The objective of this work was to study the effectiveness of shot peening in suppressing LCF crack initiation and growth at surface nonmetallic inclusions. Inclusions were carefully introduced at elevated levels during powder metallurgy processing of the nickel-base disk superalloy Udimet 720. Multiple strain-controlled fatigue tests were then performed on machined specimens with and without shot peened test sections at 427 C and 650 C. The low cycle fatigue lives and failure initiation sites varied as functions of inclusion content, shot peening, and fatigue conditions. A large majority of the failures in as-machined specimens with the introduced inclusions occurred at cracks initiating from inclusions intersecting the specimen surface. These inclusions reduced fatigue life by up to 100X, when compared to lives of material without inclusions residing at specimen surface. Large inclusions produced the greatest reductions in life for tests at low strain ranges and high strain ratios. Shot peening improved life in many cases by reducing the most severe effects of inclusions.

  16. Effectiveness of Shot Peening in Suppressing Fatigue Cracking at Non-Metallic Inclusions in Udimet(trademark) 720

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, Robert L.; Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Kantzos, Peter T.; Prescenzi, Anthony; Biles, Tiffany; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The fatigue lives of modern powder metallurgy disk alloys can be reduced by over an order of magnitude by surface cracking at inherent non-metallic inclusions. The objective of this work was to study the effectiveness of shot peening in suppressing LCF crack initiation and growth at surface nonmetallic inclusions. Inclusions were carefully introduced at elevated levels during powder metallurgy processing of the nickel-base disk superalloy Udimet 720. Multiple strain-controlled fatigue tests were then performed on machined specimens at 427 and 650 C in peened and unpeened conditions. Analyses were performed to compare the low cycle fatigue lives and failure initiation sites as a function of inclusion content, shot peening, and fatigue conditions. A large majority of the failures in as-machined specimens with introduced inclusions occurred at cracks initiating from inclusions intersecting the specimen surface. The inclusions could reduce fatigue life by up to 100X. Large inclusions had the greatest effect on life in tests at low strain ranges and high strain ratios. Shot peening can be used to improve life in these conditions by reducing the most severe effects of inclusions.

  17. THE DISCUSSION OF REDUCTION MAMMOPLASTY THROUGH ARMS-PLUMBING METHOD%垂直双蒂法乳房缩小术的临床探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐玲

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the reduction mammoplasty through arms-plumbing method,some consideration needed as well as its advantages and disadvantages. Methods:The breast can be reshaped through Mekissock arms-plumbing method. The subcutaneous pedicel of nipples is transplanted and placed underneath vertically.The middle and lower part of galactophore is resected in sphenoid.Then the galactophore substance is reshaped.Results:The shape of breast is agreeable and the nipple survives satisfactorily.Most parts of the laceration restitute micely.Conclusion:The effect of reduction mammoplasty of mediumand high-degree of mammary hypertro phy through arms-plumbing method is satisfactory.%目的:探讨垂直双蒂法乳房缩小术的方法、注意事项及优缺点。方法:用Mckissock垂直双蒂法进行乳房缩小术,乳头、乳晕垂直皮下蒂移植,重塑乳腺实体。结果:术后乳房外形较好,乳头、乳晕成活良好,伤口大部分愈合良好。结论:运用此方法进行中、重度肥大及下垂乳房的缩小,效果满意。

  18. A General Qualitative Study of Point and Extended Defects and Their Interactions in Non-Metallic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-31

    Dickron Mergerlan, Ph.D. in physics at the Illinois Institute of Technology. 1965, Raymond R. Serway , Ph.D. in physics N at the Illinois Institute of...Temperature Dependence of the Hyperfine Structure Splittings of Some Trioxide Molecule Ions in Single Crystal Calcite. R. A. Serway , S. L. Chan and S...of Tetragonally Distorted Trivalent Chromium Ions in Magnesium Oxide. R. A. Serway , R. B. Robinson and S. A. Marshall, Phy. Stat. Sol. (b)56, 319

  19. The effect of non-metallic inclusions on the fracture toughness master curve in high copper reactor pressure vessel welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yong-Jun; Lee, Bong-Sang; Hong, Jun-Hwa

    2002-03-01

    The fracture toughness of two high copper reactor pressure vessel welds having low upper shelf energy was evaluated in accordance with the master curve method of ASTM E1921. The resultant data were correlated to the metallurgical factors involved in the brittle fracture initiation to provide a metallurgical-based understanding of the master curve. The tests were performed using pre-cracked Charpy V-notched specimens and the master curve was made with an average of T0 values determined at different temperatures. In all specimens, the cleavage fracture initiated at non-metallic inclusion ranging from 0.7 to 3.5 μm in diameter showing a scatter with the specimens and testing temperatures. Temperature dependency of the triggering particle size was not found. The fracture toughness ( KJC) was inversely proportional to the square root of the triggering inclusion diameter ( di) at respective temperatures. From this relationship, we determined median KJC values which correspond to the average value of triggering inclusion diameter of all tested specimens and defined them as a modified median KJC ( K'JC(med) ). The obtained K'JC(med) values showed quite smaller deviation from the master curve at different temperatures than the experimental median KJC values. This suggests that the master curve is on the premise of a constant dimension of key microstructural factor in a material regardless of the testing temperature. But the inclusion size at trigger point played an important role in the absolute position of the master curve with temperature and the consequent T0 value.

  20. The effect of non-metallic inclusions on the fracture toughness master curve in high copper reactor pressure vessel welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Yong-Jun E-mail: yjoh@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, Bong-Sang; Hong, Jun-Hwa

    2002-03-01

    The fracture toughness of two high copper reactor pressure vessel welds having low upper shelf energy was evaluated in accordance with the master curve method of ASTM E1921. The resultant data were correlated to the metallurgical factors involved in the brittle fracture initiation to provide a metallurgical-based understanding of the master curve. The tests were performed using pre-cracked Charpy V-notched specimens and the master curve was made with an average of T{sub 0} values determined at different temperatures. In all specimens, the cleavage fracture initiated at non-metallic inclusion ranging from 0.7 to 3.5 {mu}m in diameter showing a scatter with the specimens and testing temperatures. Temperature dependency of the triggering particle size was not found. The fracture toughness (K{sub J{sub C}}) was inversely proportional to the square root of the triggering inclusion diameter (d{sub i}) at respective temperatures. From this relationship, we determined median K{sub J{sub C}} values which correspond to the average value of triggering inclusion diameter of all tested specimens and defined them as a modified median K{sub J{sub C}} (K{sup '}{sub J{sub C}}{sub (med)}). The obtained K{sup '}{sub J{sub C}}{sub (med)} values showed quite smaller deviation from the master curve at different temperatures than the experimental median K{sub J{sub C}} values. This suggests that the master curve is on the premise of a constant dimension of key microstructural factor in a material regardless of the testing temperature. But the inclusion size at trigger point played an important role in the absolute position of the master curve with temperature and the consequent T{sub 0} value.

  1. Solar energy system performance evaluation: Seasonal report for IBM System 2, Togus, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system, SIMS Prototype System 2, was designed to supply domestic hot water to single family residences. The system consists of flat plate collectors, silicone working fluid, storage tanks, pumps, heat exchanger, controls, and associated plumbing. The long term field performance of the installed system was analyzed and the results are described.

  2. 废弃电路板中非金属组分的回收利用%Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste printed circuit boards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旸; 刘静欣; 江晓健; 郭学益

    2016-01-01

    废弃电路板是电子废弃物的重要组成部分。目前工业生产及工艺开发多针对极具经济回收价值的电路板金属组分。然而,占电路板质量分数70%的非金属组分却关注较少。文章分析了废弃电路板非金属组分的组成及其有害组分,其含有树脂及玻璃纤维等有价成分和溴、夹杂重金属等污染环境的物质,其回收利用对于资源循环利用及环境保护均有重要意义。非金属组分回收利用主要有物理处理和化学处理2种技术:物理处理技术主要将非金属组分用作结构材料填料、塑料改性剂和建筑材料改性剂;化学处理技术通过焚烧将非金属组分用作燃料和熔剂或通过热解回收或溶剂分解回收可将非金属组分转化为化工产品。这2种技术在非金属组分资源化利用上各有优势,都已有部分工业化应用。%Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are important parts in the electronic waste. Nowadays, recov-ering metals from WPCBs are developed but non-metallic fractions which accounts for 70% of waste printed circuit boards have not been effectively utilized. The non-metallic fractions and hazards in waste printed cir-cuit boards were analyzed in this paper. The results show that resins and glass fiber in non-metallic fractions can be recycled and bromine and heavy metals could pollute environment. Recovering non-metallic fractions are important to recycling and environment, which can be divided into physical recycling technology and chemical recycling technology, with the formal using non-metallic fractions as the filler materials, plastic modifier or building material modifiers, and the latter using non-metallic fractions as the fuel and smelting flux through incineration or convert non-metallic fractions into chemical products through pyrolysis or solvent decomposition. Both technologies have their own advantages in resource utilization of non-metallic fractions, and partly

  3. Plumbing the global carbon cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J.J.; Prairie, Y.T.; Caraco, N.F.; McDowell, W.H.; Tranvik, L.J.; Striegl, R.G.; Duarte, C.M.; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Downing, J.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Melack, J.

    2007-01-01

    Because freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth's surface area, inland freshwater ecosystems (particularly lakes, rivers, and reservoirs) have rarely been considered as potentially important quantitative components of the carbon cycle at either global or regional scales. By taking published estimates of gas exchange, sediment accumulation, and carbon transport for a variety of aquatic systems, we have constructed a budget for the role of inland water ecosystems in the global carbon cycle. Our analysis conservatively estimates that inland waters annually receive, from a combination of background and anthropogenically altered sources, on the order of 1.9 Pg C y-1 from the terrestrial landscape, of which about 0.2 is buried in aquatic sediments, at least 0.8 (possibly much more) is returned to the atmosphere as gas exchange while the remaining 0.9 Pg y-1 is delivered to the oceans, roughly equally as inorganic and organic carbon. Thus, roughly twice as much C enters inland aquatic systems from land as is exported from land to the sea. Over prolonged time net carbon fluxes in aquatic systems tend to be greater per unit area than in much of the surrounding land. Although their area is small, these freshwater aquatic systems can affect regional C balances. Further, the inclusion of inland, freshwater ecosystems provides useful insight about the storage, oxidation and transport of terrestrial C, and may warrant a revision of how the modern net C sink on land is described. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. The Influence of Technological Parameters of X70 Stainless Steel Ladle Refining on the Residual Content of Non-Metallic Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babanin A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that during secondary refining at the ladle furnace the carbon content of steel and the residence time of the metal in the ladle exert a significant impact on the residual content of non-metallic inclusions (NMI in steel. Mathematical calculations showed that the dynamic forces have minor effect on the motion of small sized NMI, making it difficult to penetrate deep into the slag.

  5. HACCP-Based Programs for Preventing Disease and Injury from Premise Plumbing: A Building Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. McCoy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of preventable injuries and deaths are annually caused by microbial, chemical and physical hazards from building water systems. Water is processed in buildings before use; this can degrade the quality of the water. Processing steps undertaken on-site in buildings often include conditioning, filtering, storing, heating, cooling, pressure regulation and distribution through fixtures that restrict flow and temperature. Therefore, prevention of disease and injury requires process management. A process management framework for buildings is the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP adaptation of failure mode effects analysis (FMEA. It has been proven effective for building water system management. Validation is proof that hazards have been controlled under operating conditions and may include many kinds of evidence including cultures of building water samples to detect and enumerate potentially pathogenic microorganisms. However, results from culture tests are often inappropriately used because the accuracy and precision are not sufficient to support specifications for control limit or action triggers. A reliable negative screen is based on genus-level Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR for Legionella in building water systems; however, building water samples with positive results from this test require further analysis by culture methods.

  6. Plumbing of hospital premises is a reservoir for opportunistically pathogenic microorganisms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margaret M; Armbruster, Catherine R; Arduino, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Several bacterial species that are natural inhabitants of potable water distribution system biofilms are opportunistic pathogens important to sensitive patients in healthcare facilities. Waterborne healthcare-associated infections (HAI) may occur during the many uses of potable water in the healthcare environment. Prevention of infection is made more challenging by lack of data on infection rate and gaps in understanding of the ecology, virulence, and infectious dose of these opportunistic pathogens. Some healthcare facilities have been successful in reducing infections by following current water safety guidelines. This review describes several infections, and remediation steps that have been implemented to reduce waterborne HAIs.

  7. Tap water isotopes reveal the San Francisco Bay Area's plumbing and responses to a major drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, B. J.; Jameel, M. Y.; Chau, T. H.; Mancuso, C. J.; Bowen, G. J.; Dufour, A.; Chesson, L. A.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Water availability and sustainability in the Western United States is a major flashpoint among expanding communities, growing industries, and productive agricultural lands. This issue came to a head in 2015 in the State of California, when the State mandated a 25% reduction in urban water use following a multi-year drought that significantly depleted water resources. The demands for and challenges in supplying water are only expected to intensify as climate perturbations, such as the 2012-2015 California Drought, become more common. As a consequence, there is an increased need to understand linkages between population centers, water transport and usage, and the impacts of climate change on water resources and infrastructure. To better understand these relationships within a megalopolis in the Western United States, we collected and analyzed 723 tap waters from the San Francisco Bay Area during seven collection campaigns across 21 months during 2013-2015. San Francisco Bay Area was selected as it has well-known water management strategies and its water resources were dramatically affected by the 2012-2105 drought. Consistent with known water management strategies and previous reports of tap water isotope values, we found large spatiotemporal variations in the δ2H and δ18O values of tap waters, indicative of complex water transport systems and municipality-scale management decisions. We observed δ2H and δ18O values of tap water consistent with waters originating from snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada Mountains, local precipitation, ground water, and partially evaporated reservoir sources. A cluster analysis of measured tap water data grouped waters from 43 static sampling sites that were associated with specific water utility providers within the San Francisco Bay Area and known management practices. Water management responses to the drought, such as source switching, bringing in new sources, and conservation, could be observed within the isotope data from each of

  8. 24 CFR 3285.604 - Drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 3285.604 Drainage system. (a) Crossovers. Multi-section homes with plumbing in more than one section require drainage system crossover connections to join all sections of the home. The crossover design requirements are located in, and must be designed in accordance with, § 3280.610 of this chapter. (b)...

  9. Plumbing the STEM Pipeline: Exploring Areas of Influence for Promoting STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Matthew

    The U.S. has enjoyed several decades of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) success but that is changing as U.S. students show less interest in advanced learning in STEM fields. Consequently, U.S. students are less scientifically and mathematically literate than past generations, a state that may negatively impact their chances of educational and career success. The reasons for the decline in STEM interest are unclear as many U.S. students still go on to earn STEM degrees and work in STEM fields. Often, these are students who showed a particular capacity for STEM subjects, identified through existing research as earning higher than average SAT scores, especially SAT-math, or high science and math achievement test scores. This study looked at these and other factors as a means to determine what impact they have on U.S. students' interest in pursuing a STEM line of study. The study aimed to determine in what way the U.S. educational system can positively influence high school students toward pursuing a STEM college education. The High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) was used as the data source. More than 21,000 students were part of the observations. Factor analysis was used to turn related variables into larger constructs. Constructs and original HSLS:09 variables were analyzed through logistic regression analysis with STATA software. Few high school level instructional and non-instructional interventions were found to have an impact on a student's career choice in 9 th grade of his or her choice of college major in 12th grade. On the contrary, student attitudinal variables were shown to be most influential.

  10. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B; Lubin, Jay H; Portengen, Lützen; Blair, Aaron; Attfield, Michael D; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

    2010-10-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no historical measurements of diesel exhaust (DE), historical REC (a component of DE) levels were estimated based on REC data from monitoring surveys conducted in 1998-2001 as part of the DEMS investigation. These values were adjusted for underground workers by carbon monoxide (CO) concentration trends in the mines derived from models of historical CO (another DE component) measurements and DE determinants such as engine horsepower (HP; 1 HP = 0.746 kW) and mine ventilation. CO was chosen to estimate historical changes because it was the most frequently measured DE component in our study facilities and it was found to correlate with REC exposure. Databases were constructed by facility and year with air sampling data and with information on the total rate of airflow exhausted from the underground operations in cubic feet per minute (CFM) (1 CFM = 0.0283 m³ min⁻¹), HP of the diesel equipment in use (ADJ HP), and other possible determinants. The ADJ HP purchased after 1990 (ADJ HP₁₉₉₀(+)) was also included to account for lower emissions from newer, cleaner engines. Facility-specific CO levels, relative to those in the DEMS survey year for each year back to the start of dieselization (1947-1967 depending on facility), were predicted based on models of observed CO concentrations and log-transformed (Ln) ADJ HP/CFM and Ln(ADJ HP₁₉₉₀(+)). The resulting temporal trends in relative CO levels were then multiplied by facility/department/job-specific REC estimates derived from the DEMS surveys personal measurements to obtain historical facility/department/job/year-specific REC exposure estimates. The facility-specific temporal trends of CO levels (and thus the REC

  11. Magma-plumbing System of Asama Volcano after 2004 Eruption, Estimated from Vertical Deformation above the Presumed Pressure Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, F.

    2012-12-01

    Asama volcano is one of the active volcanoes in Japan, and it erupted on September 1, 2004. A shallow dike intrusion is estimated in the Takamine, 4 - 5 km west of the Asama crater from the ground deformation detected by GPS measurements (Aoki et al., 2005). Ground deformation observation close to the pressure source should clarify the depth and volume change of pressure sources. We establish the precise leveling routes ranging to Mt. Takamine above the presumed pressure source from Oiwake, at the southern foot of Asama volcano in May 2005.The precise levelings have practiced seven times for five years since May 2005 to June 2011. We calculated the vertical deformation for six-months or two-years between leveling epochs. Generally, deformations detected by the precise leveling are small of 10 mm. Deformations detected in the periods of May 2005 - Nov.2005. - May 2006 - May 2009 - June 2010 - June 2011, are grouping two patterns. One is definite subsidence, and another is slight uplift. Murakami (2005) discusses the line length changes between two GPS sites of Tsumagoi and Tobu, and he shows that the extension of line length just before the eruption in 2004 and 2009 and contraction between the eruption. Slight uplifts in the periods of May 2005 - May 2006 are corresponding to the period observed the extension, and subsidence in the periods of May 2006 - May 2007, May 2009 - June 2010, and June 2010 - June 2011. Two pressures sources are estimated from the ground deformation detected by precise leveling. One is a deeper spherical deflation source in the 6 km BSL depth beneath the mountainside, and another is the shallow dike intrusion beneath Mt. Takamine. A pressure source model was previously estimated from the leveling data for last 100 years (Murase et al., 2007), and it is suggestive a dominant source of the Asama volcano. They suggest a slight inflation after 1960, however our results show the deflation of -6.6 km3/6yr in the deeper sources for five years after the 2004 eruption. A shallow pressure source at 1.3 km BSL depth is corresponded to the presumed dike intrusion in 2004 eruption. It is very difficult to discuss the volume change of the dike, because of insignificant identification of dike length and width. Since May 2009, large deformation of 10 mm uplift and subsidence are detected around Mt. Takamine. It is suggested a drain back in May 2009 - June 2010 and an intrusion in June 2010 - June 2011.

  12. Plumbing the brain drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravia, Nancy Gore; Miranda, Juan Francisco

    2004-08-01

    Opportunity is the driving force of migration. Unsatisfied demands for higher education and skills, which have been created by the knowledge-based global economy, have generated unprecedented opportunities in knowledge-intensive service industries. These multi-trillion dollar industries include information, communication, finance, business, education and health. The leading industrialized nations are also the focal points of knowledge-intensive service industries and as such constitute centres of research and development activity that proactively draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. Higher education is another major conduit of talent from less-developed countries to the centres of the knowledge-based global economy. Together career and educational opportunities drive "brain drain and recirculation". The departure of a large proportion of the most competent and innovative individuals from developing nations slows the achievement of the critical mass needed to generate the enabling context in which knowledge creation occurs. To favourably modify the asymmetric movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries must implement bold and creative strategies that are backed by national policies to: provide world-class educational opportunities, construct knowledge-based research and development industries, and sustainably finance the required investment for these strategies. Brazil, China and India have moved in this direction, offering world-class education in areas crucial to national development, such as biotechnology and information technology, paralleled by investments in research and development. As a result, only a small proportion of the most highly educated individuals migrate from these countries, and research and development opportunities employ national talent and even attract immigrants.

  13. Effect of inhomogeneous distribution of non-metallic inclusions on crack path deflection in G42CrMo4 steel at different loading rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henschel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An inhomogeneous distribution of non-metallic inclusions can result from the steel casting process. The aim of the present study was to investigate the damaging effect of an inhomogeneous distribution of nonmetallic inclusions on the crack extension behavior. To this end, the fracture toughness behavior in terms of quasi-static J-a curves was determined at room temperature. Additionally, dynamic fracture mechanics tests in an instrumented Charpy impact-testing machine were performed. The fracture surface of fracture mechanics specimens was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that an inhomogeneous distribution significantly affected the path and, therefore, the plane of crack growth. Especially clusters of non-metallic inclusions with a size of up to 200 μm exhibited a very low crack growth resistance. Due to the damaging effect of the clusters, the growing crack was strongly deflected towards the cluster. Furthermore, crack tip blunting was completely inhibited when inclusions were located at the fatigue precrack tip. Due to the large size of the non-metallic inclusion clusters, the height difference introduced by crack path deflection was significantly larger than the stretch zone height due to the crack tip blunting. However, the crack path deflection introduced by a cluster was not associated with a toughness increasing mechanism. The e dynamic loading ( 1 0.5 5 s MPam 10   K did not result in a transition from ductile fracture to brittle fracture. However, the crack growth resistance decreased with increased loading rate. This was attributed to the higher portion of relatively flat regions where the dimples were less distinct.

  14. Effect Of Non-metal Elements (C, N, S) As Anionic Dopants On Electronic Structure Of Tio2-Anatase By Density-Functional Theory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hari Sutrisno

    2016-01-01

    This article is a theoritical approach to calculate the electronic structure of undoped- and non-metal anions doped-TiO2-anatase. The objective of the research is to calculate abinitio the band structure and the density of states (DOS) of undoped-, C-, N-, and S-doped TiO2-anatase. Kohn-Sham equations are performed with the density functional theory (DFT) using the local density approximation (LDA) for exchange-correlation functional. The first-principle calculations were done using supercell...

  15. Strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with various types of non-metallic fiber and rods reinforcement under static loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevskii, A. V.; Baldin, I. V.; Kudyakov, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Adoption of modern building materials based on non-metallic fibers and their application in concrete structures represent one of the important issues in construction industry. This paper presents results of investigation of several types of raw materials selected: basalt fiber, carbon fiber and composite fiber rods based on glass and carbon. Preliminary testing has shown the possibility of raw materials to be effectively used in compressed concrete elements. Experimental program to define strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with non-metallic fiber reinforcement and rod composite reinforcement included design, manufacture and testing of several types of concrete samples with different types of fiber and longitudinal rod reinforcement. The samples were tested under compressive static load. The results demonstrated that fiber reinforcement of concrete allows increasing carrying capacity of compressed concrete elements and reducing their deformability. Using composite longitudinal reinforcement instead of steel longitudinal reinforcement in compressed concrete elements insignificantly influences bearing capacity. Combined use of composite rod reinforcement and fiber reinforcement in compressed concrete elements enables to achieve maximum strength and minimum deformability.

  16. Solar space-heating system--Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A 12 months performance of Visitors Center installation suffered from low insolation, high energy dissipation, and equipment breakdown. System has 980 square feet of liquid flat-plate collectors, water energy storage, 4-mode control, heat exchangers, pumps, and plumbing. Design expected system to supply over 50 percent of annual heating demand, but only 109 million Btu were conserved.

  17. Imaging of metals, metalloids, and non-metals by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J Sabine; Becker, J Susanne

    2010-01-01

    The determination of the localization and distribution of essential and beneficial metals (e.g., Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Co, Ti, Al, Ca, K, Na, Cr and others), toxic metals (like Cd, Pb, Hg, U), metalloids (e.g., As, Se, Sb), and non-metals (such as C, S, P, Cl, I) in biological tissues is a challenging task for life science studies. Over the past few years, the development and application of mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) techniques for elements has been rapidly growing in the life sciences in order to investigate the uptake and the transport of both essential and toxic metals in plant and animal sections. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is a very sensitive and efficient trace, surface, and isotopic analytical technique for biological samples. LA-ICP-MS is increasingly utilized as an elemental mass spectrometric technique using double-focusing sector field (LA-ICP-SFMS) or quadrupole mass spectrometers (LA-ICP-QMS) to produce images of detailed regionally specific element distributions in thin biological tissue sections. Nowadays, MSI studies focus on brain research for studying neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's, stroke, or tumor growth, or for the imaging of cancer biomarkers in tissue sections.The combination of the mass spectrometry imaging of metals by LA-ICP-MS with proteomics using biomolecular mass spectrometry (such as MALDI-MS or ESI-MS) to identify metal-containing proteins has become an important strategy in the life sciences. Besides the quantitative imaging of metals, non-metals and metalloids in biological tissues, LA-ICP-MS has been utilized for imaging metal-containing proteins in a 2D gel after electrophoretic separation of proteins. Recent progress in applying LA-ICP-MS in life science studies will be reviewed including the imaging of thin slices of biological tissue and applications in proteome analysis in combination with MALDI/ESI-MS to analyze metal-containing proteins.

  18. Three-Dimensional Backscatter X-Ray Imaging System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA application requires a system that can generate 3D images of non-metallic material when access is limited to one side of the material. The objective of this...

  19. Monte Carlo simulations as a feasibility tool for non-metallic land-mine detection by thermal-neutron backscattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maucec, M; de Meijer, RJ

    2002-01-01

    The use of Monte Carlo simulations is presented for modelling a simplified land-mine detector system with thermal neutron backscattering (TNB) analysis based on a Cf-252-neutron source. Different aspects and a variety of external conditions, related to localisation and identification of a buried obj

  20. Shift in the microbial ecology of a hospital hot water system following the introduction of an on-site monochloramine disinfection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Julianne L; Vikram, Amit; Duda, Scott; Stout, Janet E; Bibby, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems, including premise plumbing, contain a diverse microbiological community that may include opportunistic pathogens. On-site supplemental disinfection systems have been proposed as a control method for opportunistic pathogens in premise plumbing. The majority of on-site disinfection systems to date have been installed in hospitals due to the high concentration of opportunistic pathogen susceptible occupants. The installation of on-site supplemental disinfection systems in hospitals allows for evaluation of the impact of on-site disinfection systems on drinking water system microbial ecology prior to widespread application. This study evaluated the impact of supplemental monochloramine on the microbial ecology of a hospital's hot water system. Samples were taken three months and immediately prior to monochloramine treatment and monthly for the first six months of treatment, and all samples were subjected to high throughput Illumina 16S rRNA region sequencing. The microbial community composition of monochloramine treated samples was dramatically different than the baseline months. There was an immediate shift towards decreased relative abundance of Betaproteobacteria, and increased relative abundance of Firmicutes, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Actinobacteria. Following treatment, microbial populations grouped by sampling location rather than sampling time. Over the course of treatment the relative abundance of certain genera containing opportunistic pathogens and genera containing denitrifying bacteria increased. The results demonstrate the driving influence of supplemental disinfection on premise plumbing microbial ecology and suggest the value of further investigation into the overall effects of premise plumbing disinfection strategies on microbial ecology and not solely specific target microorganisms.

  1. Ontology for Life-Cycle Modeling of Water Distribution Systems: Application of Model View Definition Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    report, the term water distribution systems encompasses the plumbing supply and waste removal systems for flow delivery terminals such as sinks, toilets ...the Building Smart Alliance website, http://buildingsmartalliance.org/ index.php/projects/commonbimfiles/. The following steps were followed to

  2. Determination for the Entrapment Criterion of Non-metallic Inclusions by the Solidification Front During Steel Centrifugal Continuous Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Lifeng

    2016-06-01

    In the current study, the three-dimensional fluid flow, heat transfer, and solidification in steel centrifugal continuous casting strands were simulated. The volume of fluid model was used to solve the multiphase phenomena between the molten steel and the air. The entrapment and final distribution of inclusions in the solidified shell were studied with the discussion on the effect of rotation behavior of the caster system. Main results indicate that after applying the rotation of the shell, the fluid flow transformed from a recirculation flow to a rotation flow in the mold region and was driven to flow around in the casting direction. As the distance below the meniscus increased, the distribution of the tangential speed of the flow and the centrifugal force along one diameter of the strand became symmetrical gradually. The jet flow from the nozzle hardly impinged on the same location on the shell due to the rotation of the shell during solidification. Thus, the shell thickness on the same height was uniform around, and the thinning shell and a hot spot on the surface of shell were avoided. Both of the measurement and the calculation about the distribution of oxide inclusions along the radial direction indicated the number of inclusions at the side and the center was more than that at the quarter on the cross section of billet. With a larger diameter, inclusions tended to be entrapped toward the center area of the billet.

  3. Thermal conductivity measurements of non-metals via combined time- and frequency-domain thermoreflectance without a metal film transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Cheaito, R.; Braun, J. L.; Giri, A.; Hopkins, P. E.

    2016-09-01

    The thermoreflectance-based techniques time- and frequency-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR and FDTR, respectively) have emerged as robust platforms to measure the thermophysical properties of a wide array of systems on varying length scales. Routine in the implementation of these techniques is the application of a thin metal film on the surface of the sample of interest to serve as an opto-thermal transducer ensuring the measured modulated reflectivity is dominated by the change in thermoreflectance of the sample. Here, we outline a method to directly measure the thermal conductivities of bulk materials without using a metal transducer layer using a standard TDTR/FDTR experiment. A major key in this approach is the use of a thermal model with z-dependent heat source when the optical penetration depth is comparable to the beam sizes and measuring the FDTR response at a long delay time to minimize non-thermoreflectivity contributions to the modulated reflectance signals (such as free carrier excitations). Using this approach, we demonstrate the ability to measure the thermal conductivity on three semiconductors, intrinsic Si (100), GaAs (100), and InSb (100), the results of which are validated with FDTR measurements on the same wafers with aluminum transducers. We outline the major sources of uncertainty in this approach, including frequency dependent heating and precise knowledge of the pump and probe spot sizes. As a result, we discuss appropriate pump-frequency ranges in which to implement this TDTR/FDTR approach and present a procedure to measure the effective spot sizes by fitting the FDTR data of an 80 nm Al/SiO2 sample at a time delay in which the spot size sensitivity dominates an FDTR measurement over the substrate thermal properties. Our method provides a more convenient way to directly measure the thermal conductivities of semiconductors.

  4. Analysis of industry development of building materials and ore mining and dressing of non-metallic minerals%2011年建材及非金属矿采选业行业发展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何军生

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the growth of building materials production remained stable, industrial structure contiuned to optimise, economic porfits improved. In this paper, the author firstly discusses economic operation of building materials and ore mining and dressing of non-metallic minerals in 2011, to adjust the industrial structure of building materials and ore mining and dressing of non-metallic minerals to impove the quality of the economic operation, predicts the development trend of industry of building materials and ore mining and dressing of non-metallic minerals in 2012. At last, the author puts forward to policy suggestions which accelerate industry deleopment of the building materials and ore mining and dressing of non-metallic minerals%2011年建材工业生产增长速度保持平稳,产业结构继续优化,经济效益提高.本文首先讨论了2011年建材工业经济及非金属矿采选行业经济运行情况,做到调整建材及非金属矿选行业产业结构,提高经济运行质量,预测了2012年建材及非金属矿选行业未来发展趋势,最后提出促进建材及非金属矿选行业发展的政策建议.

  5. Construction of stable Ta3N5/g-C3N4 metal/non-metal nitride hybrids with enhanced visible-light photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yinhua; Liu, Peipei; Chen, YeCheng; Zhou, Zhengzhong; Yang, Haijian; Hong, Yuanzhi; Li, Fan; Ni, Liang; Yan, Yongsheng; Gregory, Duncan H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel Ta3N5/g-C3N4 metal/non-metal nitride hybrid was successfully synthesized by a facile impregnation method. The photocatalytic activity of Ta3N5/g-C3N4 hybrid nitrides was evaluated by the degradation of organic dye rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation, and the result indicated that all Ta3N5/g-C3N4 samples exhibited distinctly enhanced photocatalytic activities for the degradation of RhB than pure g-C3N4. The optimal Ta3N5/g-C3N4 composite sample, with Ta3N5 mass ratio of 2%, demonstrated the highest photocatalytic activity, and its degradation rate constant was 2.71 times as high as that of pure g-C3N4. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of this Ta3N5/g-C3N4 metal/metal-free nitride was predominantly attributed to the synergistic effect which increased visible-light absorption and facilitated the efficient separation of photoinduced electrons and holes. The Ta3N5/g-C3N4 hybrid nitride exhibited excellent photostability and reusability. The possible mechanism for improved photocatalytic performance was proposed. Overall, this work may provide a facile way to synthesize the highly efficient metal/metal-free hybrid nitride photocatalysts with promising applications in environmental purification and energy conversion.

  6. 304奥氏体不锈钢铸锭中非金属夹杂物研究%Research on Non-metallic Inclusions in 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel Ingot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅丽; 王建军; 罗林根; 郭上型; 孔辉; 周俐

    2011-01-01

    The type and the amount of the non-metallic inclusions in 304 stainless steel ingot were investigated, with a tracer used to find out the origin of inclusion. The results show that most of the micro inclusions are Al2Or-SiO2-CaO system inclusions, the micro inclusions (<5 urn) coexit amount of MgO-Al2O3 spinel inclusions;the macro inclusion is main to have two types of compound admixture, respectively is the type of Al2O3-SiOr-CaO.the type of Al2O3-SiO2; one of the main source of the non-matallic inclusions is the slag for the refractory corrosion in the molten steel during tapping; ladle lining affects slightly.%研究304不锈钢铸锭中非金属夹杂物的类型和数量,通过示踪剂分析不锈钢中夹杂物的来源.结果表明:不锈钢铸锭中显微夹杂物主要是以Al2O3-SiO2-CaO系硅酸盐夹杂为主,粒度<5μm的显微夹杂物中同时存在大量的镁铝尖晶石夹杂;大型夹杂物主要有两类复合夹杂物Al2O3-SiO2-CaO系夹杂、Al2O3-SiO2系夹杂;汤道耐火材料的侵蚀是夹杂物主要来源之一,钢包耐火材料对夹杂生成的影响微弱.

  7. Sims Prototype System 2 Test Results - Engineering Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This report describes the testing, the problems encountered, and the results and conclusions obtained from tests performed on the IBM Prototype system 2, solar hot water system, at the Marshall space flight Center Solar Test Facility. System 2 is a liquid, non-draining solar energy system for supplying domestic hot water to singe residences. The system consists of collectors, storage tank, heat exchanger, pumps and associated plumbing and controls.

  8. Analysis of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride pipe burst problems :Vasquez residence system inspection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Billy D.; Menicucci, David F.; Harrison, John (Florida Solar Energy Center)

    2005-10-01

    This report documents the investigation regarding the failure of CPVC piping that was used to connect a solar hot water system to standard plumbing in a home. Details of the failure are described along with numerous pictures and diagrams. A potential failure mechanism is described and recommendations are outlined to prevent such a failure.

  9. Time reversal communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  10. An experimental study on the influence of water stagnation and temperature change on water quality in a full-scale domestic drinking water system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanović, Lj; Hoek, van der J.P.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    The drinking water quality changes during the transport through distribution systems. Domestic drinking water systems (DDWSs), which include the plumbing between the water meter and consumer's taps, are the most critical points in which water quality may be affected. In distribution networks, the

  11. Non-Metallic Biomaterials for Tooth Repair and Replacement. By Pekka Vallittu, Woodhead Publishing, 2013; 406 pages. Price £145.00/US$245.00/€175.00 ISBN 978-0-85709-244-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. Discusses the properties of enamel and dentin and their role in adhesive dental restoration;2. Chapters also examine the wear properties of dental ceramics, glasses and bioactive glass ceramics for tooth repair and replacement;3. Dental composites and antibacterial restorative materials are also considered;4. Provides a concise overview of non-metallic biomaterials for dental clinicians, materials scientists and academic researchers alike.As the demand for healthy, attractive teeth increases, the methods and materials employed in restorative dentistry have become progressively more advanced. Non-metallic biomaterials for tooth repair and replacement focuses on the use of biomaterials for a range of applications in tooth repair and, in particular, dental restoration.

  12. Temporal evolution of a post-caldera, mildly peralkaline magmatic system: Furnas volcano, São Miguel, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, A. J.; Gertisser, R.; O'Driscoll, B.; Pacheco, J. M.; Whitley, S.; Pimentel, A.; Self, S.

    2016-05-01

    Furnas is one of three active central volcanoes on São Miguel Island, Azores, and is considered to be one of the most hazardous in the archipelago. In this study, the pre-eruptive magma plumbing system of the 10 young (intermittent replenishment and subsequent fractional crystallisation.

  13. Root-Contact/Pressure-Plate Assembly For Hydroponic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carlton E.; Loretan, Philip A.; Bonsi, Conrad K.; Hill, Walter A.

    1994-01-01

    Hydroponic system includes growth channels equipped with rootcontact/pressure-plate assemblies. Pump and associated plumbing circulate nutrient liquid from reservoir, along bottom of growth channels, and back to reservoir. Root-contact/pressure-plate assembly in each growth channel stimulates growth of roots by applying mild contact pressure. Flat plate and plate connectors, together constitute pressure plate, free to move upward to accommodate growth of roots. System used for growing sweetpotatoes and possibly other tuber and root crops.

  14. LHC Report: plumbing new heights

    CERN Multimedia

    John Jowett for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    Following the end of the arduous 2015 proton run on 4 November, the many teams working on the LHC and its injector complex are naturally entitled to a calmer period before the well-earned end-of-year break. But that is not the way things work.       The CCC team after stable heavy-ion beams are declared in the LHC. Instead, the subdued frenzy of setting up the accelerators for a physics run has started again, this time for heavy-ion beams, with a few additional twists of the time-pressure knob. In this year’s one-month run, the first week was devoted to colliding protons at 2.51 TeV per beam to provide reference data for the subsequent collisions of lead nuclei (the atomic number of lead is Z=82, compared to Z=1 for protons) at the unprecedented energy of 5.02 TeV in the centre of mass per nucleon pair. The chain of specialised heavy-ion injectors, comprising the ECR ion source, Linac3 and the LEIR ring, with its elaborate bunch-forming and c...

  15. 钢中非金属夹杂物的形成及评判浅析%ANALYSIS OF FORMATION AND EVALUATION OF NON-METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿国鸿; 何开文; 张全新

    2014-01-01

    本文阐述了钢中非金属夹杂物的形成、分类及来源,以及非金属夹杂物数量、尺寸对钢材性能的影响,对评判非金属夹杂物的国家标准GB/T 10561新旧两个版本即2005版和1989版进行比较,分析了氮化物等沉淀相的特性及其对钢材的强化作用,阐明了2005版标准中关于将氮化物、碳化物、碳氮化合物、硼化物定性描述为沉淀相而不作为非金属夹杂物的评判是适宜的。%This paper describes the formation , classification and source of non -metallic inclusions in steel , and the influence of their quantity and size on the performance of steels .It compares the commons and differences between the new National Standard GB /T10561 2005 version with the old 1989 version for evaluating non-metallic inclusions , and analyzes the characteristics of the precipitated phase such as the nitride and the strengthening effect to the steel , and explains that it is appropriate to evaluate ni-trides, carbides, hydrocarbons and boride as precipitated phase not as non -metallic inclusions.

  16. Review on Insensitive Non-metallic Energetic Ionic Compounds of Tetrazolate Anions%不敏感四唑非金属含能离子化合物的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕福强; 樊学忠; 许诚; 王伯周; 郑亚峰; 葛忠学; 刘庆

    2012-01-01

    四唑非金属含能离子化合物是近年来逐渐发展起来的一类新型不敏感含能材料.综述了以氨基四唑、硝基四唑、硝氨基四唑、偶氮四唑和呋咱取代四唑为阴离子的不敏感非金属含能离子化合物的研究进展,结果表明,5位连有硝基和硝氨基等传统含能基团的四唑离子化合物的感度普遍较高,而以氨基四唑、偶氮四唑和4-氨基-3-(四唑基)呋咱为阴离子的含能化合物有望在不敏感含能材料领域得到广泛应用,并进而提出了不敏感四唑非金属含能离子化合物研究的发展方向.%Non-metallic energetic ionic compounds of tetrazolate anion are a kind of insensitive energetic materials. The progresses in the insensitive non-metallic energetic salts of aminotetrazolate, nitrotetrazolate, nitraminotetrazolate, azotetrazolate and furazan fuctionalized tetrazolate anions were reviewed in detail. It is found that most of ionic compounds based on tetrazolate anions which contain traditional energetic functionalities upon the carbon of positon 5 such as nitro and nitrimino functionalities, show high sensitivities, while the sensitivities of ionic compounds based on 5-aminotetrazolate, 5, 5'-azotetrazolate and 5-(4-aminofurazan-3-yl)tetrazolate are so low that they can be used as insensitive energetic materials. Furthermore, new trends in research of insensitive non-metallic energetic ionic compounds of tetrazolate anion were proposed.

  17. An innovate method to recycle non-metallic materials from waste printed circuit board.%废线路板非金属物料再生利用新型工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段华波; 李金惠; 王斯婷

    2012-01-01

    The reuse of non-metallic material separated from PWBs residues before and after thermo-shocked pretreatment was investigated. With the blending of various additives from silane coupling agents, lubricant agents, anti-oxidizing agents to processing modifier, the non-metallic material could be filled to produce polymeric composite materials subjected to the injection and molding processes. Said method was also appropriate to thermo-shocked non-metallic material. The mechanical property was qualified by compared with the standard limit of related composite materials. The maximum amount of recyclate that could be added to a composite board was 30% of weight, with the additive agents of: silane coupling agents (1%), lubricant agents (1%), anti-oxidizing agents (1%) and processing modifier (5%).%以加热改性处理前后的废线路板非金属物料为对象,对其再生利用工艺进行了研究.通过添加硅烷偶联剂、润滑剂、抗氧化剂和改性剂等助剂改性共混,基于挤出注塑成型工艺过程,可制备废线路板非金属物料填充增强聚丙烯复合板材,该工艺同时可适合一定温度条件下加热改性处理后的非金属物料,其主要力学性能符合相关制品产品质量标准.确定的优化参数为:非金属物料添加质量分数30%,添加助剂包括硅烷偶联剂(1%)、润滑剂(1%)、抗氧化剂(1%)和改性剂(5%).

  18. Evolution of the crustal magma plumbing system during the build-up to the 22-ka caldera-forming eruption of Santorini (Greece)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbro, G.N.; Druitt, Timothy H.; Scaillet, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The formation of shallow, caldera-sized reservoirs of crystal-poor silicic magma requires the generation of large volumes of silicic melt, followed by the segregation of that melt and its accumulation in the upper crust. The 21.8 ± 0.4-ka Cape Riva eruption of Santorini discharged >10 km3 of crystal-poor dacitic magma, along with

  19. New Insights into Trace Element Partitioning in Amphibole from Multiple Regression Analysis, with Application to the Magma Plumbing System of Mt. Lamington (Papua New Guinea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Humphreys, M.; Cooper, G.; Davidson, J.; Macpherson, C.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new multiple regression (MR) analysis of published amphibole-melt trace element partitioning data, with the aim of retrieving robust relationships between amphibole crystal-chemical compositions and trace element partition coefficients (D). We examined experimental data for calcic amphiboles of kaersutite, pargasite, tschermakite (Tsch), magnesiohornblende (MgHbl) and magnesiohastingsite (MgHst) compositions crystallized from basanitic-rhyolitic melts (n = 150). The MR analysis demonstrates the varying significance of amphibole major element components assigned to different crystallographic sites (T, M1-3, M4, A) as independent variables in controlling D, and it allows us to retrieve statistically significant relationships for REE, Y, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, Zr, Nb (n > 25, R2 > 0.6, p-value < 0.05). For example, DLREE are controlled by SiT, M1-3 site components and CaM4, whereas DMREE-HREE are controlled solely by M1-3 site components. Our overall results for the REE are supported by application of the lattice strain model (Blundy & Wood, 1994). A significant advantage of our study over previous work linking D to melt polymerization (e.g. Tiepolo et al., 2007) is the ability to reconstruct melt compositions from in situ amphibole compositional analyses and published D data. We applied our MR analysis to Mt. Lamington (PNG), where Mg-Hst in quenched mafic enclaves are juxtaposed with MgHbl-Tsch phenocrysts from andesitic host lavas. The results indicate that MgHbl-Tsch are crystallized from a cool, rhyolitic melt (800-900±50 ºC, 70-77±5 wt % SiO2; Ridolfi & Renzulli 2012) with lower Rb and Sr and higher Pb, relative to a hot, andesitic-dacitic melt (950-1,000±50 ºC; 60-70±5 wt % SiO2) where MgHst are crystallized. REE and Nb contents are similar in both types of melts despite higher REE and Nb in MgHbl-Tsch. Therefore, the REE compositional disparity between MgHst and MgHbl-Tsch is driven by the difference in the DREE, rather than the melt REE concentrations.

  20. Rare earth metals influence on morphology of non-metallic inclusions and mechanism of GP240GH and G17CrMo5-5cast steel cracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gajewski

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of research carried out in order to specify the influence of the rare earth metals on the morphology of the occuring non-metallic inclusions as well as on the cracking mechanism of GP240GH cast carbon steel and G17CrMo5-5 (0.18%C, 1.2%Cr, 0.53%Mo high temperature cast steel. The tests have been performed on successive industrial melts adding rare earth metals to the ladle during tapping of heat melt from the furnace. It was found that ball-shaped non-metalic inclusions occuring as a result of the rare earth metals influence are heterogenic and they significantly influence the cracking mechanism of Charpy specimens and the impact strength. The morphology of the specimens fracture surface has been substantially changed as a result of the rare earth metals modification. The impact strength of the tested cast carbon steel increased from 100 J/cm2 to ca 155 J/cm2, and the high-temperature cast steel from 30 J/cm2 to ca 100 J/cm2.

  1. Shift in the microbial ecology of a hospital hot water system following the introduction of an on-site monochloramine disinfection system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne L Baron

    Full Text Available Drinking water distribution systems, including premise plumbing, contain a diverse microbiological community that may include opportunistic pathogens. On-site supplemental disinfection systems have been proposed as a control method for opportunistic pathogens in premise plumbing. The majority of on-site disinfection systems to date have been installed in hospitals due to the high concentration of opportunistic pathogen susceptible occupants. The installation of on-site supplemental disinfection systems in hospitals allows for evaluation of the impact of on-site disinfection systems on drinking water system microbial ecology prior to widespread application. This study evaluated the impact of supplemental monochloramine on the microbial ecology of a hospital's hot water system. Samples were taken three months and immediately prior to monochloramine treatment and monthly for the first six months of treatment, and all samples were subjected to high throughput Illumina 16S rRNA region sequencing. The microbial community composition of monochloramine treated samples was dramatically different than the baseline months. There was an immediate shift towards decreased relative abundance of Betaproteobacteria, and increased relative abundance of Firmicutes, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Actinobacteria. Following treatment, microbial populations grouped by sampling location rather than sampling time. Over the course of treatment the relative abundance of certain genera containing opportunistic pathogens and genera containing denitrifying bacteria increased. The results demonstrate the driving influence of supplemental disinfection on premise plumbing microbial ecology and suggest the value of further investigation into the overall effects of premise plumbing disinfection strategies on microbial ecology and not solely specific target microorganisms.

  2. 试论水管单位职工教育培训工作存在的问题及对策%On Education and Training for Employees Plumbing Problems and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉兰

    2014-01-01

    Plumbing unit is the basic unit of water conservancy construction, water conservancy deepening reform, strengthening education and training for employees is very important for water pipes, but also very urgent. The main water pipe explores education and training for employees working in the problems and countermeasures to be taken.%水管单位是我国水利建设的基础性单位,深化水利改革,加强对水管单位职工的教育培训工作十分重要,也十分迫切。主要探究水管单位职工教育培训工作中存在的问题和应采取的对策。

  3. Microbial diversities (16S and 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing) and environmental pathogens within drinking water biofilms grown on the common premise plumbing materials unplasticized polyvinylchloride and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Helen Y; Lu, Jingrang; Lu, Xinxin; Mou, Xiaozhen; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2014-05-01

    Drinking water (DW) biofilm communities influence the survival of opportunistic pathogens, yet knowledge about the microbial composition of DW biofilms developed on common in-premise plumbing material is limited. Utilizing 16S and 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, this study characterized the microbial community structure within DW biofilms established on unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) and copper (Cu) surfaces and the impact of introducing Legionella pneumophila (Lp) and Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Mature (> 1 year old) biofilms were developed before inoculation with sterilized DW (control, Con), Lp, or Lp and A. polyphaga (LpAp). Comparison of uPVC and Cu biofilms indicated significant differences between bacterial (P = 0.001) and eukaryotic (P 0.05) but did affect eukaryotic members (uPVC, P < 0.01; Cu, P = 0.001). Thus, established DW biofilms host complex communities that may vary based on substratum matrix and maintain consistent bacterial communities despite introduction of Lp, an environmental pathogen.

  4. 超低氧齿轮钢非金属夹杂物控制热力学计算及应用%Thermodynamic Calculation and Application of Non-Metallic Inclusions for Ultra-Low-Oxygen Gear Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天明

    2011-01-01

    利用热力学软件计算了齿轮钢氧含量与夹杂物成分的关系、夹杂物转变条件.结果表明,超低氧20CrMoH钢中具有较高塑性的非金属夹杂物成分(质量分数)为:SiO2 0~10%,Al2O3 22%~55%,CaO 42%~60%,MgO 5%~10%,与之平衡的时钢液中铝质量分数在0.020%左右,钙质量分数大于0.7×10-6,氧质量分数在0.000 5%左右.选择组成:w(CaO)>40%,w(Al2O3)≤37%,w(MgO)为10%,(w(CaO)+w(MgO))/w(SiO2)为10,SiO2含量尽量低的渣系,钢中Al2O3、MgO·Al2O3夹杂物可转变为低熔点的钙铝酸盐.%Interrelations between oxygen content of gear steel and non-metallic inclusions, and transformations conditions for non-metallic inclusions were calculated using the thermodynamic calculation software Factsage. It is found that the components of non-metallic inclusions with higher plasticity in ultra-low-oxygen gear steel should be composed by SiO2 0-10%, Al2O3 22%-55%, CaO 42%-60%, and MgO 5%-10%, aluminum content would be about 0.020%, calcium content would be more than 0.7 × 10-6 , and oxygen content would be about 0.0005 % in molten steel when the reaction between the inclusion and liquid steel arrived in equilibrium. If the compositions of fining slag with w(CaO)>40%, w(Al2O3 )≤37% ,w(MgO) = 10% ,(w(CaO) +w(MgO))/w(SiO2 ) = 10, and SiO2 content as low as possible were selected, Al2O3 and MgO · Al2O3 in molten steel can transform into calcium aluminates with low melting point.

  5. Analysis of the treatment of plastic from electrical and electronic waste in the Republic of Serbia and the testing of the recycling potential of non-metallic fractions of printed circuit boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Aleksandra S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the quantity of plastic and waste printed circuit boards obtained after the mechanical treatment of electrical and electronic waste (E-waste in the Republic of Serbia, as well as the recycling of non-metallic fractions of waste printed circuit boards. The aim is to analyze the obtained recycled material and recommendation for possible application of recyclables. The data on the quantities and treatment of plastics and printed circuit boards obtained after the mechanical treatment of WEEE, were gained through questionnaires sent to the operators who treat this type of waste. The results of the questionnaire analysis showed that in 2014 the dismantling of E-waste isolated 1,870.95 t of plastic and 499.85 t of printed circuit boards. In the Republic of Serbia, E-waste recycling is performed exclusively by using mechanical methods. Mechanical methods consist of primary crushing and separation of the materials which have a utility value as secondary raw materials, from the components and materials that have hazardous properties. Respect to that, the recycling of printed circuit boards using some of the metallurgical processes with the aim of extracting copper, precious metals and non-metallic fraction is completely absent, and the circuit boards are exported as a whole. Given the number of printed circuit boards obtained by E-waste dismantling, and the fact that from an economic point of view, hydrometallurgical methods are very suitable technological solutions in the case of a smaller capacity, there is a possibility for establishing the facilities in the Republic of Serbia for the hydrometallurgical treatment that could be used for metals extraction, and non-metallic fractions, which also have their own value. Printed circuit boards granulate obtained after the mechanical pretreatment and the selective removal of metals by hydrometallurgical processes was used for the testing of the recycling potential

  6. Solar cooling system performance, Frenchman's Reef Hotel, Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, H.

    1981-01-01

    The operational and thermal performance of a variety of solar systems are described. The Solar Cooling System was installed in a hotel at St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands. The system consists of the evacuated glass tube collectors, two 2500 gallon tanks, pumps, computerized controller, a large solar optimized industrial sized lithium bromide absorption chiller, and associated plumbing. Solar heated water is pumped through the system to the designed public areas such as lobby, lounges, restaurant and hallways. Auxiliary heat is provided by steam and a heat exchanger to supplement the solar heat.

  7. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of repair and equipment restoration. A large number of leaks occur in old buildings, where the regulatory service life of pipelines has come to an end, and the scheduled repair for some reason has not been conducted. Steel pipelines are used in the systems without any protection from corrosion and they get out of order. Leakages in new houses are also not uncommon. They usually occur as a result of low-quality adjustment of the system by workers. It also important to note the absence of certain skills of plumbers, who don’t conduct the inspections of in-house systems in time. Sometimes also the residents themselves forget to keep their pipeline systems and water fittings in their apartment in good condition. Plumbers are not systematically invited for preventive examinations to detect possible leaks in the domestic plumbing. The amount of unproductive losses increases while simultaneous use of valve tenants, and at the increase of the number of residents in the building. Water leaks in the system depend on the amount of water system piping damages, and damages of other elements, for example, water valves, connections, etc. The pressure in the leak area also plays an important role.

  8. A Probabilistic Assessment of Failure for Air Force Building Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    SHOWER RUNS COLD WATER ONLY |141203 |U |J... SHOWERS RUNNING COLD WATER |141211 |U |J...Plumbing Fixtures D201004 Sinks 25 10 0.085 D2010 Plumbing Fixtures D201005 Showers /Tubs 25 10 0.085 D2010 Plumbing Fixtures D201006 Drinking Fountains

  9. Crack nucleation using combined crystal plasticity modelling, high-resolution digital image correlation and high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction in a superalloy containing non-metallic inclusions under fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Jiang, Jun; Britton, Ben; Shollock, Barbara; Dunne, Fionn

    2016-05-01

    A crystal plasticity finite-element model, which explicitly and directly represents the complex microstructures of a non-metallic agglomerate inclusion within polycrystal nickel alloy, has been developed to study the mechanistic basis of fatigue crack nucleation. The methodology is to use the crystal plasticity model in conjunction with direct measurement at the microscale using high (angular) resolution-electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD) and high (spatial) resolution-digital image correlation (HR-DIC) strain measurement techniques. Experimentally, this sample has been subjected to heat treatment leading to the establishment of residual (elastic) strains local to the agglomerate and subsequently loaded under conditions of low cyclic fatigue. The full thermal and mechanical loading history was reproduced within the model. HR-EBSD and HR-DIC elastic and total strain measurements demonstrate qualitative and quantitative agreement with crystal plasticity results. Crack nucleation by interfacial decohesion at the nickel matrix/agglomerate inclusion boundaries is observed experimentally, and systematic modelling studies enable the mechanistic basis of the nucleation to be established. A number of fatigue crack nucleation indicators are also assessed against the experimental results. Decohesion was found to be driven by interface tensile normal stress alone, and the interfacial strength was determined to be in the range of 1270-1480 MPa.

  10. The Process Design of Heavy Trucks Non-metallic Parts Coating Shop%重型卡车非金属件涂装车间工艺设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚伦

    2012-01-01

    本文以新建重型卡车非金属件涂装线为例,详细介绍了非金属件面漆涂装的工艺流程、涂装工艺设备、辅助设备及物流方向,以及在线体空间极其有限的情况下需要考虑的主要因素,通过对主要因素的优化组合,得出了最佳工艺设计方案。%Nonmetal paint painting process, coating process equipment and auxiliary equipment, logistics direction and the main factors need to consider at the space extremely limited conditions were introduced in detail in this paper by using the new heavy trucks non-metal parts coating line as an example, the best process design was got by optimum combination of main factors.

  11. Formation Reason and Countermeasures of Non-Metal Inclusions of Cast Irons%铸铁非金属夹杂物的形成原因与应对措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文和; 王峰; 赵鲁生

    2011-01-01

    The composition and source of slag of cast irons melted in cupola and medium frequency furnace was introduced. The measures to reduce non-metal inclusions in cast irons were proposed as follows: ( 1 )improving metallurgical quality of the cast irons; (2 )improving the morphology and distribution of the nonmetal inclusions. The formation reason of the secondary slag was described. It's considered that, by adopting proper measures and iron melt treating technique, the secondary oxidation of the iron melt and its harmful effect can be reduced.%介绍了冲天炉和中频炉熔炼铸铁的炉渣成分及来源,提出减少铸铁内部非金属夹杂物的措施:(1)提高铸铁的冶金质量;(2)改善铸铁中非金属夹杂物的形态及分布.描述了铁液二次渣的形成原因,认为采取适宜的措施及铁液处理技术,可以减轻铁液二次氧化及其不利影响.

  12. Research on the Non-metallic Inclusion in X70 Pipeline Cast Slab%X70管线钢铸坯中非金属夹杂物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雨晨; 李俊国; 闫小林; 李守章; 曾亚南

    2009-01-01

    利用大样电解、金相观测、扫描电镜(SEM)和电子探针(EPMA)等手段,对X70管线钢铸坯中夹杂物的数量、粒径、形貌及组分进行了研究.结果表明:X70管线钢铸坯中夹杂物数量较多,粒径较大,且多为复合夹杂.针对大型夹杂物中硫化物、氧化物、硅铝酸盐和钙铝酸盐复合夹杂的特点,分析了铸坯中夹杂物的主要来源.%Utilizing the methods of sample-electrolysing, metallographic observation, SEM and EPMA, the quantity, dimension, morphologies and composition of non-metallic inclusions in X70 pipeline steel cast slab were investigated. It was suggested that there were larger amount of inclusions with larger diam-eter in the cast slab. Most of these inclusions were complex, such as sulfide, oxide, silicon aluminates and calcium aluminates inclusions. According to the characteristics of inclusions in the east slab, the ma-jor sources of different inclusions were analyzed and explored.

  13. Determinación de la vida útil de las herramientas utilizadas en el barrenado de materiales no metálicos. // Determination of tools life in non-metallic materials drilling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Cabrera Rodríguez

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available En el barrenado de Placas de Circuito Impreso (PCI las barrenas de carburo de tungsteno son responsables de más de lamitad de los costos de la operación, siendo de vital importancia la búsqueda de vías para aumentar la eficiencia sin afectarla calidad del agujero.El siguiente artículo explica la implementación de una metodología para la determinación de la máxima cantidad deagujeros posibles de barrenar con una herramienta sin afectar los parámetros de calidad de los mismos en las condiciones ycon los medios disponibles en nuestro país. Esta metodología permitió elevar la vida útil de las herramientas en un 66%.Palabras claves: Barrenado, materiales no metálicos, circuitos impresos.________________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn the Printed Circuit Board (PCB drilling, the tools of tungsten carbide are responsible of more than half of the drillingcost. Due to is necessary look for ways to elevate the drilling efficiency without affect hole quality a methodology forseveral drilling in a PCB is given in the present paper.Key words: Drilling, non metalic materials, printe3d circuit board.

  14. Solar energy system performance evaluation: Seasonal report for fern, Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The operational and thermal performance of a variety of solar systems installed in operational test sites are described. The analysis is based on instrumented system data monitored and collected for at least one full season of operation. The long-term field performance of the installed system is reported, and technical contributions to the definition of techniques and requirements for solar energy system design are made. The solar energy system was designed to supply space heating and domestic hot water for single-family residences. The system consists of air flat plate collectors, storage tank, pumps, heat exchangers, associated plumbing, and controls.

  15. Effect of carbon fiber content on explosion-proof performance of spherical non-metallic separation explosion-proof material%碳纤维含量对球形非金属阻隔防爆材料防爆性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄雪峰; 鲁长波; 杨真理; 朱祥东; 安高军; 解立峰

    2016-01-01

    在临界起爆能和高起爆能条件下,对装填碳纤维含量分别为6.5%、8.0%、9.5%和11.0%球形非金属阻隔防爆材料的油箱进行等效静爆试验,探究球形非金属阻隔防爆材料中碳纤维含量对其防爆性能的影响.利用红外热成像仪、高速摄像机分别记录油箱爆炸火球的温度场参数及爆炸过程,并与未填装阻隔防爆材料的油箱进行对比.试验结果表明:在临界起爆能条件下,装填4种材料的油箱均有一定阻燃防爆效果,油箱爆炸产生的燃料云团面积有依次减小的趋势;在高起爆能量条件下,4种材料的外场防爆性能分数分别为16.93、22.04、32.51、94.18,材料的防爆能力随着碳纤维含量的增加而增强.%Under the conditions of critical initiation energy and high initiation energy , the equivalent static explosion tests were carried out on the fuel tank which was filled by spherical non-metallic separation explosion-proof materials with the car-bon fiber content of 6.5%, 8%, 9.5%and 11%respectively, and the effect of carbon fiber content on explosion-proof per-formance of spherical non-metallic separation explosion-proof material was studied .The temperature field parameters and ex-plosion process of the explosive ball in the tank were recorded by the infrared thermal imaging system and high speed camera separately , and compared with those of the tank without filling separation explosion -proof material .The results showed that under the condition of critical initiation energy , all the tanks filled by four kinds of materials had a certain flame retardant and explosion-proof effect , and the area of fuel cloud produced by explosion of tank presented the trend of decrease in turn . Under the condition of high initiation energy , the scores of explosion-proof performance in external field for four kinds of ma-terials were 16.93, 22.04, 32.51 and 94.18 respectively, and the explosion-proof performance of the materials enhanced with

  16. Introduction of Effective Education System for Engineers in TOTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Akiyoshi; Shinohara, Kuniaki

    When the sewer system in Japan was still poor, TOTO has produced plumbing products, such as toilets, to provide people a healthy and cultural life. The genuine spirit of “High quality” and “Customer satisfaction” made it possible for us to do so. But nowadays, in terms of problems of quality, globalization, aging, we should enhance training engineers to continue making “High quality” and “Customer satisfying” products, in this speed of globalization. We would introduce the effective education system for engineers in TOTO, including our future vision.

  17. 一种用于土壤非金属养分测试的光纤探头式分光光度计%An Optical-Fiber-Sensor-Based Spectrophotometer for Soil Non-Metallic Nutrient Determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺冬仙; 胡娟秀; 鲁绍坤; 何厚勇

    2012-01-01

    针对测土配方施肥技术中要求快速、便捷、高效地进行土壤养分测试的需求,文章基于浸入式光纤探头、平场凹面全息光栅、二极管线阵检测器开发了一种光纤探头式分光光度计用于土壤养分中非金属元素的快速、准确测试.基于国家计量检定规程JJG 178-2007对紫外、可见、近红外分光光度计的性能检测方法测试的该仪器的波长最大允许误差与波长重复性、基线平直度、透射比最大允许误差与透射比重复性均达到了国标第Ⅲ级别标准,其最小光谱带宽、噪声与漂移、杂散光基本达到了国标第Ⅳ级别标准.基于该仪器测试的土壤硝态氮、铵态氮、有效磷、有效硫、有效硼、和有机质含量与基于商用的国产单光束和进口双光束分光光度计测试的结果呈极显著的线性相关关系,其回归方程的斜率接近于1,且对比数据之间无显著性差异.因此,该光纤探头式分光光度计可用于土壤非金属养分的快速、准确测试.%In order to achieve rapid, convenient and efficient soil nutrient determination in soil testing and fertilizer recommendation, a portable optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer including immersed fiber sensor, flat field holographic concave grating, and diode array detector was developed for soil non-metallic nutrient determination. According to national standard of ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer with JJG 178-2007, the wavelength accuracy and repeatability, baseline stability, transmittance accuracy and repeatability measured by the prototype instrument were satisfied with the national standard of III level; minimum spectral bandwidth, noise and excursion, and stray light were satisfied with the national standard of IV level. Significant linear relationships with slope of closing to 1 were found between the soil available nutrient contents including soil nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, available phosphorus

  18. Mixed chloride/phosphine complexes of the dirhenium core. 10. Redox reactions of an edge-sharing dirhenium(III) non-metal-metal-bonded complex, Re(2)(mu-Cl)(2)Cl(4)(PMe(3))(4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, F A; Dikarev, E V; Petrukhina, M A

    2001-12-17

    Reduction and oxidation reactions of the dirhenium(III) non-metal-metal-bonded edge-sharing complex, Re(2)(mu-Cl)(2)Cl(4)(PMe(3))(4) (1), have been studied. Several new mono- and dinuclear rhenium compounds have been isolated and structurally characterized in the course of this study. Reductions of 1 with 1 and 2 equiv of KC(8) result in an unusual face-sharing complex having an Re(2)(5+) core, Re(2)(mu-Cl)(3)Cl(2)(PMe(3))(4) (2), and a triply bonded Re(II) compound, 1,2,7,8-Re(2)Cl(4)(PMe(3))(4) (3), respectively. Two-electron reduction of 1 in the presence of tetrabutylammonium chloride affords a new triply bonded complex of the Re(2)(4+) core, [Bu(n)()(4)N][1,2,7-Re(2)Cl(5)(PMe(3))(3)] (4). Oxidation of 1 with NOBF(4) yields a Re(IV) mononuclear compound, trans-ReCl(4)(PMe(3))(2) (5). Two isomers of the monomeric Re(III) anion, [ReCl(4)(PMe(3))(2)](-) (6, 7), have been isolated as side products. The crystal structures of compounds 2 and 4-7 have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The Re-Re distance in the face-sharing complex 2 of 2.686(1) A is relatively short. The metal-metal bond length in anion 4 of 2.2354(7) A is consistent with the usual values for the triply bonded Re(2)(4+) core compounds. In addition, a cis arrangement of trimethylphosphine ligands in the starting material 1 is retained upon reduction in the dinuclear products 2-4.

  19. Fractal Dimension Study of Non-metallic Inclusion Images in Steel%钢中非金属夹杂物图像分形维数的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳强; 张雅丽; 孔辉; 周俐; 王建军; 汪诚

    2012-01-01

    Binary images of non-metallic inclusions boundary were obtained by processing images of rolling material of 304/304L stainless steel with large inclusions and ingots with micro inclusions. Box-counting method was employed to compute fractal dimension of inclusion contour. Algorithm was implemented with MATLAB programming. Results show that the fractal dimension of inclusion is closely related to its composition and melting point. Morphologies of low melting point Al2O3-SiO2-CaO compound inclusion are sphere or similar sphere, their fractal dimensions are small, morphologies of high melting point Al2O3 inclusions and SiO2 inclusions are irregular, their fractal dimensions are large.%通过对304/304L不锈钢轧材中大型夹杂物和铸锭中显微夹杂物的图像进行处理,得到夹杂物边界的二值图像.采用计盒维数法对夹杂物轮廓的分形维数进行计算与分析,算法利用MATLAB编程实现.结果表明,夹杂物的分形维数与其组成和熔点密切相关,低熔点的Al2O3-SiO2-CaO系复合夹杂的形貌多为球形或类球形,其分形维数较小;高熔点的Al2O3夹杂物与SiQ2夹杂物的形貌多为不规则形,其分形维数较大.

  20. Cognitive disparities, lead plumbing, and water chemistry: prior exposure to water-borne lead and intelligence test scores among World War Two U.S. Army enlistees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Joseph P; Rolf, Karen; Troesken, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Higher prior exposure to water-borne lead among male World War Two U.S. Army enlistees was associated with lower intelligence test scores. Exposure was proxied by urban residence and the water pH levels of the cities where enlistees lived in 1930. Army General Classification Test scores were six points lower (nearly 1/3 standard deviation) where pH was 6 (so the water lead concentration for a given amount of lead piping was higher) than where pH was 7 (so the concentration was lower). This difference rose with time exposed. At this time, the dangers of exposure to lead in water were not widely known and lead was ubiquitous in water systems, so these results are not likely the effect of individuals selecting into locations with different levels of exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Implementation and application of a method for quantifying metals and non-metals in drainage water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum; Implementacao e aplicacao de metodologia para dosagem de metais e nao metais em aguas de drenagem de solos adubados com fosfogesso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Camila Goncalves Bof

    2010-07-01

    Phosphogypsum is a waste generated in phosphoric acid production by the 'wet process'. The immense amount of phosphogypsum yearly produced (around 150 million tons) is receiving attention from environmental protection agencies all over the word, given its potential of contamination. In Brazil, this material has been used for many decades, especially for agricultural application on cropland. Although the phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of impurities, such as metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb), non-metals (As and Se) and radioactive elements from natural series of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U. Therefore, its continuous application as an agricultural agent can result not just in soil contamination, but also contamination of the surface and groundwater due to the runoff and infiltration process. The concern associated with the contamination of aquatic environments increases; when water is used for human consumption, requiring progressive adoption of more restrictive limits. However, some of the conventional analytical techniques used to determine the maximum limit of contaminants in water have detection limits above the maximum limits established by the environmental legislation. This work was aimed to evaluate the mobility of metals and non-metals in soils and, consequently, the contamination of drainage water through greenhouse-scale leaching and transport of toxic elements from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum. Hence, methods were studied and implemented for determination of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb) using Furnace Graphite Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF AAS), as well as for non-metals (As and Se) using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (lCP-MS). Effects of different chemical modifiers on the determination of Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb concentration by GF AAS were also investigated. In general, it was observed that the metal and non-metal concentration were below than the actual detection limit of the

  2. Research on Behavior of Non-metallic Inclusions in GCr15 Bearing Steel%GCr15轴承钢中非金属夹杂物行为的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仰东; 吴晓东; 谈盛康

    2011-01-01

    Based on the productive process of BOF→LF→RH→CC for GCr15 bearing steel produced in Huaigang steel, using metallography and SEM-EDS analysis, the non-metallic inclusions in molten steel were studied in the size, composition and morphology. The changing about the inclusions in the bearing steel were investigated at different refining slag basicity. The main inclusions in rolling were mixed oxides and sulfide. The component diagram of inclusions were analyzed and calculated. The results show that micro-inclusions reduce from 23.34 number/mm2 into 14.02 number /mm2 after LF refining. Inclusions decrease slightly after RH treatment. The quantity of inclusions decrease slightly in rolling process. With the smelting process carrying out, the large inclusions are effectively removed by the steel flowing in ladle movement. The main inclusions in the steel are oxides, sulfide and CaO(CaS)-Al2O3-MgO complex inclusions.%针对淮钢80t转炉-90tLF- 100tRH-CC工艺生产的GCr15轴承钢,采用金相、SEM和EDS等方法,研究了精炼过程中夹杂物的尺寸、成分和形貌等的变化情况.经分析计算,得出了各工序夹杂物的成分图,并分析了夹杂物在冶炼过程中的变化规律.结果表明,在LF炉精炼后,微观夹杂物由23.34个/mm2下降到14.02个/mm2;经RH循环脱气处理后,夹杂物有所减少,成材中,夹杂物数量略有减少;随着冶炼过程的进行,大颗粒夹杂在钢包中随着钢流的运动得到了有效去除,细微夹杂物所占比例逐步升高;钢中存在的夹杂物主要有氧化物、硫化物以及CaO(CaS)-Al2O3-MgO类复合夹杂物.

  3. Increased Mortality in Metal-on-Metal versus Non-Metal-on-Metal Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty at 10 Years and Longer Follow-Up: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meessen, J. M. T. A.; Fiocco, M.; van der Heide, H. J. L.; Sedrakyan, A.; Nelissen, R. G. H. H.

    2016-01-01

    Importance There are concerns about increased mortality in patients with metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Objective To determine the mortality and the morbidity in patients with metal-on-metal articulations (MOM THA) compared to patients with non-metal-on-metal articulations (non-MOM THA) after primary total hip arthroplasty. Data Sources Search of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, AcademicSearchPremier, ScienceDirect, Wiley and clinical trial registers through March 2015, augmented by a hand search of references from the included articles. No language restrictions were applied. Study Selection Two reviewers screened and identified randomised controlled trials and observational studies of primary total hip arthroplasty comparing MOM THA with non-MOM THA. Data Extraction and Synthesis Two reviewers independently extracted study data and assessed risk of bias. Risk differences (RD) were calculated with random effect models. Meta-regression was used to explore modifying factors. Main Outcomes and Measures Difference in mortality and difference in morbidity expressed as revisions and medical complications between patients with MOM THA and non-MOM THA. Results Forty-seven studies were included, comprising 4,000 THA in randomised trials and over 500,000 THA in observational studies. For mortality, random effects analysis revealed a higher pooled RD of 0.7%, 95%, confidence interval (CI) [0.0%, 2.3%], I-square 42%; the heterogeneity was explained by differences in follow-up. When restricted to studies with long term follow-up (i.e. 10 years or more), the RD for mortality was 8.5%, 95%, CI [5.8%, 11.2%]; number needed to treat was 12. Further subgroup analyses and meta-regression random effects models revealed no evidence for other moderator variables (study level covariates, e.g. resurfacing vs. non-resurfacing MOM) than follow-up duration. The quality of the evidence presented in this meta-analysis was characterized as

  4. Increased Mortality in Metal-on-Metal versus Non-Metal-on-Metal Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty at 10 Years and Longer Follow-Up: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B G Pijls

    Full Text Available There are concerns about increased mortality in patients with metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasty (THA.To determine the mortality and the morbidity in patients with metal-on-metal articulations (MOM THA compared to patients with non-metal-on-metal articulations (non-MOM THA after primary total hip arthroplasty.Search of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, AcademicSearchPremier, ScienceDirect, Wiley and clinical trial registers through March 2015, augmented by a hand search of references from the included articles. No language restrictions were applied.Two reviewers screened and identified randomised controlled trials and observational studies of primary total hip arthroplasty comparing MOM THA with non-MOM THA.Two reviewers independently extracted study data and assessed risk of bias. Risk differences (RD were calculated with random effect models. Meta-regression was used to explore modifying factors.Difference in mortality and difference in morbidity expressed as revisions and medical complications between patients with MOM THA and non-MOM THA.Forty-seven studies were included, comprising 4,000 THA in randomised trials and over 500,000 THA in observational studies. For mortality, random effects analysis revealed a higher pooled RD of 0.7%, 95%, confidence interval (CI [0.0%, 2.3%], I-square 42%; the heterogeneity was explained by differences in follow-up. When restricted to studies with long term follow-up (i.e. 10 years or more, the RD for mortality was 8.5%, 95%, CI [5.8%, 11.2%]; number needed to treat was 12. Further subgroup analyses and meta-regression random effects models revealed no evidence for other moderator variables (study level covariates, e.g. resurfacing vs. non-resurfacing MOM than follow-up duration. The quality of the evidence presented in this meta-analysis was characterized as moderate according to the CLEAR-NPT (for non-pharmacological trials and Cochrane risk of bias Table

  5. 重复重力测量结果计算垂线 偏差的时间变化%PLUMB LINE DEFLECTION VARIED WITH TIME OBTAINED BY REPEATED GRAVIMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 付广裕; 李正心

    2001-01-01

    根据滇西和华北地震重力监测网28期和39期重力测量资料,利用Vening-Meinesz公式,分别计算了下关和北京两地垂线偏差的时间变化.结果表明:①垂线偏差的时间变化幅度一般在0.1″以内,年际变化幅度在0.02″以内;②重复重力测量方法可在0.01″的可信度范围内确定垂线偏差的时间变化,对比计算结果表明这种方法是可行的;③不同地点和方向的垂线偏差变化既存在相同点也存在不同点,它们将有可能为区域性的地球物理事件和大范围或全球性动力学研究提供新的途径.%In this paper, the plumb line deflection varied with time (PLV) are calculated with the Vening-Meinesz formula for Xiaguan and Beijing point based on the 28th and 39th campaigns of gravimetry at the local gravity networks in the Western Yunnan Earthquake Prediction Experiment Area and the North China. Based on the results, we conclude that: ① the maximum of PLV is under 0.1″ and amplitudes of interannual variation are under 0.02″. ② PLV can be determined with the reliability of 0.01″. This means that repeated gravimetry could be used to determine the PLV. ③ There are some common and different characteristics on the different places and different component. It will provide a new approach in the local or global geodynamic study by using repeated gravimetry.

  6. Housing Units with Incomplete Plumbing in 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Variable was created as part of a set of indicators that demonstrate links between the condition of natural areas and human concerns and that quantify dependencies...

  7. Interpreting chemical compositions of small scale basaltic systems: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Lucy E.; Smith, Ian E. M.

    2016-10-01

    Small scale basaltic magmatic systems occur in all of the major tectonic environments of planet Earth and are characteristically expressed at the Earth's surface as fields of small monogenetic cones. The chemical compositions of the materials that make up these cones reflect processes of magma generation and differentiation that occur in their plumbing system. The volumes of magmas involved are very small and significantly their compositional ranges reveal remarkably complex processes which are overwhelmed or homogenized in larger scale systems. Commonly, compositions are basaltic, alkalic and enriched in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements, although the spectrum extends from highly enriched nephelinites to subalkalic and tholeiitic basalts. Isotopic analyses of rocks from volcanic fields almost always display compositions which can only be explained by the interaction of two or more mantle sources. Ultimately their basaltic magmas originate by small scale melting of mantle sources. Compositional variety is testament to melting processes at different depths, a range of melting proportions, a heterogeneous source and fractionation, magma mixing and assimilation within the plumbing system that brings magmas to the surface. The fact that such a variety of compositions is preserved in a single field shows that isolation of individual melting events and their ascent is an important and possibly defining feature of monogenetic volcanism, as well as the window their chemical behavior provides into the complex process of melt generation and extraction in the Earth's upper mantle.

  8. Solar energy system performance evaluation: seasonal report for IBM System 3, Glendo, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The IBM System 3 Solar Energy System was designed by the Federal Systems Division of IBM in Huntsville, Alabama to provide 46% of the space heating and 80% of the domestic hot water (DHW) for a 1078 square foot retrofit of an existing building used as a residence at the Glendo Reservoir State Park Ranger Station. The system consists of fourteen Sunworks Model LA1001A flat plate liquid collectors (294 square feet), a 1000 gallon hot water storage tank, a 65 gallon electric domestic hot water tank, pumps, heat exchangers, controls, and associated plumbing. Water is the heat transfer medium for this closed volume, passive drain down system. A gas furnace is used for auxiliary space heating energy. The system which became operational in October 1978 has five modes of operation. Performance data for the year of 1979 are presented and assessed.

  9. Analysis of non-metallic inclusions in steel by SEM/EDS experiences with the technique as applied to the plain carbon steel Cf53 (1.1213); Analyse nichtmetallischer Einschluesse in Stahl mittels REM/EDS und Anwendung auf den unlegierten Kohlenstoffstahl Cf53 (1.1213)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietzau, Jens [GKN Driveline International GmbH, Lohmar (Germany). Research and Product Development Centre

    2010-12-15

    The SEM/EDS provides detailed information on the chemical nature of the non-metallic inclusions present in a steel. However, this information cannot be accepted uncritically. There can be positive and negative preparation artefacts and inclusions might be mis-classified because some elements are not or wrongly identified. Also, this detailed information comes at the cost of considerably longer measurement times than automated LM inclusion analyses require, since LM image acquisition is faster and no time is spent on EDS. (orig.)

  10. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  11. Innovative Navigation Systems to Support Digital Geophysical Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-17

    Treated No intrusive activities were undertaken nor any material handled. 3.6.4. Residuals Handling This section is not applicable. 3.6.5...The four Cs- vapour sensors were equally separated by 40cm and supported on a non-metallic frame, as shown on the right side of the photograph in Figure...acquisition system showing the four Cs vapour magnetometer sensors at the front of the array (right of photo) and the reflective prism (red cube

  12. Influence of temperature, chlorine residual and heavy metals on the presence of Legionella pneumophila in hot water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakić, Anita; Perić, Jelena; Foglar, Lucija

    2012-01-01

    The microbiological colonisation of buildings and man-made structures often occurs on the walls of plumbing systems; therefore, monitoring of opportunistic pathogens such as Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila), both in water distribution mains and in consumers' plumbing systems, is an important issue according to the international and national guidelines that regulate the quality of drinking water. This paper investigates the presence of L. pneumophila in the Dalmatian County of Croatia and the relationship between L. pneumophila presence and heavy metals concentrations, free residual chlorine and water temperature in hot water distribution systems (WDS). Investigations were performed on a large number of hot water samples taken from taps in kitchens and bathrooms in hotels and homes for the elderly and disabled in the Split region. Of the 127 hot water samples examined, 12 (9.4%) were positive for Legionella spp. with median values concentration of 450 cfu × L(-1). Among positive isolates, 10 (83.3%) were L. pneumophila sg 1, and two of them (16.6%) belonged to the genera L. pneumophila sg 2-14. The positive correlation between the water temperature, iron and manganese concentrations, and L. pneumophila contamination was proved by statistical analysis of the experimental data. On the contrary, zinc and free residual chlorine had no observed influence on the presence of L. pneumophila. The presence of heavy metals in water samples confirms the corrosion of distribution system pipes and fittings, and suggests that metal plumbing components and associated corrosion products are important factors in the survival and growth of L. pneumophila in WDS.

  13. Preparation and photocatalytic properties of La3+,Nd3+and non-metallic N doped TiO2%La3+、Nd3+与非金属氮共掺杂TiO2光催化剂的制备及其性能研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵斯琴; 长山; 张海玲; 杨杰

    2015-01-01

    采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了 TiO2、1% La/TiO2、1% Nd/TiO2和系列稀土 La3+和 Nd3+共掺杂TiO2光催化剂,进而结合水热法制备了双稀土 La3+、Nd3+和非金属氮共掺杂多元体系 TiO2光催化剂,并采用 XRD、UV-Vis、SEM 和 XPS 等测试手段对制备样品的微观结构、光谱学性能和离子掺杂形式进行了表征。研究表明,实验所制备样品均为锐钛矿型 TiO2光催化剂,稀土离子 La3+或 Nd3+的掺杂能有效抑制TiO2颗粒尺寸的生长,而且双稀土离子的共掺杂更有效抑制TiO2光催化剂颗粒尺寸的生长;非金属离子 N的掺杂,能有效拓宽 TiO2光催化剂的光响应范围;多元体系 TiO2光催化剂中,稀土钕以+3形式掺杂,非金属氮以-3形式掺杂。实验以甲基橙为目标污染物研究其光催化性能,研究表明,所制备的光催化剂均有较高的紫外光光催化性能,其中样品1%(La∶Nd,1∶7),N/TiO2的紫外光光催化性能最高,而且有较强的可见光光催化活性。%TiO2 ,1%-La/TiO2 ,1%-Nd/TiO2 and a series of La3+and Nd3+doped TiO2 photocatalysts were pre-pared by sol-gel method.Then,sol-gel method combined with hydrothermal method synthesized multi system of rare earth La,Nd,and nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts.Their microstructure,spectroscopic properties and ion doped form were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD),UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectros-copy techniques,scanning electron microscopy (SEM),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).The catalytic activity was tested for the degradation of methyl orange solution.The results showed that,all the samples which prepared in paper were Anatase TiO2 photocatalysts,the doping of La3+ or Nd3+ could hinder the growth of TiO2 particle,even,the doping of La3+ with Nd3+ together could more effective hinder the growth of TiO2 particle;Non-metallic nitrogen-doped would broaden the Light response range of TiO2 photocatalyst.At the same time

  14. A conceptual framework for intelligent monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Thomas; Meegoda, Jay; Niver, Edip; Watts, Daniel; Wadhawan, Sameer; Finlayson, Richard

    2005-05-01

    This paper discusses the conceptual development of a continuously monitored intelligent system for underground infrastructure. The proposed sensors are based on advanced coupling and refinement of several technologies: electrically conducting composite pipe (ECCP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and time domain reflectometry (TDR). A significant benefit gleaned from the combination of these technologies is that the resulting system may be used on non-metallic, as well as, metallic pipes. In addition, the synergism of the technologies obtains the maximum information regarding defect location and characterization. The monitoring signal, waveguides, and damage sensor are also discussed, as well as, the data fusion, dynamic modeling and simulation requirements for the intelligent monitoring system.

  15. Geophysical imaging of shallow degassing in a Yellowstone hydrothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquet, S.; Holbrook, W. S.; Carr, B. J.; Sims, K. W. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field, which hosts over 10,000 thermal features, is the world's largest active continental hydrothermal system, yet very little is known about the shallow "plumbing" system connecting hydrothermal reservoirs to surface features. Here we present the results of geophysical investigations of shallow hydrothermal degassing in Yellowstone. We measured electrical resistivity, compressional-wave velocity from refraction data, and shear wave velocity from surface-wave analysis to image shallow hydrothermal degassing to depths of 15-30 m. We find that resistivity helps identify fluid pathways and that Poisson's ratio shows good sensitivity to saturation variations, highlighting gas-saturated areas and the local water table. Porosity and saturation predicted from rock physics modeling provide critical insight to estimate the fluid phase separation depth and understand the structure of hydrothermal systems. Finally, our results show that Poisson's ratio can effectively discriminate gas- from water-saturated zones in hydrothermal systems.

  16. Bridging the Gap between Work and Education in Vocational Education and Training: A study of Norwegian Apprenticeship Training Offices and E-portfolio Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hæge Nore

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the effect that the use of e-portfolios initiated and organized by apprenticeship training offices has had on the learning processes and assessment practices of apprentices in Norwegian vocational education and training. Although these intermediate structures have the potential to bridge the gap between work and education, they seem to maintain a system of two parallel learning arenas. However, the article summarizes the innovative effects of these transformations as supportive structures for expansive apprenticeship. The study is based on data from a national project on quality assessment, which is supported by documentary evidence from e-portfolios in three different trades: plumbing, industrial mechanics and sales.

  17. Portable Microleak-Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, H. Kevin; Sikora, Joseph G.; Sankaran, Sankara N.

    2007-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts a portable microleak-detection system that has been built especially for use in testing hydrogen tanks made of polymer-matrix composite materials. (As used here, microleak signifies a leak that is too small to be detectable by the simple soap-bubble technique.) The system can also be used to test for microleaks in tanks that are made of other materials and that contain gases other than hydrogen. Results of calibration tests have shown that measurement errors are less than 10 percent for leak rates ranging from 0.3 to 200 cm3/min. Like some other microleak-detection systems, this system includes a vacuum pump and associated plumbing for sampling the leaking gas, and a mass spectrometer for analyzing the molecular constituents of the gas. The system includes a flexible vacuum chamber that can be attached to the outer surface of a tank or other object of interest that is to be tested for leakage (hereafter denoted, simply, the test object). The gas used in a test can be the gas or vapor (e.g., hydrogen in the original application) to be contained by the test object. Alternatively, following common practice in leak testing, helium can be used as a test gas. In either case, the mass spectrometer can be used to verify that the gas measured by the system is the test gas rather than a different gas and, hence, that the leak is indeed from the test object.

  18. System for damping vibrations in a turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, III, Herbert Chidsey; Johnson, Curtis Alan; Taxacher, Glenn Curtis

    2015-11-24

    A system for damping vibrations in a turbine includes a first rotating blade having a first ceramic airfoil, a first ceramic platform connected to the first ceramic airfoil, and a first root connected to the first ceramic platform. A second rotating blade adjacent to the first rotating blade includes a second ceramic airfoil, a second ceramic platform connected to the second ceramic airfoil, and a second root connected to the second ceramic platform. A non-metallic platform damper has a first position in simultaneous contact with the first and second ceramic platforms.

  19. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options with Validated Analysis Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. Transient System Simulation Tool (TRNSYS) is a full distribution system developed that has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. In this study, the Building America team built upon previous analysis modeling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall, 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  20. Solar energy system performance evaluation-seasonal report for Elcam San Diego, San Diego, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system, Elcam San Diego, was designed to supply domestic hot water heating for a single family residence located in Encinitas, California. System description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, maintenance, and conclusions are presented. The system is a 'Sunspot' two tank cascade type, where solar energy is supplied to either a 66 gallon preheat tank (solar storage) or a 40 gallon domestic hot water tank. Water is pumped directly from one of the two tanks, through the 65 square feet collector array and back into the same tank. Freeze protection is provided by automatically circulating hot water from the hot water tank through the collectors and exposed plumbing when freezing conditions exist. Auxiliary energy is supplied by natural gas. Analysis is based on instrumented system data monitored and collected for one full season of operation.

  1. Prediction of thermal acoustic oscillations (TAOs) in the CLAES solid CO2/neon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradley, I. E.; Yuan, S. W. K.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of a study initiated to investigate the possibility that the existence of thermal acoustic oscillations (TAOs) in the Cryogenic Limb Atmospheric Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) neon plumbing system ground configuration could be the cause of higher-than-predicted heat rates measured during thermal ground testing. Tests were conducted between warm boundary temperatures ranging from 40 to 100 K, which simulated the actual test conditions of the CLAES CO2/neon system. TAOs were observed between 6 and 106 Torr, which agreed with the analytical predictions, and verified the possible existence of TAOs in the CLAES system during ground testing. The presence of TAOs was eventually confirmed in the CLAES system during a subsequent thermal test and were determined to have caused the higher heat rates measured during the prior thermal test.

  2. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.

  3. Impact of water quality on chlorine demand of corroding copper (Supplement)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Copper is widely used in drinking water premise plumbing system materials. In buildings such as hospitals, large and complicated plumbing networks make it difficult...

  4. Magma chamber processes in central volcanic systems of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Sigurjón Böðvar; Tegner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    New field work and petrological investigations of the largest gabbro outcrop in Iceland, the Hvalnesfjall gabbro of the 6-7 Ma Austurhorn intrusive complex, have established a stratigraphic sequence exceeding 800 m composed of at least 8 macrorhythmic units. The bases of the macrorhythmic units......3 of clinopyroxene and magnetite indicative of magma replenishment. Some macrorhythmic units show mineral trends indicative of up-section fractional crystallisation over up to 100 m, whereas others show little variation. Two populations of plagioclase crystals (large, An-rich and small, less An...... olivine basalts from Iceland that had undergone about 20% crystallisation of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene and that the macrorhythmic units formed from thin magma layers not exceeding 200-300 m. Such a "mushy" magma chamber is akin to volcanic plumbing systems in settings of high magma supply...

  5. Thermo-magnetic systems for space nuclear reactors an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Maidana, Carlos O

    2014-01-01

    Introduces the reader to engineering magnetohydrodynamics applications and presents a comprehensive guide of how to approach different problems found in this multidisciplinary field. An introduction to engineering magnetohydrodynamics, this brief focuses heavily on the design of thermo-magnetic systems for liquid metals, with emphasis on the design of electromagnetic annular linear induction pumps for space nuclear reactors. Alloy systems that are liquid at room temperature have a high degree of thermal conductivity far superior to ordinary non-metallic liquids. This results in their use for

  6. Sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate as antidote against non-metallic pesticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-kang CHEN; Zhong-qiu LU

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION With the advent of World War II, dimercaptol was first developed in England as an effective antidote against arsenical agents. In 1950' s, scientists from the Soviet Union developed a water-soluble compound, sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate (Na-DMPS) named as Unithiol (or Unitiol), which was able to chelate heavy metals and metalloids.

  7. Non-metals in metals `98; Nichtmetalle in Metallen `98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschfeld, D. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    The major topics discussed at the symposium are: (1) Thermodynamics and cinetics, (2) chemical, physical and physico-chemical examination methodology, (3) materials properties. 13 of the 25 papers presented at the symposium have been analysed and indexed for separate retrieval from the database. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Themenschwerpunkte des diesjaehrigen Symposiums `Nichtmetalle in Metallen` sind: 1. Thermodynamik und Kinetik, 2. Chemische, physikalische und physikalisch-chemische Untersuchungsmethoden, und 3. Werkstoffeigenschaften. Von den insgesamt 25 Vortraegen wurden 13 Beitraege separat aufgenommen. (orig./MM)

  8. Doped Graphene as Non-Metallic Catalyst for Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana MARINOIU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming a commercial development of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC, a low cost, sustainable and high performance electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR with capability to replace/reduce rare metals, are high desirable. In this paper, we present a class of doped graphene, namely iodinated graphene with highly ORR electrochemical performances, synthesized by using the electrophilic substitution method. The prepared samples were characterized by different techniques, including Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS, Raman spectroscopy, surface area measurement by BET method, that revealed the structure and morphology. The most highly iodinated graphene was tested in a single cell by measuring the cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical performances were evaluated and compared with a typical PEMFC configuration, when a single cathodic peak at 0.2 V with a current density of – 3.67 mA cm-2 for the Pt/C electrode was obtained. The best electrochemical performances in terms of electrochemical active area, was obtained for a new concept of cathode composed from Pt/C – iodine doped graphene, when a well-defined peak centred at 0.23 V with a current density of approx. – 9.1 mA cm-2 was obtained, indicating a high catalytic activity for ORR.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.16216

  9. Study of irradiation effects in non-metallic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atobe, Kozo; Fukuoka, Noboru; Honda, Makoto; Kondo, Tadashi; Morishima, Kouichi [Naruto Univ. of Education, Naruto, Tokushima (Japan). Faculty of Science; Okada, Moritami; Nakagawa, Masuo

    1998-01-01

    The production of point defects induced by reactor and the thermal behavior of defects in sintered AlN and c-BN have been investigated using the optical absorption and electron spin resonance (ESR) methods. The absorption band at 370 nm (AlN) and the structureless absorption over the visible region are observed. These specimens also show ESR signals with g-value 2.007 (AlN), 2.006 (BN), which are probably caused by N vacancies with a trapped electron. In addition to these experiments, the difference of the photoluminescence(PL) lines on neutron irradiated CZ-Si and FZ-Si has been also studied. The models of the defect associated with neutron irradiation are discussed. (author)

  10. The UHV system of the 10 MeV RF electron linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, D.; Jayaprakash, D.; Mishra, R. L.; Nimje, V. T.; Mittal, K. C.

    2008-05-01

    A 10 MeV, 10 kW RF Electron Linac, for Industrial applications, is installed and commissioned at Electron Beam Centre (EBC), Kharghar, Navi Mumbai. The accelerator consists of the electron gun, RF Linac, Vacuum system, Beam diagnostics system, Magnetic sweep scanning system and Scan horn. The accelerator is divided into three sections with gate valves to isolate them, to enable servicing of pumps and modifications. The vacuum requirement in the accelerator is 10-7 mbar considering the breakdown parameters of the RF field within the linac. Total length of the accelerator from electron gun to the scan horn is about 5.0 meters. Vacuum plumb lines are of SS 304 pipes of nominal bores of 100 mm and 150 mm, machined internally to a surface finish of 0.8 μm. It encloses a volume of 156 litres. Total surface area exposed to vacuum is 57,500 cm2. It consists of 5250 cm2 of OFHC Copper, 51300 cm2 of SS 304 and 940 cm2 of ceramic sections. Leak-tightness of the order of 1 × 10-9mbar.l/s is ensured for the whole system, after eliminating the leaks at every stage of the assembly. Baking the plumb line and pumps at 150° C, for eight hours an ultimate vacuum of 2 × 10-7mbar is achieved in the accelerator. Modifications of the vacuum system is undertaken to suit the design changes in the gun and the diagnostic systems.

  11. The UHV system of the 10 MeV RF electron linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, D; Jayaprakash, D; Mishra, R L; Nimje, V T; Mittal, K C [D. Bhattacharjee, Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400 085 (India)], E-mail: dhruvab@barc.gov.in

    2008-05-01

    A 10 MeV, 10 kW RF Electron Linac, for Industrial applications, is installed and commissioned at Electron Beam Centre (EBC), Kharghar, Navi Mumbai. The accelerator consists of the electron gun, RF Linac, Vacuum system, Beam diagnostics system, Magnetic sweep scanning system and Scan horn. The accelerator is divided into three sections with gate valves to isolate them, to enable servicing of pumps and modifications. The vacuum requirement in the accelerator is 10{sup -7} mbar considering the breakdown parameters of the RF field within the linac. Total length of the accelerator from electron gun to the scan horn is about 5.0 meters. Vacuum plumb lines are of SS 304 pipes of nominal bores of 100 mm and 150 mm, machined internally to a surface finish of 0.8 {mu}m. It encloses a volume of 156 litres. Total surface area exposed to vacuum is 57,500 cm{sup 2}. It consists of 5250 cm{sup 2} of OFHC Copper, 51300 cm{sup 2} of SS 304 and 940 cm{sup 2} of ceramic sections. Leak-tightness of the order of 1 x 10{sup -9}mbar.l/s is ensured for the whole system, after eliminating the leaks at every stage of the assembly. Baking the plumb line and pumps at 150 deg. C, for eight hours an ultimate vacuum of 2 x 10{sup -7}mbar is achieved in the accelerator. Modifications of the vacuum system is undertaken to suit the design changes in the gun and the diagnostic systems.

  12. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study, Weiss Building & Development, LLC., System Home, River Forest, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    The Passive House Challenge Home located in River Forest, Illinois, is a 5-bedroom, 4.5-bath, 3,600 ft2 two-story home (plus basement) that costs about $237 less per month to operate than a similar sized home built to the 2009 IECC. For a home with no solar photovoltaic panels installed, it scored an amazingly low 27 on the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) score.An ENERGY STAR-rated dishwasher, clothes washer, and refrigerator; an induction cooktop, condensing clothes dryer, and LED lighting are among the energy-saving devices inside the home. All plumbing fixtures comply with EPA WaterSense criteria. The home was awarded a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the "systems builder" category.

  13. Optimizing Hydronic System Performance in Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Faakye, O.

    2013-10-01

    Even though new homes constructed with hydronic heat comprise only 3% of the market (US Census Bureau 2009), of the 115 million existing homes in the United States, almost 14 million of those homes (11%) are heated with steam or hot water systems according to 2009 US Census data. Therefore, improvements in hydronic system performance could result in significant energy savings in the US. When operating properly, the combination of a gas-fired condensing boiler with baseboard convectors and an indirect water heater is a viable option for high-efficiency residential space heating in cold climates. Based on previous research efforts, however, it is apparent that these types of systems are typically not designed and installed to achieve maximum efficiency. Furthermore, guidance on proper design and commissioning for heating contractors and energy consultants is hard to find and is not comprehensive. Through modeling and monitoring, CARB sought to determine the optimal combination(s) of components - pumps, high efficiency heat sources, plumbing configurations and controls - that result in the highest overall efficiency for a hydronic system when baseboard convectors are used as the heat emitter. The impact of variable-speed pumps on energy use and system performance was also investigated along with the effects of various control strategies and the introduction of thermal mass.

  14. Impacts of Modernizing Urban Stormwater Systems on Nutrient and Carbon Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippelli, G. M.; Jacinthe, P. A.; Druschel, G.

    2015-12-01

    Over 200 cities throughout the U.S. are undergoing the painful and expensive transition from Combined Sewer Outflows (CSOs) to modern stormwater systems. The infrastructure of CSOs is frequently a century old, with a design adapted to stormwater conditions of smaller, more pervious cities. Normal rainfall events of less 1 cm per hour can now exceed the CSO capacities in many urban sub-watersheds, leading to streamwater conditions that exceed human health standards for pathogens. Although much focus has been placed on the plumbing aspects of urban stormwater modernization, less has been focused on local, and indeed regional, implications of nutrient and carbon dynamic changes. Indianapolis, Indiana, with a metropolitan population of over 1 million, is a case study of CSO modernization. Most CSO systems in the city were built almost 100 years ago, and the city has experienced classic patterns of growth of impervious surface area, population growth, and enhanced use of chemical fertilizers. The result of these changes has been frequent failure of the CSO system, and release of sewage water into suburban and urban streams, rivers and reservoirs. Driven largely by modern environmental regulations, the city is now "footing the bill" for a century of poor planning and growth, with the real costs seen by ratepayers in the form of steeply growing wastewater fees. The mitigation approach to this problem is largely one of subsurface engineering on a mega scale, with less attention (i.e., money) placed on complementary land-use and nutrient management efforts on the surface. Several examples illustrate the relatively straightforward nature of changing plumbing, in contrast to the complex result of these changes on nutrient pathways, and the implications that this has on oxygenation, nutrient cycling, and carbon release/sequestration dynamics in riparian and urban reservoir systems.

  15. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonessa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  16. Solar energy system performance evaluation report for IBM System 4 at Clinton, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The IBM System 4 Solar Energy System is described and evaluated. The system was designed to provide 35 percent of the space heating and 63 percent of the domestic hot water preheating for a single family residence located within the United States. The system consists of 259 square feet of flat plate air collectors, a rock thermal storage containing 5 1/2 ton of rock, heat exchangers, blowers, a 52 gallon preheat tank, controls, and associated plumbing. In general, the performance of the system did not meet design expectations, since the overall design solar fraction was 48 percent and the measured value was 32 percent. Although the measured space heating solar fraction at 32 percent did agree favorably with the design space heating solar fraction at 35 percent, the hot water measured solar fraction at 33 percent did not agree favorably with the design hot water solar fraction of 63 percent. In particular collector array air leakage, dust covered collectors, abnormal hot water demand, and the preheat tank by pass valve problem are main reasons for the lower performance.

  17. The feeder system of the Toba supervolcano from the slab to the shallow reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulakov, Ivan; Kasatkina, Ekaterina; Shapiro, Nikolai M.; Jaupart, Claude; Vasilevsky, Alexander; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir; Smirnov, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    The Toba Caldera has been the site of several large explosive eruptions in the recent geological past, including the world's largest Pleistocene eruption 74,000 years ago. The major cause of this particular behaviour may be the subduction of the fluid-rich Investigator Fracture Zone directly beneath the continental crust of Sumatra and possible tear of the slab. Here we show a new seismic tomography model, which clearly reveals a complex multilevel plumbing system beneath Toba. Large amounts of volatiles originate in the subducting slab at a depth of ~150 km, migrate upward and cause active melting in the mantle wedge. The volatile-rich basic magmas accumulate at the base of the crust in a ~50,000 km3 reservoir. The overheated volatiles continue ascending through the crust and cause melting of the upper crust rocks. This leads to the formation of a shallow crustal reservoir that is directly responsible for the supereruptions.

  18. Science plumbs new depths in hunt for Wimps

    CERN Multimedia

    Benfield, C

    2003-01-01

    Lord Sainsbury has officially opened a laboratory in the salt mine at Boulby near Whitby. The lab is searching for WIMPs and was recently awarded 3.1 millions pounds by PPARC to upgrade the facility (1 page).

  19. Uses of polythene pipe in the plumbing trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1959-08-01

    Full Text Available Not availableDesde que terminó la guerra, los plásticos tienen cada día más aplicaciones en la construcción. Para fontanería y conducciones de agua presentan muchas y diversas ventajas, si bien éstas, por diversas circunstancias, no se conocen todavía suficientemente bien.

  20. Occurrence and parameters of frequency of Legionella in warm water systems of hospitals and hotels in Lower Saxony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, W; Müller, H E

    1988-03-01

    A total of 1241 water samples was investigated from 103 hospitals and 62 hotels in Lower Saxony 1985-87. 331 of 949 samples from hospitals and 26 of 292 samples from hotels were Legionella positive. All together 70% of the hospitals and 18% of the hotels investigated were Legionella positive, and 836 strains of Legionella were isolated (Table 1). As they could be diagnosed they belong to L. pneumophila SG1 306 strains, SG2 36 strains, SG3 127 strains, SG4 45 strain, SG5 29 strain, SG6 106 strains, SG9 13 strains and SG10 13 strains. Further 134 strains belonging to L. pneumophila but not to SG1-SG12 show cross reactions with serogroups 5, 8, and 10. Finally, 16 strains belong to L. dumoffii and 1 strain to L. anisa (Table 2). The following parameters of water samples were studied, too: temperature, pH value, conductivity, concentration of iron, of organic matter, of other bacteria, occurrence of amoebas, and the materials of water plumbing systems. Most samples contained concentrations of Legionella in the range of 10(1)-10(3) CFU/ml, highest concentrations were 10(5) CFU/ml (Fig. 1). Most frequently, Legionella were isolated within the range of temperature of 35-45 degrees C. However, a few of the water samples were positive for Legionella even up to 66 degrees C (Fig. 3). The conductivity has no and the pH value (Fig. 2) has only little influence on the occurrence of Legionella. There is a positive correlation between concentration of iron and frequency of Legionella (Fig. 4). Also organic matter (Fig. 6) and amoebas (Table 3) seem to enhance the occurrence of Legionella. Plumbing systems consisting of copper showed an inhibitory effect on Legionella during the first five years, whereas no effect could be detected in older systems (Fig. 5).

  1. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L. Brockett

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Suppose S={{Xnj,   j=1,2,…,kn}} is an infinitesimal system of random variables whose centered sums converge in law to a (necessarily infinitely divisible distribution with Levy representation determined by the triple (γ,σ2,M. If {Yj,   j=1,2,…} are independent indentically distributed random variables independent of S, then the system S′={{YjXnj,j=1,2,…,kn}} is obtained by randomizing the scale parameters in S according to the distribution of Y1. We give sufficient conditions on the distribution of Y in terms of an index of convergence of S, to insure that centered sums from S′ be convergent. If such sums converge to a distribution determined by (γ′,(σ′2,Λ, then the exact relationship between (γ,σ2,M and (γ′,(σ′2,Λ is established. Also investigated is when limit distributions from S and S′ are of the same type, and conditions insuring products of random variables belong to the domain of attraction of a stable law.

  2. system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.; Vijande, J.

    2017-07-01

    Using local central Yukawa-type Malfliet-Tjon interactions reproducing the low-energy parameters and phase shifts of the nn system, and the latest updates of the nΛ and ΛΛ Nijmegen ESC08c potentials, we study the possible existence of a bound state. Our results indicate that the is unbound, being just above threshold. We discuss the role played by the 1 S 0 nn repulsive term of the Yukawa-type Malfliet-Tjon interaction. Supported by COFAA-IPN (México), Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad and EU FEDER (FPA2013-47443, FPA2015-69714-REDT, FPA2016-77177), Junta de Castilla y León (SA041U16) and Generalitat Valenciana PrometeoII/2014/066

  3. SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Swarnalatha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis of urban aquatic systems due to heavy metals turns significant due to their peculiar properties viz. persis tence, non-degradab ility, toxicity, and accumulation. Akkulam Veli (AV, an urba n tropical lake in south India is subjected to various environmental stresses due to multiple waste discharge, sand mining, developmental activities, tour ism related activitie s etc. Hence, a comprehensive approach is adopted for risk assessment using modified degree of contamination factor, toxicity units based on numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs, and potentialecological risk indices. The study revealed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, C d, Pb and As and the lake is rated under ‘low ecological risk’ category.

  4. Standardization of surface contamination analysis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, Richard E.

    1995-01-01

    Corrosion products, oils and greases can potentially degrade material bonding properties. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Surface Contamination Analysis Team (SCAT) utilizes a variety of analytical equipment to detect identify and quantify contamination on metallic and non-metallic substrates. Analysis techniques include FT-IR Microscopy (FT-IR), Near Infrared Optical Fiber Spectrometry (NIR), Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE), Ultraviolet Fluorescence (UVF) and Ellipsometry. To insure that consistent qualitative and quantitative information are obtained, standards are required to develop analysis techniques, to establish instrument sensitivity to potential contaminants, and to develop calibration curves. This paper describes techniques for preparing and preserving contamination standards. Calibration of surface contamination analysis systems is discussed, and methods are presented for evaluating the effects of potential contaminants on bonding properties.

  5. Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures:correlation between number of fractured vertebrae and C7plumb line/sacro-femoral distance ratio%骨质疏松性椎体压缩骨折:椎体骨折数目和C7矢状位比值的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义龙; 孙志杰; 王雅辉; 任磊; 孙贺

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Sagittal imbalance induced by vertebral osteoporotic fractures has not been paid enough attention in previous studies. OBJECTIVE:To assess the correlation of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture and spinal sagittal imbalance. METHODS:Sixty patients with old osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, who were treated in the Department of Spine Surgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical Colege from February 2013 to August 2015, were enroled in this study as the observation group. Sixty healthy old people from physical examination center were enroled as the control group. The whole-spine anteroposterior and lateral X-ray films were taken in both groups. The number and the location of fractured vertebrae were recorded. Sagittal parameters of both groups including thoracic kyphotic angle, lumbar lordotic angle, T1-spinopelvic inclination angle and the C7plumb line/sacro-femoral distance (PL/SFD) ratio were measured and compared among groups. The observation group was dividedinto three subgroups according to the number of fractured vertebrae,i.e., single-vertebrae fracture subgroup, double-vertebrae fracture subgroup and above triple-vertebrae fracture subgroup. The C7PL/SFD ratio of the three subgroups was compared. The correlation between the number of fractured vertebrae and the C7PL/SFD ratio was analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:(1) The thoracic kyphotic angle of the observation group was bigger than that of the control group (P  目的:评估骨质疏松性椎体压缩骨折与脊柱矢状位失衡的相关性。  方法:纳入2013年2月至2015年8月在承德医学院附属医院脊柱外科就诊的陈旧性骨质疏松性椎体压缩骨折患者60例,作为观察组;另外选择体检科同龄老年健康查体人群60例作为对照组。拍摄两组脊柱全长正侧位 X 射线片记录脊柱椎体骨折数目和位置,测量矢状位参数包括胸椎后凸角、腰椎前凸角、T1脊柱骨盆倾斜角、C7矢

  6. Materials selection guidelines for geothermal energy utilization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P.F. II; Conover, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    This manual includes geothermal fluid chemistry, corrosion test data, and materials operating experience. Systems using geothermal energy in El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States are described. The manual provides materials selection guidelines for surface equipment of future geothermal energy systems. The key chemical species that are significant in determining corrosiveness of geothermal fluids are identified. The utilization modes of geothermal energy are defined as well as the various physical fluid parameters that affect corrosiveness. Both detailed and summarized results of materials performance tests and applicable operating experiences from forty sites throughout the world are presented. The application of various non-metal materials in geothermal environments are discussed. Included in appendices are: corrosion behavior of specific alloy classes in geothermal fluids, corrosion in seawater desalination plants, worldwide geothermal power production, DOE-sponsored utilization projects, plant availability, relative costs of alloys, and composition of alloys. (MHR)

  7. Do free-living amoebae in treated drinking water systems present an emerging health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jacqueline M; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2011-02-01

    There is an expanding body of evidence that free-living amoebae (FLA) increase both the numbers and virulence of water-based, human-pathogenic, amoeba-resisting microorganisms (ARM). Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., and other opportunistic human pathogens are known to be both ARM and also the etiologic agents of potentially fatal human lung infections. However, comparatively little is known about the FLA that may facilitate ARM growth in drinking water. This review examines the available literature on FLA in treated drinking water systems; in total 26 studies from 18 different countries. FLA were reported to breakthrough the water treatment barrier and enter distribution systems, in addition to the expected post-treatment system ingress. Once in the distribution system there is evidence of FLA colonization and regrowth especially in reservoirs and in-premise plumbing storage tanks. At the point of use the average FLA detection rate was 45% but highly variable (n = 16, σ = 31) due to both differences in both assay methods and the type of water systems examined. This review reveals that FLA are consistently detected in treated drinking water systems around the world and present a yet unquantified emerging health risk. However, more research is urgently required before accurate risks assessments can be undertaken to assess the impacts on human health, in households and institutions, due to exposure to FLA facilitated pathogenic ARM.

  8. Interactions and interconnectivity of neighboring volcanic systems in southern Japan (Kyūshū)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothelande, E.; Amelung, F.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The global volcanic eruption record contains about 60 volcano pairs that erupted the same day and 30 pairs that erupted within 3 days. However, neighboring volcano interactions are still poorly understood, in mafic as well as in felsic systems. Here, we use GPS time series of Japan's Aira caldera and Kirishima volcanic system (andesitic systems) to search for interactions between the two neighboring plumbing systems. Aira caldera (17 km x 23 km), also known as Kagoshima Bay, was formed by a massive eruption about 22,000 years ago and is often considered as the world's most active caldera volcano. The center of the caldera is occupied by Sakurajima volcano, a volcanic island that emerged about 13,000 years ago. Today, the caldera hosts more than 1 million people living along the shore and in the city of Kagoshima. The Kirishima volcanoes are a group of 18 eruption cones located 20 km north of Aira caldera. An eruption, the largest in more than 50 years, occurred in 2011 at Shinmoe-dake volcano. The magmatic system of Kirishima volcano was considered to be independent of Aira caldera, but our preliminary results suggest that this may not be the case: it seems that subtle uplift of the Aira caldera occurring during at least the first decade of this century ceased with the 2011 eruption of the Kirishima system. Using deformation data and finite element modeling, we explore possible interactions between magma reservoirs at depth.

  9. Self-Centering Seismic Lateral Force Resisting Systems: High Performance Structures for the City of Tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Brent Chancellor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Structures designed in accordance with even the most modern buildings codes are expected to sustain damage during a severe earthquake; however; these structures are expected to protect the lives of the occupants. Damage to the structure can require expensive repairs; significant business downtime; and in some cases building demolition. If damage occurs to many structures within a city or region; the regional and national economy may be severely disrupted. To address these shortcomings with current seismic lateral force resisting systems and to work towards more resilient; sustainable cities; a new class of seismic lateral force resisting systems that sustains little or no damage under severe earthquakes has been developed. These new seismic lateral force resisting systems reduce or prevent structural damage to nonreplaceable structural elements by softening the structural response elastically through gap opening mechanisms. To dissipate seismic energy; friction elements or replaceable yielding energy dissipation elements are also included. Post-tensioning is often used as a part of these systems to return the structure to a plumb; upright position (self-center after the earthquake has passed. This paper summarizes the state-of-the art for self-centering seismic lateral force resisting systems and outlines current research challenges for these systems.

  10. A Plug-and-Play Duct System Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, Robert [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Dickson, Bruce [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Grisolia, Anthony [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rapport, Ari [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-07-10

    This report describes an air distribution system composed of a series of uniformly-sized ducts that terminate in rooms throughout the home and return to a central manifold, similar in fashion to a “home-run” cross-linked polyethylene plumbing system. With a well-designed manifold, each duct receives an equal static pressure potential for airflow from the air handling unit, and the number of needed ducts for each room are simply attached to fittings located on the manifold; in this sense, the system is plug-and-play (PnP). As indicated, all ducts in the PnP system are identical in size and small enough to fit in the ceiling and wall cavities of a house (i.e., less than 3.5-in. outer diameter). These ducts are also more appropriately sized for the lower airflow requirements of modern, energy-efficient homes; therefore, the velocity of the air moving through the duct is between that of conventional duct systems (approximately 700 ft/min) and high-velocity systems (more than 1,500 ft/min) on the market today. The PnP duct system uses semi-rigid plastic pipes, which have a smooth inner wall and are straightforward to install correctly, resulting in a system that has minimal air leakage. However, plastic ducts are currently not accepted by code for use in residential buildings; therefore, the project team considered other duct materials for the system that are currently accepted by code, such as small-diameter, wirehelix, flexible ductwork.

  11. A Plug-and-Play Duct System Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Beach, B. Dickson, A. Grisolia, A. Poerschke, A. Rapport

    2017-07-01

    This report describes an air distribution system composed of a series of uniformly-sized ducts that terminate in rooms throughout the home and return to a central manifold, similar in fashion to a “home-run” cross-linked polyethylene plumbing system. With a well-designed manifold, each duct receives an equal static pressure potential for airflow from the air handling unit, and the number of needed ducts for each room are simply attached to fittings located on the manifold; in this sense, the system is plug-and-play (PnP). As indicated, all ducts in the PnP system are identical in size and small enough to fit in the ceiling and wall cavities of a house (i.e., less than 3.5-in. outer diameter). These ducts are also more appropriately sized for the lower airflow requirements of modern, energy-efficient homes; therefore, the velocity of the air moving through the duct is between that of conventional duct systems (approximately 700 ft/min) and high-velocity systems (more than 1,500 ft/min) on the market today. The PnP duct system uses semi-rigid plastic pipes, which have a smooth inner wall and are straightforward to install correctly, resulting in a system that has minimal air leakage. However, plastic ducts are currently not accepted by code for use in residential buildings; therefore, the project team considered other duct materials for the system that are currently accepted by code, such as small-diameter, wirehelix, flexible ductwork.

  12. Geochemistry of the Koshelev Volcano-Hydrothermal System, Southern Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, Y.; Kalacheva, E.

    2015-12-01

    Koshelev is the southernmost volcano of the Kamchatkan volcanic front where magmatic plumbing systems of the Kamchatkan subduction zone cross a thick layer of the oil-gas-bearing Neogene sedimentary strata of Western Kamchatka. The volcanic massive hosts a powerful hydrothermal system, which has been drilled in early 1980s. Deep wells tapped a hot (ca. 300ºC) saline solution (up to 40 g/L of Cl), whereas the upper part of the system is a typical steam cap with temperature close to 240ºC. Two hydrothermal fields of the volcano (Upper and Lower) discharge saturated or super-heated (up to 150ºC) steam and are characterized by numerous hot pools and low flow-rate springs of steam-heated waters enriched in boron and ammonia. There is also a small lateral group of warm Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 springs (40ºC). We report here our data and review the literature geochemical data on the chemical and isotopic composition of waters and hydrothermal vapours of the Koshelev system. Data on the gas composition include He and C isotopes, as well as the chemical and isotopic composition of light hydrocarbons. Water geochemistry includes literature data on water isotopes of the deep brine and trace elements and REE of steam-heated waters. A conceptual model of the system is presented and discussed.

  13. Incidence of waterborne lead in private drinking water systems in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Kelsey J; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Gallagher, Daniel L; Benham, Brian L; Edwards, Marc

    2015-09-01

    Although recent studies suggest contamination by bacteria and nitrate in private drinking water systems is of increasing concern, data describing contaminants associated with the corrosion of onsite plumbing are scarce. This study reports on the analysis of 2,146 samples submitted by private system homeowners. Almost 20% of first draw samples submitted contained lead concentrations above the United States Environmental Protection Agency action level of 15 μg/L, suggesting that corrosion may be a significant public health problem. Correlations between lead, copper, and zinc suggested brass components as a likely lead source, and dug/bored wells had significantly higher lead concentrations as compared to drilled wells. A random subset of samples selected to quantify particulate lead indicated that, on average, 47% of lead in the first draws was in the particulate form, although the occurrence was highly variable. While flushing the tap reduced lead below 15 μg/L for most systems, some systems experienced an increase, perhaps attributable to particulate lead or lead-bearing components upstream of the faucet (e.g., valves, pumps). Results suggest that without including a focus on private as well as municipal systems it will be very difficult to meet the existing national public health goal to eliminate elevated blood lead levels in children.

  14. An Analysis of the Magma Supply System at Mono Craters, California. Michelle R. Johnson and Keith Putirka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.; Putirka, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Mono Craters consist of 28 sequentially numbered domes, craters, and coulees, oriented north to south, located at the northern end of the Long Valley magmatic system. It is thought that the plumbing system underneath the Mono Craters is a series of dikes, sills, and small magmatic bodies. What remains unclear are the P-T conditions of magma storage and how such conditions may affect upward transport of magma. Seismological constraints exist, which place some magma storage at 8-10 km (Achauer 1986), with the Moho ~30 km (Frasetto et al, 2011). Whole rock analyses and mineral composition data allow us to estimate P and T conditions using mineral-melt thermobarometers and refine magma storage conditions. Pressures were determined using Q-Or-Ab phase relationships. Whole rock compositions indicate that the Mono Craters erupted three compositionally separate batches of magma. Mafic samples at Mono Craters range from 52.7% - 60.45% SiO2, with pressures varying between 1433-2000+ MPa and depths from 44-62+ km. One mafic sample has 43.3% SiO2 with 2000+ MPa and 62+ km depth. Intermediate magmas vary from 63.5% - 67.47% SiO2 with pressures ranging from 508-1527 MPa and depths of 19.2-42.5 km. The felsic magmas range from 71.1% -78.36% SiO2, with pressures varying between 50-521 MPa and depths from 1.9-19.2 km. Harker Diagrams show discontinuity amongst the various compositions. Spatial and geochemical relationships show that there are two areas where mafic magma has erupted: N37.8381 and between N37.9036 - N37.908. Intermediate magmas span a wider range of latitude: N37.8297 - N37.8373 and N37.9018 - N37.9048. Felsic magmas derive from every dome in the Mono Craters system. Mafic magmas, in contrast, derive from just two areas underneath the Mono Craters. We conclude that there are at least two main feeder systems into the Mono Craters magmatic plumbing system, which disperse into a more diffuse system within the lower crust, before being further dispersed at very

  15. Geothermal systems materials: a workshop/symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Sixteen papers are included. A separate abstract was prepared for each. Summaries of workshops on the following topics are also included in the report: non-metallic materials, corrosion, materials selection, fluid chemistry, and failure analysis. (MHR)

  16. Global Surgical Ecosystems: A Need for Systems Strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deVries, Catherine R; Rosenberg, Jenna S

    As surgery is gaining recognition as a critical component of universal health care worldwide, surgical communities have come together with unprecedented unity to advocate for systems to support surgical care. This community has long believed that much care could be performed in a cost-effective manner even in low resource settings, despite skepticism voiced by many in public health. To do so will require the development of new systems and re-vamping of old systems that are not effective. In the last five years, coalitions, expert panels, commissions, consortia and alliances have emerged to address these issues and there has been landmark success in advocacy with a new resolution at the 2015 World Health Assembly to include surgical care as a component of universal health coverage. It is critical to understand the ecosystem that constitutes the surgical environment. A surgical ecosystem could be described as a network of people, processes, and materials necessary for surgical services in the context of the facilities and environment in which it functions. We describe components of a functioning surgical ecosystem in terms of administration, support staff and clinicians, and the necessary sub-systems for providing consumable materials such as anesthetic medication and suture and sterile instruments. Related systems that must be integrated are facilities and utilities such as electricity, lighting, plumbing and waste management and even laundry. But especially in low and middle income countries (LMICs) lack of any one of these may be rate-limiting. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed situational analyses and checklists for first level district hospitals to identify missing elements. A siloed approach cannot solve a systems problem. However, to scale up rapidly and to develop and sustain quality standards, a holistic "ecosystem" approach, including local and global professional societies and advocacy organizations will need to become engaged. Copyright

  17. Super-High Temperature Alloys and Composites from NbW-Cr Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shailendra Varma

    2008-12-31

    Nickel base superalloys must be replaced if the demand for the materials continues to rise for applications beyond 1000{sup o}C which is the upper limit for such alloys at this time. There are non-metallic materials available for such high temperature applications but they all present processing difficulties because of the lack of ductility. Metallic systems can present a chance to find materials with adequate room temperature ductility. Obviously the system must contain elements with high melting points. Nb has been chosen by many investigators which has a potential of being considered as a candidate if alloyed properly. This research is exploring the Nb-W-Cr system for the possible choice of alloys to be used as a high temperature material.

  18. Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

    2010-03-01

    At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and

  19. Hands-On Experiences in Deploying Cost-Effective Ambient-Assisted Living Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Dasios

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Older adults’ preferences to remain independent in their own homes along with the high costs of nursing home care have motivated the development of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL technologies which aim at improving the safety, health conditions and wellness of the elderly. This paper reports hands-on experiences in designing, implementing and operating UbiCare, an AAL based prototype system for elderly home care monitoring. The monitoring is based on the recording of environmental parameters like temperature and light intensity as well as micro-level incidents which allows one to infer daily activities like moving, sitting, sleeping, usage of electrical appliances and plumbing components. The prototype is built upon inexpensive, off-the-shelf hardware (e.g., various sensors, Arduino microcontrollers, ZigBee-compatible wireless communication modules and license-free software, thereby ensuring low system deployment costs. The network comprises nodes placed in a house’s main rooms or mounted on furniture, one wearable node, one actuator node and a centralized processing element (coordinator. Upon detecting significant deviations from the ordinary activity patterns of individuals and/or sudden falls, the system issues automated alarms which may be forwarded to authorized caregivers via a variety of communication channels. Furthermore, measured environmental parameters and activity incidents may be monitored through standard web interfaces.

  20. The environmental features of the Monte Corchia cave system (Apuan Alps, central Italy and their effects on speleothem growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccini Leonardo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Monte Corchia cave system, one of the most famous and popular caves in Italy, has in recent times been the subject of investigation on its speleothems as paleoclimate archives. This paper describes the geology, geomorphology and water chemistry of the cave system with the aim to elucidate the processes that have generated these speleothems and the properties they contain that are so useful for paleoclimatology. Some general conclusions can be drawn: i the Corchia system is a cave developed over different altitudes during progressive uplift of the mountain chain in which it is located, probably under drainage conditions very different to those of the present. This has allowed the development of a large (ca. 60 km and deep (-1187 m karst system; ii the dewatering phases have left the deepest chambers far away from clastic input and with long drip pathways; iii the peculiar geological context has permitted the water to intercept and dissolve a significant source of U (still unknown that facilitates radiometric dating; iv in the last 1 Ma at least, no significant changes have occurred in the relief and in the epikarst, in the sense that speleothems have grown under very similar conditions. In addition the extremely low Ca concentration of drip waters have permitted low speleothem growth rates and, at least for the “Galleria delle Stalattiti”, the zone under paleoclimate studies,a stable plumbing system (i.e. chemistry and stable isotopes of drip waters has produced calcite close to isotopic equilibrium.

  1. The influence of cooling, crystallisation and re-melting on the interpretation of geodetic signals in volcanic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricchi, Luca; Biggs, Juliet; Annen, Catherine; Ebmeier, Susanna

    2014-02-01

    Deformation of volcanic edifices is typically attributed to the movement of magma within the volcanic plumbing system, but a wide range of magmatic processes are capable of producing significant volume variations and may also produce deformation. In order to understand the evolution of magmatic systems prior to eruption and correctly interpret monitoring signals, it is necessary to quantify the patterns and timescales of surface deformation that processes such as crystallisation, degassing and expansion of the hydrothermal system can produce. We show how the combination of petrology and thermal modelling can be applied to geodetic observations to identify the processes occurring in a magmatic reservoir during volcanic unrest. Thermal modelling and petrology were used to determine the timescales and volumetric variations associated with cooling, crystallisation and gas exsolution. These calculations can be performed rapidly and highlight the most likely processes responsible for the variation of a set of monitoring parameters. We then consider the magnitude and timescales of deformation produced by other processes occurring within the vicinity of an active magma system. We apply these models to a time series of geodetic data spanning the period between the 1997 and 2008 eruptions of Okmok volcano, Aleutians, examining scenarios involving crystallisation, degassing and remelting of the crystallising shallow magmatic body and including a viscoelastic shell or hydrothermal system. The geodetic observations are consistent with the injection of a water-saturated basalt, followed by minor crystallisation and degassing. Other scenarios are not compatible either with the magnitude or rate of the deformation signals.

  2. First Principles Calculations on Electronic Structures and Optical Absorption Properties of Non-metal Doped BiOCl%采用第一性原理研究非金属掺杂BiOCl的电子结构和光吸收性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 张小超; 赵丽军; 赵晓霞; 史宝萍; 樊彩梅

    2014-01-01

    基于密度泛函理论的第一性原理分别研究了不同浓度Br和I掺杂BiOCl体系的能带结构、态密度、形成能和光学性质。研究结果表明,由于Br的4p和I的5p轨道作用, Br和I掺杂可在一定程度上降低BiOCl的禁带宽度,拓宽BiOCl的光吸收范围。 Br和I掺杂BiOCl的形成能计算结果表明, Br掺杂BiOCl的稳定性高于I掺杂体系。对于B, C, N, Si, P和S掺杂BiOCl体系,掺杂能级的形成主要由掺杂元素的np轨道贡献,使BiOCl吸收带边红移至可见光区。而S掺杂则位于价带顶位置,有效地降低了BiOCl禁带宽度,使BiOCl响应波长出现红移,且未形成中间能级,不易成为俘获陷阱,因此S掺杂将是一种提高BiOCl可见光光催化活性的改性方法。%The band structures, density of states, formation energies and optical properties of different con-centration Br and I doped BiOCl systems were investigated via first principles based on the density functional theory. The results show that the incorporation of Br 4p and I 5p orbitals can reduce the energy gap of BiOCl, and then broaden the photo-absorption range. The calculated formation energy indicates that Br-doped BiOCl system has higher stability than I-doped BiOCl at the same doping concentration. For B, C, N, Si, P, S doped BiOCl systems, the impurity energy levels are mainly contributed to the np states of doping elements, which can make the red-shift of photo-absorption band edge into visible light region. Especially, the impurity levels of S-doped BiOCl system located in the top of valence band are difficult to become recombination center of photon-generated carriers, which can result in the reduction of BiOCl band-gap and the red-shift of light-responding scope. The S-doped BiOCl system will be a preferable modification method to improve the photo-catalytic activity of BiOCl.

  3. Innovative low-mass cooling systems for the ALICE ITS Upgrade detector at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez Marzoa, Manuel

    The Phase-1 upgrade of the LHC to full design luminosity, planned for 2019 at CERN, requires the modernisation of the experiments around the accelerator. The Inner Tracking System (ITS), the innermost detector at the ALICE experiment, will be upgraded by replacing the current apparatus by new silicon pixels arranged in 7 cylindrical layers. Each layer is composed by multiple independent modules, named staves, which provide mechanical support and cooling to the chips. This thesis aims to develop and validate experimentally an ultra-lightweight stave cooling system for the ITS Upgrade. The moderate thermal requirements, with a nominal power density of 0.15 W/cm^2 and a maximum chip temperature of 30ºC, are counterweighted by extreme low-mass restrictions, obliging to resort to lightweight, non-metallic materials, such as carbon fibre-reinforced polymers and plastics. Novel lightweight stave concepts were developed and experimentally validated, meeting the thermal requirements with minimal material inventory. T...

  4. Waterhammer Transient Simulation and Model Anchoring for the Robotic Lunar Lander Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, William B.; Trinh, Huu P.; Reynolds, Michael E.; Sharp, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Waterhammer transients have the potential to adversely impact propulsion system design if not properly addressed. Waterhammer can potentially lead to system plumbing, and component damage. Multi-thruster propulsion systems also develop constructive/destructive wave interference which becomes difficult to predict without detailed models. Therefore, it is important to sufficiently characterize propulsion system waterhammer in order to develop a robust design with minimal impact to other systems. A risk reduction activity was performed at Marshall Space Flight Center to develop a tool for estimating waterhammer through the use of anchored simulation for the Robotic Lunar Lander (RLL) propulsion system design. Testing was performed to simulate waterhammer surges due to rapid valve closure and consisted of twenty-two series of waterhammer tests, resulting in more than 300 valve actuations. These tests were performed using different valve actuation schemes and three system pressures. Data from the valve characterization tests were used to anchor the models that employed MSCSoftware.EASY5 v.2010 to model transient fluid phenomena by using transient forms of mass and energy conservation. The anchoring process was performed by comparing initial model results to experimental data and then iterating the model input to match the simulation results with the experimental data. The models provide good correlation with experimental results, supporting the use of EASY5 as a tool to model fluid transients and provide a baseline for future RLL system modeling. This paper addresses tasks performed during the waterhammer risk reduction activity for the RLL propulsion system. The problem of waterhammer simulation anchoring as applied to the RLL system is discussed with results from the corresponding experimental valve tests. Important factors for waterhammer mitigation are discussed along with potential design impacts to the RLL propulsion system.

  5. Conceptual design of a 24--32 MW radially-cooled insert for a {ge}45 T hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weggel, R.J.; Hake, M.E.; Stejskal, V. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Francis Bitter National Magnet Lab.

    1994-07-01

    The FBNML is designing and will fabricate a radially-cooled insert magnet to generate 70% of the field of a system, Hybrid V, to surpass 45 T in a 32 mm bore. The insert is to have an overall diameter and a maximum active coil length of 610 mm. With a background field of 14 T the system should generate 47 T at 24 MW and nearly 49 T at 32 MW. The peak stress is extremely high, calling for conductors such as Be-Cu (UNS C17510) and 24% Ag-Cu with strengths up to 1,100 MPa. The peak heat flux density also is high, nearly 12 W/mm{sup 2}. Because the water is coldest and its velocity highest where the heat flux is highest, however, the peak temperature is only 80 C. The water flow is {approx} 200 l/s at 27 atm. The system is to be very user friendly. Access is completely unobstructed at the top. Insert removal leaves the plumbing and electrical connections intact. The massive and expensive outer coils should be long lived, the inner coil easily replaceable. During an inner coil burnout, a sleeve intercepts arcing from the inner coil to the middle one, reducing burnout severity and fault loads. The insert should be a worthy successor to those of the FBNML`s world-record holding systems, Hybrids II and III.

  6. Flow injection conductometric system with gas diffusion separation for the determination of Kjeldahl nitrogen in milk and chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junsomboon, Jaroon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2008-10-10

    A simple flow injection (FI) conductometric system with gas diffusion separation was developed for the determination of Kjeldahl nitrogen (or proteins) in milk and chicken meat. The sample was digested according to the Kjeldahl standard method and the digest was diluted and directly injected into the donor stream consisting of 4M NaOH. In alkaline medium, ammonium was converted to ammonia, which diffused through the PTFE membrane to dissolve in an acceptor stream (water). Dissociation of ammonia caused a change in conductance of the acceptor solution, which was linearly proportional to the concentration of ammonium originally present in the injected solution. A conductometric flow through cell and an amplifier circuit was fabricated, which helped improve sensitivity of the conductometric detection system. With using a plumbing Teflon tape as a gas diffusion membrane and without thermostating control of the system, a linear calibration graph in range of 10-100mgL(-1) N-NH(4) was obtained, with detection limit of 1mgL(-1) and good precision (relative standard deviation of 0.3% for 11 replicate injections of 50mgL(-1) N-NH(4)). The developed method was validated by the standard Kjeldahl distillation/titration method for the analysis of milk and chicken meat samples. The proposed system had sample throughput of 35h(-1) and consumed much smaller amounts of chemical than the standard method (275mg vs 17.5g of NaOH per analysis, respectively).

  7. Discrete magic angle turning system, apparatus, and process for in situ magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian Zhi [Richland, WA; Sears, Jr., Jesse A.; Hoyt, David W [Richland, WA; Wind, Robert A [Kennewick, WA

    2009-05-19

    Described are a "Discrete Magic Angle Turning" (DMAT) system, devices, and processes that combine advantages of both magic angle turning (MAT) and magic angle hopping (MAH) suitable, e.g., for in situ magnetic resonance spectroscopy and/or imaging. In an exemplary system, device, and process, samples are rotated in a clockwise direction followed by an anticlockwise direction of exactly the same amount. Rotation proceeds through an angle that is typically greater than about 240 degrees but less than or equal to about 360 degrees at constant speed for a time applicable to the evolution dimension. Back and forth rotation can be synchronized and repeated with a special radio frequency (RF) pulse sequence to produce an isotropic-anisotropic shift 2D correlation spectrum. The design permits tubes to be inserted into the sample container without introducing plumbing interferences, further allowing control over such conditions as temperature, pressure, flow conditions, and feed compositions, thus permitting true in-situ investigations to be carried out.

  8. Elemental composition at different points of the rainwater harvesting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, A C; Dunstan, R H; Coombes, P J

    2010-09-15

    Entry of contaminants, such as metals and non-metals, into rainwater harvesting systems can occur directly from rainfall with contributions from collection surfaces, accumulated debris and leachate from storage systems, pipes and taps. Ten rainwater harvesting systems on the east coast of Australia were selected for sampling of roof runoff, storage systems and tap outlets to investigate the variations in rainwater composition as it moved throughout the system, and to identify potential points of contribution to elemental loads. A total of 26 elements were screened at each site. Iron was the only element which was present in significantly higher concentrations in roof runoff samples compared with tank tap samples (Prainwater. Increased loads of copper were observed in hot tap samples supplied by the rainwater harvesting system via copper piping and a storage hot water system (Pcollected from a polyvinyl chloride pipe sampling point that does not supply household uses, compared with corresponding roof runoff samples (Pcollected rainwater between different study sites and between different sampling points. Atmospheric deposition was not a major contributor to the rainwater contaminant load at the sites tested. Piping materials, however, were shown to contribute significantly to the total elemental load at some locations.

  9. Tangible Asset Management In Real Sector Companies: A Parallel Between Industry Of Crude Oil Refining And Industry Of Refining Of Non Metallic Mineral In Colombia Gerenciamiento de activos tangibles en empresas del sector real: un paralelo entre industria de refinación de crudos e industria de refinación de minerales no metálicos en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Forero Romero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises around of the world are striving to understand and ensure that risks in utilities they govern are effectively managed while they must satisfy all expectations of their stakeholders. For this purpose there are now organisms and standardized management systems to manage financial risks, environmental hazards, industrial safety and occupational health risk. However, operational and reliability risks in the business lack an equivalent oversight body or an organizing framework through which enterprises can asses such risks , or define standards to which can be held accountable.The emergent understanding of asset management across all industry sectors has triggered a subsequent need for a standardized approach. This article identifies the key elements of asset management process and explains the benefits of the application of its elements with reference to two specific cases: the Barrancabermeja Refinery of Ecopetrol S.A. and  Sumicol S.A.Las empresas de todo el mundo se esfuerzan por comprender y asegurar que los riesgosen sus activos tangibles estén regidos bajo una administración eficaz y, a su vez, debenencargarse de cumplir con todas las expectativas de sus grupos de interés. Con estepropósito hoy en día existen organismos y sistemas de gestión estandarizados paraadministrar los riesgos financieros, ambientales, de seguridad de industrial y saludocupacional. Sin embargo, los riesgos operativos y de confiabilidad en el negocio hasta elmomento carecen de un órgano de supervisión equivalente, o un marco de organización através del cual las empresas pueden evaluar estos riesgos o definir las normas a las quepueden ser considerados responsables.El entendimiento emergente de la gestión efectiva de activos en todos los sectoresde la industria ha provocado una necesidad de un enfoque estandarizado. Este artículoidentifica los elementos clave del proceso de gestión de activos y explica los beneficiosde la aplicación de

  10. Ambient Noise Surface Wave Tomography of the volcanic systems of eastern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. G.; Priestley, K. F.; White, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Vatnajökull region of central-east Iceland lies above the head of the Iceland mantle plume where the crust is thickest due to enhanced melt supply. As a result the region contains a high density of volcanic rift systems, with six large subglacial central volcanoes. Due to the ice cover, the geological structure of the area and the location of past eruptions are poorly known. Imaging of the crustal velocity heterogeneities beneath the ice sheet aims to reveal much in terms of the structure of these volcanic plumbing systems. Mapping of significant velocity changes through time may also be indicative of movement of melt around the central volcanoes; one of which (Bárðarbunga) experienced a major rifting event in August 2014 (Sigmundsson et al. Nature 2015, Green et al. Nature Geosci. 2015). We present results from tomographic imaging of the volcanic systems in the region, using continuous data from a local broadband seismic network in central-east Iceland which provides excellent ray path coverage of the volcanic systems. This is supplemented by data from the HOTSPOT and ICEMELT experiments and the permanent monitoring stations of the Icelandic Meteorological Office. We process the continuous data following Benson et al. 2007 and automatic frequency-time analysis (FTAN) routines are used to extract more than 9000 dispersion measurements. We then generate Rayleigh wave group velocity maps which we present here. We find low velocity regions beneath the Vatnajökull icecap which are bounded by the surface expression of the volcanic rift systems. The lower velocities also extend north-west to the volcanic system under the Hofsjökull ice cap, and northwards towards Askja and the volcanic systems of the northern volcanic zone. We also produce locations and focal mechanisms of earthquakes caused by magmatic and hydrothermal activity to correlate structure with the activity of the volcanic systems.

  11. Pattern of geochemical variations within the volcanic system of Mt Etna, Italy, from 1995 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Falsaperla, Susanna; Langer, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic and evolution of magma in the plumbing system are key aspects in the evaluation of volcanic hazard. Eruptive phenomena involve indeed processes of magma upraise and storage, which may change in time and space, and mirror in the composition of volcanic products. In this study, we analyze the pattern of geochemical variations at Etna, Italy, from 1995 to 2013. In this time span, volcanic activity affected all the four craters close to the summit of the volcano (located at about 3300 m above the sea level), and fed eruptive fissures along its upper flanks. In addition, a new crater formed and rapidly built up, giving rise to spectacular lava fountains from 2011 on. Based on a dataset containing the geochemical composition of volcanic products collected over 18 years, we explored the application of data mining methods in the framework of the European MEDiterrranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED­-SUV) project. In the present application, we discuss the relationships among the composition of volcanic products sampled from all the afore-mentioned eruptive centers. Our results highlight differences in magma evolution, dynamic and eruptive style even within a single eruptive center.

  12. Cadmium analysis using field deployable nano-band electrode system and its removal using electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttula, Mallikarjuna Murthy

    Cadmium (Cd) is an extremely toxic metal commonly found in industrial workplaces. Major industrial releases of Cd stem from waste streams, leaching of landfills, and from a variety of operations that involve cadmium or zinc. Particularly, cadmium can be released to drinking water from the corrosion of some galvanized plumbing and water main pipe materials. The United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for cadmium at 5 ppb. Long term exposure of cadmium above the MCL results in kidney, liver, bone and blood damage. An accurate and rapid measurement of cadmium in the field remains a technical challenge. In this work, a relatively new method of a Nano-Band Electrode system using anodic stripping voltammetry was optimized by changing deposition potential, electrolyte, and plating time. We efficiently used Electrocoagulation remove cadmium from wastewater and obtained a removal efficiency of +/-99%. Removal mechanism of cadmium in electrocoagulation was also proposed with the help of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Attenuated Total Reflection - Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS).

  13. A new analytical approach to understanding nanoscale lead-iron interactions in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, Benjamin F; Gagnon, Graham A

    2016-07-05

    High levels of iron in distributed drinking water often accompany elevated lead release from lead service lines and other plumbing. Lead-iron interactions in drinking water distribution systems are hypothesized to be the result of adsorption and transport of lead by iron oxide particles. This mechanism was explored using point-of-use drinking water samples characterized by size exclusion chromatography with UV and multi-element (ICP-MS) detection. In separations on two different stationary phases, high apparent molecular weight (>669 kDa) elution profiles for (56)Fe and (208)Pb were strongly correlated (average R(2)=0.96, N=73 samples representing 23 single-unit residences). Moreover, (56)Fe and (208)Pb peak areas exhibited an apparent linear dependence (R(2)=0.82), consistent with mobilization of lead via adsorption to colloidal particles rich in iron. A UV254 absorbance peak, coincident with high molecular weight (56)Fe and (208)Pb, implied that natural organic matter was interacting with the hypothesized colloidal species. High molecular weight UV254 peak areas were correlated with both (56)Fe and (208)Pb peak areas (R(2)=0.87 and 0.58, respectively). On average, 45% (std. dev. 10%) of total lead occurred in the size range 0.05-0.45 μm.

  14. Sustainability of Rainwater Harvesting Systems in Multistorey Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rahman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The urban water supply systems in Australian large cities, which generally depend on large surface water reservoirs, are highly stressed due to rapid urban growth and severe drought conditions during the current decade. To ensure the long term sustainability of urban water supply, various alternative water sources including rainwater tanks, grey water, wastewater and desalination plants are being examined in Australia. In the previous research, it has been shown that rainwater tank of appropriate size, installed in detached small dwellings, can meet a significant proportion of household water demand, but there has been limited study on water savings and financial viability of Rain Water Harvesting System (RWHS for multistorey residential buildings. This study examines the sustainability of RWHS in multistorey residential buildings in Sydney under different scenarios such as varying roof area, number of floors in the building, water price and interest rate to identify favorable condition where RWHS proves to be sustainable. Approach: A hypothetical multistorey building was considered and various scenarios in relation to site area and floor arrangement were established. A water balance model was developed to calculate water savings for various scenarios. Finally, life cycle costing was undertaken to identify most sustainable RWHS scenario for the hypothetical multistorey building. Results: It was found that a higher roof area is more favorable in terms of water savings and financial benefits. Capital and maintenance costs account for the majority of the expenditure of a RWHS. Plumbing cost forms the largest single component of the capital cost. It is shown that lower interest and increased water price regimes enhance the financial viability of RWHS. Conclusion: It was found that it is possible to achieve “pay back” for a RWHS under some favorable scenarios and conditions thus making the RWHS for multistorey buildings in Sydney

  15. Dual Fan Separator within the Universal Waste Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Tom; Converse, Dave; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Since NASA's new spacecraft in development for both LEO and Deep Space capability have considerable crew volume reduction in comparison to the Space Shuttle, the need became apparent for a smaller commode. In response the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS) was designed, resulting in an 80% volume reduction from the last US commode, while enhancing performance. The ISS WMS and previous shuttle commodes have a fan supplying air flow to capture feces and a separator to capture urine and separate air from the captured air/urine mixture. The UWMS combined both rotating equipment components into a single unit, referred to at the Dual Fan Separator (DFS). The combination of these components resulted in considerable packaging efficiency and weight reduction, removing inter-component plumbing, individual mounting configurations and required only a single motor and motor controller, in some of the intended UWMS platform applications the urine is pumped to the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) system. It requires the DFS to include less than 2.00% air inclusion, by volume, in the delivered urine. The rotational speed needs to be kept as low as possible in centrifugal urine separators to reduce air inclusion in the pumped fluid, while fans depend on rotational speed to develop delivered head. To satisfy these conflicting requirements, a gear reducer was included, allowing the fans to rotate at a much higher speed than the separator. This paper outlines the studies and analysis performed to develop the DFS configuration. The studies included a configuration trade study, dynamic stability analysis of the rotating bodies and a performance analysis of included labyrinth seals. NASA is considering a program to fly the UWMS aboard the ISS as a flight experiment. The goal of this activity is to advance the Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of the DFS and determine if the concept is ready to be included as part of the flight experiment deliverable.

  16. Layered composite thermal insulation system for nonvacuum cryogenic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, J. E.

    2016-03-01

    A problem common to both space launch applications and cryogenic propulsion test facilities is providing suitable thermal insulation for complex cryogenic piping, tanks, and components that cannot be vacuum-jacketed or otherwise be broad-area-covered. To meet such requirements and provide a practical solution to the problem, a layered composite insulation system has been developed for nonvacuum applications and extreme environmental exposure conditions. Layered composite insulation system for extreme conditions (or LCX) is particularly suited for complex piping or tank systems that are difficult or practically impossible to insulate by conventional means. Consisting of several functional layers, the aerogel blanket-based system can be tailored to specific thermal and mechanical performance requirements. The operational principle of the system is layer-pairs working in combination. Each layer pair is comprised of a primary insulation layer and a compressible radiant barrier layer. Vacuum-jacketed piping systems, whether part of the ground equipment or the flight vehicle, typically include numerous terminations, disconnects, umbilical connections, or branches that must be insulated by nonvacuum means. Broad-area insulation systems, such as spray foam or rigid foam panels, are often the lightweight materials of choice for vehicle tanks, but the plumbing elements, feedthroughs, appurtenances, and structural supports all create "hot spot" areas that are not readily insulated by similar means. Finally, the design layouts of valve control skids used for launch pads and test stands can be nearly impossible to insulate because of their complexity and high density of components and instrumentation. Primary requirements for such nonvacuum thermal insulation systems include the combination of harsh conditions, including full weather exposure, vibration, and structural loads. Further requirements include reliability and the right level of system breathability for thermal

  17. Effect of monochloramine treatment on colonization of a hospital water distribution system by Legionella spp.: a 1 year experience study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Benedetta; Scurti, Maria; Dormi, Ada; Grottola, Antonella; Zanotti, Andrea; Cristino, Sandra

    2015-04-01

    Contamination of hot water distribution systems by Legionella represents a great challenge due to difficulties associated with inactivating microorganisms, preserving the water characteristics. The aim of this study was to examine over the course of 1 year in 11 fixed sites, the impact of monochloramine disinfection on Legionella, heterotrophic bacteria (36 °C), Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination, and chemical parameters of a plumbing system in an Italian hospital. Three days after installation (T0), in the presence of monochloramine concentration between 1.5 and 2 mg/L, 10/11 sites (91%) were contaminated by L. pneumophila serogroups 3 and 10. After these results, the disinfectant dosage was increased to between 6 and 10 mg/L, reducing the level of Legionella by three logarithmic unit by 2 months postinstallation (T2) until 6 months later (T3). One year later (T4), there was a significant reduction (p = 0.0002) at 8/11 (73%) sites. Our data showed also a significant reduction of heterotrophic bacteria (36 °C) in 6/11 (55%) sites at T4 (p = 0.0004), by contrast the contamination of P. aeruginosa found at T0 in two sites persisted up until T4. The results of the present study show that monochloramine is a promising disinfectant that can prevent Legionella contamination of hospital water supplies.

  18. Automatic In Situ Calibration of a Spinning Beam LiDAR System in Static and Kinematic Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting On Chan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Velodyne LiDAR series is one of the most popular spinning beam LiDAR systems currently available on the market. In this paper, the temporal stability of the range measurements of the Velodyne HDL-32E LiDAR system is first investigated as motivation for the development of a new automatic calibration method that allows quick and frequent recovery of the inherent time-varying errors. The basic principle of the method is that the LiDAR’s internal systematic error parameters are estimated by constraining point clouds of some known and automatically detected cylindrical features such as lamp poles to fit to the 3D cylinder models. This is analogous to the plumb-line calibration method in which the lens distortion parameters are estimated by constraining the image points of straight lines to fit to the 2D line model. The calibration can be performed at every measurement epoch in both static and kinematic modes. Four real datasets were used to verify the method, two of which were captured in static mode and the other two in kinematic mode. The overall results indicate that up to approximately 72% and 41% accuracy improvement were realized as a result of the calibration for the static and kinematic datasets, respectively.

  19. Non-Metallic Transducer Mounting Brackets (AN/BQQ-5/6 Spherical Array Transducers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-15

    susceptible to moisture permeation into the bulk polymer phase, while moisture penetration into the glass-resin interface may be the predominant mechanism...material. These surface cracks appear to be present only in the hard liquid crystal polymer skin that forms during the molding of the Vectra material...Portsmouth Connector," NRL-USRD Letter Report No. 9464 to NAVSEA, 25 Apr 1988. 7. J.S. Thornton, R.E. Montgomery, and J.F. Cartier , "Failure Rate Model for

  20. Converting non-metallic printed circuit boards waste into a value added product

    OpenAIRE

    Shantha Kumari Muniyandi; Johan Sohaili; Azman Hassan; Siti Suhaila Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using nonmetallic printed circuit board (PCB) waste as filler in recycled HDPE (rHDPE) in production of rHDPE/PCB composites. Maleic anhydride modified linear low-density polyethylene (MAPE) was used as compatibilizer. In particular, the effects of nonmetallic PCB and MAPE on mechanical properties of the composites were assessed through tensile, flexural and impact testing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the dis...

  1. NATURE AND CHARACTER OF NON-METALLIC IMPURITIES IN HIGH-MANGANESE STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Garost

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of поп-metallic impurities of high-manganese wear-resistant steel is investigated by means of scanning electronic microscopy. The optimal compounds of complex additives (titan, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum, nitrogen, providing the highest operational characteristics of details, are determined.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM THE SIMULATED OPEN-BURNING OF NON-METALLIC AUTOMOBILE SHREDDER RESIDUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study in which the open combustion of a nonmetallic waste product called "fluff" was simulated and the resulting emissions collected and characterized to gain insight into the types and quantities of these air pollutants. (NOTE: The reclamation proce...

  3. Bonding, aromaticity and reactivity patterns in some all-metal and non-metal clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Duley; S Giri; A Chakraborty; P K Chattaraj

    2009-09-01

    Several sandwich-like metal clusters have been studied at the B3LYP/6-311 + G∗ level of theory. Bonding and reactivity have been analysed through various geometrical parameters and conceptual density functional theory based global reactivity descriptors. Aromaticity patterns have been understood in terms of the associated nucleus independent chemical shift values. Possibility of bond-stretch isomerism in some doped clusters is explored. Preferable sites for electrophilic and nucleophilic attacks have been identified using different local reactivity descriptors.

  4. Considerations for Storage of High Test Hydrogen Peroxide (HTP) Utilizing Non-Metal Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robin E.; Scott, Joseph P.; Wise, Harry

    2005-01-01

    When working with high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, it is critical that the storage container be constructed of the proper materials, those which will not degrade to the extent that container breakdown or dangerous decomposition occurs. It has been suggested that the only materials that will safely contain the peroxide for a significant period of time are metals of stainless steel construction or aluminum use as High Test Hydrogen Peroxide (HTP) Containers. The stability and decomposition of HTP will be also discussed as well as various means suggested in the literature to minimize these problems. The dangers of excess oxygen generation are also touched upon.

  5. Capacitance probe for detection of anomalies in non-metallic plastic pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Mahendra P.; Spenik, James L.; Condon, Christopher M.; Anderson, Rodney; Driscoll, Daniel J.; Fincham, Jr., William L.; Monazam, Esmail R.

    2010-11-23

    The disclosure relates to analysis of materials using a capacitive sensor to detect anomalies through comparison of measured capacitances. The capacitive sensor is used in conjunction with a capacitance measurement device, a location device, and a processor in order to generate a capacitance versus location output which may be inspected for the detection and localization of anomalies within the material under test. The components may be carried as payload on an inspection vehicle which may traverse through a pipe interior, allowing evaluation of nonmetallic or plastic pipes when the piping exterior is not accessible. In an embodiment, supporting components are solid-state devices powered by a low voltage on-board power supply, providing for use in environments where voltage levels may be restricted.

  6. Economic and ecologic importance of the non - metalic deposits in basalt maars of Southern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vass Dionýz

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available By investigation of the basalt maars infill in Luèenská kotlina Depression the diatomite and alginite deposits have been found. Both maars belong to Podreèany basalt formation, Pontian (Late Miocene in age. By technological investigation it was proved the diatomite can be used in the building trade as raw materil for light tiles convenient especially for the construction of the saddle roof with attic appatments. The alginite can be used in the agriculture and horticulture, as a fertiliser becouse of humus, nutritive end same trace elements, a desodorant in livestoc feedlots, a water and nutritive elements trap to distribute them for the growing plants. The alginite can be used as well as in pharmacy and in different industrial branches. Both deposits are of high significance for the ecology and the nature protection.

  7. Nuclear Polarization of Molecular Hydrogen Recombined on a Non-metallic Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Airapetian, A; Akopov, Z; Amarian, M; Ammosov, V V; Andrus, A; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetisian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Baturin, V; Baumgarten, C; Beckmann, M; Belostotskii, S; Bernreuther, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, Helmut B; Borisov, A; Bouwhuis, M; Brack, J; Brüll, A; Bryzgalov, V V; Capitani, G P; Chiang, H C; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Devitsin, E G; Di Nezza, P; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elalaoui-Moulay, A; Elbakian, G M; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Ely, J; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Feshchenko, A; Felawka, L; Fox, B; Franz, J; Frullani, S; Gärber, Y; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Garrow, K; Garutti, E; Gaskell, D; Gavrilov, G E; Karibian, V; Graw, G; Grebenyuk, O; Greeniaus, L G; Hafidi, K; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Heesbeen, D; Henoch, M; Hertenberger, R; Hesselink, W H A; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hommez, B; Iarygin, G; Ivanilov, A; Izotov, A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Kaiser, R; Kinney, E; Kiselev, A; Königsmann, K C; Kopytin, M; Korotkov, V A; Kozlov, V; Krauss, B; Krivokhizhin, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikas, L; Laziev, A; Lenisa, P; Liebing, P; Lindemann, T; Lipka, K; Lorenzon, W; Lü, J; Maiheu, B; Makins, N C R; Marianski, B; Marukyan, H O; Masoli, F; Mexner, V; Meyners, N; Miklukho, O; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Muccifora, V; Nagaitsev, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Yu; Nass, A; Negodaev, M A; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Oganessyan, K; Ohsuga, H; Orlandi, G; Pickert, N; Potashov, S Yu; Potterveld, D H; Raithel, M; Reggiani, D; Reimer, P E; Reischl, A; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubacek, L; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Yu I; Sanjiev, I; Savin, I; Scarlett, C; Schäfer, A; Schill, C; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Schwind, A; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seitz, B; Shanidze, R G; Shearer, C; Shibata, T A; Shutov, V B; Simani, M C; Sinram, K; Stancari, M D; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stewart, J; Stösslein, U; Tait, P; Tanaka, H; Taroian, S P; Tchuiko, B; Terkulov, A R; Tkabladze, A V; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; Van der Nat, P B; van der Steenhoven, G; Vetterli, Martin C; Vikhrov, V; Vincter, M G; Visser, J; Vogel, C; Vogt, M; Volmer, J; Weiskopf, C; Wendland, J; Wilbert, J; Ybeles-Smit, G V; Yen, S; Zihlmann, B; Zohrabyan, H G; Zupranski, P

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear polarization of $\\mathrm{H}_2$ molecules formed by recombination of nuclear polarized H atoms on the surface of a storage cell initially coated with a silicon-based polymer has been measured by using the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering. The molecules are found to have a substantial nuclear polarization, which is evidence that initially polarized atoms retain their nuclear polarization when absorbed on this type of surface

  8. Interaction of Non-Metallic Inclusion Particles with Advancing Solidification Front

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalisz D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Praca zajmuje się zjawiskiem oddziały wania przemieszczającego frontu krystalizacji na cząstki wydzieleń niemetalicznych. Analizowano zachowanie pojedynczej cząstki wydzielenia w pobliżu poziomego i pionowego frontu. Scharakteryzowano siły działające na cząstkę w pobliżu frontu i sformułowano warunek równowagi, z którego wynika szybkość krytyczna frontu. Wyniki obliczeń zilustrowano w postaci wykresów.

  9. Agglomeration of Non-metallic Inclusions at the Steel/Ar Interface: Model Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wangzhong; Dogan, Neslihan; Coley, Kenneth S.

    2017-08-01

    Inclusion agglomeration is an important element in several industrial problems during steelmaking, such as nozzle clogging. In parallel work by the authors, a revised Kralchevsky-Paunov model has been established and the performance of this model has been validated against the experimental data from in-situ observations using confocal laser scanning microscopy. In this work, the revised model has been applied to quantitatively evaluate the attractive capillary force for the agglomeration of various inclusions at the interface between Ar and liquid iron/steel. A parametric study of the effects on the capillary force of the inclusion density, contact angle between the inclusion and liquid steel, and the surface tension of the liquid metal are quantitatively investigated. The results show that inclusion density and contact angle have a more marked effect on the capillary force than surface tension of liquid metal. Moreover, the inclusion agglomeration behavior in the liquid iron/steel matrix is discussed. The coagulation coefficient of various inclusions is calculated. Both the calculation results of the attractive capillary force of inclusions at the interface between Ar and liquid iron/steel and coagulation coefficient of inclusions in the liquid iron/steel matrix can offer a close agreement; moreover, the order of magnitude of inclusion agglomeration tendency is suggested. By using the coagulation coefficient, the inclusion collision volume and collision rate are calculated and the effects of inclusion composition, size, and number density are investigated. The evaluation results show that the tendency for affecting inclusion collision is inclusion number density > inclusion size > inclusion composition.

  10. Crack barriers improve the mechanical and thermal properties of non-metallic sinter materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenthaler, K. H.; Heinrich, W.; Janes, S.; Nixdorf, J.

    1979-01-01

    Means of improving the tensile strength of ceramic composites by introducing ductile intermediate layers capable of absorbing the elastic energy at the rupture front are studied. Tests with an Al203 laminate with niobium inclusions showed that crack propagation could be successfully precluded by dissipation of the energy by deformation and/or delamination at the inclusion/matrix interface.

  11. General problems of technical diagnosis of non-metal building structures in explotable buildings and erections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Shtengel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available For successful realization of survey it is necessary to solve varioius technical and organizational problems. Each of them influence on completeness and reliability of information and thus, objectivity of conclusions about real state of structures and building as a whole, and also forecasting of its further exploitation. In the article the classification and brief analysis of these problems is given.

  12. Quantum-chemical approach to defect formation processes in non-metallic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotomin, E.A.; Shluger, A.L. (Latvijskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Riga (USSR))

    1989-01-01

    Results of the quantum-chemical simulation of the formation of structural and radiation defects are reviewed, using ice, silicon, and silicon dioxide as examples. The relationship between the structural elements of these crystals and the structural defects is analysed. Models of the main defects, their optical characteristics, and the activation energy of their migration are discussed. The relationship between the characteristics obtained by quantum-chemical calculations and the parameters of the macroscopic kinetics of the processes induced by defects in dielectric crystals is considered. (author).

  13. Inductive sensor to detect metal impurities in non-metallic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykovsky, N. A.; Puchkova, L. N.; Fanakova, N. N.

    2017-02-01

    The mathematical model for an induction detector intended for detection of metal impurities is examined. The detector consists of three coils. The centre coil serves to induct a magnetic moment in the metal sample, and side coils are used to record this moment during the sample propulsion through the detector. It is shown that at an identical value of the magnetic field induction, created by the induction coil in the unit volume of the sample, the induced magnetic moment is defined by magnetic susceptibility for ferromagnetics, and for nonmagnetic materials – by their electric conductivity.

  14. Impact of defectiveness on the parameters of the acoustoelectric transformations in heterogeneous non-metallic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursa, T. V.; Lyukshin, B. A.; Utsyn, G. E.; Dann, D. D.

    2015-04-01

    The article studies acoustoelectric transformations of concrete with a crack. The research presents three-dimensional modeling and 3D visualization of wave processes in a concrete sample with a surface crack. The parameters of the electrical response are found to reflect the processes of interaction between the acoustic wave front and the defect and boundaries of the sample.

  15. Material challenges for the next generation of fission reactor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckthorpe, Derek [AMEC, Knutsford, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The new generation of fission reactor systems wil require the deployment and construction of a series of advanced water cooled reactors as part of a package of measures to meet UK and European energy needs and to provide a near term non-fossil fuel power solution that addresses CO{sub 2} emission limits. In addition new longer term Generation IV reactor tye systems are being developed and evaluated to enhance safety, reliability, sustainability economics and proliferation resistance requirements and to meet alternative energy applications (outside of electricity generation) such as process heat and large scale hydrogen generation. New fission systems will impose significant challenges on materials supply and development. In the near term, because of the need to 'gear up' to large scale construction after decades of industrial hibernation/contraction and, in the longer term, because of the need for materials to operate under more challenging environments requiring the deployment and development of new alternative materials not yet established to an industrial stage. This paper investigates the materials challenges imposed by the new Generation III+ and Generation IV systems. These include supply and fabrication issues, development of new high temperature alloys and non-metallic materials, the use of new methods of manufacture and the best use of currently available resources and minerals. Recommendations are made as to how these materials challenges might be met and how governments, industry, manufacturers and researchers can all play their part. (orig.)

  16. Thermal Energy Storage using PCM for Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khot, S. A.; Sane, N. K.; Gawali, B. S.

    2012-06-01

    Thermal energy storage using phase chase materials (PCM) has received considerable attention in the past two decades for time dependent energy source such as solar energy. From several experimental and theoretical analyses that have been made to assess the performance of thermal energy storage systems, it has been demonstrated that PCM-based systems are reliable and viable options. This paper covers such information on PCMs and PCM-based systems developed for the application of solar domestic hot water system. In addition, economic analysis of thermal storage system using PCM in comparison with conventional storage system helps to validate its commercial possibility. From the economic analysis, it is found that, PCM based solar domestic hot water system (SWHS) provides 23 % more cumulative and life cycle savings than conventional SWHS and will continue to perform efficiently even after 15 years due to application of non-metallic tank. Payback period of PCM-based system is also less compared to conventional system. In conclusion, PCM based solar water heating systems can meet the requirements of Indian climatic situation in a cost effective and reliable manner.

  17. INTERIOR DUCT SYSTEM DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janet E.R. Mcllvaine; David Beal; Philip Fairey

    2001-10-10

    By removing air distribution and conditioning equipment from unconditioned spaces, homeowners stand to benefit substantially with respect to both energy savings and indoor air quality. Duct leakage introduces: Greater heating and cooling loads from air at extreme temperatures and humidity levels; Outside air and air from unconditioned spaces that may contain air borne contaminants, combustion gases, pollen, mold spores, and/or particles of building materials; and Higher whole-house infiltration/exfiltration rates. Exemplary studies conducted since 1990 have demonstrated the prevalence of duct leakage throughout the United States and measured energy savings of approximately 20% during both heating and cooling seasons from leakage reduction. These all dealt with duct leakage to and/or from unconditioned spaces. In the building science community, leakage within the conditioned space is generally presumed to eliminate the negative consequences of duct leakage with the exception of possibly creating pressure imbalances in the house which relates to higher infiltration and/or exfiltration. The practical challenges of isolating ducts and air handlers from unconditioned spaces require builders to construct an air-tight environment for the ducts. Florida Solar Energy Center researchers worked with four builders in Texas, North Carolina, and Florida who build a furred-down chase located either in a central hallway or at the edges of rooms as an architectural detail. Some comparison homes with duct systems in attics and crawl spaces were included in the test group of more than 20 homes. Test data reveals that all of the duct/AHU systems built inside the conditioned space had lower duct leakage to unconditioned spaces than their conventional counterparts; however, none of the homes was completely free of duct leakage to unconditioned spaces. Common problems included wiring and plumbing penetrations of the chase, failure to treat the chase as an air tight space, and misguided

  18. Proof-of-Concept Testing of the Passive Cooling System (T-CLIP™) for Solar Thermal Applications at an Elevated Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jun [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Quintana, Donald L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Vigil, Gabrielle M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Perraglio, Martin Juan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Farley, Cory Wayne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Tafoya, Jose I. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Martinez, Adam L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology

    2015-11-30

    The Applied Engineering and Technology-1 group (AET-1) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted the proof-of-concept tests of SolarSPOT LLC’s solar thermal Temperature- Clipper, or T-CLIP™ under controlled thermal conditions using a thermal conditioning unit (TCU) and a custom made environmental chamber. The passive T-CLIP™ is a plumbing apparatus that attaches to a solar thermal collector to limit working fluid temperature and to prevent overheating, since overheating may lead to various accident scenarios. The goal of the current research was to evaluate the ability of the T-CLIP™ to control the working fluid temperature by using its passive cooling mechanism (i.e. thermosiphon, or natural circulation) in a small-scale solar thermal system. The assembled environmental chamber that is thermally controlled with the TCU allows one to simulate the various possible weather conditions, which the solar system will encounter. The performance of the T-CLIP™ was tested at two different target temperatures: 1) room temperature (70 °F) and 2) an elevated temperature (130 °F). The current test campaign demonstrated that the T-CLIP™ was able to prevent overheating by thermosiphon induced cooling in a small-scale solar thermal system. This is an important safety feature in situations where the pump is turned off due to malfunction or power outages.

  19. Molecular analysis of long-term biofilm formation on PVC and cast iron surfaces in drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruyin; Zhu, Junge; Yu, Zhisheng; Joshi, DevRaj; Zhang, Hongxun; Lin, Wenfang; Yang, Min

    2014-04-01

    To understand the impacts of different plumbing materials on long-term biofilm formation in water supply system, we analyzed microbial community compositions in the bulk water and biofilms on faucets with two different materials-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and cast iron, which have been frequently used for more than10 years. Pyrosequencing was employed to describe both bacterial and eukaryotic microbial compositions. Bacterial communities in the bulk water and biofilm samples were significantly different from each other. Specific bacterial populations colonized on the surface of different materials. Hyphomicrobia and corrosion associated bacteria, such as Acidithiobacillus spp., Aquabacterium spp., Limnobacter thiooxidans, and Thiocapsa spp., were the most dominant bacteria identified in the PVC and cast iron biofilms, respectively, suggesting that bacterial colonization on the material surfaces was selective. Mycobacteria and Legionella spp. were common potential pathogenic bacteria occurred in the biofilm samples, but their abundance was different in the two biofilm bacterial communities. In contrast, the biofilm samples showed more similar eukaryotic communities than the bulk water. Notably, potential pathogenic fungi, i.e., Aspergillus spp. and Candida parapsilosis, occurred in similar abundance in both biofilms. These results indicated that microbial community, especially bacterial composition was remarkably affected by the different pipe materials (PVC and cast iron).

  20. An experimental study on the influence of water stagnation and temperature change on water quality in a full-scale domestic drinking water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatanović, Lj; van der Hoek, J P; Vreeburg, J H G

    2017-10-15

    The drinking water quality changes during the transport through distribution systems. Domestic drinking water systems (DDWSs), which include the plumbing between the water meter and consumer's taps, are the most critical points in which water quality may be affected. In distribution networks, the drinking water temperature and water residence time are regarded as indicators of the drinking water quality. This paper describes an experimental research on the influence of stagnation time and temperature change on drinking water quality in a full-scale DDWS. Two sets of stagnation experiments, during winter and summer months, with various stagnation intervals (up to 168 h of stagnation) were carried out. Water and biofilms were sampled at two different taps, a kitchen and a shower tap. Results from this study indicate that temperature and water stagnation affect both chemical and microbial quality in DDWSs, whereas microbial parameters in stagnant water appear to be driven by the temperature of fresh water. Biofilm formed in the shower pipe contained more total and intact cells than the kitchen pipe biofilm. Alphaproteobacteria were found to dominate in the shower biofilm (78% of all Proteobacteria), while in the kitchen tap biofilm Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were evenly distributed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Frictional characteristics of granular system under high pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹秒艳; 彭雅新; 赵长财; 董国疆; 杜冰

    2016-01-01

    In order to reveal the force transmission features of the granules in the solid granule medium forming (SGMF) technology, the frictional characteristics of the non-metallic granule medium (NGM) under high pressure were investigated by tests and simulations. And the relevant changing curves of the internal friction coefficient of the granular system under different normal pressures were obtained by self-designed shear test. By the granule volume compression test, the accurate discrete element simulation parameters were obtained, based on this, the discrete element method (DEM) was adopted to reveal the evolution law of the NGM granules movement in the sample shear process from the microscopic view. Based on the DEM, the influence of granule diameter, surface friction coefficient, normal pressure and shear velocity on the internal friction coefficient of the granular system were studied. And the parameters were conducted to be dimensionless by introducing the inertia coefficient. Finally, the expression showing power-law relationship of inertia coefficient, surface friction coefficient and internal friction coefficient is obtained.

  2. Crustal-scale magmatism and its control on the longevity of magmatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Ozge; Degruyter, Wim; Bachmann, Olivier; Dufek, Josef

    2017-04-01

    Constraining the duration and evolution of crustal magma reservoirs is crucial to our understanding of the eruptive potential of magmatic systems, as well as the volcanic:plutonic ratios in the crust, but estimates of such parameters vary widely in the current literature. Although no consensus has been reached on the lifetime of magma reservoirs, recent studies have revealed about the presence, location, and melt fraction of multi-level (polybaric) storage zones in the crust. If magma accumulates at different crustal levels, it must redistribute significant enthalpy within the crustal column and therefore must influence the lifetime of magma plumbing systems. However, an evaluation of the mass and heat budget of the entire crustal column is lacking. Here, we use a two-dimensional thermal model to determine the thermal conditions under which both lower and upper crustal magma bodies form. We find that large lower crustal mush zones supply heat to the upper crust and reduce the amount of thermal energy necessary to form subvolcanic reservoirs. This indicates that the crust is thermally viable to sustain partially molten magma reservoirs over long timescales (>10^5-106 yr) for a range of magma fluxes (10^-4 to 10^-2 km^3/yr). Our results reconcile physical models of crustal magma evolution and field-based estimates of intrusion rates in numerous magmatic provinces (which include both volcanic and plutonic lithologies). We also show that young magmatic provinces ( 106 yr) can accumulate magma and build reservoirs capable of triggering supereruptions, even with intrusion rates as low as ≤10^-2 km^3/yr. Hence, the total duration of magmatism is critical in determining the size of the magma reservoirs, and should be combined with the magma intrusions rates to assess the capability of volcanic systems to form the largest eruptions on Earth.

  3. The plumbing of the global biological pump: Efficiency control through leaks, pathways, and time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Benoît; Holzer, Mark

    2016-08-01

    We systematically quantify the pathways and time scales that set the efficiency, Ebio, of the global biological pump by applying Green-function-based diagnostics to a data-assimilated phosphorus cycle embedded in a jointly assimilated ocean circulation. We consider "bio pipes" that consist of phosphorus paths that connect specified regions of last biological utilization with regions where regenerated phosphate first reemerges into the euphotic zone. The bio pipes that contribute most to Ebio connect the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEqP) and Equatorial Atlantic to the Southern Ocean ((21 ± 3)% of Ebio), as well as the Southern Ocean to itself ((15 ± 3)% of Ebio). The bio pipes with the largest phosphorus flow rates connect the EEqP to itself and the subantarctic Southern Ocean to itself. The global mean sequestration time of the biological pump is 130 ± 70 years, while the sequestration time of the bio pipe from anywhere to the Antarctic region of the Southern Ocean is 430 ± 30 years. The distribution of phosphorus flowing within a given bio pipe is quantified by its transit-time partitioned path density. For the largest bio pipes, ˜1/7 of their phosphorus is carried by thermocline paths with transit times less than ˜300-400 years, while ˜4/7 of their phosphorus is carried by abyssal paths with transit times exceeding ˜700 years. The path density reveals that Antarctic Intermediate Water carries about a third of the regenerated phosphate last utilized in the EEqP that is destined for the Southern Ocean euphotic zone. The Southern Ocean is where (62 ± 2)% of the regenerated inventory and (69 ± 1)% of the preformed inventory first reemerge into the euphotic zone.

  4. Soft Plumbing: Direct-Writing and Controllable Perfusion of Tubular Soft Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Axel; Omoruwa, Patricia; Chen, Haotian; McAllister, Arianna; Jeronimo, Mark; Malladi, Shashi; Hakimi, Navid; Cao, Li; Ramchandran, Arun

    2016-11-01

    Tubular and ductular structures are abundant in tissues in a wide variety of diameters, wall thicknesses, and compositions. In spite of their relevance to engineered tissues, organs-on-chips and soft robotics, the rapid and consistent preparation of tubular structures remains a challenge. Here, we use a microfabricated printhead to direct-write biopolymeric tubes with dimensional and compositional control. A biopolymer solution is introduced to the center layer of the printhead, and the confining fluids to the top and the bottom layers. The radially flowing biopolymer solution is sandwiched between confining solutions that initiate gelation, initially assuming the shape of a funnel until emerging through a cylindrical confinement as a continuous biopolymer tube. Tubular constructs of sodium alginate and collagen I were obtained with inner diameters (0.6-2.2mm) and wall thicknesses (0.1-0.4mm) in favorable agreement with predictions of analytical models. We obtained homogeneous tubes with smooth and buckled walls and heterotypic constructs that possessed compositions that vary along the tube circumference or radius. Ductular soft materials were reversibly hosted in 3D printed fluidic devices for the perfusion at well-defined transmural pressures to explore the rich variety of dynamical features associated with collapsible tubes that include buckling, complete collapse, and self-oscillation.

  5. Practical Impacts of Galvanic Corrosion in Water Service Lines and Premise Plumbing

    OpenAIRE

    StClair, Justin Monroe

    2013-01-01

    There is emerging concern about the potential for elevated lead in water after water utilities conduct EPA mandated (or voluntary) partial replacements of existing lead service lines. Connections between dissimilar metals results in the accelerated corrosion of the less noble metal via galvanic attack, increasing metal concentrations in water and posing potential public health risks. Many practical problems associated with stopping galvanic attack between copper:galvanized iron and copper:lea...

  6. Camera distortion self-calibration using the plumb-line constraint and minimal Hough entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Rosten, Edward

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a simple and robust method for self-correction of camera distortion using single images of scenes which contain straight lines. Since the most common distortion can be modelled as radial distortion, we illustrate the method using the Harris radial distortion model, but the method is applicable to any distortion model. The method is based on transforming the edgels of the distorted image to a 1-D angular Hough space, and optimizing the distortion correction parameters which minimize the entropy of the corresponding normalized histogram. Properly corrected imagery will have fewer curved lines, and therefore less spread in Hough space. Since the method does not rely on any image structure beyond the existence of edgels sharing some common orientations and does not use edge fitting, it is applicable to a wide variety of image types. For instance, it can be applied equally well to images of texture with weak but dominant orientations, or images with strong vanishing points. Finally, the me...

  7. Architectural design, interior decoration, and three-dimensional plumbing en route to multifunctional nanoarchitectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeffrey W

    2007-09-01

    Ultraporous aperiodic solids, such as aerogels and ambigels, are sol-gel-derived equivalents of architectures. The walls are defined by the nanoscopic, covalently bonded solid network of the gel. The vast open, interconnected space characteristic of a building is represented by the three-dimensionally continuous nanoscopic pore network. We discuss how an architectural construct serves as a powerful metaphor that guides the chemist in the design of aerogel-like nanoarchitectures and in their physical and chemical transformation into multifunctional objects that yield high performance for rate-critical applications.

  8. MOISTURE MOVEMENT (WICKING) WITHIN GYPSUM WALLBOARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gypsum wallboard with repeated or prolonged exposure to water or excess moisture can lose its structural integrity and provide a growth medium for biological contaminants. Poorly sealed buildings, leaking or failed plumbing systems, or improperly constructed HVAC systems can all ...

  9. Water Walls: Highly Reliable and Massively Redundant Life Support Architecture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — WATER WALLS (WW) takes an approach to providing a life support system that is biologically and chemically passive, using mechanical systems only for plumbing to...

  10. Chemical and microbial characteristics of municipal drinking water supply systems in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kiley; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth; Jamieson, Rob C; Hayward, Jenny L; Piorkowski, Greg S; Krkosek, Wendy; Gagnon, Graham A; Castleden, Heather; MacNeil, Kristen; Poltarowicz, Joanna; Corriveau, Emmalina; Jackson, Amy; Lywood, Justine; Huang, Yannan

    2017-06-13

    Drinking water in the vast Arctic Canadian territory of Nunavut is sourced from surface water lakes or rivers and transferred to man-made or natural reservoirs. The raw water is at a minimum treated by chlorination and distributed to customers either by trucks delivering to a water storage tank inside buildings or through a piped distribution system. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and microbial drinking water quality from source to tap in three hamlets (Coral Harbour, Pond Inlet and Pangnirtung-each has a population of water conveyance. Generally, the source and drinking water was of satisfactory microbial quality, containing Escherichia coli levels of water in households receiving trucked water contained less than the recommended 0.2 mg/L of free chlorine, while piped drinking water in Iqaluit complied with Health Canada guidelines for residual chlorine (i.e. >0.2 mg/L free chlorine). Some buildings in the four communities contained manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and/or lead (Pb) concentrations above Health Canada guideline values for the aesthetic (Mn, Cu and Fe) and health (Pb) objectives. Corrosion of components of the drinking water distribution system (household storage tanks, premise plumbing) could be contributing to Pb, Cu and Fe levels, as the source water in three of the four communities had low alkalinity. The results point to the need for robust disinfection, which may include secondary disinfection or point-of-use disinfection, to prevent microbial risks in drinking water tanks in buildings and ultimately at the tap.

  11. Toward a unified dynamic model for dykes and cone sheets in volcanic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Olivier; Burchardt, Steffi; Hallot, Erwan; Mourgues, Régis; Bulois, Cédric

    2014-05-01

    Igneous sheet intrusions, such as dykes and cone sheets, represent various geometries of magma channels through the crust. In many volcanoes, they coexist as parts of complex plumbing systems and are likely fed by common sources. How they form is fundamental regarding volcanic hazards, but yet no dynamic model simulates and predicts satisfactorily the diversity of sheet intrusions observed in volcanic systems. Here we present scaled laboratory experiments that reproduced dyke and cone sheet intrusion geometries under controlled conditions. Combined to a parametric study, a dimensional analysis shows that two dimensionless numbers Π1 and Π2 govern the formation of these intrusions. Π1 is geometrical and describes the geometry of the magma source; Π2 is dynamical and compares the local viscous stresses in the flowing magma to the host-rock strength. Plotting our experiments against these two numbers results in a phase diagram evidencing a dyke and a cone-sheet field, separated by a sharp transition that fits a power law. This result shows that dykes and cone sheets correspond to two distinct physical regimes of magma emplacement in the Earth's crust. Cone sheets preferentially form when their source is shallow relative to their size, when the magma influx (or viscosity) is large, or when the host rock is weak. In addition, both dykes and cone sheets may form from the same source, the shift from one regime to the other being then controlled by magma dynamics, i.e. different values of Π2. We compare our phase diagram to geological data and show that the extrapolated empirical dyke-to-cone sheet transition predicts the occurrence of dykes and cone sheets in various natural volcanic settings. This study thus provides a unified dynamic model of sheet intrusions emplacement and captures fundamental mechanisms of magma transport in the Earth's crust.

  12. Recent developments of the aluminium-lithium system alloys for aircraft uses; Recentes desenvolvimentos das ligas do sistema aluminio-litio para fins aeronauticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Marcelo; Plaut, Ronald Lesley

    1992-12-31

    A brief review is made of the latest developments in the production of Aluminium-Lithium alloys. The necessity for new materials in the field of aeronautics has speeded up research on metallic and non-metallic materials. Lately, a good part of the research in the field of metallic components has been directed at Al-Li alloys. More recently, with the development of quaternary alloys Al-Li-X-X, the old problem of low toughness was overcome. The finality of this study is to cover the developments of the mentioned alloys, including the fundamentals of physical metallurgy of the complex system recently developed Al-Li-Cu-Mg. (author) 27 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. The I-Xe System in the IVA Iron Meteorite Steinbach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdivtseva, O.; Meshik, A.; Hohenberg, C. M.

    2013-09-01

    Non-metallic phases from IVA Steinbach were separated and identified to be troilite, chromite, tridymite, and clino- and orthopyroxene. Xenon isotopic compositions are measured to identify possible iodine carrier phases suitable for the I-Xe dating.

  14. Some aspects of industrial homogeneous liquid-phase oxidations and emerging oxidation systems; Catalyse homogene d'oxydation. Quelques aspects des reactions industrielles et des nouveaux systemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeault, J.M.; Launay, F. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-06-01

    This brief account considers recent developments of some catalytic systems in selective liquid-phase oxidations. Radical chain auto-oxidations which lead to some large-scale specialities are presented: i) the two-stage processes to Nylone intermediates (cyclohexane to cyclohexanol-cyclohexanone mixtures and nitric acid oxidation to adipic acid); ii) Amoco oxidation based on MC catalysts to prepare terephthalic acid with p-xylene as the raw material. Homogeneous catalytic processes with hetero-lytic reactions are illustrated first by the Arco-Lyndell method, which uses a molybdenum catalyst that epoxidizes propylene by transferring an oxygen atom from tert-butyl hydroperoxide. All new propylene oxide technologies focus on co product-free routes. Novel results with hydrogen peroxide and titanium, rhenium, tungsten and molybdenum oxo-peroxo species are presented with catalytic oxidations of organic substrates under mild conditions. Significant results appear in the modelling enzyme active sites (bio-mimetic oxidations) and on non-metal catalysts for homogeneous oxidations. These new systems could compete with transition-metal-based systems for fine chemicals. (authors)

  15. The western Aeolian Islands volcanoes (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) : the temporal and chemical evolution of a complex magmatic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leocat, E.; Peccerillo, A.; Gillot, P.-Y.

    2012-04-01

    plumbing system.

  16. 1997 to Present: Quality and Versatile Access to the Deep Biosphere with Coupled Advanced CORKs and Fluid Pumping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, J. P.; Lin, H.; Jungbluth, S.; Hsieh, C.; Rappe, M.; Glazer, B. T.; Matzinger, M.; Becker, K.; Fisher, A. T.; Amend, J. P.; Johnson, H. P.

    2011-12-01

    In 1997, a simple 'BioColumn' sampler was coupled to the CORK observatory at borehole 1026B to sample fluid chemistry, biomass and microbial community diversity (16S rRNA). The results demonstrated that the 65oC fluids from the 3.5 My old sediment-buried ocean basement support a diverse Bacteria and Archaea community (Cowen et al. 2003, Science 299, 120-123). The large bore of the overpressured CORK body provided high unassisted flow rates through the BioColumn, but possessed the disadvantage of the unknown extent to which the basement fluids were altered by the chemically and biologically (e.g., biofilm community) reactive surface of CORK's steel pipe. Subsequently, new generations of CORKs have incorporated less reactive materials in the CORK body, the use of stainless steel or inert PVDF (Teflon-like) 0.5" ID fluid delivery lines (FDL) running continuously from basement depths to accessible ports at the seafloor, and multiple FDLs from distinct depth horizons within basement. Simultaneously, we have developed increasingly capable fluid sensor and sampling systems for both real-time (Mobile Pumping and Sampling System-MPSS) and long-term autonomous applications (GeoMICROBE sleds). Both incorporate strong efficient pumps to overcome the drag inherent in the 0.5" or smaller bore FDL, multiple sensors (e.g., flow rate, temperature, O2, pH and redox-voltametry chemistry), versatile multi-port large volume fluid collection and/or in situ filtration systems, integrating computer controller/software and non-contaminating (inert) plumbing. These combined developments now provide unparalleled opportunities for access to large volumes of pristine basement samples for geochemical and microbial ecology studies. The MPSS and GeoMICROBE will be described. The multi-year results of organic geochemical and microbial community studies from recent studies at CORK observatories (boreholes 1301A, 1362A 1362B) on the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank will be summarized.

  17. A teenage girl with green hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H; Yasin, Shima K; Yoo, Jinny K

    2014-01-01

    An adolescent girl with blond hair, her family, and classmates noted that her hair was progressively turning green. Initially the green color was thought to be secondary to chlorine from the local swimming pool. This was not the real cause. The chlorotrichosis was actually caused by an excessive amount of dissolved copper from copper pipes in the home plumbing system. Copper had leached from the plumbing and accumulated in the pipes because the rented house had been vacant for many months. Risk factors for chlorotrichosis include light-colored hair, copper plumbing, long periods when the water was not thoroughly flushed out of the copper pipes, and frequent shampooing.

  18. 24 CFR 3280.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air-conditioning, and electrical systems contained in the... engineering or architecture in a state and subject to all laws and limitations imposed by the state's Board...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.603 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... recommendation or radiation from heat producing appliances. ... to drainage system. All plumbing, fixtures, drains, appurtenances, and appliances designed or used to..., fittings, equipment, appliances, appurtenance, and accessories intended for use in or attached to...

  20. Fuzzy Law and the Boundaries of Secularism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Werner Menski

    and ethics and also accounts for local people's social norms through the strong federal system. .... attractive new business out of repairing damage – or call it legal plumbing – after the disaster has ..... In this postmodern age we realise, maybe.

  1. A comparison of assays measuring the viability of Legionella pneumophila after treatment with copper and silver ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The relatively high prevalence of Legionella pneumophila in premise plumbing systems has been widely reported. Published reports indicate Legionella has a comparatively high resistance to chlorine and moreover has the ability to grow in phagocytic amoeba which could p...

  2. Technologies for Legionella Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation includes a review of new Office of Water document entitled "Technologies for Legionella Control in Premise Plumbing Systems", and discussion on ORD research projects involving Legionella and disinfection.

  3. Research on the follow-up control for CNC machining system%数控加工系统的随动控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志鸿; 房海蓉; 方跃法

    2012-01-01

    基于西门子840D数控系统,提出一种随动加工控制的原理和方法,控制系统通过测距传感器反馈值直接控制刀具随动进给,实现对大型自由曲面表面非金属涂层的等厚加工.为使工件表面非金属涂层加工平整、等厚,加工过程中需保持刀具到工件表面等距.设计中在刀具轨迹前放置测距传感器,实时检测工件表面位置,控制刀具随动进给,实现工件表面非金属涂层的等厚加工.实 验结果验证了该控制方法的有效性.%A kind of follow-up machining control method is proposed based on SINUMERIK 840D CNC systems, which can machine the non-metallic material on the workpicce's free-form surface e-qual-thickness. The tool is directly controlled to follow-up feed according to the feedback of position sensor. In order to make the non-metallic material smooth and equal-thickness, the distance between the tool and the surface of the workpiece should be kept constant. In the design, the sensor is placed in front of the tool, so the measurement and the machining can operate at the same time. And experimental results verify the effectiveness of the control method.

  4. SUMIRAD: a low-cost fast millimeter-wave radiometric imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichl, Markus; Dill, Stephan; Rudolf, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    For many military or peace-keeping operations it is necessary to provide better situational awareness to the commander of a vehicle with respect to possible threats in his local environment (predominantly ahead), at a distance of a few ten to a few hundred meters. Such a challenging task can only be addressed adequately by a suitable multi-sensor system. As a beneficial part of that, an imaging radiometer system with a sufficiently high frame rate and field of view is considered. The radiometer, working 24 hours in all weather and sight conditions, generates quasi-optical images simplifying the microwave image interpretation. Furthermore it offers the advantage to detect and localise objects and persons under nearly all atmospheric obstacles and also extends the surveillance capabilities behind non-metallic materials like clothing or thin walls and thin vegetation. Based on constraints of low costs and the observation of a large field of view, the constructed radiometer still offers a moderate resolution at a moderate scan speed. This paper describes the challenges for the design of a vehicle-based imaging radiometer system at W band, providing high-quality images of sufficient resolution for a large field of view at a moderate frame rate. The construction is briefly outlined and imaging results for several situations are presented and discussed. Those comprise measurements on target detection and a visual comparison of different SUM (Surveillance in an Urban environment using Mobile sensors) data products.

  5. Magma storage and migration associated with the 2011-2012 El Hierro eruption: Implications for crustal magmatic systems at oceanic island volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Pablo J.; Samsonov, Sergey V.; Pepe, Susi; Tiampo, Kristy F.; Tizzani, Pietro; Casu, Francesco; Fernández, José; Camacho, Antonio G.; Sansosti, Eugenio

    2013-08-01

    Starting in July 2011, anomalous seismicity was observed at El Hierro Island, a young oceanic island volcano. On 12 October 2011, the process led to the beginning of a submarine NW-SE fissural eruption at ~15 km from the initial earthquake loci, indicative of significant lateral magma migration. Here we conduct a multifrequency, multisensor interferometric analysis of spaceborne radar images acquired using three different satellite systems (RADARSAT-2, ENVISAT, and COSMO-SkyMed (Constellation of Small Satellites for Mediterranean Basin Observation)). The data fully captures both the pre-eruptive and coeruptive phases. Elastic modeling of the ground deformation is employed to constrain the dynamics associated with the magmatic activity. This study represents the first geodetically constrained active magmatic plumbing system model for any of the Canary Islands volcanoes, and one of the few examples of submarine volcanic activity to date. Geodetic results reveal two spatially distinct shallow (crustal) magma reservoirs, a deeper central source (9.5 ± 4.0 km), and a shallower magma reservoir at the flank of the southern rift (4.5 ± 2.0 km). The deeper source was recharged, explaining the relatively long basaltic eruption, contributing to the observed island-wide uplift processes, and validating proposed active magma underplating. The shallowest source may be an incipient reservoir that facilitates fractional crystallization as observed at other Canary Islands. Data from this eruption supports a relationship between the depth of the shallow crustal magmatic systems and the long-term magma supply rate and oceanic lithospheric age. Such a relationship implies that a factor controlling the existence/depth of shallow (crustal) magmatic systems in oceanic island volcanoes is the lithosphere thermomechanical behavior.

  6. Water quality characterization of an on-farm storage reservoir-tailwater recovery system associated with agricultural production in the Mid-South US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reba, M. L.; Farris, J.; Leonard, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer has been used for irrigation since the early 1900s but has shown evidence of decline since the 1980s. One response to the decline has been the use of on-farm reservoirs to store abundant surface water during the non-irrigation season for storage and subsequent irrigation use. These reservoirs are often part of an irrigation system that includes drainage ditches that return water from fields (tailwater recovery (TWR)) back to the reservoir for re-use. Concern and interest in the water quality within these systems has grown both locally and regionally. This study investigated and characterized water chemistry dynamics associated with surface water movements in a TWR system associated with intensive row crop agricultural production in the Mid-South US. The study site was in northeastern Arkansas and included a 34 ha reservoir with approximately 283 adjoining ha which were primarily cropped in rice and soybean. Approximately 97% of the field acreage was plumbed to divert runoff from the fields and upstream flows towards two TWR ditches where water could be pumped back into the reservoir. Samples were collected at inlet, TWR ditches, reservoir, and outlet locations over two typical growing seasons. All samples were analyzed for the following parameters: dissolved nitrates, nitrites, and orthophosphates, chlorophyll-α, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, alkalinity, and hardness. Significant differences were measured between the reservoir and the other three components for various parameters. The reservoir differed significantly for eight parameters in 2013 and six parameters in 2014. Implementation of drainage and irrigation structures and intense monitoring of water movement throughout these systems offered insight of physical-chemical parameters resulting from management of crops and resulting water quality conditions.

  7. Investigating a dynamic gas hydrate system in disequilibrium in the Danube Delta, Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Jess; Bialas, Joerg; Klaucke, Ingo; Feldman, Howard; Drexler, Tina

    2017-04-01

    Gas hydrates are known to be extensive across the Danube Delta, as indicated by the presence of bottom simulating reflections (BSRs). The shelf break in this region is characterised by several incised submarine canyons, the largest of which is the Viteaz Canyon, and numerous slope failures. BSRs often coincide with submarine landslides, and it has been proposed that hydrates may play a role in triggering, or facilitating such events. This study focuses on a seafloor canyon (the S2 Canyon) to the north-east of the main Viteaz Canyon, where geophysical survey data and sediment cores were acquired in 2014. Active venting from the seafloor is known to be occurring at this site as multiple flares were been imaged in the water column. The location of these flares coincides with a significant slope failure adjacent to the canyon, and some can be correlated to subsurface gas chimneys, indicating a complex 'plumbing system' of gas migration pathways. This site is of particular interest as the 'present-day' BSR imaged in seismic data is not at equilibrium with the present-day seafloor conditions. Using high resolution 2D seismic data, a P-cable 3D seismic volume and ocean bottom seismometer data we investigate potential gas migration pathways and the complex gas hydrate system in the vicinity of the S2 Canyon. In addition, we use stratigraphic interpretation based on regional 2D seismic lines to constrain the relative ages of the channel levee systems. Through detailed mapping of the BSR, possible paleo-seafloor surfaces and gas migration features we are able to provide estimates of equilibrium conditions for the hydrate system, and examine the controlling factors affecting gas migration pathways and hydrate formation. The results of this study provide new insight into a geologically complex setting with a dynamic hydrate system. Characterising the hydrate system here may help to explain why it is in disequilibrium with the present day seafloor, and provide a better

  8. Multi-level magmatic system of El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) constrained by multi-satellite radar interferometry measurements during the 2011-2012 eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, P. J.; Samsonov, S. V.; Pepe, S.; Tiampo, K. F.; Tizzani, P.; Fernandez, J.; Sansosti, E.

    2012-12-01

    Starting from July 2011, anomalous seismicity was observed at El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain). During the following three months, seismic activity increased both in number of events and in magnitude, while expanding over a large area. In early October 2011 the process led to a submarine eruption, with some uncertainty about the location and timing of vent(s) opening. The site of the eruption was ~10 km from the initial and main earthquake loci, indicative of significant lateral migration. Here, we conduct a multi-frequency, multi-sensor interferometric analysis of space-borne radar images acquired using three different satellites (Radarsat-2, ASAR-ENVISAT and COSMO-SkyMed). Radar interferometry is used to measure the deformation that occurred from December 2009 to July 2012. InSAR data fully captures both the pre-, co- and post-eruptive phases. Subsequently, elastic modeling of the ground deformation is employed to constrain the dynamics associated with the magmatic and eruptive activity. This study represents one of the first geodetically-constrained active magmatic plumbing system model for any of the Canary Islands volcanoes, and one of the few examples of geodetic measurement of submarine volcanic activity to date. It reveals a complex magmatic system with multiple levels of stagnation, a deeper central system (~8.5 km depth) and a shallower magma reservoir at the flank of the southern rift (~4 km depth). Before eruption, magma propagated ~5 km downrift towards the eruption fissure. From mid-November 2011 to early January 2012 the system was continuously recharged from source(s) deeper than 10 km, which contributed to a relatively atypical long duration for a basaltic eruption (~5 months). The submarine eruption finished on early March 2012. However, on June 24, 2012 the seismic activity resumed and intense ground deformation has been recorded. The anomalous seismicity continued for a month depicting a clear, but different migration path with respect

  9. Growth of Legionella anisa in a model drinking water system to evaluate different shower outlets and the impact of cast iron rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lugt, Wilco; Euser, Sjoerd M; Bruin, Jacob P; Den Boer, Jeroen W; Walker, Jimmy T; Crespi, Sebastian

    2017-08-18

    Legionella continues to be a problem in water systems. This study investigated the influence of different shower mixer faucets, and the influence of the presence of cast iron rust from a drinking water system on the growth of Legionella. The research is conducted using a model of a household containing four drinking water systems. All four systems, which contained standard plumbing components including copper pipes and a water heater, were filled with unchlorinated drinking water. Furthermore, all systems had three different shower faucets: (A) a stainless-steel faucet, (B) a brass-ceramic faucet, and (C) a brass thermostatic faucet. System 1 was solely filled with drinking water. System 2 was filled with drinking water, and cast iron rust. System 3 was contaminated with Legionella, and system 4 was contaminated with a Legionella, and cast iron rust. During a period of 34 months, 450 cold water samples were taken from 15 sample points of the four drinking water systems, and tested for Legionella according to the Dutch Standard (NEN 6265). In system 4, with added cast iron rust, the stainless-steel mixer faucet (A) had the highest concentration of Legionella at >4.3log10CFU/l (>20,000CFU/l) and was positive in 46.4% of samples. In contrast, the stainless-steel mixer faucet (A) of system 3 without cast iron rust showed 14.3% positive samples with a maximum concentration of 3.9log10CFU/l (7600CFU/l) Legionella. Additionally, both contaminated systems (3 and 4), with the brass thermostatic faucet (C), tested positive for Legionella. System 3 in 85.7% of the samples, with a maximum concentration of 4.38log10CFU/l (24,200CFU/l), and system 4 in 64.3% of the samples with a maximum concentration of 4.13log10CFU/l (13.400CFU/l). These results suggest that both the type of faucet used in a drinking water system and the presence or absence of cast iron rust influence the growth of Legionella. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of buried cable location survey system by underground rader for power distribution cables under pavements. Haiden chichuka no tame no chika radar ni yoru maisetsukan tansa system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Kitano, K.

    1990-06-01

    To execute construction work for power distribution cables under pavements reasonably, it is important to develop a technology capable of non-destructive detection of the location of existing buried cables from the ground surface. This study is to clarify the principle, measurement method, effectiveness, and limitation of the underground radar system which is at present considered as the most effective survey method for buried cables. In this system, accuracy in measuring the depth of underground cable location by a separated type antenna has been improved, software to improve resolution by a migration process has been developed, and a compact survey system which can analyze the data on the site has been realized. As aresult of the survey at city areas, all pipes buried less than 1m in depth with the resistivity value of more than 100 {Omega} m were detected as well as those less than 2m in depth with more than some 100 {Omega} m. However, non-metal pipes buried deeper than 1m in the ground of less than 100 {Omega} m were not detected. Consequently, improvement of the system is necessary in future. 7 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. A Wide-Band Electromagnetic Impedance Profiling System forNon-Invasive Subsurface Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex

    2004-12-17

    A non-invasive, wide-band electromagnetic (EM) impedance difference system for shallow subsurface electrical structure characterization in environmental and engineering problems has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Electrical parameters of interest are electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity that are deduced from the impedance difference data. The prototype system includes a magnetic loop transmitter, which operates between 0.1 MHz and 100 MHz, an electrical dipole antenna for observing the electric field, and a loop antenna for measuring the magnetic field.All antennas are mounted on a cart made of non-metallic material for easy movement of the whole array for profiling. Surface EM impedance difference is obtained by taking the difference of the ratios of the electric fields to the magnetic fields at selected frequencies at two different levels. Numerical simulations will be presented to verify this new approach. A set of the impedance difference data acquired at the University of California's Richmond Field Station compares reasonably well with simulation results based on a model obtained with the resistivity method and in situ TDR (time domain reflectometry)measurements.

  12. Inverse Dipolar Magnetic Anomaly Over the Volcanic Cone Linked to Reverse Polarity Magnetizations in Lavas and Tuffs - Implications for the Conduit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Trigo-Huesca, A.

    2012-12-01

    A combined magnetics and paleomagnetic study of Toluquilla monogenetic volcano and associated lavas and tuffs from Valsequillo basin in Central Mexico provides evidence on a magnetic link between lavas, ash tuffs and the underground volcanic conduit system. Paleomagnetic analyses show that lavas and ash tuffs carry reverse polarity magnetizations, which correlate with the inversely polarized dipolar magnetic anomaly over the volcano. The magnetizations in the lava and tuff show similar southward declinations and upward inclinations, supporting petrological inferences that the tuff was emplaced while still hot and indicating a temporal correlation for lava and tuff emplacement. Conduit geometry is one of the important controlling factors in eruptive dynamics of basaltic volcanoes. However volcanic conduits are often not, or only partly, exposed. Modeling of the dipolar anomaly gives a reverse polarity source magnetization associated with a vertical prismatic body with southward declination and upward inclination, which correlates with the reverse polarity magnetizations in the lava and tuff. The study documents a direct correlation of the paleomagnetic records with the underground magmatic conduit system of the monogenetic volcano. Time scale for cooling of the volcanic plumbing system involves a longer period than the one for the tuff and lava, suggesting that magnetization for the source of dipolar anomaly may represent a long time average as compared to the spot readings in the lava and tuff. The reverse polarity magnetizations in lava and tuff and in the underground source body for the magnetic anomaly are interpreted in terms of eruptive activity of Toluquilla volcano at about 1.3 Ma during the Matuyama reverse polarity C1r.2r chron.

  13. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  14. Results and recommendations from an intercomparison of six Hygroscopicity-TDMA systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Massling

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance of six custom-built Hygrocopicity-Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (H-TDMA systems was investigated in the frame of an international calibration and intercomparison workshop held in Leipzig, February 2006. The goal of the workshop was to harmonise H-TDMA measurements and develop recommendations for atmospheric measurements and their data evaluation. The H-TDMA systems were compared in terms of the sizing of dry particles, relative humidity (RH uncertainty, and consistency in determination of number fractions of different hygroscopic particle groups. The experiments were performed in an air-conditioned laboratory using ammonium sulphate particles or an external mixture of ammonium sulphate and soot particles.

    The sizing of dry particles of the six H-TDMA systems was within 0.2 to 4.2% of the selected particle diameter depending on investigated size and individual system. Measurements of ammonium sulphate aerosol found deviations equivalent to 4.5% RH from the set point of 90% RH compared to results from previous experiments in the literature. Evaluation of the number fraction of particles within the clearly separated growth factor modes of a laboratory generated externally mixed aerosol was done. The data from the H-TDMAs was analysed with a single fitting routine to investigate differences caused by the different data evaluation procedures used for each H-TDMA. The differences between the H-TDMAs were reduced from +12/−13% to +8/−6% when the same analysis routine was applied. We conclude that a common data evaluation procedure to determine number fractions of externally mixed aerosols will improve the comparability of H-TDMA measurements.

    It is recommended to ensure proper calibration of all flow, temperature and RH sensors in the systems. It is most important to thermally insulate the aerosol humidification unit and the second DMA and to monitor these temperatures to an accuracy of 0.2 °C. For the

  15. Results and recommendations from an intercomparison of six Hygroscopicity-TDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massling, A.; Niedermeier, N.; Hennig, T.; Fors, E. O.; Swietlicki, E.; Ehn, M.; Hämeri, K.; Villani, P.; Laj, P.; Good, N.; McFiggans, G.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2011-03-01

    The performance of six custom-built Hygrocopicity-Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (H-TDMA) systems was investigated in the frame of an international calibration and intercomparison workshop held in Leipzig, February 2006. The goal of the workshop was to harmonise H-TDMA measurements and develop recommendations for atmospheric measurements and their data evaluation. The H-TDMA systems were compared in terms of the sizing of dry particles, relative humidity (RH) uncertainty, and consistency in determination of number fractions of different hygroscopic particle groups. The experiments were performed in an air-conditioned laboratory using ammonium sulphate particles or an external mixture of ammonium sulphate and soot particles. The sizing of dry particles of the six H-TDMA systems was within 0.2 to 4.2% of the selected particle diameter depending on investigated size and individual system. Measurements of ammonium sulphate aerosol found deviations equivalent to 4.5% RH from the set point of 90% RH compared to results from previous experiments in the literature. Evaluation of the number fraction of particles within the clearly separated growth factor modes of a laboratory generated externally mixed aerosol was done. The data from the H-TDMAs was analysed with a single fitting routine to investigate differences caused by the different data evaluation procedures used for each H-TDMA. The differences between the H-TDMAs were reduced from +12/-13% to +8/-6% when the same analysis routine was applied. We conclude that a common data evaluation procedure to determine number fractions of externally mixed aerosols will improve the comparability of H-TDMA measurements. It is recommended to ensure proper calibration of all flow, temperature and RH sensors in the systems. It is most important to thermally insulate the aerosol humidification unit and the second DMA and to monitor these temperatures to an accuracy of 0.2 °C. For the correct determination of external mixtures

  16. FORMULATION OF EXPANSIVE MORTAR TO TILL THE STONES USING NON-METALLIC MINERALS OF NORTHEAST OF COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielly Vieira de Lucena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant methods of advanced technology for mining, the rock massif is employing expansive mortar for cutting of Rock. Furthermore, the entire expansive mortar commercialized in the Brazilian domestic market are imported, as well as those in industrialized country. Both have components from the external market. The aim of this work is to develop expansive mortar with raw materials that have regional and pressure sufficient to remove the rocks of granite and marble type expansion. For this, expansive grout formulations using calcium oxide, calcium carbonate, carboxymethylcellulose are used - CMC (Portland cement, and from the chemical analysis by means of thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and laser granulometry compared the results with a commercial mortar. The results indicated that the formulations showed characteristics similar to the commercial mortar.

  17. Inkjet printing of Chitlac-nanosilver--a method to create functional coatings for non-metallic bone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganga, Sara; Moritz, Niko; Kolakovic, Ruzica; Jakobsson, Kristina; Nyman, Johan O; Borgogna, Massimiliano; Travan, Andrea; Crosera, Matteo; Donati, Ivan; Vallittu, Pekka K; Sandler, Niklas

    2014-12-01

    Biostable fiber-reinforced composites, based on bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate and triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate thermoset polymer matrix reinforced with E-glass fibers have been successfully used in cranial reconstructions and the material has been approved for clinical use. As a further refinement of these implants, antimicrobial, non-cytotoxic coatings on the composites were created by an immersion procedure driven by strong electrostatic interactions. Silver nanoparticles (nAg) were immobilized in lactose-modified chitosan (Chitlac) to prepare the bacteriostatic coatings. Herein, we report the use of inkjet technology (a drop-on-demand inkjet printer) to deposit functional Chitlac-nAg coatings on the thermoset substrates. Characterization methods included scanning electron microscopy, scanning white light interferometry and electro-thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. Inkjet printing enabled the fast and flexible functionalization of the thermoset surfaces with controlled coating patterns. The coatings were not impaired by the printing process: the kinetics of silver release from the coatings created by inkjet printing and conventional immersion technique was similar. Further research is foreseen to optimize printing parameters and to tailor the characteristics of the coatings for specific clinical applications.

  18. One-Sided 3D Imaging of Non-Uniformities in Non-Metallic Space Flight Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II project, we propose to develop, construct, and deliver to NASA a prototype single-sided computed tomography time-domain terahertz (single-sided CT...

  19. Design and Development of Expanded Graphite-Based Non-metallic and Flexible Metamaterial Absorber for X-band Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Dipangkar; Bhattacharyya, Nidhi S.

    2016-09-01

    The possibility of using expanded graphite instead of a metallic layer as unit cells and ground planes for metamaterial absorbers in X-band is investigated. A metamaterial absorber was fabricated on a flexible linear low-density polyethylene substrate using an expanded graphite-based circular ring as the unit cell structure. The unit cell was simulated and optimized for which the metamaterial absorber exhibited 98.9% absorption at 11.22 GHz. The fabricated expanded graphite-based absorber showed a reflection loss of -24.51 dB at 11.56 GHz with -10 dB bandwidth of 0.39 GHz (3.37%). The performance of the same structure with copper was also measured. The expanded graphite-based metamaterial absorber showed enhanced performance as compared to the copper-based metamaterial absorber. The width of the ring was varied to tune the reflection loss. The proposed expanded graphite-based metamaterial absorber possesses the advantages of being ultra-thin, flexible and non-corrosive.

  20. Polarisation transform analysis for detection of shallow buried non-metallic landmines in microwave X-band region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, K. C.; Singh, D.; Arora, M.

    2011-06-01

    Alternative approaches and models continue to be investigated and evolved to correctly locate and identify a buried mine with minimum risk. Though microwave remote sensing based detection of shallow buried landmines provides such a risk free alternative, it is a highly complex and computationally intensive task involving several parameters. The present paper deals with the use of data obtained in multiple polarizations and their transforms approximating rough surface conditions in sand for landmine detection. Data in both HH and VV polarizations in microwave X-band frequency (10 GHz, 3cm) was generated using a live landmine (with explosives less fuze) for the present study under field conditions. Various transforms such as image differencing, image ratioing and polarization discriminant ratio (PDR) were studied for its effect on landmine detection. However, it was found that most of the clutter and noise gets suppressed on using a transform obtained by subtracting the difference of data in two polarizations from its sum. The surface roughness conditions have been approximated as available in western parts of India and which are suitable for application of microwave radar remote sensing for detection of minefields. With the advent of satellites providing data in various polarizations, it has now become relevant to investigate methods which can be used for landmine detection using polarization techniques. The proposed analysis is expected to be useful in future in detection of landmines using multi-polarization satellite data in microwave X-band in deserts such as those existing in the western borders of India.

  1. Estimation of the ionic charge of non-metallic species into an electrical discharge through a web application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Gutiérrez, B. R.; Vera-Rivera, F. H.; Niño, E. D. V.

    2016-08-01

    Estimate the ionic charge generated in electrical discharges will allow us to know more accurately the concentration of ions implanted on the surfaces of nonmetallic solids. For this reason, in this research a web application was developed to allow us to calculate the ionic charge generated in an electrical discharge from the experimental parameters established in an ion implantation process performed in the JUPITER (Joint Universal Plasma and Ion Technologies Experimental Reactor) reactor. The estimated value of the ionic charge will be determined from data acquired on an oscilloscope, during startup and shutdown of electrical discharge, which will then be analyzed and processed. The study will provide best developments with regard to the application of ion implantation in various industrial sectors.

  2. Investigation of Fatigue Crack Initiation from a Non Metallic Inclusion via High Energy X Ray Diffraction Microscopy (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-14

    heat treated coarse grain variant of RR1000, a polycrystalline Ni-based super- alloy with a face centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure elease (PA...directly used as input into the simulations. The perimeter of the volume in the directions perpendicular to loading had a buffer of a dummy/gas phase (all

  3. On the dissolution of non-metallic solid elements (sulfur, selenium, tellurium and phosphorus) in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, Eva; Earle, Martyn J; Gîlea, Manuela A; Metlen, Andreas; Mudring, Anja-Verena; Rieger, Franziska; Robertson, Allan J; Seddon, Kenneth R; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Trusov, Lev; Vyle, Joseph S

    2010-02-07

    Ionic liquids are shown to be good solvents for elemental sulfur, selenium, phosphorus and tellurium, and can be designed to maximise the solubility of these elements. The presence of the [S(3)](*-) radical anion in diluted solutions of sulfur in some ionic liquids has been confirmed, and is the origin of their intense blue colour (cf. lapis lazuli).

  4. Degradation of organic pollutants by Ag, Cu and Sn doped waste non-metallic printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Kadari; Radha, Velchuri; Malathi, M; Vithal, Muga; Munirathnam, Nagegownivari R

    2017-02-01

    The disposal and reuse of waste printed circuit boards have been the major global concerns. Printed circuit boards, a form of Electronic waste (hereafter e-waste), have been chemically processed, doped with Ag(+), Cu(2+) and Sn(2+), and used as visible light photocatalysts against the degradation of methylene blue and methyl violet. The elemental analyses of pristine and metal doped printed circuit board were obtained using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectra and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The morphology of parent and doped printed circuit board was obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. The photocatalytic activity of parent and metal doped samples was carried out for the decomposition of organic pollutants, methylene blue and methyl violet, under visible light irradiation. Metal doped waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) have shown higher photocatalytic activity against the degradation of methyl violet and methylene blue under visible light irradiation. Scavenger experiments were performed to identify the reactive intermediates responsible for the degradation of methylene blue and methyl violet. The reactive species responsible for the degradation of MV and MB were found to be holes and hydroxyl radicals. A possible mechanism of degradation of methylene blue and methyl violet is given. The stability and reusability of the catalysts are also investigated.

  5. Photocatalytic properties of metal and non-metal doped novel sub 10nm titanium dioxide nanoparticles on methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamon, Colm; Delaney, Paul; Morris, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    This study examines the addition of various dopants to TiO2 nanoparticles for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. The materials were tested for efficiency on the degradation of methyl orange under UV light. The dopants were added at different molar ratios to find the ideal amount required for optimum results. BET analysis was used to determine surface areas while X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to study the effect of the dopant on the transformation of the TiO2 structure. The dopants used were Ag, S and Zr and displayed high levels of activity and show some ability to be reused. Decomposition of methyl orange was carried out using a 40 W UV bulb at 365 nm and results were measured by UV-vis spectrometry. It was determined that, overall, Ag doping displayed the best photocatalytic properties but was poor upon reuse.

  6. Significance of bioleaching method in dissolution of iron and in the quality improvement of non-metallics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Štyriaková

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Simple laboratory bioleaching experiments for the iron removal with heterotrophic bacteria on natural raw materials were conducted to explore a simple cyclic operation for a potential use at the industrial scale. Heterotrophic bacteria of Bacillus spp. growing in the presence of feldspar raw materials are able to dissolve iron. Anaerobic conditions Quickly formed by bacteria enable a simple manipulation with the sample solution. Insoluble Fe(III in the feldspars sample could be enzymatically dissolved as Fe3+ and also reduced to soluble Fe2+ by silicate bacteria of Bacillus spp. This metal was efficiently removed from the feldspars sample as documented by a Fe2O3 decrease (from 0.29 % to 0.12 % after bioleaching in the conical flask and by a Fe2O3 decrease (from 0.29 % to 0.19 % after bioleaching in the percolate column. Bioleaching of Fe was more effective in the conical flask. Iron-bearing minerals can be easily removed by magnetic separation, but ultra fine iron particles are difficult to treat by conventional mineral processing methods. Thus bioleaching is an attractive alternative for effective removal of iron minerals. The removal of iron with the whiteness increase should give a product, which is fit for industrial ceramic applications.

  7. SIMULATION PROCESS OF REMOVING NON-METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN ALUMINUM ALLOYS USING THE PROGRAM FLOW-3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Sletova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspective materials for making fining preparations for the silumins are the calcium and strontium carbonates from the environmental safety point of view are shown. Principle possibility of using dispersed carbonates in the fining mixtures is confirmed by late inoculation process research using simulation FLOW-3D.The high efficiency of the fining mixture with the inoculants effect is confirmed by the industrial tests

  8. Agglomeration of Non-metallic Inclusions at Steel/Ar Interface: In- Situ Observation Experiments and Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wangzhong; Dogan, Neslihan; Coley, Kenneth S.

    2017-10-01

    Better understanding of agglomeration behavior of nonmetallic inclusions in the steelmaking process is important to control the cleanliness of the steel. In this work, a revision on the Paunov simplified model has been made according to the original Kralchevsky-Paunov model. Thus, this model has been applied to quantitatively calculate the attractive capillary force on inclusions agglomerating at the liquid steel/gas interface. Moreover, the agglomeration behavior of Al2O3 inclusions at a low carbon steel/Ar interface has been observed in situ by high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The velocity and acceleration of inclusions and attractive forces between Al2O3 inclusions of various sizes were calculated based on the CLSM video. The results calculated using the revised model offered a reasonable fit with the present experimental data for different inclusion sizes. Moreover, a quantitative comparison was made between calculations using the equivalent radius of a circle and those using the effective radius. It was found that the calculated capillary force using equivalent radius offered a better fit with the present experimental data because of the inclusion characteristics. Comparing these results with other studies in the literature allowed the authors to conclude that when applied in capillary force calculations, the equivalent radius is more suitable for inclusions with large size and irregular shape, and the effective radius is more appropriate for inclusions with small size or a large shape factor. Using this model, the effect of inclusion size on attractive capillary force has been investigated, demonstrating that larger inclusions are more strongly attracted.

  9. Non-metallic coating thickness prediction using artificial neural network and support vector machine with time resolved thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjin; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen; Peng, Bo; Zhou, Xunfei

    2016-07-01

    A method without requirements on knowledge about thermal properties of coatings or those of substrates will be interested in the industrial application. Supervised machine learning regressions may provide possible solution to the problem. This paper compares the performances of two regression models (artificial neural networks (ANN) and support vector machines for regression (SVM)) with respect to coating thickness estimations made based on surface temperature increments collected via time resolved thermography. We describe SVM roles in coating thickness prediction. Non-dimensional analyses are conducted to illustrate the effects of coating thicknesses and various factors on surface temperature increments. It's theoretically possible to correlate coating thickness with surface increment. Based on the analyses, the laser power is selected in such a way: during the heating, the temperature increment is high enough to determine the coating thickness variance but low enough to avoid surface melting. Sixty-one pain-coated samples with coating thicknesses varying from 63.5 μm to 571 μm are used to train models. Hyper-parameters of the models are optimized by 10-folder cross validation. Another 28 sets of data are then collected to test the performance of the three methods. The study shows that SVM can provide reliable predictions of unknown data, due to its deterministic characteristics, and it works well when used for a small input data group. The SVM model generates more accurate coating thickness estimates than the ANN model.

  10. Production of hybrid granitic magma at the advancing front of basaltic underplating: Inferences from the Sesia Magmatic System (south-western Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinigoi, Silvano; Quick, James E.; Demarchi, Gabriella; Klötzli, Urs S.

    2016-05-01

    The Permian Sesia Magmatic System of the southwestern Alps displays the plumbing system beneath a Permian caldera, including a deep crustal gabbroic complex, upper crustal granite plutons and a bimodal volcanic field dominated by rhyolitic tuff filling the caldera. Isotopic compositions of the deep crustal gabbro overlap those of coeval andesitic basalts, whereas granites define a distinct, more radiogenic cluster (Sri ≈ 0.708 and 0.710, respectively). AFC computations starting from the best mafic candidate for a starting melt show that Nd and Sr isotopic compositions and trace elements of andesitic basalts may be modeled by reactive bulk assimilation of ≈ 30% of partially depleted crust and ≈ 15%-30% gabbro fractionation. Trace elements of the deep crustal gabbro cumulates require a further ≈ 60% fractionation of the andesitic basalt and loss of ≈ 40% of silica-rich residual melt. The composition of the granite plutons is consistent with a mixture of relatively constant proportions of residual melt delivered from the gabbro and anatectic melt. Chemical and field evidence leads to a conceptual model which links the production of the two granitic components to the evolution of the Mafic Complex. During the growth of the Mafic Complex, progressive incorporation of packages of crustal rocks resulted in a roughly steady state rate of assimilation. Anatectic granite originates in the hot zone of melting crust located above the advancing mafic intrusion. Upward segregation of anatectic melts facilitates the assimilation of the partially depleted restite by stoping. At each cycle of mafic intrusion and incorporation, residual and anatectic melts are produced in roughly constant proportions, because the amount of anatectic melt produced at the roof is a function of volume and latent heat of crystallization of the underplated mafic melt which in turn produces proportional amounts of hybrid gabbro cumulates and residual melt. Such a process can explain the

  11. Correlated many-electron wavefunctions for quantum Monte Carlo calculations of strongly inhomogeneous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gaudoin, R

    2000-01-01

    correlation terms. 2. We use standard VMC in conjunction with iterative variance minimisation to study bulk aluminium as a test bed for future work on surfaces. QMC has been used successfully for insulators and semiconductors, but little is known about applying it to metals. LDA calculations for aluminium are reasonably accurate for the bulk modulus and lattice constant. In contrast, the LDA cohesive energy is 1.25 times the experimental value. Due to the large statistical uncertainties the VMC result for the bulk modulus is disappointing, but the VMC cohesive energy is a clear improvement on LDA. In general, we find that QMC is applicable to metals and that the finite-size and other errors are qualitatively no different from those encountered in non-metallic systems. The quantum many-body problem is among the most challenging in physics. A popular approach is to reduce the problem to the study of a single particle in an effective potential. These one-particle schemes, the most popular of which is density fun...

  12. System Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary System Identification Introduction.- Part I: Data-based Identification.- System Response Methods.- Frequency Response Methods.- Correlation Methods.- Part II: Time-invariant Systems Identification.- Static Systems Identification.- Dynamic Systems Identification.- Part III: Time-varying

  13. Hydrologic models of modern and fossil geothermal systems in the Great Basin: Genetic implications for epithermal Au-Ag and Carlin-type gold deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M.; Banerjee, A.; Hofstra, A.; Sweetkind, D.; Gao, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The Great Basin region in the western United States contains active geothermal systems, large epithermal Au-Ag deposits, and world-class Carlin-type gold deposits. Temperature profiles, fluid inclusion studies, and isotopic evidence suggest that modern and fossil hydrothermal systems associated with gold mineralization share many common features, including the absence of a clear magmatic fluid source, discharge areas restricted to fault zones, and remarkably high temperatures (>200 ??C) at shallow depths (200-1500 m). While the plumbing of these systems varies, geochemical and isotopic data collected at the Dixie Valley and Beowawe geothermal systems suggest that fluid circulation along fault zones was relatively deep (>5 km) and comprised of relatively unexchanged Pleistocene meteoric water with small (enthalpy, ??18O, silica compositions of fluids and/or rocks, groundwater residence times, fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures, and apatite fission track anomalies. Our results suggest that these hydrothermal systems were driven by natural thermal convection along anisotropic, subvertical faults connected in many cases at depth by permeable aquifers within favorable lithostratigraphic horizons. Those with minimal fluid ?? 18O shifts are restricted to high-permeability fault zones and relatively small-scale (???5 km), single-pass flow systems (e.g., Beowawe). Those with intermediate to large isotopic shifts (e.g., epithermal and Carlin-type Au) had larger-scale (???15 km) loop convection cells with a greater component of flow through marine sedimentary rocks at lower water/rock ratios and greater endowments of gold. Enthalpy calculations constrain the duration of Carlin-type gold systems to probably concentrations suggest that the duration of the modern Beowawe system is enthalpy fluids. Computed fission track ages along the Carlin trend included the convective effects, and ranged between 91.6 and 35.3 Ma. Older fission track ages occurred in zones of

  14. Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maya R.; Douglas, Grace L.

    2015-01-01

    The food systems slated for future NASA missions must meet crew nutritional needs, be acceptable for consumption, and use resources efficiently. Although the current food system of prepackaged, moderately stabilized food items works well for International Space Station (ISS) missions, many of the current space menu items do not maintain acceptability and/or nutritive value beyond 2 years. Longer space missions require that the food system can sustain the crew for 3 to 5 years without replenishment. The task "Integration of Product, Package, Process, and Environment: A Food System Optimization" has the objective of optimizing food-product shelf life for the space-food system through product recipe adjustments, new packaging and processing technologies, and modified storage conditions. Two emergent food processing technologies were examined to identify a pathway to stable, wet-pack foods without the detrimental color and texture effects. Both microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) and pressure-assisted thermal stabilization (PATS) were evaluated against traditional retort processing to determine if lower heat inputs during processing would produce a product with higher micronutrient quality and longer shelf life. While MATS products did have brighter color and better texture initially, the advantages were not sustained. The non-metallized packaging film used in the process likely provided inadequate oxygen barrier. No difference in vitamin stability was evident between MATS and retort processed foods. Similarly, fruit products produced using PATS showed improved color and texture through 3 years of storage compared to retort fruit, but the vitamin stability was not improved. The final processing study involved freeze drying. Five processing factors were tested in factorial design to assess potential impact of each to the quality of freeze-dried food, including the integrity of the microstructure. The initial freezing rate and primary freeze drying

  15. Gradient systems and mechanical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengxiang Mei; Huibin Wu

    2016-01-01

    All types of gradient systems and their properties are discussed. Two problems connected with gradient sys-tems and mechanical systems are studied. One is the direct problem of transforming a mechanical system into a gradi-ent system, and the other is the inverse problem, which is transforming a gradient system into a mechanical system.

  16. Thermal systems; Systemes thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalot, S. [Valenciennes Univ. et du Hainaut Cambresis, LME, 59 (France); Lecoeuche, S. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Dept. GIP, 59 - Douai (France)]|[Lille Univ. des Sciences et Technologies, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ahmad, M.; Sallee, H.; Quenard, D. [CSTB, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Gascoin, N.; Gillard, P.; Bernard, S. [Laboratoire d' Energetique, Explosion, Structure, 18 - Bourges (France); Gascoin, N.; Toure, Y. [Laboratoire Vision et Robotique, 18 - Bourges (France); Daniau, E.; Bouchez, M. [MBDA, 18 - Bourges (France); Dobrovicescu, A.; Stanciu, D. [Bucarest Univ. Polytechnique, Faculte de Genie Mecanique (Romania); Stoian, M. [Reims Univ. Champagne Ardenne, Faculte des Sciences, UTAP/LTM, 51 (France); Bruch, A.; Fourmigue, J.F.; Colasson, S. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. Greth, 38 (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Voicu, I.; Mare, T.; Miriel, J. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), LGCGM, IUT, 35 - Rennes (France); Galanis, N. [Sherbrooke Univ., Genie Mecanique, QC (Canada); Nemer, M.; Clodic, D. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre Energetique et Procedes, 75 (France); Lasbet, Y.; Auvity, B.; Castelain, C.; Peerhossaini, H. [Nantes Univ., Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. de Thermocinetiquede Nantes, UMR-CNRS 6607, 44 (France)

    2005-07-01

    This session about thermal systems gathers 26 articles dealing with: neural model of a compact heat exchanger; experimental study and numerical simulation of the thermal behaviour of test-cells with walls made of a combination of phase change materials and super-insulating materials; hydraulic and thermal modeling of a supercritical fluid with pyrolysis inside a heated channel: pre-dimensioning of an experimental study; energy analysis of the heat recovery devices of a cryogenic system; numerical simulation of the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of a supercritical CO{sub 2} flow inside a vertical tube; mixed convection inside dual-tube exchangers; development of a nodal approach with homogenization for the simulation of the brazing cycle of a heat exchanger; chaotic exchanger for the cooling of low temperature fuel cells; structural optimization of the internal fins of a cylindrical generator; a new experimental approach for the study of the local boiling inside the channels of exchangers with plates and fins; experimental study of the flow regimes of boiling hydrocarbons on a bundle of staggered tubes; energy study of heat recovery exchangers used in Claude-type refrigerating systems; general model of Carnot engine submitted to various operating constraints; the free pistons Stirling cogeneration system; natural gas supplied cogeneration system with polymer membrane fuel cell; influence of the CRN coating on the heat flux inside the tool during the wood unrolling process; transport and mixture of a passive scalar injected inside the wake of a Ahmed body; control of a laser welding-brazing process by infrared thermography; 2D self-adaptative method for contours detection: application to the images of an aniso-thermal jet; exergy and exergy-economical study of an 'Ericsson' engine-based micro-cogeneration system; simplified air-conditioning of telephone switching equipments; parametric study of the 'low-energy' individual dwelling; brief synthesis of

  17. MAST Propellant and Delivery System Design Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Uzair; Mc Cleskey, Carey M.

    2015-01-01

    A Mars Aerospace Taxi (MAST) concept and propellant storage and delivery case study is undergoing investigation by NASA's Element Design and Architectural Impact (EDAI) design and analysis forum. The MAST lander concept envisions landing with its ascent propellant storage tanks empty and supplying these reusable Mars landers with propellant that is generated and transferred while on the Mars surface. The report provides an overview of the data derived from modeling between different methods of propellant line routing (or "lining") and differentiate the resulting design and operations complexity of fluid and gaseous paths based on a given set of fluid sources and destinations. The EDAI team desires a rough-order-magnitude algorithm for estimating the lining characteristics (i.e., the plumbing mass and complexity) associated different numbers of vehicle propellant sources and destinations. This paper explored the feasibility of preparing a mathematically sound algorithm for this purpose, and offers a method for the EDAI team to implement.

  18. Data Systems vs. Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Amatayakul, Margret K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  19. Data Systems vs. Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Amatayakul, Margret K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  20. Planning, Plumbing, or Posturing? Explaining the Weakness of Human Resource Development Structures and Policies in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Stephanie; Marock, Carmel; Ngcwangu, Siphelo

    2017-01-01

    In South Africa, a national peak structure, the Human Resource Development Council, led by the Deputy President and consisting of key Cabinet Ministers, senior leaders from organised labour and business, community representatives, professional bodies and experts from research and higher education, was established to enable high-level coordination…

  1. Copper-silver ionization at a US hospital: interaction of treated drinking water with plumbing materials, aesthetics and other considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tap water sampling and surface analysis of copper pipe/bathroom porcelain were performed to explore the fate of copper and silver during the first nine months of copper-silver ionization (CSI) applied to cold and hot water at a hospital in Cincinnati, Ohio. Ions dosed by CSI into...

  2. Planning, Plumbing, or Posturing? Explaining the Weakness of Human Resource Development Structures and Policies in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Stephanie; Marock, Carmel; Ngcwangu, Siphelo

    2017-01-01

    In South Africa, a national peak structure, the Human Resource Development Council, led by the Deputy President and consisting of key Cabinet Ministers, senior leaders from organised labour and business, community representatives, professional bodies and experts from research and higher education, was established to enable high-level coordination…

  3. Multibody Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens

    1999-01-01

    Multibody Systems is one area, in which methods for solving DAEs are of special interst. This chapter is about multibody systems, why they result in DAE systems and what kind of problems that can arise when dealing with multibody systems and formulating their corresponding DAE system....

  4. Detection system for inclusion defects in hot-rolled steel plates using MFLT with two different magnetizing strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsuji, Junichi; Koshihara, Takahiro

    2014-02-01

    Recently, steel can manufacturing requires higher quality because otherwise minute non-metallic inclusions in thin sheets cause cracks and result in a burst during pressurization after the pressing process. Quality testing systems have already been installed in the final process in steel plants, but if there were another inspection in an earlier step, for example, at the hot strip mill, the mass manufacture of nonconforming products could be avoided and maintaining quality control would be more efficient. In order to detect inclusion defects in hot-rolled steel plates, the authors developed a new technique for MFLT (Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing) using different magnetizing forces. According to an analysis of the noise factors in MFLT, it was found that the signals generated from the scale layer on a steel surface are dominant. A different magnetizing force method is the used to decrease this overpowering noise level in MFLT. In this paper, it was confirmed that inclusions larger than 160μm in diameter and less than 0.45mm in depth can be detected utilizing this method.

  5. Lymph system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymphatic system ... neck, under the arms, and groin. The lymph system includes the: Tonsils Adenoids Spleen Thymus ... JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Lymphatic system. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon ...

  6. A Novel High-Frequency Voltage Standing-Wave Ratio-Based Grounding Electrode Line Fault Supervision in Ultra-High Voltage DC Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Teng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the fault monitoring performance of grounding electrode lines in ultra-high voltage DC (UHVDC transmission systems, a novel fault monitoring approach based on the high-frequency voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR is proposed in this paper. The VSWR is defined considering a lossless transmission line, and the characteristics of the VSWR under different conditions are analyzed. It is shown that the VSWR equals 1 when the terminal resistance completely matches the characteristic impedance of the line, and when a short circuit fault occurs on the grounding electrode line, the VSWR will be greater than 1. The VSWR will approach positive infinity under metallic earth fault conditions, whereas the VSWR in non-metallic earth faults will be smaller. Based on these analytical results, a fault supervision criterion is formulated. The effectiveness of the proposed VSWR-based fault supervision technique is verified with a typical UHVDC project established in Power Systems Computer Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC(PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulation results indicate that the proposed strategy can reliably identify the grounding electrode line fault and has strong anti-fault resistance capability.

  7. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R

    1987-01-01

    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  8. Bitcoin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lánský

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptocurrency systems are purely digital and decentralized systems that use cryptographic principles to confirm transactions. Bitcoin is the first and also the most widespread cryptocurrency. The aim of this article is to introduce Bitcoin system using a language understandable also to readers without computer science education. This article captures the Bitcoin system from three perspectives: internal structure, network and users. Emphasis is placed on brief and clear definitions (system components and their mutual relationships. A new system view of the stated terms constitutes author’s own contribution.

  9. Polarization-stable dual-color DFB fibre laser system for CW terahertz generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichhorn, Finn; Petersen, Jens Engholm; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    ” the walls of non-metallic containers as well as clothing to identify hidden objects. For this reason, large efforts are currently being put into the exploitation of the “THz gap” to investigate new applications in the safety and security sector as well as industrial environments. We have developed...

  10. Intelligent Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The autonomous systems (AS) project, led by NASA Ames, is developing software for system operation automation. AS technology will help astronauts make more decisions...

  11. Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  12. Retrofitting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the different retrofitting possibilities that are available today. The report looks at both external and internal systems for external wall constructions, roof constructions, floor constructions and foundations. All systems are described in detail in respect to use...... and methods, and the efficiency of the different systems are discussed....

  13. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1974-01-01

    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  14. Cryogenic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoyama, Kenji

    2002-02-01

    In this lecture we discuss the principle of method of cooling to a very low temperature, i.e. cryogenic. The "gas molecular model" will be introduced to explain the mechanism cooling by the expansion engine and the Joule-Thomson expansion valve. These two expansion processes are normally used in helium refrigeration systems to cool the process gas to cryogenic temperature. The reverse Carnot cycle will be discussed in detail as an ideal refrigeration cycle. First the fundamental process of liquefaction and refrigeration cycles will be discussed, and then the practical helium refrigeration system. The process flow of the system and the key components; -compressor, expander, and heat exchanger- will be discussed. As an example of an actual refrigeration system, we will use the cryogenic system for the KEKB superconducting RF cavity. We will also discuss the liquid helium distribution system, which is very important, especially for the cryogenic systems used in accelerator applications. 1 Principles of Cooling and Fundamental Cooling Cycle 2 Expansion engine, Joule-Thomson expansion, kinetic molecular theory, and enthalpy 3 Liquefaction Systems 4 Refrigeration Systems 5 Practical helium liquefier/refrigeration system 6 Cryogenic System for TRISTAN Superconducting RF Cavity

  15. Expert System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge...... base of expert systems is often given in terms of an ontology, extracted and built from various data sources by employing natural language-processing and statistics. To emphasize such capabilities, the term “expert” is now often replaced by “cognitive,” “knowledge,” “knowledge-based,” or “intelligent......” system. With very few exceptions, general-purpose expert systems have failed to emerge so far. However, expert systems are applied in specialized domains, particularly in healthcare. The increasing availability of large quantities of data to organizations today provides a valuable opportunity...

  16. Geochemical investigation of Gabbroic Xenoliths from Hualalai Volcano: Implications for lower oceanic crust accretion and Hualalai Volcano magma storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruohan; Lassiter, John C.; Barnes, Jaime D.; Clague, David A.; Bohrson, Wendy A.

    2016-05-01

    The patterns of axial hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges both affect and are influenced by the styles of magma plumbing. Therefore, the intensity and distribution of hydrothermal alteration in the lower oceanic crust (LOC) can provide constraints on LOC accretion models (e.g., "gabbro glacier" vs. "multiple sills"). Gabbroic xenoliths from Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii include rare fragments of in situ Pacific lower oceanic crust. Oxygen and strontium isotope compositions of 16 LOC-derived Hualalai gabbros are primarily within the range of fresh MORB, indicating minimal hydrothermal alteration of the in situ Pacific LOC, in contrast to pervasive alteration recorded in LOC xenoliths from the Canary Islands. This difference may reflect less hydrothermal alteration of LOC formed at fast ridges than at slow ridges. Mid-ocean ridge magmas from slow ridges also pond on average at greater and more variable depths and undergo less homogenization than those from fast ridges. These features are consistent with LOC accretion resembling the "multiple sills" model at slow ridges. In contrast, shallow magma ponding and limited hydrothermal alteration in LOC at fast ridges are consistent with the presence of a long-lived shallow magma lens, which limits the penetration of hydrothermal circulation into the LOC. Most Hualalai gabbros have geochemical and petrologic characteristics indicating derivation from Hualalai shield-stage and post-shield-stage cumulates. These xenoliths provide information on the evolution of Hawaiian magmas and magma storage systems. MELTS modeling and equilibration temperatures constrain the crystallization pressures of 7 Hualalai shield-stage-related gabbros to be ∼2.5-5 kbar, generally consistent with inferred local LOC depth. Therefore a deep magma reservoir existed within or at the base of the LOC during the shield stage of Hualalai Volcano. Melt-crust interaction between Hawaiian melts and in situ Pacific crust during magma storage partially

  17. Petrology of Volcán Tequila, Jalisco, Mexico: disequilibrium phenocryst assemblages and evolution of the subvolcanic magma system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Paul J.; Carmichael, Ian S. E.

    1994-09-01

    Volcán Tequila is an extinct stratovolcano in the western Mexican Volcanic Belt that has erupted lavas ranging from andesite to rhyolite during the last 0.9 Ma. Following an early period of rhyolitic volcanism, the main edifice of the volcano was constructed by central vent eruptions that produced ˜ 25 km3 of pyroxene-andesite. At about 0.2 Ma central activity ceased and numerous flows of hornblende-bearing andesite, dacite, and rhyodacite erupted from vents located around the flanks of the volcano. Bimodal plagioclase phenocryst rim compositions in lavas from both the main edifice and the flanks indicate that magma mixing commonly occurred shortly prior to or during eruption. Compositions of endmember magmas involved in mixing, as constrained by whole-rock major and trace element abundances, phenocryst compositions, and mineral-melt exchange equilibria, are similar to those of some lavas erupted from the central vent and on the flanks of the volcano. Estimated pre-eruptive temperatures for hornblende-bearing lavas (970° 830°C) are systematically lower than for lavas that lack hornblende (1045° 970°C), whereas magmatic H2O contents are systematically higher for hornblende-bearing lavas. In addition to stabilizing hornblende, high magmatic water contents promoted crystallization of calcic plagioclase (An70 82). Frequent injections of magma into the base of the subvolcanic plumbing system followed by eruption of mixed magma probably prevented formation of large volumes of silicic magma, which have caused paroxysmal, caldera-forming eruptions at other stratovolcanoes in western Mexico. The later stages of volcanic activity, represented by the flank lavas, indicate a change from a large magma storage reservoir to numerous small ones that developed along a NW-trending zone parallel to regional fault trends. Sr and Nd isotopic data for lavas from the Tequila region and other volcanoes in western Mexico demonstrate that differentiated calc-alkaline magmas are formed

  18. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 8, 0.08 Mechanical, Book 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    System information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet too & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; and system work breakdown structure. Deficiency standards are given for plumbing, fire protection, heating, cooling, and special (drinking water cooling systems).

  19. Characterization and optimization of an online system for the simultaneous measurement of atmospheric water-soluble constituents in the gas and particle phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Milos Z; VandenBoer, Trevor C; Murphy, Jennifer G

    2012-07-01

    In this work we present the results of extensive characterization and optimization of the Ambient Ion Monitor-Ion Chromatograph (AIM-IC) system, an instrument developed by URG Corp. and Dionex Inc. for simultaneous hourly measurements of the water-soluble chemical composition of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and associated precursor gases. The sampling assembly of the AIM-IC consists of an inertial particle size-selection assembly, a parallel-plate wet denuder (PPWD) for the collection of soluble gases, and a particle supersaturation chamber (PSSC) for collection of particles, in series. The analytical assembly of the AIM-IC consists of anion and cation IC units. The system detection limits were determined to be 41 ppt, 5 ppt, and 65 ppt for gas phase NH(3(g)), SO(2(g)), and HNO(3(g)) and 29 ng m(-3), 3 ng m(-3), and 45 ng m(-3) for particle phase NH(4)(+), SO(4)(2-), and NO(3)(-) respectively. From external trace gas calibrations with permeation sources, we determined that the AIM-IC is biased low for NH(3(g)) (11%), SO(2(g)) (19%), and HNO(3(g)) (12%). The collection efficiency of SO(2(g)) was found to strongly depend on the composition of the denuder solution and was found to be the most quantitative with 5 mM H(2)O(2) solution for mixing ratios as high as 107 ppb. Using a cellulose membrane in the PPWD, the system responded to changes in SO(2(g)) and HNO(3(g)) within an hour, however for NH(3(g)), the timescale can be closer to 20 h. With a nylon membrane, the instrument response time for NH(3(g)) was significantly improved, becoming comparable to the responses for SO(2(g)) and HNO(3(g)). Performance of the AIM-IC for collection and analysis of PM(2.5) was evaluated by generating known number concentrations of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate particles (with an aerodynamic diameter of 300 nm) under laboratory conditions and by comparing AIM-IC measurements to measurements from a collocated Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) during a field

  20. Detection and classification results for an impulse radar mine detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Anders; Gustafsson, Anders

    1997-07-01

    At Sweden's Defence Research Establishment, FOA, a hand-held mine detection device is under development. The system is based on impulse radar technique, which due to its large band width, has shown to be an effective means to find objects buried shallow in the ground. Working with radar technique gives an obvious advantage compared to e.g., metal detectors when searching for plastic mines, or when the search is performed in an area highly contaminated with metal fragments or when the soil itself is rich of ferrite. The paper concentrates on detection and classification of minelike objects from measurements in an indoor testing environment. The focus is on evaluating how methods, partly already successfully proven, work in a 'difficult' environment, namely extremely dry sand. The result shows that metal objects and a stone that was used as object, are fairly easy to detect and to classify correct. The fact that the stone is classifiable, means that the false alarm rate can be reduced. It is also possible to detect a nylon cylinder, but here is the result quite sensitive to parameters of the detection algorithm. This is due to that the permittivity of the sand in the experiment is extremely low and close to the one for nylon. For the same reason, a non-metallic AP mine is not detectable or classifiable in the dry sand. The results indicate that even thought he methods work in more normal environments, other detection and classification algorithms than the presented ones have to be used in extreme cases like this one, in order ensure the function of the device.

  1. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  2. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  3. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  4. Intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J David

    2011-01-01

    Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities. Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system

  5. Energetic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetic Systems Division provides full-spectrum energetic engineering services (project management, design, analysis, production support, in-service support,...

  6. Systemic darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality.

  7. cardiovascular system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    6.1 Cardiac arrhythmias 2006037 Electroanatomical systems guided circumferential pulmonary veins ablation for atrial fibrillation: initial experience from comparison between the EnSite -NavX and CARTO system LIU Xu(刘旭 ), et al. Dept Cardiol, Shanghai Chest Hosp, Shanghai, 200030, China. Chin J Cardiol 2005; 33 (22): 975 -978.

  8. Linear Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents a series of seminars at Rome Air Development Center with the content equivalent to an intense course in Linear Systems . Material...is slanted toward the practicing engineer and introduces some of the fundamental concepts and techniques for analyzing linear systems . Techniques for

  9. Immune System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.; Ruehl-Fehlert, C.; Elmore, S.A.; Parker, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cells of the immune system are found in every organ, from the classic lymphoid organs to tissues such as liver, mucosae, and omental adipose tissue. Toxicity to the immune system may be from a direct or indirect injury to lymphoid organs. The morphological responses range from lymphocyte depletion t

  10. Caste System

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Karla

    2016-01-01

    In standard economics, individuals are rational actors and economic forces undermine institutions that impose large inefficiencies. The persistence of the caste system is evidence of the need for psychologically more realistic models of decision-making in economics. The caste system divides South Asian society into hereditary groups whose lowest ranks are represented as innately polluted. ...

  11. Creative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette; Beim, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Opsamling af diskussioner på konferencen og udstillingen Creative Systems i september/oktober 2007. Konferencen og Udstillingen Creative Systems sætter fokus på systemer som en positiv drivkraft i den kreative skabelsesproces. CINARK inviterede fire internationale kapaciteter, som indenfor hver...... deres felt har beskæftiget sig med udviklingen af systemer. Kieran Timberlake, markant amerikansk tegnestue; Mark West, Professor på University of Manitoba, Canada, og pioner indenfor anvendelse af tekstilforskalling til betonstøbninger; Matilda McQuaid, Arkitekturhistoriker og kurator på udstillingen...... om Extreme Textiles på amerikanske Cooper Hewit Design Museum, samt Professor Ludger Hovestadt, ved ETH, Zürich der fokuserer på udvikling og anvendelse af logaritmiske systemtilgange. Udstillingen diskuterede ud fra deres meget forskellige arbejder, det kreative potentiale i anvendelsen af systemer...

  12. Power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  13. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  14. Identification of High Angle Structures Controlling the Geothermal System at Rye Patch, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehni, W. J.

    2001-12-01

    The successful completion of a recent well in the Rye Patch Geothermal field, located in Pershing County, Nevada, supports the geologic and geophysical interpretation that high angle structures control this geothermal system. Although lower angle structures are present, hot water migrates up from deeper sources along high angle faults more efficiently than structures with a shallower dip. Earlier attempts to develop the resource focused on structures that dipped at an angle between 60 and 70 degrees from horizontal. Recently acquired geophysical data indicated that numerous high angle structures were present in the area, with dips between 80 and 90 degrees. Original drilling targets focused on the subsurface projection of a surface structure, mapped as the Rye Patch fault, with an erroneously low angle. These early attempts at drilling were discouraging and might have been more successful if additional geology and geophysics were used to evaluate the geothermal system and map the Rye Patch fault more accurately. The successful completion of the most recent well can be attributed to the incorporation of the geology of previous wells with additional geology and geophysics. Temperature gradient holes were used to confirm that the Rye Patch fault provided the primary plumbing for this geothermal system, and 3D seismic data indicated that most of the structures had dips between 80 and 90 degrees. Geothermometry at Rye Patch indicates that the resource has a relatively high quartz equilibrium temperature and it is speculated that the higher the angle of the structural control, the higher the resource temperature. The dip of Basin and Range normal faults varies considerably and the interpretation of these structures for geothermal, fossil geothermal mineral prospects, and or oil and gas prospects is important. At Rye Patch, the high angle structure feeds geothermal fluids into cavernous limestone beds, dipping to the west usually between 40 and 60 degrees, which is a

  15. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sternberg, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Celebrated mathematician Shlomo Sternberg, a pioneer in the field of dynamical systems, created this modern one-semester introduction to the subject for his classes at Harvard University. Its wide-ranging treatment covers one-dimensional dynamics, differential equations, random walks, iterated function systems, symbolic dynamics, and Markov chains. Supplementary materials offer a variety of online components, including PowerPoint lecture slides for professors and MATLAB exercises.""Even though there are many dynamical systems books on the market, this book is bound to become a classic. The the

  16. Physical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Belkind, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Based on the concept of a physical system, this book offers a new philosophical interpretation of classical mechanics and the Special Theory of Relativity. According to Belkind's view the role of physical theory is to describe the motions of the parts of a physical system in relation to the motions of the whole. This approach provides a new perspective into the foundations of physical theory, where motions of parts and wholes of physical systems are taken to be fundamental, prior to spacetime, material properties and laws of motion. He defends this claim with a constructive project, deriving b

  17. Creative systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2007-01-01

    At udvikle systemer har altid været et væsentligt element i den arkitektoniske skabelsesproces. Systemer er ikke nødvendigvis begrænsninger, men kan ses som positive faktorer i skabelses og fremstillinsprocessen. Center for Industriel Arkitektur, Cinark, har afholdt en international konference, en...... workshop og en udstilling under overskriften; Creative Systems. Artiklen præsenterer de fire oplægsholdere Matilda McQuaid, Mark West, Stephen Kieran og Ludger Hovestadt og en række diskussionstemaer....

  18. Recommender Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lü, Linyuan; Yeung, Chi Ho; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Internet greatly increases the necessity of effective recommender systems for filtering the abundant information. Extensive research for recommender systems is conducted by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and practical achievements, unification and comparison of different approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article, we review recent developments in recommender systems and discuss the major challenges. We compare and evaluate available algorithms and examine their roles in the future developments. In addition to algorithms, physical aspects are described to illustrate macroscopic behavior of recommender systems. Potential impacts and future directions are discussed. We emphasize that recommendation has a great scientific depth and combines diverse research fields which makes it of interests for physicists as well as interdisciplinar...

  19. Avionics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Soundar Rajan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ‘Avionics’ systems, over the decades, have grown from simple communication radios and navigation equipments to complex integrated equipments primarily infiuenced by dominance of digital technology. Continuous growth in integrated circuit technology, functional integration of complete system on chip, very high speed communication channels and fault tolerant communication protocols have brought remarkable advancements in avionics systems. Further Mechanical and Pneumatic functional blocks are being replaced by digital systems progressively and decisively. New generation aircraft are being built around powerful avionics assets to provide stress free cockpit to the pilot.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.129-130, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4269

  20. AEG System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The AEG System is used to create, revise, approve, and distribute text of the AEGS and Flight Standard Board (FSB)/Type Rating Report. The MMEL specifies under what...

  1. Bubble systems

    CERN Document Server

    Avdeev, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems, ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems, boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary. Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth (dynamically and thermally controlled), collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation (condensation) in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems. This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil...

  2. Health systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büchner, Vera Antonia; Hinz, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates potential changes in hospital performance after health system entry, while differentiating between hospital technical and cost efficiency and hospital profitability. In the first stage we obtained (bootstrapped) data envelopment analysis (DEA) efficiency scores. Then......, genetic matching is used as a novel matching procedure in this context along with a difference-in-difference approach within a panel regression framework. With the genetic matching procedure, independent and health system hospitals are matched along a number of environmental and organizational...... characteristics. The results show that health system entry increases hospital technical and cost efficiency by between 0.6 and 3.4 % in four alternative post-entry periods, indicating that health system entry has not a transitory but rather a permanent effect on hospital efficiency. Regarding hospital...

  3. Bitcoin System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jan Lánský

    2017-01-01

    .... Bitcoin is the first and also the most widespread cryptocurrency. The aim of this article is to introduce Bitcoin system using a language understandable also to readers without computer science education...

  4. Systems failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Macleod, Anna

    1998-01-01

    Systems Failure A solo exhibition of new work by Anna Macleod developed in conversation with curator Liz Burns. The Dock, Carrick on Shannon, Co Leitrim. Ireland. 12th February – 17th April 2010. The works for the exhibition Systems Failure include drawings, prints and small constructions that examine the delicate balance that exists between need and aspects of failure rooted in the relationship between humanity and land use. The work seeks to question the relationship between scient...

  5. Nanorobotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Dong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Two strategies towards the realization of nanotechnology have been presented, i.e., top-down and bottom up. The former one is mainly based on nanofabrication and includes technologies such as nano-lithography, nano-imprint, and etching. Presently, they are still 2D fabrication processes with low resolution. The later one is an assembly-based technique. At present, it includes such items as self-assembly, dip-pen lithography, and directed self-assembly. These techniques can generate regular nano patterns in large scales. To fabricate 3D complex nano devices there are still no effective ways by so far. Here we show our effort on the development of a nano laboratory, a prototype nanomanufacturing system, based on nanorobotic manipulations. In which, we take a hybrid strategy as shown in Fig. 1. In this system, nano fabrication and nano assembly can be performed in an arbitrary order to construct nano building blocks and finally nano devices. The most important feature in this system is that the products can be fed back into the system to shrink the system part by part leading to nanorobots. Property characterization can be performed in each intermediate process. Due to the nanorobotic manipulation system, dynamic measurement can be performed rather than conventional static observations.

  6. System-of-Systems Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Kopetz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The global availability of communication services makes it possible to interconnect independently developed systems, called constituent systems, to provide new synergistic services and more efficient economic processes. The characteristics of these new Systems-of-Systems are qualitatively different from the classic monolithic systems. In the first part of this presentation we elaborate on these differences, particularly with respect to the autonomy of the constituent systems, to dependability, continuous evolution, and emergence. In the second part we look at a SoS from the point of view of cognitive complexity. Cognitive complexity is seen as a relation between a model of an SoS and the observer. In order to understand the behavior of a large SoS we have to generate models of adequate simplicity, i.e, of a cognitive complexity that can be handled by the limited capabilities of the human mind. We will discuss the importance of properly specifying and placing the relied-upon message interfaces between the constituent systems that form an open SoS and discuss simplification strategies that help to reduce the cognitive complexity.

  7. Systems Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  8. The interplay between tectonics and volcanism: a key to unravel the nature of Andean geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembrano, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    subvertical pathways for magma ascent and shorter residence times. This in turn prevents advanced magma differentiation. However, in the SVZ, transtensional and transpressional domains coexist in space and time. On one end of the spectrum, a plumbing system dominated by NNE-striking subvertical strike-slip faults and ENE-striking tension cracks will favor rapid ascent of magmas from the asthenospheric wedge with little crustal contamination. On the other end, a system of long-lived NW-striking faults and subhorizontal cracks will favor longer residence times and episodic magma fractionation, which in turn allow eruption of evolved magmas, similar to those of the CVZ. Whereas the transtensional fault-fracture network does not require fluid overpressures to operate, the compressional/transpressional does. This is consistent with the higher presence of volatiles accompanying magma differentiation in the more felsic magmas of the CVZ and the NW-trending volcanic chains of the SVZ. The same fundamental processes that drive the interplay between volcanism and tectonics may also control the nature, geometry and composition of geothermal reservoirs in the Andean volcanic arc.

  9. Systemic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering.

  10. Fiber-Optic Magnetic-Field-Strength Measurement System for Lightning Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurecki, Jay; Scully, Robert; Davis, Allen; Kirkendall, Clay; Bucholtz, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A fiber-optic sensor system is designed to measure magnetic fields associated with a lightning stroke. Field vector magnitudes are detected and processed for multiple locations. Since physical limitations prevent the sensor elements from being located in close proximity to highly conductive materials such as aluminum, the copper wire sensor elements (3) are located inside a 4-cubic-in. (.66-cubic-cm) plastic housing sensor head and connected to a fiber-optic conversion module by shielded cabling, which is limited to the shortest length feasible. The signal path between the conversion module and the avionics unit which processes the signals are fiber optic, providing enhanced immunity from electromagnetic radiation incident in the vicinity of the measurements. The sensors are passive, lightweight, and much smaller than commercial B-dot sensors in the configuration which measures a three-dimensional magnetic field. The system is expandable, and provides a standard-format output signal for downstream processing. Inside of the sensor head, three small search coils, each having a few turns on a circular form, are mounted orthogonally inside the non-metallic housing. The fiber-optic conversion module comprises three interferometers, one for each search coil. Each interferometer has a high bandwidth optical phase modulator that impresses the signal received from its search coil onto its output. The output of each interferometer travels by fiber optic cable to the avionics unit, and the search coil signal is recovered by an optical phase demodulator. The output of each demodulator is fed to an analog-to-digital converter, whose sampling rate is determined by the maximum expected rate of rise and peak signal magnitude. The output of the digital processor is a faithful reproduction of the coil response to the incident magnetic field. This information is provided in a standard output format on a 50-ohm port that can be connected to any number of data collection and processing

  11. Turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson

    2016-05-03

    A turbine system is disclosed. The turbine system includes a transition duct having an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The turbine system further includes a turbine section connected to the transition duct. The turbine section includes a plurality of shroud blocks at least partially defining a hot gas path, a plurality of buckets at least partially disposed in the hot gas path, and a plurality of nozzles at least partially disposed in the hot gas path. At least one of a shroud block, a bucket, or a nozzle includes means for withstanding high temperatures.

  12. System Description:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Poswolsky, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Delphin is a functional programming language [Adam Poswolsky and Carsten Schürmann. Practical programming with higher-order encodings and dependent types. In European Symposium on Programming (ESOP), 2008] utilizing dependent higher-order datatypes. Delphin's two-level type-system cleanly separates...... data from computation, allowing for decidable type checking. The data level is LF [Robert Harper, Furio Honsell, and Gordon Plotkin. A framework for defining logics. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery, 40(1):143-184, January 1993], which allows for the specification of deductive systems...

  13. Lubrication system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadding, C.; Lagasse, N.L.; Milo, G.T.; Vankamerik, J.G.

    1986-02-11

    This patent describes a lubrication system for controlling the flow of lubricant as a function of the altitude at which a gas turbine engine is operating. This lubrication system is comprised of: 1.) A source of lubricant under pressure; 2.) A unit requiring lubrication; 3.) A movable valve in fluid communication with the source and with the unit for regulating the flow of lubricant from the source to the unit; and 4.) An altitude sensor associated with the movable valve for positioning the movable valve to control the flow of lubricant from the source to the unit, as a function of the altitude at which the engine is operating.

  14. Microbiology System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

  15. [Systemic scleroderma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunzelmann, N

    2013-04-01

    Systemic scleroderma is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting the skin, internal organs and the musculoskeletal system. The presence of Raynaud phenomenon, anti-nuclear antibodies and pathologic capillaroscopy are early signs of the disease. Limited cutaneous SSc, diffuse cutaneous SSc and SSc-overlap syndromes are the main clinical subtypes. Multidisciplinary care is mandatory. Follow-up examinations should be performed at least annually in order to recognize in a timely fashion treatable organ involvement such as pulmonary arterial hypertension. Besides symptomatic treatment of organ involvement, immunosuppressive therapy is indicated for a progressive inflammatory course.

  16. Computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lola

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the discussions, Ocean Climate Data Workshop hosts gave participants an opportunity to hear about, see, and test for themselves some of the latest computer tools now available for those studying climate change and the oceans. Six speakers described computer systems and their functions. The introductory talks were followed by demonstrations to small groups of participants and some opportunities for participants to get hands-on experience. After this familiarization period, attendees were invited to return during the course of the Workshop and have one-on-one discussions and further hands-on experience with these systems. Brief summaries or abstracts of introductory presentations are addressed.

  17. Helium isotope data from the Goldfield epithermal system, Nevada: Evidence for volatile input from a primitive mantle source during ore formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, A. H.; Manning, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    crust. This exceptional volatile plumbing system may be an important ingredient in the formation of large, high sulfidation gold deposits. The ascent of mantle-sourced volatiles may be related to the coeval transition from transpression to transtension within the western North American plate caused by microplate capture along the San Andreas transform.

  18. The rare earth element geochemistry of acid-sulphate and acid-sulphate-chloride geothermal systems from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anita J.; Palmer, Martin R.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Kemp, Anthony J.

    1997-02-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) in acid-sulphate and acid-sulphate-chloride waters and the associated sinters and volcanic rocks from the Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA, geothermal system. REE concentrations in the volcanic rocks range from 222 to 347 ppm; their chondite-normalised REE patterns are typical of upper continental crust, with LREE > HREE and negative Eu anomalies. Total REE concentrations in the fluids range from 3 to 1133 nmol kg -1 (≥ 162 ppm), and ΣREE concentrations in sinter are ≥ 181 ppm. REE abundances and patterns in drill core material from YNP indicate some REE mobility. Normalisation of REE concentrations in altered Lava Creek Tuff (LCT) from Y-12 drill core to REE concentrations in fresh LCT indicate that the REE overall have been depleted with the exception of Eu, which has been decoupled from the REE series and concentrated in the altered rocks. Relative to the host rocks the REE patterns of the fluids are variably depleted in HREEs and LREEs, and usually have a pronounced positive Eu anomaly. This decoupling of Eu from the REE suite suggests that (1) Eu has been preferentially removed either from the host rock glass or from the host rock minerals, or (2) the waters are from a high temperature or reducing environment where Eu 2+ is more soluble than the trivalent REEs. Since the latter is inconsistent with production of acid-sulphate springs in a low temperature, oxidising near-surface environment, we suggest that the positive Eu anomalies in the fluids result from preferential dissolution of a Eu-rich phase in the host rock. Spatial and temporal variations in major element chemistry and pH of the springs sampled from Norris Geyser Basin and Crater Hills accompany variations in REE concentrations and patterns of individual geothermal springs. These are possibly related to changes in subsurface plumbing, which results in variations in

  19. Logistics of water and salt transport through the plant: structure and functioning of the xylem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de A.H.; Volkov, V.

    2003-01-01

    The xylem is a long-distance transport system that is unique to higher plants. It evolved into a very sophisticated plumbing system ensuring controlled loading/unloading of ions and water and their effective translocation to the required sinks. The focus of this overview will be the intrinsic

  20. 26 CFR 1.1250-5 - Property with two or more elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... property or properties are disposed of. Thus, for example, if a taxpayer, who owns a motel consisting of 10 buildings with common heating and plumbing systems, adds to the motel three new buildings which are connected to the common systems, and if the taxpayer sells the motel to one person in one transaction,...