WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-metal recyclable components

  1. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-01

    The world's waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite before the reutilization of the cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass, and the recycling of liquid crystal display (LCD) glass is economically viable for the containing of precious metals (indium and tin). However, the environmental assessment of the recycling process is essential and important before the industrialized production stage. For example, noise and dust should be evaluated during the glass cutting process. This study could contribute

  2. PVC-based composite material containing recycled non-metallic printed circuit board (PCB) powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinjie; Guo, Yuwen; Liu, Jingyang; Qiao, Qi; Liang, Jijun

    2010-12-01

    The study is directed to the use of non-metallic powders obtained from comminuted recycled paper-based printed circuit boards (PCBs) as an additive to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrate. The physical properties of the non-metallic PCB (NMPCB) powders were measured, and the morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of the NMPCB/PVC composite material were investigated. The results show that recycled NMPCB powders, when added below a threshold, tended to increase the tensile strength and bending strength of PVC. When 20 wt% NMPCB powders (relative to the substrate PVC) of an average diameter of 0.08 mm were added, the composite tensile strength and bending strength reached 22.6 MPa and 39.83 MPa, respectively, representing 107.2% and 123.1% improvement over pure PVC. The elongation at break of the composite material reached 151.94% of that of pure PVC, while the Vicat softening temperature of the composite material did not increase significantly compared to the pure PVC. The above results suggest that paper-based NMPCB powders, when used at appropriate amounts, can be effective for toughening PVC. Thus, this study suggests a new route for reusing paper-based NMPCB, which may have a significant beneficial environmental impact.

  3. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • NMFs from WEEE were treated by incineration or land filling in the past. • Environmental risks such as heavy metals and BFRs will be the major problems during the NMFs recycling processes. • Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glasses are reviewed. • More environmental impact assessment should be carried out to evaluate the environmental risks of the recycling products. - Abstract: The world’s waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite

  4. Recycling of magnesium drive train components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel FEGHNER; Carsten BLAWERT; Norbert HORT; Karl Ulrich KAINER

    2009-01-01

    With the development of new heat resistant magnesium alloys, the automotive industry has introduced several parts to the drive train. The rising number of large magnesium components will result in a higher quantity of automotive post consumer scrap. It was the aim of this work to find a reasonable alloy system for the recycling of these magnesium drive train components. A matrix of potential recy-cling alloys based on the magnesium alloy AM50 was prepared via permanent mould casting. The ma-terials were investigated via tensile testing, creep tests and salt spray tests. Three alloys were selected for processing via high pressure die casting and the tests were repeated on the new materials. A promising system for recycling has been isolated and will be investigated more deeply for the influence of impurities.

  5. Recycling of magnesium drive train components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel; FECHNER; Carsten; BLAWERT; Norbert; HORT; Karl; Ulrich; KAINER

    2009-01-01

    With the development of new heat resistant magnesium alloys, the automotive industry has introduced several parts to the drive train. The rising number of large magnesium components will result in a higher quantity of automotive post consumer scrap. It was the aim of this work to find a reasonable alloy system for the recycling of these magnesium drive train components. A matrix of potential recy-cling alloys based on the magnesium alloy AM50 was prepared via permanent mould casting. The materials were investigated via tensile testing, creep tests and salt spray tests. Three alloys were selected for processing via high pressure die casting and the tests were repeated on the new materials. A promising system for recycling has been isolated and will be investigated more deeply for the influence of impurities.

  6. 废弃电路板中非金属组分的回收利用%Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste printed circuit boards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旸; 刘静欣; 江晓健; 郭学益

    2016-01-01

    废弃电路板是电子废弃物的重要组成部分。目前工业生产及工艺开发多针对极具经济回收价值的电路板金属组分。然而,占电路板质量分数70%的非金属组分却关注较少。文章分析了废弃电路板非金属组分的组成及其有害组分,其含有树脂及玻璃纤维等有价成分和溴、夹杂重金属等污染环境的物质,其回收利用对于资源循环利用及环境保护均有重要意义。非金属组分回收利用主要有物理处理和化学处理2种技术:物理处理技术主要将非金属组分用作结构材料填料、塑料改性剂和建筑材料改性剂;化学处理技术通过焚烧将非金属组分用作燃料和熔剂或通过热解回收或溶剂分解回收可将非金属组分转化为化工产品。这2种技术在非金属组分资源化利用上各有优势,都已有部分工业化应用。%Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are important parts in the electronic waste. Nowadays, recov-ering metals from WPCBs are developed but non-metallic fractions which accounts for 70% of waste printed circuit boards have not been effectively utilized. The non-metallic fractions and hazards in waste printed cir-cuit boards were analyzed in this paper. The results show that resins and glass fiber in non-metallic fractions can be recycled and bromine and heavy metals could pollute environment. Recovering non-metallic fractions are important to recycling and environment, which can be divided into physical recycling technology and chemical recycling technology, with the formal using non-metallic fractions as the filler materials, plastic modifier or building material modifiers, and the latter using non-metallic fractions as the fuel and smelting flux through incineration or convert non-metallic fractions into chemical products through pyrolysis or solvent decomposition. Both technologies have their own advantages in resource utilization of non-metallic fractions, and partly

  7. Analysis of the treatment of plastic from electrical and electronic waste in the Republic of Serbia and the testing of the recycling potential of non-metallic fractions of printed circuit boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Aleksandra S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the quantity of plastic and waste printed circuit boards obtained after the mechanical treatment of electrical and electronic waste (E-waste in the Republic of Serbia, as well as the recycling of non-metallic fractions of waste printed circuit boards. The aim is to analyze the obtained recycled material and recommendation for possible application of recyclables. The data on the quantities and treatment of plastics and printed circuit boards obtained after the mechanical treatment of WEEE, were gained through questionnaires sent to the operators who treat this type of waste. The results of the questionnaire analysis showed that in 2014 the dismantling of E-waste isolated 1,870.95 t of plastic and 499.85 t of printed circuit boards. In the Republic of Serbia, E-waste recycling is performed exclusively by using mechanical methods. Mechanical methods consist of primary crushing and separation of the materials which have a utility value as secondary raw materials, from the components and materials that have hazardous properties. Respect to that, the recycling of printed circuit boards using some of the metallurgical processes with the aim of extracting copper, precious metals and non-metallic fraction is completely absent, and the circuit boards are exported as a whole. Given the number of printed circuit boards obtained by E-waste dismantling, and the fact that from an economic point of view, hydrometallurgical methods are very suitable technological solutions in the case of a smaller capacity, there is a possibility for establishing the facilities in the Republic of Serbia for the hydrometallurgical treatment that could be used for metals extraction, and non-metallic fractions, which also have their own value. Printed circuit boards granulate obtained after the mechanical pretreatment and the selective removal of metals by hydrometallurgical processes was used for the testing of the recycling potential

  8. An innovate method to recycle non-metallic materials from waste printed circuit board.%废线路板非金属物料再生利用新型工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段华波; 李金惠; 王斯婷

    2012-01-01

    The reuse of non-metallic material separated from PWBs residues before and after thermo-shocked pretreatment was investigated. With the blending of various additives from silane coupling agents, lubricant agents, anti-oxidizing agents to processing modifier, the non-metallic material could be filled to produce polymeric composite materials subjected to the injection and molding processes. Said method was also appropriate to thermo-shocked non-metallic material. The mechanical property was qualified by compared with the standard limit of related composite materials. The maximum amount of recyclate that could be added to a composite board was 30% of weight, with the additive agents of: silane coupling agents (1%), lubricant agents (1%), anti-oxidizing agents (1%) and processing modifier (5%).%以加热改性处理前后的废线路板非金属物料为对象,对其再生利用工艺进行了研究.通过添加硅烷偶联剂、润滑剂、抗氧化剂和改性剂等助剂改性共混,基于挤出注塑成型工艺过程,可制备废线路板非金属物料填充增强聚丙烯复合板材,该工艺同时可适合一定温度条件下加热改性处理后的非金属物料,其主要力学性能符合相关制品产品质量标准.确定的优化参数为:非金属物料添加质量分数30%,添加助剂包括硅烷偶联剂(1%)、润滑剂(1%)、抗氧化剂(1%)和改性剂(5%).

  9. Recycling: key component of a sustainable development strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapham, M. [Natural Resources Canada, Mineral and Metal Policy Branch, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Challenges facing the recycling industry in Canada and elsewhere, some tools, standards and methods that are used to address these challenges and examples of how sustainable development strategies are being incorporated into the corporate business plans of the recycling industry are discussed. Support of senior management, commitment of resources and recognition that implementation of recycling strategies may take several years, are identified as some of the prerequisites to successful implementation of sustainable development strategies. The role government plays in encouraging the changing awareness by industry of the need for balancing environmental, economic and social needs are also reviewed. 10 refs.

  10. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing Part I: System Analysis, Component Identification, Additive Manufacturing, and Testing of Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Haller, William J.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Schnulo, Sydney L.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Weir, Don; Wali, Natalie; Vinup, Michael; Jones, Michael G.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom; Mehl, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The research and development activities reported in this publication were carried out under NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) funded project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing." The objective of the project was to conduct evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. The results of the activities are described in three part report. The first part of the report contains the data and analysis of engine system trade studies, which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. The technical scope of activities included an assessment of the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composites, which were accomplished by fabricating prototype engine components and testing them in simulated engine operating conditions. The manufacturing process parameters were developed and optimized for polymer and ceramic composites (described in detail in the second and third part of the report). A number of prototype components (inlet guide vane (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included turbine nozzle components. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  11. Sustainable Non-Metallic Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Tretsiakova-McNally

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the largest energy consumers and greenhouse gases emitters, both in the developed and developing countries. In continental Europe, the energy use in buildings alone is responsible for up to 50% of carbon dioxide emission. Urgent changes are, therefore, required relating to energy saving, emissions control, production and application of materials, use of renewable resources, and to recycling and reuse of building materials. In addition, the development of new eco-friendly building materials and practices is of prime importance owing to the growing environmental concerns. This review reflects the key tendencies in the sector of sustainable building materials of a non-metallic nature that have occurred over the past decade or so.

  12. Recycling Flight Hardware Components and Systems to Reduce Next Generation Research Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Wlat

    2011-01-01

    With the recent 'new direction' put forth by President Obama identifying NASA's new focus in research rather than continuing on a path to return to the Moon and Mars, the focus of work at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) may be changing dramatically. Research opportunities within the micro-gravity community potentially stands at the threshold of resurgence when the new direction of the agency takes hold for the next generation of experimenters. This presentation defines a strategy for recycling flight experiment components or part numbers, in order to reduce research project costs, not just in component selection and fabrication, but in expediting qualification of hardware for flight. A key component of the strategy is effective communication of relevant flight hardware information and available flight hardware components to researchers, with the goal of 'short circuiting' the design process for flight experiments

  13. Recycling of subducted crustal components into carbonatite melts revealed by boron isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulett, Samuel R. W.; Simonetti, Antonio; Rasbury, E. Troy; Hemming, N. Gary

    2016-12-01

    The global boron geochemical cycle is closely linked to recycling of geologic material via subduction processes that have occurred over billions of years of Earth’s history. The origin of carbonatites, unique melts derived from carbon-rich and carbonate-rich regions of the upper mantle, has been linked to a variety of mantle-related processes, including subduction and plume-lithosphere interaction. Here we present boron isotope (δ11B) compositions for carbonatites from locations worldwide that span a wide range of emplacement ages (between ~40 and ~2,600 Ma). Hence, they provide insight into the temporal evolution of their mantle sources for ~2.6 billion years of Earth’s history. Boron isotope values are highly variable and range between -8.6‰ and +5.5‰, with all of the young (-4.0‰), whereas most of the older carbonatite samples record lower B isotope values. Given the δ11B value for asthenospheric mantle of -7 +/- 1‰, the B isotope compositions for young carbonatites require the involvement of an enriched (crustal) component. Recycled crustal components may be sampled by carbonatite melts associated with mantle plume activity coincident with major tectonic events, and linked to past episodes of significant subduction associated with supercontinent formation.

  14. How does recycling of sediment components in arc magmatism really work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, P.; Hacker, B.; Austin, N.

    2007-12-01

    Past work indicates substantial recycling of a sediment component rich in LILE, Th, Sr, Pb and LREE in arcs. For example, in the relatively well-constrained case of Central America, Plank et al (Geology 02) estimate that 80% of subducted, sedimentary Th is recycled in arc magmas. To understand how such a component is transferred from subducted sediment to arc lava, we examined trace-element variation in (a) mid-crustal (0.4 GPa) contact metamorphic rocks (Austin & Kelemen, Fall 06 AGU) and (b) ultrahigh-pressure (UHP, > 3 GPa) metasediments. Most UHP samples were metamorphosed along subduction-zone geotherms (Hacker, Int Geol Rev 06), but some record substantially higher T (e.g., Erzgebirge & Kokchetav, Massone EPSL 03). Unmelted, mid-crustal metapelites are indistinguishable from pelitic sediments for the entire suite of elements analyzed by ICP-MS at WSU. Melt extraction from the mid-crustal metapelites led to systematic depletion of incompatible elements in high-grade hornfels. Depletion increases with decreasing distance to the contact with a mafic pluton, most clearly at peak T > 750°C. In contrast, although many UHP metapelites record PT above the aqueous fluid-saturated solidus, and have fluid inclusions and/or hydrous phases, compared to pelites they show no detectable depletion of "fluid-mobile" elements such as LILE (Cs, Rb, Ba, U, K), Sr and Pb, no depletion of "fluid-immobile, incompatible" elements such as Th and LREE, and no systematic change in key soluble/insoluble ratios such as Ba/Th or K/Zr up to ~1000 C. Mobility of incompatible elements is evident for T > 1000 C, well above PT for subduction-zone geotherms. Presumably, trace phases rich in LILE, Th and LREE persist to ~1050 C in metapelites at UHP conditions.How can our observations be reconciled with the recycled sediment component in arc lavas? Our preferred hypothesis is that low-density metasediments rise into the mantle wedge when heating yields viscosities low enough for density

  15. Management status of end-of-life vehicles and development strategies of used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjun; Chen, Ming

    2012-11-01

    Recycling companies play a leading role in the system of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in China. Automotive manufacturers in China are rarely involved in recycling ELVs, and they seldom provide dismantling information for recycling companies. In addition, no professional shredding plant is available. The used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China has yet to take shape because of the lack of supporting technology and profitable models. Given the rapid growth of the vehicle population and electronic control units in automotives in China, the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry requires immediate development. This paper analyses the current recycling system of ELVs in China and introduces the automotive product recycling technology roadmap as well as the recycling industry development goals. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges of the current used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China are analysed comprehensively based on the 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats' (SWOT) method. The results of the analysis indicate that this recycling industry responds well to all the factors and has good opportunities for development. Based on the analysis, new development strategies for the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in accordance with the actual conditions of China are presented.

  16. Field test results for nitrogen removal by the constructed wetland component of an agricultural water recycling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation Systems (WRSIS) are innovative agricultural water recycling systems that can provide economic and environmental benefits. A constructed wetland is a main component of WRSIS, and an important function of this constructed wetland is drainage water treatment of nitrog...

  17. Study on recycling of waste rubbers as medium components for hydroponic culture of rose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin-Kuk; Lee, Hyung-Gyu; Jeong, Byoung-Ryong; Hwang, Seung-Jae [Gyeongsang National Univ., Kumi(Korea)

    2000-06-30

    Recently, the efficient disposal of the waste rubber is necessary due to increasing amount of the waste rubbers. In this paper, method of recycling waste rubbers as components of medium for hydroponic rose culture was suggested. We investigated growth of rose, and macro- and micro-elements, pH and EC of the media amended with waste rubber. In the beginning of culture, stress symptoms such as thin brittle stem and incipient wilting were observed, but they disappeared in a few weeks. Concentration of Zn{sup 2+} in media at flowering increased in proportion to contents of waste tire in the media. pH of media at flowering were in the range of 5.70 to 6.35. Rose growth in all media, except in waste rock wool mixed with EPDM powder at 9:3 ratio, was normal and equivalent to the control in terms of stem length, number of stems harvested and fresh weight. (author). 10 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Cold in-place recycling characterization framework for single or multiple component binder systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Benjamin C.

    Cold in-place recycling (CIR) is a pavement rehabilitation technique which has gained momentum in recent years. This momentum is due partly to its economic and sustainability characteristics, which has led to CIR market expansion. When pavement network deterioration is considered alongside increasing material costs, it is not beyond reason to expect demands on CIR to continue to increase. Historically, single component binder (SCB) systems, those with one stabilization binder (or two if the secondary binder dosage is 1% or less), have dominated the CIR market and could be considered the general state of practice. Common stabilization binders are either bituminous or cementitious. Two example SCB systems would be: 1) 3% portland cement, or 2) 3% asphalt emulsion with 1% hydrated lime. While traditional SCB systems have demonstrated positive economic and sustainability impacts, this dissertation focuses on multiple component binder (MCB) systems (bituminous and cementitious combined) which exhibit the potential to provide better overall economics and performance. Use of MCBs has the potential to alleviate SCB issues to some extent (e.g. cracking with cementitious SCBs, rutting with bituminous SCBs). Furthermore, to fairly represent both binders in an MCB system a universal design method which can accommodate multiple binder types is needed. The main objectives of this dissertation are to develop a universal CIR design framework and, using this framework, characterize multiple SCB and MCB systems. Approximately 1500 CIR specimens were tested herein along with approximately 300 asphalt concrete specimens which serve as a reference data set for CIR characterization. A case study of a high-traffic Mississippi CIR project which included cement SCB and emulsion SCB sections is also presented to support laboratory efforts. Individual components needed to comprise a universal design framework, such as curing protocols, were developed. SCB and MCB characterization indicated

  19. Progress on Plant-Level Components for Nuclear Fuel Recycling: Commonality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Progress made in developing a common mathematical modeling framework for plant-level components of a simulation toolkit for nuclear fuel recycling is summarized. This ongoing work is performed under the DOE Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program which has an element focusing on safeguards and separations (SafeSeps). One goal of this element is to develop a modeling and simulation toolkit for used nuclear fuel recycling. The primary function of the SafeSeps simulation toolkit is to enable the time-dependent coupling of separation modules and safeguards tools (either native or third-party supplied) that simulate and/or monitor the individual separation processes in a separations plant. The toolkit integration environment will offer an interface for the modules to register in the toolkit domain based on the commonality of diverse unit operations. This report discusses the source of this commonality from a combined mathematical modeling and software design perspectives, and it defines the initial basic concepts needed for development of application modules and their integrated form, that is, an application software. A unifying mathematical theory of chemical thermomechanical network transport for physicochemical systems is proposed and outlined as the basis for developing advanced modules. A program for developing this theory from the underlying first-principles continuum thermomechanics will be needed in future developments; accomplishment of this task will enable the development of a modern modeling approach for plant-level models. Rigorous, advanced modeling approaches at the plant-level can only proceed from the development of reduced (or low-order) models based on a solid continuum field theory foundation. Such development will pave the way for future programmatic activities on software verification, simulation validation, and model uncertainty quantification on a scientific basis; currently, no satisfactory foundation exists for

  20. Migration of styrene and ethylbenzene from virgin and recycled expanded polystyrene containers and discrimination of these two kinds of polystyrene by principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qin-Bao; Song, Xue-Chao; Fang, Hong; Wu, Yu-Mei; Wang, Zhi-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The migration of styrene and ethylbenzene from virgin and recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS) containers into isooctane was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). EPS containers were in two-sided contact with isooctane at temperatures of 25 and 40°C. It was shown that recycled EPS gave greater migration ratios compared with virgin EPS, which indicated that styrene and ethylbenzene migrated more easily from recycled EPS. In addition, an analytical method to distinguish between virgin and recycled EPS containers was established by GC-MS followed by principal component analysis (PCA). The relative peak area of the identified compounds was used as input data for PCA. Distinct separation between virgin and recycled EPS was achieved on a score plot. Extension of this method to other plastics may be of great interest for recycled plastics identification.

  1. Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Lawrence [Edison, NJ

    2012-02-28

    The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

  2. A study on non-metallic structure of heliostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaobin; Zang Chuncheng; Zhang Xiliang; Wang Yangzhong; Du Fengli [Himin Solar Energy Group Co., Ltd, Dezhou City (China); Wang Zhifeng [Inst. of Electrical Engineering, CAS, BJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    Heliostat constitutes a very important component in the solar power tower system. Its importance derives from three aspects: one is the large proportion in the total cost, accounting for about 50% of the whole, the other is its concentration efficiency and reflectivity heavily determining the power conversion from solar thermal energy to electrical energy, another is itself power consumption amount highly expressing failure or success of the power plant. Therefore, serious efforts and considerations from the structure, motion and control mode to material selection have to be given in the design and optimization of heliostat. In the present paper, the mechanical and aging performance of non-metallic materials is investigated and compared. The possibility of these non-metallic materials in the application of heliostat structure is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Super-Absorbent polymer gels for oil and grease removal from metal and non-metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research is to develop a new surface cleaning technology for removal of oil, grease and particulate matters from metal and non-metal surfaces. It is desired that the cleaner is in solid form and is VOC-exempt, HAP-free, non-toxic, non-corrosive, non-ozone depleting, recyclable...

  4. Influence of non-metallic second phases on fatigue behaviour of high strength steel components; Efecto de segundas fases no metalicas sobre el comportamiento a fatiga de componentes de acero con elevadas solicitaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, L.; Elvira, R.; Garcia de Andoin, A.; Pizarro, R.; Bertrand, C.

    2005-07-01

    To assess the real effect of the inclusion type on fatigue life of ultra clean high strength steels mechanical components made of 100Cr6 steel were fatigue tested and fracture surfaces analysed to determine the origin of fatigue cracks.Two heats proceedings from different steelmaking routes were taken for the tests. The material were forged into ring shape components which were fatigue tested under compression-compression loads. Failures were analysed by SFEM (Scanning field Emission Microscopy), proving that most of failures at high loads were originated by manganese sulphides of small size (10-70 micros), while less than 40% of all fatigue cracks due to inclusions were caused by titanium carbonitrides and hard oxides. It has been demonstrated that once number and size of hard inclusions have been reduced, the hazardous effect of oxides and carbonitrides on the fatigue life decreases also. However, softer inclusions as manganese sulphides, currently considered as less hazardous, play a more relevant role as direct cause of fatigue failure and they should be taken into account in a deeper way in order to balance both machinability and fatigue life requirements in high strength steel components. (Author) 11 refs.

  5. Evolutionary recycling of light signaling components in fleshy fruits: new insights on the role of pigments to monitor ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briardo eLlorente

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides an essential source of energy, light provides environmental information to plants. Photosensory pathways are thought to have occurred early in plant evolution, probably at the time of the Archaeplastida ancestor, or perhaps even earlier. Manipulation of individual components of light perception and signaling networks in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum affects the metabolism of ripening fruit at several levels. Most strikingly, recent experiments have shown that some of the molecular mechanisms originally devoted to sense and respond to environmental light cues have been re-adapted during evolution to provide plants with useful information on fruit ripening progression. In particular, the presence of chlorophylls in green fruit can strongly influence the spectral composition of the light filtered through the fruit pericarp. The concomitant changes in light quality can be perceived and transduced by phytochromes and phytochrome-interacting factors, respectively, to regulate gene expression and in turn modulate the production of carotenoids, a family of metabolites that are relevant for the final pigmentation of ripe fruits. We raise the hypothesis that the evolutionary recycling of light-signaling components to finely adjust pigmentation to the actual ripening stage of the fruit may have represented a selective advantage for primeval fleshy-fruited plants even before the extinction of dinosaurs.

  6. Biologically recycled continental iron is a major component in banded iron formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiqiang; Beard, Brian L; Johnson, Clark M

    2015-07-07

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) record a time of extensive Fe deposition in the Precambrian oceans, but the sources and pathways for metals in BIFs remain controversial. Here, we present Fe- and Nd-isotope data that indicate two sources of Fe for the large BIF units deposited 2.5 billion y ago. High-εNd and -δ(56)Fe signatures in some BIF samples record a hydrothermal component, but correlated decreases in εNd- and δ(56)Fe values reflect contributions from a continental component. The continental Fe source is best explained by Fe mobilization on the continental margin by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) and confirms for the first time, to our knowledge, a microbially driven Fe shuttle for the largest BIFs on Earth. Detailed sampling at various scales shows that the proportions of hydrothermal and continental Fe sources were invariant over periods of 10(0)-10(3) y, indicating that there was no seasonal control, although Fe sources varied on longer timescales of 10(5)-10(6) y, suggesting a control by marine basin circulation. These results show that Fe sources and pathways for BIFs reflect the interplay between abiologic (hydrothermal) and biologic processes, where the latter reflects DIR that operated on a basin-wide scale in the Archean.

  7. Multiscale imaging and characterization of the effect of mixing temperature on asphalt concrete containing recycled components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, M C; Griffa, M; Bressi, S; Partl, M N; Tebaldi, G; Poulikakos, L D

    2016-10-01

    When producing asphalt concrete mixture with high amounts of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), the mixing temperature plays a significant role in the resulting spatial distribution of the components as well as on the quality of the resulting mixture, in terms of workability during mixing and compaction as well as in service mechanical properties. Asphalt concrete containing 50% RAP was investigated at mixing temperatures of 140, 160 and 180°C, using a multiscale approach. At the microscale, using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy the RAP binder film thickness was visualized and measured. It was shown that at higher mixing temperatures this film thickness was reduced. The reduction in film thickness can be attributed to the loss of volatiles as well as the mixing of RAP binder with virgin binder at higher temperatures. X-ray computer tomography was used to characterize statistically the distribution of the RAP and virgin aggregates geometric features: volume, width and shape anisotropy. In addition using X-ray computer tomography, the packing and spatial distribution of the RAP and virgin aggregates was characterized using the nearest neighbour metric. It was shown that mixing temperature may have a positive effect on the spatial distribution of the aggregates but did not affect the packing. The study shows a tendency for the RAP aggregates to be more likely distributed in clusters at lower mixing temperatures. At higher temperatures, they were more homogeneously distributed. This indicates a higher degree of blending both at microscale (binder film) and macroscale (spatial distribution) between RAP and virgin aggregates as a result of increasing mixing temperatures and the ability to quantify this using various imaging techniques.

  8. Recycling power plant slag for use as aggregate in precast concrete components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orna Carmona, M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to eliminate waste generates costs. When considering the preservation of the environment, the minimization of the consumption of natural resources and energy savings criteria, the need and advisability of studying the feasibility of waste re-use seems clear. However, waste re-use depends on whether they are economically competitive. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the possible use of slag from a steam power station as aggregate in the manufacture of concrete. This study included the determination of the physical, chemical and thermal properties of the material, comparing the results to those required by the Spanish structural concrete code (EHE in determining their acceptance or rejection as a concrete component. The ultimate aim of the research was to determine the highest slag content that could be added to concrete without modifying its strength or durability, with a view to obtaining savings in the manufacture of precast structures.

    La necesidad de eliminar residuos genera gastos. Considerando criterios de conservación ambiental, minimización del consumo de recursos naturales y ahorro de energía parece claro la necesidad y conveniencia de estudiar la viabilidad del uso de residuos. Sin embargo la utilización de residuos depende de que sean competitivos económicamente. Por tanto el propósito de esta investigación es evaluar el posible uso de las escorias de fondo de una central térmica como áridos para la fabricación de hormigón. En este estudio se incluye la determinación de características físicas, químicas y térmicas y se han comparado los resultados a los requeridos por la EHE para determinar su aceptación o rechazo como componente de un hormigón. El objetivo final de la investigación responde a la utilización de hormigón con el máximo contenido en escorias sin modificar las condiciones de resistencia y durabilidad, consiguiendo un ahorro económico en la fabricación de estructuras

  9. Separation of the metallic and non-metallic fraction from printed circuit boards employing green technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Ruiz, R H; Flores-Campos, R; Gámez-Altamirano, H A; Velarde-Sánchez, E J

    2016-07-05

    The generation of electrical and electronic waste is increasing day by day; recycling is attractive because of the metallic fraction containing these. Nevertheless, conventional techniques are highly polluting. The comminution of the printed circuit boards followed by an inverse flotation process is a clean technique that allows one to separate the metallic fraction from the non-metallic fraction. It was found that particle size and superficial air velocity are the main variables in the separation of the different fractions. In this way an efficient separation is achieved by avoiding the environmental contamination coupled with the possible utilization of the different fractions obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Recycling Paper Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available What do you do after a product has served its function and is no longer needed? Ideally, you recycle it. What do you do if people have neglected or forgotten so much of what has been learned in recent years about paper recycling? Well, one of the things that someone can do is to write a book. Very little of the contents of such a book may be new. But the book itself can be highly valuable, representing a lot of effort to select and organized material that will be helpful for the current and upcoming generations of papermaking technologists. This editorial describes a new book by Dr. Pratima Bajpai entitled Recycling and Deinking of Recovered Paper. Readers who deal with the recycling of paper will probably want to have a copy of it on a handy shelf.

  11. Components of the peptidoglycan-recycling pathway modulate invasion and intracellular survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Eriksson, Sofia; Andersson, Mats; Park, James T; Normark, Staffan

    2005-01-01

    beta-Lactam resistance in enteric bacteria is frequently caused by mutations in ampD encoding a cytosolic N-acetylmuramyl- l-alanine amidase. Such mutants are blocked in murein (peptidoglycan) recycling and accumulate cytoplasmic muropeptides that interact with the transcriptional activator ampR, which de-represses beta-lactamase expression. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, an extensively studied enteric pathogen, was used to show that mutations in ampD decreased the ability of S. typhimurium to enter a macrophage derived cell line and made the bacteria more potent as inducers of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), as compared with the wild-type. ampG mutants, defective in the transport of recycled muropeptides across the cytoplasmic membrane, behaved essentially as the wild-type in invasion assays and in activation of iNOS. As ampD mutants also have reduced in vivo fitness in a murine model, we suggest that the cytoplasmic accumulation of muropeptides affects the virulence of the ampD mutants.

  12. Dynamic contribution of recycled components from the subducted Pacific slab: Oxygen isotopic composition of the basalts from 106 Ma to 60 Ma in North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Zi-Zhen; Yu, Hao-Ran; Xia, Qun-Ke; Deloule, Etienne; Feng, Min

    2017-02-01

    How the materials derived from the stagnant Pacific slab contributed to the mantle sources of the mafic rocks in east China is still in hot debate. In this work, δ18O (Vienna standard mean ocean water) values of clinopyroxene phenocrysts in the oceanic island basalts (OIB)-type mafic rocks from 106 Ma to 60 Ma in the east North China Craton (NCC) were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Our data show that for all of the samples, the δ18Ocpx are dominantly higher than that of the clinopyroxene from normal mid-oceanic ridge basalt (5.4-5.8‰), which confirms the role of recycled oceanic crust (ROC) in their mantle sources. Combining the δ18O data of basalts and the lithospheric mantle in the literature, we found that in the southeast NCC, upper and lower ROC components alternately appeared in the mantle sources of basalts, but these ROC components are consistently different from that in the lithospheric mantle, while in the northern NCC, the recycled components in the sources seem to be persistently from upper ROC. These observations suggest that (1) these mafic OIB-type rocks are most likely derived from the convective asthenosphere and (2) the contribution of components from the Pacific oceanic slab into the NCC upper mantle was dynamic, without a simple temporal trend. This new knowledge calls for the reconsideration of the existing models of the thinning process of the NCC lithospheric mantle, and it warns against simply using the chemical composition of basalts to infer the evolution of lithosphere.

  13. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-06-17

    Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w) xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL), (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases) and a crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  14. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Amid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL, (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases and a crude load of 25% (w/w at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  15. Microbiological test results of the environmental control and life support systems vapors compression distillation subsystem recycle tank components following various pretreatment protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Microbiological samples were collected from the recycle tank of the vapor compression distillation (VCD) subsystem of the water recovery test at NASA MSFC following a 68-day run. The recycle tank collects rejected urine brine that was pretreated with a commercially available oxidant (Oxone) and sulfuric acid and pumps it back to the processing component of the VCD. Samples collected included a water sample and two swab samples, one from the particulate filter surface and a second from material floating on the surface of the water. No bacteria were recovered from the water sample. Both swab samples contained a spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus insolitus. A filamentous fungus was isolated from the floating material. Approximately 1 month after the pretreatment chemicals were changed to sodium hypochlorite and sulfuric acid, a swab of the particulate filter was again analyzed for microbial content. One fungus was isolated, and spore-forming bacteria were observed. These results indicate the inability of these pretreatments to inhibit surface attachment. The implications of the presence of these organisms are discussed.

  16. Waste Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Recycling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Chao; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Hui, David Chi Wai; McKay, Gordon

    2017-04-01

    With the development of technologies and the change of consumer attitudes, the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is increasing annually. As the core part of WEEE, the waste printed circuit board (WPCB) is a dangerous waste but at the same time a rich resource for various kinds of materials. In this work, various WPCB treatment methods as well as WPCB recycling techniques divided into direct treatment (landfill and incineration), primitive recycling technology (pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, biometallurgy and primitive full recovery of NMF-non metallic fraction), and advanced recycling technology (mechanical separation, direct use and modification of NMF) are reviewed and analyzed based on their advantages and disadvantages. Also, the evaluation criteria are discussed including economic, environmental, and gate-to-market ability. This review indicates the future research direction of WPCB recycling should focus on a combination of several techniques or in series recycling to maximize the benefits of process.

  17. Hanford recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  18. Vibration in metal and non-metal incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblut, J M; Lewandowski, W; Casper, G R; Youngblut, W R

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of vibration transmitted to the surface of an incubator mattress. Empty incubators with metal (n = 12) and non-metal (n = 12) bases were monitored for vibration levels when the incubators were turned "off" and when they were turned "on." High levels of low-frequency vibration were detected in both types of incubators in both conditions. The metal incubators transmitted significantly less vibration to the mattress than did the non-metal incubators at several frequencies in the "off," the "on," and the "adjusted" conditions. These results suggest that infants experience significant whole-body vibration while lying in incubators.

  19. Non-metallic inclusions in high manganese austenitic alloys

    OpenAIRE

    A. Grajcar; L. Bulkowski; U. Galisz

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to identify the type, fraction and chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions modified by rare-earth elements in an advanced group of high-manganese austenitic C-Mn-Si-Al-type steels with Nb and Ti microadditions.Design/methodology/approach: The heats of 3 high-Mn steels of a various content of Si, Al and Ti were melted in a vacuum induction furnace and a modification of non-metallic inclusions was carried out by the mischmetal in the amount of 0.87 g or ...

  20. Interaction mechanism of non-metallic particles with crystallization front

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żak P. L.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of steel solidification in the CCS mould is accompanied by a number of phenomena relating to the formation of non-metallic phase, as well as the mechanism of its interaction with the existing precipitations and the advancing crystallization front. In the solidification process the non-metallic inclusions may be absorbed or repelled by the moving front. As a result a specific distribution of non-metallic inclusions is obtained in the solidified ingot, and their distribution is a consequence of these processes. The interaction of a non-metallic inclusion with the solidification front was analyzed for alumina, for different values of the particle radius. The simulation was performed with the use of own computer program. Each time a balance of forces acting on a particle in its specific position was calculated. On this basis the change of position of alumina particle in relation to the front was defined for a specific radius and original location of the particle with respect to the front.

  1. End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-21

    Each year, more than 50 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world. More than 95% of these vehicles enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, about 75% of automotive materials are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobiles, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials (about 25% of the weight of the vehicle)--commonly called shredder residue--is disposed of in landfills. Over the past 10 to 15 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs), including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has focused on developing technology to recover materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lighter-weight materials--primarily polymers and polymer composites--will be used in manufacturing these vehicles. These materials increase the percentage of shredder residue that must be disposed of, compared with the percentage of metals. Therefore, as the complexity of automotive materials and systems increases, new technologies will be required to sustain and maximize the ultimate recycling of these materials and systems at end-of-life. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), in cooperation

  2. Metals, non-metals and PCB in electrical and electronic waste--actual levels in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morf, Leo S; Tremp, Josef; Gloor, Rolf; Schuppisser, Felix; Stengele, Markus; Taverna, Ruedi

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of waste of small electrical and electronic equipment (s-WEEE), a rapidly growing waste stream, was determined for selected metals (Cu, Sb, Hg etc.) and non-metals (Cl, Br, P) and PCBs. During a 3-day experiment, all output products and the s-WEEE input mass flows in a WEEE recycling plant were measured. Only output products were sampled and analyzed. Material balances were established, applying substance flow analysis (SFA). Transfer coefficients for the selected substances were also determined. The results demonstrate the capability of SFA to determine the composition of the highly heterogeneous WEEE for most substances with rather low uncertainty (2 sigma +/- 30%). The results confirm the growing importance of s-WEEE regarding secondary resource metals and potential toxic substances. Nowadays, the thirty times smaller s-WEEE turns over larger flows for many substances, compared to municipal solid waste. Transfer coefficient results serve to evaluate the separation efficiency of the recycling process and confirm--with the exception of PCB and Hg--the limitation of hand-sorting and mechanical processing to separate pollutants (Cd, Pb, etc.) out of reusable fractions. Regularly applied SFA would serve to assess the efficacy of legislative, organizational and technical measures on the WEEE.

  3. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    In a NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) sponsored program entitled "A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing", evaluation of emerging materials and additive manufacturing technologies was carried out. These technologies may enable fully non-metallic gas turbine engines in the future. This paper highlights the results of engine system trade studies which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. In addition, feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composite were demonstrated. A wide variety of prototype components (inlet guide vanes (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included first stage nozzle segments and high pressure turbine nozzle segments for a cooled doublet vane. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  4. Recycling of used perfluorosulfonic acid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grot, Stephen; Grot, Walther

    2007-08-14

    A method for recovering and recycling catalyst coated fuel cell membranes includes dissolving the used membranes in water and solvent, heating the dissolved membranes under pressure and separating the components. Active membranes are produced from the recycled materials.

  5. A novel aqueous micellar two-phase system composed of surfactant and sorbitol for purification of pectinase enzyme from Psidium guajava and recycling phase components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme.

  6. Non-metallic Inclusions in Continuously Cast Aluminum Killed Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In aluminum killed steels, the size, shape, quantity and formation of non-metallic inclusions in ladle steel (before and after RH vacuum treatment) and in tundish as well as in slabs were studied by EPMA (Electron Probe Microanalysis) and by analyzing the total oxygen. The results showed that in the slabs the total oxygen was quite low and the inclusions discovered were mainly small-sized angular alumina inclusions. This indicates that most inclusions have been removed by floating out during the continuous casting process. In addition, the countermeasures were discussed to decrease the alumina inclusions in the slabs further.

  7. Testing theOdour Quality of Non-Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AVIJIT SINGH GANGWAR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This report has been compiled on the completion of 3 week summer training at ICAT. It discusses about a very necessary and least popular part of the Automotive Industry i.e. Testing and Certification. It discusses about one of the government notified Testing body ICAT which is one of just 6 such organisations in India.This report deals with the odour quality testing of non-metallic materials that are used for automobile compartment and parts associated with the compartment.

  8. The major components of particles emitted during recycling of waste printed circuit boards in a typical e-waste workshop of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xinhui; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.; Wang, ZhenZhen; Wang, Xinming; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-11-01

    Electronic waste from across the world is dismantled and disposed of in China. The low-tech recycling methods have caused severe air pollution. Air particle samples from a typical workshop of South China engaged in recycling waste printed circuit boards have been analyzed with respect to chemical constituents. This is the first report on the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emitted in an e-waste recycling workshop of South China. The results show that the composition of PM from this recycling process was totally different from other emission sources. Organic matter comprised 46.7-51.6% of the PM. The major organic constituents were organophosphates consisting mainly of triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and its methyl substituted compounds, methyl esters of hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids, levoglucosan and bisphenol A. TPP and bisphenol A were present at 1-5 orders of magnitude higher than in other indoor and outdoor environments throughout the world, which implies that they might be used as potential markers for e-waste recycling. The elemental carbon, inorganic elements and ions had a minor contribution to the PM (waste recycling locale.

  9. Research on the recycling industry development model for typical exterior plastic components of end-of-life passenger vehicle based on the SWOT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In-depth studies on the recycling of typical automotive exterior plastic parts are significant and beneficial for environmental protection, energy conservation, and sustainable development of China. In the current study, several methods were used to analyze the recycling industry model for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles in China. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges of the current recycling industry for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles were analyzed comprehensively based on the SWOT method. The internal factor evaluation matrix and external factor evaluation matrix were used to evaluate the internal and external factors of the recycling industry. The recycling industry was found to respond well to all the factors and it was found to face good developing opportunities. Then, the cross-link strategies analysis for the typical exterior parts of the passenger car industry of China was conducted based on the SWOT analysis strategies and established SWOT matrix. Finally, based on the aforementioned research, the recycling industry model led by automobile manufacturers was promoted.

  10. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  11. End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Duranceau, C. M.; Pomykala, J. A.; Spangenberger, J. S. (Energy Systems)

    2011-02-22

    Each year, more than 25 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world, and this number is rising rapidly because the number of vehicles on the roads is rapidly increasing. In the United States, more than 95% of the 10-15 million scrapped vehicles annually enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, over 75% of automotive materials, primarily the metals, are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobile hulks, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials - commonly called shredder residue - constitutes about 25% of the weight of the vehicle, and it is disposed of in landfills. This practice is not environmentally friendly, wastes valuable resources, and may become uneconomical. Therefore, it is not sustainable. Over the past 15-20 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles, including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has been focused on developing technology to separate and recover non-metallic materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lightweighting materials - primarily polymers, polymer composites, high-strength steels, and aluminum - will be used in manufacturing these

  12. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  13. Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Tot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique case of metaplastic breast carcinoma with an epithelial component showing tumoral necrosis and neuroectodermal stromal component is described. The tumor grew rapidly and measured 9 cm at the time of diagnosis. No lymph node metastases were present. The disease progressed rapidly and the patient died two years after the diagnosis from a hemorrhage caused by brain metastases. The morphology and phenotype of the tumor are described in detail and the differential diagnostic options are discussed.

  14. Highly active, recyclable catalyst for the manufacture of viscous, low molecular weight, CO–ethene–propene-based polyketone, base component for a new class of resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Dirkzwager, Hendrik; Mul, Wilhelmus P.; Heeres, Hero J.; Linden, Adrianus J. van der; Orpen, A. Guy

    2002-01-01

    A highly active, recyclable homogeneous palladium(II) catalyst is described for the manufacture of viscous, low molecular weight CO–ethene–propene-based polyketone (Carilite Oligomer), used for the manufacture of a new class of resins (Carilite Resins). The catalyst is composed of palladium acetate,

  15. An environmentally benign three component one-pot synthesis of amidoalkyl naphthols using H4SiW12O40 as a recyclable catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit R Supale; Gavisiddappa S Gokavi

    2010-03-01

    One pot synthesis of amidoalkyl naphthol by condensation of aromatic aldehydes, 2-naphthol and amide/urea using silicotungstic acid as a catalyst is reported. The reaction was carried out under solvent-free reaction conditions. The method gave good yields of amidoalkyl naphthols in short reaction time compared with previous methods. The catalyst is recycled for five consecutive times without loss of activity.

  16. Interaction of silicene and germanene with non-metallic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssa, M.; Scalise, E.; van den Broek, B.; Lu, A.; Pourtois, G.; Afanas'ev, V. V.; Stesmans, A.

    2015-01-01

    By using first-principles simulations, we investigate the interaction of silicene and germanene with various non-metallic substrates. We first consider weak van der Waals interactions between the 2D layers and dichalcogenide substrates, like MoX2 (X=S, Se, Te). The buckling of the silicene or germanene layer is correlated to the lattice mismatch between the 2D material and the MoX2 template. The electronic properties of silicene or germanene on these different templates then largely depend on the buckling of the 2D material layer: highly buckled silicene or germanene on MoS2 are predicted to be metallic, while low buckled silicene on MoTe2 is predicted to be semi-metallic, with preserved Dirac cones at the K points. We next study the covalent bonding of silicene and germanene on (0001) ZnS and ZnSe surfaces. On these substrates, silicene or germanene are found to be semiconducting. Remarkably, the nature and magnitude of their energy band gap can be controlled by an out-of-plane electric field.

  17. Study of the physicochemical effects on the separation of the non-metallic fraction from printed circuit boards by inverse flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Campos, R; Estrada-Ruiz, R H; Velarde-Sánchez, E J

    2017-09-06

    Recycling printed circuit boards using green technology is increasingly important due to the metals these contain and the environmental care that must be taken when separating the different materials. Inverse flotation is a process that can be considered a Green Technology, which separates metallic from non-metallic fractions. The degree of separation depends on how much material is adhered to air bubbles. The contact angle measurement allows to determine, in an easy way, whether the flotation process will occur or not and thus establish a material as hydrophobic or not. With the material directly obtained from the milling process, it was found that the contact angle of the non-metallic fraction-liquid-air system increases as temperature increases. In the same way, the increments in concentration of frother in the liquid increase the contact angle of the non-metallic fraction-liquid-air system. 10ppm of Methyl Isobutyl Carbinol provides the highest contact angle as well as the highest material charging in the bubble. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Computer simulation of the pneumatic separator in the pneumatic-electrostatic separation system for recycling waste printed circuit boards with electronic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-05-07

    Technologies could be integrated in different ways into automatic recycling lines for a certain kind of electronic waste according to practical requirements. In this study, a new kind of pneumatic separator with openings at the dust hooper was applied combing with electrostatic separation for recycling waste printed circuit boards. However, the flow pattern and the particles' movement behavior could not be obtained by experimental methods. To better control the separation quantity and the material size distribution, computational fluid dynamics was used to model the new pneumatic separator giving a detailed understanding of the mechanisms. Simulated results showed that the tangential velocity direction reversed with a relatively small value. Axial velocity exhibited two sharp decreases at the x axis. It is indicated that the bottom openings at the dust hopper resulted in an enormous change in the velocity profile. A new phenomenon that was named dusting was observed, which would mitigate the effect of particles with small diameter on the following electrostatic separation and avoid materials plugging caused by the waste printed circuit boards special properties effectively. The trapped materials were divided into seven grades. Experimental results showed that the mass fraction of grade 5, grade 6, and grade 7 materials were 27.54%, 15.23%, and 17.38%, respectively. Grade 1 particles' mass fraction was reduced by 80.30% compared with a traditional separator. Furthermore, the monocrystalline silicon content in silicon element in particles with a diameter of -0.091 mm was 18.9%, higher than that in the mixed materials. This study could serve as guidance for the future material flow control, automation control, waste recycling, and semiconductor storage medium destruction.

  19. 废旧印刷电路板中电子元器件回收处理技术进展%Review on the Recycling Technologies of Electronic Components from Waste Printed Circuit Boards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙春旭; 郭杰; 王建波; 许振明

    2016-01-01

    Electronic components are widely used in the electronic and electrical appliances.However,large quantities of electronic components are coming into discarding period due to the endless requirement for new products and market explosion for electronic and electrical products.The valuable materials and toxic materials of electronic components are analyzed.The new recycling processes for electronic components are reviewed,including the disas-sembling technologies (unsoldering methods and separation methods)and recycling technologies.On this basis,some new trends and suggestions on recovery of electronic components in waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs)are put for-ward.%电子元器件广泛应用于电子电器设备中,但由于产品更新换代和电子电器产业市场的膨胀,大量的电子元器件被丢弃。对电子元器件的资源性和危害性进行分析,综合评述了电子元器件回收利用的最新研究进展和成果,主要包括电子元器件的拆卸技术(解锡方法和分离方法)和回收技术。在此基础上,提出了废旧印刷电路板中电子元器件的无害化和资源化回收研究新动向及发展建议。

  20. A Fully Non-metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    The Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine project, funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI), represents the first comprehensive evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. This will be achieved by assessing the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies for fabricating polymer matrix composite (PMC) and ceramic matrix composite (CMC) gas turbine engine components. The benefits of the proposed effort include: 50 weight reduction compared to metallic parts, reduced manufacturing costs due to less machining and no tooling requirements, reduced part count due to net shape single component fabrication, and rapid design change and production iterations. Two high payoff metallic components have been identified for replacement with PMCs and will be fabricated using fused deposition modeling (FDM) with high temperature capable polymer filaments. The first component is an acoustic panel treatment with a honeycomb structure with an integrated back sheet and perforated front sheet. The second component is a compressor inlet guide vane. The CMC effort, which is starting at a lower technology readiness level, will use a binder jet process to fabricate silicon carbide test coupons and demonstration articles. The polymer and ceramic additive manufacturing efforts will advance from monolithic materials toward silicon carbide and carbon fiber reinforced composites for improved properties. Microstructural analysis and mechanical testing will be conducted on the PMC and CMC materials. System studies will assess the benefits of fully nonmetallic gas turbine engine in terms of fuel burn, emissions, reduction of part count, and cost. The proposed effort will be focused on a small 7000 lbf gas turbine engine. However, the concepts are equally applicable to large gas turbine engines. The proposed effort includes a multidisciplinary, multiorganization NASA - industry team that includes experts in

  1. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    The Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine project, funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute, represents the first comprehensive evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. This will be achieved by assessing the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate polymer matrix composite and ceramic matrix composite turbine engine components. The benefits include: 50 weight reduction compared to metallic parts, reduced manufacturing costs, reduced part count and rapid design iterations. Two high payoff metallic components have been identified for replacement with PMCs and will be fabricated using fused deposition modeling (FDM) with high temperature polymer filaments. The CMC effort uses a binder jet process to fabricate silicon carbide test coupons and demonstration articles. Microstructural analysis and mechanical testing will be conducted on the PMC and CMC materials. System studies will assess the benefits of fully nonmetallic gas turbine engine in terms of fuel burn, emissions, reduction of part count, and cost. The research project includes a multidisciplinary, multiorganization NASA - industry team that includes experts in ceramic materials and CMCs, polymers and PMCs, structural engineering, additive manufacturing, engine design and analysis, and system analysis.

  2. A RISK MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY FOR NON-METALLIC PROCESS EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Viviers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Many companies in South Africa have implemented the risk-based inspection (RBI methodology as a maintenance strategy. The risk involved in operating a piece of equipment, past history, non-destructive examination techniques, failure modes, and many other aspects determine the frequency of inspections required to meet legislation. The main purpose of the RBI methodology is to prevent failures of process equipment. The methodology for risk-based inspection for metal equipment is well-established and has been proven in industry, becoming the norm nationally and internationally. However, it is not possible to apply all the techniques to nonmetallic equipment owing to vast differences between the two types of materials. This paper discusses the results of data gathered on the RBI methodology for nonmetallic equipment, and proposes a risk-based model that can be used to perform a risk assessment for non-metallic equipment in a process plant. The risk assessment can be used to formulate the next inspection interval for the asset.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskeie maatskappye in Suid-Afrika het reeds die metodologie van risikogebaseeerde inspeksie (RBI geïmplementeer as deel van ‘n omvattende instandhoudingstrategie. Die risiko betrokke by ‘n fisiese item, bedryfsgeskiedenis, nie-vernietigende toetstegnieke, falingsmodusse, en vele ander aspekte bepaal die frekwensie van inspeksies wat benodig word om aan wetlike vereistes te voldoen. Die hoofdoel van die risiko-gebaseerde metodologie is om faling van prosestoerusting te verhinder. Die metodologie vir risiko-gebaseerde inspeksie van metaaltoerusting is goed bekend en word suksesvol toegepas in die industrie. Dis is egter nie moontlik om al die tegnieke toe te pas op nie-metaaltoerusting nie weens die groot verskeidenheid van materiaaltipes. Hierdie artikel bespreek die data wat ingewin is op die risiko-gebaseerde metodologie vir nie-metaaltipeprosestoerusting, en stel

  3. Halophytic plants as a component of a bioregenerative life support system for recycling of NaCl contained in human liquid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    Currently, the closure of matter turnover is one of the urgent problems of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) designing. The important aspect of the problem is involving of substances contained in liquid and solid exometabolites of humans inhabiting BLSS into intrasystem matter turnover. Recycling of Na+ and Cl- contained in human liquid exometabolites, i.e. urine is acknowledged to be among the main tasks of the matter turnover in BLSS. The ions excreted with urine may be returned to human organism with food. A way to allow this is including edible halophytic plants into the phototrophic compartment of BLSS. Halophytes are defined as plants which can grow on saline soils and produce high biomass under these conditions. Some halophytes can take up high quantities of Na+ and Cl- and accumulate the ions in the shoots or extrude them to leaf surface by means of salt glands. To allow Na+ and Cl- recycling through halophyte utilization, the following principal steps should be accomplished: (i) mineralization of the exometabolites by physicochemical methods; (ii) oxidation of ammonia formed during the exometabolite mineralization to nitrate by nitrifying bacteria, (iii) growing the halophyte on the nutrient solution prepared on the basis of the mineralized exometabolites, (iv) introducing the halophyte green biomass into human food. The present work is devoted to the following problems: (i) selection of a salt-accumulating/extruding halophytic plant suitable for Na+ and Cl- recycling in BLSS and (ii) parameter evaluation of a plant conveyor containing the halophytic plants at various ages. Halophytic plants selected for BLSS should meet the following criteria: (i) ability to grow under 24-hour-illumination, (ii) high productivity, (iii) ability to accumulate Na+ and Cl- in high quantities in shoots or to excrete salts to leaf surface, (iv) edibility, and (v) high nutritive value of the biomass. Relying on these criteria, salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia

  4. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  5. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  6. Minimizing Waste from the Oil Industry: Scale Treatment and Scrap Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, M.

    2002-02-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive material is technologically concentrated in the piping in systems in the oil and gas industry, especially in the offshore facilities. The activity, mainly Ra-226, in the scales in the systems are often at levels classified as low level radioactive waste (LSA) in the industry. When the components and pipes are descaled for maintenance or recycling purposes, usually by high-pressure water jetting, the LSA scales arising constitute a significant quantity of radioactive waste for disposal. A new process is under development for the treatment of scales, where the radioactive solids are separated from the inactive. This would result in a much smaller fraction to be deposited as radioactive waste. The radioactive part recovered from the scales will be reduced to a stable non-metallic salt and because the volume is significantly smaller then the original material, will minimize the cost for disposal. The pipes, that have been cleaned by high pressure water jetting can either be reused or free released by scrapping and melting for recycling.

  7. Size of Non-Metallic Inclusions in High-Grade Medium Carbon Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Lipiński T.; Wach A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-metallic inclusions found in steel can affect its performance characteristics. Their impact depends not only on their quality, but also, among others, on their size and distribution in the steel volume. The literature mainly describes the results of tests on hard steels, particularly bearing steels. The amount of non-metallic inclusions found in steel with a medium carbon content melted under industrial conditions is rarely presented in the literature. The tested steel was melted in an el...

  8. The Effect of Different Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Niclas Ånmark; Andrey Karasev; Pär Göran Jönsson

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non-metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, ...

  9. shRNA-Based Screen Identifies Endocytic Recycling Pathway Components That Act as Genetic Modifiers of Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation, Secretion and Toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A Gonçalves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-Synuclein (aSyn misfolding and aggregation is common in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, which are known as synucleinopathies. Accumulating evidence suggests that secretion and cell-to-cell trafficking of pathological forms of aSyn may explain the typical patterns of disease progression. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling aSyn aggregation and spreading of pathology are still elusive. In order to obtain unbiased information about the molecular regulators of aSyn oligomerization, we performed a microscopy-based large-scale RNAi screen in living cells. Interestingly, we identified nine Rab GTPase and kinase genes that modulated aSyn aggregation, toxicity and levels. From those, Rab8b, Rab11a, Rab13 and Slp5 were able to promote the clearance of aSyn inclusions and rescue aSyn induced toxicity. Furthermore, we found that endocytic recycling and secretion of aSyn was enhanced upon Rab11a and Rab13 expression in cells accumulating aSyn inclusions. Overall, our study resulted in the identification of new molecular players involved in the aggregation, toxicity, and secretion of aSyn, opening novel avenues for our understanding of the molecular basis of synucleinopathies.

  10. Modification of Non-Metallic Inclusions by Rare-Earth Elements in Microalloyed Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Opiela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The modification of the chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions by rare-earth elements in the new-developed microalloyed steels was discussed in the paper. The investigated steels are assigned to production of forged elements by thermo- mechanical treatment. The steels were melted in a vaccum induction furnace and modification of non-metallic inclusions was carried out by the michmetal in the amount of 2.0 g per 1 kg of steel. It was found that using material charge of high purity and a realization of metallurgical process in vacuous conditions result in a low concentration of sulfur (0.004%, phosphorus (from 0.006 to 0.008% and oxygen (6 ppm. The high metallurgical purity is confirmed by a small fraction of non-metallic inclusions averaging 0.075%. A large majority of non-metallic inclusions are fine, globular oxide-sulfide or sulfide particles with a mean size 17m2. The chemical composition and morphology of non-metallic inclusions was modified by Ce, La and Nd, what results a small deformability of non- metallic inclusions during hot-working.

  11. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  12. Analysis of Environmental Impact for Concrete Using LCA by Varying the Recycling Components, the Compressive Strength and the Admixture Material Mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyoung Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a type of construction material in which cement, aggregate, and admixture materials are mixed. When cement is produced, large amounts of substances that impact the environment are emitted during limestone extraction and clinker manufacturing. Additionally, the extraction of natural aggregate causes soil erosion and ecosystem destruction. Furthermore, in the process of transporting raw materials such as cement and aggregate to a concrete production company, and producing concrete in a batch plant, substances with an environmental impact are emitted into the air and water system due to energy use. Considering the fact that the process of producing concrete causes various environmental impacts, an assessment of various environmental impact categories is needed. This study used a life cycle assessment (LCA to evaluate the environmental impacts of concrete in terms of its global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, ozone depletion potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and abiotic depletion potential (GWP, AP, EP, ODP, POCP, ADP. The tendency was that the higher the strength of concrete, the higher the GWP, POCP, and ADP indices became, whereas the AP and EP indices became slightly lower. As the admixture mixing ratio of concrete increased, the GWP, AP, ODP, ADP, and POCP decreased, but EP index showed a tendency to increase slightly. Moreover, as the recycled aggregate mixing ratio of concrete increased, the AP, EP, ODP, and ADP decreased, while GWP and POCP increased. The GWP and POCP per unit compressed strength (1 MPa of high strength concrete were found to be about 13% lower than that for its normal strength concrete counterpart. Furthermore, in the case of AP, EP, ODP, and ADP per unit compressed strength (1 MPa, high-strength concrete was found to be about 10%~25% lower than its normal strength counterpart. Among all the environmental impact categories, ordinary cement was found to have

  13. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  14. Synthesis and Catalytic Applications of Non-Metal Doped Mesoporous Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Z. Islam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous titania (mp-TiO2 has drawn tremendous attention for a diverse set of applications due to its high surface area, interfacial structure, and tunable combination of pore size, pore orientation, wall thickness, and pore connectivity. Its pore structure facilitates rapid diffusion of reactants and charge carriers to the photocatalytically active interface of TiO2. However, because the large band gap of TiO2 limits its ability to utilize visible light, non-metal doping has been extensively studied to tune the energy levels of TiO2. While first-principles calculations support the efficacy of this approach, it is challenging to efficiently introduce active non-metal dopants into the lattice of TiO2. This review surveys recent advances in the preparation of mp-TiO2 and their doping with non-metal atoms. Different doping strategies and dopant sources are discussed. Further, co-doping with combinations of non-metal dopants are discussed as strategies to reduce the band gap, improve photogenerated charge separation, and enhance visible light absorption. The improvements resulting from each doping strategy are discussed in light of potential changes in mesoporous architecture, dopant composition and chemical state, extent of band gap reduction, and improvement in photocatalytic activities. Finally, potential applications of non-metal-doped mp-TiO2 are explored in water splitting, CO2 reduction, and environmental remediation with visible light.

  15. Recycling Mentors: an intergenerational, service-learning program to promote recycling and environmental awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'abundo, Michelle L; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth I; Fiala, Kelly A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of Recycling Mentors was to implement an intergenerational, service-learning program focused on promoting recycling and environmental awareness among students enrolled in Community Health (HEA 301) and Current Issues in Gerontology (GRN 440/540) and adults older than 60 years. Recycling Mentors was conducted in New Hanover County (NHC), North Carolina, where a moderate climate and coastal location attracts many tourists, retirees, and college students. A community like NHC is a good place to implement service-learning that educates both students and older adults about the benefits of recycling to individual health and the environment. During the Fall 2009 semester, undergraduate and graduate students completed institutional review board training and then conducted the program with older adults. The education component of Recycling Mentors included a pre/post survey, brochure, and scheduled visits. Overall, Recycling Mentors was positive service-learning experience with students identifying salient outcomes such as learning about recycling and the environment and working with older adults. In addition, teaching the education component of Recycling Mentors was good practice for students who will be the future health professionals. While service-learning and environmentally themed projects are common, a program that combines the 2 like Recycling Mentors is unique and has the potential to motivate individual change while positively impacting the local community and the environment.

  16. Fatigue Strength Prediction of Drilling Materials Based on the Maximum Non-metallic Inclusion Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dezhi; Tian, Gang; Liu, Fei; Shi, Taihe; Zhang, Zhi; Hu, Junying; Liu, Wanying; Ouyang, Zhiying

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the statistics of the size distribution of non-metallic inclusions in five drilling materials were performed. Based on the maximum non-metallic inclusion size, the fatigue strength of the drilling material was predicted. The sizes of non-metallic inclusions in drilling materials were observed to follow the inclusion size distribution rule. Then the maximum inclusion size in the fatigue specimens was deduced. According to the prediction equation of the maximum inclusion size and fatigue strength proposed by Murakami, fatigue strength of drilling materials was obtained. Moreover, fatigue strength was also measured through rotating bending tests. The predicted fatigue strength was significantly lower than the measured one. Therefore, according to the comparison results, the coefficients in the prediction equation were revised. The revised equation allowed the satisfactory prediction results of fatigue strength of drilling materials at the fatigue life of 107 rotations and could be used in the fast prediction of fatigue strength of drilling materials.

  17. Modelling of non-metallic particles motion process in foundry alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Żak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of non-metallic particles in the selected composites was analysed, in the current study. The calculations of particles floating in liquids differing in viscosity were performed. Simulations based on the Stokes equation were made for spherical SiC particles and additionally the particle size influence on Reynolds number was analysed.The movement of the particles in the liquid metal matrix is strictly connected with the agglomerate formation problem.Some of collisions between non-metallic particles lead to a permanent connection between them. Creation of the two spherical particles and a metallic phase system generates the adhesion force. It was found that the adhesion force mainly depends on the surface tension of the liquid alloy and radius of non-metallic particles.

  18. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  19. The Effect of Different Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ånmark, Niclas; Karasev, Andrey; Jönsson, Pär Göran

    2015-02-16

    Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non‑metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, etc.) are discussed and summarized. Finally, some methods for modification of non-metallic inclusions in the liquid steel are considered to obtain a desired balance between mechanical properties and machinability of various steel grades.

  20. Modification of Non-Metallic Inclusions by Rare-Earth Elements in Microalloyed Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Opiela M.; Grajcar A.

    2012-01-01

    The modification of the chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions by rare-earth elements in the new-developed microalloyed steels was discussed in the paper. The investigated steels are assigned to production of forged elements by thermo- mechanical treatment. The steels were melted in a vaccum induction furnace and modification of non-metallic inclusions was carried out by the michmetal in the amount of 2.0 g per 1 kg of steel. It was found that using material charge of high purity and...

  1. The Effect of Different Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas Ånmark

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non‑metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, etc. are discussed and summarized. Finally, some methods for modification of non-metallic inclusions in the liquid steel are considered to obtain a desired balance between mechanical properties and machinability of various steel grades.

  2. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  3. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  4. Rethink, Rework, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

  5. The recycling is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The recycling site currently situated near building 133 has been transferred to the car park of building 156. The site is identified by the sign “RECYCLING” and the above logo. In this new, more accessible site, you will find recycling bins for the following waste: PET (recyclable plastic bottles); Aluminium cans; Nespresso coffee capsules.  

  6. Urban water recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, T

    2005-01-01

    Increasing urbanization has resulted in an uneven distribution of population, industries, and water in urban areas; thus, imposing unprecedented pressures on water supplies and water pollution control. These pressures are exacerbated during the periods of drought and climatic uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to summarize emergence of water reclamation, recycling and reuse as a vital component of sustainable water resources in the context of integrated water resources management in urban and rural areas. Water quality requirements and health and public acceptance issues related to water reuse are also discussed. Reclaimed water is a locally controllable water resource that exists right at the doorstep of the urban environment, where water is needed the most and priced the highest. Closing the water cycle loop not only is technically feasible in agriculture, industries, and municipalities but also makes economic sense. Society no longer has the luxury of using water only once.

  7. Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaven, S.J.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.

    1996-01-01

    How will photovoltaic modules (PVMS) be recycled at the end of their service lives? This question has technological and institutional components (Reaven, 1994a). The technological aspect concerns the physical means of recycling: what advantages and disadvantages of the several existing and emerging mechanical, thermal, and chemical recycling processes and facilities merit consideration? The institutional dimension refers to the arrangements for recycling: what are the operational and financial roles of the parties with an interest in PVM recycling? These parties include PVM manufacturers, trade organizations; distributors, and retailers; residential, commercial, and utility PVM users; waste collectors, transporters, reclaimers, and reclaimers; and governments.

  8. Water Soluble Phosphane-Gold(I) Complexes. Applications as Recyclable Catalysts in a Three-component Coupling Reaction and as Antimicrobial and Anticancer Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elie, Benelita T.; Levine, Chaya; Ubarretxena-Belandia, Iban; Varela-Ramírez, Armando; Aguilera, Renato J.; Ovalle, Rafael; Contel, María

    2013-01-01

    Water-soluble compounds of the type [AuCl(PR3)] with alkyl-bis-(m-sulfonated-phenyl)-(mC6H4SO3Na)2 and dialkyl-(m-sulfonated-phenyl)-(mC6H4SO3Na) (R = nBu, Cp) phosphanes have been prepared. Dialkyl-phosphane compounds generate water-soluble nanoparticles of 10-15 nm radius when dissolved in water. These air-stable complexes have been evaluated as catalysts in the synthesis of propargylamines via a three-component coupling reaction of aldehydes, amines and alkynes in water. The antimicrobial activity of the new complexes against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeast has been evaluated. The new compounds display moderate to high antibacterial activity. The more lipophilic compounds are also potent against fungi. Their cytotoxic properties have been analyzed in vitro utilizing human Jurkat T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Compounds with dialkyl-(m-sulfonated-phenyl)-(mC6H4SO3Na) phosphanes displayed moderate to high cytotoxicity on this cell line. Death cell mechanism occurs mainly by early apoptosis. The catalytic/biological activity of the previously described compound with commercial m-trisulfonated-triphenylphosphine [AuCl(TPPTS)] (6) has been also evaluated to compare the effects of the higher basicity and lipophilicity of the alkyl- and di-alkyl-(m-sulfonated-phenyl) phosphanes on these new compounds. PMID:23524957

  9. Stepped-Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar for Detection of Small Non-metallic Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Nymann, Ole

    1997-01-01

    A monostatic amplitude and phase stepped-frequency radar approach have been proposed to detect small non-metallic buried anti-personnel (AP) mines. An M-56 AP-mine with a diameter of 54 mm and height of 40 mm, only, has been successfully detected and located in addition to small metallic mine...

  10. Soil effects on GPR detection of buried non-metallic mines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, J.M.H.; Hong, S.H.; Miller, T.; Borchers, B.; Rhebergen, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Landmines are a major problem in many areas of the world. In spite of the fact that many different types of landmine sensors have been developed, the detection of non-metallic landmines remains very difficult. The objective of this contribution is to synthesize our work related to the effects of soi

  11. The Measurement of Hardness and Elastic Modulus of non-Metallic Inclusions in Steely Welding Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatova Anna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trunk pipelines work under a cyclic dynamical mechanical load because when oil or gas is pumped, the pressure constantly changes - pulsates. Therefore, the fatigue phenomenon is a common reason of accidents. The fatigue phenomenon more often happens in the zone of non-metallic inclusions concentration. To know how the characteristics of nonmetallic inclusions influence the probability of an accident the most modern research methods should be used. It is determined with the help of the modern research methods that the accident rate of welded joints of pipelines is mostly influenced by their morphological type, composition and size of nonmetallic inclusions, this effect is more important than the common level of pollution by non-metallic inclusions. The article presents the results of the investigations of welded joints, obtained after the use of different common welding materials. We used the methods, described in the state standards: scanning electronic microscopy, spectral microprobe analysis and nano-indentation. We found out that non-metallic inclusions act like stress concentrators because they shrink, forming a blank space between metal and nonmetallic inclusions; it strengthens the differential properties on this boundary. Nonmetallic inclusion is not fixed, it can move. The data that we have received mean that during welded joints’ contamination (with non-metallic inclusions monitoring process, more attention should be paid to the content of definite inclusions, but not to total contamination.

  12. Size of Non-Metallic Inclusions in High-Grade Medium Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiński T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-metallic inclusions found in steel can affect its performance characteristics. Their impact depends not only on their quality, but also, among others, on their size and distribution in the steel volume. The literature mainly describes the results of tests on hard steels, particularly bearing steels. The amount of non-metallic inclusions found in steel with a medium carbon content melted under industrial conditions is rarely presented in the literature. The tested steel was melted in an electric arc furnace and then desulfurized and argonrefined. Seven typical industrial melts were analyzed, in which ca. 75% secondary raw materials were used. The amount of non-metallic inclusions was determined by optical and extraction methods. The test results are presented using stereometric indices. Inclusions are characterized by measuring ranges. The chemical composition of steel and contents of inclusions in every melts are presented. The results are shown in graphical form. The presented analysis of the tests results on the amount and size of non-metallic inclusions can be used to assess them operational strength and durability of steel melted and refined in the desulfurization and argon refining processes.

  13. Recycling of demolished concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagataki, S. [Niigata Univ., Niigata (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Iida, K. [Technology Centre of Taisei Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    There is a significant amount of research being conducted in Japan on ways to recycle demolished concrete. The material is already being used for road bases and foundations, but in the future, the concrete will have to be recycled as concrete aggregate. Recycling may also include the cement in the concrete in order to address the issue of global warming and carbon dioxide reductions. This initiative is in response to predictions that in the future there will be tremendous quantities of demolished concrete to deal with. Recycling of cement is also necessary in terms of resolving environmental problems and promoting sustainable development. The properties of concrete made with recycled aggregates were described and were compared with original concrete made of known materials. The paper also proposed an approach that should be taken to recycling concrete in the twenty-first century in which reduced limestone was used to reclaim cement. Recycled concrete with cement requires more energy, but uses less resources and discharges less carbon dioxide. Currently, recycled aggregate does not meet the Japanese Industrial Standard for concrete aggregate. The resistance to freeze/thaw cycles was not adequate. The amount of mortar adhered to the recycled aggregate had little affect on the strength and durability of recycled concrete. It was concluded that the quality of recycled concrete aggregate depends on the quality of original concrete. 11 refs., 12 tabs., 11 figs.

  14. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  15. 全组分废弃混凝土再生水泥熟料烧成及水化性能研究%Study of sintering process and hydration of recycled cement clinker produced from all components of waste concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾红梅; 常钧; 卢洪正; 燕芳; 韩立东

    2013-01-01

    With regards to the existing technical problems for the cementitious reusage of waste concrete in our country which lead to the low efficiency of various component separation in waste concrete ,high production cost and large energy consumption ,a new technology roadmap is raised using all components of waste concrete as part raw materials and burning clinker for producing recycled cement . The burnability of recycled cement raw mixtures , the mineral components of recycled cement clinker and the strength and microstructure of hydrated recycled cement are all investigated .The experimental results show that the technology of recycled cement produced from all components of waste concrete is feasible and the burnability of raw mixtures is good .However ,the strength of hydrated recycled cement mortar is lower than the technical requirements of Portland cement clinker strength ,due to the difference of experimental conditions between the laboratory and plant ;sintered recycled cement clinker admixed with the seed crystals of Portland cement clinker ,its mineral compositions and hydration products are basically the same as the industrial cement clinker .In addition ,the microstructure of C-S-H gel in the hydration products is also similar .%  针对我国废弃混凝土胶凝化再生利用技术存在的组分分离导致材料利用率低、生产成本和能耗高等问题,提出利用以石灰岩为粗骨料的全组分废弃混凝土作为生料原料,煅烧熟料、制备再生水泥的新思路。研究了再生水泥的生料易烧性以及熟料的矿物组成、水化强度和水化产物的微观形貌。结果表明:全组分废弃混凝土再生水泥技术是可行的;再生水泥生料易烧性较好,熟料胶砂强度低于硅酸盐水泥熟料技术要求,试验条件是影响强度的主要因素;引入熟料晶种煅烧的再生水泥熟料,其主要矿物成分和水化产物的组成与参比工业熟料基本相同

  16. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  17. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling......It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...

  18. Efficient paper recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor-Svetec, Diana; Možina, Klemen; Blaznik, Barbara; Urbas, Raša; Vrabič Brodnjak, Urška; Golob, Gorazd

    2013-01-01

    Used paper and paper products are important raw material for paper and board industry. Paper recycling increases the material lifespan and is a key strategy that contributes to savings of primary raw material, reduction of energy and chemicals consumption, reduction of the impact on fresh water and improvement of waste management strategies. The paper recycling rate is still highly inhomogeneous among the countries of Central Europe. Since recovered paper is not only recycled in the country w...

  19. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed circuit board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where the scrap constitutes the least environmental problem and where...

  20. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    appliances, vehicles and buildings, containing iron and aluminium metals, have long lifetimes before they end up in the waste stream. The recycling of production waste and postconsumer metals has a long history in the metal industry. Some metal smelters are today entirely based on scarp metals. This chapter...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...

  1. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  2. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  3. The mineral base and productive capacities of metals and non-metals of Kosovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizaj, M.; Beqiri, E.; McBow, I.; O' Brien, E.Z.; Kongoli, F. [University of Prishtina, Prishtina (Kosovo)

    2008-08-15

    All historical periods of Kosovo - Ilirik, Roman, Medieval, Turkish, and former Yugoslavian - are linked with the intensive development of mining and metallurgy. This activity influenced and still is influencing the overall position of Kosovo as a country. For example, according to a 2006 World Bank report as well as other studies, Kosovo has potential lignite resources (geological reserves) of about 1.5 billion tonnes, which are ranked fifth in the world in importance. Other significant Kosovan mineral resources include lead, zinc, gold, silver, bauxite, and uranium, and rare metals accompanying those minerals, including indium, cadmium, thallium, gallium, and bismuth. These rare metals are of particular importance in developing advanced industrial technologies. Kosovo also has reserves of high-quality non-metals, including magnesite, quartz grit, bentonite, argil, talc, and asbestos. No database exists for these non-metal reserves, and further research and studies are needed.

  4. The mineral base and productive capacities of metals and non-metals of Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaj, M.; Beqiri, E.; McBow, I.; O'Brien, E. Z.; Kongoli, F.

    2008-08-01

    All historical periods of Kosovo—Ilirik, Roman, Medieval, Turkish, and former Yugoslavian—are linked with the intensive development of mining and metallurgy. This activity influenced and still is influencing the overall position of Kosovo as a country. For example, according to a 2006 World Bank report as well as other studies, Kosovo has potential lignite resources (geological reserves) of about 1.5 billion tonnes, which are ranked fifth in the world in importance. Other significant Kosovan mineral resources include lead, zinc, gold, silver, bauxite, and uranium, and rare metals accompanying those minerals, including indium, cadmium, thallium, gallium, and bismuth. These rare metals are of particular importance in developing advanced industrial technologies. Kosovo also has reserves of high-quality non-metals, including magnesite, quartz grit, bentonite, argil, talc, and asbestos. No database exists for these non-metal reserves, and further research and studies are needed.

  5. Computer Simulation of the Formation of Non-Metallic Precipitates During a Continuous Casting of Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalisz D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors own computer software, based on the Ueshima mathematical model with taking into account the back diffusion, determined from the Wołczyński equation, was developed for simulation calculations. The applied calculation procedure allowed to determine the chemical composition of the non-metallic phase in steel deoxidised by means of Mn, Si and Al, at the given cooling rate. The calculation results were confirmed by the analysis of samples taken from the determined areas of the cast ingot. This indicates that the developed computer software can be applied for designing the steel casting process of the strictly determined chemical composition and for obtaining the required non-metallic precipitates.

  6. Non-metallic catalysts for diamond synthesis under high pressure and high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙力玲; 吴奇; 戴道扬; 张君; 秦志成; 王文魁

    1999-01-01

    Recent results on conversion from graphite to diamond by aid of non-metallic catalysts are reviewed. The current status of experimental advances is presented and typical examples from relevant literature are provided for understanding the mechanism of the graphite-diamond conversion by aid of these non-metallic catalysts. Furthermore, a tendency of graphite-diamond transformation assisted by carbonates, sulfates or phosphorus under high pressure and high temperature has been investigated by calculating the activation energy and transformation probability of the carbon atoms over a potential barrier. It was found that the activation energy is highly sensitive to the catalyst chosen. The probability sequence of graphite-diamond transformation with these catalysts was put forward.

  7. Motion behavior of non-metallic particles under high frequency magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-tao; GUO Qing-tao; YU Feng-yun; LI Jie; ZHANG Jian; LI Ting-ju

    2009-01-01

    Non-metallic particles, especially alumina, are the main inclusions in aluminum and its alloys. Numerical simulation and the corresponding experiments were carried out to study the motion behavior of alumina particles in commercial pure aluminum under high frequency magnetic field. At the meantime, multi-pipe experiment was also done to discuss the prospect of continuous elimination of non-metallic particles under high frequency magnetic field. It is shown that: 1) results of numerical simulation are in good agreement with the experimental results, which certificates the rationality of the simulation model; 2) when the intensity of high frequency magnetic field is 0.06 T, the 30 μm alumina particles in melt inner could migrate to the edge and be removed within 2 s; 3) multi-pipe elimination of alumina particles under high frequency magnetic field is also effective and has a good prospect in industrial application.

  8. Color stability, water sorption and cytotoxicity of thermoplastic acrylic resin for non metal clasp denture

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Dae-Eun; Lee, Ji-Young; Jang, Hyun-Seon; Lee, Jang-Jae; Son, Mee-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to compare the color stability, water sorption and cytotoxicity of thermoplastic acrylic resin for the non-metal clasp dentures to those of thermoplastic polyamide and conventional heat-polymerized denture base resins. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three types of denture base resin, which are conventional heat-polymerized acrylic resin (Paladent 20), thermoplastic polyamide resin (Bio Tone), thermoplastic acrylic resin (Acrytone) were used as materials for this study...

  9. NON-METALLIC IMPURITIES AND FORMING OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE MODIFIED HIGH-MANGANESE STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Garost

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition and morphology of chemical associations (non-metallic impurities and other ‘‘secondary” phases at modification of high-manganese steel by nitrogen and nitrideforming elements (vanadium are investigated. The optimal compositions of steel for production of castings are offered. The technology of the steel wear-resistance modification by vanadium of waste of industrial enterprises is worked out.

  10. Behavior of Non-metallic Inclusions in Centrifugal Induction Electroslag Castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    (para)In order to know the behavior of non-metallic inclusions in centrifugal induction electroslag castings (CIESC), non-metallic inclusions in 5CrMnMo and 4Cr5MoSiV1 were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The largest size of inclusions in the casting and the thermodynamic possibility of TiN precipitation in steel were also calculated. The results show that sulfide inclusions are evenly distributed and the content is low. The amount of oxide inclusions in CIESC 4Cr5MoSiV1 steel is close to the ESR steel and lower than that in the EAF steel, and there are some differences along radial direction. Nitride inclusions are fine and the diameter of the largest one is 3~4um. With the increase of the centrifugal machine's rotational speed, the ratio of round inclusions increases and the ratio of sharp inclusions decreases. According to the experiment and the calculation results, it is pointed out that the largest diameter of non-metallic inclusions in the CIESC 4Cr5MoSiV1 casting is only 6.6mu, and [N%][Ti%] in 4Cr5MoSiV1 steel should be controlled less than 4.4~#U00d7tex010^{-5} in order to further reduce the amount and size of TiN inclusions.

  11. Recycling Wood Composite Panels: Characterizing Recycled Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Downgraded medium density fiberboard (MDF, particleboard (PB, and oriented strandboard (OSB panels were individually subjected to steam explosion treatment. Downgraded MDF and PB panels were separately treated with thermal chemical impregnation using 0.5% butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA. And downgraded PB panels were processed with mechanical hammermilling. The pH, buffer capacity, fiber length, and particle size of these recycled materials were evaluated. After the steam explosion and thermal chemical impregnation treatments, the pH and buffer capacity of recycled urea formaldehyde resin (UF-bonded MDF and PB furnishes increased and the fiber length decreased. The hammermilling of recycled PB was less likely to break particles down into sizes less than 1 mm2.

  12. Plate tectonics: Crustal recycling evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Valentina

    2017-09-01

    The processes that form and recycle continental crust have changed through time. Numerical models reveal an evolution from extensive recycling on early Earth as the lower crust peeled away, to limited recycling via slab break-off today.

  13. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  14. The Fermilab recycler ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Hu

    2001-07-24

    The Fermilab Recycler is a permanent magnet storage ring for the accumulation of antiprotons from the Antiproton Source, and the recovery and cooling of the antiprotons remaining at the end of a Tevatron store. It is an integral part of the Fermilab III luminosity upgrade. The following paper describes the design features, operational and commissioning status of the Recycler Ring.

  15. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed circuit board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where the scrap constitutes the least environmental problem and where...... resource recovery is largest. It is clearly shown with the two printed circuit board scrap cases that the currently used copper recycling scenario is environmentally inferior to the tin and lead primary production scenarios. The method is a novelty, since no-one has previously put forward a method...

  16. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jefferson Hopewell; Robert Dvorak; Edward Kosior

    2009-01-01

    .... Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public...

  17. Evaluation of Characteristics of Non-Metallic Inclusions in P/M Ni-Base Superalloy by Automatic Image Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Xinggang; Ge; Changchun; Shen; Weiping

    2007-01-01

    Non-metallic inclusions,especially the large ones,within P/M Ni-base superalloy have a major influence on fatigue characteristics,but are not directly measurable by routine inspection.In this paper,a method,automatic image analysis,is proposed for estimation of the content,size and amount of non-metallic inclusions in superalloy.The methodology for the practical application of this method is described and the factors affecting the precision of the estimation are discussed.In the experiment,the characteristics of the non-metallic inclusions in Ni-base P/M superalloy are analyzed.

  18. Energetic conditions of effective recycling of composite castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jackowski

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The most reasonable way of recycling the metal composite materials consists in separation of the components. In case of the composites with saturated reinforcement it is the only recycling method. The process of separation of the components always undergoes in the presence of an additional liquid phase called a recycling medium. In a three-phase system including the material of composite reinforcement – liquid composite matrix – liquid recycling medium, an important role for the recycling process is played by the changes in energy values at the interfacial surfaces. Proper choice of the recycling medium enables simultaneous process of transition of the reinforcing phase particles into the environment (the suspension composites or also simultaneous outflow of the metal matrix from the reinforcement capillaries (the composites with saturated reinforcement. Moreover, a very important role in recycling of composite materials with saturated reinforcement is played by geometry of the reinforcement material capillaries. Energetic conditions render impossible simultaneous outflow of the matrix from the capillaries of varying and irregular geometry. It means that a choice of proper recycling medium is necessary condition for the recycling process, although not always a sufficient one.

  19. Non-metallic, non-Fermi-liquid resistivity of FeCrAs from 0 to 17 GPa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, F F; Wu, W; Julian, S R

    2013-09-25

    An unusual, non-metallic resistivity of the 111 iron-pnictide compound FeCrAs is shown to be relatively unchanged under pressures of up to 17 GPa. Combined with our previous finding that this non-metallic behaviour persists from at least 80 mK to 800 K, this shows that the non-metallic phase is exceptionally robust. Antiferromagnetic order, with a Néel temperature TN ∼ 125 K at ambient pressure, is suppressed by pressure at a rate of 7.0 ± 0.4 K GPa(-1), falling to ∼50 K at 10 GPa. We conclude that the formation of a spin-density-wave gap at TN does not play an important role in the non-metallic resistivity of FeCrAs at low temperatures.

  20. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  1. Current and future priorities for mass and material in silicon PV module recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.L.; Geerligs, L.J.; Goris, M.J.A.A.; Bennett, I.J. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Clyncke, J. [PV CYCLE, Rue Montoyer 23, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    A full description of the state-of-the-art PV recycling methods and their rationale is presented, which discusses the quality of the recycled materials and the fate of the substances which end up in the landfill. The aim is to flag the PV module components currently not recycled, which may have a priority in terms of their embedded energy, chemical nature or scarcity, for the next evolution of recycling. The sustainability of different recycling options, emerging in the literature on electronic waste recycling, and the possible improvement of the environmental footprint of silicon PV modules, will be discussed.

  2. Non-metallic inclusions structure dimension in high quality steel with medium carbon contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lipiński

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental material consisted of semi-finished products of high-grade, medium-carbon structural steel. The production process involved two melting technologies: steel melting in a 140-ton basic arc furnace with desulfurization and argon refining variants, and in a 100-ton oxygen converter. Billet samples were collected to analyze the content of non-metallic inclusions with the use of an optical microscope and a video inspection microscope. The results were processed and presented in graphic form.

  3. The Effect of Fine Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Fatigue Strength of Structural Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiński T.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of a study investigating the effect of the number of fine non-metallic inclusions (up to 2 µm in size on the fatigue strength of structural steel during rotary bending. The study was performed on 21 heats produced in an industrial plant. Fourteen heats were produced in 140 ton electric furnaces, and 7 heats were performed in a 100 ton oxygen converter. All heats were desulfurized. Seven heats from electrical furnaces were refined with argon, and heats from the converter were subjected to vacuum circulation degassing.

  4. A Review of Post and Core Application with Emphasize on Non Metallic Posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahroodi MH

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Many different methods are suggested to restore endodontically treated teeth. Prefabricated posts can not be indicated for all teeth and cast posts require extra time and cost. In addition, with the introduction of full ceramic restorations, achieving the ideal esthetic with metal post underneath them may be problematic or impossible because the darkness of the metallic posts may show through the highly translucent all ceramic restorations. In this article the review of litature and describiton of applied methods of different procedure in restoring the root canal therapied teeth and few techniques of non metallic posts fabrication such as fiber reinforced composite and zirconium oxide posts have been described.

  5. Engineered Plastics Containing Recycled Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yang Wu

    2000-01-01

    @@ 1. Introduction In Australia 10.5 million rubber tyres are discarded annually, representing 120,000 tonnes of wasted rubber resource. Growing local and global concern about the impact of this waste on the environment requires action for the management and recycling of this highly valuable resource through the development of recycling technologies and innovative recycled/recyclable products.

  6. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Metals like iron and aluminium are produced from mineral ore and used for a range of products, some of which have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of municipal waste. Packaging in terms of cans, foils and containers are products with a short lifetime. Other products like...... appliances, vehicles and buildings, containing iron and aluminium metals, have long lifetimes before they end up in the waste stream. The recycling of production waste and postconsumer metals has a long history in the metal industry. Some metal smelters are today entirely based on scarp metals. This chapter...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...

  7. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production......Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  8. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  9. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  10. Reduce, reuse and recycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Afrika, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the internationally accepted waste management hierarchy (Sakai et al, 1996) into South African policy has changed the focus from “end of pipe” waste management towards waste minimisation (reuse, recycling and cleaner production...

  11. Recycle or pollute?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guiking, F.C.T.

    1994-01-01

    When growing oil palms, quantities of crop residues are high, which means that recycling is laborious and options to absorb these byproducts are easily saturated. Burning or composting may have harmful environmental effects

  12. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  13. Recycling of nonmetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amey, E.B.; Kelly, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    The first factor determining recyclability is the composition of the material itself. Metals, for example, can be reused with little or no loss in quality. Paper and rubber, by this criterion, are less recyclable. Each time paper is recycled, some cellulose fibers are broken. Shorter fibers can mean weaker paper of perceived lower quality and value. Vulcanizing is an irreversible chemical process that precludes recycling rubber in its original form. Both materials may be reused in other applications often of lower value than the original one. To be recyclable, the discarded material must have a collection infrastructure at the source of waste generation, at a central collection site, or at curbside. The recovered material must also have a market. If it is priced noncompetitively or no market exists, if it does not meet specifications, or if it requires special technology investments which cannot be recovered through future sales, the recovered material may be stockpiled or discarded rather than recycled. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  14. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  15. Approaching Moisture Recycling Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Patrick; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line; Galaz, Victor; Ebbesson, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of water resources are a continuous challenge for effective and sustainable national and international governance. Despite the surface watershed being the typical unit of water management, recent advances in hydrology have revealed 'atmospheric watersheds' - otherwise known as precipitationsheds. Also, recent research has demonstrated that water flowing within a precipitationshed may be modified by land-use change in one location, while the effect of this modification could be felt in a different province, nation, or continent. Notwithstanding these insights, the major legal and institutional implications of modifying moisture recycling have remained unexplored. In this presentation, we examine potential approaches to moisture recycling governance. We first identify a set of international study regions, and then develop a typology of moisture recycling relationships within these regions ranging from bilateral moisture exchange to more complex networks. This enables us to classify different types of legal and institutional governance principles. Likewise, we relate the moisture recycling types to existing land and water governance frameworks and management practices. The complexity of moisture recycling means institutional fit will be difficult to generalize for all moisture recycling relationships, but our typology allows the identification of characteristics that make effective governance of these normally ignored water flows more tenable.

  16. Fermilab Recycler Collimation System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B. C. [Fermilab; Adamson, P. [Fermilab; Ainsworth, R. [Fermilab; Capista, D. [Fermilab; Hazelwood, K. [Fermilab; Kourbanis, I. [Fermilab; Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Morris, D. K. [Fermilab; Murphy, M. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Stern, E. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. [Fermilab; Yang, M-J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-04

    To provide 700 kW proton beams for neutrino production in the NuMI facility, we employ slip stacking in the Recycler with transfer to the Main Injector for recapture and acceleration. Slip stacking with 12 Booster batches per 1.33 sec cycle of the Main Injector has been implemented and briefly tested while extensive operation with 8 batches and 10 batches per MI cycle has been demonstrated. Operation in this mode since 2013 shows that loss localization is an essential component for long term operation. Beam loss in the Recycler will be localized in a collimation region with design capability for absorbing up to 2 kW of lost protons in a pair of 20-Ton collimators (absorbers). This system will employ a two stage collimation with a thin molybdenum scattering foil to define the bottom edge of both the injected and decelerated-for-slipping beams. Optimization and engineering design of the collimator components and radiation shielding are based on comprehensive MARS15 simulations predicting high collimation efficiency as well as tolerable levels of prompt and residual radiation. The system installation during the Fermilab 2016 facility shutdown will permit commissioning in the subsequent operating period.

  17. [An optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer for soil non-metallic nutrient determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong-xian; Hu, Juan-xiu; Lu, Shao-kun; He, Hou-yong

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve rapid, convenient and efficient soil nutrient determination in soil testing and fertilizer recommendation, a portable optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer including immersed fiber sensor, flat field holographic concave grating, and diode array detector was developed for soil non-metallic nutrient determination. According to national standard of ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer with JJG 178-2007, the wavelength accuracy and repeatability, baseline stability, transmittance accuracy and repeatability measured by the prototype instrument were satisfied with the national standard of III level; minimum spectral bandwidth, noise and excursion, and stray light were satisfied with the national standard of IV level. Significant linear relationships with slope of closing to 1 were found between the soil available nutrient contents including soil nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, available phosphorus, available sulfur, available boron, and organic matter measured by the prototype instrument compared with that measured by two commercial single-beam-based and dual-beam-based spectrophotometers. No significant differences were revealed from the above comparison data. Therefore, the optical-fiber-sensor-based spectrophotometer can be used for rapid soil non-metallic nutrient determination with a high accuracy.

  18. Solution behavior of hydrogen isotopes and other non-metallic elements in liquid lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroni, V.A.; Calaway, W.F.; Veleckis, E.; Yonco, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Results of experimental studies to measure selected thermodynamic properties for systems of lithium with non-metallic elements are reported. Investigations of the Li-H, Li-D, and Li-T systems have led to the elucidation of the dilute solution behavior and the H/D/T isotope effects. In the case of the Li-H and Li-D systems, the principal features of the respective phase diagrams have been delineated. The solubility of Li-D in liquid lithium has been measured down to 200/sup 0/C. The solubility of Li/sub 3/N in liquid lithium and the thermal decomposition of Li/sub 3/N have also been studied. From these data, the free energy of formation of Li/sub 3/N and the Sieverts' constant for dissolution of nitrogen in lithium have been determined. Based on studies of the distribution of non-metallic elements between liquid lithium and selected molten salts, it appears that molten salt extraction offers promise as a means of removing these impurity elements (e.g., H, D, T, O, N, C) from liquid lithium.

  19. Bacterial assimilation reduction of iron in the treatment of non-metallics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Malachovský

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural non-metallics, including granitoide and quartz sands, often contain iron which decreases the whiteness of these raw materials. Insoluble Fe3+ in these samples could be reduced to soluble Fe2+ by bacteria of Bacillus spp. and Saccharomyces spp. The leaching effect, observed by the measurement of Fe2+concentration in a solution, showed higher activities of a bacterial kind isolated from the Bajkal lake and also by using of yeast Saccharomyces sp. during bioleaching of quartz sands. However, allkinds of Bacillus spp. isolated from the Slovak deposit and from Bajkal lake were very active in the iron reduction during bioleaching of the feldspar raw material. This metal was efficiently removed from quartz sands as documented by the Fe2O3 decrease (from 0,317 % to 0,126 % and from feldpars raw materials by the Fe2O3 decrease (from 0,288 % to 0,115 % after bioleaching. The whiteness of these non-metallics was increased during a visual comparison of samples before and after bioleaching but samples contain selected magnetic particles. A removal of iron as well as a release of iron minerals from silicate matrix should increase the effect of the magnetic separation and should give a product which is suitable for industrial applications.

  20. Triboelectric separation technology for removing inorganics from non-metallic fraction of waste printed circuit boards: Influence of size fraction and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangwen; Wang, Haifeng; He, Yaqun; Yang, Xing; Peng, Zhen; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Shuai

    2017-02-01

    Removing inorganics from non-metallic fraction (NMF) of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) is an effective mean to improve its usability. The effect of size fraction on the triboelectric separation of NMF of WPCBs was investigated in a lab triboelectric separation system and the separation process was optimized in this paper. The elements distribution in raw NMF collected from typical WPCBs recycling plant and each size fraction obtained by sieving were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results show that the main inorganic elements in NMF are P, Ba, Mn, Sb, Ti, Pb, Zn, Sn, Mg, Fe, Ca, Cu, Al and Si. The inorganic content of each size fraction increased with the size decreasing. The metal elements are mainly distributed in -0.2mm size fraction, and concentrated in middle product of triboelectric separation. The loss on ignition (LOI) of positive product and negative product is higher than that of the middle product for the -0.355mm size fraction, while the LOI presents gradually increasing trend from negative to positive plate for the +0.355mm size fraction. Based on the separation results and mineralogical characterizations of each size fraction of NMF, the pretreatment process including several mineral processing operations was added before triboelectric separation and better separation result was obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Carboxymethylcellulose from recycled newspaper in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlü, Cüneyt H

    2013-08-14

    Recycled paper cellulose has some drawbacks, for example loss in mechanical strength, to use in paper industry alone. However, derivatives of cellulose can find applications in other industrial areas. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is one of the most used cellulose derivatives and can be obtained by heterogeneous modification of cellulose. In general carboxymethylation of cellulose achieved in alkaline alcoholic dispersions. In this work modification of cellulose from recycled newspaper in aqueous alkaline solution was aimed. First cellulose was recovered from newspaper under oxidative alkaline conditions. Cellulose recovery was determined as 75-90% (w/w) of starting material. Carboxymethylation reactions were carried out to find optimum conditions for derivatization, changing concentrations of components and reaction temperature. Obtained CMC samples had a DS of 0.3-0.7% and 84-94% CMC content. As a result, carboxymethylation of cellulose from recycled newspaper was achieved in aqueous alkaline dispersion giving commercial grade CMC for industrial use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recycling of steelmaking dusts: The Radust concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalkanen H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of dusts and other wastes of steelmaking is becoming to a necessity of two reasons: due to high contents of iron oxides dusts are valuable raw material for steelmaking and tightening environmental legislation makes the landfill disposal of wastes more expensive. Fine dust fractions from various stages of steelmaking route contain besides iron and carbon heavy metals especially zinc and lead and heavy hydrocarbons that are acceptable neither for landfill disposal nor for recycling back to processes without any spe4cial treatments. Some theoretical and practical aspects concerning high temperature treatments of steelmaking dusts for removal of hazardous components and production of clean high iron raw material for recycling is discussed in this paper. The Radust technology developed at Koverhar steelwork in Finland for treatment of the most problematic fine fractions of blast furnace and oxygen converter dusts is shortly presented and discussed.

  3. Erasing Data and Recycling of Optical Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Fujita

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical disks, DVDs and CDs, are convenient recording media on which to safely store data for a long period of time. However, the complete data erasure from recorded media is also important for the security of the data. After erasure of data from optical disks, recycling the material is needed in order to recover the valuable components of the optical disks. Here, data erasure methods for optical disks are discussed in the view of material recycling. The main finding of the study is that the explosion of optical disks in water is a very suitable method for complete erasure of data on the disks as well as recycling of their materials.

  4. Design and analysis of cold-recycled mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienvenu, Michael Eric

    The purpose of this research was to utilize state of the art technology to develop a design and analysis method for cold-recycled mixtures. There is no current universally accepted design method for cold recycling of asphalt pavements. The objective of this research was to devise a simplified method of determining the optimum asphalt content using the maximum allowable amount of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) in the cold-recycled mix based on material properties. The maximum allowable RAP content of the recycled mix in this study was determined to be 75%. This study introduces adaptations of SUPERPAVEsp{TM} technology for binder characterization and develops a binder blending chart for use in cold-recycled mix design. The binder blending chart is valuable in determination of maximum allowable RAP content of the recycled mix, the acceptable ranges of recycling agent residue in the binder blend, and in selection of the most desirable recycling agent for the RAP being recycled. The study also recommends mix and curing procedures for the production of test specimens and the incorporation of mechanical tests (resilient modulus and indirect tensile strength) and pavement prediction models in the determination of the optimum recycled mix. As a means of supporting the results of the mixture testing methodology, SUPERPAVEsp{TM} volumetric and intermediate mix testing are utilized for comparison of results, though the SUPERPAVEsp{TM} mix tests are not components of the recommended design methodology. The procedure which results from this research provides a more reliable means of cold-recycled mix design and analysis by the incorporation of better analysis tools for material characterization, especially in selection and proportioning of the most appropriate recycling agent for a particular project.

  5. X-ray detection of ingested non-metallic foreign bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saps, Miguel; Rosen, John M; Ecanow, Jacob

    2014-05-08

    To determine the utility of X-ray in identifying non-metallic foreign body (FB) and assess inter-radiologist agreement in identifying non-metal FB. Focus groups of nurses, fellows, and attending physicians were conducted to determine commonly ingested objects suitable for inclusion. Twelve potentially ingested objects (clay, plastic bead, crayon, plastic ring, plastic army figure, glass bead, paperclip, drywall anchor, eraser, Lego™, plastic triangle toy, and barrette) were embedded in a gelatin slab placed on top of a water-equivalent phantom to simulate density of a child's abdomen. The items were selected due to wide availability and appropriate size for accidental pediatric ingestion. Plain radiography of the embedded FBs was obtained. Five experienced radiologists blinded to number and types of objects were asked to identify the FBs. The radiologist was first asked to count the number of items that were visible then to identify the shape of each item and describe it to a study investigator who recorded all responses. Overall inter-rater reliability was analyzed using percent agreement and κ coefficient. We calculated P value to assess the probability of error involved in accepting the κ value. Fourteen objects were radiographed including 12 original objects and 2 duplicates. The model's validity was supported by clear identification of a radiolucent paperclip as a positive control, and lack of identification of plastic beads (negative control) despite repeated inclusion. Each radiologist identified 7-9 of the 14 objects (mean 8, 67%). Six unique objects (50%) were identified by all radiologists and four unique objects (33%) were not identified by any radiologist (plastic bead, Lego™, plastic triangle toy, and barrette). Identification of objects that were not present, false-positives, occurred 1-2 times per radiologist (mean 1.4). An additional 17% of unique objects were identified by less than half of the radiologists. Agreement between radiologists was

  6. Recycling and valorisation of stainless steel slags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dessel, J. [Belgian Building Research Institute, Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    The project described in this paper involves the collaboration of eleven partners. The project aims to create a value-added product by recovering usable non-ferrous metals from the production of stainless steel and use the recycled slag as a secondary material for road construction and concrete applications. The objective of the project is to return the metal contained in the slag to stainless steel production, and to treat the non-metallic slag, perhaps by a metallurgical process based upon direct plasma technology, prior to use in a variety of processes. The project also aims to investigate the environmental characteristics of the slag, which is essential for it to be used as secondary material. The major challenge appears to be the development of an improved process for separating the slag from the metallic particles in order to avoid the frequent breakdowns and significant repairs associated with use of the material. It is expected that using magnetic and density-based separation processes will reduce the cost of maintenance by about 20 per cent. Results achieved to date, and economic factors impacting on feasibility, are also discussed. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling......It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...... of the balance of costs and benefits. Rather, they are a function of the person's moral beliefs, i.e., beliefs in what is the right or wrong thing to do. The paper gives a brief review of the literature with the intention of uncovering problems and shortcomings in the framework of the SEU-model and the Theory...

  8. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  9. Calculating the Carrying Capacity of Flexural Prestressed Concrete Beams with Non-Metallic Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Atutis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews moment resistance design methods of prestressed concrete beams with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP reinforcement. FRP tendons exhibit linear elastic response to rupture without yielding and thus failure is expected to be brittle. The structural behaviour of beams prestressed with FRP tendons is different from beams with traditional steel reinforcement. Depending on the reinforcement ratio, the flexural behaviour of the beam can be divided into several groups. The numerical results show that depending on the nature of the element failure, moment resistance calculation results are different by using reviewed methods. It was found, that the use of non-metallic reinforcement in prestressed concrete structures is effective: moment capacity is about 5% higher than that of the beams with conventional steel reinforcement.Article in Lithuanian

  10. The share of non-metallic inclusions in high-grade steel for machine parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lipiński

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the differences in the purity steel in the dimensions of inclusion particles as dependent on various steel production processes. The experimental material consisted of semi-finished products of high-grade, medium-carbon constructional steel with: manganese, chromium, nickel, molybdenum and boron. The impurity content of steel was low as phosphorus and sulphur levels did not exceed 0.025%. The experimental material consisted of steel products obtained in three metallurgical processes: electric, electric with argon refining and oxygen converter with vacuum degassing of steel. Billet samples were collected to determine: chemical composition, relative volume of non-metallic inclusions, dimensions of impurities. The results were processed and presented in graphic form.

  11. Morphology and Orientation Selection of Non-metallic Inclusions in Electrified Molten Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z. C.; Qin, R. S.

    2017-10-01

    The effect of electric current on morphology and orientation selection of non-metallic inclusions in molten metal has been investigated using theoretical modeling and numerical calculation. Two geometric factors, namely the circularity ( fc ) and alignment ratio ( fe ) were introduced to describe the inclusions shape and configuration. Electric current free energy was calculated and the values were used to determine the thermodynamic preference between different microstructures. Electric current promotes the development of inclusion along the current direction by either expatiating directional growth or enhancing directional agglomeration. Reconfiguration of the inclusions to reduce the system electric resistance drives the phenomena. The morphology and orientation selection follow the routine to reduce electric free energy. The numerical results are in agreement with our experimental observations.

  12. Nuclide, metal and non metal levels in percolated water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Camilla Bof; Knupp, Eliana Aparecida Nonato; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano, E-mail: cgbs@cdtn.b [Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena; Ciqueira, Maria Celia [Pocos de Caldas Lab., (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Systematic generation of residues is more and more worrying in today.s world; adequate storage and reutilization are of great importance. Since generation of residues has become impossible to avoid, the possibility of reuse must be studied and researched. An example of these residues is phosphogypsum, which is generated in phosphoric acid production at the rate of around 4.8 tons for each ton of phosphoric acid produced. Many studies seek to reuse phosphogypsum in agriculture as a source of calcium and sulfur, potassium or aluminum, especially in soils from Brazil's cerrado regions. Though phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of heavy metals, non metals (As and Se), fluorides and natural radionuclides. Thus, its uncontrolled use as a soil conditioner can lead to contamination of underground water. (author)

  13. Analysis and simulation of non-metallic inclusions in spheroidal graphite iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustal, B.; Schelnberger, B.; Bührig-Polaczek, A.

    2016-03-01

    Non-metallic inclusions in spheroidal cast iron (SGI) reduce fatigue strength and yield strength. This type of inclusion usually accumulates at grain boundaries. Papers addressing this topic show the overall impact of both the fraction of so-called white (carbides) and black (non-metallic) inclusions on mechanical properties. In the present work we focus on the origin and the formation conditions of black Mg-bearing inclusions, further distinguishing between Si-bearing and non-Si-bearing Mg inclusions. The formation was simulated applying thermodynamic approaches. Moreover, appropriate experiments have been carried out and a large number of particles have been studied applying innovative feature analysis with regard to shape, size, and composition. Magnesium silicates are predicted at elevated oxygen concentrations, whereas at low levels of oxygen sulphides and carbides appear at a late stage of solidification. Experiments with three consecutive flow obstacles show that the amount of magnesium silicates decrease after each of the three obstacles, whereas the fraction of non-Si-bearing inclusions remains approximately constant. The size of inclusions divides in halves over the flow path and the number of particles increases accordingly. We point out that based on feature analysis Mg-O-C bearing inclusion show disadvantageous form factors for which reason this kind of inclusions may be extremely harmful in terms of crack initiation. All results obtained indicate that magnesium silicates are entrapped on mould filling, whereas Mg-(O, C, S, P, N) bearing particles are precipitates at late stages of solidification. Consequently, the only avoidance strategy is setting up optimum retained magnesium content.

  14. Use of Recycled Aggregate and Fly Ash in Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myle N. James

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recycled materials aggregate from the demolished concrete structures and fly ash from burning coal shows the possible application as structural and non structural components in concrete structures. This research aims to evaluate the feasibility of using concrete containing recycled concrete aggregate and fly ash in concrete pavement. Approach: Two water cement ratio (0.45 and 0.55 the compressive strength, modulus of electricity and flexural strength for concrete with recycled aggregate and fly ash with 0, 25% replacing cement in mass were considered. Results: The material properties of recycled aggregate concrete with fly ash indicate comparable results with that of concrete with natural aggregate and without fly ash. Conclusion/Recommendations: The recycled materials could be used in concrete pavement and it will promote the sustainability of concrete.

  15. Recycling of typical supercapacitor materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermisoglou, Eleni C; Giannouri, Maria; Todorova, Nadia; Giannakopoulou, Tatiana; Lekakou, Constantina; Trapalis, Christos

    2016-04-01

    A simple, facile and low-cost method for recycling of supercapacitor materials is proposed. This process aims to recover some fundamental components of a used supercapacitor, namely the electrolyte salt tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4) dissolved in an aprotic organic solvent such as acetonitrile (ACN), the carbonaceous material (activated charcoal, carbon nanotubes) purified, the current collector (aluminium foil) and the separator (paper) for further utilization. The method includes mechanical shredding of the supercapacitor in order to reduce its size, and separation of aluminium foil and paper from the carbonaceous resources containing TEABF4 by sieving. The extraction of TEABF4 from the carbonaceous material was based on its solubility in water and subsequent separation through filtering and distillation. A cyclic voltammetry curve of the recycled carbonaceous material revealed supercapacitor behaviour allowing a potential reutilization. Furthermore, as BF4(-) stemming from TEABF4 can be slowly hydrolysed in an aqueous environment, thus releasing F(-) anions, which are hazardous, we went on to their gradual trapping with calcium acetate and conversion to non-hazardous CaF2.

  16. Business Plan: Paper Recycling Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muhammad; Askari, Sana; Salman, Muhammad; Askari, Sheba

    2008-01-01

    This Business Plan was written for Business Plan competition organized by Ministry of Youth Affairs Government of Pakistan. It explains the paper recycling business, its pros and cons, cost of paper recycling, plant options and feasibility.

  17. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  18. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  19. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  20. Recycled Insect Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an…

  1. Influence of non-metallic inclusions on the strength properties of screws made of 35B2+Cr steel after softening

    OpenAIRE

    Krawczyk, J.; Pawłowski, B

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the results of the research on the influence of non-metallic inclusions on strength properties of 35B2+Cr steel screws.Design/methodology/approach: The investigations were carried out on screws after softening. The investigated steels with different fraction of non-metallic inclusions were delivered by three different suppliers.Findings: It was proved, that in spite of the level of fraction of non-metallic inclusions compatible with the corresponding standards, th...

  2. Converting non-metallic printed circuit boards waste into a value added product

    OpenAIRE

    Shantha Kumari Muniyandi; Johan Sohaili; Azman Hassan; Siti Suhaila Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using nonmetallic printed circuit board (PCB) waste as filler in recycled HDPE (rHDPE) in production of rHDPE/PCB composites. Maleic anhydride modified linear low-density polyethylene (MAPE) was used as compatibilizer. In particular, the effects of nonmetallic PCB and MAPE on mechanical properties of the composites were assessed through tensile, flexural and impact testing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the dis...

  3. Serbia: A new process for waste rubber and plastic recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozren Ocic

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to describe a new technological process for waste rubber and plastic recycling up to the commercial components in safe environmental friendly way. Researches and all relevant technical-technological data related to this process are checked at constructed pilot plant. The future construction of these units for waste rubber and plastic recycling will allow interested parties to achieve the environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency.

  4. The diesel exhaust in miners study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, R.; Coble, J.B.; Lubin, J.H.; Portengen, L.; Blair, A.; Attfield, M.D.; Silverman, D.T.; Stewart, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no histori

  5. Lipophilic super-absorbent polymer gels as surface cleaners for oil and grease from metal and non-metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research is to develop a new cleaning technology based on lipophilic super-absorbent swelling gels for the removal of oil, grease and particulate matters from metal and non-metal surfaces. It is desired that the cleaner is in solid form and is VOC-exempt, HAP-free, non-toxic, n...

  6. Absorption of non-metallic inclusions by steelmaking slags—a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Henrique Reis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The formation of non-metallic inclusions during steelmaking is inevitable and, when not properly controlled, can cause performance and production problems. Slag is one of the resources available to carry out this control. In steelmaking, it is generally understood that inclusions are naturally absorbed by slag when flotation is sufficient. However, separation and dissolution may define the inclusion absorption capacity of slag. The discussion in this review explains the relationship between separation and the contact angle at the steel/inclusion interface, which differentiates the mechanism from liquid and solid inclusions. Whereas liquid particles show more predictable behavior in experimental observations, thermodynamic analysis is necessary in order to describe the removal of solid particles. Among other findings, it is evident that slag viscosity and the formation of compounds at the inclusion/slag interface strongly influence inclusion dissolution capacity. Following a detailed description of findings in the literature, this review considers the most influential factors to aid in optimizing slags for inclusion absorption.

  7. Strength and deformability of concrete beams reinforced by non-metallic fiber and composite rebar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudyakov, K. L.; Plevkov, V. S.; Nevskii, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Production of durable and high-strength concrete structures with unique properties has always been crucial. Therefore special attention has been paid to non-metallic composite and fiber reinforcement. This article describes the experimental research of strength and deformability of concrete beams with dispersed and core fiber-based reinforcement. As composite reinforcement fiberglass reinforced plastic rods with diameters 6 mm and 10 mm are used. Carbon and basalt fibers are used as dispersed reinforcement. The developed experimental program includes designing and production of flexural structures with different parameters of dispersed fiber and composite rebar reinforcement. The preliminary testing of mechanical properties of these materials has shown their effectiveness. Structures underwent bending testing on a special bench by applying flexural static load up to complete destruction. During the tests vertical displacements were recorded, as well as value of actual load, slippage of rebars in concrete, crack formation. As a result of research were obtained structural failure and crack formation graphs, value of fracture load and maximum displacements of the beams at midspan. Analysis of experimental data showed the effectiveness of using dispersed reinforcement of concrete and the need for prestressing of fiberglass composite rebar.

  8. Stepped-Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar for Detection of Small Non-metallic Buried Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Nymann, Ole

    1997-01-01

    to an HP8753C Network Analyzer through a 5 m long Sucoflex coaxial cable. The data are collected automatically using an HPIB interface. The collected data contains both the amplitude and phase information of the reflection coefficient. Data are measured at up to a maximum of 401 different frequencies...... at each measurement point using a mesh-grid with a resolution down to 1 mm by 1 mm. The size of the scan area is 1410 mm by 210 mm. Measurements have been performed on loamy soil containing a buried M-56, a non-metallic AP-mine, and various other mine-like objects made of solid plastic, brass, aluminum......, steel, and wood. The presented results are based on probe-data measured at 100 different frequencies at each measurement point and a coarser mesh-grid of 10 mm by 10 mm, since it is found that less probe-data is needed. Our experiments show that even less amount of probe-data may be necessary....

  9. Recycling, Canadian update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmanan, V. I. [Process Research ORTECH Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Shaw, L. [Canadian Association of Recycling Industries, Almonte, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    An update on the recycling industry in Canada is provided by way of selected examples involving the recovery of gallium from electronic scrap, magnesium recovery from mine tailings and energy recovery from metal industry processes. These examples have been selected to illustrate the synergy between major mining, metallurgical and utility industries with end users in the building materials, automotive and electronic industries. 1 tab., 1 fig.

  10. Recycling of merchant ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Klopott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the issues concerning ship recycling. It highlights ships' high value as sources of steel scrap and non-ferrous metals, without omitting the fact that they also contain a range of hazardous substances. Moreover, the article also focuses on basic ship demolition methods and their environmental impact, as well as emphasizes the importance of “design for ship recycling” philosophy.

  11. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: electronics recycling industry communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia R; Boehm, Michael W; Drummond, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

  12. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  13. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lindsay; Soulliere, Katie; Sawyer-Beaulieu, Susan; Tseng, Simon; Tam, Edwin

    2014-08-15

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  14. The recycling of standard quality wrought aluminum alloys from low-grade contaminated scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkjjan, Varužan

    2010-08-01

    In recent decades an increasingly large fraction of the world’s wrought aluminum alloys supply has come from the aluminum scrap recovered from industrial waste and discarded post-consumer items. However, replacing even a minor part of primary aluminum in wrought alloys with recycled counterpart originated from lower grades of scrap (typically scrap contaminated with various non-metallic impurities) without influencing the quality of the allay is very demanding from a metallurgical point of view. This article discusses the two approaches for achieving the requested chemical composition of wrought alloys made from recycled aluminum: (i) before melting, by combining the appropriate qualities and quantities of scrap, primary aluminum, and the alloying elements and (ii) during melting, by diluting impurity content with primary aluminum to the needed level and adding, at the same time, the necessary amount of alloying elements for achieving their standard concentration in diluted melts.

  15. Detection of Non-metallic Inclusions in Centrifugal Continuous Casting Steel Billets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Lifeng; Seetharaman, Sridhar; Yang, Shufeng; Yang, Wen; Wang, Yi

    2016-06-01

    In the current study, automated particle analysis was employed to detect non-metallic inclusions in steel during a centrifugal continuous casting process of a high-strength low alloy steel. The morphology, composition, size, area fraction, amount, and spatial distribution of inclusions in steel were obtained. Etching experiment was performed to reveal the dendrite structure of the billet and to discuss the effect of centrifugal force on the distribution of oxide inclusions in the final solidified steel by comparing the solidification velocity with the critical velocity reported in literature. It was found that the amount of inclusions was highest in samples from the tundish (~250 per mm2), followed by samples from the mold (~200 per mm2), and lowest in billet samples (~86 per mm2). In all samples, over 90 pct of the inclusions were smaller than 2μm. In steel billets, the content of oxides, dual-phase oxide-sulfides, and sulfides in inclusions were found to be 10, 30, and 60 pct, respectively. The dual-phase inclusions were oxides with sulfides precipitated on the outer surface. Oxide inclusions consisted of high Al2O3 and high MnO which were solid at the molten steel temperature, implying that the calcium treatment was insufficient. Small oxide inclusions very uniformly distributed on the cross section of the billet, while there were more sulfide inclusions showing a banded structure at the outside 25 mm layer of the billet. The calculated solidification velocity was higher than the upper limit at which inclusions were entrapped by the solidifying front, revealing that for oxide inclusions smaller than 8μm in this study, the centrifugal force had little influence on its final distribution in billets. Instead, oxide inclusions were rapidly entrapped by solidifying front.

  16. Study on Concrete Containing Recycled Aggregates Immersed in Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Suraya Hani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, engineers have sought a more sustainable method to dispose of concrete construction and demolition waste. One solution is to crush this waste concrete into a usable gradation for new concrete mixes. This not only reduces the amount of waste entering landfills but also alleviates the burden on existing sources of quality natural concrete aggregates. There are too many kinds of waste but here constructions waste will be the priority target that should be solved. It could be managed by several ways such as recycling and reusing the concrete components, and the best choice of these components is the aggregate, because of the ease process of recycle it. In addition, recycled aggregates and normal aggregates were immersed in epoxy resin and put in concrete mixtures with 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% which affected the concrete mixtures properties. The strength of the concrete for both normal and recycled aggregates has increased after immersed the aggregates in epoxy resin. The percentage of water absorption and the coefficient of water permeability decreased with the increasing of the normal and the recycled aggregates immersed in epoxy resin. Generally the tests which have been conducted to the concrete mixtures have a significant results after using the epoxy resin with both normal and recycled aggregates.

  17. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  18. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  19. Recycler barrier RF buckets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Recycler Ring at Fermilab uses a barrier rf systems for all of its rf manipulations. In this paper, I will give an overview of historical perspective on barrier rf system, the longitudinal beam dynamics issues, aspects of rf linearization to produce long flat bunches and methods used for emittance measurements of the beam in the RR barrier rf buckets. Current rf manipulation schemes used for antiproton beam stacking and longitudinal momentum mining of the RR beam for the Tevatron collider operation are explained along with their importance in spectacular success of the Tevatron luminosity performance.

  20. Repairable Woven Carbon Fiber Composites with Full Recyclability Enabled by Malleable Polyimine Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taynton, Philip; Ni, Huagang; Zhu, Chengpu; Yu, Kai; Loob, Samuel; Jin, Yinghua; Qi, H Jerry; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-20

    Carbon-fiber reinforced composites are prepared using catalyst-free malleable polyimine networks as binders. An energy neutral closed-loop recycling process has been developed, enabling recovery of 100% of the imine components and carbon fibers in their original form. Polyimine films made using >21% recycled content exhibit no loss of mechanical performance, therefore indicating all of the thermoset composite material can be recycled and reused for the same purpose.

  1. Numerical analysis of the non-metallic inclusions distribution and separation in a two-strand tundish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Merder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The tundish plays an important role in the challenging task of a “clean steel” production process. The flow of the liquid steel in tundish has a crucial influence on non-metallic inclusions distribution and separation. The article presents computational studies of non-metallic inclusions separation in a two-strand industrial tundish during steady-state casting. Tundish capacity is 7,5 t. First, flow structure in the tundish was investigated using water model of the industrial tundish in a 1:2 scale. The experimental results, regarding RTD characteristics were used to validate numerical model. With validated model, particle distribution and separation in the two-strand tundish were investigated numerically. For modelling the separation of particles at the fluid surface, a modified boundary condition has been implemented.

  2. An aviation security (AVSEC) screening demonstrator for the detection of non-metallic threats at 28-33 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Neil A.; Bowring, Nick; Hutchinson, Simon; Southgate, Matthew; O'Reilly, Dean

    2013-10-01

    The unique selling proposition of millimetre wave technology for security screening is that it provides a stand-off or portal scenario sensing capability for non-metallic threats. The capabilities to detect some non-metallic threats are investigated in this paper, whilst recommissioning the AVSEC portal screening system at the Manchester Metropolitan University. The AVSEC system is a large aperture (1.6 m) portal screening imager which uses spatially incoherent illumination at 28-33 GHz from mode scrambling cavities to illuminate the subject. The imaging capability is critically analysed in terms of this illumination. A novel technique for the measurement of reflectance, refractive index and extinction coefficient is investigated and this then use to characterise the signatures of nitromethane, hexane, methanol, bees wax and baking flour. Millimetre wave images are shown how these liquids in polycarbonate bottles and the other materials appear against the human body.

  3. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: IV. Estimating historical exposures to diesel exhaust in underground non-metal mining facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B; Lubin, Jay H; Portengen, Lützen; Blair, Aaron; Attfield, Michael D; Silverman, Debra T; Stewart, Patricia A

    2010-10-01

    We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposures to respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, including lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners at eight non-metal mining facilities [the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS)]. Because there were no historical measurements of diesel exhaust (DE), historical REC (a component of DE) levels were estimated based on REC data from monitoring surveys conducted in 1998-2001 as part of the DEMS investigation. These values were adjusted for underground workers by carbon monoxide (CO) concentration trends in the mines derived from models of historical CO (another DE component) measurements and DE determinants such as engine horsepower (HP; 1 HP = 0.746 kW) and mine ventilation. CO was chosen to estimate historical changes because it was the most frequently measured DE component in our study facilities and it was found to correlate with REC exposure. Databases were constructed by facility and year with air sampling data and with information on the total rate of airflow exhausted from the underground operations in cubic feet per minute (CFM) (1 CFM = 0.0283 m³ min⁻¹), HP of the diesel equipment in use (ADJ HP), and other possible determinants. The ADJ HP purchased after 1990 (ADJ HP₁₉₉₀(+)) was also included to account for lower emissions from newer, cleaner engines. Facility-specific CO levels, relative to those in the DEMS survey year for each year back to the start of dieselization (1947-1967 depending on facility), were predicted based on models of observed CO concentrations and log-transformed (Ln) ADJ HP/CFM and Ln(ADJ HP₁₉₉₀(+)). The resulting temporal trends in relative CO levels were then multiplied by facility/department/job-specific REC estimates derived from the DEMS surveys personal measurements to obtain historical facility/department/job/year-specific REC exposure estimates. The facility-specific temporal trends of CO levels (and thus the REC

  4. Waste material recycling: Assessment of contaminants limiting recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    systematically investigated. This PhD project provided detailed quantitative data following a consistent approach to assess potential limitations for the presence of chemicals in relation to material recycling. Paper and plastics were used as illustrative examples of materials with well-established recycling...... schemes and great potential for increase in recycling, respectively. The approach followed in the present work was developed and performed in four distinct steps. As step one, fractional composition of waste paper (30 fractions) and plastics (9 fractions) from households in Åbenrå municipality (Southern...... recycling has been recognised as a backbone of circular economy, with constant measures and initiatives being proposed in order to increase the recycling rates of materials being consumed. Material cycles are complex and dynamic systems where chemicals are added and removed in production, manufacturing...

  5. Design by recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalli, V. [By Design Consultants, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A 'cradle to cradle' concept of building materials' lifecycle is presented in an effort to highlight the advantages of designing buildings in such a way as to ensure sound waste management strategies and practices, facilitate future renovation and demolition by reducing the generation of wastes, and allow for individual materials to be reused and recycled for use in new projects or products, continuing their lifecycle by diverting them from landfill. Some techniques to achieve these objectives include (1) avoidance of concealed, fixed connections, (2) use of reversible type connections, (3) use of materials that have an inherent finish, (4) use of simplified assemblies and modular materials. Examples of 'design for recycling' are cited, including Ottawa's Grace Hospital for the waste management program developed for use during its demolition, and the Mountain Equipment Co-Op for various features such as exposed timber posts with bolted connections, removable interior partitions with inherent finishes and exposed removable light and electrical fixtures. tabs., figs.

  6. Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Motonobu

    2010-11-01

    The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

  7. Cleavage of hydrogen by activation at a single non-metal centre - towards new hydrogen storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Sławomir J

    2015-05-28

    Molecular surfaces of non-metal species are often characterized by both positive and negative regions of electrostatic potential (EP) at a non-metal centre. This centre may activate molecular hydrogen which further leads to the addition reaction. The positive EP regions at the non-metal centres correspond to σ-holes; the latter sites are enhanced by electronegative substituents. This is why the following simple moieties; PFH2, SFH, AsFH2, SeFH, BrF3, PF(CH3)2 and AsF(CH3)2, were chosen here to analyze the H2 activation and its subsequent splitting at the P, As, S, Se and Br centres. Also the reverse H-H bond reforming process is analyzed. MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations were performed for systems corresponding to different stages of these processes. The sulphur centre in the SFH moiety is analyzed in detail since the potential barrier height for the addition reaction for this species is the lowest of the moieties analyzed here. The results of calculations show that the SFH + H2 → SFH3 reaction in the gas phase is endothermic but it is exothermic in polar solvents.

  8. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  9. Collection of Recyclables from Cubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøhlk, Sanne; Bogh, Morten Bie; Mikkelsen, Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Collection of recyclable materials is a major part of reverse logistics and an important issue in sustainable logistics. In this paper we consider a case study where paper and glass are collected from recycling cubes and transported to a treatment facility where it is processed for reuse. We anal...

  10. Recycling Pressure-Sensitive Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihui Guo; Larry Gwin; Carl Houtman; Mark Kroll; Steven J. Severtson

    2012-01-01

    The efficient control of contaminants such as metals, plastics, inks and adhesives during the processing of recovered paper products determines the profitability of recycling mills. In fact, it is arguably the most important technical obstacle in expanding the use of recycled paper.1-4 An especially challenging category of contaminants to manage...

  11. Making sense of plastics recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, E.; Koster, R.P.; Rageart, K.; Cardon, L.; Moerman, M.; Blessing, E.

    2012-01-01

    Major benefits of plastics recycling are reduced depletion of non-renewable resources and reduction of world-wide waste. Traditional thermo-mechanical recycling causes reduction of mechanical properties for most thermoplastics. Down-cycled materials may nevertheless be suited for certain useful appl

  12. Waste collection systems for recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Møller, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational...... and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed...... and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Recycling of Paper and Cardboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Paper and cardboard are produced from pulp derived from plant fibers, primarily wood. Paper and cardboard is used for many different products, such as for packaging material, newsprint and advertisements. Most of these products have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most...... waste. Recycling of paper and cardboard production waste and postconsumer waste has a long history in the pulp and paper industry. The recycled material now makes up more than half of the raw material used in European pulp and paper industry (ERPC, 2004). This chapter describes briefly how paper...... and cardboard are produced and how waste paper is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of paper recycling....

  14. Nanodomains in biomembranes with recycling

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Mareike; Destainville, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Cell membranes are out of thermodynamic equilibrium notably because of membrane recycling, i.e. active exchange of material with the cytosol. We propose an analytically tractable model of biomembrane predicting the effects of recycling on the size of protein nanodomains. It includes a short-range attraction between proteins and a weaker long-range repulsion which ensures the existence of so-called cluster phases at equilibrium, where monomeric proteins coexist with finite-size domains. Our main finding is that when taking recycling into account, the typical cluster size increases logarithmically with the recycling rate. Using physically realistic model parameters, the predicted two-fold increase due to recycling in living cells is very likely experimentally measurable with the help of super-resolution microscopy.

  15. Recycling of Paper and Cardboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    waste. Recycling of paper and cardboard production waste and postconsumer waste has a long history in the pulp and paper industry. The recycled material now makes up more than half of the raw material used in European pulp and paper industry (ERPC, 2004). This chapter describes briefly how paper...... and cardboard are produced and how waste paper is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of paper recycling.......Paper and cardboard are produced from pulp derived from plant fibers, primarily wood. Paper and cardboard is used for many different products, such as for packaging material, newsprint and advertisements. Most of these products have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most...

  16. Enzyme recycling in lignocellulosic biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Pinelo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    platform. Cellulases are the most important enzymes required in this process, but the complex nature of lignocellulose requires several other enzymes (hemicellulases and auxiliary enzymes) for efficient hydrolysis. Enzyme recycling increases the catalytic productivity of the enzymes by reusing them...... upscaled and tested in industrial settings, mainly because of many difficulties with recycling of enzymes from the complex lignocellulose hydrolyzate at industrially relevant conditions, i.e., high solids loadings. The challenges are associated with the large number of different enzymes required...... for efficient hydrolysis, enzyme stability, and the detrimental interaction between enzyme and lignin. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the various methods for enzyme recovery and recycling, for example recycling of free enzymes, readsorption to fresh material, recycling of solids, membrane...

  17. The use of gluten adhesive and removable surface finishes in recyclable furniture panels

    OpenAIRE

    Trischler, Johann; Sandberg, Dick; Noszkowski, Calle

    2015-01-01

    A general problem in the recycling of furniture is that different materials and components areincluded within a single piece of furniture. Not only is the furniture built of components such as wood,leather, textiles, foams, steel and others but the wood component is also very often a composite madeof wood, adhesives and functional additives such as water repellents or chemical substances assurface treatments. Sometimes these additives make cost-effective recycling of the composite wooddifficu...

  18. Coming or going? Un-BLOC-ing delivery and recycling pathways during melanosome maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futter, Clare E; Cutler, Daniel F

    2016-08-01

    Melanosome biogenesis requires successive waves of cargo delivery from endosomes to immature melanosomes, coupled with recycling of the trafficking machinery. Dennis et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201605090) report differential roles for BLOC-1 and BLOC-3 complexes in delivery and recycling of melanosomal biogenetic components, supplying directionality to melanosome maturation.

  19. Converting non-metallic printed circuit boards waste into a value added product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniyandi, Shantha Kumari; Sohaili, Johan; Hassan, Azman; Mohamad, Siti Suhaila

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using nonmetallic printed circuit board (PCB) waste as filler in recycled HDPE (rHDPE) in production of rHDPE/PCB composites. Maleic anhydride modified linear low-density polyethylene (MAPE) was used as compatibilizer. In particular, the effects of nonmetallic PCB and MAPE on mechanical properties of the composites were assessed through tensile, flexural and impact testing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the dispersion of nonmetallic PCB and MAPE in the matrix. Nonmetallic PCB was blended with rHDPE from 0-30 wt% and prepared by counter-rotating twin screw extruder followed by molding into test samples via hot press for analysis. A good balance between stiffness, strength and toughness was achieved for the system containing 30 wt% PCB. Thus, this system was chosen in order to investigate the effect of the compatibilizer on the mechanical properties of the composites. The results indicate that MAPE as a compatiblizer can effectively promote the interfacial adhesion between nonmetallic PCB and rHDPE. The addition of 6 phr MAPE increased the flexural strength, tensile strength and impact strength by 71%, 98% and 44% respectively compared to the uncompatibilized composites.

  20. Converting Non-Metallic Printed Circuit Boards Waste Into A Value Added Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantha Kumari Muniyandi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using nonmetallic printed circuit board (PCB waste as filler in recycled HDPE (rHDPE in production of rHDPE/PCB composites. Maleic anhydride modified linear low-density polyethylene (MAPE was used as compatibilizer. In particular, the effects of nonmetallic PCB and MAPE on mechanical properties of the composites were assessed through tensile, flexural and impact testing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to study the dispersion of nonmetallic PCB and MAPE in the matrix. Nonmetallic PCB was blended with rHDPE from 0--30 wt% and prepared by counter-rotating twin screw extruder followed by molding into test samples via hot press for analysis. A good balance between stiffness, strength and toughness was achieved for the system containing 30 wt% PCB. Thus, this system was chosen in order to investigate the effect of the compatibilizer on the mechanical properties of the composites. The results indicate that MAPE as a compatiblizer can effectively promote the interfacial adhesion between nonmetallic PCB and rHDPE. The addition of 6 phr MAPE increased the flexural strength, tensile strength and impact strength by 71%, 98% and 44% respectively compared to the uncompatibilized composites.

  1. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  2. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  3. Mechanical recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jirang; Forssberg, Eric

    2003-05-30

    The production of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing areas. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). In view of the environmental problems involved in the management of WEEE, many counties and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of recovery of such wastes so as to reduce disposal. Recycling of WEEE is an important subject not only from the point of waste treatment but also from the recovery of valuable materials.WEEE is diverse and complex, in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Characterization of this waste stream is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally friendly recycling system. In this paper, the physical and particle properties of WEEE are presented. Selective disassembly, targeting on singling out hazardous and/or valuable components, is an indispensable process in the practice of recycling of WEEE. Disassembly process planning and innovation of disassembly facilities are most active research areas. Mechanical/physical processing, based on the characterization of WEEE, provides an alternative means of recovering valuable materials. Mechanical processes, such as screening, shape separation, magnetic separation, Eddy current separation, electrostatic separation, and jigging have been widely utilized in recycling industry. However, recycling of WEEE is only beginning. For maximum separation of materials, WEEE should be shredded to small, even fine particles, generally below 5 or 10mm. Therefore, a discussion of mechanical separation processes for fine particles is highlighted in this paper. Consumer electronic equipment (brown goods), such as television sets, video recorders, are most common. It is very costly to perform manual dismantling of those products, due to the fact that brown goods contain very low

  4. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  5. Sn-PILC: A novel Efficient and Recyclable Catalyst for One-pot Three Component Povarov’s Inverse-electron-demand Hetero Diels-Alder Reaction for a Facile Synthesis of Tetrahydropyranoquinoline Derivatives under Neat Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Rai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Povarov’s inverse-electron-demand hetero Diels–Alder one-pot three components reaction of aromatic aldehyde, aromatic amine with DHF has been developed using Sn-PILC as a catalyst under a neat condition which may helpful to society to get pharmacologically more active compounds. In the present study a novel series of tetrahydroquinoline 4(a-f were synthesized and characterized by IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, Mass spectral analysis and elemental analysis. The synthetic details and characterization results are discussed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i3.801

  6. Numerical 2D and 3D Investigation of Non-Metallic (Glass, Carbon) Fiber Pull-Out Micromechanics 9in Concrete Matrix)

    OpenAIRE

    Khabaz, A; Krasņikovs, A; Kononova, O; Mačanovskis, A

    2010-01-01

    Short non-metallic (glass, carbon) fibre use for concrete disperse reinforcment is of particular interest, because of much higher fibre/matrix interface area value comparing to industrially produced steel fibres.

  7. You're a "What"? Recycling Coordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2011-01-01

    Recycling coordinators supervise curbside and dropoff recycling programs for municipal governments or private firms. Today, recycling is mandatory in many communities. And advancements in collection and processing methods have helped to increase the quantity of materials for which the recycling coordinator is responsible. In some communities,…

  8. Experimental and numerical investigation of concrete structures with metal and non-metal reinforcement at impulse loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, P. A.; Batuev, S. P.; Radchenko, A. V.; Plevkov, V. S.; Kudyakov, K. L.

    2016-11-01

    Manufacturing durable and high-strength concrete structures has always been a relevant objective. Therefore special attention has been paid to non-metallic composite reinforcement. This paper considers experimental and numerical studies of nature of fracture and crack formation in concrete beams with rod composite reinforcement. Fiber glass rods, 6 mm in diameter, have been used as composite reinforcement. Concrete elements have been tested under dynamic load using special pile driver. The obtained results include patterns of fracture and crack formation, maximum load value and maximum element deflection. Comparative analysis of numerical and experimental studies has been held.

  9. Influence of Low-Alloy Cast Steel Modification on Primary Structure Refinement, Type and Shape of Non-Metallic Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartocha D.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are presented methods and results of investigation which main aim were determination of influence of melting technology (gas extraction, vacuum refining, slag refining and extraction, deoxidation and degassing and type of used modifiers on the type and shape of non-metallic inclusions and the primary structure refining. Low alloy cast steel melted in laboratory conditions, in an inductive furnace was investigated. Additions of FeNb, FeV, FeTi and FeZr modifiers were applied. The contents of oxygen and nitrogen in obtained cast steel were determined.

  10. 非金属矿物在医药行业的应用与前景%Medicinal Application and Prospect of Non-metallic Mineral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍康德; 周春晖

    2012-01-01

    Deep procession of non-metallic mineral and application on bio-/medicinal area is a new high-technical industry. This paper summarizes the appl ication history and status in quo of non-metallic minerals in pharmaceutical industry; identification, classification and development tendency of non-metallic minerals for pharmaceutical use. The focus is to introduce the development history of non-metallic minerals for pharmaceutical use, and explore the application prospect of non-metallic minerals in pharmaceutical industry, so as to provide theory basis for sufficiently exploring the potential of non-metallic minerals.%非金属矿物深加工并被用于生物医药领域系高新技术产业.本文综述了非金属矿物的医药应用历史、现状;药用非金属矿物的鉴别、分类和发展趋势.重点介绍了非金属矿物的药用开发历程,并展望了非金属矿物在医药行业的应用前景,以期为充分发掘非金属矿物的潜能提供理论指导.

  11. New approaches to recycling tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, R.

    1991-03-01

    Steel-belted radial tires are potentially one of the most recyclable products created by modern industry, although the potential has been barely tapped. Discarded tires pile up at an astonishing rate each year - 234 million in the US and 26 million passenger tire equivalents in Canada. They represent a mother lode of raw material waiting for modern day miners to transform them into recycled rubber, steel, fiber and energy. The tremendous increase in use of steel belted radials since the early 1970s has complicated their recyclability compared to the bias ply tire, but it has also accomplished waste reduction by tripling tire service life. Part one of this report describes processes being developed to convert tires to crumb rubber, as well as some potential uses of recycled rubber. Part two, to appear next month, will examine such uses as rubberized athletic tracks and highway asphalt.

  12. Ship recycling and marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Chiang; Wang, Nannan; Durak, Onur Sabri

    2010-09-01

    This paper discusses the historical background, structure and enforcement of the '2009 Hong Kong International Convention on the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships.' the 2009 Hong Kong Convention establishes control and enforcement instruments related to ship recycling, determining the control rights of Port States and the obligations of Flag States, Parties and recycling facilities under its jurisdiction. The Convention also controls the communication and exchange of information procedures, establishes a reporting system to be used upon the completion of recycling, and outlines an auditing system for detecting violations. The Convention, however, also contains some deficiencies. This paper concludes these deficiencies will eventually influence the final acceptance of this Convention by the international community.

  13. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  14. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  15. Recycling endosomes in apical plasma membrane domain formation and epithelial cell polarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golachowska, Magdalena R.; Hoekstra, Dick; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.

    2010-01-01

    Recycling endosomes have taken central stage in the intracellular sorting and polarized trafficking of apical and basolateral plasma membrane components. Molecular players in the underlying mechanisms are now emerging, including small GTPases, class V myosins and adaptor proteins. In particular,

  16. Comparison Of Conventional And Recycled “Green” Office Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen Možina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To confront with the market need, we have to find alternative in respond to enormous necessity and application ofoffice paper. Therefore, one way in dealing with the problem is to replace or just decrease the use of paper madeentirely from primary components, mainly wood fibbers (deciduous and conifer. We analysed mechanical, optical,structural and microscopic properties. Experiments were performed on three conventional and three recycled officepapers reachable on the market. Results, obtained from measurements, confirm presumption, that mechanical andsurface properties of recycled office paper can be collated and they discern from conventional office paper.

  17. Compositional data analysis of household waste recycling centres in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Martín-Fernández, J. A.; Boldrin, Alessio

    of these projects on the recycling rates does not exist. Thus, compositional data analysis technique was applied to analyze consistently waste data. Based on the waste composition obtained from a recycling center in Denmark, we analyzed the composition of waste treatment and disposal options. Zero and non......-zero pattern was used to describe historical changes in the definition and components of waste fractions. Variation array was applied to determine the relationship between waste treatment and disposal options. As a result, compositional data analysis technique enables to analyze waste data regardless...

  18. A green one-pot three-component synthesis of spirooxindoles under conventional heating conditions or microwave irradiation by using Fe3O4@SiO2-imid-PMAn magnetic porous nanospheres as a recyclable catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilpour, Mohsen; Javidi, Jaber; Divar, Masoumeh

    2017-02-01

    An efficient, green and environmentally procedure for the synthesis of spirooxindole derivatives has been developed by a one-pot three-component reaction of isatin derivatives, activated methylene, and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in the presence of Fe3O4@SiO2-imid-PMAn magnetic nanocatalyst under conventional heating conditions in water or microwave irradiation under solvent-free conditions. The reactions under conventional heating conditions were compared with the microwave-assisted reactions. The suggested method offers several advantages such as excellent yields, short reaction times, operational simplicity, a cleaner reaction, absence of any tedious workup or purification and ease of recovery and reusability of the catalyst by a magnetic field. In addition, the excellent catalytic performance in a water medium and the easy preparation, thermal stability and separation of the catalyst make it a good heterogeneous system and a useful alternative to other heterogeneous catalysts. The catalyst can be easily recovered by a magnetic field and reused for six consecutive reaction cycles without significant loss of activity. Also, the morphology of Fe3O4@SiO2-imid-PMAn, particle size distribution and leaching of nano H3PMo12O40 (PMAn) after reaction cycles were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analyzer.

  19. Mineral processing techniques for recycling investment casting shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, Cheryl L.; Nilsen, David N.; Dahlin, David C.; Hunt, Alton H.; Collins, W. Keith

    2002-01-01

    The Albany Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy used materials characterization and minerals beneficiation methods to separate and beneficially modify spent investment-mold components to identify recycling opportunities and minimize environmentally sensitive wastes. The physical and chemical characteristics of the shell materials were determined and used to guide bench-scale research to separate reusable components by mineral-beneficiation techniques. Successfully concentrated shell materials were evaluated for possible use in new markets.

  20. Study on Non-Metallic Inclusions in Laser-Welded TRIP-Aided Nb-Microalloyed Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grajcar A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The work concerns the studies on non-metallic inclusions occuring in laser-welded Si-Al TRIP steel containing Nb and Ti microadditions. Laser welding tests of 2 mm thick thermomechanically rolled sheets were carried out using keyhole welding and a solid-state laser. The results of laser welding in the air atmosphere for the heat input value of 0.048 kJ/mm are included. The distribution, type and chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions formed in the base metal, heat-affected zone, and fusion zone are analysed in detail. It was found that the base metal contains rare, fine oxysulphides. Their chemical composition was modified by rare earth elements. Numerous oxide inclusions of a various size and a chemical composition occur in the fusion zone. The dependence between a size of particles and their chemical composition was observed. A microstructure of steel was assessed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques.

  1. Non-Metallic Inclusions and Hot-Working Behaviour of Advanced High-Strength Medium-Mn Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grajcar A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The work addresses the production of medium-Mn steels with an increased Al content. The special attention is focused on the identification of non-metallic inclusions and their modification using rare earth elements. The conditions of the thermomechanical treatment using the metallurgical Gleeble simulator and the semi-industrial hot rolling line were designed for steels containing 3 and 5% Mn. Hot-working conditions and controlled cooling strategies with the isothermal holding of steel at 400°C were selected. The effect of Mn content on the hot-working behaviour and microstructure of steel was addressed. The force-energetic parameters of hot rolling were determined. The identification of structural constituents was performed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The addition of rare earth elements led to the total modification of non-metallic inclusions, i.e., they replaced Mn and Al forming complex oxysulphides. The Mn content in a range between 3 and 5% does not affect the inclusion type and the hot-working behaviour. In contrast, it was found that Mn has a significant effect on a microstructure.

  2. AES and SIMS analysis of non-metallic inclusions in a low-carbon chromium-steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammer, Katharina; Rosner, M; Poeckl, G; Hutter, H

    2003-05-01

    In the final step of secondary metallurgical steel processing, calcium is added. Besides Mg, Ca is the most powerful deoxidiser and desulfurisation agent. It reacts with dissolved oxygen and sulfur and reduces oxides and sulfides thereby forming non-metallic inclusions. Within this paper we present the analysis of such inclusions in a low-carbon chromium-steel. Depending on the time of quenching of the steel sample, different structures were revealed by REM, Auger and SIMS: If the steel was quenched immediately after Ca-addition, non-metallic inclusions that appeared to have "cavities" could be detected with SEM. SIMS investigations of these particles showed ring-shaped structures and revealed that the ring is made up of Al, Ca, Mg, O and S. No secondary ions however could be retrieved from the core inside the ring, thus leaving the nature of the "cavities" unclear. If the steel sample was quenched 3 min after Ca addition, inclusions did not have a ring-shaped structure but a compact one.

  3. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  4. Concrete with carpet recyclates: suitability assessment by surface energy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H; Cieślak, M

    2008-01-01

    Worn out textile floor coverings are burdensome wastes that are degraded in landfill sites after a very long period of time. One of the ways to manage this kind of waste may be the use of carpet recyclate (CR) as an additive for concrete reinforcement. Therefore, an attempt was made to predict the effects of recyclate additives on the durability a concrete-carpet mixture by employing the method of assessing surface properties of components in the concrete-carpet recyclates composite. Testing was performed on carpet wastes, containing polyamide (PA) and polypropylene (PP) piles and butadiene-styrene resin with chalk filler (BSC) as back coating, to assess the suitability of CR additive for concrete reinforcement by surface energy evaluation. Based on the measurements of contact angles, the free surface energy of recyclate components was determined. The reversible work of adhesion at the interface between these components in dry and wet states was also calculated. The results show that CR with both PA and PP fibers form a strong and water-resistant bond with concrete.

  5. Disposing and recycling waste printed circuit boards: disconnecting, resource recovery, and pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbo; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-20

    Over the past decades, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered e-waste recycling activities. After a decade of effort, disassembly and raw materials recycling of environmentally friendly e-waste have been realized in specialized companies, in China, and law enforcement for illegal activities of e-waste recycling has also been made more and more strict. So up to now, the e-waste recycling in China should be developed toward more depth and refinement to promote industrial production of e-waste resource recovery. Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs), which are the most complex, hazardous, and valuable components of e-waste, are selected as one typical example in this article that reviews the status of related regulations and technologies of WPCBs recycling, then optimizes, and integrates the proper approaches in existence, while the bottlenecks in the WPCBs recycling system are analyzed, and some preliminary experiments of pinch technologies are also conducted. Finally, in order to provide directional guidance for future development of WPCBs recycling, some key points in the WPCBs recycling system are proposed to point towards a future trend in the e-waste recycling industry.

  6. Capacitance probe for detection of anomalies in non-metallic plastic pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Mahendra P.; Spenik, James L.; Condon, Christopher M.; Anderson, Rodney; Driscoll, Daniel J.; Fincham, Jr., William L.; Monazam, Esmail R.

    2010-11-23

    The disclosure relates to analysis of materials using a capacitive sensor to detect anomalies through comparison of measured capacitances. The capacitive sensor is used in conjunction with a capacitance measurement device, a location device, and a processor in order to generate a capacitance versus location output which may be inspected for the detection and localization of anomalies within the material under test. The components may be carried as payload on an inspection vehicle which may traverse through a pipe interior, allowing evaluation of nonmetallic or plastic pipes when the piping exterior is not accessible. In an embodiment, supporting components are solid-state devices powered by a low voltage on-board power supply, providing for use in environments where voltage levels may be restricted.

  7. Specific recycling receptors are targeted to the immune synapse by the intraflagellar transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finetti, Francesca; Patrussi, Laura; Masi, Giulia; Onnis, Anna; Galgano, Donatella; Lucherini, Orso Maria; Pazour, Gregory J; Baldari, Cosima T

    2014-05-01

    T cell activation requires sustained signaling at the immune synapse, a specialized interface with the antigen-presenting cell (APC) that assembles following T cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement by major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-bound peptide. Central to sustained signaling is the continuous recruitment of TCRs to the immune synapse. These TCRs are partly mobilized from an endosomal pool by polarized recycling. We have identified IFT20, a component of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system that controls ciliogenesis, as a central regulator of TCR recycling to the immune synapse. Here, we have investigated the interplay of IFT20 with the Rab GTPase network that controls recycling. We found that IFT20 forms a complex with Rab5 and the TCR on early endosomes. IFT20 knockdown (IFT20KD) resulted in a block in the recycling pathway, leading to a build-up of recycling TCRs in Rab5(+) endosomes. Recycling of the transferrin receptor (TfR), but not of CXCR4, was disrupted by IFT20 deficiency. The IFT components IFT52 and IFT57 were found to act together with IFT20 to regulate TCR and TfR recycling. The results provide novel insights into the mechanisms that control TCR recycling and immune synapse assembly, and underscore the trafficking-related function of the IFT system beyond ciliogenesis.

  8. Auditing an intensive care unit recycling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Mark A; McGain, Forbes; O'Shea, Catherine J; Bates, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    The provision of health care has significant direct environmental effects such as energy and water use and waste production, and indirect effects, including manufacturing and transport of drugs and equipment. Recycling of hospital waste is one strategy to reduce waste disposed of as landfill, preserve resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially remain fiscally responsible. We began an intensive care unit recycling program, because a significant proportion of ICU waste was known to be recyclable. To determine the weight and proportion of ICU waste recycled, the proportion of incorrect waste disposal (including infectious waste contamination), the opportunity for further recycling and the financial effects of the recycling program. We weighed all waste and recyclables from an 11-bed ICU in an Australian metropolitan hospital for 7 non-consecutive days. As part of routine care, ICU waste was separated into general, infectious and recycling streams. Recycling streams were paper and cardboard, three plastics streams (polypropylene, mixed plastics and polyvinylchloride [PVC]) and commingled waste (steel, aluminium and some plastics). ICU waste from the waste and recycling bins was sorted into those five recycling streams, general waste and infectious waste. After sorting, the waste was weighed and examined. Recycling was classified as achieved (actual), potential and total. Potential recycling was defined as being acceptable to hospital protocol and local recycling programs. Direct and indirect financial costs, excluding labour, were examined. During the 7-day period, the total ICU waste was 505 kg: general waste, 222 kg (44%); infectious waste, 138 kg (27%); potentially recyclable waste, 145 kg (28%). Of the potentially recyclable waste, 70 kg (49%) was actually recycled (14% of the total ICU waste). In the infectious waste bins, 82% was truly infectious. There was no infectious contamination of the recycling streams. The PVC waste was 37% contaminated

  9. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M

    2005-04-05

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted

  10. Recycling of polymers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatyev, Igor A; Thielemans, Wim; Vander Beke, Bob

    2014-06-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, easy to mold, and lightweight. These and many other advantages make them very promising candidates for commercial applications. In many areas, they have substantially suppressed traditional materials. However, the problem of recycling still is a major challenge. There are both technological and economic issues that restrain the progress in this field. Herein, a state-of-art overview of recycling is provided together with an outlook for the future by using popular polymers such as polyolefins, poly(vinyl chloride), polyurethane, and poly(ethylene terephthalate) as examples. Different types of recycling, primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, and biological recycling, are discussed together with related issues, such as compatibilization and cross-linking. There are various projects in the European Union on research and application of these recycling approaches; selected examples are provided in this article. Their progress is mirrored by granted patents, most of which have a very limited scope and narrowly cover certain technologies. Global introduction of waste utilization techniques to the polymer market is currently not fully developed, but has an enormous potential.

  11. New plastic recycling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater than 60% of the total plastic content of municipal solid waste is comprised of polyolefins (high-density, low-density, and linear polyethylene and polypropylene. Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume component but presents a challenge due to the absence of low-energy de...

  12. Characterization of DWPF recycle condensate tank materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample was delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization with particular interest in the concentration of I-129, U-233, U-235, total U, and total Pu. Since a portion of Salt Batch 8 will contain DWPF recycle materials, the concentration of I-129 is important to undertand for salt batch planning purposes. The chemical and physical characterizations are also needed as input to the interpretation of future work aimed at determining the propensity of the RCT material to foam, and methods to remediate any foaming potential. According to DWPF the Tank Farm 2H evaporator has experienced foaming while processing DWPF recycle materials. The characterization work on the RCT samples has been completed and is reported here. The composition of the Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) RCT material is largely a low base solution of 0.2M NaNO2 and 0.1M NaNO3 with a small amount of formate present. Insoluble solids comprise only 0.05 wt.% of the slurry. The solids appear to be largely sludge-like solids based on elemental composition and SEM-EDS analysis. The sample contains an elevated concentration of I-129 (38x) and substantial 59% fraction of Tc-99, as compared to the incoming SB8 Tank 40 feed material. The Hg concentration is 5x, when compared to Fe, of that expected based on sludge carryover. The total U and Pu concentrations are reduced significantly, 0.536 wt.% TS and 2.42E-03 wt.% TS, respectively, with the fissile components, U-233, U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241, an order of magnitude lower in concentration than those in the SB8 Tank 40 DWPF feed material. This report will be revised to include the foaming study requested in the TTR and outlined in the TTQAP when that work is concluded.

  13. Recycling of petroleum-contaminated sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, R; Ba-Omar, M; Pillay, A E; Roos, G; al-Hamdi, A

    2001-08-01

    The environmental impact of using petroleum-contaminated sand (PCS) as a substitute in asphalt paving mixtures was examined. An appreciable component of PCS is oily sludge, which is found as the dregs in oil storage tanks and is also produced as a result of oil spills on clean sand. The current method for the disposal of oily sludge is land farming. However, this method has not been successful as an oil content of tests and environmental studies were conducted to establish the integrity of the materials containing the recycled sludge. These included physical and chemical characterization of the sludge itself, and an assessment of the mechanical properties of materials containing 0%, 5%, 22% and 50% oily sludge. The blended mixtures were subjected to special tests, such as Marshall testing and the determination of stability and flow properties. The experimental results indicated that mixtures containing up to 22% oily sludge could meet the necessary criteria for a specific asphalt concrete wearing course or bituminous base course. To maximize the assay from the recycled material, the environmental assessment was restricted to the 50% oily sludge mixture. Leachates associated with this particular mixture were assayed for total organic residue and certain hazardous metal contaminants. The results revealed that the organics were negligible, and the concentrations of the metals were not significant. Thus, no adverse environmental impact should be anticipated from the use of the recycled product. Our research showed that the disposal of oily sludge in asphalt paving mixtures could possibly yield considerable savings per tonne of asphalt concrete, and concurrently minimize any direct impact on the environment.

  14. Evaluation of a Zirconium Recycle Scrubber System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A hot-cell demonstration of the zirconium recycle process is planned as part of the Materials Recovery and Waste Forms Development (MRWFD) campaign. The process treats Zircaloy® cladding recovered from used nuclear fuel with chlorine gas to recover the zirconium as volatile ZrCl4. This releases radioactive tritium trapped in the alloy, converting it to volatile tritium chloride (TCl). To meet regulatory requirements governing radioactive emissions from nuclear fuel treatment operations, the capture and retention of a portion of this TCl may be required prior to discharge of the off-gas stream to the environment. In addition to demonstrating tritium removal from a synthetic zirconium recycle off-gas stream, the recovery and quantification of tritium may refine estimates of the amount of tritium present in the Zircaloy cladding of used nuclear fuel. To support these objectives, a bubbler-type scrubber was fabricated to remove the TCl from the zirconium recycle off-gas stream. The scrubber was fabricated from glass and polymer components that are resistant to chlorine and hydrochloric acid solutions. Because of concerns that the scrubber efficiency is not quantitative, tests were performed using DCl as a stand-in to experimentally measure the scrubbing efficiency of this unit. Scrubbing efficiency was ~108% ± 3% with water as the scrubber solution. Variations were noted when 1 M NaOH scrub solution was used, values ranged from 64% to 130%. The reason for the variations is not known. It is recommended that the equipment be operated with water as the scrubbing solution. Scrubbing efficiency is estimated at 100%.

  15. Design and Implementation of a Hall Effect Sensor Array Applied to Recycling Hard Drive Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, Roger [ORNL; Lenarduzzi, Roberto [ORNL; Killough, Stephen M [ORNL; McIntyre, Timothy J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Rare earths are an important resource for many electronic components and technologies. Examples abound including Neodymium magnets used in mobile devices and computer hard drives (HDDs), and a variety of renewable energy technologies (e.g., wind turbines). Approximately 21,000 metric tons of Neodymium is processed annually with less than 1% being recycled. An economic system to assist in the recycling of magnet material from post-consumer goods, such as Neodymium Iron Boron magnets commonly found in hard drives is presented. A central component of this recycling measurement system uses an array of 128 Hall Effect sensors arranged in two columns to detect the magnetic flux lines orthogonal to the HDD. Results of using the system to scan planar shaped objects such as hard drives to identify and spatially locate rare-earth magnets for removal and recycling from HDDs are presented. Applications of the sensor array in other identification and localization of magnetic components and assemblies will be presented.

  16. Recycling Expensive Medication: Why Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Jay M

    2004-01-01

    New (and proposed) advances in packaging, preserving, labeling, and verifying product integrity of individual tablets and capsules may allow for the recycling of certain expensive medicines. Previously sold, but unused, medication, if brought back to special pharmacies for resale or donation, may provide a low-cost source of patent-protected medicines. Benefits of such a program go beyond simply providing affordable medication to the poor. This article suggests that medicine recycling may be a possibility (especially if manufacturers are mandated to blister-package and bar-code individual tablets and capsules). This early discussion of medication recycling identifies relevant issues, such as: need, rationale, existing programs, available supplies, expiration dates, new technology for ensuring safety and potency, environmental impact, public health benefits, program focus, program structure, and liability. PMID:15266231

  17. Recycling dodecylamine intercalated vanadate nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Odair P., E-mail: odair@iqm.unicamp.br; Souza Filho, Antonio G., E-mail: agsf@fisica.ufc.br; Alves, Oswaldo L., E-mail: oalves@iqm.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP, LQES - Laboratorio de Quimica do Estado Solido, Instituto de Quimica (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    In this article, we report the thermal decomposition processes of dodecylamine intercalated vanadate nanotubes and their recycling process. Structural, vibrational, and morphological properties of the annealed samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The data analysis unveiled that vanadate nanotubes (VONTs) decompose into nanoplates which is isostructural to xerogel, and finally to nanoparticle aggregates whose composition is a single V{sub 2}O{sub 5} bulk phase. These aggregates can be successfully recycled for converting the residues of decomposition process into vanadate nanotubes again.

  18. Non-metal doped TiO2 nanotube arrays for high efficiency photocatalytic decomposition of organic species in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkoda, Mariusz; Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Titanium dioxide is a well-known photoactive semiconductor with a variety of possible applications. The procedure of pollutant degradation is mainly performed using TiO2 powder suspension. It can also be exploited an immobilized catalyst on a solid support. Morphology and chemical doping have a great influence on TiO2 activity under illumination. Here we compare photoactivity of titania nanotube arrays doped with non-metal atoms: nitrogen, iodine and boron applied for photodegradation of organic dye - methylene blue and terephtalic acid. The doped samples act as a much better photocatalyst in the degradation process of methylene blue and lead to the formation of much higher amount of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) than undoped TiO2 nanotube arrays. The use of a catalyst active under solar light illumination in the form of thin films on a stable substrate can be scaled up for an industrial application.

  19. Effect of Non-metallic Inclusions in Fe-Al-Ti-O-N-S Alloy on Grain Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonjin; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka

    2016-06-01

    The effect of characteristics of non-metallic inclusions in Fe-Al-Ti-O-N-S alloys with various compositions at 1473 K (1200 °C) on the microstructure was studied. The ASTM grain size number was determined in as-cast and heated samples by the optical microscopy, and the inclusion types in each sample were determined from composition analysis by field-emission scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The TiN-based inclusions certainly had a positive effect on the grain refinement. On the other hand, TiS-based inclusions exhibited no influence on the decrease of grain size. In addition, the formation and evolution behavior of inclusions by heating solid-state Fe-Al-Ti-O-N-S alloys with those locations were clarified. A different change of inclusions in alloys was observed depending on the distribution and composition of inclusions.

  20. Characteristics and Modification of Non-metallic Inclusions in Titanium-Stabilized AISI 409 Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Dirk; Garbers-Craig, Andrie

    2017-06-01

    This study describes an investigation into the improvement of castability, final surface quality and formability of titanium-stabilized AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel on an industrial scale. Non-metallic inclusions found in this industrially produced stainless steel were first characterized using SEM-EDS analyses through the INCA-Steel software platform. Inclusions were found to consist of a MgO·Al2O3 spinel core, which acted as heterogeneous nucleation site for titanium solubility products. Plant-scale experiments were conducted to either prevent the formation of spinel, or to modify it by calcium treatment. Modification to spherical dual-phase spinel-liquid matrix inclusions was achieved with calcium addition, which eliminated submerged entry nozzle clogging for this grade. Complete modification to homogeneous liquid calcium aluminates was achieved at high levels of dissolved aluminum. A mechanism was suggested to explain the extent of modification achieved.

  1. Detection of Surface and Subsurface Cracks in Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials Using a Complementary Split-Ring Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Albishi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Available microwave techniques for crack detection have some challenges, such as design complexity and working at a high frequency. These challenges make the sensing apparatus design complex and relatively very expensive. This paper presents a simple method for surface and subsurface crack detection in metallic and non-metallic materials based on complementary split-ring resonators (CSRRs. A CSRR sensor can be patterned on the ground plane of a microstrip line and fabricated using printed circuit board technology. Compared to available microwave techniques for sub-millimeter crack detection, the methods presented here show distinct advantages, such as high spatial resolution, high sensitivity and design simplicity. The response of the CSRR as a sensor for crack detection is studied and analysed numerically. Experimental validations are also presented.

  2. Characteristics and Modification of Non-metallic Inclusions in Titanium-Stabilized AISI 409 Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Dirk; Garbers-Craig, Andrie

    2017-02-01

    This study describes an investigation into the improvement of castability, final surface quality and formability of titanium-stabilized AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel on an industrial scale. Non-metallic inclusions found in this industrially produced stainless steel were first characterized using SEM-EDS analyses through the INCA-Steel software platform. Inclusions were found to consist of a MgO·Al2O3 spinel core, which acted as heterogeneous nucleation site for titanium solubility products. Plant-scale experiments were conducted to either prevent the formation of spinel, or to modify it by calcium treatment. Modification to spherical dual-phase spinel-liquid matrix inclusions was achieved with calcium addition, which eliminated submerged entry nozzle clogging for this grade. Complete modification to homogeneous liquid calcium aluminates was achieved at high levels of dissolved aluminum. A mechanism was suggested to explain the extent of modification achieved.

  3. Standard practice for process compensated resonance testing via swept sine input for metallic and Non-Metallic parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a general procedure for using the process compensated resonance testing (PCRT) via swept sine input method to identify metallic and non-metallic parts’ resonant pattern differences that can be used to indentify parts with anomalies causing deficiencies in the expected performance of the part in service. This practice is intended for use with instruments capable of exciting, measuring, recording, and analyzing multiple whole body mechanical vibration resonant frequencies within parts exhibiting acoustical ringing in the audio, or ultrasonic, resonant frequency ranges, or both. PCRT is used in the presence of manufacturing process variance to distinguish acceptable parts from those containing significant anomalies in physical characteristics expected to significantly alter the performance. Such physical characteristics include, but are not limited to, cracks, voids, porosity, shrink, inclusions, discontinuities, grain and crystalline structure differences, density related anomalies...

  4. Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials for the Primary Support Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RA Wolf; RP Corson

    2006-02-21

    The primary support structure (PSS) is required for mechanical support of reactor module (RM) components and mounting of the RM to the spacecraft. The PSS would provide support and accept all loads associated with dynamic (e. g., launch and maneuvering) or thermally induced loading. Prior to termination of NRPCT involvement in Project Prometheus, the NRPCT Mechanical Systems team developed preliminary finite element models to gain a basic understanding of the behavior of the structure, but optimization of the models, specification of the final design, and materials selection were not completed. The Space Plant Materials team had evaluated several materials for potential use in the primary support structure, namely titanium alloys, beryllium, aluminum alloys and carbon-carbon composites. The feasibility of application of each material system was compared based on mass, stiffness, thermal expansion, and ease of fabrication. Due to insufficient data on environmental factors, such as temperatures and radiation, and limited modeling support, a final materials selection was not made.

  5. The role of recycle oil in direct coal liquefaction process development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, F.P.

    1995-08-01

    It has long been recognized that use of a recycle oil is a convenient and perhaps necessary feature of a practical direct coal liquefaction process. The recycle oil performs a number of important functions. It serves as a vehicle to convey coal into the liquefaction reactor and products from the reactor. It is a medium for mass and heat transfer among the solid, liquid, and gaseous components of the reactor inventory. It can act as a reactant or intermediate in the liquefaction process. Therefore, the nature of the recycle oil can have a determining effect on process configuration and performance, and the characterization of recycle oil composition and chemistry has been the subject of considerable interest. This paper discusses recycle oil characterization and its influence on the industrial development of coal liquefaction technology,

  6. The Recycling Solution: How I Increased Recycling on Dilworth Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The grandson of Fred Keller, one of the founders of behavior analysis, Jacob was 10 years old when he conducted the project for his elementary school science fair. We recently contacted Jacob to learn more about his project. He told us the inspiration came from a class field trip to the county recycling center, which included seeing video footage…

  7. Nanomaterials environmental risks and recycling: Actual issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies are being spoken of as the driving force behind a new industrial revolution. Nanoscience has matured significantly during the last decade as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Presently, nanomaterials are used in a wide variety of commercial products such as electronic components, sports equipment, sun creams and biomedical applications. The size of nanoparticles allows them to interact strongly with biological structures, so they present potential human and environmental health risk. Nanometer size presents also a problem for separation, recovery, and reuse of the particulate matter. Therefore, industrial-scale manufacturing and use of nanomaterials could have strong impact on human health and the environment or the problematic of nanomaterials recycling. The catch-all term ''nanotechnology' is not sufficiently precise for risk governance and risk management purposes. The estimation of possible risks depends on a consideration of the life cycle of the material being produced, which involves understanding the processes and materials used in manufacture, the likely interactions between the product and individuals or the environment during its manufacture and useful life, and the methods used in its eventual disposal. From a risk-control point of view it will be necessary to systematically identify those critical issues, which should be looked at in more detail. Brief review of actual trends in nanomaterials environmental risks and recycling is given in this paper.

  8. The uncertainties calculation of acoustic method for measurement of dissipative properties of heterogeneous non-metallic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мaryna O. Golofeyeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective use of heterogeneous non-metallic materials and structures needs measurement of reliable values of dissipation characteristics, as well as common factors of their change during the loading process. Aim: The aim of this study is to prepare the budget for measurement uncertainty of dissipative properties of composite materials. Materials and Methods: The method used to study the vibrational energy dissipation characteristics based on coupling of vibrations damping decrement and acoustic velocity in a non-metallic heterogeneous material is reviewed. The proposed method allows finding the dependence of damping on vibrations amplitude and frequency of strain-stress state of material. Results: Research of the accuracy of measurement method during the definition of decrement attenuation of fluctuations in synthegran was performed. The international approach for evaluation of measurements quality is used. It includes the common practice international rules for uncertainty expression and their summation. These rules are used as internationally acknowledged confidence measure to the measurement results, which includes testing. The uncertainties budgeting of acoustic method for measurement of dissipative properties of materials were compiled. Conclusions: It was defined that there are two groups of reasons resulting in errors during measurement of materials dissipative properties. The first group of errors contains of parameters changing of calibrated bump in tolerance limits, displacement of sensor in repeated placement to measurement point, layer thickness variation of contact agent because of irregular hold-down of resolvers to control surface, inaccuracy in reading and etc. The second group of errors is linked with density and Poisson’s ratio measurement errors, distance between sensors, time difference between signals of vibroacoustic sensors.

  9. Effect of Acid-Soluble Aluminum on the Evolution of Non-metallic Inclusions in Spring Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Tang, Haiyan; Wu, Tuo; Wu, Guanghui; Li, Jingshe

    2017-04-01

    The content of acidic soluble aluminum in molten steel ([Al]s) is of significance to the control of total oxygen (TO), the formation of non-metallic inclusions, and the improvement of the surface quality of billets. Industrial trials and thermodynamic calculations were performed to study the effects of [Al]s content on the TO and the evolution of non-metallic inclusions in 60Si2Mn-Cr spring steel that was deoxidized by Si-Mn ((low aluminum process (LAP)) and Si-Mn-Al (high aluminum process (HAP)). The results show that the [Al]s contents in billets are within 0.0060 to 0.0069 mass pct in the LAP and 0.016 to 0.055 mass pct in the HAP. The TO content at each station of the LAP is higher than that in the HAP; the inclusions of billets were mainly of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 type in the former, and of the CaO-Al2O3-MgO and CaS-Al2O3-MgO types in the latter. A tendency is found that the higher the [Al]s, the easier it is to deviate from the low melting point region of the inclusion distribution and the larger the size of the inclusions. The relationships between [Al]s and the melting point of the oxide inclusions and the Al2O3 content in the oxide inclusions are also discussed in terms of experiment and calculation.

  10. Enhanced hydrogen desorption properties of magnesium hydride by coupling non-metal doping and nano-confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Daliang; Wang, Yulong; Wu, Chengzhang; Li, Qian; Ding, Weizhong; Sun, Chenghua

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium hydride (MgH2) offers excellent capacity to store hydrogen, but it suffers from the high desorption temperature (>283 °C for starting release hydrogen). In this work, we calculated the hydrogen desorption energy of Mg76H152 clusters with/without non-metal dopants by density functional theory method. Phosphorus (P), as identified as the best dopant, can reduce the reaction energy for releasing one hydrogen molecule from 0.75 eV (bulk MgH2) to 0.20 eV. Inspired by the calculation, P-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) was synthesized by one-step method and employed as the scaffold for loading MgH2 nanoparticles, forming MgH2@P/CMK-3. Element analysis shows that phosphorus dopants have been incorporated into the CMK-3 scaffold and magnesium and phosphorus elements are well-distributed in carbon scaffold hosts. Tests of hydrogen desorption confirmed that P-doping can remarkably enhance the hydrogen release properties of nanoconfined MgH2 at low temperature, specifically ˜1.5 wt. % H2 released from MgH2@P/CMK-3 below 200 °C. This work, based on the combination of computational calculations and experimental studies, demonstrated that the combined approach of non-metal doping and nano-confinement is promising for enhancing the hydrogen desorption properties of MgH2, which provides a strategy to address the challenge of hydrogen desorption from MgH2 at mild operational conditions.

  11. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  12. Improving the layout of recycling centres by use of lean production principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, Erik; Björkman, Mats; Eklund, Mats; Eklund, Jörgen; Engkvist, Inga-Lill

    2011-06-01

    There has been increased focus on recycling in Sweden during recent years. This focus can be attributed to external environmental factors such as tougher legislation, but also to the potential gains for raw materials suppliers. Recycling centres are important components in the Swedish total recycling system. Recycling centres are manned facilities for waste collection where visitors can bring, sort and discard worn products as well as large-sized, hazardous, and electrical waste. The aim of this paper was to identify and describe the main flows and layout types at Swedish recycling centres. The aim was also to adapt and apply production theory for designing and managing recycling centre operations. More specifically, this means using lean production principles to help develop guidelines for recycling centre design and efficient control. Empirical data for this research was primarily collected through interviews and questionnaires among both visitors and employees at 16 Swedish recycling centres. Furthermore, adapted observation protocols have been used in order to explore visitor activities. There was also close collaboration with a local recycling centre company, which shared their layout experiences with the researchers in this project. The recycling centres studied had a variety of problems such as queues of visitors, overloading of material and improper sorting. The study shows that in order to decrease the problems, the recycling centres should be designed and managed according to lean production principles, i.e. through choosing more suitable layout choices with visible and linear flows, providing better visitor information, and providing suitable technical equipment. Improvements can be achieved through proper planning of the layout and control of the flow of vehicles, with the result of increased efficiency and capacity, shorter visits, and cleaner waste fractions. The benefits of a lean production mindset include increased visitor capacity, waste

  13. Continental moisture recycling as a Poisson process

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    On their journey across large land masses, water molecules experience a number of precipitation-evaporation cycles (recycling events). We derive analytically the frequency distributions of recycling events for the water molecules contained in a given air parcel. Given the validity of certain simplifying assumptions, continental moisture recycling is shown to develop either into a Poisson distribution or a geometric distribution. We distinguish two cases: in case (A) recycling events a...

  14. Proceedings of the waste recycling workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, R.E.; Thomas, A.F.; Ries, M.A. [eds.] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Recorded are seventeen talks from five sessions at the workshop. FERMCO`s recycling program, state of the art recycling technology, and an integrated demonstration of deactivation, decommissioning and decommissioning are presented in the plenary session. In the concrete session, decontamination and recycling are discussed. In the transite session, regulations are considered along with recycling and decontamination. In the metals session, radioactive scrap metals are emphasized. And in the regulatory considerations and liabilities session, DOE and EPA viewpoints are discussed. (GHH)

  15. Recycling at Penn State's Beaver Stadium. "Recycle on the Go" Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    With a 13-year-old recycling program, The Pennsylvania State University's (Penn State) Beaver Stadium in the past diverted nearly 30 tons of recyclables per year from local landfills. A new initiative to promote recycling in the stadium's tailgating area has helped Penn State more than triple its old recycling record, collecting 112 tons in 2008.…

  16. Realistic tunnelling states for the magnetic effects in non-metallic real glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug, Giancarlo; Bonfanti, Silvia; Kob, Walter

    2016-03-01

    The discovery of magnetic and compositional effects in the low-temperature properties of multi-component glasses has prompted the need to extend the standard two-level systems (2LSs) tunnelling model. A possible extension assumes that a subset of tunnelling quasi-particles is moving in a three-welled potential (TWP) associated with the ubiquitous inhomogeneities of the disordered atomic structure of the glass. We show that within an alternative, cellular description of the intermediate-range atomic structure of glasses the tunnelling TWP can be fully justified. We then review how the experimentally discovered magnetic effects can be explained within the approach where only localized atomistic tunnelling 2LSs and quasi-particles tunnelling in TWPs are allowed. We discuss the origin of the magnetic effects in the heat capacity, dielectric constant (real and imaginary parts), polarization echo and SQUID magnetization in several glassy systems. We conclude by commenting on a strategy to reveal the mentioned tunnelling states (2LSs and TWPs) by means of atomistic computer simulations and discuss the microscopic nature of the tunnelling states in the context of the potential energy landscape of glass-forming systems

  17. Overview of reductants utilized in nuclear fuel reprocessing/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Catherine Riddle; Keri Campbell; Edward Mausolf

    2013-10-01

    Most of the aqueous processes developed, or under consideration worldwide for the recycling of used nuclear fuel (UNF) utilize the oxido-reduction properties of actinides to separate them from other radionuclides. Generally, after acid dissolution of the UNF, (essentially in nitric acid solution), actinides are separated from the raffinate by liquid-liquid extraction using specific solvents, associated along the process, with a particular reductant that will allow the separation to occur. For example, the industrial PUREX process utilizes hydroxylamine as a plutonium reductant. Hydroxylamine has numerous advantages: not only does it have the proper attributes to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III), but it is also a non-metallic chemical that is readily decomposed to innocuous products by heating. However, it has been observed that the presence of high nitric acid concentrations or impurities (such as metal ions) in hydroxylamine solutions increase the likelihood of the initiation of an autocatalytic reaction. Recently there has been some interest in the application of simple hydrophilic hydroxamic ligands such as acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) for the stripping of tetravalent actinides in the UREX process flowsheet. This approach is based on the high coordinating ability of hydroxamic acids with tetravalent actinides (Np and Pu) compared with hexavalent uranium. Thus, the use of AHA offers a route for controlling neptunium and plutonium in the UREX process by complexant based stripping of Np(IV) and Pu(IV) from the TBP solvent phase, while U(VI) ions are not affected by AHA and remain solvated in the TBP phase. In the European GANEX process, AHA is also used to form hydrophilic complexes with actinides and strip them from the organic phase into nitric acid. However, AHA does not decompose completely when treated with nitric acid and hampers nitric acid recycling. In lieu of using AHA in the UREX + process, formohydroxamic acid (FHA), although not commercially available, hold

  18. Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Vos, M.P.; Torri, C.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth–HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in

  19. Chemical recycling of scrap composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Ronald E.; Salas, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    There are no well-developed technologies for recycling composite materials other than grinding to produce fillers. New approaches are needed to reclaim these valuable resources. Chemical or tertiary recycling, conversion of polymers into low molecular weight hydrocarbons for reuse as chemicals or fuels, is emerging as the most practical means for obtaining value from waste plastics and composites. Adherent Technologies is exploring a low-temperature catalytic process for recycling plastics and composites. Laboratory results show that all types of plastics, thermosets as well as thermoplastics, can be converted in high yields to valuable hydrocarbon products. This novel catalytic process runs at 200 C, conversion times are rapid, the process is closed and, thus, nonpolluting, and no highly toxic gas or liquid products have been observed so no negative environmental impact will result from its implementation. Tests on reclamation of composite materials show that epoxy, imide, and engineering thermoplastic matrices can be converted to low molecular weight hydrocarbons leaving behind the reinforcing fibers for reuse as composite reinforcements in secondary, lower-performance applications. Chemical recycling is also a means to dispose of sensitive or classified organic materials without incineration and provides a means to eliminate or reduce mixed hazardous wastes containing organic materials.

  20. The chemical recycle of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Beyer Schuch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical recycle of cotton textiles and/or other cellulosic materials for the purpose of manufacturing regenerated high quality textiles fibres is a novel process. The objective of related research is based on the forecast of population growth, on resource scarcity predictions, and on the negative environmental impact of the textile industry. These facts lead the need of broadening the scope for long-term textile-to-textile recycle - as the mechanical recycle of natural fibres serve for limited number of cycles, still depends on input of virgin material, and offer a reduced-in-quality output. Critical analysis of scientific papers, relevant related reports, and personal interviews were the base of this study, which shows viable results in laboratorial scale of using low-quality cellulosic materials as input for the development of high-quality regenerated textile fibres though ecological chemical process. Nevertheless, to scale up and implement this innovative recycle method, other peripheral structures are requested, such as recover schemes or appropriate sort, for instance. Further researches should also be considered in regards to colours and impurities.

  1. Sustainability issues in circuit board recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech; Alting, Leo; Baldo, Gian Luca

    1995-01-01

    The resource recovery and environmental impact issues of printed circuit board recycling by secondary copper smelters are discussed. Guidelines concerning material selection for circuit board manufacture and concerning the recycling processes are given to enhance recovery efficiency and to lower...... the impacts on the external environment from recycling...

  2. Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…

  3. Recycling in Schools: From Fad to Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J. Winston

    1991-01-01

    Numerous business issues arise when organizing a school recycling program. Important questions include the appropriate program organization, deciding what materials to recycle, the selection of appropriate business partners, and various financial issues. Offers suggestions for achieving a successful recycling program. (MLF)

  4. 78 FR 69531 - America Recycles Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Second World Wars, Americans showed their patriotism by participating in scrap drives and salvage... our health and harm our environment if not recycled properly. Recycling not only reduces pollution... the world around us. In our homes, offices, and schools, let us strive to make recycling a part of...

  5. Investigating why recycling gravity harvested algae increases harvestability and productivity in high rate algal ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

    2013-09-15

    It has previously been shown that recycling gravity harvested algae promotes Pediastrum boryanum dominance and improves harvestability and biomass production in pilot-scale High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs) treating domestic wastewater. In order to confirm the reproducibility of these findings and investigate the mechanisms responsible, this study utilized twelve 20 L outdoor HRAP mesocosms operated with and without algal recycling. It then compared the recycling of separated solid and liquid components of the harvested biomass against un-separated biomass. The work confirmed that algal recycling promoted P. boryanum dominance, improved 1 h-settleability by >20% and increased biomass productivity by >25% compared with controls that had no recycling. With regard to the improved harvestability, of particular interest was that recycling the liquid fraction alone caused a similar improvement in settleability as recycling the solid fraction. This may be due to the presence of extracellular polymeric substances in the liquid fraction. While there are many possible mechanisms that could account for the increased productivity with algal recycling, all but two were systematically eliminated: (i) the mean cell residence time was extended thereby increasing the algal concentration and more fully utilizing the incident sunlight and, (ii) the relative proportions of algal growth stages (which have different specific growth rates) was changed, resulting in a net increase in the overall growth rate of the culture.

  6. HI Recycling Formation of Tidal Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Duc, P A; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Brinks, Elias

    2000-01-01

    Galactic collisions trigger a number of phenomena, such as transportation inward of gas from distances of up to kiloparsecs from the center of a galaxy to the nuclear region, fuelling a central starburst or nuclear activity. The inverse process, the ejection of material into the intergalactic medium by tidal forces, is another important aspect and can be studied especially well through detailed HI observations of interacting systems which have shown that a large fraction of the gaseous component of colliding galaxies can be expelled. Part of this tidal debris might fall back, be dispersed throughout the intergalactic medium or recondense to form a new generation of galaxies: the so-called tidal dwarf galaxies. The latter are nearby examples of galaxies in formation. The properties of these recycled objects are reviewed here and different ways to identify them are reviewed.

  7. Greener routes for recycling of polyethylene terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sabagh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the different routes for recycling of polyethylene terephthalate. Chemical recycling processes are divided into six groups: methanolysis, glycolysis, hydrolysis, ammonolysis, aminolysis, and other methods. In a large collection of researches for the chemical recycling of PET, the primary objective is to increase the monomer yield while reducing the reaction time and/or carrying out the reaction under mild conditions. This article also presents the impact of the new recyclable catalysts such as ionic liquids on the future developments in the chemical recycling of PET.

  8. Some Problems of Recycling Industrial Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jiu-ju; LU Zhong-wu; YUE Qiang

    2008-01-01

    The industrial system should learn from the natural ecosystem.The resource utilization efficiency should be increased and the environmental load should be decreased,depending on the materials recycled in the system.The classification of industrial materials from the viewpoint of large-scale recycling was stated.Recycling of materials,on three different levels,was introduced in the industrial system.The metal flow diagram in the life cycle of products,in the case of no materials recycled,materials partially recycled,and materials completely recycled,was given.The natural resource conservation and the waste emission reduction were analyzed under the condition of materials completely recycled.The expressions for the relation between resource efficiency and material recycling rate,and the relation between eco-effieiency and material recycling rate were derived,and the curves describing the relationship between them were protracted.The diagram of iron flow in the life cycle of iron and steel products in China,in 2001,was given,and the iron resource efficiency,material recycling rate,and iron coo-efficiency were analyzed.The variation of iron resource efficiency with the material recycling rate was analyzed for two different production ratios.

  9. Innovative Vacuum Distillation for Magnesium Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianbai; Li, Naiyi; Mei, Xiaoming; Yu, Alfred; Shang, Shixiang

    Magnesium recycling now becomes a very important subject as magnesium consumption increases fast around the world. All commonly used magnesium die-casting alloys can be recycled and recovered to the primary metal quality. The recycled materials may be comprised of biscuits, sprues, runners, flash, overflows, dross, sludge, scrap parts, and old parts that are returned from service, An innovative magnesium recycle method, vacuum distillation, is developed and proved out to be able to recycle magnesium scraps, especially machining chips, oily magnesium, smelting sludge, dross or the mixture. With this process at a specific temperature and environment condition, magnesium in scraps can be gasified and then solidified to become crystal magnesium crown. This `recycled' magnesium crown is collected and used as the raw material of magnesium alloys. The experimental results show the vacuum distillation is a feasible and plausible method to recycle magnesium. Further, the cost analysis will be addressed in this paper.

  10. 超低氧齿轮钢非金属夹杂物控制热力学计算及应用%Thermodynamic Calculation and Application of Non-Metallic Inclusions for Ultra-Low-Oxygen Gear Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天明

    2011-01-01

    利用热力学软件计算了齿轮钢氧含量与夹杂物成分的关系、夹杂物转变条件.结果表明,超低氧20CrMoH钢中具有较高塑性的非金属夹杂物成分(质量分数)为:SiO2 0~10%,Al2O3 22%~55%,CaO 42%~60%,MgO 5%~10%,与之平衡的时钢液中铝质量分数在0.020%左右,钙质量分数大于0.7×10-6,氧质量分数在0.000 5%左右.选择组成:w(CaO)>40%,w(Al2O3)≤37%,w(MgO)为10%,(w(CaO)+w(MgO))/w(SiO2)为10,SiO2含量尽量低的渣系,钢中Al2O3、MgO·Al2O3夹杂物可转变为低熔点的钙铝酸盐.%Interrelations between oxygen content of gear steel and non-metallic inclusions, and transformations conditions for non-metallic inclusions were calculated using the thermodynamic calculation software Factsage. It is found that the components of non-metallic inclusions with higher plasticity in ultra-low-oxygen gear steel should be composed by SiO2 0-10%, Al2O3 22%-55%, CaO 42%-60%, and MgO 5%-10%, aluminum content would be about 0.020%, calcium content would be more than 0.7 × 10-6 , and oxygen content would be about 0.0005 % in molten steel when the reaction between the inclusion and liquid steel arrived in equilibrium. If the compositions of fining slag with w(CaO)>40%, w(Al2O3 )≤37% ,w(MgO) = 10% ,(w(CaO) +w(MgO))/w(SiO2 ) = 10, and SiO2 content as low as possible were selected, Al2O3 and MgO · Al2O3 in molten steel can transform into calcium aluminates with low melting point.

  11. Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions of China’s Non-Metallic Mineral Products Industry: Present State, Prospects and Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available China is the largest non-metallic mineral producer in the world and one of the key consumers of four major non-metallic mineral products, including cement, refractories, plate glass and ceramics. The non-metallic mineral products industry’s rapid growth has brought about a large demand for energy. The present study provides an overview of China’s non-metallic mineral products industry in terms of production, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. In this industry, the energy efficiency is relatively low and the level of carbon dioxide emission is much higher than developed countries’ average. This study interprets the effects of some newly issued policies and analyses the influential factors in achieving energy conservation and emission reduction goals. It also discusses the prospects for saving energy and emission reduction in the industry. Retrofitting facilities and using new production technologies is imperative. Additionally, implementing market-based policies, promoting industrial transformation and effective international cooperation would help decrease carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption.

  12. Effect of Calcium Treatment on Non-Metallic Inclusions in Ultra-Low Oxygen Steel Refined by High Basicity High Al2O3 Sla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun; WANG Xin-hua; JIANG Min; WANG Wan-jun

    2011-01-01

    The influence of calcium treatment on non-metallic inclusions had been studied when control technology of refining top slag in ladle furnace was used in ultra-low oxygen steelmaking. A sufficient amount aluminium was added to experimental heats for final

  13. Effect of the structural parameters changes in the multi-strand tundish on the non-metallic inclusions distribution and separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Warzecha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented studies was to investigate the fluid flow change and non-metallic inclusions removal changes due to tundish construction modifications. In presented study, numerical simulations were used. Numerical simulations are carried out with the finite-volume commercial code ANSYS Fluent. Steady-state casting conditions for the flow structure and the inclusions removal process are analysed.

  14. Odin (ANKS1A modulates EGF receptor recycling and stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefei Tong

    Full Text Available The ANKS1A gene product, also known as Odin, was first identified as a tyrosine-phosphorylated component of the epidermal growth factor receptor network. Here we show that Odin functions as an effector of EGFR recycling. In EGF-stimulated HEK293 cells tyrosine phosphorylation of Odin was induced prior to EGFR internalization and independent of EGFR-to-ERK signaling. Over-expression of Odin increased EGF-induced EGFR trafficking to recycling endosomes and recycling back to the cell surface, and decreased trafficking to lysosomes and degradation. Conversely, Odin knockdown in both HEK293 and the non-small cell lung carcinoma line RVH6849, which expresses roughly 10-fold more EGF receptors than HEK293, caused decreased EGFR recycling and accelerated trafficking to the lysosome and degradation. By governing the endocytic fate of internalized receptors, Odin may provide a layer of regulation that enables cells to contend with receptor cell densities and ligand concentration gradients that are physiologically and pathologically highly variable.

  15. Effect of PFC recycling conditions on JET pedestal density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesen, S.; Brezinsek, S.; Dittmar, T.; Matveev, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung, Plasmaphysik, Juelich (Germany); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Harting, D. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); De la Luna, E. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusin, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Schmid, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Collaboration: JET contributors

    2016-08-15

    There is experimental evidence that the pedestal dynamics in type-I ELMy H-mode discharges is significantly affected by a change in the recycling conditions at the tungsten plasma-facing components (W-PFCs) after an ELM event. The integrated code JINTRAC has been employed to assess the impact of recycling conditions during type-I ELMs in JET ITER-like wall H-mode discharges. By employing a heuristic approach, a model to mimic the physical processes leading to formation and release (i.e. outgassing) of finite near-surface fuel reservoirs in W-PFCs has been implemented into the EDGE2D-EIRENE plasma-wall interaction code being part of JINTRAC. As main result it is shown, that a delay in the density pedestal build-up after an ELM event can be provoked by reduced recycling induced by depleted W-PFC particle near-surface reservoirs. However the pedestal temperature evolution is barely affected by the change in recycling parameters suggesting that the presented model is incomplete. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Contributions to Plasma Physics published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA Weinheim. This)

  16. Fermilab Recycler Ring: Technical design report. Revision 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, G. [ed.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the technical design of the Fermilab Recycler Ring. The purpose of the Recycler is to augment the luminosity increase anticipated from the implementation of the Fermi III upgrade project, which has as its main component the Fermilab Main Injector construction project. The Recycler is a fixed 8 GeV kinetic energy storage ring. It is located in the Main Injector tunnel directly above the Main Injector beamline, near the ceiling. The construction schedule calls for the installation of the Recycler ring before the installation shutdown of the Main Injector. This aggressive construction schedule is made possible by the exclusive use of permanent magnets in the ring lattice, removing the need for expensive conventional iron/copper magnet construction along with the related power supplies, cooling water system, and electrical safety systems. The location, operating energy, and mode of construction are chosen to minimize operational impacts on both Fermilab`s ongoing High Energy Physics program and the Main Injector construction project.

  17. Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry based on physical input-output life-cycle assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu; Xu, Yijian

    2012-03-01

    Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Recyclable and Green Triboelectric Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qijie; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Han, Linhong; Yi, Fang; Ma, Mingyuan; Zhang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    A recyclable and green triboelectronic nanogenerator (TENG) is developed based on triboelectrification and designed cascade reactions. Once triggered by water, the TENG can fully dissolve and degrade into environmentally benign end products. With features of rapid dissolution, reproductivity, and green electronic, the TENG has potential of serving as clearable energy harvester and nanosensor for health monitoring and motion sensing. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Sorting Techniques for Plastics Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the basic principles of three different types of separating methods and a general guideline for choosing the most effective method for sorting plastic mixtures. It also presents the results of the tests carried out for separation of PVC, ABS and PET from different kinds of plastic mixtures in order to improve the grade of the raw input used in mechanical or feedstock recycling.

  20. Life cycle and textiles recycling

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Within the vision of development of European textile and clothing industry for 2020 from the standpoint of the European Technology Platform (ETP), the paper analyzes a segment which includes life cycle and recycling of textiles. It is the fact that the complexity of new textile and clothing product has caused the development of new-higher standards. For this reason in development of highly innovative products, today is included also quality assurance during his whole life cycle starting from ...

  1. Comparison of recycling outcomes in three types of recycling collection units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ashley; Gregoire, Mary; Rasmussen, Heather; Witowich, Gretchen

    2013-03-01

    Commercial institutions have many factors to consider when implementing an effective recycling program. This study examined the effectiveness of three different types of recycling bins on recycling accuracy by determining the percent weight of recyclable material placed in the recycling bins, comparing the percent weight of recyclable material by type of container used, and examining whether a change in signage increased recycling accuracy. Data were collected over 6 weeks totaling 30 days from 3 different recycling bin types at a Midwest University medical center. Five bin locations for each bin type were used. Bags from these bins were collected, sorted into recyclable and non-recyclable material, and weighed. The percent recyclable material was calculated using these weights. Common contaminates found in the bins were napkins and paper towels, plastic food wrapping, plastic bags, and coffee cups. The results showed a significant difference in percent recyclable material between bin types and bin locations. Bin type 2 was found to have one bin location to be statistically different (p=0.048), which may have been due to lack of a trash bin next to the recycling bin in that location. Bin type 3 had significantly lower percent recyclable material (precycling bin and increased contamination due to the combination of commingled and paper into one bag. There was no significant change in percent recyclable material in recycling bins post signage change. These results suggest a signage change may not be an effective way, when used alone, to increase recycling compliance and accuracy. This study showed two or three-compartment bins located next to a trash bin may be the best bin type for recycling accuracy.

  2. Deformation and fracture properties of metals with non-metallic inclusions; Verformung und Bruch von Metallen mit nichtmetallischen Einschluessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmauder, S.; Soppa, E. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt

    1998-12-31

    Microstructural effects due to formation of non-uniform lines of non-metallic inclusions in the matrix are examined with respect to their macro-, meso-, and micromechanical effects in the alloy Al(6061) reinforced by SiC inclusions. A comparative analysis of results obtained with various microstructures reveals essential differences in the formation of shear bands, stress peaks, and strain concentrations in the material structure. The maxima and the distribution of those field variables are determined not only by the arrangement of inclusions clusters in the stringers but also depend on the presence and number of single-particle inclusions in pure matrix material. The banding of the microstructure causes a strongly anisotropic behaviour in terms of stress and strain distributions. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] In diesem Beitrag werden Gefuegeeinfluesse aufgrund unterschiedlich starker zeiliger Anordnungen der Teilchen in der Matrix im Hinblick auf ihre makro-, meso- und mikromechanischen Auswirkungen am Beispiel einer SiC-teilchenverstaerkten Aluminiumlegierung Al(6061) untersucht. Ein Vergleich der Ergebnisse verschiedener Gefuege zeigt wesentliche Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Ausbildung von Scherbaendern, Spannungsspitzen und von Dehnungskonzentrationen im Werkstoffgefuege. Die Maxima und die Verteilung dieser Feldgroessen sind nicht nur abhaengig davon, wie die Teilchen in den Zeilen angeordnet sind, sondern auch davon, ob einzelne Teilchen in reinen Matrixbereichen vorhanden sind. Die Zeiligkeit des Gefueges fuehrt zu einem stark anisotropen Verhalten hinsichtlich Spannungs- und Dehnungsverteilungen. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of Different Turbulence Models for the Motion of Non-metallic Inclusion in Induction Crucible Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, H.; Wu, M.; Kharicha, A.; Ludwig, A.

    2016-07-01

    Turbulent fluid flow due to the electromagnetic forces in induction crucible furnace (ICF) is modeled using k-ɛ, k-ω SST and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence models. Fluid flow patterns calculated by different turbulence models and their effects on the motion of non-metallic inclusions (NMI) in the bulk melt have been investigated. Results show that the conventional k-ɛ model cannot solve the transient flow in ICF properly. With k-ω model transient flow and oscillation behavior of the flow pattern can be solved, and the motion of NMI can be tracked fairly well. LES model delivers the best modeling result on both details of the transient flow pattern and motion trajectories of NMI without the limitation of NMI size. The drawback of LES model is the long calculation time. Therefore, for general purpose to estimate the dynamic behavior of NMI in ICF both k-ω SST and LES are recommended. For the precise calculation of the motion of NMI smaller than 10 μm only LES model is appropriate.

  4. Effectiveness of Shot Peening In Suppressing Fatigue Cracking At Non-Metallic Inclusions In Udimet(Registered Trademark)720

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, Robert L.; Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Kantzos, Peter T.; Prescenzi, Anthony; Biles, T.; Bonacuse, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    The fatigue lives of modern powder metallurgy disk alloys can be reduced over an order of magnitude by cracking at inherent non-metallic inclusions. The objective of this work was to study the effectiveness of shot peening in suppressing LCF crack initiation and growth at surface nonmetallic inclusions. Inclusions were carefully introduced at elevated levels during powder metallurgy processing of the nickel-base disk superalloy Udimet 720. Multiple strain-controlled fatigue tests were then performed on machined specimens with and without shot peened test sections at 427 C and 650 C. The low cycle fatigue lives and failure initiation sites varied as functions of inclusion content, shot peening, and fatigue conditions. A large majority of the failures in as-machined specimens with the introduced inclusions occurred at cracks initiating from inclusions intersecting the specimen surface. These inclusions reduced fatigue life by up to 100X, when compared to lives of material without inclusions residing at specimen surface. Large inclusions produced the greatest reductions in life for tests at low strain ranges and high strain ratios. Shot peening improved life in many cases by reducing the most severe effects of inclusions.

  5. Effectiveness of Shot Peening in Suppressing Fatigue Cracking at Non-Metallic Inclusions in Udimet(trademark) 720

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, Robert L.; Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Kantzos, Peter T.; Prescenzi, Anthony; Biles, Tiffany; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The fatigue lives of modern powder metallurgy disk alloys can be reduced by over an order of magnitude by surface cracking at inherent non-metallic inclusions. The objective of this work was to study the effectiveness of shot peening in suppressing LCF crack initiation and growth at surface nonmetallic inclusions. Inclusions were carefully introduced at elevated levels during powder metallurgy processing of the nickel-base disk superalloy Udimet 720. Multiple strain-controlled fatigue tests were then performed on machined specimens at 427 and 650 C in peened and unpeened conditions. Analyses were performed to compare the low cycle fatigue lives and failure initiation sites as a function of inclusion content, shot peening, and fatigue conditions. A large majority of the failures in as-machined specimens with introduced inclusions occurred at cracks initiating from inclusions intersecting the specimen surface. The inclusions could reduce fatigue life by up to 100X. Large inclusions had the greatest effect on life in tests at low strain ranges and high strain ratios. Shot peening can be used to improve life in these conditions by reducing the most severe effects of inclusions.

  6. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  7. Energy Return on Investment - Fuel Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W; Simon, A J; Fratoni, M; Smith, C; Schwab, P; Murray, P

    2012-06-06

    This report provides a methodology and requisite data to assess the potential Energy Return On Investment (EROI) for nuclear fuel cycle alternatives, and applies that methodology to a limited set of used fuel recycle scenarios. This paper is based on a study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and a parallel evaluation by AREVA Federal Services LLC, both of which were sponsored by the DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program. The focus of the LLNL effort was to develop a methodology that can be used by the FCT program for such analysis that is consistent with the broader energy modeling community, and the focus of the AREVA effort was to bring industrial experience and operational data into the analysis. This cooperative effort successfully combined expertise from the energy modeling community with expertise from the nuclear industry. Energy Return on Investment is one of many figures of merit on which investment in a new energy facility or process may be judged. EROI is the ratio of the energy delivered by a facility divided by the energy used to construct, operate and decommission that facility. While EROI is not the only criterion used to make an investment decision, it has been shown that, in technologically advanced societies, energy supplies must exceed a minimum EROI. Furthermore, technological history shows a trend towards higher EROI energy supplies. EROI calculations have been performed for many components of energy technology: oil wells, wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, biofuels, and nuclear reactors. This report represents the first standalone EROI analysis of nuclear fuel reprocessing (or recycling) facilities.

  8. Recycling of waste printed circuit boards: a review of current technologies and treatment status in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kui; Guo, Jie; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-05-30

    From the use of renewable resources and environmental protection viewpoints, recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) receives wide concerns as the amounts of scrap PCBs increases dramatically. However, treatment for waste PCBs is a challenge due to the fact that PCBs are diverse and complex in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Recycle technology for waste PCBs in China is still immature. Previous studies focused on metals recovery, but resource utilization for nonmetals and further separation of the mixed metals are relatively fewer. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a proper recycle technology for waste PCBs. In this paper, current status of waste PCBs treatment in China was introduced, and several recycle technologies were analyzed. Some advices against the existing problems during recycling process were presented. Based on circular economy concept in China and complete recycling and resource utilization for all materials, a new environmental-friendly integrated recycling process with no pollution and high efficiency for waste PCBs was provided and discussed in detail.

  9. Uncovering the Recycling Potential of "New" WEEE in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Gong, Ruying; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Li, Jinhui

    2016-02-02

    Newly defined categories of WEEE have increased the types of China's regulated WEEE from 5 to 14. Identification of the amounts and valuable-resource components of the "new" WEEE generated is critical to solving the e-waste problem, for both governmental policy decisions and recycling enterprise expansions. This study first estimates and predicts China's new WEEE generation for the period of 2010-2030 using material flow analysis and the lifespan model of the Weibull distribution, then determines the amounts of valuable resources (e.g., base materials, precious metals, and rare-earth minerals) encased annually in WEEE, and their dynamic transfer from in-use stock to waste. Main findings include the following: (i) China will generate 15.5 and 28.4 million tons WEEE in 2020 and 2030, respectively, and has already overtaken the U.S. to become the world's leading producer of e-waste; (ii) among all the types of WEEE, air conditioners, desktop personal computers, refrigerators, and washing machines contribute over 70% of total WEEE by weight. The two categories of EEE-electronic devices and electrical appliances-each contribute about half of total WEEE by weight; (iii) more and more valuable resources have been transferred from in-use products to WEEE, significantly enhancing the recycling potential of WEEE from an economic perspective; and (iv) WEEE recycling potential has been evolving from ∼16 (10-22) billion US$ in 2010, to an anticipated ∼42 (26-58) billion US$ in 2020 and ∼73.4 (44.5-103.4) billion US$ by 2030. All the obtained results can improve the knowledge base for closing the loop of WEEE recycling, and contribute to governmental policy making and the recycling industry's business development.

  10. Light weight and high strength materials made of recycled steel and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nounezi, Thomas

    Recycling has proven not only to address today's economical, environmental and social issues, but also to be imperative for the sustainability of human technology. The current thesis has investigated the feasibility of a new philosophy for Recycling (Alloying-Recycling) using steel 1020 and aluminum 6061T6. The study was limited to the metallurgical aspects only and has highlighted the potential of recycled alloys made of recycled aluminum and steel to exhibit substantially increased wear resistance and strength-to-weight ratio as compared to initial primary materials. Three alloy-mixtures are considered: TN3 (5wt% 1020 +95wt% 6061T6); TN5 (0.7wt% 1020 + 99.3wt% 6061T6); and TN4 (10wt% 6061T6 + 90wt% 1020). A Tucker induction power supply system (3kW; 135-400 kHz) is used to melt the alloy mixtures for casting in graphite crucibles. Heat treatment of the cast samples is done using a radiation box furnace. Microscopy, Vickers hardness and pin-on-disc abrasive wear tests are performed. Casting destroyed the initial microstructures of the alloys leading to a hardness reduction in the as-cast and solution heat-treated aluminum rich samples to 60 Hv from 140 Hv. Ageing slightly increased the hardness of the cast samples and provided a wear resistance two times higher than that of the initial 6061T6 material. On the steel rich side, the hardness of the as-cast TN4 was 480 Hv, which is more than twice as high as the initial hardness of steel 1020 of 202 Hv; this hints to strong internal and residual stress, probably martensite formation during fast cooling following casting. Solution heat treatment lowered the hardness to the original value of steel 1020, but provided about ten (10) times higher wear resistance; this suggests higher ductility and toughness of normalised TN4 as compared to 1020. In addition, TN4 exhibits about 25% weight reduction as compared to 1020. The actual recycling process and the effect of non-metallic impurities shall be investigated in future

  11. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted from different plastic solid waste recycling workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhigui; Li, Guiying; Chen, Jiangyao; Huang, Yong; An, Taicheng; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2015-04-01

    The pollution profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different recycling workshops processing different types of plastic solid waste (PSW) and their health risks were investigated. A total of 64 VOCs including alkanes, alkenes, monoaromatics, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), chlorinated VOCs (ClVOCs) and acrylonitrile during the melting extrusion procedure were identified and quantified. The highest concentration of total VOCs (TVOC) occurred in the poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene) (ABS) recycling workshop, followed by the polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE) and polycarbonate (PC) workshops. Monoaromatics were found as the major component emitted from the ABS and PS recycling workshops, while alkanes were mainly emitted from the PE and PP recycling processes, and OVOCs from the PVC and PA recycling workshops. According to the occupational exposure limits' (OEL) assessment, the workers suffered acute and chronic health risks in the ABS and PS recycling workshops. Meanwhile, it was found that most VOCs in the indoor microenvironments were originated from the melting extrusion process, while the highest TVOC concentration was observed in the PS rather than in the ABS recycling workshop. Non-cancer hazard indices (HIs) of all individual VOCs were <1.0, whereas the total HI in the PS recycling workshop was 1.9, posing an adverse chronic health threat. Lifetime cancer risk assessment suggested that the residents also suffered from definite cancer risk in the PS, PA, ABS and PVC recycling workshops.

  12. The recycling industries : a Canadian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, L. [CARI, Almonte, ON (Canada); Lakshmanan, V.I. [Ortech International, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The economic and environmental benefits that the recycling sector has to offer in terms of resource conservation benefits was discussed with particular focus on the synergies that exist between major mining and metallurgical industries and end users. The main objective of recycling is to conserve natural resources, reducing primary process waste as well as air and water effluent generated by these processes. Recycling provides energy conservation, creates jobs and reduces the demand for sanitary landfills. The main concerns that exist within the recycling industry is the government's actions through laws, regulations and taxes which sometimes discourage recycling. The need for the public to become more informed about the benefits of recycling was emphasized. It was also noted that manufacturers should consider the final disposition of a product in their product design and manufacture. 1 tab.

  13. Recyclability of PET from virgin resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancini Sandro Donnini

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottle grade virgin PET (polyethylene terephthalate resin was investigated through five consecutive injection molding steps to simulate recycling cycles. Tests were carried out after each recycling to evaluate degradation, crystallinity (by density and Differential Scanning Calorimetry-DSC measurements, hardness, and tensile and flexural properties. Consecutive recycling resulted in cumulative chain breaks caused by the material's contact with degrading agents such as temperature, oxygen, mechanical stresses, light, and water. In the fifth recycling step, for example, the number of carboxylic end groups, an indicator of the extent of chain-break, tripled in comparison to the initial molecule. The smaller chains that were formed fit more easily among the larger ones, thus increasing the percentage of crystalline phase in the structure. These two changes in the polymer's structure explained the recycled products' final properties, i.e., the injected samples became progressively harder and more fragile in each recycling step.

  14. Linking Informal and Formal Electronics Recycling via an Interface Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Totoki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Informal recycling of electronics in the developing world has emerged as a new global environmental concern. The primary approach to address this problem has been command-and-control policies that ban informal recycling and international trade in electronic scrap. These bans are difficult to enforce and also have negative effects by reducing reuse of electronics, and employment for people in poverty. An alternate approach is to link informal and formal sectors so as to maintain economic activity while mitigating environmental damages. This article explores the idea of an interface organization that purchases components and waste from informal dismantlers and passes them on to formal processors. Environmental, economic and social implications of interface organizations are discussed. The main environmental questions to resolve are what e-scrap components should be targeted by the interface organization, i.e., circuit boards, wires, and/or plastic parts. Economically, when formal recycling is more profitable (e.g., for circuit boards, the interface organization is revenue positive. However, price subsidies are needed for copper wires and residual waste to incentivize informal dismantlers to turn in for formal processing. Socially, the potential for corruption and gaming of the system is critical and needs to be addressed.

  15. Carbon Revenue Recycling - Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Simonova; Rock Lefebvre

    2009-01-01

    Environmental policy instruments that generate budget revenues may become an increasingly attractive policy option for Canada's federal government due to amplified fiscal pressures. If that is the case, revenue recycling is an essential element of pricing carbon. This paper present a brief overview of benefits of recycling carbon revenues and the challenges that may be encountered when choosing a specific option for revenue recycling. The analysis shows that the existing research leaves the o...

  16. Continental moisture recycling as a Poisson process

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    On their journey over large land masses, water molecules experience a number of precipitation–evaporation cycles (recycling events). We derive analytically the frequency distributions of recycling events for the water molecules contained in a given air parcel. Given the validity of certain simplifying assumptions, the frequency distribution of recycling events is shown to develop either into a Poisson distribution or a geometric distribution. We distingu...

  17. Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with Power Recycling and Twin Signal Recycling cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Gräf, Christian; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2012-01-01

    The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled. In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michel...

  18. The inlfuence of recycled aggregate on the properties of recycled concrete%再生骨料对再生混凝土性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉书; 鲁永明; 龚子亮

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of construction waste in the brick and concrete,recycled aggregate formation.The recycled brick aggregate and recycled concrete aggregate basic properties test,then according to the two components of different proportion of replacement of natural aggregate of recycled concrete was prepared,and the basic properties of recycled concrete.This article concludes:The proportion of broken bricks and waste concrete in recycled aggregate has a significant affect on the performance of recycled concrete.The more content of reclaimed broken bricks, the worse of concrete workability and mechanical properties.While the content of aggregate in recycled concrete aggregate increases, the workability of concrete and mechanical property improved.%对建筑垃圾中的碎砖和废弃混凝土进行处理,生成再生骨料。分别对再生碎砖骨料和再生废混凝土骨料基本性质进行试验,然后根据两种骨料的不同掺配比例替代天然粗骨料进行再生混凝土的配制,并检验再生混凝土的基本性能。结果表明:再生粗骨料中碎砖和废混凝土所占的比例对再生混凝土的性能影响很大。再生碎砖骨料的含量越大,混凝土的工作性越差,力学强度越低。而随着再生废弃混凝土骨料含量的增加,混凝土的工作性良好,力学指标提高。

  19. 再生剂对沥青再生机理的影响研究%Research on Asphalt Recycling Mechanism Based on Different Recycling Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂忆华; 刘苹; 周志刚; 侯月军; 戴旭

    2012-01-01

    Asphalt recycling mechanism is studied in the paper, based on four components tests for aging asphalt and recycling asphalt with different recycling agents, by comparing and analyzing the D - value between testing data and theory data. Results show that recycling asphalt four components are not all coming from origin material directly, some of them is from chemical reaction between four components. The exchange direction and quantity of four components is not same to one old asphalt, witch relate to type and addition of recycling agent. The study results can provide important theoretical basis for sustainable use and development of recycling asphalt.%基于老化沥青与不同再生剂再生后的四组分试验,采用理论与实测数据对比分析法,探讨了沥青再生时组分调和理论的适应性.研究分析表明:沥青再生时为组分不完全调和,四组分之间发生了少量的化学反应移行;同一老化沥青再生时,四组分化学移行方向、化学反应数量均不是固定的,与再生剂类型、掺量有关.本研究发现为沥青混凝土老化再生利用技术可持续发展提供重要理论依据.

  20. Sorting Recycled Trash: An Activity for Earth Day 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary E.; Harris, Harold H.

    2007-01-01

    Middle or high school students celebrate Earth Day on April 22, 2007 by participating in the activity to separate commingled recyclable trash to simulate sorting in a recycling center. Students would gain an appreciation for recyclable trash, after it is taken to a recycling center and learn about properties of recyclables.

  1. Public Perception of Strategies for Increasing Participation in Recycling Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamwange, Monica

    1996-01-01

    Assesses public perception of selected strategies for increasing participation in city recycling programs: increasing the level of knowledge about recycling, using effective channels to inform the community about recycling, increasing the convenience of recycling by placing recycling containers in accessible locations, and getting input from the…

  2. The effect of non-metallic inclusions on the fracture toughness master curve in high copper reactor pressure vessel welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yong-Jun; Lee, Bong-Sang; Hong, Jun-Hwa

    2002-03-01

    The fracture toughness of two high copper reactor pressure vessel welds having low upper shelf energy was evaluated in accordance with the master curve method of ASTM E1921. The resultant data were correlated to the metallurgical factors involved in the brittle fracture initiation to provide a metallurgical-based understanding of the master curve. The tests were performed using pre-cracked Charpy V-notched specimens and the master curve was made with an average of T0 values determined at different temperatures. In all specimens, the cleavage fracture initiated at non-metallic inclusion ranging from 0.7 to 3.5 μm in diameter showing a scatter with the specimens and testing temperatures. Temperature dependency of the triggering particle size was not found. The fracture toughness ( KJC) was inversely proportional to the square root of the triggering inclusion diameter ( di) at respective temperatures. From this relationship, we determined median KJC values which correspond to the average value of triggering inclusion diameter of all tested specimens and defined them as a modified median KJC ( K'JC(med) ). The obtained K'JC(med) values showed quite smaller deviation from the master curve at different temperatures than the experimental median KJC values. This suggests that the master curve is on the premise of a constant dimension of key microstructural factor in a material regardless of the testing temperature. But the inclusion size at trigger point played an important role in the absolute position of the master curve with temperature and the consequent T0 value.

  3. The effect of non-metallic inclusions on the fracture toughness master curve in high copper reactor pressure vessel welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Yong-Jun E-mail: yjoh@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, Bong-Sang; Hong, Jun-Hwa

    2002-03-01

    The fracture toughness of two high copper reactor pressure vessel welds having low upper shelf energy was evaluated in accordance with the master curve method of ASTM E1921. The resultant data were correlated to the metallurgical factors involved in the brittle fracture initiation to provide a metallurgical-based understanding of the master curve. The tests were performed using pre-cracked Charpy V-notched specimens and the master curve was made with an average of T{sub 0} values determined at different temperatures. In all specimens, the cleavage fracture initiated at non-metallic inclusion ranging from 0.7 to 3.5 {mu}m in diameter showing a scatter with the specimens and testing temperatures. Temperature dependency of the triggering particle size was not found. The fracture toughness (K{sub J{sub C}}) was inversely proportional to the square root of the triggering inclusion diameter (d{sub i}) at respective temperatures. From this relationship, we determined median K{sub J{sub C}} values which correspond to the average value of triggering inclusion diameter of all tested specimens and defined them as a modified median K{sub J{sub C}} (K{sup '}{sub J{sub C}}{sub (med)}). The obtained K{sup '}{sub J{sub C}}{sub (med)} values showed quite smaller deviation from the master curve at different temperatures than the experimental median K{sub J{sub C}} values. This suggests that the master curve is on the premise of a constant dimension of key microstructural factor in a material regardless of the testing temperature. But the inclusion size at trigger point played an important role in the absolute position of the master curve with temperature and the consequent T{sub 0} value.

  4. Tunable electronic structures of germanium monochalcogenide nanosheets via light non-metallic atom functionalization: a first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Yanli

    2016-08-17

    Germanium monochalcogenides, i.e. GeS and GeSe sheets, are isoelectronic analogues of phosphorene, which have been synthesized in recent experiments (P. Ramasamy et al., J. Mater. Chem. C, 2016, 4, 479). Utilizing first-principles calculations, we have investigated their tunable electronic and magnetic properties via light non-metallic atom (B, C, N, O, Si, P, S) functionalization. We find that on these GeS and GeSe sheets O and S adatoms prefer to locate at the top site above the Ge atom, while the other ones like to occupy the anion site, which push the original S/Se atom to the hollow site instead. O and S adatoms slightly affect the semiconducting behaviour of the doped systems, while B, C, N, Si, P ones will drastically modify their band structures and induce versatile spintronic properties. Through the supercell calculations, B and C adatoms are found to induce a bipolar semiconducting behaviour in the decorated systems, while the N/P adatom will cause a spin-gapless-semiconducting/nearly-half-metallic feature in them. The B/C/N/Si/P-substituted GeS/GeSe sheet can be formed by removing the hollow-site S/Se atom from the adatom-decorated structures, which exhibit an opposite semiconducting/metallic behaviour to their phosphorene counterparts. A general odd-even rule is proposed for this phenomenon, which shows that an odd (even) number of valence electron difference between the substitution and host atoms would cause a metallic (semiconducting) feature in the substituted systems. Our study demonstrates that atom functionalization is an efficient way to tailor the properties of GeS and GeSe nanosheets, which have adaptable electronic properties for potential applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics.

  5. Thorium-U Recycle Facility (7930)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thorium-U Recycle Facility (7930), along with the Transuranic Processing Facility (7920). comprise the Radiochemical Engineering Development Complex. 7930 is a...

  6. Gold recycling; a materials flow study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amey, Earle B.

    2000-01-01

    This materials flow study includes a description of trends in consumption, loss, and recycling of gold-containing materials in the United States in 1998 in order to illustrate the extent to which gold is presently being recycled and to identify recycling trends. The quantity of gold recycled, as a percent of the apparent supply of gold, was estimated to be about 30 percent. Of the approximately 446 metric tons of gold refined in the United States in 1998, the fabricating and industrial use losses were 3 percent.

  7. Optimized Synthesis of Foam Glass from Recycled CRT Panel Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Most of the panel glass from cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is landfilled today. Instead of landfilling, the panel glass can be turned into new environment-friendly foam glass. Low density foam glass is an effective heat insulating material and can be produced just by using recycle glass and foaming...... additives. In this work we recycle the CRT panel glass to synthesize the foam glass as a crucial component of building and insulating materials. The synthesis conditions such as foaming temperature, duration, glass particle size, type and concentrations of foaming agents, and so on are optimized...... by performing systematic experiments. In particular, the concentration of foaming agents is an important parameter that influences the size of bubbles and the distribution of bubbles throughout the sample. The foam glasses are characterised regarding density and open/closed porosity. Differential scanning...

  8. Scaling up of manufacturing processes of recycled carpet based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    In this work, feasibility of recycling post-consumer carpets using a modified vacuum assisted resisted molding process into large-scale components was successfully demonstrated. The scale up also included the incorporation of nano-clay films in the carpet composites. It is expected that the films will enhance the ability of the composite to withstand environmental degradation and also serve as a fire retardant. Low-cost resins were used to fabricate the recycled carpet-based composites. The scale up in terms of process was achieved by manufacturing composites without a hot press and thereby saving additional equipment cost. Mechanical and physical properties were evaluated. Large-scale samples demonstrated mechanical properties that were different from results from small samples. Acoustic tests indicate good sound absorption of the carpet composite. Cost analysis of the composite material based on the cost of the raw materials and the manufacturing process has been presented.

  9. Fracture mechanics of polymer mortar made with recycled raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Godoy Jurumenha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to show that industrial residues could be used in construction applications so that production costs as well as environmental protection can be improved. The fracture properties of polymer mortar manufactured with recycled materials are investigated to evaluate the materials behaviour to crack propagation. The residues used in this work were spent sand from foundry industry as aggregate, unsaturated polyester resin from polyethylene terephthalate (PET as matrix and polyester textile fibres from garment industry, producing an unique composite material fully from recycled components with low cost. The substitution of fresh by used foundry sand and the insertions of textile fibres contribute to a less brittle behaviour of polymer mortar.

  10. Comparison on heat flux deposition between carbon and tungsten wall – Investigations on energy recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bufferand, H., E-mail: hugo.bufferand@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, 13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bucalossi, J.; Ciraolo, G.; Fedorczak, N. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Genesio, P. [PIIM, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille (France); Ghendrih, Ph.; Gunn, J. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Marandet, Y.; Martin, C.; Mellet, N. [PIIM, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille (France); Serre, E. [M2P2, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13451 Marseille (France); Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-08-15

    The influence of the plasma facing components material on the scrape-off layer plasma is investigated. In particular, the energy recycling is found to be more pronounced for tungsten wall compared with carbon wall. Edge plasma simulations performed with the transport code SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE show that this enhanced energy recycling in the tungsten case leads to an increase of the scrape-off layer temperature. Moreover, the energy recycling depends on the ion angle of incidence with the wall. A PIC code has been used to model the ion acceleration in the magnetic pre-sheath and determine the later angle of incidence. These simulations show that ions mostly impact the wall with rather shallow incident angles leading to a further increase of the energy recycling.

  11. Investment-Cost Optimization of Plastic Recycling System under Reliability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader ZEBLAH

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and uses an ant colony meta-heuristic optimization method to solve the redundancy optimization problem in plastic recycling industry. This problem is known as total investment-cost minimization of series-parallel plastic recycling system. Redundant components are included to achieve a desired level of availability. System availability is represented by a multi-state availability function. The plastic machines are characterized by their capacity, availability and cost. These machines are chosen among a list of products available on the market. The proposed meta-heuristic seeks to find the best minimal cost plastic recycling system configuration with desired availability. To estimate the series-parallel plastic machines availability, a fast method based on universal moment generating function (UMGF is suggested. The ant colony approach is used as an optimization technique. An example of plastic recycling system is presented.

  12. An Investigation on Thermal Recycling of Recycled Plastic Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakita, Ryuji; Miura, Katsuya; Ishino, Yojiro; Ohiwa, Norio

    Thermal recycling of recycled plastic resin is focused in this investigation. Fine grinding of plastic resin and preparation of high temperature oxidizing atmosphere are indispensable for effective and successful burn-up of plastic resin. Polyethylene terephthalate resin powder is employed and high temperature oxidizing atmosphere is generated downstream an annular burner. Through a circular nozzle set coaxially in the closed bottom end of the annular burner, PET-powder and propane-air mixture are issued vertically upward into the high temperature oxidizing atmosphere. Temperature and O2 concentration fields downstream the annular burner are first examined by varying the circular jet equivalence ratio with the air flow rate kept constant and without PET-powder supply. PET-powder having a mass-median diameter of either 89.7µm or 145µm is then issued into the high temperature region along with propane-air mixture by varying the PET-powder mass flow rate. Appearances of the PET-powder flame are observed using a high-speed CCD video camera and unburnt PET particles are traced during their passages in the high temperature region. Variation of O2 concentration fields due to PET-powder combustion is also measured in the PET flame. According to the results, overall limit conditions for effective burn-up of PET-powder are finally discussed.

  13. Zircon Recycling in Arc Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Barth, A.; Matzel, J.; Wooden, J.; Burgess, S.

    2008-12-01

    Recycling of zircon has been well established in arc intrusions and arc volcanoes, but a better understanding of where and how zircons are recycled can help illuminate how arc magma systems are constructed. To that end, we are conducting age, trace element (including Ti-in-zircon temperatures; TzrnTi) and isotopic studies of zircons from the Late Cretaceous (95-85 Ma) Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (TIS) in the Sierra Nevada Batholith (CA). Within the TIS zircons inherited from ancient basement sources and/or distinctly older host rocks are uncommon, but recycled zircon antecrysts from earlier periods of TIS-related magmatism are common and conspicuous in the inner and two most voluminous units of the TIS, the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak Granodiorites. All TIS units have low bulk Zr ([Zr]825°C), [Zr] in the TIS is a factor of 2 to 3 lower than saturation values. Low [Zr] in TIS rocks might be attributed to a very limited supply of zircon in the source, by disequilibrium melting and rapid melt extraction [1], by melting reactions involving formation of other phases that can incorporate appreciable Zr [2], or by removal of zircon at an earlier stage of magma evolution. Based on a preliminary compilation of literature data, low [Zr] is common to Late Cretaceous N.A. Cordilleran granodioritic/tonalitic intrusions (typically Tzrnsat [3]. A corollary is that slightly older zircon antecrysts that are common in the inner units of the TIS could be considered inherited if they are derived from remelting of slightly older intrusions. Remelting at such low temperatures in the arc would require a source of external water. Refs: [1] Sawyer, J.Pet 32:701-738; [2] Fraser et al, Geology 25:607-610; [3] Harrison et al, Geology 35:635- 638

  14. Phosphorus and Nitrogen Recycle Following Algal Bio-crude Production via Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmundson, Scott J.; Huesemann, Michael H.; Kruk, Robert; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Billing, Justin M.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Anderson, Daniel B.

    2017-07-25

    Phosphorus and nitrogen are essential components of microalgal growth media. Critical to a wide range of biochemical processes, they commonly limit primary productivity. Recycling elemental phosphorus and fixed nitrogen after fuel conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of algae biomass reduces the need for mined phosphorus and synthetic nitrogen resources. Scenedesmus obliquus DOE 0152.Z and Chlorella sorokiniana DOE1412 were used as test organisms in assessing nutrient recycle of phosphorus from filtered solids collected downstream of the HTL reactor and nitrogen collected from the aqueous phase after gravimetric biocrude separation. Maximum specific growth rates were measured in growth media using HTL waste as the sole source of either phosphorus or nitrogen and were compared to an algal growth medium control (BG-11). The maximum specific growth rate of both organisms in the recycled phosphorus medium were nearly identical to rates observed in the control medium. Both organisms showed significantly reduced growth rates in the recycled nitrogen medium. C. sorokiniana DOE1412 adapted after several days of exposure whereas S. obliquus DOE0152.Z exhibited poor adaptability to the recycled nitrogen medium. After adaptation, growth rates observed with C. sorokiniana DOE1412 in the recycled nitrogen medium were 3.02 (±0.13) day-1, 89% of the control medium (3.40 ±0.21). We further tested maximum specific growth rates of C. sorokiniana DOE1412 in a medium derived entirely from HTL byproducts, completely replacing all components including nitrogen and phosphorus. In this medium we observed rates of 2.70 ±0.05 day-1, 79% of the control. Adding trace metals to this recycled medium improved growth rates significantly to 3.10 ±0.10, 91% of the control, indicating a critical element is lost in the conversion process. Recycling elemental resources such as phosphorus and nitrogen from the HTL biofuel conversion process can provide a significant reduction in media

  15. Production and characterization of polypropylene composites filled with glass fibre recycled from pyrolysed waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenyong; Sun, Shuiyu; Liang, Haifeng; Zhong, Sheng; Yang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are composed of nearly 70% non-metals, which are generally recycled as low-value filling materials or even directly dumped in landfills. In this study, polypropylene (PP) composites reinforced by recycled pure glass fibres (RGF) from pyrolysed WPCBs were successfully produced. The manufacturing process, mechanical properties and thermal behaviour of the composites were investigated. The results showed that the appropriate addition of RGF in the composites can significantly improve the mechanical properties and thermal behaviour. When the added content of RGF was 30%, the maximum increment of tensile strength, impact strength, flexural strength and flexural modulus of the glass fibre (GF)/PP composites are 25.93%, 41.38%, 31.16% and 68.42%, respectively, and the vicat softening temperature could rise by 4.6°C. Furthermore, leaching of the GF/PP composites was also investigated. The GF/PP composites exhibited high performance and non-toxicity, offering a promising method to recycle RGF from pyrolysed WPCBs with high-value applications.

  16. Chemical solutions for greywater recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidou, Marc; Avery, Lisa; Stephenson, Tom; Jeffrey, Paul; Parsons, Simon A; Liu, Shuming; Memon, Fayyaz A; Jefferson, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    Greywater recycling is now accepted as a sustainable solution to the general increase of the fresh water demand, water shortages and for environment protection. However, the majority of the suggested treatments are biological and such technologies can be affected, especially at small scale, by the variability in strength and flow of the greywater and potential shock loading. This investigation presents the study of alternative processes, coagulation and magnetic ion exchange resin, for the treatment of greywater for reuse. The potential of these processes as well as the influence of parameters such as coagulant or resin dose, pH or contact time were investigated for the treatment of two greywaters of low and high organic strengths. The results obtained revealed that magnetic ion exchange resin and coagulation were suitable treatment solutions for low strength greywater sources. However, they were unable to achieve the required level of treatment for the reuse of medium to high strength greywaters. Consequently, these processes could only be considered as an option for greywater recycling in specific conditions that is to say in case of low organic strength greywater or less stringent standards for reuse.

  17. Recycling of Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tom; Bertau, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Any development of an effective process for rare earth (RE) recycling has become more and more challenging, especially in recent years. Since 2011, when commodity prices of REs had met their all-time maximum, prices have dropped rapidly by more than 90 %. An economic process able to offset these fluctuations has to take unconventional methods into account beside well-known strategies like acid/basic leaching or solvent extraction. The solid-state chlorination provides such an unconventional method for mobilizing RE elements from waste streams. Instead of hydrochloric acid this kind of chlorination decomposes NH4Cl thermally to release up to 400 °C hot HCl gas. After cooling the resulting solid metal chlorides may be easily dissolved in pH-adjusted water. Without producing strongly acidic wastes and with NH4Cl as cheap source for hydrogen chloride, solid-state chlorination provides various advantages in terms of costs and disposal. In the course of the SepSELSA project this method was examined, adjusted and optimized for RE recycling from fluorescent lamp scraps as well as Fe14Nd2B magnets. Thereby many surprising influences and trends required various analytic methods to examine the reasons and special mechanisms behind them.

  18. Integrated Recycling Test Fuel Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.S. Fielding; K.H. Kim; B. Grover; J. Smith; J. King; K. Wendt; D. Chapman; L. Zirker

    2013-03-01

    The Integrated Recycling Test is a collaborative irradiation test that will electrochemically recycle used light water reactor fuel into metallic fuel feedstock. The feedstock will be fabricated into a metallic fast reactor type fuel that will be irradiation tested in a drop in capsule test in the Advanced Test Reactor on the Idaho National Laboratory site. This paper will summarize the fuel fabrication activities and design efforts. Casting development will include developing a casting process and system. The closure welding system will be based on the gas tungsten arc burst welding process. The settler/bonder system has been designed to be a simple system which provides heating and controllable impact energy to ensure wetting between the fuel and cladding. The final major pieces of equipment to be designed are the weld and sodium bond inspection system. Both x-radiography and ultrasonic inspection techniques have been examine experimentally and found to be feasible, however the final remote system has not been designed. Conceptual designs for radiography and an ultrasonic system have been made.

  19. The Influence of Technological Parameters of X70 Stainless Steel Ladle Refining on the Residual Content of Non-Metallic Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babanin A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that during secondary refining at the ladle furnace the carbon content of steel and the residence time of the metal in the ladle exert a significant impact on the residual content of non-metallic inclusions (NMI in steel. Mathematical calculations showed that the dynamic forces have minor effect on the motion of small sized NMI, making it difficult to penetrate deep into the slag.

  20. optimization of the development of a plastic recycling machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    machine and shows that at a speed of 268 rpm the machine functions effectively ... Keywords: recycling machine, plastics-recycling, recyclability/efficiency, throughput/capacity, ...... cycling such as the sorting and cleaning should be efficient so ...

  1. India's ship recycling trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.

    2014-01-01

    The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel sec

  2. Non-Recycled Pulsars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Ryan S; Lorimer, Duncan R; Mnatsakanov, Robert; Turk, Philip J; Ransom, Scott M

    2011-01-01

    We place limits on the population of non-recycled pulsars originating in globular clusters through Monte Carlo simulations and frequentist statistical techniques. We set upper limits on the birth rates of non-recycled cluster pulsars and predict how many may remain in the clusters, and how many may escape the cluster potentials and enter the field of the Galaxy.

  3. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, W.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Potjer, A.; Rulkens, W.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Kiestra, F.D.G.; Lijmbach, A.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of phosphate recycling in the white phosphorus production process is discussed. Several types of materials may be recycled, provided they are dry inorganic materials, low in iron, copper and zinc. Sewage sludge ash may be used if no iron is used for phosphate precipitation in the tre

  4. Recycled Pulsars: Spins, Masses and Ages

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Recycled pulsars are mainly characterized by their spin periods, B-fields and masses. All these quantities are affected by previous interactions with a companion star in a binary system. Therefore, we can use these quantities as fossil records and learn about binary evolution. Here, I briefly review the distribution of these observed quantities and summarize our current understanding of the pulsar recycling process.

  5. 75 FR 71003 - America Recycles Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... the product lifecycle--from design and manufacturing through their use and eventual recycling... progress and to drawing attention to further developments, including the recycling of electronic products... disposal of these products. Currently, most discarded consumer electronics end up in our landfills or are...

  6. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  7. Recycling of WEEE by magnetic density separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, B.; Giacometti, L.; Di Maio, F.; Rem, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces a new recycling method of WEEE: Magnetic Density Separation. By using this technology, both grade and recovery rate of recycled products are over 90%. Good separations are not only observed in relatively big WEEE samples, but also in samples with smaller sizes or electrical wire

  8. The Effectiveness of Dutch Municipal Recycling Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The EU advocates a household waste recycling rate of more than 70%. Although the Netherlands already years ago invested in recycling policies heavily, this is still a large challenge as nowadays on average this rate is approximately 50% and nearly no municipalities

  9. Recycling Today Makes for a Better Tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raze, Robert E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Today's children must be educated about solid waste management and recycling to reduce the amount of waste that goes into landfills. The article describes what can be recycled (newspapers, corrugated cardboard, paper, glass, aluminum, textiles, motor oil, organic wastes, appliances, steel cans, and plastics). It also lists student environment…

  10. Recycling of WEEE by magnetic density separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, B.; Giacometti, L.; Di Maio, F.; Rem, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces a new recycling method of WEEE: Magnetic Density Separation. By using this technology, both grade and recovery rate of recycled products are over 90%. Good separations are not only observed in relatively big WEEE samples, but also in samples with smaller sizes or electrical wire

  11. Recycling from endosomes to the plasma membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, E.M. van

    2001-01-01

    Summary V Chapter?Summary Many membrane proteins are, after endocytic uptake, efficiently recycled back to the plasma membrane. The aim of the studies presented in this thesis was to determine pathways and molecular mechanisms that are involved in recycling. Plasma membrane-derived clathrin-coated v

  12. Greenelec: Product design linked to recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkenende, R.; Occhionorelli, V.; Van Meensel, W.; Felix, J.; Sjölin, S.; Aerts, M.; Huisman, J.; Becker, J.; Van Schaik, A.; Reuter, M.

    2014-01-01

    GreenElec aims to significantly improve on the resource efficiency of electronics and electronic products. This is accomplished by close cooperation between manufacturers and recyclers. Design guidelines for improved recycling have been formulated and products (lamps and displays) have been redesign

  13. Rubber Recycling: Chemistry, Processing, and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myhre, M.; Saiwari, S.; Dierkes, W.K.; Noordermeer, J.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    For both environmental and economic reasons, there is broad interest in recycling rubber and in the continued development of recycling technologies. The use of postindustrial materials is a fairly well-established and documented business. Much effort over the past decade has been put into dealing wi

  14. Sustainability and the Recycling of Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donna L.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    2011-01-01

    With the mention of "sustainability" and "recycling," most people think about reusing paper, plastic, metal, and glass, but what the authors discovered when they embarked on a word-study unit is that the sustainability movement has also brought about the recycling of words. The authors were team-teaching a language awareness class taken by…

  15. Recycling from endosomes to the plasma membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, E.M. van

    2001-01-01

    Summary V Chapter?Summary Many membrane proteins are, after endocytic uptake, efficiently recycled back to the plasma membrane. The aim of the studies presented in this thesis was to determine pathways and molecular mechanisms that are involved in recycling. Plasma membrane-derived clathrin-coated

  16. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling: Practices and Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohajeri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt recycling has become common practice all over the world since the 1970s because of the crisis in oil prices. In the Netherlands, hot recycling has advanced to such an extent that in most of the mixtures more than 50% of reclaimed asphalt (RA) is allowed. These mixtures with such a hi

  17. WATER RESISTANCE OF RECYCLED PAPER PANEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rani Suryandono

    2017-06-01

    Alice Wisler (2015 Facts about Recycling Paper. http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Facts_About_Recycling_Paper. Accessed 2 April 2016 Clay Miller (2011 5 Benefits of Recycling Paper. http://www.ways2gogreenblog.com/2011/09/28/5-benefits-of-recycling-paper/. Accessed 10 May 2016 Hari Goyal (2015 Grades of Paper. http://www.paperonweb.com/grade.htm. Accessed 2 April 2016 Hari Goyal (2015 Properties of Paper. http://www.paperonweb.com/paperpro.htm. Accessed 2 April 2016 Kathryn Sukalich (2016 Everything You Need to Know about Paper Recycling. http://earth911.com/business-policy/business/paper-recycling-details-basics/. Accessed 15 July 2016 [U1] Larry West (2015 Why Recycle Paper. http://environment.about.com/od/recycling/a/The-Benefits-Of-Paper-Recycling-Why-Recycle-Paper.htm. Accesed 15 June 2016 Marie-Luise Blue (2008 The Advantages of Recycling Paper. http://education.seattlepi.com/advantages-recycling-paper-3440.html. Accessed 15 June 2016 Nina Spitzer (2009 http://www.sheknows.com/home-and-gardening/articles/810025/the-impact-of-disposable-coffee-cups-on-the-environment. Accessed 15 June 2016 Radio New Zealand (2010 Iwi not Giving Up Fight against Tasman Mill Discharges. http://www.radionz.co.nz/news/regional/64521/iwi-not-giving-up-fight-against-tasman-mill-discharges. Accessed 15 July 2016 Rick LeBlanc (2016 Paper Recycling Facts, Figures and Information Sources. https://www.thebalance.com/paper-recycling-facts-figures-and-information-sources-2877868?_ga=1.192832942.544061388.1477446686. Accesed 2 April 2016 Robinson Meyer (2016 Will More Newspapers Go Nonprofit? http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/01/newspapers-philadelphia-inquirer-daily-news-nonprofit-lol-taxes/423960/. Accessed 3 August 2016 School of Engineering at Darthmouth (2010 Forest and Paper Industry. http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/~d30345d/courses/engs171/Paper.pdf. Accessed 2 April 2016 T. Subramani, V. Angappan. (2015. Experimental Investigation of Papercrete Concrete

  18. Linguistic recycling in typical and atypical interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    I present evidence that linguistic "recycling" - i.e., the redeployment of linguistic material from prior utterances during conversation - is a striking and prevalent feature not only of interaction between typical speakers, but also, and notably, of interaction involving the communication impaired. In the latter case, recycling may sometimes be used as a compensatory communicative resource when linguistic ability is compromised. Despite its prevalence, however, recycling has largely been ignored by clinical linguists. In addition to providing illustrations of linguistic recycling across a range of communication disorders, I also examine how it is subserved by phenomena such as priming, short-term memory and alignment. I subsequently argue for a shift in perspective that puts recycling at the heart of our perception of how typical and atypical interaction works, and suggest a number of potential benefits for clinical linguistics, ranging from the way we understand and analyse communication disorders to how we assess and treat them.

  19. Preconceptual Design Description for Caustic Recycle Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2008-04-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy plans to vitrify both high-level and low-activity waste at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. One aspect of the planning includes a need for a caustic recycle process to separate sodium hydroxide for recycle. Sodium is already a major limitation to the waste-oxide loading in the low-activity waste glass to be vitrified at the Waste Treatment Plant, and additional sodium hydroxide will be added to remove aluminum and to control precipitation in the process equipment. Aluminum is being removed from the high level sludge to reduce the number of high level waste canisters produced. A sodium recycle process would reduce the volume of low-activity waste glass produced and minimize the need to purchase new sodium hydroxide, so there is a renewed interest in investigating sodium recycle. This document describes an electrochemical facility for recycling sodium for the WTP.

  20. Recycling under a material balance constraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittel, Karen [ETH Zurich, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research, ZUE F14, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Amigues, Jean-Pierre [INRA/University of Toulouse, Universite des Sciences Sociales, INRA (IDEI and LERNA), 21 Allee de Brienne, 31000 Toulouse (France); Kuhn, Thomas [Chemnitz University of Technology, Department of Economics, TU Chemnitz, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    In this paper we analyze the dynamic implications of recycling for resource use, the level of economic activity and the long-run development of the economy. In contrast to former approaches, we take explicit account of the circulation of matter in the economy. We consider virgin resources and recycled wastes as essential inputs to production. These material inputs either end up as waste after consumption or are bound in the capital stock - depending on the utilization of the produced output. As accumulating wastes can be recycled and again be employed in production, the waste stock serves as a source of valuable inputs in our model. We focus on the implications of recycling-related market failures and the integration of material balances on the dynamics of the economy. It is shown that a market for waste and subsidies to resource extractors and recycling firms can restore optimality in the decentralized economy. (author)

  1. Design analysis: Understanding e-waste recycling by generation Y

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao; Wakkary, Ron

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to understand e-waste recycling behavior of Generation Y. It presents a pilot study that explores this generation’s e-waste recycling practices, their attitudes towards ewaste recycling, and the barriers to e-waste recycling. The findings reveal the complexity of the actual e-waste recycling behavior, many participants in this study hold a positive attitude towards e-waste recycling, yet there is a shortage of convenient recycling options and e-waste recycling information. Bas...

  2. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  3. Recycling production designs: the value of coordination and flexibility in aluminum recycling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommer, Tracey H.

    The growing motivation for aluminum recycling has prompted interest in recycling alternative and more challenging secondary materials. The nature of these alternative secondary materials necessitates the development of an intermediate recycling facility that can reprocess the secondary materials into a liquid product Two downstream aluminum remelters will incorporate the liquid products into their aluminum alloy production schedules. Energy and environmental benefits result from delivering the products as liquid but coordination challenges persist because of the energy cost to maintain the liquid. Further coordination challenges result from the necessity to establish a long term recycling production plan in the presence of long term downstream aluminum remelter production uncertainty and inherent variation in the daily order schedule of the downstream aluminum remelters. In this context a fundamental question arises, considering the metallurgical complexities of dross reprocessing, what is the value of operating a coordinated set of by-product reprocessing plants and remelting cast houses? A methodology is presented to calculate the optimal recycling center production parameters including 1) the number of recycled products, 2) the volume of recycled products, 3) allocation of recycled materials across recycled products, 4) allocation of recycled products across finished alloys, 4) the level of flexibility for the recycling center to operate. The methods implemented include, 1) an optimization model to describe the long term operations of the recycling center, 2) an uncertainty simulation tool, 3) a simulation optimization method, 4) a dynamic simulation tool with four embedded daily production optimization models of varying degrees of flexibility. This methodology is used to quantify the performance of several recycling center production designs of varying levels of coordination and flexibility. This analysis allowed the identification of the optimal recycling

  4. Chemical recycle of plastics waste; Hai purasuchikku no kemikaru risaikuru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, A. [Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Chemical recycling of the wasted plastics contains from regeneration to monomer as a constructing component in the case of single element polymer to conversion to fuel oil through thermal decomposition of the mixed wasted plastics and application to chemical raw material. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) decomposes to methylmethacrylate (MMA) monomer with high selection rate at max temperature of 400{+-}50degC. The Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. Signed a cooperative development contract on the recycling technique of PMMA The ICI., Ltd., Great Britain. Depolymerization technique of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is already used actually on methanolysis with Coca-Cola Corp. (Hoechst-Celanese Corp.) and glycolysis with Pepsi-Cola Corp. (Goodyear Inc.). The chemical recycle due to thermal decomposition of the mixed wasted plastics is established as a technique of gasification of the mixed wasted plastics to generate methanol in Japan by the Mitsubishi Heavy Ind., Ltd., and is operated in a pilot plant of 2 ton/day. Here was summarized on these trends in and out of Japan. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tab.

  5. EPA Funding to Help Syracuse Small Business Develop New Green Technology, Advanced Recovery and Recycling, LLC Receives $100,000 for New Approach that Reduces Electronic Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded $100,000 to Advanced Recovery and Recycling, LLC of Onondaga County, New York to continue its development of an efficient technology that recycles circuit board components to reduce elec

  6. Processing solid propellants for recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whinnery, L.L.; Griffiths, S.K.; Handrock, J.L.; Lipkin, J.

    1994-05-01

    Rapid evolution in the structure of military forces worldwide is resulting in the retirement of numerous weapon systems. Many of these systems include rocket motors containing highly energetic propellants based on hazardous nitrocellulose/nitroglycerin (NC/NG) mixtures. Even as the surplus quantities of such material increases, however, current disposal methods -- principally open burning and open detonation (OB/OD) -- are coming under close scrutiny from environmental regulators. Environmentally conscious alternatives to disposal of propellant and explosives are thus receiving renewed interest. Recycle and reuse alternatives to OB/OD appear particularly attractive because some of the energetic materials in the inventories of surplus weapon systems represent potentially valuable resources to the commercial explosives and chemical industries. The ability to reclaim such resources is therefore likely to be a key requirement of any successful technology of the future in rocket motor demilitarization. This document consists of view graphs from the poster session.

  7. Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forget, Benoit; Pope, Michael; Piet, Steven J.; Driscoll, Michael

    2012-07-30

    Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

  8. Application of capillary hysteresis phenomenon for evaluation of recycling possibility of selected MMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nagolska

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Properties of composites made through saturation of ceramic reinforcement preforms with liquid metal are the cause of growing use of these materials. Taking increasing requirements regarding environment protection into consideration, already during design of such materials one should think of a way of their recycling at the end of life. The recycling of these materials is conducted by separation of components. Determining optimal superficial conditions of a recycling system: liquid metal matrix – reinforcement preform – medium enables automatic course of the recycling process, but does not guarantee high yield of metal. With identical superficial conditions of the recycling system and different structure of reinforcement preforms significant differences in metal yield can be obtained. Identification of a type of a capillary present in reinforcement preforms may allow to determine, already during stage of material design, which types of composites will undergo the recycling process better and for which types one has to accept decreased yield of matrix metal. This identification can be done on the basis of an analysis of results obtained during examination conducted with mercury porosimetry, comparing acquired hysteresis graphs with model graphs proposed by de Boer for adsorbent analysis. Considering the analysis of image of structure of examined reinforcement preforms makes the identification process easier and faster.

  9. Optical properties of polypropylene upon recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Felice; Pantani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years there has been an increasing interest in the possibility of recycling polymeric materials, using physical recycling. However, is it well known that polymers experience a depletion of all the properties upon recycling. These effects have been widely characterized in the literature for what concerns the mechanical or rheological properties. The changes of optical properties after recycling have been much less studied, even if, especially in food packaging, optical characteristics (above all the opacity) are of extreme importance, and thus it is quite significant to assess the effect of recycling on these properties. In this work, the influence of recycling steps on the opacity of films of a commercial grade of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) was studied. The material was extruded several times to mimic the effect of recycling procedures. After extrusion, films were obtained by cooling samples of material at different cooling rates. The opacity of the obtained films was then measured and related to their crystallinity and morphology. It was found that opacity generally increases on increasing the amount of α phase and for the same amount of α phase on increasing the size of the spherulites.

  10. Exploring metal recycling business in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soga, K. [DOWA Environmental Management Co., Ltd., Suzhou, Jiangsu (China)

    2007-07-01

    Recycling activities related to the copper smelting process in China were discussed. Although China is a key player in terms of resource circulation in the world, the lack of proper recycling capabilities has hindered the growth of a recycling industry in China. A recycling network established by DOWA Environmental Management was established by contracting with Chinese smelters and refineries. This paper also provided details of recent recycling initiatives, metal scrap processes, industrial waste treatment processes, and soil remediation programs recently initiated in the country. The study concluded by suggesting that the trade of recycling materials must not remain one-sided between China and other developed countries. The high demand for natural resources in Brazil, Russia, India and China can be used as an incentive to increase recycling processes on a wider scale. A pilot project is now being planned by DOWA to establish an international network to collect and transfer used cellular phones to Japan for resource recovery. The company will research and evaluate feasible collection schemes for each participating country. The project may be expanded to include other products. 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. Optical Properties of Polypropylene upon Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice De Santis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years there has been an increasing interest in the possibility of recycling polymeric materials, using physical recycling. However, is it well known that polymers experience a depletion of all the properties upon recycling. These effects have been widely characterized in the literature for what concerns the mechanical or rheological properties. The changes of optical properties after recycling have been much less studied, even if, especially in food packaging, optical characteristics (above all the opacity are of extreme importance, and thus it is quite significant to assess the effect of recycling on these properties. In this work, the influence of recycling steps on the opacity of films of a commercial grade of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP was studied. The material was extruded several times to mimic the effect of recycling procedures. After extrusion, films were obtained by cooling samples of material at different cooling rates. The opacity of the obtained films was then measured and related to their crystallinity and morphology. It was found that opacity generally increases on increasing the amount of α phase and for the same amount of α phase on increasing the size of the spherulites.

  12. Planning logistics network for recyclables collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Branislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization, intensified industrialization, rise of income, and a more sophisticated form of consumerism are leading to an increase in the amount and toxicity of waste all over the world. Whether reused, recycled, incinerated or put into landfill sites, the management of household and industrial waste yield financial and environmental costs. This paper presents a modeling approach that can be used for designing one part of recycling logistics network through defining optimal locations of collection points, and possible optimal scheduling of vehicles for collecting recyclables. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36005

  13. CHALLENGES FOR PROCESS INDUSTRIES IN RECYCLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lothar Reh

    2006-01-01

    Increasing population and individual wealth have led to a higher demand for energy and raw material resources as well as for steady improvement of processing technology in view of efficient use of resources and avoiding emissions in production and recycling processes. Present situation and future trend of recycling processing are discussed by examples from the aluminium and steel industries, recycling of cars and post-consumer municipal recovery.The importance of more intense observance of thermodynamic laws and of a 4E strategy "Economy, Energy, Environment and Education" is outlined.

  14. Breaking the COPI monopoly on Golgi recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrie, B; Pepperkok, R; Nilsson, T

    2000-09-01

    The unexpected discovery of a transport pathway from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) independent of COPI coat proteins sheds light on how Golgi resident enzymes and protein toxins gain access to the ER from as far as the trans Golgi network. This new pathway provides an explanation for how membrane is recycled to allow for an apparent concentration of anterograde cargo at distinct stages of the secretory pathway. As signal-mediated COPI-dependent recycling also involves the concentration of resident proteins into retrograde COPI vesicles, the main bulk of lipids must be recycled, possibly through a COPI-independent pathway.

  15. The continued quest to better recycling behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, WF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available : ?never really thought about it? (23 and 7%), ?not enough materials to recycle? (21 and 14%) and ?too much effort? (16 and 7%) (Perrin and Barton 2001). In the Robinson and Read (2005) study, almost 60% of the respondents indicated a lack of awareness... of services as a reason for not recycling. Other reasons for non-recycling, with indication of the percentage responses are: disinterest 14.3%; lack of time 8.2%; inadequate provision/poor service 7.2%; lack of storage space 6.5%; and, insufficient waste 3...

  16. Financing electronic waste recycling Californian households' willingness to pay advanced recycling fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M

    2007-09-01

    The growth of electronic waste (e-waste) is of increasing concern because of its toxic content and low recycling rates. The e-waste recycling infrastructure needs to be developed, yet little is known about people's willingness to fund its expansion. This paper examines this issue based on a 2004 mail survey of California households. Using an ordered logit model, we find that age, income, beliefs about government and business roles, proximity to existing recycling facilities, community density, education, and environmental attitudes are significant factors for explaining people's willingness to pay an advanced recycling fee (ARF) for electronics. Most respondents are willing to support a 1% ARF. Our results suggest that policymakers should target middle-aged and older adults, improve programs in communities with existing recycling centers or in rural communities, and consider public-private partnerships for e-waste recycling programs.

  17. Should we use a simple or complex model for moisture recycling and atmospheric moisture tracking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ent, van der R.J.; Tuinenburg, O.A.; Knoche, H.R.; Kunstmann, H.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares state-of-the-art atmospheric moisture tracking models. Such models are typically used to study the water component of coupled land and atmosphere models, in particular quantifying moisture recycling and the source-sink relations between evaporation and precipitation. There are se

  18. Should we use a simple or complex model for moisture recycling and atmospheric moisture tracking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ent, R.J.; Tuinenburg, O.A.; Knoche, H.R.; Kunstmann, H.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares three state-of-the-art atmospheric moisture tracking models. Such models are typically used to study the water component of coupled land and atmosphere models, in particular quantifying moisture recycling and the source-sink relations between evaporation and precipitation. Howeve

  19. Should we use a simple or complex model for moisture recycling and atmospherix moisture tracking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ent, R.J.; Tuinenburg, O.A.; Knoche, H.R.; Kunstmann, H.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares state-of-the-art atmospheric moisture tracking models. Such models are typically used to study the water component of coupled land and atmosphere models, in particular quantifying moisture recycling and the source-sink relations between evaporation and precipitation. There are se

  20. Long-term strategies for increased recycling of automotive aluminum and its alloying elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvik, Amund N; Modaresi, Roja; Müller, Daniel B

    2014-04-15

    Aluminum recycling currently occurs in a cascading fashion, where some alloys, used in a limited number of applications, absorb most of the end-of-life scrap. An expected increase in scrap supply in coming decades necessitates restructuring of the aluminum cycle to open up new recycling paths for alloys and avoid a potential scrap surplus. This paper explores various interventions in end-of-life management and recycling of automotive aluminum, using a dynamic substance flow analysis model of aluminum and its alloying elements with resolution on component and alloy level (vehicle-component-alloy-element model). It was found that increased component dismantling before vehicle shredding can be an effective, so far underestimated, intervention in the medium term, especially if combined with development of safety-relevant components such as wheels from secondary material. In the long term, automatic alloy sorting technologies are most likely required, but could at the same time reduce the need for magnesium removal in refining. Cooperation between the primary and secondary aluminum industries, the automotive industry, and end-of-life vehicle dismantlers is therefore essential to ensure continued recycling of automotive aluminum and its alloying elements.

  1. Ascorbate recycling in human neutrophils: Induction by bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yaohui; Russo, Thomas A.; Kwon, Oran; Chanock, Stephen; Rumsey, Steven C.; Levine, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Ascorbate (vitamin C) recycling occurs when extracellular ascorbate is oxidized, transported as dehydroascorbic acid, and reduced intracellularly to ascorbate. We investigated microorganism induction of ascorbate recycling in human neutrophils and in microorganisms themselves. Ascorbate recycling was determined by measuring intracellular ascorbate accumulation. Ascorbate recycling in neutrophils was induced by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, and the fungal pathogen C...

  2. Exploring the recycling dilemma: consumer motivation and experiences in mandatory garbage recycling programs.

    OpenAIRE

    Smeesters, Dirk; Warlop, Luk; Vanden Abeele, Pierre; Ratneshwar, S

    1999-01-01

    Household recycling is conceptualized as a social dilemma in which households have a choice between cooperative and defective options. Promoting cooperative choice in the recycling dilemma has emerged as an important issue for social marketing in recent years. Most of the available insights that could guide policy makers in designing appropriate social marketing strategies are based on research conducted in the context of voluntary recycling programs. Increasingly social marketing action take...

  3. Recycling industrial architecture : the redefinition of the recycling principles in the context of sustainable architectural design

    OpenAIRE

    Šijaković, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the elucidation of the concept of architectural recycling as an environmentally sustainable alternative to demolition and preservation. More precisely, the research aim relates to the redefinition of recycling design principles in the context of the sustainable architectural design. The process of architectural recycling was placed in the context of a sustainable architectural design, as the global concept of sustainable development is imposed as a general context fo...

  4. Effect of inhomogeneous distribution of non-metallic inclusions on crack path deflection in G42CrMo4 steel at different loading rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henschel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An inhomogeneous distribution of non-metallic inclusions can result from the steel casting process. The aim of the present study was to investigate the damaging effect of an inhomogeneous distribution of nonmetallic inclusions on the crack extension behavior. To this end, the fracture toughness behavior in terms of quasi-static J-a curves was determined at room temperature. Additionally, dynamic fracture mechanics tests in an instrumented Charpy impact-testing machine were performed. The fracture surface of fracture mechanics specimens was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that an inhomogeneous distribution significantly affected the path and, therefore, the plane of crack growth. Especially clusters of non-metallic inclusions with a size of up to 200 μm exhibited a very low crack growth resistance. Due to the damaging effect of the clusters, the growing crack was strongly deflected towards the cluster. Furthermore, crack tip blunting was completely inhibited when inclusions were located at the fatigue precrack tip. Due to the large size of the non-metallic inclusion clusters, the height difference introduced by crack path deflection was significantly larger than the stretch zone height due to the crack tip blunting. However, the crack path deflection introduced by a cluster was not associated with a toughness increasing mechanism. The e dynamic loading ( 1 0.5 5 s MPam 10   K did not result in a transition from ductile fracture to brittle fracture. However, the crack growth resistance decreased with increased loading rate. This was attributed to the higher portion of relatively flat regions where the dimples were less distinct.

  5. ONE – STAGE METAL WASTES RECYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotary tilting furnace is the most efficient installation for recycling of dispersible metal wastes of any alloy. Several constructions have been designed for chips heating and melting, scale recovery, ets.

  6. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

  7. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  8. Solid Waste and Recycling Collection Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the Town’s current collection schedule, including pick-up day and recycling week designation.The Town of Cary collects garbage weekly at the curb on the same...

  9. Benchmarking in municipal solid waste recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron; Khatib, Mahmood

    2010-11-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the recycling potential of municipalities in Israel, including population size and density, geographic location, current waste levels, and current waste management system. We employ a standard regression analysis in order to develop an econometric model to predict where potential for economically efficient recycling is highest. By applying this model to readily available data, it is possible to predict with close to 90% accuracy whether or not recycling will be economically efficient in any given municipality. Government agencies working to promote advanced waste management solutions have at their disposal only limited resources and budget, and so must concentrate their efforts where they will be most effective. The paper thus provides policy-makers with a powerful tool to help direct their efforts to promote recycling at those municipalities where it is indeed optimal.

  10. Planning logistics network for recyclables collection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ratkovic, Branislava; Popovic, Drazen; Radivojevic, Gordana; Bjelic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    .... This paper presents a modeling approach that can be used for designing one part of recycling logistics network through defining optimal locations of collection points, and possible optimal scheduling...

  11. Design and optimization of photovoltaics recycling infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ki; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2010-11-15

    With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

  12. Design and Optimization of Photovoltaics Recycling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.K.; Fthenakis, V.

    2010-10-01

    With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

  13. Proposal of recycling system for waste aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Valenčík

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduced work is focused on waste aluminum recycling process with objective to propose complex production system for recovering of aluminum and some aluminum alloys. Solution is supported by extended analysis concerning purpose, basis and system sequences for recyclation. Based on that, sources, possibilities and conditions for recycling are formed. This has been used in proposal of manufacturing system. The principle is the structural proposal of manufacturing system, which does not only differentiate the stage of aluminum melting process, but also related stages as gross separation, sizing, containerisation and batching, palletisation, stacking and some related operations. Production system respects technological specifications, requirements for rationalisation of manufacturing systems, technical and economical feasibility conditions and is considered in lower automation level. However production system solves complex problem of recycling of some types of aluminum, it improves flexibility, production, quality (melting by high enforcements and in protective atmosphere and extention of production (final products production.

  14. Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with power recycling and twin signal recycling cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, Christian; Thüring, André; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-03-11

    The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled.In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michelson interferometer with twin signal recycling. We were able to lock the interferometer in all relevant longitudinal degrees of freedom and thus laid the foundation for further investigations of this interferometer configuration to evaluate its viability for the application in gravitational wave detectors.

  15. Effect Of Non-metal Elements (C, N, S) As Anionic Dopants On Electronic Structure Of Tio2-Anatase By Density-Functional Theory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hari Sutrisno

    2016-01-01

    This article is a theoritical approach to calculate the electronic structure of undoped- and non-metal anions doped-TiO2-anatase. The objective of the research is to calculate abinitio the band structure and the density of states (DOS) of undoped-, C-, N-, and S-doped TiO2-anatase. Kohn-Sham equations are performed with the density functional theory (DFT) using the local density approximation (LDA) for exchange-correlation functional. The first-principle calculations were done using supercell...

  16. STAGE OF TEXTILE RECYCLE WASTE IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    TRIPA Simona

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this article is to examine the stage of textile recycle waste in Romania. For this purpose were analyzed the main sources of textile waste from Romania (industry of manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel, leather and related products, imports of textiles, clothing and footwear and imports of second hand clothing) and also evolution of the quantity of textile waste in Romania. The benefits (economic and environmental) of the collection and recycling of waste and the legislation ...

  17. Economical and Ecological Fesasibility of Plastic Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschpold, Andrew; Juctye, Kristina; Renzhong, Jiang; Debin, LIU; Varona, Hector P.; Kevelaitis, Karolis

    2005-01-01

    #Group 3 International Nat Bas Economical and Ecological Feasibility of Plastic Recycling Abstract This project is carried out as the final project for the first semester of Bachelor of Science studies. Our project will aim on plastic recycling. Plastic is a manmade material which covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic products made thru polymerization. The development of plastic products has accompanied the development of human’s history since it was invented while they ...

  18. WE(EE) Demand - Recycled Plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Førby, Marie; Pedersen, Jakob; Borgen, Nanna; Hansen, Rasmus Nør

    2015-01-01

    Plastic management – from production to waste – has massive negative effects on the environment of which one of the main problems are the CO2 released from the fossil fuels. The focus of this paper lies on the possibilities of increasing demand for recycled plastics from electric and electronic equipment (WEEE-plastic) through modifications in the Danish waste systems. Due to the chemical build of plastic, it is not possible to reprocess it with mechanical recycle technologies while keeping t...

  19. Survey of metallurgical recycling processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemsler, J.P.

    1979-03-01

    In the year 2000, the US will consume about 3.2 x 10/sup 15/ Btu to produce the seven major nonferrous metals Al, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mg, and Ti. Of this amount, 82% will be used in the production of Al. It is projected that 0.6 x 10/sup 15/ Btu will be saved by the recycle of secondary metals. Major opportunities for increasing the extent of recycle and thereby increasing the energy savings are discussed. An inherent feature in the energistics of recycle is that physical processes such as magnetic separation, density separations, melting, and in some instances vaporization are far less energy intensive than are chemical processes associated with dissolution and electrowinning. It is in the domain of scrap of complex composition and physical form, difficult to handle by existing technology, that opportunities exist for new chemical recycle technology. Recycle of scrap metal of adequate grade is currently achieved through pyrometallurgical processes which, in many cases, are not very energy intensive as compared with hydrometallurgical processes. Preliminary flowsheets are presented for the recovery of value metals from batteries considered for use in vehicular propulsion and load leveling applications. The battery types examined are lead/acid, nickel/zinc, nickel/iron, zinc/chlorine, lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide, and sodium/sulfur. A flow sheet has been outlined for an integrated hydrometallurgical process to treat low-grade copper scrap. A fully integrated hydrometallurgical process is outlined, and costs and energy consumption are derived, for recovering zinc metal from electric furnace flue dusts. Costs and energy are high and the process does not appear to warrant development at this time. Improvement in the recycle of magnesium is associated primarily with improved recycle in the Al industry where Mg is an important alloy additive. Ni and Ti recycle are associated with improved collection and sorting of stainless steel and specialty alloys.

  20. Plastic Recycling Experiments in Materials Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to introduce a series of plastic recycling experiments to students in materials-related courses such as materials science, material technology and materials testing. With the plastic recycling experiments, students not only can learn the fundamentals of plastic processing and properties as in conventional materials courses, but also can be exposed to the issue of materials life cycle and the impact on society and environment.

  1. Modern recycling methods in metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maj

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of environment caused by increased industrial activities is the main topic of discussions in Poland and in the world. The possibilities of waste recovery and recycling vary in different sectors of the industry, and the specific methods, developed and improved all the time, depend on the type of the waste. In this study, the attention has been focussed mainly on the waste from metallurgical industry and on the available techniques of its recycling

  2. Economical and Ecological Fesasibility of Plastic Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschpold, Andrew; Juctye, Kristina; Renzhong, Jiang; Debin, Liu; Varona, Hector P.; Kevelaitis, Karolis

    2005-01-01

    #Group 3 International Nat Bas Economical and Ecological Feasibility of Plastic Recycling Abstract This project is carried out as the final project for the first semester of Bachelor of Science studies. Our project will aim on plastic recycling. Plastic is a manmade material which covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic products made thru polymerization. The development of plastic products has accompanied the development of human’s history since it was invented while they ...

  3. Recycling of coal combustion wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Derya; Koca, Sabina; Koca, Huseyin

    2009-05-01

    The separation of unburned carbon from coal-fired power plant bottom ashes was conducted in order to increase the possibility of the recycling of coal combustion wastes. A two-stage flotation technique was used for this study. In the rougher flotation experiments the amounts of collector, dispersant and frother, pulp density, pH, particle size distribution, flotation time and flotation temperature were tested as variables. After rougher flotation experiments, at optimum conditions, the carbon content of the concentrate increased from 13.85 to 51.54% at a carbon recovery of 54.54%. Under the same conditions, the carbon content was reduced to 4.54% at a weight yield of over 80% in the tailings fraction. This fraction meets the industrial specifications and can be utilized as a cement additive. After the cleaner flotation experiment the carbon content of the product was enhanced to 64.81% with a 52.16% carbon recovery. This fraction can be blended back into the coal feed to the power plant boilers.

  4. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Vale-Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral–host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC, and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  5. Molecular recycling within amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carulla, Natàlia; Caddy, Gemma L; Hall, Damien R; Zurdo, Jesús; Gairí, Margarida; Feliz, Miguel; Giralt, Ernest; Robinson, Carol V; Dobson, Christopher M

    2005-07-28

    Amyloid fibrils are thread-like protein aggregates with a core region formed from repetitive arrays of beta-sheets oriented parallel to the fibril axis. Such structures were first recognized in clinical disorders, but more recently have also been linked to a variety of non-pathogenic phenomena ranging from the transfer of genetic information to synaptic changes associated with memory. The observation that many proteins can convert into similar structures in vitro has suggested that this ability is a generic feature of polypeptide chains. Here we have probed the nature of the amyloid structure by monitoring hydrogen/deuterium exchange in fibrils formed from an SH3 domain using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The results reveal that under the conditions used in this study, exchange is dominated by a mechanism of dissociation and re-association that results in the recycling of molecules within the fibril population. This insight into the dynamic nature of amyloid fibrils, and the ability to determine the parameters that define this behaviour, have important implications for the design of therapeutic strategies directed against amyloid disease.

  6. The nonlinear relationship between paper recycling and primary pulp requirements : modeling paper production and recycling in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, Niels J.; Moll, Henri C.; Potting, Josepha

    2004-01-01

    Waste paper is suitable for recycling back into paper or for incineration for energy recovery. If waste paper is used for recycling, secondary pulp replaces virgin pulp. Fiber recycling is limited, however, because of physical constraints—particularly the breakage of fiber in the recycling process—a

  7. Quality requirements for reclaimed/recycled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Daniel S.; Sauer, Richard L.; Pierson, Duane L.; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.

    1987-01-01

    Water used during current and previous space missions has been either carried or made aloft. Future human space endeavors will require some form of water reclamation and recycling. There is little experience in the U.S. space program with this technology. Water reclamation and recycling constitute engineering challenges of the broadest nature that will require an intensive research and development effort if this technology is to mature in time for practical use on the proposed U.S. Space Station. In order for this to happen, reclaimed/recycled water specifications will need to be devised to guide engineering development. Present NASA Potable Water Specifications are not applicable to reclaimed or recycled water. Adequate specifications for ensuring the quality of the reclaimed or recycled potable water system is reviewed, limitations of present water specifications are examined, world experience with potable water reclamation/recycling systems and systems analogs is reviewed, and an approach to developing pertinent biomedical water specifications for spacecraft is presented. Space Station water specifications should be designed to ensure the health of all likely spacecraft inhabitants including man, animals, and plants.

  8. Recycling BiCG for Model Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ahuja, Kapil; Chang, Eun R; Gugercin, Serkan

    2010-01-01

    Science and engineering problems frequently require solving a sequence of dual linear systems. Two examples are the Iterative Rational Krylov Algorithm (IRKA) for model reduction and Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods in electronic structure calculations. This paper introduces Recycling BiCG, a BiCG method that recycles two Krylov subspaces from one pair of linear systems to the next pair. We develop an augmented bi-Lanczos algorithm and a modified two-term recurrence to include recycling in the iteration. The recycle spaces are approximate left and right invariant subspaces corresponding to the eigenvalues close to the origin. These recycle spaces are found by solving a small generalized eigenvalue problem alongside the dual linear systems being solved in the sequence. We test our algorithm in two application areas. First, we solve a discretized partial differential equation of convection-diffusion type, because these are well-known model problems. Second, we use Recycling BiCG for the linear systems arising ...

  9. Perspectives on recycling centres and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engkvist, I-L; Eklund, J; Krook, J; Björkman, M; Sundin, E

    2016-11-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to draw combined, all-embracing conclusions based on a long-term multidisciplinary research programme on recycling centres in Sweden, focussing on working conditions, environment and system performance. A second aim is to give recommendations for their development of new and existing recycling centres and to discuss implications for the future design and organisation. Several opportunities for improvement of recycling centres were identified, such as design, layout, ease with which users could sort their waste, the work environment, conflicting needs and goals within the industry, and industrialisation. Combining all results from the research, which consisted of different disciplinary aspects, made it possible to analyse and elucidate their interrelations. Waste sorting quality was recognized as the most prominent improvement field in the recycling centre system. The research identified the importance of involving stakeholders with different perspectives when planning a recycling centre in order to get functionality and high performance. Practical proposals of how to plan and build recycling centres are given in a detailed checklist.

  10. Paper recycling framework, the "Wheel of Fiber".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Ilpo; Miranda, Ruben; Kauranen, Ilkka

    2016-06-01

    At present, there is no reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows and makes it possible to compare geographical regions with each other. A functioning paper industry Material Flow Account (MFA) that uses uniform terminology and standard definitions for terms and structures is necessary. Many of the presently used general level MFAs, which are called frameworks in this article, stress the importance of input and output flows but do not provide a uniform picture of material recycling. Paper industry is an example of a field in which recycling plays a key role. Additionally, terms related to paper industry recycling, such as collection rate, recycling rate, and utilization rate, are not defined uniformly across regions and time. Thus, reliably comparing material recycling activity between geographical regions or calculating any regional summaries is difficult or even impossible. The objective of this study is to give a partial solution to the problem of not having a reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows. This is done by introducing a new material flow framework for paper industry in which the flow and stage structure supports the use of uniform definitions for terms related to paper recycling. This new framework is termed the Detailed Wheel of Fiber.

  11. Continental moisture recycling as a Poisson process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Goessling

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On their journey across large land masses, water molecules experience a number of precipitation-evaporation cycles (recycling events. We derive analytically the frequency distributions of recycling events for the water molecules contained in a given air parcel. Given the validity of certain simplifying assumptions, continental moisture recycling is shown to develop either into a Poisson distribution or a geometric distribution. We distinguish two cases: in case (A recycling events are counted since the water molecules were last advected across the ocean-land boundary. In case (B recycling events are counted since the water molecules were last evaporated from the ocean. For case B we show by means of a simple scale analysis that, given the conditions on Earth, realistic frequency distributions may be regarded as a mixture of a Poisson distribution and a geometric distribution. By contrast, in case A the Poisson distribution generally appears as a reasonable approximation. This conclusion is consistent with the simulation results of an earlier study where an atmospheric general circulation model equipped with water vapor tracers was used. Our results demonstrate that continental moisture recycling can be interpreted as a Poisson process.

  12. The Development of Recycling Agent for Asphalt Pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A type of recycling agent was developed and its use for modifying used asphalt is described.The results show that the viscosity and three main properties of the aged asphalt were remarkably improved.With 5%-7% content of recycling agent, the main properties of recycled asphalt comported with China GB asphalt standard AH-70 and the recycled asphalt concrete could be used as high-grade highway.Furthermore,the recycling mechanism of the aged asphalt is discussed.

  13. Composite Fibers from Recycled Plastics Using Melt Centrifugal Spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Nicole E; Gillan, Margaret; Sweetser, Daniel

    2017-09-06

    New methods are being developed to enable the production of value-added materials from high-volume, low-cost feedstocks arising from domestic recycling streams. In this work, recycled bottle-grade polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene, and polypropylene were spun into fibers from the melt using a centrifugal spinning technique. Mono-component fibers and 50/50 blends of each polymer and a 33/33/33 blend of all three polymers were evaluated. Fiber morphology, chemistry, thermal, and mechanical properties were probed. Fiber diameters ranged from ca. 1 to over 12 µm, with polypropylene fibers having the smallest fiber diameters. Mono-component fibers were generally defect-free, while composite fibers containing polypropylene were beady. Fibers made from polyethylene terephthalate had the highest tensile strength, and the addition of polyethylene terephthalate to the other polymers improved the mechanical properties of the blends. Nano- and micro-fibers from both pure and mixed waste streams are expected to have applications in myriad areas such as ultra/micro-filtration, composites, and insulation.

  14. Assessing changes on poly(ethylene terephthalate) properties after recycling: Mechanical recycling in laboratory versus postconsumer recycled material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, María del Mar Castro, E-mail: quimcl02@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Ares Pernas, Ana Isabel, E-mail: aares@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Abad López, Ma José, E-mail: mjabad@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); and others

    2014-10-15

    Keeping rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of virgin poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, is necessary to assure the quality of second-market applications. A comparative study of these properties has been undertaken in virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET samples. Viscoelastic characterization was carried out by rheological measurements. Mechanical properties were estimated by tensile and Charpy impact strength tests. Thermal properties and crystallinity were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and a deconvolution procedure was applied to study the population of the different crystals. Molecular conformational changes related to crystallinity values were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Variations in average molecular weight were predicted from rheology. Besides, the presence-absence of linear and cyclic oligomeric species was measured by mass spectrometry techniques, as MALDI-TOF. Mechanical recycled PET undergoes a significant decline in rheological, mechanical and thermal properties upon increasing the number of reprocessing steps. This is due to the cleavage of the ester bonds with reduction in molar mass and raise in cyclic oligomeric species, in particular [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G type. Chain shortening plus enrichment in trans conformers favour the crystallization process which occurs earlier and faster with modification in crystal populations. Additional physicochemical steps are necessary to preserve the main benefits of PET. - Highlights: • Combination of multiple techniques to characterize the effects of recycling in PET. • Cleavage of ester bonds reduced viscosity, Mw, toughness in mechanical recycled PET. • Virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET differ in crystal populations. • Cyclic oligomers [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G increase from the fourth extrusion cycle onwards.

  15. LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE AND RECYCLABLE ORIGIN OF HOUSEHOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Raquel da Silva Sottoriva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As the sustainable development that the society aims is based on economic, social and environmental factors, it can be said that the environmental crisis has as the component factors: natural resources, population and pollution. To reduce the pressure that human activities have on the environment, it is necessary to know the production process, inputs and outputs, to reduce potential problems such as waste and facilitate opportunities for system optimization. In this context it was investigated the life cycle of waste and household hazardous recyclable items to identify possibilities for reducing impact on supply chains. As a result it was found that the raw material most used by the paper industry is pine and eucalyptus plantations and some industries also use sugar cane. From the growing process until the paper is industrialized, there is a large demand of time. The cutting of eucalyptus should be done between 5 and 7 years, since the pine requires 10 to 12 years. After used, the papers can and should be recycled. When recycling 1 ton of paper 29.2 m3 of water can be saved, 3.51 MWh of electricity 76 and 22 trees when compared to traditional production processes. The cultivation of trees also contributes to carbon capture and sequestration. The eucalyptus ages 2, 4, 6, 8 years fixing concentrations of 11.12, 18.55, 80.91 and 97.86 t / ha, respectively. The paper can also be designed to compost due to biodegradability. The metal, glass and plastics are not biodegradable and inorganic nature needing to be recycled or reused. Recycling 1 ton of plastic is no economy of 5.3 MWh and 500 kg of oil. Even with the gains of environmental, social and economic impacts of recycling compared to traditional processes, in Brazil, the percentage of recycling paper and glass and PET bottles are less than 60%. The recycling of aluminum cans and steel exceeds 90%. Lamps and batteries are materials that are inadequately provide for contamination to the

  16. Study of the nature of non-metallic inclusions in samples of aluminum and silicon killed low carbon steels, collected in the refining treatment and continuous casting stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Santos Pires

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The amount, distribution, size and chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions have a direct influence on steel properties. By controlling size and chemical composition of these inclusions, it is possible to get a product with good quality. The identification of the nature and the control of inclusion formation are very important for steel cleanness. The behavior of these inclusions is predictable, in some extent, by the determination of the chemical composition of non-metallic phases that form such inclusions. With the objective of studying the chemical composition, the size and the distribution of such inclusions, samples of aluminum and silicon killed low carbon steels were collected in a national steel industry in the secondary refining and continuous casting stages. These samples were analyzed in the scanning electron microscope (SEM coupled to an energy dispersive analysis system (EDS. From the results, it was possible to evaluate the nature of inclusions and to analyze the effectiveness of the refining process in the reduction of the number and area fraction of the inclusions. It was also possible to verify that the inclusions that remained after treatment, are less damage both to the steel properties as to the continuous casting process (clogging of the submerged valve.

  17. Strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with various types of non-metallic fiber and rods reinforcement under static loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevskii, A. V.; Baldin, I. V.; Kudyakov, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Adoption of modern building materials based on non-metallic fibers and their application in concrete structures represent one of the important issues in construction industry. This paper presents results of investigation of several types of raw materials selected: basalt fiber, carbon fiber and composite fiber rods based on glass and carbon. Preliminary testing has shown the possibility of raw materials to be effectively used in compressed concrete elements. Experimental program to define strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with non-metallic fiber reinforcement and rod composite reinforcement included design, manufacture and testing of several types of concrete samples with different types of fiber and longitudinal rod reinforcement. The samples were tested under compressive static load. The results demonstrated that fiber reinforcement of concrete allows increasing carrying capacity of compressed concrete elements and reducing their deformability. Using composite longitudinal reinforcement instead of steel longitudinal reinforcement in compressed concrete elements insignificantly influences bearing capacity. Combined use of composite rod reinforcement and fiber reinforcement in compressed concrete elements enables to achieve maximum strength and minimum deformability.

  18. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  19. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  20. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation.

  1. Snx3 regulates recycling of the transferrin receptor and iron assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Caiyong; Garcia-Santos, Daniel; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Seguin, Alexandra; Li, Liangtao; Fegan, Katherine H; Hildick-Smith, Gordon J; Shah, Dhvanit I; Cooney, Jeffrey D; Chen, Wen; King, Matthew J; Yien, Yvette Y; Schultz, Iman J; Anderson, Heidi; Dalton, Arthur J; Freedman, Matthew L; Kingsley, Paul D; Palis, James; Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Lodish, Harvey F; Ward, Diane M; Kaplan, Jerry; Maeda, Takahiro; Ponka, Prem; Paw, Barry H

    2013-03-01

    Sorting of endocytic ligands and receptors is critical for diverse cellular processes. The physiological significance of endosomal sorting proteins in vertebrates, however, remains largely unknown. Here we report that sorting nexin 3 (Snx3) facilitates the recycling of transferrin receptor (Tfrc) and thus is required for the proper delivery of iron to erythroid progenitors. Snx3 is highly expressed in vertebrate hematopoietic tissues. Silencing of Snx3 results in anemia and hemoglobin defects in vertebrates due to impaired transferrin (Tf)-mediated iron uptake and its accumulation in early endosomes. This impaired iron assimilation can be complemented with non-Tf iron chelates. We show that Snx3 and Vps35, a component of the retromer, interact with Tfrc to sort it to the recycling endosomes. Our findings uncover a role of Snx3 in regulating Tfrc recycling, iron homeostasis, and erythropoiesis. Thus, the identification of Snx3 provides a genetic tool for exploring erythropoiesis and disorders of iron metabolism.

  2. Importance of public relations in recycling strategies: principles and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhofer, Stefan; Isaac, Nicole A

    2002-07-01

    The separate collection of waste, and especially of recyclables with specific collection systems, would not be possible without the involvement of the users. Apart from the physical installations such as collection containers, collection points, etc., the motivation of the users is an essential component. Motivation can be reinforced through public relations work. In addition to the underlying technical considerations, this paper describes the difference between communication in general and public relations and specifically examines public involvement in recycling. Through the use of examples, we look at the targeted users and typical media employed. Furthermore, we analyzes the development of public involvement. The examples show that public relations for recycling strategies relies to a great extent on attitudes, habits, and access to the target group. Thus, standardized procedures cannot be developed. For these reasons, public relation activities must be planned carefully and professionally and include an analysis of the target group, choice of media, and verification of success.

  3. Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences

  4. Energy implications of recycling packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-03-01

    In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.

  5. A computer controlled mass spectrometer system for investigating the decomposition of non-metallic materials under atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A PDP 11/23 quadrupole mass spectrometer system was coupled to a nondiscriminating gas inlet system permitting gases at atmospheric pressure to be admitted into a high vacuum chamber containing the ion source of the mass spectrometer without separation of the gaseous components. The resolution of related software problems has resulted in a convenient computer-mass spectrometer system capable of generating masses, relative intensities and related data on the gaseous products resulting from the atmospheric thermal decomposition of nonmetallic materials.

  6. A computer controlled mass spectrometer system for investigating the decomposition of non-metallic materials under atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A PDP 11/23 quadrupole mass spectrometer system was coupled to a nondiscriminating gas inlet system permitting gases at atmospheric pressure to be admitted into a high vacuum chamber containing the ion source of the mass spectrometer without separation of the gaseous components. The resolution of related software problems has resulted in a convenient computer-mass spectrometer system capable of generating masses, relative intensities and related data on the gaseous products resulting from the atmospheric thermal decomposition of nonmetallic materials.

  7. Nutrient recycling of lipid-extracted waste in the production of an oleaginous thraustochytrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Joshua; Brooks, Marianne S; Armenta, Roberto E

    2016-05-01

    Improving the economics of microalgae production for the recovery of microbial oil requires a comprehensive exploration of the measures needed to improve productivity as well as to reduce the overall processing costs. One avenue for cost reduction involves recycling the effluent waste water remaining after lipid extraction. This study investigates the feasibility of recycling those wastes for growing thraustochytrid biomass, a heterotrophic microalgae, where wastes were generated from the enzymatic extraction of the lipids from the cell biomass. It was demonstrated that secondary cultures of the tested thraustochytrid grown in the recycled wastes performed favorably in terms of cell and oil production (20.48 g cells L(-1) and 40.9 % (w/w) lipid) compared to the control (13.63 g cells L(-1) and 56.8 % (w/w) lipid). Further, the significant uptake of solubilized cell material (in the form of amino acids) demonstrated that the recycled waste has the potential for offsetting the need for fresh medium components. These results indicate that the implementation of a nutrient recycling strategy for industrial microalgae production could be possible, with significant added benefits such as conserving water resources, improving production efficiency, and decreasing material inputs.

  8. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  9. Urban mining : Recycling gypsum waste in Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCamley, J.A. [New West Gypsum Recycling Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Wallboard manufacturing, construction and deconstruction activities in North America, Europe and Japan result in large amounts of gypsum scrap, which creates an environmental problem. Disposing of this gypsum scrap in landfills often leads to hydrogen sulfide emissions and metallic sulfide groundwater leachates. Europe has dealt with the problem by enacting legislation that will come into effect in July 2005. The legislation is designed to strongly encourage gypsum recycling throughout entire jurisdictions. It is estimated that approximately 10 to 17 per cent of all gypsum used in the wallboard industry ends up as gypsum scrap. In North America, it represents almost one per cent of total waste. Each year in the United States, between 2.5 and 4.5 million tonnes of gypsum scrap are generated, with numbers very similar to Europe (the higher use of brick and concrete in Europe reduces the percentage of total tonnage). Gypsum has been banned from the landfills of British Columbia's Greater Vancouver region, forcing the recycling of all gypsum scrap. Large quantities of gypsum scrap are processed by New West Recycling, a Canadian firm using proprietary technology. This process leads to the re-incorporation of scrap gypsum into new wallboard, with the percentages sometimes reaching as high as 25 per cent. A case study of New West Recycling Inc., located in Langley, British Columbia was presented and recommendations were made concerning how other urban regions can implement gypsum scrap recycling programs modeled after this one. 6 refs.

  10. Life cycle perspective of plastic recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballhorn, R. [Targeted Research on Waste Minimization and Recycling Project, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Some recent European Union directives on recycling plastics are discussed, with particular reference to the automobile industry, highlighting developing chemical technologies such as selective solution/precipitation approaches, to increase the fraction of high quality recyclates. Some promising technologies, including separation by tribo-electrical charging, sorting by optical means, separation by gasification, dissolution, hydrogenation and co-processing with heavy oil residues are described, with examples involving the conversion of mixed plastic waste by gasification, and the production of PA6 monomer from carpet waste. Conclusion based on study results to date indicate that with regard to 'end of life' vehicles the driving force for dismantling is the recovery of resalable parts and metal, not plastic. Technologies for dismantling are seen as relatively crude. Moreover, the large investment required to construct a full dismantling facility and the lack of a well-developed 'after market' for recycled products makes it unlikely that such a facility will be built in the near future. The most promising way to cope with the economic and ecological challenges appears to be a combination of chemical recycling and energy recovery, accompanied by an aggressive effort to develop the 'after market' for the recycled products. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Building recycling rates through the informal sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David C; Araba, Adebisi O; Chinwah, Kaine; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2009-02-01

    Many developing country cities aspire to modern waste management systems, which are associated with relatively high recycling rates of clean, source separated materials. Most already have informal sector recycling systems, which are driven solely by the revenues derived from selling recovered materials, even though they are saving the formal sector money by reducing waste quantities. There is clear potential for 'win-win' co-operation between the formal and informal sectors, as providing support to the informal sector, to build recycling rates and to address some of the social issues could reduce the overall costs of waste management for the formal sector. This paper shows that recycling rates already achieved by the informal sector can be quite high, typically in the range from 20% to 50%; often up to half of this is in the form of clean, source separated materials collected directly from households and businesses by itinerant waste buyers. Four country case studies provide a number of lessons on how this solid foundation could be used to build high recycling rates of clean materials.

  12. Treatment and recycling of asbestos-cement containing waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colangelo, F. [Department of Technology, University Parthenope, Naples (Italy); Cioffi, R., E-mail: raffaele.cioffi@uniparthenope.it [Department of Technology, University Parthenope, Naples (Italy); Lavorgna, M.; Verdolotti, L. [Institute for Biomedical and Composite Materials - CNR, Naples (Italy); De Stefano, L. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems - CNR, Naples (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Asbestos-cement wastes are hazardous. {yields} High energy milling treatment at room temperature allows mineralogical and morphological transformation of asbestos phases. {yields} The obtained milled powders are not-hazardous. {yields} The inert powders can be recycled as pozzolanic materials. {yields} The hydraulic mortars containing the milled inert powders are good building materials. - Abstract: The remediation of industrial buildings covered with asbestos-cement roofs is one of the most important issues in asbestos risk management. The relevant Italian Directives call for the above waste to be treated prior to disposal on landfill. Processes able to eliminate the hazard of these wastes are very attractive because the treated products can be recycled as mineral components in building materials. In this work, asbestos-cement waste is milled by means of a high energy ring mill for up to 4 h. The very fine powders obtained at all milling times are characterized to check the mineralogical and morphological transformation of the asbestos phases. Specifically, after 120 min of milling, the disappearance of the chrysotile OH stretching modes at 3690 cm{sup -1}, of the main crystalline chrysotile peaks and of the fibrous phase are detected by means of infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses, respectively. The hydraulic behavior of the milled powders in presence of lime is also tested at different times. The results of thermal analyses show that the endothermic effects associated to the neo-formed binding phases significantly increase with curing time. Furthermore, the technological efficacy of the recycling process is evaluated by preparing and testing hydraulic lime and milled powder-based mortars. The complete test set gives good results in terms of the hydration kinetics and mechanical properties of the building materials studied. In fact, values of reacted lime around 40% and values of compressive

  13. Post-vehicle-application lithium-ion battery remanufacturing, repurposing and recycling capacity: Modeling and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Robert Standridge

    2015-05-01

    recycling is relatively constant regardless of the percent of post-vehicle-application batteries that are remanufactured.  The sum of the capacity for remanufacturing and recycling is relatively constant as well.  The need for new battery production capacity is reduced significantly (> 10% for remanufacturing percentages of 55% and above. Research limitations/implications: There is a high degree of uncertainty associated with any forecast concerning post-vehicle-application lithium-ion batteries due to a lack of experience with their remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling. Practical implications: Electrification of vehicles appears to be the only technically feasible approach to meeting government regulations concerning mileage and emissions (Center for Climate and Energy Solutions 2013.  The planning in the present for the remanufacturing, repurposing, and recycling of the lithium-ion batteries used in electrification of vehicles is necessary.  Capacity estimation is one important component of such planning. Social implications: The electrification of vehicles versus the use of fossil fuels is consistent with the guiding principles of sustainability in helping to meet current needs without compromising the needs and resources of future generations.  Reusing entire lithium-ion batteries or recycling the materials of which they are composed further reinforces the sustainability of vehicle electrification. Originality/value: Estimates of recycling capacity needed in 2030, about 2.69M kWh, change little with the percent of post-vehicle-application batteries that are remanufactured.  The need for significant recycling capacity appears between 2022 and 2024, increasing steadily thereafter.  Similarly, the sum of remanufacturing and repurposing capacity is relatively constant indicating the need for flexible facilities that can do either task.  In addition by 2030, up to approximately 25% of new battery production could be replaced by remanufactured batteries.

  14. Recycling of spent lithium-ion battery with polyvinyl chloride by mechanochemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-Meng; Zhang, Cong-Cong; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, cathode materials (C/LiCoO2) of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and waste polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were co-processed via an innovative mechanochemical method, i.e. LiCoO2/PVC/Fe was co-grinded followed by water-leaching. This procedure generated recoverable LiCl from Li by the dechlorination of PVC and also generated magnetic CoFe4O6 from Co. The effects of different additives (e.g. alkali metals, non-metal oxides, and zero-valent metals) on (i) the conversion rates of Li and Co and (ii) the dechlorination rate of PVC were investigated, and the reaction mechanisms were explored. It was found that the chlorine atoms in PVC were mechanochemically transformed into chloride ions that bound to the Li in LiCoO2 to form LiCl. This resulted in reorganization of the Co and Fe crystals to form the magnetic material CoFe4O6. This study provides a more environmentally-friendly, economical, and straightforward approach for the recycling of spent LIBs and waste PVC compared to traditional processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Characterization of DWPF recycle condensate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Adamson, D. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-01

    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample was delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization with particular interest in the concentration of I-129, U-233, U-235, total U, and total Pu. Since a portion of Salt Batch 8 will contain DWPF recycle materials, the concentration of I-129 is important to understand for salt batch planning purposes. The chemical and physical characterizations are also needed as input to the interpretation of future work aimed at determining the propensity of the RCT material to foam, and methods to remediate any foaming potential. According to DWPF the Tank Farm 2H evaporator has experienced foaming while processing DWPF recycle materials. The characterization work on the RCT samples has been completed and is reported here.

  16. Developing sustainable resource recovery and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapham, M. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Minerals and Metals Sector

    2003-07-01

    The issues that should be addressed when developing resource recovery and recycling programs and initiatives were highlighted. When well thought out, these initiatives result in substantial increases in the recovery of products and materials at their end-of-life cycle. The issues discussed included design for the environment, consumption patterns, sustainable markets for recovered products, infrastructure, policy mechanisms, and technology. Each issue was examined from a life cycle approach. The author outlined several benefits associated with a resource recovery and recycling program including materials and energy efficiencies, reduced burdens to landfill, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and social implications. The author also presented some examples of Canadian initiatives in the resource recovery and recycling sector. 15 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  17. Rare earth elements: end use and recyclability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth elements are used in mature markets (such as catalysts, glassmaking, lighting, and metallurgy), which account for 59 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements, and in newer, high-growth markets (such as battery alloys, ceramics, and permanent magnets), which account for 41 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements. In mature market segments, lanthanum and cerium constitute about 80 percent of rare earth elements used, and in new market segments, dysprosium, neodymium, and praseodymium account for about 85 percent of rare earth elements used. Regardless of the end use, rare earth elements are not recycled in large quantities, but could be if recycling became mandated or very high prices of rare earth elements made recycling feasible.

  18. Reverse logistics for recycling: The customer service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis, E.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer service is a central concern in the logistics practice and a study topic in the forward logistics research. This article investigates the elements of customer service and their importance in reverse logistics for recycling. Since consumer is the first intervenient in any reverse system that aims to recycle household residues, the provision of an adequate customer service gains an increased importance. Applying multivariate statistical methods (exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and discriminant analysis to the data from a sample of 267 Portuguese citizens, this study identifies the levels of customer service in this reverse logistics chain and evaluates their relative importance in achieving consumers’ participation. The study finds that, as in forward logistics, the customer service in reverse channels for recycling also has a hard and a soft level, being the former more important than the later. The results of this research suggest important guidelines to improve such a complex logistics service.

  19. Reuse and recycling - reverse logistics opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopicki, R.; Berg, M.J.; Legg, L.

    1993-12-31

    This book is intended to serve as a managerial guide for planning and implementing waste reduction programs. It is based on the premise that proactive management of environmental issues is becoming vital to corporate success, and that these issues are creating new roles and opportunities for logistic professionals. Examined in detail are nonhazardous waste reduction activities; reuse and recycling activities; and source reduction. The book is based on in-depth interviews with seventeen firms and several trade associations acknowledged to be leaders in waste reduction efforts. Topics discussed include adapting inbound supply chains to use more recycled goods; minimizing packaging waste; reverse distribution capabilities for taking back products and packaging; and the use of third party services for recycling, reuse, and source reduction activities. Included are two case analyses of progressive firms like E.I. Dupont Nemours and Home Depot and their waste reduction efforts.

  20. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    . Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...... comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location......A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type...

  1. Testing commercial catalysts in recycle reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berty, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Recycle reactors for quality control of catalyst production and for testing new catalysts for known or new processes have the following advantages over tubular reactors: they can reproduce the physical and chemical regime which surrounds the catalyst in a commercial reactor; they can achieve high mass and heat transfer; they exhibit uniform coke deposit; and they provide independence of mass velocity and space velocity. Their disadvantage is the unconventional specification of experiments in terms of discharge concentration which derives from the implicit nature of the basic mathematical relationships. Recycle reactor test methods are outlined for quality control and for testing catalysts, e.g., supported nickel from different manufacturers, for processes whose chemistry is well known. Approaches for testing catalysts for new processes are discussed. The standard recycle reactor developed at Union Carbide Corp. and manufactured by Autoclave Engineers, and several of its modifications are described.

  2. In-Space Recycler Technology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Rob; Werkheiser, NIKI; Kim, Tony

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, a 3D printer was installed and used successfully on the International Space Station (ISS), creating the first additively manufactured part in space. While additive manufacturing is a game changing technology for exploration missions, the process still requires raw feedstock material to fabricate parts. Without a recycling capability, a large supply of feedstock would need to be stored onboard, which negates the logistical benefits of these capabilities. Tethers Unlimited, Inc. (TUI), received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) award to design and build the first In-space Recycler for demonstration aboard the ISS in 2017. To fully test this technology in microgravity, parts will be 3D printed, recycled into reusable filament, and then reprinted into new parts. Recycling scrap into printer filament is quite challenging in that a recycler must be able to handle a large variety of possible scrap configurations and densities. New challenges include: dealing with inevitable contamination of the scrap material, minimizing damage to the molecular structure of the plastic during reprocessing, managing a larger volume of hot liquid plastic, and exercising greater control over the cooling/resolidification of the material. TUI has developed an architecture that addresses these challenges by combining standard, proven technologies with novel, patented processes developed through this effort. Results show that the filament diameter achieved is more consistent than commercial filament, with only minimal degradation of material properties over recycling steps. In May 2016, TUI completed fabrication of a flight prototype, which will ultimately progress to the demonstration unit for the ISS as a testbed for future exploration missions. This capability will provide significant cost savings by reducing the launch mass and volume required for printer feedstock as well as reduce waste that must be stored or disposed.

  3. Attributes to facilitate e-waste recycling behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senawi Nur Hidayah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the set of attributes to facilitate electronic waste (e-waste behaviour among the community. E-waste disposal is increasing from year to year in parallel with increasing of global population. The short lifespan of electronics and poor e-waste recycling behaviour is among the main contributors to the steadily increasing of e-waste generated. Current recycling rate among the nation is lacking behind, which is only 10.5%. A questionnaire survey has been conducted among the students in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to evaluate the current e-waste recycling practice. The results showed that majority of the respondents did not recycle their e-waste on campus. Aggressive efforts is needed to realize the country’s target of 20% recycling rate in year 2020, one of the effective paths is to minimize e-waste generation via active e-waste recycling behaviour among the community. Extensive literatures have been reviewed to classify the attributes to facilitate effective e-waste recycling among the community. Total of five attributes that identified in this study which are Convenience of E- waste Recycling Infrastruture and Services, E-waste Recycling Information, Incentives For E-waste Recycling, Reminder to Recycle E-waste And E-waste Recycling Infrastructure and Services. The set of attributes identified in this study may serve as guideline for the management in designing program to foster e-waste recycling behaviour among the community.

  4. Environmental decision making for recycling options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    1997-01-01

    A general method for finding new recycling alternatives in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed wire board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where...... the scrap constitutes the least enviromental problem and where resource recovery is largest. It is clearly shown with the two printed wire board scrap cases that the currently used copper recycling scenario is environmentally inferior to the tin and lead primary production scenarios....

  5. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  6. Hydrogen recycling in graphite at higher fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, D.; Bergsåker, H.; Hedqvist, A.

    Understanding hydrogen recycling is essential for particle control in fusion devices with a graphite wall. At Extrap T2 three different models have been used. A zero-dimensional (0D) recycling model reproduces the density behavior in plasma discharges as well as in helium glow discharge. A more sophisticated one-dimensional (1D) model is used along with a simple mixing model to explain the results in isotopic exchange experiments. Due to high fluxes some changes in the models were needed. In the paper, the three models are discussed and the results are compared with experimental data.

  7. The value of recycling on water conservation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludi-Herrera, Katlyn D.

    2013-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is working to conserve water through recycling. This report will focus on the water conservation that has been accumulated through the recycling of paper, ceiling tiles, compost, and plastic. It will be discussed the use of water in the process of manufacturing these materials and the amount of water that is used. The way that water is conserved will be reviewed. From the stand point of SNL it will be discussed the amount of material that has been accumulated from 2010 to the first two quarters of 2013 and how much water this material has saved.

  8. Economic analysis of recycling contaminated concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen, A.; Ayers, K.W.; Boren, J.K.; Parker, F.L. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination and Decommissioning activities in the DOE complex generate large volumes of radioactively contaminated and uncontaminated concrete. Currently, this concrete is usually decontaminated, the contaminated waste is disposed of in a LLW facility and the decontaminated concrete is placed in C&D landfills. A number of alternatives to this practice are available including recycling of the concrete. Cost estimates for six alternatives were developed using a spreadsheet model. The results of this analysis show that recycling alternatives are at least as economical as current practice.

  9. Incinerate, recycle, or wash and reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbe, M. A.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the best way to minimize the environmental impact of using a product such as paper? Three debating teams were formed within a university class. One team advocated increased recycling of paper. Another team pointed to evidence showing reduced environmental impact and lower net CO2 emissions if the paper is incinerated rather than recycled. A third team advocated the replacement of paper by items such as porcelain plates and video screens, cutting costs and reducing waste by multiple reuse.

  10. Atmospheric water vapor transport and recycling in Equatorial Central Africa through NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokam, Wilfried M.; Djiotang, Lucie A.T.; Mkankam, Francois K. [University of Yaounde 1, Laboratory for Environmental Modelling and Atmospheric Physics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 812, Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2012-05-15

    The characteristics of the main components of the water cycle over Equatorial Central Africa (ECA) were analysed using the 32-year period, spanning from 1968 to 2000, of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Censearch (NCEP-) reanalysis project database. A special emphasis was given to identifying the causes of annual and interannual variability of water vapor flux and precipitation recycling. The results suggest that the first maximum of moisture convergence, during the rainy season MAM, comes from upper level moisture flux, related to the north component of the African Easterly Jet (AEJ-N). The second, and greatest, maximum in SON is found to be a consequence of low level moisture advection from the Atlantic Ocean. AEJ-N also drive the seasonal spatial pattern of moisture flux. The interannual variability of moisture flux is contributed mainly by the low level moisture advected from the Atlantic Ocean, underlying its crucial role for the regional climate. Studying the recycling ratio in ECA as a whole shows a low annual cycle whereas subregional scale analysis reveals high amplitude of the seasonal variation. Seasonal variability of the spatial gradient of precipitation recycling is regulated by both moisture flux direction and strength. The annual cycles of recycling ratio in the North and the South of ECA are regulated by both moisture transport and evapotranspiration. (orig.)

  11. 工业循环经济的4R原则%The 4R-Rules of Recycling Economy in Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张录强

    2005-01-01

    Traditional 3R-rules have been regarded as behaviour rules for developing recycling economy. However. with the development of modern advanced manufacturing techniques, the important value of remanufacturtng in promoting recycling economy has been given more and more attention to in recent years. Remanufacturing engineering technology, which utilizes advanced surface engineering and forming technology, produces directly with useable components of scraped machines. It can conserve the most of materials (about 85%-95%) and energy (about 80-85%) of original products with less pollution. By remanufacturing, we can reduce resources' consumption under the condition of meeting the needs of social and economic development. Remanufacturing is an advanced method for recycling economy in industry. Therefore, we think that the rules of recycling economy in industry could be extended from 3R-rules to 4R-rules. The 4R-rules' optimal sequence would be reduce,reuse, remanufacture, and recycle.

  12. A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric S. Peterson; Jessica Trudeau; Bill Cleary; Michael Hackett; William A. Greene

    2003-04-01

    An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20–25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  13. A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, E. S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Trudeau, J. [Metaldyne, Inc., Twinsburg, OH (United States); Cleary, B. [Metaldyne, Inc., Twinsburg, OH (United States); Hackett, M. [Metaldyne, Inc., Twinsburg, OH (United States); Greene, W. A. [SpinTek FIltrations, LLC, Los Alamitos, CA (United States)

    2003-04-30

    An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20-25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  14. Synaptic and Golgi membrane recycling in cochlear hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, J H; Brownell, W E

    1986-06-01

    Membrane recycling in the mechanoreceptive sensory cells of the mammalian cochlea was studied by observing membrane-bound horseradish peroxidase (HRP) reaction product following brief in vivo exposure to the enzyme. In the inner hair cell (IHC), peroxidase was taken up into coated vesicles and became incorporated into synaptic vesicles surrounding presynaptic bodies, but much HRP was also transported to the apical zone where reaction product appeared in all components of the Golgi complex. Neither the subsurface cisternae nor a tubular network associated with clusters of mitochondria were labelled. Outer hair cells (OHCs) showed considerably less membrane-bound reaction product than IHCs, indicating less rapid plasmalemmal recycling. Most membrane-bound reaction product was contained in coated vesicles and small vacuoles in the synaptic zone, but was occasionally seen in multivesicular bodies in the most apical zone. No labelled organelles were detected in the large central region of the OHC. A diffuse staining of the cytoplasm, particularly pronounced in OHCs, often interfered with the evaluation of membrane-bound reaction product in OHCs. This staining pattern could be qualitatively reproduced in both IHCs and OHCs by incubating fixed segments of the organ of Corti in oxidized diaminobenzidine. The presence of labelled synaptic vesicles associated with presynaptic bodies of IHCs and OHCs suggests that they are formed from membrane retrieved from the plasmalemma. We found no evidence that the subsurface cisternae of IHCs or the laminated cisternae of OHCs are derived from the cell surface as they never contained reaction product.

  15. Mechanical behavior of recycled polyethylene/piassava fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzubair, Amal, E-mail: amal@metalmat.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, Ilha do Fundao, Bloco F, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Praca General Tiburcio, 80, Urca, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Miguez Suarez, Joao Carlos, E-mail: jmiguez@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Secao de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais, Praca General Tiburcio, 80, Urca, 22290-270, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Praca General Tiburcio, 80, Urca, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    The use of natural fibers for reinforcement of thermoplastics (which are found in domestic waste) is desirable since it is based on abundant and renewable resources and can be ecologically correct. Leopoldinia piassaba Wallace (commonly known as piassava), a palm tree native of Amazon-Brazil, is cheap, easily found in Brazilian markets and the main component of home appliances and decorative goods. The subject of the present work is a study of mechanical properties of composites of recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE-r) reinforced with untreated, and treated (silane and NaOH) piassava fibers, in proportions varying from 0% to 20% and injection molded under fixed processing conditions. The influence of increasing amounts of piassava fibers and of surface treatment on the mechanical behavior of the composites was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical testing (tensile and flexure) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The topography of the fractured surfaces of tested tensile specimens of unfilled and filled recycled HDPE was also observed by SEM and correlated with the mechanical behavior. As the fiber content increases, the composites show a gradual change in the mechanical properties and in the fracture mechanisms. Composites with 15% and 20% of piassava fibers were found to exhibit the best mechanical performance.

  16. FORMULATION OF EXPANSIVE MORTAR TO TILL THE STONES USING NON-METALLIC MINERALS OF NORTHEAST OF COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielly Vieira de Lucena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant methods of advanced technology for mining, the rock massif is employing expansive mortar for cutting of Rock. Furthermore, the entire expansive mortar commercialized in the Brazilian domestic market are imported, as well as those in industrialized country. Both have components from the external market. The aim of this work is to develop expansive mortar with raw materials that have regional and pressure sufficient to remove the rocks of granite and marble type expansion. For this, expansive grout formulations using calcium oxide, calcium carbonate, carboxymethylcellulose are used - CMC (Portland cement, and from the chemical analysis by means of thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and laser granulometry compared the results with a commercial mortar. The results indicated that the formulations showed characteristics similar to the commercial mortar.

  17. Imaging of metals, metalloids, and non-metals by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J Sabine; Becker, J Susanne

    2010-01-01

    The determination of the localization and distribution of essential and beneficial metals (e.g., Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Co, Ti, Al, Ca, K, Na, Cr and others), toxic metals (like Cd, Pb, Hg, U), metalloids (e.g., As, Se, Sb), and non-metals (such as C, S, P, Cl, I) in biological tissues is a challenging task for life science studies. Over the past few years, the development and application of mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) techniques for elements has been rapidly growing in the life sciences in order to investigate the uptake and the transport of both essential and toxic metals in plant and animal sections. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is a very sensitive and efficient trace, surface, and isotopic analytical technique for biological samples. LA-ICP-MS is increasingly utilized as an elemental mass spectrometric technique using double-focusing sector field (LA-ICP-SFMS) or quadrupole mass spectrometers (LA-ICP-QMS) to produce images of detailed regionally specific element distributions in thin biological tissue sections. Nowadays, MSI studies focus on brain research for studying neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's, stroke, or tumor growth, or for the imaging of cancer biomarkers in tissue sections.The combination of the mass spectrometry imaging of metals by LA-ICP-MS with proteomics using biomolecular mass spectrometry (such as MALDI-MS or ESI-MS) to identify metal-containing proteins has become an important strategy in the life sciences. Besides the quantitative imaging of metals, non-metals and metalloids in biological tissues, LA-ICP-MS has been utilized for imaging metal-containing proteins in a 2D gel after electrophoretic separation of proteins. Recent progress in applying LA-ICP-MS in life science studies will be reviewed including the imaging of thin slices of biological tissue and applications in proteome analysis in combination with MALDI/ESI-MS to analyze metal-containing proteins.

  18. The current status of research on resources recycling in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Seung-Hee; Kuh, Sung-Eun; Kim, Dong-Su [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-03-31

    The current domestic research status for resources recycling has been reviewed by surveying the technical and review papers reported to some academic journals. The surveyed articles were classified based upon several categories, including recycling fields according to the kinds of recyclable materials, applied recycling technologies, organizations where the research was conducted, and references according to publication year and region. The survey showed that the recycling of metallurgical waste is being studied most actively. Also, the investigation of fly ash recycling is surveyed to be actively conducted. In the aspect of recycling technologies, chemical technologies are shown to be more widely applied than physical ones. For research-conducting organizations, academic institutes have been more active in the research of recycling field compared with national/private research institutes and industries. In the reference survey, English-written articles and the articles published between 1991-1995 period are shown to be most referred. (author). 6 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  19. 2015 Subpoena and Information Request from EPA to Mercury Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA issued formal requests for information to five companies believed to be the primary recyclers/retorters and distributors of mercury in the United States to gain a better understanding of the mercury recycling marketplace.

  20. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2016 Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report aims to increase the understanding of the economic implications of material reuse and recycling. The report...

  1. EVALUATION OF RECYCLED PLASTIC LUMBER FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents an evaluation of the recycled plastic materials (RPM) produced by California Recycling Company (CRC). This evaluation is performed under the Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program of the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory...

  2. EVALUATION OF RECYCLED PLASTIC LUMBER FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents an evaluation of the recycled plastic materials (RPM) produced by California Recycling Company (CRC). This evaluation is performed under the Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program of the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory...

  3. CO2 Sequestration and Recycle by Photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven S.C. Chuang

    2003-02-01

    Visible light-photocatalysis could provide a cost-effective route to recycle CO{sub 2} to useful chemicals or fuels. Research is planned to study the reactivity of adsorbates, their role in the photosynthesis reaction, and their relation to the nature of surface sites during photosynthesis of methanol and hydrocarbons from CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O over four types of MCM-41/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported TiO{sub 2} and CdS catalysts: (1) ion-exchanged metal cations, (2) highly dispersed cations, (3) monolayer sites, and (4) modified monolayer catalysts. TiO{sub 2} was selected since it has exhibited higher activity than other oxide catalysts; CdS was selected for its photocatalytic activity in the visible light region. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} provides excellent hydrothermal stability. MCM-41 offers high surface area (more than 800 m{sup 2}/g), providing a platform for preparing and depositing a large number of active sites per gram catalyst. The unique structure of these ion exchange cations, highly dispersed cations, and monolayer sites provides an opportunity to tailor their chemical/coordination environments for enhancing visible-light photocatalytic activity and deactivation resistance. The year one research tasks include (1) setting up experimental system, (2) preparing ion-exchanged metal cations, highly dispersed cations, monolayer sites of TiO{sub 2} and CdS, and (3) determination of the dependence of methanol activity/selectivity on the catalyst preparation techniques and their relation to adsorbate reactivity. During the first quarter, we have purchased a Gas Chromatography and all the necessary components for building 3 reactor systems, set up the light source apparatus, and calibrated the light intensity. In addition, monolayer TiO{sub 2}/MCM-41 and TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst were prepared. TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was found to exhibit high activity for methanol synthesis. Repeated runs was planned to insure the reproducibility of the data.

  4. Impact of waste-to-energy on the demand and supply relationships of recycled fibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristola, P.

    2012-11-01

    Today, recycled fibre is globally the most important papermaking raw material in terms of volume. Its collection and use has tripled in absolute terms since 1990 and its market share of all fibres used in papermaking has increased by roughly 1 %-unit per year. Still, globally speaking, about a third of the volume of used paper that could potentially be used for recycling is just disposed of. Thus, recycled fibre can, and is expected to, further increase its market share of papermaking fibres. There is, however, increasing turmoil in the market for papermaking raw materials as a consequence of the political agenda aimed at mitigating global warming and decreasing the use of fossil fuels. This has already become evident in the European fuel wood market, and there is also growing interest in the efficient utilisation of the fuel component in solid wastes, including the discarded paper that currently remains outside recycling. Today in Europe, just about a third of the solid waste is recovered as energy, mostly at relatively low-efficiency waste incineration facilities. The paper industry has recently played an active role in these trends, too. Recycled- fibre-based paper mills in Europe have started to employ modern technology for the sole and co-combustion of refuse-derived fuels and process tailings. These units are dimensioned for the energy needs of the paper mills and have been found to be highly effective in cutting the energy bill for recycled-fibre-based papermaking. In continuance of this theme, proposals have been made concerning more advanced concepts that employ fibre separation techniques from different solid waste streams for further utilisation in the manufacturing of paper products, or, for instance, in ethanol conversion. This development underlines the strong technical synergies between recycled-fibre-based papermaking and modern waste-to-energy technologies. At the same time it poses serious questions concerning the expected further increase in the

  5. Comparative Study on Mechanical Properties between Pure and Recycled Polypropylenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne L. Juwono

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP is one type of thermoplastics that is widely used in our daily activities. A combination of the high demand and the easiness of recycling process, the recycled PP has been generally applied. In this study, the structure and the mechanical properties of the as-received PPs, recycled PPs, and commercial recycled PPs were compared, especially for cloth hanger application. DSC test results showed that recycling process did not cause a significant change to the material's melting point, which stayed in a range of 160-163 oC. Meanwhile, FTIR test results showed that the commercial recycled PPs contained of Polyethylene (PE, which was not found in the as-received and the recycled PPs. Tensile and hardness tests demonstrated that there were no significant differences between the as-received and recycled PPs. In contrast, tensile test results of the commercial recycled PPs showed that the tensile strength, Young modulus and strain-at-break were lower than those of the as-received PPs by 22.1%, 8.1% and 65.7% respectively. The hardness test results of the commercial recycled PPs showed that the recycling process had a little effect on the material's hardness. These facts were supported by SEM observation on the surface that the contour of the commercial recycled PPs was relatively flatter and had smaller grain size than those of the as-received PPs. This indicated that the commercial recycled PPs were more brittle compared to the recycled PPs. To conclude, the recycled PPs have similar properties to the as-received PPs so that recycled PPs are suitable to be applied as cloth hanger application.

  6. Sustainable sourcing of strategic raw materials by integrating recycled materials

    OpenAIRE

    Rogetzer, Patricia; Silbermayr, Lena; Jammernegg, Werner

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a manufacturer's sustainable sourcing strategy that includes recycled materials. To produce a short life-cycle electronic good, strategic raw materials can be bought from virgin material suppliers in advance of the season and via emergency shipments, as well as from a recycler. Hence, we take into account virgin and recycled materials from different sources simultaneously. Recycling makes it possible to integrate raw materials out of steadily increa...

  7. Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Q Hamidul; Hassan, K Mahbub; Haque, M Ehsanul

    2012-11-01

    Efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. In this study, traditional recycling pattern of solid waste was investigated in Rajshahi municipality which is the fourth largest city of Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey had been carried out in various recycle shops during April 2010 to January 2011. There were 140 recycle shops and most of them were located in the vicinity of Stadium market in Rajshahi. About 1906 people were found to be involved in recycling activities of the city. The major fraction of recycled wastes were sent to capital city Dhaka for further manufacture of different new products. Only a small amount of wastes, specially plastics, were processed in local recycle factories to produce small washing pots and bottle caps. Everyday, an estimated 28.13 tons of recycled solid wastes were handled in Rajshahi city area. This recycled portion accounted for 8.25% of the daily total generated wastes (341 ton d(-1)), 54.6% of total recyclable wastes (51.49 ton d(-1)) and 68.29% of readily recyclable wastes (41.19 ton d(-1)). Major recycled materials were found to be iron, glass, plastic, and papers. Only five factories were involved in preliminary processing of recyclable wastes. Collecting and processing secondary materials, manufacturing recycled-content products, and then buying recycled products created a circle or loop that ensured the overall success of recycling and generated a host of financial, environmental, and social returns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bunched Beam Cooling in the Fermilab Recycler

    CERN Document Server

    Neuffer, David V; Burov, Alexey; Nagaitsev, Sergei

    2005-01-01

    Stochastic cooling with bunched beam in a linear bucket has been obtained and implemented operationally in the fermilab recycler. In this implementation the particle bunch length is much greater than the cooling system wavelengths. The simultaneous longitudinal bunching enables cooling to much smaller longitudinal emittances than the coasting beam or barrier bucket system. Characteristics and limitations of bunched beam stochastic cooling are discussed.

  9. The A-B-C of recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    A general framework for interpreting behaviour as co-determined by attitudes and structural conditions, developed by Guagnano, Stern, and Dietz for the field of environmental psychology but with general applicability, is used to identify determinants of consumers' recycling behaviour, more...

  10. Global recycling - waste trafficking in disguise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamuk, Bettina; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2007-01-01

    Recycling is used as cover for illegal exporting of hazardous wastes (waste trafficking). This happens in spite of international conventions and codes of good conduct. Additional rules and recommendations are suggested to initiatiate local and national action and compliance with international...

  11. The ideomotor recycling theory for language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badets, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    For language acquisition and processing, the ideomotor theory predicts that the comprehension and the production of language are functionally based on their expected perceptual effects (i.e., linguistic events). This anticipative mechanism is central for action-perception behaviors in human and nonhuman animals, but a recent ideomotor recycling theory has emphasized a language account throughout an evolutionary perspective.

  12. Crumb Rubber in cold recycled bituminous mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondi, Giulio; Tataranni, Piergiorgio; Pettinari, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Today recycling is one of the most innovative and interesting techniques for the rehabilitation of destressed road pavements. In recent years the increased interest in this process, has led to the development of various alternative methods for the recovery and the reuse of road bituminous materia...

  13. WINCO Metal Recycle annual report, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtold, T.E. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This report is a summary of the first year progress of the WINCO Metal Recycle Program. Efforts were directed towards assessment of radioactive scrap metal inventories, economics and concepts for recycling, technology development, and transfer of technology to the private sector. Seven DOE laboratories worked together to develop a means for characterizing scrap metal. Radioactive scrap metal generation rates were established for several of these laboratories. Initial cost estimates indicate that recycle may be preferable over burial if sufficient decontamination factors can be achieved during melt refining. Radiation levels of resulting ingots must be minimized in order to keep fabrication costs low. Industry has much of the expertise and capability to execute the recycling of radioactive scrap metal. While no single company can sort, melt, refine, roll and fabricate, a combination of two to three can complete this operation. The one process which requires development is in melt refining for removal of radionuclides other than uranium. WINCO is developing this capability in conjunction with academia and industry. This work will continue into FY-94.

  14. They're plastic, but they recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpain, Shelley

    2006-12-07

    Dendritic spines form and grow during hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). In this issue of Neuron, a new study by Park et al. uses both serial reconstruction electron microscopy and time-lapse imaging to show that plasma membrane for such spine expansion is trafficked from recycling endosomes that reside locally at the spines themselves.

  15. Recycled sand in lime-based mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, M; Anastasiou, E; Georgiadis Filikas, K

    2014-12-01

    The increasing awareness of the society about safe guarding heritage buildings and at the same time protecting the environment promotes strategies of combining principles of restoration with environmentally friendly materials and techniques. Along these lines, an experimental program was carried out in order to investigate the possibility of producing repair, lime-based mortars used in historic buildings incorporating secondary materials. The alternative material tested was recycled fine aggregates originating from mixed construction and demolition waste. Extensive tests on the raw materials have been performed and mortar mixtures were produced using different binding systems with natural, standard and recycled sand in order to compare their mechanical, physical and microstructure properties. The study reveals the improved behavior of lime mortars, even at early ages, due to the reaction of lime with the Al and Si constituents of the fine recycled sand. The role of the recycled sand was more beneficial in lime mortars rather than the lime-pozzolan or lime-pozzolan-cement mortars as a decrease in their performance was recorded in the latter cases due to the mortars' structure.

  16. Ceramic foams for Al-recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luyten, J.; Vandermeulen, W.; Schutter, F. de [VITO, Materials Technology, Mol (Belgium); Simensen, C. [Sintef, Materials Technology, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Ryckeboer, M. [Remi Claeys Aluminium, Lichtervelde (Belgium)

    2006-08-15

    The recycling of Al scrap requires an efficient purification step. In this investigation a filter technique is used to remove intermetallic compounds containing Fe, Mn and Si out of the molten Al. The paper describes the synthesis of the filters, the construction of the filter installation, and the results of the different filter tests. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Chemical or feedstock recycling of WEEE products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews initiatives with regard to chemical or feedstock recycling of plastics waste from electrical and electronic products. eurostat estimates the amount of waste from electrical and electronic products that is collected is 2.2 million tonnes. Roughly 20% of this waste consists of pla

  18. Business-to-business: Buying Recycled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millberg, Laura

    1994-01-01

    A survey of Minnesota businesses about their efforts to buy recycled content products. Results discuss reactive versus proactive policies, the corporate advantage of environmental protection, how efforts are hampered by confusion, suppliers as key informants, and businesses' need for information. (MDH)

  19. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  20. Recycling and imaging of nuclear singlet hyperpolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pileio, Giuseppe; Bowen, Sean; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    observation of the same batch of polarized nuclei over a period of 30 min and more. We report a recycling protocol in which the enhanced nuclear polarization achieved by dissolution-DNP is observed with full intensity and then returned to singlet order. MRI experiments may be run on a portion of the available...

  1. New concepts for shaftless recycle reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berty, J.M.; Berty, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    Berty Reaction Engineers, Ltd. (BREL) is developing two new laboratory recycle reactors, the ROTOBERTY and the TURBOBERTY. These new reactors are basically improved versions of the original Berty reactor. To understand why the reactors have the features that they do, it is first necessary to briefly review laboratory reactors in general and specifically the original Berty reactor.

  2. Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis: Improved cellulase productivity by insoluble solids recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Noah Daniel; Börjesson, Johan; Pedersen, Lars Saaby;

    2013-01-01

    To take advantage of this effect, the amount of solids recycled should be maximized, based on a given processes ability to deal with higher solids concentrations and volumes. Recycling of enzymes by recycling the insoluble solids fraction was thus shown to be an effective method to decrease enzyme...

  3. Textiles and clothing sustainability recycled and upcycled textiles and fashion

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the concepts of recycling and upcycling and their implications for the textiles and fashion sector. In addition to the theoretical concepts, the book also presents various options for recycling and upcycling in textiles and fashion. Although recycling is a much-developed and widely used concept, upcycling is also gaining popularity in the sector.

  4. Aspects Concerning the Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robu, I.; Mazilu, C.; Deju, R.

    2016-11-01

    Natural aggregates (gravel and crushed) are essential non-renewable resources which are used for infrastructure works and civil engineering. Using recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) is a matter of high priority in the construction industry worldwide. This paper presents a study on the use of recycled aggregates, from a concrete of specified class, to acquire new cement concrete with different percentages of recycled aggregates.

  5. Analyzing effective municipal solid waste recycling programs: the case of county-level MSW recycling performance in Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seejeen; Berry, Frances S

    2013-09-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling performance, both nationally and in Florida, USA, has shown little improvement during the past decade. This research examines variations in the MSW recycling program performance in Florida counties in an attempt to identify effective recycling programs. After reviewing trends in the MSW management literature, we conducted an empirical analysis using cross-sectional multiple regression analysis. The findings suggest that the convenience-based hypothesis was supported by showing that curbside recycling had a positive effect on MSW recycling performance. Financial (cost-saving) incentive-based hypotheses were partially supported meaning that individual level incentives can influence recycling performance. Citizen environmental concern was found to positively affect the amount of county recycling, while education and political affiliation yielded no significant results. In conclusion, this article discusses the implications of the findings for both academic research and practice of MSW recycling programs.

  6. Phonon Recycling for Ultrasensitive Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    Initially proposed (Day et al. 2003; Zmuidzinas 2012) in 1999 by our Caltech/JPL group, and thanks to strong support from NASA, the superconducting (microwave) kinetic inductance detector (MKID or KID) technology continues to develop rapidly as it transitions into applications. The development effort worldwide is intensifying and NASA's continued support of KID development is essential in order to keep pace. Here we propose to investigate and demonstrate a new, low-TRL concept, which we call phonon recycling, that promises to open broad new avenues in KID design and performance. Briefly, phonon recycling allows the detector designer to tailor the responsivity and sensitivity of a KID to match the needs of the application by using geometry to restrict the rate at which recombination phonons are allowed to escape from the detector. In particular, phonon recycling should allow very low noise-equivalent power (NEP) to be achieved without requiring very low operating tem- peratures. Phonon recycling is analogous to the use of micromachined suspension legs to control the flow of heat in a bolometer, as measured by the thermal conductivity G. However, phonon recycling exploits the non-thermal distribution of recombination phonons as well as their very slow decay in crystals at low temperatures. These properties translate to geometrical and mechanical requirements for a phonon-recycled KID that are considerably more relaxed than for a bolometer operating at the same temperature and NEP. Our ultimate goal is to develop detector arrays suitable for a far-infrared (FIR) space mission, which will impose strict requirements on the array sensitivity, yield, uniformity, multiplexing density, etc. Through previous NASA support under the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program, we have successfully demonstrated the MAKO submillimeter camera at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory and have become familiar with these practical issues. If our demonstration of phonon recycling

  7. Packaging, Transportation and Recycling of NPP Condenser Modules - 12262

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polley, G.M. [Perma-Fix Environmental Services, 575 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Perma-Fix was awarded contract from Energy Northwest for the packaging, transportation and disposition of the condenser modules, water boxes and miscellaneous metal, combustibles and water generated during the 2011 condenser replacement outage at the Columbia Generating Station. The work scope was to package the water boxes and condenser modules as they were removed from the facility and transfer them to the Perma-Fix Northwest facility for processing, recycle of metals and disposition. The condenser components were oversized and overweight (the condenser modules weighed ∼102,058 kg [225,000 lb]) which required special equipment for loading and transport. Additional debris waste was packaged in inter-modals and IP-1 boxes for transport. A waste management plan was developed to minimize the generation of virtually any waste requiring landfill disposal. The Perma-Fix Northwest facility was modified to accommodate the ∼15 m [50-ft] long condenser modules and equipment was designed and manufactured to complete the disassembly, decontamination and release survey. The condenser modules are currently undergoing processing for free release to a local metal recycler. Over three millions pounds of metal will be recycled and over 95% of the waste generated during this outage will not require land disposal. There were several elements of this project that needed to be addressed during the preparation for this outage and the subsequent packaging, transportation and processing. - Staffing the project to support 24/7 generation of large components and other wastes. - The design and manufacture of the soft-sided shipping containers for the condenser modules that measured ∼15 m X 4 m X 3 m [50 ft X 13 ft X 10 ft] and weighed ∼102,058 kg [225,000 lbs] - Developing a methodology for loading the modules into the shipping containers. - Obtaining a transport vehicle for the modules. - Designing and modifying the processing facility. - Movement of the modules at the processing

  8. A tale of five cities: Using recycling frameworks to analyse inclusive recycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Anne; Simpson, Michael

    2015-11-01

    'Recycling' is a source of much confusion, particularly when comparing solid waste systems in high-income countries with those in low- and middle-income countries. Few analysts can explain why the performance and structure of recycling appears to be so different in rich countries from poor ones, nor why well-meaning efforts to implement recycling so often fail. The analysis of policy drivers, and the Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) framework, come close to an explanation.This article builds on these earlier works, focusing in on five cities profiled in the 2010 UN-Habitat publication (Scheinberg A, Wilson DC and Rodic L (2010) Solid Waste Management in the World's Cities. UN-Habitat's Third Global Report on the State of Water and Sanitation in the World's Cities. Newcastle-on-Tyne, UK: Earthscan Publications). Data from these cities and others provides the basis for developing a new tool to analyse inclusive recycling performance. The points of departure are the institutional and economic relationships between the service chain, the public obligation to remove waste, pollution, and other forms of disvalue, and the value chain, a system of private enterprises trading valuable materials and providing markets for recyclables. The methodological innovation is to use flows of materials and money as indicators of institutional relationships, and is an extension of process flow diagramming.The authors are using the term 'recycling framework analysis' to describe this new form of institutional analysis. The diagrams increase our understanding of the factors that contribute to high-performance inclusive recycling. By focusing on institutional relationships, the article seeks to improve analysis, planning, and ultimately, outcomes, of recycling interventions.

  9. PET Recycling Behavior of consumers in Lahore, Pakistan, Available knowledge and general attitudes, Impact on recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Meer, van der, R.W.; , Usman

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Lahore, Pakistan is one of the most populated and hottest regions of the world. Due to long summers beverages consumption is generally high leading to an increase in consumption of beverage PET bottles. There is a huge amount of municipal waste which is not being recycled and as a result it ends up in land refills. Through a survey I have tried to figure out that how different factors like income level, educational level, recycling facility, knowledge and incentives influence recycli...

  10. Porosity of the recycled concrete with substitution of recycled concrete aggregate. An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Soberón, José Manuel Vicente

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental analysis of samples of recycled concrete (RC) with replacement of natural aggregate (NA) by recycled aggregate originating from concrete (RCA). The results of the tests of mechanical properties of RC were used for comparison with tests of mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), in which the distribution of the theoretical pore radius, critical pore ratio, the surface area of the concrete, threshold ratio and average pore radius were studied at ages of 7...

  11. Investigation of the Moisture Recycling Ratio over South America: A Modelling Approach using HadCM3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charan Pattnayak, Kanhu; Gloor, Emanuel; Tindall, Julia; Briener, Roel

    2017-04-01

    It is a well-known fact that precipitation relies on terrestrial evaporation (moisture recycling). This study makes use of new definitions of moisture recycling from van der Ent, et al. 2010 to study the complete process of continental moisture feedback. Earlier studies have shown that there exist many regions over the globe that relies heavily on recycled moisture as well as that supplies moisture. In South America, the Río de la Plata basin depends on evaporation from the Amazon forest for 70% of its water resources. Stable water isotope (δ18O) can be used, as a good proxy for precipitation and it is a better tool to study convective processes and hydrological cycle. Analysing the δ18O would help to identify the moisture source for precipitation. In this study, we try to explain to the relation between δ18O and the moisture recycling ratio using atmospheric component of Hadley Centre Coupled Climate Model (HadCM3). And also we analyse the impact of land cover change on δ18O and the moisture recycling ratio. Further, we will analyse the changes of moisture recycling pattern from pre-industrial to the present scenario.

  12. Theoretical study of closed-loop recycling liquid-liquid chromatography and experimental verification of the theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanyan, Artak E; Erastov, Andrey A

    2016-09-02

    The non-ideal recycling equilibrium-cell model including the effects of extra-column dispersion is used to simulate and analyze closed-loop recycling counter-current chromatography (CLR CCC). Previously, the operating scheme with the detector located before the column was considered. In this study, analysis of the process is carried out for a more realistic and practical scheme with the detector located immediately after the column. Peak equation for individual cycles and equations describing the transport of single peaks and complex chromatograms inside the recycling closed-loop, as well as equations for the resolution between single solute peaks of the neighboring cycles, for the resolution of peaks in the recycling chromatogram and for the resolution between the chromatograms of the neighboring cycles are presented. It is shown that, unlike conventional chromatography, increasing of the extra-column volume (the recycling line length) may allow a better separation of the components in CLR chromatography. For the experimental verification of the theory, aspirin, caffeine, coumarin and the solvent system hexane/ethyl acetate/ethanol/water (1:1:1:1) were used. Comparison of experimental and simulated processes of recycling and distribution of the solutes in the closed-loop demonstrated a good agreement between theory and experiment.

  13. The influence of printed electronics on the recyclability of paper: A case study for smart envelopes in courier and postal services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliaga, C., E-mail: caliaga@itene.com [Sustainability Division, Packaging, Transport and Logistics Research Centre, C/Albert Einstein 1, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Zhang, H.; Dobon, A.; Hortal, M. [Sustainability Division, Packaging, Transport and Logistics Research Centre, C/Albert Einstein 1, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Beneventi, D. [Laboratory of Pulp & Paper Science, Grenoble INP Pagora, 461, Rue de la Papeterie, F-38400 Saint-Martin d’Hères Cedex (France)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Study of the influence of components of printed electronics in paper recycling. • Comparison between paper recycled with and without resistors, batteries and layouts. • Mechanical and optical properties are evaluated in paper handsheets obtained. • Tensile strength of recycled paper is slighted reduced by layouts. • Optical properties of recycled paper slightly varies with layouts and batteries. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse the effects of the presence of printed electronics on the paper waste streams and specifically on paper recyclability. The analysis is based on a case study focussed on envelopes for postal and courier services provided with these intelligent systems. The smart printed envelope of the study includes a combination of both conventional (thin flexible batteries and resistors) and printed electronic components (conductive track layout based on nanosilver ink). For this purpose, a comparison between envelopes with and without these components (batteries, resistors and conductive track layouts) was carried out through pilot scale paper recycling tests. The generation of rejects during the recycling process as well as the final quality of the recycled paper (mechanical and optical properties) were tested and quantitatively evaluated. The results show that resistors are retained during the screening process in the sieves and consequently they cannot end up in the final screened pulp. Therefore, mechanical and optical properties of the recycled paper are not affected. Nevertheless, inks from the conductive track layouts and batteries were partially dissolved in the process water. These substances were not totally retained in the sieving systems resulting in slight changes in the optical properties of the final recycled paper (variations are 7.2–7.5% in brightness, 8.5–10.7% in whiteness, 1.2–2.2% in L{sup ∗} values, 3.3–3.5% in opacity and 16.1–27% in yellowness). These variations are not in ranges

  14. Recycling of metal bearing electronic scrap in a plasma furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Piotr; Małecki, Stanisław; Gargul, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    The recycling of electronic waste and the recovery of valuable components are large problems in the modern world economy. This paper presents the effects of melting sorted electronic scrap in a plasma furnace. Printed circuit boards, cables, and windings were processed separately. The characteristics of the obtained products (i.e., alloy metal, slag, dust, and gases) are presented. A method of their further processing in order to obtain commercial products is proposed. Because of the chemical composition and physical properties, the waste slag is environmentally inert and can be used for the production of abrasives. Process dusts containing large amounts of carbon and its compounds have a high calorific value. That makes it possible to use them for energy generation. The gas has a high calorific value, and its afterburning combined with energy recovery is necessary.

  15. Diffractively coupled Fabry-Perot resonator with power-recycling

    CERN Document Server

    Britzger, Michael; Kroker, Stefanie; Brückner, Frank; Burmeister, Oliver; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the optical coupling of two cavities without light transmission through a substrate. Compared to a conventional coupling component, that is a partially transmissive mirror, an all-reflective coupler avoids light absorption in the substrate and therefore associated thermal problems, and even allows the use of opaque materials with possibly favourable mechanical and thermal properties. Recently, the all-reflective coupling of two cavities with a low-efficiency 3-port diffraction grating was theoretically investigated. Such a grating has an additional (a third) port. However, it was shown that the additional port does not necessarily decrease the bandwidth of the coupled cavities. Such an all-reflective scheme for cavity coupling is of interest in the field of gravitational wave detection. In such detectors light that is resonantly enhanced inside the so-called power-recycling cavity is coupled to (kilometre-scale) Fabry-Perot resonators representing the arms of a Michelson interferometer. In orde...

  16. Polymer recycling: potential application of radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burillo, Guillermina; Clough, Roger L. E-mail: rlcloug@sandia.gov; Czvikovszky, Tibor; Guven, Olgun; Le Moel, Alain; Liu Weiwei; Singh, Ajit; Yang Jingtian; Zaharescu, Traian

    2002-04-01

    Management of solid waste is an important problem, which is becoming progressively worse as a byproduct of continuing economic growth and development. Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) comprise a steadily increasing proportion of the municipal and industrial waste going into landfill. Development of technologies for reducing polymeric waste, which are acceptable from the environmental standpoint, and which are cost-effective, has proven to be a difficult challenge due to complexities inherent in the reuse of polymers. Establishing optimal processes for the reuse/recycling of polymeric materials thus remains a worldwide challenge as we enter the new century. Due to the ability of ionizing radiation to alter the structure and properties of bulk polymeric materials, and the fact that it is applicable to essentially all polymer types, irradiation holds promise for impacting the polymer waste problem. The three main possibilities for use of radiation in this application are: (1) enhancing the mechanical properties and performance of recovered materials or material blends, principally through crosslinking, or through surface modification of different phases being combined; (2) treatment causing or enhancing the decomposition of polymers, particularly through chain scission, leading to recovery of either low molecular weight mixtures, or powders, for use as chemical feedstocks or additives; (3) production of advanced polymeric materials designed for environmental compatibility. This paper provides an overview of the polymer recycling problem, describes the major technological obstacles to the implementation of recycling technologies, and outlines some of the approaches being taken. A review of radiation-based recycling research is then provided, followed by a discussion of future directions where irradiation may be relevant to the problems currently inhibiting the widespread recycling of polymeric materials.

  17. Complete Recycling of Composite Material Comprising Polybutylene Terephthalate and Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Knappich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials comprising plastic and metal parts generate a large amount of waste containing valuable components that are difficult to separate and recycle. We therefore developed an economical solvent-based process for the recovery of costly manufactured composite materials comprising several copper panels over-moulded with a polymeric matrix of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT. We applied the CreaSolv® Process, which uses proprietary formulations with a low risk to user and environment, in order to dissolve the polymer and retain the inert copper. After separating the metal from the solution, solvent recovery was achieved by means of vacuum distillation and melt degassing extrusion. The recovered solvent was collected and recycled while maintaining its original properties. We tested two candidate solvents with PBT, measuring their impact on the molecular weight (Mw and polydispersity of the polymer at different residence times and dissolution temperatures. We found that increasing the temperature-time-load had a negative effect on the Mw. Both solvents we tested were able to dissolve the polymeric matrix within 30 min and with moderate energy consumption. Furthermore, we found that the exclusion of oxygen during dissolution significantly increases the quality of the recovered polymer and metal. We transferred the process from the laboratory scale to the small-technical scale and produced material for large analytical and mechanical quality evaluation, revealing no decline in the polymer quality by blending with new plastic. The recovered copper met virgin material properties. Therefore, both components of the original composite material have been recovered in a form suitable for reuse.

  18. Recycled dehydrated lithosphere observed in plume-influenced mid-ocean-ridge basalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jacqueline Eaby; Leist, Loretta; Langmuir, Charles; Schilling, Jean-Guy

    2002-11-28

    A substantial uncertainty in the Earth's global geochemical water cycle is the amount of water that enters the deep mantle through the subduction and recycling of hydrated oceanic lithosphere. Here we address the question of recycling of water into the deep mantle by characterizing the volatile contents of different mantle components as sampled by ocean island basalts and mid-ocean-ridge basalts. Although all mantle plume (ocean island) basalts seem to contain more water than mid-ocean-ridge basalts, we demonstrate that basalts associated with mantle plume components containing subducted lithosphere--'enriched-mantle' or 'EM-type' basalts--contain less water than those associated with a common mantle source. We interpret this depletion as indicating that water is extracted from the lithosphere during the subduction process, with greater than 92 per cent efficiency.

  19. End-of-life vehicle recycling based on disassembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiang; QIN Ye; CHEN Ming; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    The end-of-life vehicle recycling was studied based on the disassembly. The end-of-life recycling and the disassembly were reviewed and discussed. A disassembly experiment of an end-of-life engine was carried out, which strictly recorded the process of dismantling. Based on the results, a model of the end-of-life recycling was presented. In this model, the end-of-life parts were classified by three ways which included to recycle directly, to recycleafter remanufacturing and to discard. By using this model, the dismantling efficiency and the recycling rate can be improved. Also, it obtains a good result after used in a dismantling factory.

  20. Multiple recycling of fuel in prototype fast breeder reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Pandikumar; V Gopalakrishnan; P Mohanakrishnan

    2009-05-01

    In a thermal neutron reactor, multiple recycle of U–Pu fuel is not possible due to degradation of fissile content of Pu in just one recycle. In the FBR closed fuel cycle, possibility of multi-recycle has been recognized. In the present study, Pu-239 equivalence approach is used to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving near constant input inventory of Pu and near stable Pu isotopic composition after a few recycles of the same fuel of the prototype fast breeder reactor under construction at Kalpakkam. After about five recycles, the cycle-to-cycle variation in the above parameters is below 1%.

  1. Biosolids recycling : a proposed methodology for the assessment of the impact on groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Robins, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    A groundwater risk assessment protocol is needed for land restoration schemes using recycled biosolids. A hydrogeological risk assessment for the Darnconner site in East Ayrshire [NS5723 to NS5823] has been used as a case study to develop the protocol. The proposed outline for developing the protocol included the following components: 1. Gather available geological information for the site and environs from 1: 50 000 scale geological maps and more detailed information where ava...

  2. Mechanical and chemical recycling of solid plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaert, Kim; Delva, Laurens; Van Geem, Kevin

    2017-08-17

    This review presents a comprehensive description of the current pathways for recycling of polymers, via both mechanical and chemical recycling. The principles of these recycling pathways are framed against current-day industrial reality, by discussing predominant industrial technologies, design strategies and recycling examples of specific waste streams. Starting with an overview on types of solid plastic waste (SPW) and their origins, the manuscript continues with a discussion on the different valorisation options for SPW. The section on mechanical recycling contains an overview of current sorting technologies, specific challenges for mechanical recycling such as thermo-mechanical or lifetime degradation and the immiscibility of polymer blends. It also includes some industrial examples such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling, and SPW from post-consumer packaging, end-of-life vehicles or electr(on)ic devices. A separate section is dedicated to the relationship between design and recycling, emphasizing the role of concepts such as Design from Recycling. The section on chemical recycling collects a state-of-the-art on techniques such as chemolysis, pyrolysis, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrogen techniques and gasification. Additionally, this review discusses the main challenges (and some potential remedies) to these recycling strategies and ground them in the relevant polymer science, thus providing an academic angle as well as an applied one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Shear friction capacity of recycled concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiras, J.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the behavior of recycled concrete in response to the phenomenon of shear transfer. To perform it, a conventional control concrete and a concrete with 50% recycled coarse aggregate were designed. An additional goal was to shed light on how this behavior is modified with a pozzolanic addition, silica fume. Therefore, two types of concrete were designed, a conventional and a recycled concrete, both made with 8% of silica fume. In conclusion, a reduction of shear friction capacity was observed in recycled concretes, considerably higher in the case of the specimen without reinforcement. The addition of silica fume improved the behavior of recycled concretes. The results obtained were compared with the formulations of the different authors. In all cases, these were found to be conservative. However, the safety margins offered by recycled concretes are lower than those obtained with conventional concretes.

    En esta investigación se estudió el comportamiento de los hormigones reciclados frente al fenómeno de transmisión de cortante. Para ello se diseñó un hormigón convencional de control y un hormigón con el 50% del árido grueso reciclado. Adicionalmente, para determinar cómo este comportamiento se ve modificado con la incorporación de una adición puzolánica (humo de sílice, se procedió al diseño de un hormigón convencional y su correspondiente reciclado con un 8% de humo de sílice. Los resultados indicaron una disminución de la capacidad frente a este fenómeno en los hormigones reciclados, más acusada en ausencia de armadura pasante. La adición de humo de sílice mejora el comportamiento de este material. Los resultados experimentales obtenidos se compararon con formulaciones teóricas de diversos autores, concluyéndose que éstas son, en todos los casos, conservadoras, aunque reducen el margen de seguridad en los hormigones reciclados.

  4. Investigation of Adding Proportion of RAP in Recycled Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the relationship between gradation and proportion of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP and design gradation of recycled mixture, the authors discussed the influence of proportion of RAP on gradation adjustment of recycled mixture. And then, recycled mixture with 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% of RAP were made, and Influence of proportion of RAP on high and low temperature performance, water stability and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture were discussed. The results and analysis indicate that gradation of recycled mixture would not be adjusted to aiming gradation if proportion of RAP was too big. With the increase of proportion of RAP, high temperature performance and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture enhanced, but low temperature performance and water stability decayed sharply. In practical application, reasonable proportion of RAP should be determined according to gradation, performance demand and economy of recycled mixture.

  5. Sustaining the environment through recycling: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramayah, T; Lee, Jason Wai Chow; Lim, Shuwen

    2012-07-15

    This paper examines the determinants of recycling behaviour among 200 university students from the perspective of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling technique. Findings indicate that environmental awareness was significantly related to attitude towards recycling, whilst attitude and social norms had significant impact on recycling behaviour. However, convenience and cost of recycling were not significant reasons for recycling. The study has enhanced the understanding of the determinants of recycling behaviour and has implications for schools and governmental agencies in educating and encouraging positive recycling behaviour. It also confirms the appropriateness of the TPB in examining studies of this nature. Further suggestions for future research are offered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recycling behaviour in healthcare: waste handling at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Nunes, Katia R A

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the motivational factors for environmental behaviour in general, presenting a case study on recycling disposable plastics in hospitals. Results show that 90% of over 600 employees from six analysed hospitals in Germany reported that the recycling of disposable plastics on the wards makes sense from an environmental and economic point of view. The case study reports an assessment of recycling attitudes and problems of hospital staff, mainly nurses. Employees in eco-certified hospitals were much more satisfied and reported fewer problems with the recycling system. The gender effect was significant only for saving energy, while age correlated with nearly all reported pro-environmental behaviour at home. At work, the mere introduction of a recycling system was insufficient to achieve good recycling results. Based on the study findings, recommendations are given aimed at improving the safety and sustainability of the recycling system.

  7. Magnesium recycling in the United States in 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2002-01-01

    As concern for the environment has grown in recent years, the importance of recycling has become more evident. The more materials that are recycled, the fewer natural resources will be consumed and the fewer waste products will end up in landfills, the water, and the air. As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the 1998 flow of magnesium in the United States from extraction through its uses with particular emphasis on recycling. In 1998, the recycling efficiency for magnesium was estimated to be 33 percent--almost 60 percent of the magnesium that was recycled came from new scrap, primarily waste from die-casting operations. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

  8. Experimental study on fracture properties of Waste fiber recycled concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jing Hai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influence of the replacement ratio of recycled aggregate and the volume of waste fiber on the fracture performance of concrete, the three-point bending test is carried out on the waste fiber recycled concrete precast beams. Calculate the waste recycled fiber concrete fracture parameters according to the double-K fracture model. The results show that the fracture indexes of recycled fiber are related to the recycled aggregate replacement ratio and the volume content of waste fiber. The larger the replacement rate of recycled aggregate is, the smaller the fracture indexes of the specimens are. The volume content of waste fiber is 0.12%, which has the most significant effect on the fracture performance. The study shows that waste fiber can improve the fracture properties of recycled aggregate concrete.

  9. Recycling of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by using hydrocyclone separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ming-Sheng; Chen, Ying-Liang; Wei, Pei-Shou

    2013-03-01

    The municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in Taiwan generate about 300,000 tons of fly ash annually, which is mainly composed of calcium and silicon compounds, and has the potential for recycling. However, some heavy metals are present in the MSWI fly ash, and before recycling, they need to be removed or reduced to make the fly ash non-hazardous. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to use a hydrocyclone for the separation of the components of the MSWI fly ash in order to obtain the recyclable portion. The results show that chloride salts can be removed from the fly ash during the hydrocyclone separation process. The presence of a dense medium (quartz sand in this study) is not only helpful for the removal of the salts, but also for the separation of the fly ash particles. After the dense-medium hydrocyclone separation process, heavy metals including Pb and Zn were concentrated in the fine particles so that the rest of the fly ash contained less heavy metal and became both non-hazardous and recyclable.

  10. Field evaluation of recycled plastic lumber (RPL) pallets. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaswamy, P.; Miele, C.R.; Francini, R.B. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Yuracko, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yerace, P. [Dept. of Energy, Fernald, OH (United States)

    1997-10-01

    One significant component of the waste stream, discarded plastic products and packaging, continues to be a growing portion of the municipal solid waste (MSW). There has been considerable work done in characterizing the quantity and types of plastics in different waste streams, collection methods, separation, sorting as well as technologies for processing post-consumer mixed plastics. The focus in recent years has been the development of markets for recycled plastic products, which constitutes the second half of the material flow diagram cycle shown in Figure 1. One key product that holds significant promise for plastics recycling to be both technically feasible and economically viable is Recycled Plastic Lumber (RPL). The contents of this report forms the second phase of a two-phase pilot project on developing specifications and standards for a product fabricated from RPL. Such standards and specifications are needed to prepare procurement guidelines for state and federal agencies interested in purchasing products made from recycled materials. The first phase focused on establishing a procedure to evaluate RPL product,s such as pallets, in a laboratory setting while this phase focuses on field evaluation of RPL pallets in service. This effort is critical in the development of new markets for RPL products. A brief summary of the findings from Phase 1 of this effort is presented next.

  11. A comprehensive framework for the assessment of new end uses in recycled water schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Lim, Richard; Wang, Xiaochang C; O'Halloran, Kelly; Listowski, Andrzej; Corby, Nigel; Miechel, Clayton

    2014-02-01

    Nowadays, recycled water has provided sufficient flexibility to satisfy short-term freshwater needs and increase the reliability of long-term water supplies in many water scarce areas, which becomes an essential component of integrated water resources management. However, the current applications of recycled water are still quite limited that are mainly associated with non-potable purposes such as irrigation, industrial uses, toilet flushing and car washing. There is a large potential to exploit and develop new end uses of recycled water in both urban and rural areas. This can greatly contribute to freshwater savings, wastewater reduction and water sustainability. Consequently, the paper identified the potentials for the development of three recycled water new end uses, household laundry, livestock feeding and servicing, and swimming pool, in future water use market. To validate the strengths of these new applications, a conceptual decision analytic framework was proposed. This can be able to facilitate the optional management strategy selection process and thereafter provide guidance on the future end use studies within a larger context of the community, processes, and models in decision-making. Moreover, as complex evaluation criteria were selected and taken into account to narrow down the multiple management alternatives, the methodology can successfully add transparency, objectivity and comprehensiveness to the assessment. Meanwhile, the proposed approach could also allow flexibility to adapt to particular circumstances of each case under study.

  12. Study of Aramid Fiber/Polychloroprene Recycling Process by Thermal Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dabkiewicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aramid fiber is an important polymer applied as reinforcement in high-performance composites, which, due its exceptional properties, becomes an excellent impact absorption material. It has been broadly utilized in aeronautic industry and ballistic protection. In aircrafts, it is mainly used in secondary structures, such as fairings, floor panels, and bullet proof structures in helicopters, whereas, in ballistic protection industry, it is applied in automotive armor and bullet proof vest. Under environmental perspective, it is worrying the development and application of composites, which generate proportional discards of these materials, whether originated from manufacturing process, spare parts or end of life cycle. High-performance composite materials like those using aramid fiber are generally difficult to recycle due to their properties and the difficulty for the separation of the components, making their recycling economically unviable. From the characteristics of composite materials and environmental viewpoint, this paper presents a new aramid fiber recycling process. The main objective of this research was to study different recycling methods in aramid fibers/Neoprene® composites. To promote the Neoprene® degradation, it was used a pyrolysis oven with controlled atmosphere and CO 2 injection. For the degraded separation, it was designed a mechanical washing machine in which the most degraded separation occurred. To complete the materials separation, it was employed a manual cleaning process, and, at least to prove the efficacy of the process, it was applied a tensile test in the yarns.

  13. Analysis of industry development of building materials and ore mining and dressing of non-metallic minerals%2011年建材及非金属矿采选业行业发展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何军生

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the growth of building materials production remained stable, industrial structure contiuned to optimise, economic porfits improved. In this paper, the author firstly discusses economic operation of building materials and ore mining and dressing of non-metallic minerals in 2011, to adjust the industrial structure of building materials and ore mining and dressing of non-metallic minerals to impove the quality of the economic operation, predicts the development trend of industry of building materials and ore mining and dressing of non-metallic minerals in 2012. At last, the author puts forward to policy suggestions which accelerate industry deleopment of the building materials and ore mining and dressing of non-metallic minerals%2011年建材工业生产增长速度保持平稳,产业结构继续优化,经济效益提高.本文首先讨论了2011年建材工业经济及非金属矿采选行业经济运行情况,做到调整建材及非金属矿选行业产业结构,提高经济运行质量,预测了2012年建材及非金属矿选行业未来发展趋势,最后提出促进建材及非金属矿选行业发展的政策建议.

  14. Recycling Pulsars: spins, masses and ages

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, T M; Langer, N

    2012-01-01

    Although the first millisecond pulsars (MSPs) were discovered 30 years ago we still do not understand all details of their formation process. Here, we present new results from Tauris, Langer & Kramer (2012) on the recycling scenario leading to radio MSPs with helium or carbon-oxygen white dwarf companions via evolution of low- and intermediate mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs, IMXBs). We discuss the location of the spin-up line in the (P,Pdot)-diagram and estimate the amount of accreted mass needed to obtain a given spin period and compare with observations. Finally, we constrain the true ages of observed recycled pulsars via calculated isochrones in the (P,Pdot)-diagram.

  15. Transverse Instabilities in the Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L.R.; Burov, A.; Shemyakin, A.; Bhat, C.M.; Crisp, J.; Eddy, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    Transverse instabilities of the antiproton beam have been observed in the Recycler ring soon after its commissioning. After installation of transverse dampers, the threshold for the instability limit increased significantly but the instability is still found to limit the brightness of the antiprotons extracted from the Recycler for Tevatron shots. In this paper, we describe observations of the instabilities during the extraction process as well as during dedicated studies. The measured instability threshold phase density agrees with the prediction of the rigid beam model within a factor of 2. Also, we conclude that the instability threshold can be significantly lowered for a bunch contained in a narrow and shallow potential well due to effective exclusion of the longitudinal tails from Landau damping.

  16. Recycling of greenhouse gases via methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Eliasson, B.; Kogelschatz, U. [ABB Corporate Research Center, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere can be mitigated by using direct control technologies (capture, disposal or chemical recycling). We report on carbon dioxide and methane recycling with other chemicals, especially with hydrogen and oxygen, to methanol. Methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} is investigated on various catalysts at moderate pressures ({<=}30 bar) and temperatures ({<=}300{sup o}C). The catalysts show good methanol activities and selectivities. The conversion of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} to methanol is also studied in a silent electrical discharge at pressures of 1 to 4 bar and temperatures close to room temperature. Methanol yields are given for mixtures of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} and also for CH{sub 4} and air mixtures. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  17. Regulation of Plasma Membrane Recycling by CFTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Neil A.; Jilling, Tamas; Berta, Gabor; Sorscher, Eric J.; Bridges, Robert J.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    1992-04-01

    The gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is defective in patients with cystic fibrosis. Although the protein product of the CFTR gene has been proposed to function as a chloride ion channel, certain aspects of its function remain unclear. The role of CFTR in the adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent regulation of plasma membrane recycling was examined. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate is known to regulate endocytosis and exocytosis in chloride-secreting epithelial cells that express CFTR. However, mutant epithelial cells derived from a patient with cystic fibrosis exhibited no cAMP-dependent regulation of endocytosis and exocytosis until they were transfected with complementary DNA encoding wild-type CFTR. Thus, CFTR is critical for cAMP-dependent regulation of membrane recycling in epithelial tissues, and this function of CFTR could explain in part the pleiotropic nature of cystic fibrosis.

  18. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Zhu, Zhi; Wang, Weihua; Lu, Xuefeng

    2013-12-01

    The sustainable supply of lipids is the bottleneck for current biodiesel production. Here microbial recycling of glycerol, byproduct of biodiesel production to biodiesel in engineered Escherichia coli strains was reported. The KC3 strain with capability of producing fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) from glucose was used as a starting strain to optimize fermentation conditions when using glycerol as sole carbon source. The YL15 strain overexpressing double copies of atfA gene displayed 1.7-fold increase of FAEE productivity compared to the KC3 strain. The titer of FAEE in YL15 strain reached to 813 mg L(-1) in minimum medium using glycerol as sole carbon source under optimized fermentation conditions. The titer of glycerol-based FAEE production can be significantly increased by both genetic modifications and fermentation optimization. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel expands carbon sources for biodiesel production.

  19. Design of Road Pavement Using Recycled Aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remišová, Eva; Decký, Martin; Mikolaš, Milan; Hájek, Matej; Kovalčík, Luboš; Mečár, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The presented article gives special attention to codified clauses of the road construction law, the relevant clauses of the standards and technical regulations to design and control the quality of recycled aggregate constructions. The article also presents the authors’ suggestions to design of earth constructions and pavements of roads according to the Slovak technical standards, technical regulations and objectively determined results of research and development of road infrastructure. The article presents a comparison of the mechanical characteristics measurements of the structural layers of road pavements built from the recycled and natural aggregate. It also presents correlation functions of results obtained from in situ and in laboratory CBR (Californian Bearing Ratio) measuring, representing the world's most widely used control method of bearing capacity of mentioned construction layers.

  20. Claus recycle with double combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bishtawi, Ribhi; Haimour, No' man [University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

    2004-12-15

    A new modification is developed on conventional Claus process to increase the overall sulfur recovery as well as to decrease the costs. The modification combines both oxygen enrichment and recycling. The process is simulated and studied for various N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} ratios with and without using SURE double combustion technique. The predictions show that using pure oxygen in combustion, condensing water vapor in a condenser following the first sulfur condenser and recycling the effluent gas to combine it with fresh acid gas feed leads to large savings in the production cost and to a clean environment. However, it leads to a high adiabatic flame temperature which exceeds the maximum allowable temperature of the furnace material of construction as well as its refractory. To avoid these effects, it is necessary to use SURE double combustion technique. The oxygen flow rate to the first combustion stage should not exceed 78% O{sub 2}.