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Sample records for non-melancholic depression differences

  1. Melancholic features in inpatients with major depressive disorder associate with differential clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes.

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    Lin, Ching-Hua; Huang, Chun-Jen; Liu, Shi-Kai

    2016-04-30

    To determine whether the presence of melancholic features in hospitalized patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) was associated with specific clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes, supporting melancholic depression as a distinct subtype within MDD. 126 acutely ill inpatients with MDD were enrolled in an open, 6-week trial with fixed-dose fluoxetine 20mg daily. Symptom severity was assessed regularly, using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S). Melancholic features were defined according to the DSM-IV criteria. Clinical variables were compared between patients with and without melancholic features. Generalized estimating equations method was used to explore the differences in HAMD-17 and CGI-S scores between the 2 groups over time. Clinical response was defined as having a 50% or greater reduction in HAMD-17 scores. 96 (76.2%) of the 126 patients with at least one post-baseline assessment met the criteria for melancholic depression. Melancholic depression differed from non-melancholic depression in clinical characteristics and predicted a better response to fluoxetine treatment. The differentiation between melancholic and non-melancholic depression within MDD hence is clinically significant and valid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antecedent life events, social supports and response to antidepressants in depressed patients.

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    Tomaszewska, W; Peselow, E D; Barouche, F; Fieve, R R

    1996-11-01

    We evaluated 355 subjects who entered one of six double-blind placebo-controlled antidepressant drug trials with respect to the occurrence of antecedent adverse life events and their meaning to the patient. Patients were also assessed with regard to the degree of social support they received for the negative life event. The groups differed as to whether they did or did not meet the criteria for melancholic depression; 43 one-week placebo responders were statistically significantly more likely to believe that adverse life events predisposed them to depressive illness and that such life events precipitated their current depression, compared to 312 one-week placebo non-responders. Of the 312 patients who went on to the double-blind phase in which they were treated with either drug (n = 204) or placebo (n = 108), it was noted that, for both melancholic and non-melancholic patients, responders to drug treatment (but not placebo) had a more favourable ratio of social support received/social support desired than non-responders. Non-melancholic responders to both drug and placebo were statistically significantly more likely to report fewer adverse life events and have a less strong belief that adverse life events predispose one to depressive illness than non-responders. Melancholic patients did not show this trend.

  3. Comorbid personality disorder predicts suicide after major depression: a 10-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P E B; Wang, A G; Stage, K B;

    2003-01-01

    followed prospectively through a maximum of 10 years. Patients with a drug or alcohol abuse were excluded. The association between suicide and the pretreatment psychopathological profile was analysed using survival statistics. RESULTS: The suicide rate for non-melancholic depressed patients...... was significantly higher than for melancholic depressed patients. Comorbid personality disorder was independently associated with an increased suicide rate [relative hazard 3.41(CI: 1.15-10.10)]. CONCLUSION: The study indicates that the non-melancholic aspect of depression, and especially comorbid personality...... disorder, is associated with an increased suicidal vulnerability....

  4. Comorbid personality disorder predicts suicide after major depression: a 10-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P E B; Wang, A G; Stage, K B

    2003-01-01

    was significantly higher than for melancholic depressed patients. Comorbid personality disorder was independently associated with an increased suicide rate [relative hazard 3.41(CI: 1.15-10.10)]. CONCLUSION: The study indicates that the non-melancholic aspect of depression, and especially comorbid personality...

  5. Neural network subtyping of depression.

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    Florio, T M; Parker, G; Austin, M P; Hickie, I; Mitchell, P; Wilhelm, K

    1998-10-01

    To examine the applicability of a neural network classification strategy to examine the independent contribution of psychomotor disturbance (PMD) and endogeneity symptoms to the DSM-III-R definition of melancholia. We studied 407 depressed patients with the clinical dataset comprising 17 endogeneity symptoms and the 18-item CORE measure of behaviourally rated PMD. A multilayer perception neural network was used to fit non-linear models of varying complexity. A linear discriminant function analysis was also used to generate a model for comparison with the non-linear models. Models (linear and non-linear) using PMD items only and endogeneity symptoms only had similar rates of successful classification, while non-linear models combining both PMD and symptoms scores achieved the best classifications. Our current non-linear model was superior to a linear analysis, a finding which may have wider application to psychiatric classification. Our non-linear analysis of depressive subtypes supports the binary view that melancholic and non-melancholic depression are separate clinical disorders rather than different forms of the same entity. This study illustrates how non-linear modelling with neural networks is a potentially fruitful approach to the study of the diagnostic taxonomy of psychiatric disorders and to clinical decision-making.

  6. Neuropsychological changes in melancholic and atypical depression: A systematic review.

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    Bosaipo, Nayanne Beckmann; Foss, Maria Paula; Young, Allan H; Juruena, Mario Francisco

    2017-02-01

    There is not a consensus as to whether neuropsychological profiling can distinguish depressive subtypes. We aimed to systematically review and critically analyse the literature on cognitive function in patients with melancholic and atypical depression. We searched in databases PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Knowledge and PsycInfo for papers comparing the neuropsychological performance of melancholic patients (MEL) to non-melancholic depressive patients (NMEL), including atypical depressives, and healthy controls (HC). All studies were scrutinised to determine the main methodological characteristics and particularly possible sources of bias influencing the results reported, using the STROBE statement checklist. We also provide effect size of the results reported for contrasts between MEL; patients and NMEL patients. Seventeen studies were included; most of them demonstrated higher neuropsychological impairments of MEL patients compared to both NMEL patients and HC on tasks requiring memory, executive function, attention and reaction time. Detailed analysis of the methodologies used in the studies revealed significant variability especially regarding the participants' sociodemographic characteristics, clinical characteristics of patients and differences in neuropsychological assessment. These findings suggest that MEL may have a distinct and impaired cognitive performance compared to NMEL depressive patients on tasks involving verbal and visual memory, executive function, sustained attention and span, as well as psychomotor speed, this last especially when cognitive load is increased. Additional studies with adequate control of potentially confounding variables will help to clarify further differences in the neuropsychological functioning of depressive subtypes.

  7. Gender differences in major depressive disorder : Results from the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety

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    Schuch, Jerome J. J.; Roest, Annelieke M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Jonge, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although an overall gender difference in prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been well established, several questions concerning gender differences in the clinical manifestation of depression remain. This study aims to identify gender differences in psychopathology, treatme

  8. Gender differences in depression across parental roles.

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    Shafer, Kevin; Pace, Garrett T

    2015-04-01

    Prior research has focused on the relationship between parenthood and psychological well-being, with mixed results. Some studies have also addressed potential gender differences in this relationship, again yielding varied findings. One reason may be methodological choices pursued in these studies, including the lack of focus on combined parental roles (for example, biological parent and stepparent). The authors used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (N = 6,276) and multinomial treatment models to address how combined roles influence depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Further, they explored potential gender differences. Their results indicated that having multiple parental roles is negatively associated with psychological well-being for both men and women, whereas childlessness is more negative for women, and specific parental role combinations affect mothers and fathers differently. Within the context of changing family structure in the United States, these results have important implications for social workers and other mental health professionals-particularly with regard to screening for depression among parents, who are less likely to seek mental health counseling than childless adults.

  9. The Relationship of Perfectionism, Depression, and Therapeutic Alliance during Treatment for Depression: Latent Difference Score Analysis

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    Hawley, Lance L.; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Zuroff, David C.; Blatt, Sidney J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the longitudinal relationship of patient-rated perfectionism, clinician-rated depression, and observer-rated therapeutic alliance using the latent difference score (LDS) analytic framework. Outpatients involved in the Treatment for Depression Collaborative Research Program completed measures of perfectionism and depression at…

  10. Cultural differences in interpersonal responses to depressives' nonverbal behaviour.

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    Vanger, P; Summerfield, A B; Rosen, B K; Watson, J P

    1991-01-01

    The Social Impression and Interpersonal Attraction of British depressed patients was rated by British and German subjects on the basis of the patients' video-recorded nonverbal behaviour. Depressives were rated negatively by all subjects. Males in both cultural groups agreed in their ratings of depressives but German females expressed a more negative attitude than British females. This is attributed to cultural differences in sex-appropriate interactive behaviour. The importance of studying the expression of depression and its meaning within a particular cultural context is indicated and the role of cultural differences in interactive behaviour is discussed with respect to intercultural assessment and treatment of depression.

  11. The Sex Difference in Depression across 29 Countries

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    Hopcroft, Rosemary L.; Bradley, Dana Burr

    2007-01-01

    The sex difference in depression is well documented in westernized, developed societies, although there has been little quantitative cross-cultural research on the topic. In this study, we use multilevel logit models to examine sex differences in depression across 29 countries using data from the World Values Survey. We find that in no country are…

  12. Ethnic and Sex Differences in Children's Depressive Symptoms

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    Kistner, Janet A.; David-Ferdon, Corinne F.; Lopez, Cristina M.; Dunkel, Stephanie B.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined ethnic and sex differences in children's depressive symptoms, along with hypothesized mediators of those differences (academic achievement, peer acceptance), in a follow-up of African American (n = 179) and Euro-American (n= 462) children in Grades 3 to 5. African American boys reported more depressive symptoms than African…

  13. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal...... a strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role...... in the bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....

  14. Cultural differences in the development and characteristics of depression.

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    Juhasz, Gabriella; Eszlari, Nora; Pap, Dorottya; Gonda, Xenia

    2012-12-01

    Depression is a highly prevalent mental illness with increasing burden for the patients, their families and society as well. In spite of its increasing importance, we still do not have complete understanding either of the phenomenology or the etiopathological background of depression, and cross-country, cross-ethnic and cross-cultural differences in the prevalence and symptomatic manifestation of depression further obscure this picture. Culturally-related features of depressive illness are gaining more importance in clinical practice with the increasing migration trends worldwide. In spite of the differences replicated in multiple studies, no exhaustive explanations are offered so far. In the present paper we describe the most consistently replicated findings concerning the most important cross-national differences in the rates and characteristics of depression with a short comment on possible background factors.

  15. Can Reporting Heterogeneity Explain Differences in Depressive Symptoms across Europe?

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    Kok, Renske; Avendano, Mauricio; d'Uva, Teresa Bago; Mackenbach, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Depression is one of the leading causes of disability in the developed world. Previous studies have shown varying depression prevalence rates between European countries, and also within countries, between socioeconomic groups. However, it is unclear whether these differences reflect true variations in prevalence or whether they are attributable to…

  16. Can Reporting Heterogeneity Explain Differences in Depressive Symptoms Across Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kok (Renske); M. Avendano (Mauricio); T.M. Bago d'Uva (Teresa); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractDepression is one of the leading causes of disability in the developed world. Previous studies have shown varying depression prevalence rates between European countries, and also within countries, between socioeconomic groups. However, it is unclear whether these differences reflect true

  17. Differences in depressive symptoms between Korean and American outpatients with major depressive disorder.

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    Jeon, Hong Jin; Walker, Rosemary S; Inamori, Aya; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Baer, Lee; Clain, Alisabet; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have revealed that East-Asian populations experience fewer depressive symptoms than American populations do. However, it is unclear whether this difference applies to clinical patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This present study included 1592 Korean and 3744 American outpatients who were 18 years of age or older and met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. criteria for single or recurrent episodes of nonpsychotic MDD, and evaluated their symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form. Korean patients scored significantly lower for guilt and depressed mood items, and higher for hypochondriasis and suicidality items than American patients did, after adjusting for total Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. Conversely, no significant differences were found in quality and function of daily life between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that Korean patients experienced less frequent depressed mood and guilt, including verbal and nonverbal expression of depressed mood [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.23] and feelings of punishment (AOR = 0.036, 95% CI 0.025-0.054) when compared with Americans after adjusting for age and sex. Conversely, Korean patients experienced more frequent suicidality and hypochondriasis, including suicidal ideas or gestures (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.60-2.76) and self-absorption of hypochondriasis (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.70-2.20). In conclusion, decreased expression of depressed mood and guilt may cause underdiagnosis of MDD in Korean patients. Early diagnosis of and intervention for depression and suicide may be delayed because of this specific cross-cultural difference in depression symptoms.

  18. Differences between Depression Episodes of Bipolar Disorder I and II

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    Leman Inanc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1975 Fieve and Dunner made the distinction between hypomania and mania as hypomania does not usually cause social and occupational impair-ment and hospitalization is not needed, moreover patients do not experience psychosis. Bipolar disorder type I is defined by the presence of manic and depressive episodes and differs from Bipolar disorder type II characterized with hipomanic and depressive episodes. Bipolar disorder type I and II do not differ in their depressive episodes. It is still point of contention whether bipolar type II is a variant of bipolar disorder type I or is positioned on the spectrum between bipolar type I and unipolar disorder. Even there are some similarities in characteristics of depressive episodes and outcome features of different bipolar disorder subtypes, there are differences that can be useful in differential diagnosis and treatment. This paper aims to focus on those differences between bipolar disorder type I and II.

  19. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Different people have different symptoms. Some symptoms of depression include: Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” mood Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness ...

  20. Gender differences in depression in an employment setting.

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    Maffeo, P A; Ford, T W; Lavin, P F

    1990-01-01

    This study extends the literature on sex differences in depression to an employment setting, using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI; T and raw scores) and Depression (D) 30 measures. In contrast to previous findings, no gender differences remained on any of the measures after the effects of salary, age, education, and job classification had been taken into account. Findings replicated earlier results showing depressed males to have greater difficulty with concentration and motivation than depressed females. Data suggest that MMPI sex-based T-scores may overcorrect for sex differences in raw scores. Possible explanations for the findings are discussed, including a general improvement in women's well-being associated with changes in social conditions such as employment, or the possibility of a self-selection bias in our sample.

  1. [Different aspects of depression in suicide among the elderly].

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    Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Mangas, Raimunda Matilde do Nascimento

    2013-10-01

    This article analyzes different aspects of depression association with suicide among the elderly based on psychological autopsies. The retrospective method was used to study indeterminate deaths, based on interviews and reports, which analyze psychosocial circumstances related to suicide. The paper reveals the predominance of gender, social class and race - women, middle and upper class, white - and, in an unprecedented manner, contextualizes depression in a poorly studied population in Brazil and in the world with high risk of suicide. The physical and mental health, social circumstances and predominant biographical characteristics of the suicide victim were reconstructed in order to assess the impact of depression on suicide. Depression was presented in almost all cases, in primary or secondary diagnosis, as the symptom associated with other co-morbidities or as a reaction to social stressors, demanding different therapeutic approaches and procedures. The association between depression and multiple co-morbidity accentuates the case prognosis and cumulatively increases the risk of suicide. Depression followed by suicidal tendencies is a risk factor which justifies immediate preventive measures. Increasing assertive ways to diagnose and treat depression in old age is recommended.

  2. Differences between bipolar and unipolar depression on Rorschach testing

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    Kimura H

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hiromi Kimura, Akemi Osaki, Rui Kawashima, Takeshi Inoue, Shin Nakagawa, Katsuji Suzuki, Satoshi Asakura, Teruaki Tanaka, Yuji Kitaichi, Takuya Masui, Nobuki Kitagawa, Yuki Kako, Tomohiro Abekawa, Ichiro Kusumi, Hiroyoshi Yamanaka, Kenzo Denda, Tsukasa KoyamaDepartment of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita-ku, Sapporo, JapanBackground: The bipolar-unipolar distinction in patients with a major depressive episode is the most important issue related to the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders, but remains unresolved. This study was undertaken to compare bipolar and unipolar depression on Rorschach testing using the Comprehensive System with reference to healthy Japanese controls.Methods: Patients with bipolar or unipolar depression who had undergone the Rorschach test for routine clinical purposes were followed up naturalistically for a long period. Based on diagnostic confirmation after long-term follow-up, scores on this test for patients with bipolar and unipolar depression were compared with those published elsewhere for healthy Japanese controls.Results: The bipolar depression group showed significantly higher scores or positive findings in five variables of the Rorschach test, ie, WSum6, DR2 > 0, (CF + C > FC + 2, PureC > 1, and Populars > 7, as assessed using the Comprehensive System, than did the unipolar depression group and healthy controls. These scores did not differ between the unipolar depression and control groups.Conclusion: The results of this study show thought disorder or cognitive slippage and marked laxness in modulating emotion in bipolar depression, indicating the psychopathological characteristics of bipolar disorder.Keywords: bipolar depression, bipolar disorder, Rorschach test, thought disorder, unipolar depression

  3. Depressive episodes with suicide attempts in severe depression: suicides and controls differ only in the later episodes of unipolar depression.

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    Brådvik, Louise; Berglund, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of suicide attempts across the depressive episodes in suicides and controls with a severe depression. A blind record evaluation was performed of 100 suicide victims and matched controls admitted to the Department of Psychiatry between 1956 and 1969 and monitored to 2006. There was a similar number of episodes in suicides and controls and in the early episodes a similar number of suicide attempts in both groups. However, in the later episodes future suicides showed more suicide attempts as compared to controls. This was found for unipolar depression only. This difference was found despite previously shown similar rates of adequate treatment and improvement. In conclusion, more depressive episodes including suicide attempts appeared to be related to suicide.

  4. Exploring female mice interstrain differences relevant for models of depression

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    Daniela de Sá Calçada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Depression is an extremely heterogeneous disorder. Diverse molecular mechanisms have been suggested to underlie its etiology. To understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for this complex disorder, researchers have been using animal models extensively, namely mice from various genetic backgrounds and harboring distinct genetic modifications. The use of numerous mouse models has contributed to enrich our knowledge on depression. However, accumulating data also revealed that the intrinsic characteristics of each mouse strain might influence the experimental outcomes, which may justify some conflicting evidence reported in the literature. To further understand the impact of the genetic background we performed a multimodal comparative study encompassing the most relevant parameters commonly addressed in depression in three of the most widely used mouse strains: Balb/c, C57BL/6 and CD-1. Moreover, female mice were selected for this study taken into account the higher prevalence of depression in woman and the fewer animal studies using this gender. Our results show that Balb/c mice have a more pronounced anxious-like behavior than CD-1 and C57BL/6 mice, whereas C57BL/6 animals present the strongest depressive-like trait. Furthermore, C57BL/6 mice display the highest rate of proliferating cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression levels in the hippocampus, while hippocampal dentate granular neurons of Balb/c mice show smaller dendritic lengths and fewer ramifications. Of notice, the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNos predict 39,5% of the depressive-like behavior index, which suggests a key role of hippocampal iNOS in depression.Overall, this study reveals important interstrain differences in several behavioral dimensions and molecular and cellular parameters that should be considered when preparing and analyzing experiments addressing depression using mouse models. It further contributes to the literature by

  5. Decision making in depression: differences in decisional conflict between healthy and depressed individuals.

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    van Randenborgh, Annette; de Jong-Meyer, Renate; Hüffmeier, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the emergence of decisional conflict in healthy and depressed participants. The two groups of interest were questioned about their experience of decisional conflict and ongoing thoughts and impressions during decision making. As predicted, depressed participants experienced more decisional conflict than healthy participants. Furthermore, the diverse processes hypothesis was supported: In healthy participants, preoccupation with the task was the only predictor of decisional conflict. In depressed participants, decisional conflict was predicted by a combination of depression-related processes (e.g., low self-efficacy, lack of concentration, rumination, etc.). This research reduces the gap between the relevance of the symptom of indecisiveness (e.g., for diagnostic purposes) and the lack of knowledge in this realm of psychopathology.

  6. Gender Differences among Patients with a Single Depressive Episode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2010-01-01

    , personality traits and disorders, stressful life events, family history, and treatment response. RESULTS: Female patients showed a higher level of neuroticism and more residual anxiety symptoms after treatment of the depression. There were no gender differences in severity of depression, psychiatric co...... in sociodemographic, clinical and treatment variables among patients suffering exclusively from single-episode depression. METHOD: Systematic recruitment of 301 participants via the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and assessment by means of questionnaires and interviews regarding psychiatric diagnoses......-morbidity (including personality disorders), stressful life events prior to onset, family loading of psychiatric disorders, or treatment outcome. CONCLUSION: The results provide evidence for a higher level of anxiety and neuroticism among females with a recent onset of depression, whereas other clinical...

  7. Gender differences in depression - a matter of measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielen, Karsten; Nygaard, Else; Diderichsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    Background Gender differences in the prevalence of major depression are found in many studies in the western world with a much higher prevalence for women compared to men. A Danish survey from 2004 found no significant difference for major depression in the Danish population. The nature...... for point-prevalence and period-prevalence for both men and women with descriptive statistical methods. Results (preliminary) The point-prevalence of major depression, measured by ‘Major Depression Inventory’ is 2.8% for men and women. We find a period-prevalence (1998–2002) for in- and out-patient contact...... with diagnosis ‘Major depression’ of 0.3% (CI: 0.2–0.5) for men and 0.8% (CI: 0.5–10.9) for women. For prescribed anti-depressive drugs, we find a period-prevalence of 7.7% (CI: 6.8–8.7) for men and 12.2% (CI: 11.3–13.4). Conclusions (preliminary) Point prevalence of major depression in a Danish population...

  8. Familiality of major depressive disorder and gender differences in comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, M.; Meij, A. van der; Franke, B.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Graaf, R. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Janzing, J.G.E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Gender differences exist in the prevalence and psychiatric comorbidity of major depressive disorder (MDD). This study investigates whether familiality of MDD contributes to observed gender differences in comorbidity. Method: Familial (f-MDD) and non-familial (nf-MDD) MDD cases from a popu

  9. Depressants

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    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Depressants KidsHealth > For Teens > Depressants A A A What's ... How Can Someone Quit? Avoiding Depressants What Are Depressants? Depressants are drugs that calm nerves and relax ...

  10. Does bereavement-related first episode depression differ from other kinds of first depressions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    (4.7%) had experienced death of a first degree relative (parent, sibling, child) or a near friend, 163 patients (54.2%) had experienced other moderate to severe stressful life events and 112 patients had not experienced stressful life events in a 6 months period prior to the onset of depression....... Patients who had experienced bereavement did not differ from patients with other stressful life events or from patients without stressful life events in socio-demographic variables or in the phenomenology of the depression, psychiatric comorbidity, family history or response to antidepressant treatment...

  11. Differences between early and late onset adult depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann Bukh, Jens; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2011-01-01

    episode depression were systematically recruited. Characteristics including psychiatric co-morbidity, personality disorders and traits, stressful life events prior to onset, family history, and treatment outcome were assessed by structured interviews and compared by chi-square tests for categorical data...... prevalence of co-morbid personality disorders, higher levels of neuroticism, and a lower prevalence of stressful life events preceding onset compared to patients with later age-of-onset. There were no differences in severity of the depressive episode, treatment outcome or family loading of psychiatric......, t-tests for continuous parametric data and Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous nonparametric data. Logistic and multiple regression analyses were used to adjust the analyses for potentially confounding variables. Results: Patients with early onset of depression were characterised by a higher...

  12. Gender differences in cardiovascular disease and comorbid depression.

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    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria

    2007-01-01

    Although gender is increasingly perceived as a key determinant in health and illness, systematic gender studies in medicine are still lacking. For a long time, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a “male” disease, due to men's higher absolute risk compared with women, but the relative risk in women of CVD morbidity and mortality is actually higher: Current knowledge points to important gender differences in age of onset, symptom presentation, management, and outcome, as well as traditional and psychosocial risk factors. Compared with men, CVD risk in women is increased to a greater extent by some traditional factors (eg, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity,) and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors also seem to have a higher impact on CVD in women. With respect la differences in CVD management, a gender bias in favor of men has to be taken into account, in spite of greater age and higher comorbidity in women, possibly contributing to a poorer outcome. Depression has been shown to be an independent risk factor and consequence of CVD; however, concerning gender differences, The results have been inconsistent. Current evidence suggests that depression causes a greater increase in CVD incidence in women, and that female CVD patients experience higher levels of depression than men. Gensier aspects should be more intensively considered, both in further research on gender differences in comorbid depresion, and in cardiac treatment and rehabilitation, with the goal of making secondary prevention more effective. PMID:17506227

  13. Sex differences in the chronic mild stress model of depression.

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    Franceschelli, Anthony; Herchick, Samantha; Thelen, Connor; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta; Pitychoutis, Pothitos M

    2014-09-01

    A large volume of clinical and experimental evidence documents sex differences in brain anatomy, chemistry, and function, as well as in stress and drug responses. The chronic mild stress model (CMS) is one of the most extensively investigated animal models of chronic stress. However, only a limited number of studies have been conducted in female rodents despite the markedly higher prevalence of major depression among women. Herein, we review CMS studies conducted in rats and mice of both sexes and further discuss intriguing sex-dependent behavioral and neurobiological findings. The PubMed literature search engine was used to find and collect all relevant articles analyzed in this review. Specifically, a multitermed search was performed with 'chronic mild stress', 'chronic unpredictable stress' and 'chronic variable stress' as base terms and 'sex', 'gender', 'females' and 'depression' as secondary terms in various combinations. Male and female rodents appear to be differentially affected by CMS application, depending on the behavioral, physiological, and neurobiological indices that are being measured. Importantly, the CMS paradigm, despite its limitations, has been successfully used to assess a constellation of interdisciplinary research questions in the sex differences field and has served as a 'silver bullet' in assessing the role of sex in the neurobiology of major depression.

  14. Correlates of Depression in the Elderly: Sex Differences and Similarities.

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    Hale, W. Daniel

    The most common psychological disorder found in the elderly is depression. To investigate the relationship between numerous age-related stresses and depression in older adults, 68 residents of a retirement center completed a questionnaire assessing depression and a wide range of possible losses or stresses. Depression was related to poorer…

  15. Differences between Depressed and Non-Depressed Residents of Nursing Homes on Measures of Daily Activity Involvement and Affect.

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    Voelkl, Judith E.; Mathieu, Mary A.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined how depressed and nondepressed nursing home residents differed on measures of frequency of daily activity involvement and accompanying affect. Interviews indicated the groups differed significantly on frequency of activity involvement and affect. Depressed subjects spent large portions of time watching television. Nondepressed…

  16. Social determinants of adolescent depression: an examination of racial differences.

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    Respress, Brandon N; Morris, Diana L; Gary, Faye A; Lewin, Linda C; Francis, Shelley A

    2013-07-01

    Conventional behavior theories that assert adolescent risk behaviors are determined by peer and parental relationships are being challenged as research begins to consider broader socioenvironmental factors. This study, using data from the Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (Add Health), Wave II, Public Use Data, and the Social Determinants of Adolescent Risk Behaviors (SDOARB) framework, examines relationships among socioeconomic status (SES), academic performance, perceived peer prejudice, and perceived teacher discrimination as predictors of depressive symptoms among high school adolescents. Overall, the study found that GPA was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms across all three racial groups (Black, White, and Other Minority). Teacher discrimination predicted depressive symptoms among White and Other minority adolescents, but not Black adolescents. These findings suggest the need for interventions within schools for both students and teachers around racial differences in perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. Failure to address overt and covert subtleties of discrimination and prejudice within schools and policies which affect these interpersonal dynamics may have a significant impact on the overall mental wellbeing of adolescents.

  17. A longitudinal study of differences in late and early onset geriatric depression: Depressive symptoms and psychosocial, cognitive, and neurological functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Corsentino, Elizabeth; Moxley, Jerad; Hames, Jennifer L.; Collins, Nicole; Sawyer, Kathryn; Selby, Edward A.; Joiner, Thomas; Zarit, Steven; Gotlib, Ian H.; Steffens, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Studies suggest early onset depression (EOD) is associated with a more severe course of the depressive disorder, while late onset depression (LOD) is associated with more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. This study examined if older adults with EOD, compared with those with LOD, would exhibit more severe symptoms of depression and, consistent with the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, have more hippocampal volume loss. A second goal was to determine if LOD, compared with EOD, would demonstrate more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. Method At regular intervals over a four year period non-demented, older, depressed adults were assessed on the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). They were also assessed on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Results Compared with LOD, EOD had more depressive symptoms, more suicidal thoughts, and less social support. Growth curve analyses indicated that EOD demonstrated higher levels of residual depressive symptoms over time. The LOD group exhibited a greater decrement in cognitive scores. Contrary to the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, participants with EOD lost right hippocampal volume at a slower rate than did participants with LOD. Right cerebrum gray matter was initially smaller among participants with LOD. Conclusions EOD is associated with greater severity of depressive illness. LOD is associated with more severe cognitive and neurological changes. These differences are relevant to understanding cognitive impairment in geriatric depression. PMID:22934752

  18. The contemporary face of gender differences and similarities in depression throughout adolescence: Development and chronicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Rachel H; Petersen, Jennifer L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Hyde, Janet S

    2016-11-15

    We probe the adolescent gender difference in depression, asking two critical questions. First, most longitudinal studies of gender differences in adolescent depression date from the 1980s and 1990s, raising the need for a body of evidence on whether the developmental pattern is similar or different today. Second, despite the importance of chronicity to depression, we do not know whether there is a gender difference in the chronicity burden of the disorder. In a contemporary longitudinal sample of U.S. adolescents, depression symptoms were assessed at ages 11, 13, 15, and 18, and depression diagnoses were assessed at age 20. To capture the chronicity burden of clinical depression, we assessed for every depressive episode in an individual's lifetime and summed the total number of days spent in episode. A gender difference emerged at age 13 for depression symptoms and at ages 13-14 for diagnoses. These findings are similar to those in the 1980s and 1990s despite many social changes that have occurred. However, the magnitude of the gender difference in symptoms at ages 13 and 15 may be larger than those documented previously. Latent growth curve modeling of depression symptoms indicated that girls' symptoms accelerated early in adolescence whereas boys' symptoms accelerated later. Although more girls (24%) than boys (15%) experienced major depression or dysthymia by age 20, the chronicity burden among those with depression showed gender similarities (median=2.6% days depressed for boys and 2.4% for girls). Depression diagnoses were assessed retrospectively; however, symptom data were assessed prospectively, and symptom and diagnostic data converged. The sample was also predominantly White, limiting generalizability. In a contemporary adolescent sample we observed gender differences in depression symptoms and diagnoses beginning at age 13. We documented distinct developmental trajectories of depression for adolescent girls and boys, suggesting different developmental

  19. Gender differences in severity, symptomatology and distribution of melancholia in major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Stage, Kurt Bjerregaard; Kragh-Soerensen, Per

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of gender differences in the clinical presentation of depression have provided divergent results. This study aimed at analyzing gender differences in severity, symptomatology and distribution of melancholia in major depression. SAMPLING AND METHODS: The study comprised 930 in......- and out-patients (652 women, 278 men) from 6 randomized controlled trials. All patients fulfilled DSM-III or DSM-III-R criteria for major depression. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HDS) was applied to all patients. A multi-axial evaluation was completed using the Newcastle 1 Depression Rating...... melancholic depression (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: In a large and broad sample of in- and out-patients with major depression, the severity and symptomatology of depression were similar for men and women. Melancholic depression was significantly more frequent among male than female patients. Inclusion...

  20. Depression: The Differing Narratives of Couples in Couple Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, Eija-Liisa; Aaltonen, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    How does the spouse of a person with depression take part in constructing narratives of depression in couple therapy? In this study we examined couples' ways of co-constructing narratives of depression in couple therapy. Three couple therapy processes were chosen for the study, one spouse in each couple having been referred to an outpatient clinic…

  1. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overview URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003213.htm Depression - overview To use the sharing features on this ... older adults Major depression Persistent depressive disorder Postpartum depression Premenstrual ... Review Date 1/4/2016 Updated by: Timothy Rogge, ...

  2. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...

  3. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    , that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression......The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued...

  4. Differences in depressed oncologic patients' narratives after receiving two different therapeutic interventions for depression: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Vega, Beatriz; Orgaz Barnier, Pablo; Bayón, Carmen; Palao, Angela; Torres, Guadalupe; Hospital, Ana; Benito, Guillermo; Dieguez, Maria; Fernández Liria, Alberto

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to explore differences in personal narratives of the experience of illness and treatment in depressed oncologic patients who received either combined treatment for depression (psychotherapy plus antidepressants) or standard treatment (antidepressants alone). We employed a qualitative research design based on grounded theory. Data were collected from eight videotaped focus groups and semi-structured interviews with a total of 28 participants. The research team reviewed interview transcripts and categorized the participants' responses using the ATLAS.ti (ATLAS.ti Scientific Software Development GmbH Hardenbergstr. 7 D-10623, Berlin) software package. Compared with patients in the standard treatment group, patients in the combined treatment group were better able to relate their experiences of physical and emotional discomfort and find meaning in the experience of illness by viewing cancer as a transformative experience. In addition, patients in the combined treatment group tended to use more active coping strategies based on acceptance of their situation and emphasized that psychotherapy had been helpful. Qualitative analysis is an efficient method of examining the meaning of quantitative results in depth, particularly patients' perspectives on quality of life. Patients undergoing combined treatment consider psychotherapy to be a helpful tool and exhibit more personal growth than do patients undergoing standard treatment. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression among Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Frazier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms and the self reported somatic depressive symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II among patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and explored the impact of gender on both. A convenience sample of 789 adults (248 women and 541 men was recruited for the study during hospital admission for ACS and participants were screened for self-reported depressive symptoms. BDI-II scores of ≥14 indicate a moderate level of depressive symptoms and this cut-off score was used to categorize patients into depressed and non-depressed groups. Pearson chi-square tests for independence (categorical variables and t tests for independent samples (continuous variables were used for gender comparisons. Results showed that depressive symptoms during ACS episodes were different between women and men. Women reported greater overall depressive symptoms (BDI-II mean = 11.89, S.D. = 9.68 than men (BDI-II mean = 9.00, S.D. = 7.93 (P<0.000. Significantly more women (7.66% were identified positive for somatic depressive symptoms (sleep and appetite disturbances and fatigue than men (2.22% (P=0.0003. Findings support that there are gender differences in depressive symptoms experienced by patients hospitalized for ACS. Somatic symptoms of depression may be important indicators of depression especially among female ACS patients.

  6. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... judgment and mental functioning nausea and vomiting memory loss (depressants can cause users to have no memory of events that happened while they were under the influence) Long-Term Effects When people misuse depressants over a long ...

  7. Clinical Manifestation of Depression after Stroke : Is It Different from Depression in Other Patient Populations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Man-Van Ginkel, Janneke M.; Hafsteinsdóttir, Thóra B.; Lindeman, Eline; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite ample research on depression after stroke, the debate continues regarding whether symptoms such as sleep disturbances, loss of energy, changes in appetite and diminished concentration should be considered to be consequences of stroke or general symptoms of depression. By

  8. Different stress-related gene expression in depression and suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J; Qi, X-R; Gao, S-F; Lu, J; van Wamelen, D J; Kamphuis, W; Bao, A-M; Swaab, D F

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Suicide occurs in some, but not all depressed patients. So far, it remains unknown whether the studied stress-related candidate genes change in depression, suicide or both. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in, among other things, impulse control and inhibitory behavior and plays an

  9. [Events of life and links with severe depression at different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourion, D

    2009-12-01

    Major depression is a common, severe, chronic, and often life-threatening illness. There is a growing body of evidence that, far from being a disease with purely psychological manifestations, major depression is a systemic disease with deleterious effects on multiple organ systems. Stressful life events have a substantial causal association with depression, and there is now compelling evidence that even early life stress constitutes a major risk factor for the subsequent development of depression. This review will focus on the association between severity of depression and diachronic vulnerability across the life-span, in terms of events of life, stress, and hormonal modulation, with a special focus on depression in young adults, women during postpartum and in depression in ederly people. Given the high prevalence of depressive disorders, the significant burden and the severity of disease in adolescents and young adults experiencing their first episode, they represent a group at high risk of relapse, recurrence, comorbidity and suicide to whom early intervention and prevention efforts should be targeted. Females exhibit different stress sensitivities than males which might contribute to their increased vulnerability for depression and the disease exhibit a prevalence among women which is 2-3x higher than in men. The postpartum period is considered the time of greatest risk for women to develop major depression and postpartum depression affects approximately 15% of women. In old age, depression mainly affects those with chronic medical illness, severe disability or mental decline. Depression in elderly worsens the outcomes of many medical illness and increases mortality. Environmental factors, such as isolation, caregiving and bereavement, contribute to further increase susceptibility to depression or triggering depression in already vulnerable elderly people. Suitable treatment of depression in elderly reduces the symptoms, prevents suicidal ideation, improves

  10. Disorder-specific volumetric brain difference in adolescent major depressive disorder and bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Frank P; Carrey, Normand; Langevin, Lisa Marie; Jaworska, Natalia; Crawford, Susan

    2014-03-01

    Structural abnormalities in frontal, limbic and subcortical regions have been noted in adults with both major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). In the current study, we examined regional brain morphology in youth with MDD and BD as compared to controls. Regional brain volumes were measured in 32 MDD subjects (15.7 ± 2.1 years), 14 BD subjects (16.0 ± 2.4 years) and 22 healthy controls (16.0 ± 2.8 years) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Regions of interest included the hippocampus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, putamen and thalamus. Volumetric differences between groups were significant (F26,80 = 1.80, p = 0.02). Post-hoc analyses indicated that individuals with MDD showed reduced left hippocampus volumes (p = 0.048) as well as right ACC white and gray matter volumes (p = 0.003; p = 0.01) compared to controls. BD participants also displayed reduced left hippocampal and right/left putamen volumes compared to controls (p < 0.001; p = 0.015; p = 0.046 respectively). Interestingly, right and left ACC white matter volumes were smaller in MDD than in BD participants (p = 0.019; p = 0.045 respectively). No volumetric group differences were observed for the DLPFC and thalamus. Discriminant analysis was able to correctly classify 81.0 % of subjects as having BD or as MDD based on imaging data. Confirmation and extension of our findings requires larger sample sizes. Our findings provide new evidence of distinct, specific regional brain volumetric differences between MDD and BD that may be used to distinguish the two disorders.

  11. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence that depression is000  a common comorbid health issue in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Reviews have also concluded that depression in diabetes is associated with higher HbA1c levels, less optimal self-care behaviours, lower quality of life, incident vascular...... complications and higher mortality rates. However, longitudinal studies into the course of depression in people with type 1 diabetes remain scarce. In this issue of Diabetologia, Kampling and colleagues (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4123-0 ) report the 5 year trajectories of depression in adults with newly diagnosed...... type 1 diabetes (mean age, 28 years). Their baseline results showed that shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes a major depressive episode was diagnosed in approximately 6% of participants, while 8% suffered from an anxiety disorder. The longitudinal depression data showed that, in a 5 year...

  12. Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  13. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jon O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...

  14. Explaining social class differences in depression and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, S A; Head, J; Marmot, M G

    1998-01-01

    Work characteristics, including skill discretion and decision authority, explain most of the socioeconomic status gradient in well-being and depression in middle-aged British civil servants from the Whitehall II Study, London. Social support explained about one-third of the gradient, life events and material difficulties less than one-third. Socioeconomic status was measured by employment grade. Work characteristics were based on the Karasek model, social support was measured by the Close Persons Questionnaire, depression by the General Health Questionnaire and well-being by the Affect Balance Scale. Despite a small contribution from social selective factors measured by upward mobility, the psychosocial work environment explained most of the cross-sectional socioeconomic status gradient in well-being and depression.

  15. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Service Use among Adolescents with Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Janet R.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of treatment for major depression in adolescents. This study examined differences in mental health service use in non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents who experienced an episode of major depression. Method: Five years of data (2004-2008) were pooled…

  16. Age and Gender Differences in Depression across Adolescence: Real or "Bias"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…

  17. Multivariate clustering of progression profiles reveals different depression patterns in prodromal Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-in; Long, Jeffrey D; Mills, James A; McCusker, Elizabeth; Paulsen, Jane S

    2015-11-01

    Although Huntington disease (HD) is caused by an autosomal dominant mutation, its phenotypic presentation differs widely. Variability in clinical phenotypes of HD may reflect the existence of disease subtypes. This hypothesis was tested in prodromal participants from the longitudinal Neurobiological Predictors of Huntington Disease (PREDICT-HD) study. We performed clustering using longitudinal data assessing motor, cognitive, and depression symptoms. Using data from 521 participants with 2,716 data points, we fit growth mixture models (GMM) that identify groups based on multivariate trajectories. In various GMM, different phases of disease progression were partitioned by progression trajectories of motor and cognitive signs, and by overall level of depression symptoms. More progressed motor signs were accompanied by more progressed cognitive signs, but not always by higher levels of depressive symptoms. In several models, there were at least 2 groups with similar trajectories for motor and cognitive signs that showed different levels for depression symptoms-one with a very low level of depression and the other with a higher level of depression. Findings indicate that at least intermediate HD progression might be associated with different levels of depression. Depression is one of the few symptoms that is treatable in HD and has implications for clinical care. Identification of potential depression subtypes may also help to select appropriate patients for clinical trials. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The emergence of gender difference in depressed mood during adolescence: the role of intensified gender socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrøm, L

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of depressive mood was examined in a representative and nationwide sample of approximately 12,000 Norwegian adolescents. From the age of 14, girls scored 0.5 SD above boys in depressed mood, a difference that was stable throughout the adolescent period. At the age of 12, no gender difference was found. The gender difference was due to girls becoming more depressed from 13 to 14 years of age. An extended version of the gender intensification hypothesis (J. P. Hill & M. E. Lynch, 1983) was tested as an explanation for the gender difference in depressed mood. Structural equation modeling and regression analyses showed that the gender difference could be explained, in part, by increased developmental challenges for girls--pubertal development, dissatisfaction with weight and attainment of a mature female body, and increased importance of feminine sex role identification. Depressed mood was not associated with masculinity or school change, as had been predicted.

  19. Abnormal Temporal Difference Reward-Learning Signals in Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Waiter, G.; Ahearn, T.; Milders, M.; Reid, I.; Steele, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Anhedonia is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), long thought to be associated with reduced dopaminergic function. However, most antidepressants do not act directly on the dopamine system and all antidepressants have a delayed full therapeutic effect. Recently, it has been proposed that antidepressants fail to alter dopamine…

  20. Tears in your beer: Gender differences in coping drinking motives, depressive symptoms and drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Dawn W.; Young, Chelsie M.; Steers, Mai-Ly; Quist, Michelle C.; Bryan, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates associations between coping drinking motives (CDM; drinking to regulate negative affect), depressive symptoms, and drinking behavior and extends the literature by also taking into account gender differences. Two hundred forty-three college students (Mean age = 22.93, SD = 6.29, 82% female) participated. Based on previous research, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, particularly among those higher in depressive symptoms, as individuals experiencing higher levels of negative affect (i.e. depressive symptoms) and who drink to cope are likely to drink more and experience more alcohol-related problems. Lastly, based on established gender differences, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, especially among females higher in depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, findings suggested that CDMs were positively related to peak drinking, especially among those lower in depressive symptoms. Results further revealed a significant three-way interaction between CDM, depressive symptoms, and gender when predicting alcohol-related problems and drinking frequency. Specifically, we found that CDM were more strongly associated with problems among women who were lower in depressive symptoms; whereas CDM were more strongly associated with problems among men who were higher in depressive symptoms. These findings offer a more comprehensive depiction of the relationship between depressive symptoms, CDM, and drinking behavior by taking into account the importance of gender differences. These results provide additional support for considering gender when designing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies. PMID:25525419

  1. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caring for children and aging parents, abuse, and poverty may trigger depression in some people. Medical illness – ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women’s Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary ...

  2. Depression, alcohol abuse, and generational differences in Mazahua women in a rural Mexican village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Douglas C

    2004-01-01

    This first study of depression and alcohol abuse in indigenous women in Mexico focuses on Mazahua women in a rural village. Women between the ages of 15 and 55 were interviewed using the Beck Depression Inventory, an Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse survey, and a socioeconomic survey. Unexpected results showed that although alcohol abuse was absent, these women experience depression a generation earlier than the international and national averages for women, with an overall incidence about twice as great. Depression was associated with spouse's emigration, infidelity, or alcoholism. Sharp intergenerational differences were found in identity and socioeconomic status.

  3. Gender Differences in Loneliness and Depression of University Students Seeking Counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Hadas; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Of 325 students who sought counseling services, males were significantly higher in loneliness than females, while females were significantly higher in depression than males. The greater loneliness of male counseling-seekers than that of females is discussed. These gender differences in depression appear to be consistent across cultures. (54…

  4. Depression in Low-Income Elementary School Children in South Korea: Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; McCreary, Linda; Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi; Jun, Won Hee; Yang, Soo

    2013-01-01

    This study examined depression in low-income elementary school children and identified gender differences in factors that influence depression from an ecological perspective. Participants were 262 first- to sixth-grade children recruited from six Korean community centers. Personal factors were anxiety and self-concept. Environmental factors…

  5. The Expression of Depressive Symptomatology in Korean American Undergraduates: Sex and Generational Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Jeanett; Gloria, Alberta M.; Kim, Sara Cho; Park, Yong S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of acculturation and perception of the university environment on the depressive symptomatology of 228 Korean American undergraduates, with a focus on sex and generational differences. Perceptions of the university environment and perceived barriers were positive predictors of depressive symptomatology in…

  6. Depression in Low-Income Elementary School Children in South Korea: Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; McCreary, Linda; Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi; Jun, Won Hee; Yang, Soo

    2013-01-01

    This study examined depression in low-income elementary school children and identified gender differences in factors that influence depression from an ecological perspective. Participants were 262 first- to sixth-grade children recruited from six Korean community centers. Personal factors were anxiety and self-concept. Environmental factors…

  7. Recurrence of major depressive disorder across different treatment settings : Results from the NESDA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardeveld, Florian; Spijker, Jan; De Graaf, Ron; Hendriks, Sanne M.; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.

    Objective: Examine time to recurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) across different treatment settings and assess predictors of time to recurrence of MDD. Methods: Data were from 375 subjects with a MDD diagnosis from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The study sample

  8. Anxiety and Depression Among Patients With Different Types of Vestibular Peripheral Vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Yu, Lisheng; Shi, Dongmei; Ke, Xingxing; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Numerous studies have been published on comorbid anxiety and depression in patients with vertigo. However, very few studies have separately described and analyzed anxiety or depression in patients with different types of vestibular peripheral vertigo. The present study investigated anxiety and depression among patients with 4 different types of peripheral vertigo. A total of 129 patients with 4 types of peripheral vertigo, namely, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, n = 49), migrainous vertigo (MV, n = 37), Menière disease (MD, n = 28), and vestibular neuritis (VN, n = 15), were included in the present study. Otological and neurootological examinations were carefully performed, and self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale were used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the vestibular function: normal and abnormal vestibular function. There was no significant difference in the risk of anxiety/depression between these 2 groups. However, for patients with the 4 different vertigo types, the prevalence of anxiety (MV = 45.9%, MD = 50%) and depression (MV = 27%, MD = 28.6%) was significantly higher in the patients with MV or MD than those with BPPV or VN (P BPPV or VN. This may be due to the different mechanisms involved in these 4 types of vertigo, as well as differences in the prevention and self-control of the patients against the vertigo. PMID:25654382

  9. Anxiety and depression among patients with different types of vestibular peripheral vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Yu, Lisheng; Shi, Dongmei; Ke, Xingxing; Zhang, Hua

    2015-02-01

    Numerous studies have been published on comorbid anxiety and depression in patients with vertigo. However, very few studies have separately described and analyzed anxiety or depression in patients with different types of vestibular peripheral vertigo. The present study investigated anxiety and depression among patients with 4 different types of peripheral vertigo. A total of 129 patients with 4 types of peripheral vertigo, namely, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, n = 49), migrainous vertigo (MV, n = 37), Menière disease (MD, n = 28), and vestibular neuritis (VN, n = 15), were included in the present study. Otological and neurootological examinations were carefully performed, and self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale were used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the vestibular function: normal and abnormal vestibular function. There was no significant difference in the risk of anxiety/depression between these 2 groups. However, for patients with the 4 different vertigo types, the prevalence of anxiety (MV = 45.9%, MD = 50%) and depression (MV = 27%, MD = 28.6%) was significantly higher in the patients with MV or MD than those with BPPV or VN (P vertigo, as well as differences in the prevention and self-control of the patients against the vertigo.

  10. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms in U.S. Chinese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijia Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to explore gender differences in depressive symptoms in U.S. Chinese older adults. Methods: Data were from the PINE study, a population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults aged 60 years and above. The PHQ-9 was used to measure depressive symptoms. Results: Depressive symptoms were more prevalent in U.S. Chinese older women (59.2% than in older men (48.5%. Older women were more likely to present somatic depressive symptoms and to develop moderate to severe depressive symptoms. Older age (r = 0.09, P < 0.001, lower income (r = 0.07, P < 0.01, poorer health status (r = 0.34, P < 0.001, inferior quality of life (r = 0.17, P < 0.001 and worsening health changes over the past year (r = 0.23, P < 0.001 were positively correlated with any depressive symptom in older women. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for developing tailored interventions for depressive symptoms in the subgroup of U.S. Chinese older adults. Further longitudinal studies should be conducted to better understand gender differences in risk factors and outcomes associated with depressive symptoms in U.S. Chinese older adults.

  11. Are Different Coping Styles Mitigating Perceived Stress Associated With Depressive Symptoms Among Pregnant Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Wang, Yuqiong; Kwong, Dennis Ho Keung; Wang, Ying

    2016-04-01

    To test the direct and moderating effects of different coping styles in mitigating perceived stress associated with antenatal depressive symptoms among 755 women. The Perceived Stress Scale, the Trait Coping Styles Questionnaire, and the Edinburgh Depressive Postnatal Scale were used to test different effects in multiple linear regression models. Direct effects of positive and negative coping styles were found. Positive coping styles have moderating effects on perceived stress but negative coping styles do not. Health services should dedicate resources to teach women positive coping styles to decrease their vulnerability to developing antenatal depressive symptoms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Different neural and cognitive response to emotional faces in healthy monozygotic twins at risk of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Glerup, L; Vestbo, C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Negative cognitive bias and aberrant neural processing of emotional faces are trait-marks of depression. Yet it is unclear whether these changes constitute an endophenotype for depression and are also present in healthy individuals with hereditary risk for depression. METHOD: Thirty......-risk controls. These effects occurred in the absence of differences between groups in mood, subjective state or coping. CONCLUSIONS: Different neural response and functional connectivity within fronto-limbic and occipito-parietal regions during emotional face processing and enhanced fear vigilance may be key...

  13. Different gene sets contribute to different symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    van Veen, Tineke; Goeman, Jelle J.; Monajemi, Ramin; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Hartman, Catharina A; Snieder, Harold; Nolte, Ilja M; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    2012-01-01

    Although many genetic association studies have been carried out, it remains unclear which genes contribute to depression. This may be due to heterogeneity of the DSM-IV category of depression. Specific symptom-dimensions provide a more homogenous phenotype. Furthermore, as effects of individual genes are small, analysis of genetic data at the pathway-level provides more power to detect associations and yield valuable biological insight. In 1,398 individuals with a Major Depressive Disorder, t...

  14. Gender differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Joung Hwan; Lee, Yunhwan

    2011-01-01

    With rapid population aging, increasing attention is given to the mental health of older people. This study examined the association between SES and depressive symptoms in older adults. The study population consisted of a representative community sample of 4165 persons aged 65 and older from Wave 1 of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale was used to measure the extent of depressive symptoms. Socioeconomic indicators included education, household income, and net worth. Analyses were conducted by gender, using multiple linear regression analysis, to identify independent effects of socioeconomic variables on depressive symptoms, controlling for demographics and health-related variables. There was an inverse association between higher levels of socioeconomic factors and depressive symptoms in the study population. A clear difference in the association between depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors by gender was observed. In the multivariate analysis, wealth was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in men, whereas education and income was so in women. Gender disparities in depressive symptoms across social gradients suggest the need for gender-sensitive investments in health and social services for the disadvantaged segments of the older population.

  15. Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Robert M; Vanderlip, Erik R; Rado, Jeffrey

    2016-10-04

    This issue provides a clinical overview of depression, focusing on screening, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  16. Sex Differences in Serum Markers of Major Depressive Disorder in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jordan M.; Cooper, Jason D.; Bot, Mariska; Guest, Paul C.; Lamers, Femke; Weickert, Cynthia S.

    2016-01-01

    Women have a consistently higher prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) than men. Hypotheses implicating hypothalamic-pituitary -adrenal, -gonadal, and -thyroid axes, immune response, genetic factors, and neurotransmitters have emerged to explain this difference. However, more evidence for these hypotheses is needed and new explanations must be explored. Here, we investigated sex differences in MDD markers using multiplex immunoassay measurements of 171 serum molecules in individuals enrolled in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NMDD = 231; Ncontrol = 365). We found 28 sex-dependent markers of MDD, as quantified by a significant interaction between sex and log2-transformed analyte concentration in a logistic regression with diagnosis (MDD/control) as the outcome variable (ptrefoil factor 3, cystatin-C, fetuin-A, β2-microglobulin, CD5L, FASLG receptor, and tumor necrosis factor receptor 2. Furthermore, only male MDD could be classified with an accuracy greater than chance using the measured serum analytes (area under the ROC curve = 0.63). These findings may have consequences for the generalization of inflammatory hypotheses of depression to males and females and have important implications for the development of diagnostic biomarker tests for MDD. More studies are needed to validate these results, investigate a broader range of biological pathways, and integrate this data with brain imaging, genetic, and other relevant data. PMID:27232630

  17. Different gene sets contribute to different symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Tineke; Goeman, Jelle J.; Monajemi, Ramin; Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Snieder, Harold; Nolte, Ilja M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    2012-01-01

    Although many genetic association studies have been carried out, it remains unclear which genes contribute to depression. This may be due to heterogeneity of the DSM-IV category of depression. Specific symptom-dimensions provide a more homogenous phenotype. Furthermore, as effects of individual gene

  18. Gender differences among discrimination & stigma experienced by depressive patients in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nashi; Kausar, Rukhsana; Khalid, Adeela; Farooq, Anum

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine Gender Difference in the level of Discrimination and Stigma experienced by people diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that Women diagnosed with Depression are likely to be experiencing more Discrimination and Internalized Stigma in comparison to Men. This is a Cross Sectional Study. Thirty eight patients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder recruited from different Government Sector Hospitals of Lahore; were approached after obtaining informed consent. Discrimination and Stigma were measured through Discrimination and Stigma Scale and Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Inventory respectively. Both Men and Women experience considerably high level of associated Stigma and Discrimination due to their Mental Illness. However, Women in comparison to Men experience significantly greater level of Internalized Stigma especially in domains of Discrimination Experience and Social Withdrawal. The findings of this study highlight the fact that people with Depression can be more benefited with psychological treatment if dealing with Stigma and Discrimination is also addressed in Intervention Plans.

  19. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Factors Associated With Early Postpartum Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Elizabeth A.; Mora, Pablo A.; Horowitz, Carol R.; Leventhal, Howard

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore racial differences in reporting of early postpartum depressive symptoms. To explore whether racial differences in early postpartum experience (such as mother’s health status and social context) might account for racial differences in reported postpartum depressive symptoms. METHODS This was a telephone survey of 655 white, African-American, and Hispanic mothers between 2 and 6 weeks postpartum. Mothers reported on demographic factors, physical symptoms, daily function, infant behaviors, social support, skills in managing infant and household, access, and trust in the medical system. We explored racial differences in report of early postpartum depressive symptoms using bivariate and multivariate statistics. RESULTS African-American and Hispanic women more commonly reported postpartum depressive symptoms (43.9% and 46.8%, respectively) than white women (31.3%, P < .001). Similar factors (physical symptom burden, lack of social support, and lack of self-efficacy) were associated with early postpartum depressive symptoms in white, African-American, and Hispanic mothers. In a comprehensive model including other demographic factors, history of depression, physical symptoms, daily function, infant behavior, social support, skills in managing infant and household, access, and trust, the adjusted odds ratio for reported postpartum depressive symptoms remained elevated for African-American women at 2.16 (95% confidence interval 1.26–3.70) and Hispanic women at 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.19–3.01) as compared with white women. CONCLUSION African-American and Hispanic mothers are at higher risk for reporting early postpartum depressive symptoms as compared with white mothers. Factors associated with these symptoms are similar among African-American, Hispanic, and white mothers. PMID:15932842

  20. Gender differences in the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms in St. Petersburg, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Weihai; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.; Abdala, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Background Gender differences in the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms are inconsistent, and few studies have addressed this issue in Russia. Because this finding may have important implications for interventions to reduce alcohol misuse or alcohol related problems in Russia, we conducted a study to investigate whether the association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms differs by gender at high risk for HIV. Methods We used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale to measure alcohol use and depressive symptoms among 307 patients who attended a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Logistic regression models were applied for the analysis. Results The comparison of data between men and women revealed a significant quadratic term of alcohol use and significant interactions between alcohol use and gender on depressive symptoms. Men with an AUDIT score in the first and fourth quartiles were more likely to report depressive symptoms in comparison to men in the second quartile. Their odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 7.54 (2.00–28.51) and 5.06 (1.31–19.63), respectively. Among women, a linear trend was observed such that those who misused alcohol were three times more likely to have depressive symptoms than those who did not misuse alcohol (OR = 3.03, 95% CI, 1.05–8.80). Conclusion The association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms differed by gender. Additional research is needed to investigate this relationship in Russia. Strategies to reduce alcohol-related problems in Russia may need to consider these differences. PMID:23240098

  1. Depression in the elderly community: I. Prevalence by different diagnostic criteria and clinical profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción de la Cámara

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Depression is one of the most intriguing disorders in the elderly. We conjecture that prevalence of depression in the community vary according to the diagnostic criteria used. Furthermore, we anticipate that important proportions of depression go untreated or inadequately treated in a Southern European city. Metodology: This report is part of the Zaragoza Study (or ZARADEMP 0, an epidemiological project to document psychiatric morbidity in a representative sample of the elderly. A two - phase design was completed in a sample of n= 1080 elderly (65+ years. Standardized instruments were used, and the Geratric Mental State (GMS was the main instrument. Cases of depression were diagnosed with three different sets of diagnostic criteria: AGECAT syndrome, AGECAT diagnosis and DSM - IV criteria. Descriptive statistics were used. Results: In support of the working hypothesis, the prevalence of depression tended to be lower when stringent diagnostic criteria were used. It was 7.0 % with AGECAT syndrome, 5.7% with AGECAT diagnosis among the cases, 4.8% with DSM - IV criteria. Anxiety, co - morbid syndromes were frequent among the cases (45.5% and 18.2% of them had co - morbid AGECAT organic syndromes. Differential psychopathological profiles are observed between cases of major and minor depression. Undertreament or inadequate treatment was very frequent, and only 54.5% of major depression cases were on antidepressants. Conclusions: The prevalence of depression in the elderly varies according to diagnostic criteria used, and does not increase with age. Co-morbid anxiety and "organic" syndromes are common, and only half the major depressive cases were on antidepressants.

  2. A longitudinal study of differences in late- and early-onset geriatric depression: depressive symptoms and psychosocial, cognitive, and neurological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Corsentino, Elizabeth; Moxley, Jerad; Hames, Jennifer L; Rushing, Nicole C; Sawyer, Kathryn; Joiner, Thomas; Selby, Edward A; Zarit, Steven; Gotlib, Ian H; Steffens, David C

    2013-01-01

    Studies suggest early-onset depression (EOD) is associated with a more severe course of the depressive disorder, while late-onset depression (LOD) is associated with more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. This study examined if older adults with EOD, compared with those with LOD, would exhibit more severe symptoms of depression and, consistent with the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, have more hippocampal volume loss. A second goal was to determine if LOD, compared with EOD, would demonstrate more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. At regular intervals over a four-year period non-demented, older, depressed adults were assessed on the Mini-Mental Status Examination and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. They were also assessed on magnetic resonance imaging. Compared with LOD, EOD had more depressive symptoms, more suicidal thoughts, and less social support. Growth curve analyses indicated that EOD demonstrated higher levels of residual depressive symptoms over time. The LOD group exhibited a greater decrement in cognitive scores. Contrary to the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, participants with EOD lost right hippocampal volume at a slower rate than did participants with LOD. Right cerebrum gray matter was initially smaller among participants with LOD. EOD is associated with greater severity of depressive illness. LOD is associated with more severe cognitive and neurological changes. These differences are relevant to understanding cognitive impairment in geriatric depression.

  3. Different gene sets contribute to different symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Tineke; Goeman, Jelle J; Monajemi, Ramin; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Hartman, Catharina A; Snieder, Harold; Nolte, Ilja M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Zitman, Frans G

    2012-07-01

    Although many genetic association studies have been carried out, it remains unclear which genes contribute to depression. This may be due to heterogeneity of the DSM-IV category of depression. Specific symptom-dimensions provide a more homogenous phenotype. Furthermore, as effects of individual genes are small, analysis of genetic data at the pathway-level provides more power to detect associations and yield valuable biological insight. In 1,398 individuals with a Major Depressive Disorder, the symptom dimensions of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression, General Distress, Anhedonic Depression, and Anxious Arousal, were measured with the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (30-item Dutch adaptation; MASQ-D30). Association of these symptom dimensions with candidate gene sets and gene sets from two public pathway databases was tested using the Global test. One pathway was associated with General Distress, and concerned molecules expressed in the endoplasmatic reticulum lumen. Seven pathways were associated with Anhedonic Depression. Important themes were neurodevelopment, neurodegeneration, and cytoskeleton. Furthermore, three gene sets associated with Anxious Arousal regarded development, morphology, and genetic recombination. The individual pathways explained up to 1.7% of the variance. These data demonstrate mechanisms that influence the specific dimensions. Moreover, they show the value of using dimensional phenotypes on one hand and gene sets on the other hand.

  4. Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents: Gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman-Peeters, K.M.C.; Ormel, J.; Van Sonderen, E.L.P.; Den Boer, J.A.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hartman, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In offspring of depressed parents a second parent with emotional problems is likely to increase risk of emotional disorder. This effect may however differ between sons and daughters and between offspring of depressed fathers and offspring of depressed mothers. In adolescent and young-adult offspring

  5. Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents : Gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman-Peeters, K.M.; Ormel, J.; van Sonderen, E.L.; den Boer, J.A.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hartman, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In offspring of depressed parents a second parent with emotional problems is likely to increase risk of emotional disorder. This effect may however differ between sons and daughters and between offspring of depressed fathers and offspring of depressed mothers. In adolescent and young-adult offspring

  6. Differences in the ICD-10 diagnostic subtype of depression in bipolar disorder compared to recurrent depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H.M.; Christensen, E.M.; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2008-01-01

    disorder, current episode of depression, were significantly less often outpatients (49.4 vs. 68.0%), significantly more often got a diagnosis of severe depression (42.7 vs. 23.3%) or a diagnosis of depression with psychotic symptoms (14.9 vs. 7.2%). The rate of subsequent hospitalization was increased...... with psychotic symptoms when it occurs as part of a bipolar disorder than as part of a recurrent depressive disorder. Copyright (C) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel Udgivelsesdato: 2008...... for patients with bipolar disorder, current episode of depression, compared with patients with a current depression as part of a recurrent depressive disorder (HR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.20-1.86). Conclusions: The results consistently indicate that a depressive episode is severer and/or more often associated...

  7. Recognition of depression in people of different cultures: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattsson Bengt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many minority group patients who attend primary health care are depressed. To identify a depressive state when GPs see patients from other cultures than their own can be difficult because of cultural and gender differences in expressions and problems of communication. The aim of this study was to explore and analyse how GPs think and deliberate when seeing and treating patients from foreign countries who display potential depressive features. Methods The data were collected in focus groups and through individual interviews with GPs in northern Sweden and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results In the analysis three themes, based on various categories, emerged; "Realizing the background", "Struggling for clarity" and "Optimizing management". Patients' early life events of importance were often unknown which blurred the accuracy. Reactions to trauma, cultural frictions and conflicts between the new and old gender norms made the diagnostic process difficult. The patient-doctor encounter comprised misconceptions, and social roles in the meetings were sometimes confused. GPs based their judgement mainly on clinical intuition and the established classification of depressive disorders was discussed. Tools for management and adequate action were diffuse. Conclusion Dialogue about patients' illness narratives and social context are crucial. There is a need for tools for multicultural, general practice care in the depressive spectrum. It is also essential to be aware of GPs' own conceptions in order to avoid stereotypes and not to under- or overestimate the occurrence of depressive symptoms

  8. Tissue-specific differences in brain phosphodiesters in late-life major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David G; Jensen, J Eric; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Sivrioglu, Yusuf; Silveri, Marisa; Iosifescu, Dan V; Renshaw, Perry F; Forester, Brent P

    2014-05-01

    Late-life depression has been hypothesized to have a neurodegenerative component that leads to impaired executive function and increases in subcortical white matter hyperintensities. Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can quantify several important phosphorus metabolites in the brain, particularly the anabolic precursors and catabolic metabolites of the constituents of cell membranes, which could be altered by neurodegenerative activity. Ten patients with late-life major depression who were medication free at time of study and 11 aged normal comparison subjects were studied using (31)P MRS three-dimensional chemical shift imaging at 4 Tesla. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine comprise 90% of cell membranes in brain but cannot be quantified precisely with (31)P MRS. We measured phosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine, which are anabolic precursors, as well as glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoethanolamine, which are catabolic metabolites of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. In accordance with our hypotheses, glycerophosphoethanolamine was elevated in white matter of depressed subjects, suggesting enhanced breakdown of cell membranes in these subjects. Glycerophosphocholine did not show any significant difference between comparison and depressed subjects but both showed an enhancement in white matter compared with gray matter. Contrary to our hypotheses, neither phosphocholine nor phosphoethanolamine showed evidence for reduction in late-life depression. These findings support the hypothesis that neurodegenerative processes occur in white matter in patients with late-life depression more than in the normal elderly population. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Differences in Cortisol Response to Trauma Activation in Individuals with and without Comorbid PTSD and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Dekel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although depression symptoms are often experienced by individuals who develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD following trauma exposure, little is know about the biological correlates associated with PTSD and depression co-morbidity vs. those associated with PTSD symptoms alone.Methods: Here we examined salivary cortisol responses to trauma activation in a sample of 60 survivors of the World Trade Center attacks on September 11, 2001. Participants recalled the escape from the attacks 7 months post 9/11. Salivary cortisol levels were measured before and after their recollection of the trauma. PTSD, depression, and somatic symptoms were also assessed. From the behavioral assessment scales, the participants were grouped into three conditions: those with comorbid PTSD and depressive symptoms, PTSD alone symptoms, or no-pathology.Results: Baseline and cortisol response levels differed between the comorbid, PTSD alone, and no-pathology groups. Individuals endorsing co-morbid symptoms had higher PTSD and somatic symptom severity and their cortisol response decreased following their trauma reminder while a trend of an elevated response to the trauma was found in the PTSD alone group. Our findings show distinct psychological and biological correlates related to the endorsement of PTSD with and without depression comorbidity.Conclusions: The findings suggest that comorbidity symptoms manifestation entails a separate trauma induced condition from PTSD. Future research on biological correlates of comorbid PTSD and depression is warranted.

  10. Gender differences in somatic symptoms, quality of life, and functional impairment in depressive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sreevani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Investigate gender related differences in somatic symptoms, severity of depression, quality of life (QOL, and functional impairment, and correlate somatic symptoms with QOL and functional impairment. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 100 consecutive outpatients seeking treatment for depressive disorder at district hospital psychiatric outpatient clinic, Kolar, Karnataka, India. This study utilised the Beck Depression Inventory II, Physical Distress Scale, Work and Social Adjustment Scale, and World Health Organization QOL BREF instrument. Results: Mean constipation scores and back pain scores were higher in women compared to men. There were no statistically significant differences between male and female patients with regard to depression scores, total somatic symptom scores, QOL, and functional impairment scores. Somatic symptoms scores are positively correlated with depression scores and functional impairment scores, and negatively correlated with QOL scores. Conclusion: Women had higher constipation and back pain scores compared to men. If the symptoms of same disease differ between men and women, this has important implications for the history collection, diagnosis, and treatment process.

  11. Mental Health Literacy of Depression: Gender Differences and Attitudinal Antecedents in a Representative British Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Background Poor mental health literacy and negative attitudes toward individuals with mental health disorders may impede optimal help-seeking for symptoms of mental ill-health. The present study examined the ability to recognize cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender, as well as individual psychological differences in attitudes toward persons with depression. Methods In a representative British general population survey, the ability to correctly recognize vignettes of depression was assessed among 1,218 adults. Respondents also rated the vignettes along a number of attitudinal dimensions and completed measures of attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. Results There were significant differences in the ability to correctly identify cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender. Respondents were more likely to indicate that a male vignette did not suffer from a mental health disorder compared to a female vignette, and women were more likely than men to indicate that the male vignette suffered from a mental health disorder. Attitudes toward persons with depression were associated with attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. Conclusion Initiatives that consider the impact of gender stereotypes as well as individual differences may enhance mental health literacy, which in turn is associated with improved help-seeking behaviors for symptoms of mental ill-health. PMID:23166769

  12. Mental health literacy of depression: gender differences and attitudinal antecedents in a representative British sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Swami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poor mental health literacy and negative attitudes toward individuals with mental health disorders may impede optimal help-seeking for symptoms of mental ill-health. The present study examined the ability to recognize cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender, as well as individual psychological differences in attitudes toward persons with depression. METHODS: In a representative British general population survey, the ability to correctly recognize vignettes of depression was assessed among 1,218 adults. Respondents also rated the vignettes along a number of attitudinal dimensions and completed measures of attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the ability to correctly identify cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender. Respondents were more likely to indicate that a male vignette did not suffer from a mental health disorder compared to a female vignette, and women were more likely than men to indicate that the male vignette suffered from a mental health disorder. Attitudes toward persons with depression were associated with attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. CONCLUSION: Initiatives that consider the impact of gender stereotypes as well as individual differences may enhance mental health literacy, which in turn is associated with improved help-seeking behaviors for symptoms of mental ill-health.

  13. [Indicators of anxiety and depression in subjects with different kinds of diet: vegetarians and omnivores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Jiménez, J; Rodríguez, J R; Gonzaléz, M J

    1998-01-01

    The following study, one of the first done in Puerto Rico, investigate the different kinds of diet and the level of anxiety and depression that the subjects present. The sample consists of 80 subjects between 25 and 70 years age divided into two main groups (vegetarian versus no vegetarian) depending their diet consumption. The basic findings in the three psychological tests given (IDARE-1, IDARE-2 and CES-D) to the subjects demonstrate significant differences in anxiety and depression between groups. More anxiety and depression where reported in the no vegetarian groups in comparison with the vegetarian groups. In addition, diet analysis found more nutritional antioxidant agents levels in the vegetarian group in comparison with the no-vegetarian group.

  14. Early Maladaptive Schemas Related to Unipolar and Bipolar Depression: Similarities and Differences

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    Nergis LAPSEKİLİ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective and methodology: Cognitive theory of depression has begun to examine the difference between bipolar and unipolar depression in the context of thinking features. Yet, little is known about the same and seperated points of bipolar and unipolar depression. The objective is evaluating relationship between cognitive schemas of bipolar and unipolar patients. Bipolar and unipolar depression patients and a control group were enrolled in the study. Beck Depression Inventory, Young Mania Scale and Young Schema Questionnaire were administered to the groups. Results: There was significant difference between unipolar and control groups in “Abandonment/instability”. In “mistrust/ abuse” significant difference was between unipolar and bipolar and between unipolar and control groups. ln “entitlement/self-centeredness” difference was between unipolar and control groups. In all other schemas, difference was between unipolar and control and bipolar and control groups. In these schemas, control group had significantly lower scores than others. Unipolar and bipolar groups were similar. Conclusion: In patient groups, schemas like defectiveness, incompetence, failure, vulnerability to danger and undeveloped self were indicative of low self-perception. This case draws attention to distortions in self-perception. When the absence of difference between bipolar and controls in “mistrust/abuse” and “abandonment/instability” schemas is evaluated in terms of cognitive triad, it is suggested that environmental perspective in this group of patients did not exhibit pessimistic features. The only significantly different schema between unipolar and bipolar groups was “mistrust/ abuse”. This suggests that bipolar group didn’t have negative thoughts like unipolar patients about the perception of the enviroment.

  15. Age-related differences in suicidality between young people and older adults with depression: data from a nationwide depression cohort study in Korea (the CRESCEND study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ho-Jun; Song, Hoo Rim; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn

    2015-01-01

    This study compared young people and older adults with depression to identify differences in suicidality between these groups. A total of 1003 patients with moderate to severe depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS] score ≥14) were recruited from a national sample of 18 hospitals. Of the patients included in this study, 103 (10.3%) were placed in the younger group (age older group (age ≥25years). Suicide-related variables and predictive factors associated with significant suicidal ideation were compared between the two groups. Regardless of the severity of depression, subjects in the younger group were more likely than were those in the older group to report significant suicidal ideation (scores ≥6 on the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation [SSI-B], 79.6 vs. 53.7%, respectively; polder group, subjects in the younger group were more affected by their history of suicide attempts (OR [95% CI]: 12.4, [1.5-99.1]; p=0.018) and depressive episodes (OR [95% CI]: 13.0, [1.6-104.0]; p=0.016). Also in contrast to the older group, an increase in HDRS score was not identified as a possible precipitating factor of significant suicidal ideation in younger subjects. The present findings demonstrate that suicidality in depressed young people was more severe than in older adults, but that suicidality was not correlated with the severity of depression. These data suggest that close attention should be paid to young people even in mild or moderate depression.

  16. Is there a biological difference between trauma-related depression and PTSD? DST says 'NO'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Danka; Knezevic, Goran; Damjanovic, Svetozar; Spiric, Zeljko; Matic, Gordana

    2012-09-01

    The use of the low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST) as a potentially discriminative marker between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression is still under discussion. In order to compare the influence of these psychopathologies on the DST results, we examined suppression in war-traumatized subjects with one or both of these disorders, as well as in healthy controls. Based on our previous findings, we hypothesized that subjects with any disorder would exhibit higher dexamethasone suppression than healthy controls due to traumatic experiences. This study was a part of a broader project in which simultaneous psychological and biological investigations were carried out in hospital conditions on 399 male participants: 57 with PTSD, 28 with depression, 76 with PTSD+depression, and 238 healthy controls. Cortisol was measured in blood samples taken at 0900 h before and after administering 0.5mg of dexamethasone (at 2300 h). Group means ± standard deviation of cortisol suppression were: 79.4±18.5 in the PTSD group, 80.8±11.6 in the depression group, 77.5±24.6 in the group with PTSD+depression, and 66.8±34.6 in healthy controls. The first three groups suppressed significantly more than the fourth. When the number of traumas was introduced as a covariate, the differences disappeared. The hypothesis was confirmed: in respect to DST, the examined trauma-related psychopathologies showed the same pattern: hypersuppression, due to multiple traumatic experiences.

  17. Nature of individual difference in liability to depression in Russian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey B. Malykh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Influence of genetic and environmental factors on liability to depression inRussian teenage sample was investigated. 196 twin pairs aged 13 to 17 (M=15,2from Moscow, Izhevsk and Bishkek took part in the survey. We have found out thatgenetic factors had an effect on individual difference in depressiveness amongRussian teenagers: more than 50% of variance was explained by additive geneticfactors which correspond to international results. The biggest genetic influencewas obtained for such scales as negative emotions, negative self esteem and externalizationwhich are the most replicable factor scales in CDI structure worldwide.

  18. Depression and College Stress among University Undergraduates: Do Mattering and Self-Esteem Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Sarah K.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson

    2008-01-01

    Depression and college stress, major concerns among undergraduates, are potentially related to self-esteem and mattering. This study investigated the interrelationships among these four variables. Participants included college students (199 males and 256 females) between the ages of 18 and 23. Significant sex differences were found with women…

  19. Depression and College Stress among University Undergraduates: Do Mattering and Self-Esteem Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Sarah K.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson

    2008-01-01

    Depression and college stress, major concerns among undergraduates, are potentially related to self-esteem and mattering. This study investigated the interrelationships among these four variables. Participants included college students (199 males and 256 females) between the ages of 18 and 23. Significant sex differences were found with women…

  20. A biological perspective on differences and similarities between burnout and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Ariane; Federspiel, Andrea; Haisch, Sarie; Seeher, Christian; Dierks, Thomas; Cattapan, Katja

    2017-02-01

    To compare and contrast burnout and depression is not only a conceptual issue, but may deliver important directions for treatment approaches and stabilize the awareness of disease which is essential for affected individuals. Because of the symptomatic overlap, it is a subject of multidimensional research and discussion to find specific signatures to differentiate between the two phenomena or to present evidence that they are different aspects of the same disorder. Both pathologies are regarded as stress-related disorders. Therefore, in this review burnout and depression are discussed on the basis of biological parameters, mainly heart rate variability (HRV) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which are crucial to the stress response system. It emerges that instead of finding one specific discriminating marker, future research should rather concentrate on elaborating indices for burnout and depression which integrate combinations of parameters found in genetics, neurobiology, physiology and environment.

  1. Ethnic and gender differences in the association between discrimination and depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho; Noh, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    This study examines ethnic and gender differences in exposure to discrimination and its association with depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 900 adult immigrants (50.8% men, 49.2% women) sampled from five ethnic immigrant communities in Toronto between April and September 2001. Men reported higher levels of discrimination than women. Ethiopians had the highest perception of discrimination followed by Korean, Iranian, Vietnamese, and Irish immigrants. With regard to discrimination-related depressive symptoms, Iranian and Korean men showed a greater risk than their Irish counterparts. Among women, Vietnamese and Irish seemed to be more vulnerable to discrimination than other ethnic groups. Despite experiencing the highest level of discrimination, Ethiopian men and women showed no association between discrimination and depressive symptoms. The exposure and psychological response to discrimination vary significantly across ethnicities and gender.

  2. [Comparison of anxiety and depression state among patients with different type of vestibular peripheral vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Shi, Dongmei; Yu, Lisheng; Ke, Xingxing; Zhang, Hua

    2014-04-01

    To investigate and analyze the status of anxiety and depression among patients with four types of peripheral vertigo. The clinical data of patients with one of the four types of peripheral vertigo, namely benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), vestibular migraine (VM), Menière's disease (MD), and vestibular neuritis (VN), were collected. Thorough otological and neuro-otological examinations were performed on these patients, and their status of anxiety and depression were assessed using self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS). A total of 129 patients with one of the four types of peripheral vertigo(49 cases of BPPV, 37 cases of VM, 28 cases of MD and 15 cases of VN) were included in the study. The scores of SAS and SDS were higher in the patients with VM or MD than those with BPPV or VN (P vertigo, anxiety/depression is more common in patients with VM or MD. This may be due to the different mechanisms involved in different types of vertigo, as well as differences in the prevention and self-control of the patients against the vertigo.

  3. Being mum's confidant, a boon or bane? Examining gender differences in the association of maternal disclosure with adolescents' depressive feelings

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal study investigating gender differences in the association between maternal disclosure and adolescents’ depressive symptoms. Little research has examined the relationship of parental disclosure to adolescents’ depressive symptoms and research on sex differences is particularly lacking. In a sample of 428 families with a mean age of 13.36 (52% female) of the target adolescents, maternal and children’s disclosure and depressive symptoms were assessed twice ...

  4. The Validity of the Different Versions of the Hamilton Depression Scale in Separating Remission Rates of Placebo and Antidepressants in Clinical Trials of Major Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyle, Phillip Raphael; Lemming, Ole; Timmerby, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Our objectivewas to validate the different versions of the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) both psychometrically (scalability) and clinically in discriminating antidepressants from placebo in terms of remission rates in an 8-week clinical trial in the acute treatment of major depression...... in the longer HAM-D versions indicated smaller discriminating validity over placebo. The HAM-D6 indicated a dose effect on remission for vortioxetine in both moderate and severe major depression. The brief HAM-D6 was thus found superior to HAM-D17, HAM-D21, and HAM-D24 both in terms of scalability...

  5. Differential co-expression and regulation analyses reveal different mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder and subsyndromal symptomatic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Yang, Jing; Chen, Jin; Wu, Qingyuan; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Jianguo; Shao, Weihua; Mu, Jun; Yang, Deyu; Yang, Yongtao; Li, Zhiwei; Xie, Peng

    2015-04-03

    Recent depression research has revealed a growing awareness of how to best classify depression into depressive subtypes. Appropriately subtyping depression can lead to identification of subtypes that are more responsive to current pharmacological treatment and aid in separating out depressed patients in which current antidepressants are not particularly effective. Differential co-expression analysis (DCEA) and differential regulation analysis (DRA) were applied to compare the transcriptomic profiles of peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with two depressive subtypes: major depressive disorder (MDD) and subsyndromal symptomatic depression (SSD). Six differentially regulated genes (DRGs) (FOSL1, SRF, JUN, TFAP4, SOX9, and HLF) and 16 transcription factor-to-target differentially co-expressed gene links or pairs (TF2target DCLs) appear to be the key differential factors in MDD; in contrast, one DRG (PATZ1) and eight TF2target DCLs appear to be the key differential factors in SSD. There was no overlap between the MDD target genes and SSD target genes. Venlafaxine (Efexor™, Effexor™) appears to have a significant effect on the gene expression profile of MDD patients but no significant effect on the gene expression profile of SSD patients. DCEA and DRA revealed no apparent similarities between the differential regulatory processes underlying MDD and SSD. This bioinformatic analysis may provide novel insights that can support future antidepressant R&D efforts.

  6. The Therapeutic role of Magnesium in different depressive syndromes of the male population comprising of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *N. Bano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic and fundamental role of Mg as being the second most abundant intercellular cation is established in various studies. It is identified as a divalent metal cofactor in over 300 enzymatic reactions involving energy metabolism and protein and nucleic acid synthesis. The biological function is identified in neuromuscular excitability. Mg ion regulates calcium ion flow in neuronal channels, helping to regulate neuronal Nitric Oxide production1. Mg deficiency causes NMDA coupled Calcium channels to be biased towards opening, causing neuronal injury & neurological dysfunction, which may appear to humans as major depression. The present study confirms a reduction in the symptoms of depression found in the male population comprising of different age group by Mg treatment. CSF Mg has been found low in treatment resistant suicidal depression. Brain Mg is also low in TRD using phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance Spectroscopy2. A 2009 randomized clinical trial shows that Mg therapy was an effective as TCAs in depressed diabetics. Increase in brain Mg enhances both short term synaptic facilitation and long term potentiation and improves learning and memory function3 The present study is based on findings that male subjects diagnosed as depressed showed a marked reduction in behavioral and somatic features of the disease after administration of Magnesium supplement. Physiological and somatic anxiety was also alleviated in a certain age group which displayed recovery from Insomnia and agitation. Suicidal tendency was also negative in all age groups. This study focuses on the behavioral and somatic responses pertaining to brain biochemical changes induced by Magnesium therapy.

  7. Different regimens of intravenous sedatives or hypnotics for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in adult patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihua, Peng; Su, Min; Ke, Wei; Ziemann-Gimmel, Patrick

    2014-04-11

    Depression is a common mental disorder. It affects millions of people worldwide and is considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be one of the leading causes of disability. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a well-established treatment for severe depression. Intravenous anaesthetic medication is used to minimize subjective unpleasantness and adverse side effects of the induced tonic-clonic seizure. The influence of different anaesthetic medications on the successful reduction of depressive symptoms and adverse effects is unclear. This review evaluated the effects of different regimens of intravenous sedatives and hypnotics on anti-depression efficacy, recovery and seizure duration in depressed adults undergoing ECT. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2012, Issue 12); MEDLINE via Ovid SP (from 1966 to 31 December 2012); and EMBASE via Ovid SP (from 1966 to 31 December 2012). We handsearched related journals and applied no language restrictions. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cross-over trials evaluating the effects of different intravenous sedatives and hypnotics for ECT. We excluded studies and trials using placebo or inhalational anaesthetics and studies that used no anaesthetic. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. When possible, data were pooled and risk ratios (RRs) and mean differences (MDs), each with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were computed using the Cochrane Review Manager statistical package (RevMan). We included in the review 18 RCTs (599 participants; published between 1994 and 2012). Most of the included trials were at high risk of bias.We analysed the results of studies comparing six different intravenous anaesthetics.Only a few studies comparing propofol with methohexital (four studies) and with thiopental (three studies) could be pooled.No difference was noted in the reduction of depression scores observed in participants treated with

  8. Differences in prescribing patterns for anxiety and depression between General Internal Medicine and Family Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieler, Jay A; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Salas, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    Depression and anxiety are routinely managed by physicians in Family Medicine (FM) or General Internal Medicine (GIM). Because FM requires more behavioral health training than GIM, we sought to determine if prescribing patterns for patients with anxiety, depression, or both differed between FM vs. GIM providers. In a cross-sectional design, patient data and provider type were obtained from 2008 to 2013 electronic medical record patient data registry (n=27,225 (FM=10,994, GIM=16,231)) Prescription orders were modeled for specific benzodiazepines and antidepressants and by drug class. Covariates included gender, age, race, marital status and comorbidity index. Separate logistic regression models were computed, before and after adjusting for covariates, to estimate the odds of FM vs. GIM providers prescribing benzodiazepine or antidepressant medication to patients with anxiety, depression, and both disorders. After adjusting for covariates, patients with anxiety alone, depression alone, and both had significantly greater odds of receiving an antidepressant (OR=2.08;95%CI:1.46-2.96, OR=2.13;95%CI:1.48-3.06, and OR=2.26;95%CI:1.09-4.66, respectively) if treated by FM vs. GIM. Benzodiazepine prescription did not differ by physician type. It is not known if results will generalize to other regions of the United States. Patients with anxiety, depression, and both seen by FM providers, as compared to GIM providers, are more likely to receive antidepressant medications. Further investigation into the determinants of these differences is warranted. Under-treatment in GIM may result in less advantageous outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biological differences between melancholic and nonmelancholic depression subtyped by the CORE measure

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    Spanemberg L

    2014-08-01

    nonmelancholic subset and controls and returned higher IL-6 levels than controls. Both depressive groups generated higher PCC scores than controls, with no difference between melancholic and nonmelancholic subsets. Conclusion: A sign-based measure to rate melancholia was able to replicate and extend biological findings discriminating melancholic depression. Signs of psychomotor disturbance may be a useful diagnostic measure of melancholia. Keywords: melancholic depression, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor

  10. Differences at brain SPECT between depressed females with and without adult ADHD and healthy controls: etiological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsson Hans

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbidity between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and mood disorders is common. Alterations of the cerebellum and frontal regions have been reported in neuro-imaging studies of ADHD and major depression. Methods Thirty chronically depressed adult females of whom 16 had scores below, and 14 scores above, cut-offs on the 25-items Wender Utah Retrospective Scale (WURS-25 and the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS were divided into subgroups designated "Depression" and "Depression + ADHD", respectively. Twenty-one of the patients had some audiological symptom, tinnitus and/or hearing impairment. The patients were investigated with other rating scales and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT. Controls for 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were 16 healthy females. SPECT was analyzed by both statistical parametric mapping (SPM2 and the computerized brain atlas (CBA. Discriminant analysis was performed on the volumes of interest generated by the CBA, and on the scores from rating scales with the highest group differences. Results The mean score of a depression rating scale (MADRS-S was significantly lower in the "Depression" subgroup compared to in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup. There was significantly decreased tracer uptake within the bilateral cerebellum at both SPM and CBA in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup compared to in the controls. No decrease of cerebellar tracer uptake was observed in "Depression". Significantly increased tracer uptake was found at SPM within some bilateral frontal regions (Brodmann areas 8, 9, 10, 32 in the "Depression + ADHD" subgroup compared to in "Depression". An accuracy of 100% was obtained for the discrimination between the patient groups when thalamic uptake was used in the analysis along with scores from Socialization and Impulsivity scales. Conclusion The findings confirm the previous observation of a cerebellar involvement in ADHD. Higher bilateral frontal 99mTc-HMPAO uptake in

  11. More Similar than Different? Exploring Cultural Models of Depression among Latino Immigrants in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah (Dina Martinez Tyson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Surgeon General's report, “Culture, Race, and Ethnicity: A Supplement to Mental Health,” points to the need for subgroup specific mental health research that explores the cultural variation and heterogeneity of the Latino population. Guided by cognitive anthropological theories of culture, we utilized ethnographic interviewing techniques to explore cultural models of depression among foreign-born Mexican (n=30, Cuban (n=30, Columbian (n=30, and island-born Puerto Ricans (n=30, who represent the largest Latino groups in Florida. Results indicate that Colombian, Cuban, Mexican, and Puerto Rican immigrants showed strong intragroup consensus in their models of depression causality, symptoms, and treatment. We found more agreement than disagreement among all four groups regarding core descriptions of depression, which was largely unexpected but can potentially be explained by their common immigrant experiences. Findings expand our understanding about Latino subgroup similarities and differences in their conceptualization of depression and can be used to inform the adaptation of culturally relevant interventions in order to better serve Latino immigrant communities.

  12. The different sources of variation in inbreeding depression, heterosis and outbreeding depression in a metapopulation of Physa acuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Juan Sebastián; Nicot, Antoine; David, Patrice

    2008-11-01

    Understanding how parental distance affects offspring fitness, i.e., the effects of inbreeding and outbreeding in natural populations, is a major goal in evolutionary biology. While inbreeding is often associated with fitness reduction (inbreeding depression), interpopulation outcrossing may have either positive (heterosis) or negative (outbreeding depression) effects. Within a metapopulation, all phenomena may occur with various intensities depending on the focal population (especially its effective size) and the trait studied. However, little is known about interpopulation variation at this scale. We here examine variation in inbreeding depression, heterosis, and outbreeding depression on life-history traits across a full-life cycle, within a metapopulation of the hermaphroditic snail Physa acuta. We show that all three phenomena can co-occur at this scale, although they are not always expressed on the same traits. A large variation in inbreeding depression, heterosis, and outbreeding depression is observed among local populations. We provide evidence that, as expected from theory, small and isolated populations enjoy higher heterosis upon outcrossing than do large, open populations. These results emphasize the need for an integrated theory accounting for the effects of both deleterious mutations and genetic incompatibilities within metapopulations and to take into account the variability of the focal population to understand the genetic consequences of inbreeding and outbreeding at this scale.

  13. Factors Associated with a Depressive Disorder in Alzheimer's Disease Are Different from Those Found for Other Dementia Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Maria Lage; Engedal, Knut; Laks, Jerson; Selbaek, Geir

    2012-01-01

    Background This study explores factors associated with depression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and other dementia disorders. Method In a prospective study we included 195 patients: 31 with MCI, 112 with AD and 52 with other dementias. Results According to the ICD-10 and the DSM-IV criteria, 88 (44.1%) and 59 (30.3%), respectively, had a depressive disorder. An adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that previous depression (p depression in AD patients. Severity of dementia (p depressive disorder in a group of patients with frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia, or dementia due to Lewy Body disease or Parkinson's disease. Conclusion We found different factors associated with a depressive disorder in AD compared to those found for other dementia disorders. PMID:22479262

  14. Emotional response patterns of depression, grief, sadness and stress to differing life events: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Paterson, Amelia; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan

    2015-04-01

    In clarifying the clinical definition of an episode of major depression, DSM-5 equates bereavement with a number of other loss-related stressors (e.g. financial ruin, serious medical problems) and infers differences between such loss-related and non-loss-related responses. We undertook a study with the aim of examining the likelihood of varying life stressors leading to depression or to other emotional responses, and so allowing consideration as to whether bereavement might be equivalent to other loss-related stressful triggers. We studied a sample comprising sub-sets of those likely to have either experienced or never experienced a clinical depressive episode and report data for both the whole sample and the separate sub-sets. Participants were asked to report their exposure to 16 differing stressors and, given definitions of depression, grief, sadness and stress, to rate (in order of importance) their primary and secondary reactions if so experienced. Only one event (i.e. the individual being left by their partner) generated depression as the most likely response within the sample. A grief reaction was nominated as the most likely primary response to the death of a first-degree relative (52%) and was also a relatively common primary response to the death of a more distant relative or close family friend (36%). While one-fourth (24%) nominated grief as the primary response to being left by one's partner, it was rarely nominated as a primary response to all other events, including the DSM-5 'loss-related' exemplars of a financial crisis and of a medical illness (rates of 3% and 2%, respectively). As participants were given a definition of the emotional responses and candidate contexts, their responses may have been a reflection of the definitions provided. Additionally, a retrospective, self-report design was used which may have impacted on the veracity of responses. Findings position a grief response as showing relative specificity to bereavement events and that

  15. A validation study of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in different groups of Dutch subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, P; Ormel, J; Sloekers, PPA; Kempen, GIJM; Speckens, AEM; VanHemert, AM; van Hemert, A.M.

    Background. Research on the dimensional structure and reliability of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and its relationship with age is scarce. Moreover, its efficacy in determining the presence of depression in different patient groups has been questioned. Methods. Psychometric

  16. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatalović Vorkapić, Sanja; Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ružić, Klementina

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. Methods. The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users) clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A), Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Their average age was 22. Results. In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. Conclusion. Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  17. Gender Differences in the Clinical Characteristics of Psychotic Depression: Results from the CRESCEND Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon

    2015-12-31

    To test whether there are gender differences in the clinical characteristics of patients with psychotic depression (PD). Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in South Korea, we tested for potential gender differences in clinical characteristics among 53 patients with PD. The Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS) and other psychometric scales were used to evaluate various clinical features of the study subjects. Independent t-tests were performed for normally distributed variables, Mann-Whitney U-tests for non-normally distributed variables, and χ(2)tests for discrete variables. In addition, to exclude the effects of confounding variables, we carried out an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for the normally distributed variables and binary logistic regression analyses for discrete variables, after adjusting the effects of marital status. We identified more prevalent suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=10.316, p=0.036) and hallucinatory behavior (aOR=8.332, p=0.016), as well as more severe anxiety symptoms (degrees of freedom [df]=1, F=6.123, p=0.017), and poorer social and occupational functioning (df=1, F=6.265, p=0.016) in the male patients compared to the female patients. Our findings suggest that in South Korean patients with PD, suicidal ideation, hallucinatory behavior, and anxiety is more pronounced among males than females. This should be taken into consideration in clinical practice.

  18. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatalović Vorkapić Sanja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A, Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Their average age was 22. RESULTS: In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  19. The epidemiology of major depressive disorder and subthreshold depression in Izmir, Turkey: Prevalence, socioeconomic differences, impairment and help-seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuzoğlu, Ahmet; Binbay, Tolga; Ulaş, Halis; Elbi, Hayriye; Tanık, Feride Aksu; Zağlı, Nesli; Alptekin, Köksal

    2015-08-01

    Subclinical and clinical depression is common, widely distributed in the general population, and usually associated with role impairment and help-seeking. Reliable information at the population level is needed to estimate the disease burden of depression and associated care needs in Turkey. The cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of subthreshold (SubD) and clinical major depressive disorder (MDD) in Izmir, Turkey. In the 5242 eligible households, a total of 4011 individuals were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 76.5%. Prevalence estimates of MDD and SubD depression were formed by using the responses to the questions of the CIDI section E. Short Form 36 (SF-36) to assess health status and functional impairments in eight scaled scores during the last four weeks. All respondents were questioned about receiving 12-month treatment for any psychological complaints, the route of help-seeking, as well as prescribed medicines and any hospitalization. The one year prevalence estimate for CIDI/DSM IV MDD was 8.2% (95% CI, 7.4-9.1). Less educated, low income, uninsured, low SES, unemployed/disabled and housewives, slum area residents had higher one year MDD prevalence. Determined prevalence of help seeking from mental health services of SubD and MDD cases were 23.6%, 30.6% respectively. Only 24.8% of clinically depressive patients received minimally adequate treatment. Cross sectional design. Higher MDD prevalence correlates with younger ages, female gender, unemployment, less education, lower monthly income, lower SES and uninsurance. Help seeking from mental health services were low. There are treatment gap and impairment in depressive group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporal-lobe morphology differs between healthy adolescents and those with early-onset of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ramezani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD has previously been linked to structural changes in several brain regions, particularly in the medial temporal lobes (Bellani, Baiano, Brambilla, 2010; Bellani, Baiano, Brambilla, 2011. This has been determined using voxel-based morphometry, segmentation algorithms, and analysis of shape deformations (Bell-McGinty et al., 2002; Bergouignan et al., 2009; Posener et al., 2003; Vasic et al., 2008; Zhao et al., 2008: these are methods in which information related to the shape and the pose (the size, and anatomical position and orientation of structures is lost. Here, we incorporate information about shape and pose to measure structural deformation in adolescents and young adults with and without depression (as measured using the Beck Depression Inventory and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. As a hypothesis-generating study, a significance level of p < 0.05, uncorrected for multiple comparisons, was used, so that subtle morphological differences in brain structures between adolescent depressed individuals and control participants could be identified. We focus on changes in cortical and subcortical temporal structures, and use a multi-object statistical pose and shape model to analyze imaging data from 16 females (aged 16–21 and 3 males (aged 18 with early-onset MDD, and 25 female and 1 male normal control participants, drawn from the same age range. The hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, putamen, and superior, inferior and middle temporal gyri in both hemispheres of the brain were automatically segmented using the LONI Probabilistic Brain Atlas (Shattuck et al., 2008 in MNI space. Points on the surface of each structure in the atlas were extracted and warped to each participant's structural MRI. These surface points were analyzed to extract the pose and shape features. Pose differences were detected between the two groups, particularly in the left and right putamina, right hippocampus

  1. Explanations of educational differences in major depression and generalised anxiety disorder in the Irish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazelle, Emilie; Lemogne, Cédric; Morgan, Karen; Kelleher, Cecily C; Chastang, Jean-François; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2011-11-01

    Social inequalities in mental disorders have been described, but studies that explain these inequalities are lacking, especially those using diagnostic interviews. This study investigates the contribution of various explanatory factors to the association between educational level and major depression and generalised anxiety disorder in Irish men and women. The study population comprised a national random sample of 5771 women and 4207 men aged 18 or more in Ireland (SLÁN 2007 survey). Major depression and generalised anxiety disorder were measured using a standardised diagnostic interview (CIDI-SF). Four groups of explanatory factors were explored: material, psychosocial, and behavioural factors, and chronic disease. For both genders, low educational level increased the risk of both mental disorders. Material factors, especially no private health insurance, but also no car, housing tenure, insufficient food budget, and unemployment (for men), made the highest contribution (stronger for men than for women) in explaining the association between education and both mental disorders. Psychosocial (especially formal social participation, social support and marital status) and behavioural factors (smoking and physical activity for both genders, and alcohol and drug use for men) and chronic disease made low independent contributions in explaining the association between education and both mental disorders. Given the cross-sectional study design, no causal conclusion could be drawn. Targeting various material, psychosocial, and behavioural factors, as well as chronic diseases may help to reduce educational differences in depression and anxiety in the general population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gender Differences in Depression: Assessing Mediational Effects of Overt Behaviors and Environmental Reward through Daily Diary Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena M. Ryba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in the prevalence of depression are well documented. To further explore the relation between gender and depression, this study used daily diaries to examine gender differences within thirteen behavioral domains and whether differential frequency of overt behaviors and environmental reward mediated the relationship between gender and depression severity. The sample included 82 undergraduate students [66% females; 84% Caucasian; Mean age = 20.2 years]. Overall, females engaged in a significantly greater breadth of behavioral domains and reported a higher level of environmental reward. Females spent more time in the domains of health/hygiene, spiritual activities, and eating with others. Males spent more time in the domains of physical activity, sexual activity, and hobbies and recreational experiences. Females found social activities, passive/sedentary behaviors, eating with others, and engagement in “other” activities more rewarding. Gender had a significant direct effect on depression severity, with females reporting increased depression. This effect was attenuated by the mediator (total environmental reward such that to the extent females exhibited increased environmental reward, the gender effect on depression was attenuated. These data support behavioral models of depression, indicate increased reinforcement sensitivity among females, and have clinical relevance in the context of assessment and behavioral activation interventions for depression.

  3. Association of different levels of depressive symptoms with symptomatology, overall disease severity, and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Amris, Kirstine; Ortega, Francisco B

    2015-01-01

    .4-23.7), as well as poorer sleep quality (3.2-units; 95 % CI 1.7-4.7) and mental component of HRQoL (-17.0-units; 95 % CI -21.0 to -12.9) than participants with minimal signs of depression. There was no association of signs of depression with pain sensitivity, exercise capacity, or the physical component of HRQo......PURPOSE: This study examined the associations of different levels of depression with pain, sleep quality, fatigue, functional exercise capacity, overall fibromyalgia (FM) severity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in women with FM. METHODS: A total of 451 women with FM participated...... in this cross-sectional study. Depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI-II), pain intensity (numerical rating scale; NRS), pain sensitivity (algometry), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory), functional exercise capacity (6-min walk test), FM...

  4. [The difference between depression and melancholia: two distinct conditions that were combined into a single category in DSM-III].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmae, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    In DSM-III (1980), depressive states of neurosis and those of manic-depressive illness (melancholia or endogenous depression) were combined into the single category "major depression," which is the progenitor of "major depressive disorder" in DSM-IV-TR (2000). According to Hamilton, the word "depression" is used in three different ways. In common speech, it is used to describe the state of sadness that all persons experience when they lose something of importance to them. In psychiatry, the word is used to signify an abnormal mood, analogous to the sadness, unhappiness, and misery of everyday experiences. Moreover, the depression discussed in psychiatry often has another quality that makes it distinctive, and this quality appears to be related to an inability to experience any pleasure (anhedonia) regardless of experience. Accordingly, we classify these three uses of the term "depression" into sadness, depression, and melancholia in order of appearance within this paper. According to DSM-IV-TR criteria for major depressive disorder, depression corresponds closely to A1 "depressed mood", while melancholia is roughly compatible with A2 "markedly diminished interest or pleasure." Depression and melancholia differ in terms of origin, psychopathology, and therapy. Before DSM-III, depression had not been considered as a diagnosis, but was a ubiquitous symptom that was seen in such conditions as neurasthenia, psychasthenia, nervousness, and neurosis. Melancholia has a history that reaches back to Hippocratic times. Its modern meaning was established based on Kraepelin's manic-depressive illness. Depression is a deepened or prolonged sadness in everyday life, but melancholia has a distinct quality of mood that cannot be interpreted as severe depression. In modern times, depression has been treated with a diverse range of methods, including rest, talk therapy, amphetamines (1930s), meprobamate (1950s), and benzodiazepines (1970s). Melancholia has primarily been treated with

  5. Differences in depression severity and frequency of relapses in opiate addicts treated with methadone or opiate blocker after detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Relapse of opiate dependence is a common occurrence after detoxification and introduction of opiate addicts in abstinence from opiates. Clinical evaluation showed that over 90% of opiate addicts exhibit depressive manifestations during detoxification, or develop post-detoxification depression. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the frequency of relapses, severity and course of depression during a of 6-month period, and previous patterns of use of opioids in the two groups of opiate addicts treated by two different therapeutic modalities. Methods. The results of the two groups of opiate addicts were compared: the patients on substitution methadone treatment (M and the patients treated with opiate blocker naltrexone (B. In all the patients, clinical and instrumental evaluations confirmed depressive syndrome. Opioid relapses were diagnosed by the panel test for rapid detection of metabolites of opiates in urine. Then they were brought in connection with scores of depression and addiction variables. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD and Zunge Depression Scale were the applied instruments for measuring the level of depression. All the subjects completed a questionnaire Pompidou (short version. Psychological measurements were carried out during a 6-month follow-up on three occasions. The presence of opiate metabolites in urine was controlled every two weeks. Results. Both groups of patients (M and B had high scores on HAMD during the study. The group on methadone had a strong depression in all three measurements. There was a drop in the level of depression in both experimental groups over time, which was accompanied by a decrease in the incidence of recurrence. In both tested groups the frequency of relapses was positively correlated with earlier addiction variables - intravenous application of opioids, the experience of overdose, the absence of immunization against hepatitis C and hepatitis C virus carriers

  6. Gender differences in the incidence of depression among immigrants and natives in Aragon, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esmeyer, E.M.; Magallon-Botaya, R.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of depression among immigrants within Spanish primary care is limited. This database study investigates the incidence of depressive disorders among immigrants and natives within primary care in Aragon (Spain). Participants were patients registered in an electronic record register, aged

  7. Prevalence and gender differences in symptomatology of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among Iraqi Yazidis displaced into Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Tekin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression are common among populations displaced due to large-scale political conflicts and war. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and gender-based differences in symptoms of PTSD and depression among Iraqi Yazidis displaced into Turkey. Method: The study was conducted on 238 individuals who were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I and the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire. Results: Of the participants, 42.9% met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD, 39.5% for major depression, and 26.4% for both disorders. More women than men suffered from PTSD and major depression. More women than men with PTSD or depression reported having experienced or witnessed the death of a spouse or child. Women with PTSD reported flashbacks, hypervigilance, and intense psychological distress due to reminders of trauma more frequently than men. Men with PTSD reported feelings of detachment or estrangement from others more frequently than women. More depressive women than men reported feelings of guilt or worthlessness. Conclusions: PTSD and major depression affected women more frequently than men. While women tended to respond to traumatic stress by undermodulation of emotions and low self-esteem, men tended to respond by overmodulation of emotions. Rather than being a derivative of sex differences, this complementary diversity in response types between genders seems to be shaped by social factors in consideration of survival under extreme threat.

  8. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among patients with major depressive disorder--differences between newly diagnosed first episode and recurrent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubicic, Rudolf; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Bistrović, Ivana Ljubicić; Franceski, Tanja; Mufić, Ana Kovak; Karlović, Dalibor

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess differences in prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among depressed patients in regard to the duration of the illness (first episode versus recurrent episodes). A total of 190 patients suffering from major depressive disorder were included in the study, diagnosed according to International classification of disorders, 10th revision. The same criteria were used to divide participants into two groups: first episode major depressive disorder and major depressive disorder with recurrent episodes. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of the American National Cholesterol Education Program-Treatment Panel III. Results showed that metabolic syndrome is significantly more prevalent in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder (45.2%) compared to patients with first episode of major depressive disorder (27.3%), mainly due to differences in plasma glucose, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol levels. These findings indicate the importance of the duration of depression and the number of recurring episodes as factors involved in etiopathogenesis of the associated metabolic syndrome.

  9. Cross Cultural Relationships of Depression, Attachment Styles, and Quality of Romantic Relationships: Cultural Difference between Taiwanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Yi-An Lo

    2013-01-01

    Relationship quality has been determined to be a positive factor in the treatment of depression (Brown, 2000; Fagan, 2009). Although the importance of marriage has been broadly studied, little research has investigated correlations among relationship quality, depressive moods, and attachment styles. Although the prevalence of depressive moods has…

  10. Other-Sex Relationship Stress and Sex Differences in the Contribution of Puberty to Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Nicole; Rudolph, Karen D.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that the pubertal transition, particularly when experienced earlier than age-matched peers, is associated with heightened depression in girls but less depression in boys. This study examined whether stress within other-sex relationships serves as one process through which puberty differentially contributes to depression for girls…

  11. Asian Student Depression in American High Schools: Differences in Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Suzan J.; Ziegler, Robert; Arsenault, Lisa; Fried, Lise E.; Hacker, Karen

    2011-01-01

    There are inconsistent findings about depression in Asians. This study examined risk factors for depression in Asian and Caucasian adolescents. Stratified bivariate secondary analyses of risk indicators and depressed mood were performed in this cross-sectional study of high school survey data (9th to 12th grades) from 2,542 students (198 Asian).…

  12. Age, Race, and Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms: A Lifespan Developmental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…

  13. The Influence of Child Gender Role and Maternal Feedback to Child Stress on the Emergence of the Gender Difference in Depressive Rumination in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephanie J.; Mezulis, Amy H.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research has linked a greater female tendency to ruminate about depressed feelings or mood to the gender difference in depression. However, the developmental origins of the gender difference in depressive rumination are not well understood. We hypothesized that girls and women may be more likely to ruminate because rumination represents…

  14. The Influence of Child Gender Role and Maternal Feedback to Child Stress on the Emergence of the Gender Difference in Depressive Rumination in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephanie J.; Mezulis, Amy H.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research has linked a greater female tendency to ruminate about depressed feelings or mood to the gender difference in depression. However, the developmental origins of the gender difference in depressive rumination are not well understood. We hypothesized that girls and women may be more likely to ruminate because rumination represents…

  15. Relationship between depression, stress and stressors in pregnant teenagers under different marital status conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Del Carmen Quezada Berumen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on depression and stress has become important because of its high relevance especially in teenage pregnancy. This study aimed to identify the relationship between depression and stress levels and number of stressors faced by 82 first-time pregnant teenagers, who responded to the assessment instruments: Beck Depression Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and Life Events Questionnaire. According to the results, adolescents who live with their own family are those with the highest means of stress and depression. Therefore, it can be concluded that adolescents who live with their own family are more prone to develop depression and stress during pregnancy, since this could be a contributing factor.

  16. Rorschach variables and dysfunctional attitudes as measures of depressive vulnerability: a 9-year follow-up study of individuals with different histories of major depressive episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Ellen; Halvorsen, Marianne; Wang, Catharina E A

    2013-01-01

    Forty-six individuals with different histories of major depressive episodes (MDEs) completed the Rorschach (Exner, 2003 ) and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS; Weissman & Beck, 1978) at 2 assessment points (T1, T2) over a 9-year follow-up. At T1, history of MDE and the Rorschach variable MOR (associated with negative self-image) emerged as significant predictors of number of MDEs over the follow-up. At T2, Rorschach markers of depressive vulnerability and scars were identified (i.e., WSum6, related to illogical thinking; X+%, related to conventional perception and social adjustment; X-%, linked to erroneous judgments; MQ-, associated with impaired social relations; and MOR). Test-retest analyses displayed significant temporal stability in Rorschach variables, with r ranging from .34 to .67 and in the DAS, r = .42. Our findings highlight MDE as a recurrent and serious disorder, number of MDEs as a risk factor for future depressions, and Rorschach variables as markers of depressive vulnerability and scars.

  17. [Soil fertility characteristics under different land use patterns in depressions between karst hills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Song, Tong-Qing; Cai, De-Suo; Zeng, Fu-Ping; Peng, Wan-Xia; Du, Hu

    2014-06-01

    Soil samples were collected from the depressions between karst hills by grid sampling method (5 m x 5 m), soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), and available potassium (AK) in surface layer (0-20 cm) under different land use patterns (burning, cutting, cutting plus root removal, enclosure, maize plantation, and pasture plantation) were measured, the main factors of influencing the soil fertility was identified by principal component analysis (PCA), and the relationships between soil nutrients and microorganisms were demonstrated by canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The results showed that the soil was slightly alkaline (pH 7.83-7.98), and the soil fertility differed under the different land use patterns, with 76.78-116.05 g x kg(-1) of SOC, 4.29-6.23 g x kg(-1) of TN, 1.15-1.47 g x kg(-1) of TP, 3.59-6.05 g x kg(-1) of TK, 331.49-505.49 mg x kg(-1) of AN), 3.92-10.91 mg x kg(-1) of AP, and 136.28-198.10 mg x kg(-1) of AK. These soil indexes except pH showed moderate or strong variation. Different land use patterns had various impacts on soil fertility: Soil nutrients such as SOC, TN, TP, and AN were most significantly influenced by land use patterns in the depressions between karst hills; Followed by soil microorganisms, especially soil actinomycetes, and the effect decreased with the increasing gradient of human disturbance from enclosure, burning, cutting, cutting plus root removal, pasture plantation, and maize plantation. CCA elucidated that considerable interactions existed in soil TP with MBP (microbial biomass phosphorus), TK with MBC (microbial biomass carbon), TN with actinomycetes in the burned area, while TN and MBC in the cutting treatment, AP and MBN (microbial biomass nitrogen) in the treatment of cutting plus root removal, pH with MBC and fungus in the enclosure treatment, TN and TK with MBP in the maize plantation, pH with fungi

  18. Cancer-related fatigue and depression in breast cancer patients postchemotherapy: Different associations with optimism and stress appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovich, Inbar; Cohen, Miri; Pollack, Shimon; Drumea, Karen; Fried, Georgeta

    2015-10-01

    Symptoms of depression and cancer-related fatigue (CRF) are common among breast cancer patients postchemotherapy and may seriously impair quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to assess the relationship between depression and CRF in breast cancer patients postchemotherapy and to examine their relationships to optimism and to threat and challenge appraisals. Participants included 95 breast cancer patients (stages 1-3) 1 to 6 months after completion of chemotherapy. Patients submitted personal and medical details and completed the following: physical symptom questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30, and QLQ-BR23), a symptoms of depression questionnaire (CES-D), the Fatigue Symptom Inventory (FSI), the Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), and a stress appraisals questionnaire. We found levels of depression, CRF, and appraisals of cancer as a threat to bemoderate and levels of optimism and appraisals of cancer as a challenge to be high. Depression and CRF were positively associated. A multivariate regression analysis revealed that 51% of the CRF variancewas explained; physical symptoms and threat appraisal were significantly associated with CRF. A 67% of the CRF variance of depression was explained; challenge and threat appraisals were significantly associated with depression [corrected]. Although CRF and depression were often experienced simultaneously and both were found to be higher among individuals who gave higher appraisals of cancer as a threat, only depression was related to optimism and challenge appraisals, while CRF was related mainly to intensity of physical symptoms. The different pattern of associations between optimism and appraisals warrants further clinical attention as well as future study.

  19. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Alastair; Khanam, Shopnara; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towards depression with increasing age amongst British Bangladeshis. Older British Bangladeshis believed depression was an illness that brought a sense of shame and loss of dignity to the individual and his or her family, and they also favoured a lay referral system for sufferers. They also had more superstitious beliefs about depression than both younger British Bangladeshis and British Whites. A pattern of increasing negativity with increasing age was not evident amongst the British Whites, but older individuals in both groups tended to believe that depression was not helped by psychological intervention. The attitudes towards depression in the young was similar (and generally positive) in both ethnic groups. These findings highlight the necessity to provide more culturally sensitive and accessible services for migrant communities – particularly amongst older individuals. PMID:25076835

  20. Are uric acid plasma levels different between unipolar depression with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özten, Eylem; Kesebir, Sermin; Eryılmaz, Gül; Tarhan, Nevzat; Karamustafalıoğlu, Oğuz

    2015-05-15

    The aim of our study is to compare uric acid plasma levels in patients with unipolar depression between those with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbidity and those without. Our hypothesis is that uric acid plasma levels may be higher in unipolar depressive patients with adult ADHD than without ADHD. Sixty four patients diagnosed with MDD were investigated, among which 28 patients had been diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM5. 28 patients were ADHD. 36 patients were diagnosed as not having ADHD. One of the criteria was including cases that had not started using medication for the current depressive episode. The control group (HC) consisted of 43 healthy staff members from our hospital who had no prior psychiatric admission or treatment history and matched with the patient group in terms of age and gender. Blood samples were obtained, and plasma uric acid levels were recorded in mg/dl after being rotated for 15min in a centrifuge with 3000 rotations and kept at -80°C. Uric acid plasma levels 5.1±1.6 in unipolar depression and ADHD group, 4.6±1.8 in unipolar depression group. Uric acid plasma levels were higher in the comorbid unipolar depression and ADHD group than in the unipolar depression and healthy control (HC) groups (F= 4.367, p= 0.037). There was no correlation between ADHD (predominantly inattentive type) and uric acid plasma levels (p>0.05). The limitation of this study is the small number of sample and one of the criteria was including cases that had not started using medication for the current depressive episode. The identification of a different etiologic process of biological markers may lead to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in drive and impulsivity and may suggest different potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. AGE DIFFERENCES IN THE PREVALENCE AND CO-MORBIDITY OF DSM-IV MAJOR DEPRESSIVE EPISODES: RESULTS FROM THE WHO WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEY INITIATIVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, R.C.; Birnbaum, H.G.; Shahly, V.; Bromet, E.; Hwang, I.; McLaughlin, K.A.; Sampson, N.; Andrade, L.H.; De Girolamo, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Haro, J.M.; Karam, A.N.; Kostyuchenko, S.; Kovess, V.; Lara, C.; Levinson, D.; Matschinger, H.; Nakane, Y.; Browne, M.O.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sagar, R.; Stein, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although depression appears to decrease in late life, this could be due to misattribution of depressive symptoms to physical disorders that increase in late we. Methods: We investigated this issue by studying age differences in co-morbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes (MDE) with

  2. Individual differences in trajectories of emotion regulation processes: the effects of maternal depressive symptomatology and children's physiological regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandon, Alysia Y; Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P; O'Brien, Marion

    2008-07-01

    Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children's physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation (Delta RSA) were explored as predictors of individual differences in trajectories of emotion regulation and negativity (mother-reported Emotion Regulation Checklist; A. M. Shields & D. Cicchetti, 1997). In addition, the authors explored whether children's physiological regulation would moderate the effect of maternal depressive symptomatology on children's emotion regulation trajectories. Results indicated that over time, emotion regulation increased whereas negativity decreased, though considerable individual variability in the pattern of change was observed. Greater maternal depressive symptomatology was associated with less steep emotion regulation trajectories. There was a significant Maternal Depressive Symptomatology x Baseline RSA x Age interaction predicting emotion regulation trajectories. Overall, it appears that the development of emotion regulation over time is compromised when mothers report greater depressive symptomatology. There is also evidence that children's capacity for physiological regulation can buffer some of the adverse consequences associated with maternal depressive symptomatology.

  3. Do different fairness contexts and facial emotions motivate 'irrational' social decision-making in major depression? An exploratory patient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Sina; Schäfer, Ina C; Müller, Bernhard W; de Bruijn, Ellen R A

    2013-12-15

    Although 'irrational' decision-making has been linked to depression, the contribution of biases in information processing to these findings remains unknown. To investigate the impact of cognitive biases and aberrant processing of facial emotions on social decision-making, we manipulated both context-related and emotion-related information in a modified Ultimatum Game. Unfair offers were (1) paired with different unselected alternatives, establishing the context in which an offer was made, and (2) accompanied by emotional facial expressions of proposers. Responder behavior was assessed in patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls. In both groups alike, rejection rates were highest following unambiguous signals of unfairness, i.e. an angry proposer face or when an unfair distribution had deliberately been chosen over an equal split. However, depressed patients showed overall higher rejection rates than healthy volunteers, without exhibiting differential processing biases. This suggests that depressed patients were, as healthy individuals, basing their decisions on informative, salient features and differentiating between (i) fair and unfair offers, (ii) alternatives to unfair offers and (iii) proposers' facial emotions. Although more fundamental processes, e.g. reduced reward sensitivity, might underlie increased rejection in depression, the current study provides insight into mechanisms that shape fairness considerations in both depressed and healthy individuals.

  4. A longitudinal study of gender differences in depressive symptoms from age 50 to 80

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barefoot, J C; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Helms, M J;

    2001-01-01

    The Obvious Depression Scale was administered to 739 community residents at ages 50, 60, and 80 years, with 151 present at all waves. Although selective attrition influenced the level of depressive symptoms in cross-sectional vs. longitudinal samples, both sets of analyses revealed higher scores ...

  5. Cognitive-affective symptoms of depression after myocardial infarction : different prognostic importance across age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denollet, Johan; Freedland, Kenneth E; Carney, Robert M; de Jonge, Peter; Roest, Annelieke M

    OBJECTIVE: Cognitive-affective symptoms of depression may not be as strongly related to prognosis after myocardial infarction (MI) as somatic depressive symptoms. Because it is not known whether this pattern of results is influenced by the age at which patients are diagnosed as having MI, we

  6. Age Differences in Coping, Behavioral Dysfunction and Depression Following Colostomy Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Kathryn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined the responses of a group of middle-aged and older adults (N=34) to colostomy surgery. Analyzed the relationship between the method and focus of coping and age, sickness-related dysfunction, and depression. Found that neither a lower level of active behavioral coping nor age itself was correlated with depression or dysfunction. (Author/ABB)

  7. Using equity theory to examine the difference between burnout and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, AB; Schaufeli, WB; Demerouti, E; Janssen, PPM; Brouwer, J

    2000-01-01

    This study among a sample of 154 Dutch teachers examines the discriminant validity of burnout and depression, as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses show that burnout can be stat

  8. Anxiety and Depression in Breast Cancer Survivors of Different Sexual Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Glickman, Mark; Winter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a study comparing anxiety and depression by sexual orientation in long-term breast cancer survivors, testing the hypothesis that sexual minority women (e.g., lesbian and bisexual women) have greater levels of anxiety and depression. Method: From a state cancer registry, we recruited 257 heterosexual and 69 sexual minority…

  9. Adverse psychosocial working conditions and risk of severe depressive symptoms. Do effects differ by occupational grade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Aust, Birgit; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Burr, Hermann; Siegrist, Johannes; Bultmann, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depression is a major concern for public health. Both adverse working conditions and low socio-economic position are suspected to increase risk of depression. In a representative sample of the Danish workforce we investigated (i) whether adverse psychosocial working conditions, defined b

  10. Using equity theory to examine the difference between burnout and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, AB; Schaufeli, WB; Demerouti, E; Janssen, PPM; Brouwer, J

    2000-01-01

    This study among a sample of 154 Dutch teachers examines the discriminant validity of burnout and depression, as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses show that burnout can be stat

  11. Depression : the possible roles of BPRP and the gender differences in stress response and recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Yanhua

    2007-01-01

    Depression is a chronic, recurring and potentially life-threatening affective disease, with women having higher prevalence than men. Severe or chronic stress is an important factor responsible for the development of a depressive episode. Exposure of animals to stressors results in a series of coordi

  12. Qualitative feedback from a text messaging intervention for depression: benefits, drawbacks, and cultural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Adrian; Berridge, Clara

    2014-11-05

    Mobile health interventions are often standardized and assumed to work the same for all users; however, we may be missing cultural differences in the experiences of interventions that may impact how and if an intervention is effective. The objective of the study was to assess qualitative feedback from participants to determine if there were differences between Spanish speakers and English speakers. Daily text messages were sent to patients as an adjunct to group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for depression. Messages inquired about mood and about specific themes (thoughts, activities, social interactions) of a manualized group CBT intervention. There were thirty-nine patients who participated in the text messaging pilot study. The average age of the participants was 53 years (SD 10.4; range of 23-72). Qualitative feedback from Spanish speakers highlighted feelings of social support, whereas English speakers noted increased introspection and self-awareness of their mood state. These cultural differences should be explored further, as they may impact the effect of supportive mobile health interventions. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01083628; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01083628 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6StpbdHuq).

  13. Depression and gender differences among younger immigrant patients on sick leave due to chronic back pain: a primary care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taloyan, Marina; Löfvander, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Mental ill-health and pain are major causes for disability compensation in female adults in Sweden. Aims The aims of this study were to (1) analyse gender differences in the prevalence of depression among immigrant patients with chronic back pain and (2) explore whether factors such as age, marital status, educational level, religious faith, number of children and number of diagnosed pain sites could explain these differences. The study sample consisted of 245 sick-listed primary care patients in consecutive order aged 18 through 45 years with a median duration of sick leave of 10 months for back pain and participating in a rehabilitation programme. Explanatory variables included physicians' diagnosed pain sites, age, marital status, education, number of children and religious affiliation. Predictive factors for depression were analysed using logistic regression. The women differed significantly from the men in three aspects: they were less educated, had more children and had more multiple pain sites, that is, 68% versus 45%. In the age-adjusted model, women were twice as likely to have depression (odds ratio (OR) 2.1). Regardless the gender, those with intermediate education of 9-11 years had the lowest odds of outcome compared with those with education. Finally, after adjusting for all explanatory variables, the ORs of depression for women decreased to a non-significant level (OR 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-3.43). Furthermore, regardless of the gender, those with multiple pain sites had twice higher odds (OR 2.04; 95% CI 1.11-3.74) of depression than those with fewer pain sites. Gender differences in odds of depression in our study could be explained by a higher prevalence of diagnosed multiple pain sites in women. This calls for tailor-made treatments that focus on the pain relief needs of immigrant women with low education and chronic back pain.

  14. Eating disorder and depressive symptoms in urban high school girls from different ethnic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisaga, Katarzyna; Whitaker, Agnes; Davies, Mark; Chuang, Shirley; Feldman, Judith; Walsh, B Timothy

    2005-08-01

    This study examined ethnic group differences in the rates of eating disorder symptoms (EDS) and depressive disorder symptoms (DDS) with respect to ethnic identity, relative body weight, and abnormal eating behaviors among adolescent girls. A district-wide sample of high school girls (N = 1445) from different ethnic backgrounds was surveyed. EDS were assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test-26, abnormal eating behaviors with the Eating Behaviors Survey, and DDS with the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Two dimensions of ethnic identity, ethnic identity achievement and other group orientation, were assessed with Multi-Group Ethnic Identity Measure. Hispanic and non-Hispanic white girls had the highest and African-American (AA) and Caribbean girls the lowest rates of EDS. Asian girls reported the highest and AA girls the lowest rates of DDS. Early dieting was associated with EDS and DDS in Caribbean, non-Hispanic white, and mixed background girls. Relative body weight was related to EDS in all ethnic groups except in non-Hispanic white and mixed background girls. The authors did not find an effect of ethnic identity achievement on psychopathology, but there was an effect of other group orientation on both EDS and DDS. Clinicians should inquire about EDS and DDS in girls of all ethnic groups. Prevention efforts to delay unsupervised dieting may protect adolescent girls from the development of EDS and DDS.

  15. Depressive-Like Behavior in Adolescents after Maternal Separation: Sex Differences, Controllability, and GABA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leussis, Melanie P.; Freund, Nadja; Brenhouse, Heather C.; Thompson, Britta S.; Andersen, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to adversity during development is an identified risk factor for depression later in life. In humans, early adversity accelerates the onset of depressive symptoms, which manifest during adolescence. Animal studies have used maternal separation as a model of early adversity to produce adult depressive-like behaviors, but have yet to examine these behaviors during adolescence. Moreover, the nature of depressive-like behaviors has not been well characterized in this model. Here, we used the triadic model of learned helplessness to understand controllability, helplessness, and motivational factors following maternal separation in male and female adolescent rats. We found sex-dependent changes in the effects of separation, with males demonstrating loss of controllability in an escapable shock condition, whereas females demonstrated motivational impairment in a no-shock condition. The effect, however, did not endure as adult females were no longer helpless. Reductions in parvalbumin, a GABAergic marker, in the prefrontal cortex of separated subjects relative to age-matched controls were evident and paralleled depressive-like behavior. Understanding the risk factors for depression, the nature of depressive-like behaviors, and their unique sex dependency may ultimately provide insight into improved treatments. PMID:22776911

  16. Gender differences in relationships of actual and virtual social support to Internet addiction mediated through depressive symptoms among college students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Chun; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2008-08-01

    This study examined gender differences in the relationships of actual and virtual social support to Internet addiction mediated through depressive symptoms among college students in Taiwan. Results revealed that in females, both actual and virtual social support directly predicted Internet addiction or were mediated through depressive symptoms. However, in males, while Internet addiction was predicted by virtual social support directly or indirectly mediated through depressive symptoms, the link of actual social support to Internet addiction was only mediated through depressive symptoms. Furthermore, in both genders, lower actual social support and higher virtual social support were associated with higher depressive symptoms.

  17. Transdiagnostic commonalities and differences in resting state functional connectivity of the default mode network in schizophrenia and major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Schilbach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and depression are prevalent psychiatric disorders, but their underlying neural bases remains poorly understood. Neuroimaging evidence has pointed towards the relevance of functional connectivity aberrations in default mode network (DMN hubs, dorso-medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus, in both disorders, but commonalities and differences in resting state functional connectivity of those two regions across disorders has not been formally assessed. Here, we took a transdiagnostic approach to investigate resting state functional connectivity of those two regions in 75 patients with schizophrenia and 82 controls from 4 scanning sites and 102 patients with depression and 106 controls from 3 sites. Our results demonstrate common dysconnectivity patterns as indexed by a significant reduction of functional connectivity between precuneus and bilateral superior parietal lobe in schizophrenia and depression. Furthermore, our findings highlight diagnosis-specific connectivity reductions of the parietal operculum in schizophrenia relative to depression. In light of evidence that points towards the importance of the DMN for social cognitive abilities and well documented impairments of social interaction in both patient groups, it is conceivable that the observed transdiagnostic connectivity alterations may contribute to interpersonal difficulties, but this could not be assessed directly in our study as measures of social behavior were not available. Given the operculum's role in somatosensory integration, diagnosis-specific connectivity reductions may indicate a pathophysiological mechanism for basic self-disturbances that is characteristic of schizophrenia, but not depression.

  18. Transdiagnostic commonalities and differences in resting state functional connectivity of the default mode network in schizophrenia and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilbach, L; Hoffstaedter, F; Müller, V; Cieslik, E C; Goya-Maldonado, R; Trost, S; Sorg, C; Riedl, V; Jardri, R; Sommer, I; Kogler, L; Derntl, B; Gruber, O; Eickhoff, S B

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia and depression are prevalent psychiatric disorders, but their underlying neural bases remains poorly understood. Neuroimaging evidence has pointed towards the relevance of functional connectivity aberrations in default mode network (DMN) hubs, dorso-medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus, in both disorders, but commonalities and differences in resting state functional connectivity of those two regions across disorders has not been formally assessed. Here, we took a transdiagnostic approach to investigate resting state functional connectivity of those two regions in 75 patients with schizophrenia and 82 controls from 4 scanning sites and 102 patients with depression and 106 controls from 3 sites. Our results demonstrate common dysconnectivity patterns as indexed by a significant reduction of functional connectivity between precuneus and bilateral superior parietal lobe in schizophrenia and depression. Furthermore, our findings highlight diagnosis-specific connectivity reductions of the parietal operculum in schizophrenia relative to depression. In light of evidence that points towards the importance of the DMN for social cognitive abilities and well documented impairments of social interaction in both patient groups, it is conceivable that the observed transdiagnostic connectivity alterations may contribute to interpersonal difficulties, but this could not be assessed directly in our study as measures of social behavior were not available. Given the operculum's role in somatosensory integration, diagnosis-specific connectivity reductions may indicate a pathophysiological mechanism for basic self-disturbances that is characteristic of schizophrenia, but not depression.

  19. Association of different levels of depressive symptoms with symptomatology, overall disease severity, and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Amris, Kirstine; Ortega, Francisco B; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Aparicio, Virginia A; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Henriksen, Marius; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study examined the associations of different levels of depression with pain, sleep quality, fatigue, functional exercise capacity, overall fibromyalgia (FM) severity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in women with FM. METHODS: A total of 451 women with FM participated in this

  20. Different Fear-Regulation Behaviors in Toddlerhood: Relations to Preceding Infant Negative Emotionality, Maternal Depression, and Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloggler, Bettina; Pauli-Pott, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    In the study presented, the development of different fear regulation behaviors and their associations with preceding maternal sensitivity and depression is addressed. A sample of 64 mother-child pairs was examined at the children's ages of 4, 12, and 30 months. Four-month negative reactivity and 12- and 30- month behavioral inhibition and fear…

  1. The metabolic syndrome and related characteristics in major depression : inpatients and outpatients compared Metabolic differences across treatment settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppino, Floriana S.; Bouvy, Paul F.; Giltay, Erik J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to systematically compare patients with major depressive disorder from three different treatment settings (a primary care outpatient, a secondary care outpatient and one inpatient sample), with regard to metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) prevalences, individual MetSyn components and re

  2. Gender differences in the relation between social support, problems in parent-offspring communication, and depression and anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman-Peeters, KMC; Hartman, CA; van der Pompe, G; den Boer, JA; Minderaa, RB; Ormel, J

    Gender differences in the buffer-effect of social support in the relation between stressful circumstances and the development of depression and anxiety disorders are widely assumed, but few studies address this three-way interaction between gender, stress, and support. Data in the present study came

  3. Parental divorce, parental depression, and gender differences in adult offspring suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizardi, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Keyes, Katherine; Hasin, Deborah

    2009-12-01

    Research suggests parental divorce during childhood increases risk of suicide attempt for male but not female offspring. The negative impact on offspring associated with parental divorce may be better explained by parental psychopathology, such as depression. We examined whether adult offspring of parental divorce experience elevated risk of suicide attempt, controlling for parental history of depression, and whether the risk varies by the gender of the offspring. Using the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), the sample consists of respondents who experienced parental divorce (N = 4895). Multivariable regressions controlled for age, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and parental history of depression. Females living with their fathers were significantly more likely to report lifetime suicide attempts than females living with their mothers, even after controlling for parental depression. Findings suggest that childhood/adolescent parental divorce may have a stronger impact on suicide attempt risk in female offspring than previously recognized.

  4. Adverse psychosocial working conditions and risk of severe depressive symptoms. Do effects differ by occupational grade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Aust, Birgit; Madsen, Ida E H; Burr, Hermann; Siegrist, Johannes; Bültmann, Ute

    2013-06-01

    Depression is a major concern for public health. Both adverse working conditions and low socio-economic position are suspected to increase risk of depression. In a representative sample of the Danish workforce we investigated (i) whether adverse psychosocial working conditions, defined by the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model, predicted onset of severe depressive symptoms after 5-year follow-up and (ii) whether the effect of ERI was differential across occupational grades. A cohort of 2701 Danish employees filled in a questionnaire on work and health in 2000 and 2005. ERI was measured with four effort and seven reward items. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the five-item Mental Health Inventory. Participants scoring ≤ 52 points were defined as cases. We used logistic regression to investigate the association of ERI and occupational grade in 2000 with onset of severe depressive symptoms in 2005. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographics, health behaviours, survey method, self-rated health, sleep disturbances and non-severe depressive symptoms at baseline. High ERI predicted onset of severe depressive symptoms at follow-up, after adjustment for co-variates and occupational grade (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.12-4.25). Participants with high ERI and low occupational grade showed a considerably higher OR (2.43, 95% CI = 1.07-5.53) compared to participants with low/medium ERI and low grade (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 0.72-2.92), high ERI and high grade (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.59-2.70) and low/medium ERI and high grade (reference group). Adverse psychosocial working conditions predicted onset of severe depressive symptoms. The effect was stronger among employees of lower occupational grades compared to those of higher grades.

  5. Postpartum depression in rats: differences in swim test immobility, sucrose preference and nurturing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Jamie Winderbaum; Grizzell, J Alex; Philpot, Rex M; Wecker, Lynn

    2014-10-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common disorder affecting both mothers and their offspring. Studies of PPD in laboratory animals have typically assessed either immobility on forced swim testing or sucrose preference in ovariectomized rats following hormone supplementation and withdrawal or in stress models. To date, few studies have related these measures to maternal behaviors, a potential indicator of depressive-like activity postpartum. Because a single measure may be insufficient to characterize depression, the present study determined the distribution of depressive-like behaviors in Sprague-Dawley rats postpartum. Nurturing and non-nurturing behaviors exhibited by undisturbed dams were recorded during the first 12 days postpartum, and immobility in the forced swim test and sucrose preference were determined thereafter. A median-split analysis indicated that 19% of dams exhibited high sucrose preference and low immobility, 30% exhibited either only high immobility or only low sucrose preference, and 21% exhibited both high immobility and low preference. Dams exhibiting depressive-like activity on either or both tests displayed increased self-directed behaviors and decreased active nurturing during the dark phase of the diurnal cycle. This is the first study to characterize undisturbed nurturing and non-nurturing behaviors, and use both sucrose preference and immobility in the forced swim test, to classify PPD endophenotypes exhibited by rat dams following parturition. The present study underscores the idea that multiple tests should be used to characterize depressive-like behavior, which is highly heterogeneous in both the human and laboratory animal populations.

  6. Predictors and moderators of between-therapists and within-therapist differences in depressed outpatients' experiences of the Rogerian conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuroff, David C; Shahar, Golan; Blatt, Sidney J; Kelly, Allison C; Leybman, Michelle J

    2016-03-01

    The extent to which patients experience their therapists as providing empathy, positive regard and genuineness (the Rogerian Conditions) is an important predictor of outcome in the psychotherapy of depression (Zuroff & Blatt, 2006). Using data from 157 depressed outpatients treated by 27 therapists in the cognitive-behavior therapy, interpersonal therapy, or clinical management with placebo conditions of the Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program (Elkin et al., 1989), Zuroff, Kelly, Leybman, Blatt, and Wampold (2010) showed that between-therapists and within-therapist differences in Rogerian Conditions at the second treatment session predicted more rapid reductions in overall maladjustment. We conducted novel analyses intended to identify: 1) predictors of between-therapists and within-therapist differences in Rogerian Conditions and 2) moderators of the effects on maladjustment of between-therapists and within-therapist differences in Rogerian Conditions. Patients with lower levels of self-critical perfectionism, higher levels of an adaptive form of dependency or higher expectations of warmth from their therapists experienced higher levels of Rogerian Conditions than their therapist's average patient. High baseline self-critical perfectionism diminished the between-therapists effect of Rogerian Conditions on maladjustment, whereas baseline adaptive dependency enhanced the within-therapist effect of Rogerian Conditions. Results shed additional light on the centrality of patient characteristics, the Rogerian Conditions, and their transactions and interactions on outcome in brief outpatient therapy for depression.

  7. Comparison of children's self-reports of depressive symptoms among different family interaction types in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Lee-Lan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that family interactions are associated with depressive symptoms in children. However, detailed classifications of family interaction types have not been studied thoroughly. This study aims to understand the types of family interactions children experience and to identify the specific types of family interactions that are associated with a higher risk of depressive symptoms in children. Methods Data used in the study was collected as part of the Child and Adolescent Behavior in Long term Evolution (CABLE project in 2003. CABLE is a longitudinal cohort study that commenced in 2001 and collects data annually from children in Taipei city and Hsinchu county in northern Taiwan. The data analyzed in this study was that obtained from the sixth graders (aged 11 to 12 years old in 2003. Of the 2,449 sixth graders, 51.2% were boys and 48.8% were girls. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to investigate the types of family interactions. One way ANOVA was used to establish the relationship between family interaction types and children's self-reports of depressive symptoms. Results Based on the results of factor analysis, the latent factors for family interactions included supporting activities, psychological control, parental discipline, behavioral supervision, and family conflict. After conducting cluster analysis using factor scores, four types of family interactions were revealed: supervised (29.66%, disciplined (13.56%, nurtured (40.96% and conflict (15.82%. Children from the disciplined or conflict families were more likely to report depressive symptoms. Children from the nurtured families were least likely to report depressive symptoms. Conclusion Family interactions can be classified into four different types, which are related to children's self-reports of depressive symptoms. The creation of a family interaction environment that is beneficial for children's mental health is an important

  8. Sadness and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression A A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  9. Sadness and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Sadness and Depression KidsHealth > For Kids > Sadness and Depression Print A ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  10. Depression in schizophrenia: the influence of the different dimensions of insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdrahi, David; Denard, Sophie; Swendsen, Joel; Jaussent, Isabelle; Courtet, Philippe

    2014-04-30

    Improving insight in patients with schizophrenia appears necessary to enhance medication adherence and clinical outcome, but in some patients acquiring insight can paradoxically increase hopelessness, depression and suicidal behavior. The aim of this study is to explore the association of two dimensions of insight (cognitive and clinical) with depression, hopelessness and clinical variables in patients with psychosis. Using a cross-sectional design, 61 remitted outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders were included. Insight was assessed using the "Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder" (SUMD), the PANSS-item G12 and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). Overall, 41.2% of the sample had a history of suicide attempts. Patients in the high clinical insight group had significantly higher depression scores, higher hopelessness scores, greater histories of suicide attempts and were more likely to have received psychoeducation. Compared to patients with low cognitive insight, those with high overall cognitive insight were significantly more depressed and had more often received psychoeducation. Greater insight may have negative consequences in terms of depressive symptoms and therefore presents a challenge to clinicians in assessing the individual risks and benefits of strategies intended to enhance awareness of mental disorder.

  11. Regional cortical gray matter thickness differences associated with type 2 diabetes and major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajilore, Olusola; Narr, Katherine; Rosenthal, Jonah; Pham, Daniel; Hamilton, Liberty; Watari, Kecia; Elderkin-Thompson, Virginia; Darwin, Christine; Toga, Arthur; Kumar, Anand

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of type 2 diabetes with major depression on cortical gray matter using magnetic resonance imaging and cortical pattern matching techniques. We hypothesized that diabetic subjects and depressed diabetic subjects would demonstrate decreased cortical gray matter thickness in prefrontal areas as compared to healthy control subjects. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes (n=26) and patients diabetes and major depression (n=26) were compared with healthy controls (n=20). Gray matter thickness across the entire cortex was measured using cortical pattern matching methods. Results All subjects with diabetes demonstrated decreased cortical gray matter thickness in the left anterior cingulate region. Additionally, depressed diabetic subjects showed significant cortical gray matter decreases in bilateral prefrontal areas compared with healthy controls. Correlations between clinical variables and cortical gray matter thickness revealed a significant negative relationship with cerebrovascular risk factors across all three groups, most consistently in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. A significant positive relationship between performance on attention and executive function tasks and cortical gray matter thickness predominately in left hemisphere regions was also seen across all subjects. Conclusion Depression and diabetes are associated with significant cortical gray matter thinning in medial prefrontal areas. PMID:20832254

  12. Exploring men's and women's experiences of depression and engagement with health professionals: more similarities than differences? A qualitative interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziebland Sue

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is argued that the ways in which women express emotional distress mean that they are more likely to be diagnosed with depression, while men's relative lack of articulacy means their depression is hidden. This may have consequences for communicating with health professionals. The purpose of this analysis was to explore how men and women with depression articulate their emotional distress, and examine whether there are gender differences or similarities in the strategies that respondents found useful when engaging with health professionals. Methods In-depth qualitative interviews with 22 women and 16 men in the UK who identified themselves as having had depression, recruited through general practitioners, psychiatrists and support groups. Results We found gender similarities and gender differences in our sample. Both men and women found it difficult to recognise and articulate mental health problems and this had consequences for their ability to communicate with health professionals. Key gender differences noted were that men tended to value skills which helped them to talk while women valued listening skills in health professionals, and that men emphasised the importance of getting practical results from talking therapies in their narratives, as opposed to other forms of therapy which they conceptualised as 'just talking'. We also found diversity among women and among men; some respondents valued a close personal relationship with health professionals, while others felt that this personal relationship was a barrier to communication and preferred 'talking to a stranger'. Conclusion Our findings suggest that there is not a straightforward relationship between gender and engagement with health professionals for people with depression. Health professionals need to be sensitive to patients who have difficulties in expressing emotional distress and critical of gender stereotypes which suggest that women invariably find it easy to

  13. Heterosexism, Depression, and Campus Engagement Among LGBTQ College Students: Intersectional Differences and Opportunities for Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulick, Alex; Wernick, Laura J; Woodford, Michael R; Renn, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    LGBTQ people experience health disparities related to multilevel processes of sexual and gender marginalization, and intersections with racism can compound these challenges for LGBTQ people of color. Although community engagement may be protective for mental health broadly and for LGBTQ communities in buffering against heterosexism, little research has been conducted on the racialized dynamics of these processes among LGBTQ communities. This study analyzes cross-sectional survey data collected among a diverse sample of LGBTQ college students (n = 460), which was split by racial status. Linear regression models were used to test main effects of interpersonal heterosexism and engagement with campus organizations on depression, as well as moderating effects of campus engagement. For White LGBTQ students, engaging in student leadership appears to weaken the heterosexism-depression link-specifically, the experience of interpersonal microaggressions. For LGBTQ students of color, engaging in LGBTQ-specific spaces can strengthen the association between sexual orientation victimization and depression.

  14. Do gender differences in depression remain after controlling for early maladaptive schemas? An examination in a sample of opioid dependent treatment seeking adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Stuart, Gregory L; Anderson, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The abuse of opioids is a serious and prevalent problem and research is needed on factors that may place individuals at risk for misusing opioids. Depression is a common co-morbid mental health problem among opioid users. Theory and research suggest that early maladaptive schemas may underlie mental health problems including depression and substance abuse. The current study sought to determine whether early maladaptive schemas were associated with depression among a treatment seeking sample of male and female opioid users (n = 194). We also examined whether depression, as assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Second Edition, varied by gender and whether gender differences in depression remained after controlling for early maladaptive schemas. Results showed that women scored significantly higher than men on three of the five early maladaptive schema domains and that gender did not predict depression after controlling for schema domains. Early maladaptive schemas were also more strongly associated with depression for men than women. Implications of these findings for interventions and future research are discussed. Individuals with opioid dependence have a number of early maladaptive schemas that may be contributing to the onset and maintenance of substance use. Although there are generally broad gender differences in major depression, findings from the current study suggest that early maladaptive schemas are a better predictor of depressive symptoms than gender among opioid dependent adults. The treatment of opioid dependence, with or without co-morbid depressive symptoms, should target early maladaptive schemas. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. TREATMENT EFFECTS OF TAI CHI EXERCISE IN A PATIENT WITH MAJOR DEPRESSION USING MISMATCH NEGATIVITY (MMN) AND EARLY NEGATIVE DIFFERENCE (NDE)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenchao; Sawada, Masayuki; IKESHITA, Katsumi; Negoro, Hideki; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether Tai Chi exercise had treatment effects for major depression using objective measures. We used mismatch negativity (MMN) and early negative difference (Nde), one of event-related potentials (ERPs) as objective measures. We administered 24-style Tai Chi exercise twice a week during 3 months to a patient with major depression. Consequently, not only depressive symptoms but also small MMN and Nde amplitudes improved accompanying 24-style Tai Chi exercise. Theref...

  16. Evaluation of CNS depressant activity of different plant parts of Nyctanthes arbortristis linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sanjita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the water-soluble portion of the ethanol extracts of flowers, barks, seeds and leaves of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. to confirm their CNS depressant activity. The ethanol extracts of the plant parts were obtained by soxhlet extraction. After performing the gross behavioral study, the CNS depressant activity was evaluated by observing the prolongation of sleeping time induced by pentobarbital sodium in mice. Attempts have been made to explore the possible mechanism behind this activity by determining their effect on brain monoamine neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin. The gross behavioral study showed that ethanol extracts of the leaves, flowers and seeds possess significant CNS depressant activity. The leaves, flowers, seeds and barks (600 mg/kg showed significant and dose-dependent prolongation of onset and duration of sleep and so found to cause decrease dopamine and increase serotonin level. From which it can be concluded that the CNS depressant activity of the ethanol extracts of seeds, leaves and flowers may be due to the decrease in dopamine and increase in serotonin level.

  17. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue and depression in different age groups from Crete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamalakis, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of cross-sectional studies on the relationship of depression with adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been described. The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether adipose tissue n-3 fatty acids, an objective index or biomarker of long-term or habitual

  18. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue and depression in different age groups from Crete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamalakis, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of cross-sectional studies on the relationship of depression with adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been described. The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether adipose tissue n-3 fatty acids, an objective index or biomarker of long-term or habitual

  19. Gender differences in the prevalence of depression : a survey in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maier, W; Gansicke, M; Gater, R; Rezaki, M; Tiemens, B; Urzua, RF

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys demonstrate that unipolar depression is more common in females than in males. Gender-specific cultural and social factors may contribute to the female preponderance. This study explores this possibility in a cross-cultural sample of general-practice patients systematically re

  20. Depression, Suicidal Ideation, and Suicidal Attempt Presenting to the Emergency Department: Differences Between These Cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirachin Hoonpongsimanont

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The World Health Organization estimates that one million people die by suicide every year. Few studies have looked at factors associated with disposition in patients with chief complaints of depression, suicidal ideation (SI and suicidal attempts (SA who present to the emergency department (ED. Our objective was to assess individual determinants associated with ED disposition of patients in depressed patients presenting to the ED. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2006 to 2008. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with discharge, in SI, SA and depression patients. Independent variables included socio-demographic information, vital signs, mode of arrival, insurance status, place of residence and concomitant psychiatric diagnosis. Results: Of the 93,030 subjects, 2,314 met the inclusion criteria (1,362 depression, 353 SI and 599 SA. Patients who arrived by ambulance were less likely to be discharged (odds ratio [OR] 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43-0.92. Hispanic patients and patients age 15 to 29 were likely to be discharged (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.16-2.24 and OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.15-2.10 respectively. Insurance status and housing status were not significantly associated patient was being discharge from EDs. Conclusion: The Hispanic population had higher discharge rates, but the reasons are yet to be explored. Patients with SA and SI are discharged less frequently than those with depression, regardless of insurance type or housing status. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:211–216.

  1. Race and Ethnic Group Differences in Comorbid Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Chronic Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Daphne C; Assari, Shervin; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2015-09-01

    This study tested whether race and ethnic group differences exist for lifetime major depressive disorder and/or general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions. Data from the National Survey of American Life, which included 3570 African American, 1438 Caribbean Black, and 891 non-Hispanic White adults were analyzed. Outcomes included at least one and multiple chronic medical conditions, from a list of 14 medical conditions (e.g., arthritis, cancer, diabetes, kidney disease, stroke, heart disease, etc.). Logistic regressions were fitted to data to determine how the association between major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, and one or more chronic medical conditions vary across race and ethnicity. Lifetime major depressive disorder (but not lifetime general anxiety disorder) was associated with at least one chronic medical condition among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks, but not non-Hispanic Whites. Lifetime major depressive disorder was similarly associated with multiple chronic medical conditions among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites. For Caribbean Blacks, stronger associations were found between major depressive disorder and general anxiety disorder with one or more chronic medical conditions compared to African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Findings suggest that race and ethnicity may shape the links between comorbid psychiatric disorders and chronic medical conditions. Mental health screening of individuals with chronic medical conditions in primary health-care settings may benefit from tailoring based on race and ethnicity. More research is needed to understand why associations between physical and mental health vary among race and ethnic groups.

  2. Are there Gender, Racial, or Relationship Differences in Caregiver Task Difficulty, Depressive Symptoms, and Life Changes among Stroke Family Caregivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Nenette M.; Bakas, Tamilyn; McLennon, Susan M.; Weaver, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine differences in caregiver perceptions of task difficulty, depressive symptoms, and life changes based on caregiver characteristics of gender, race, and type of relationship to the person with stroke. Methods A sample of 243 stroke caregivers (females n =191; males n =52; non-African Americans n= 184; African Americans n=59; non-spouses n =127; spouses n =116) were interviewed by telephone within 8 weeks of the survivor’s discharge to home. Measures included the Oberst Caregiving Burden Scale (OCBS) for task difficulty, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depressive symptoms, and Bakas Caregiving Outcomes Scale (BCOS) for life changes. Three general linear models computed differences in OCBS, PHQ9, and OCBS scores. Results Significant differences were found on the OCBS for females (pstroke caregivers are relatively more likely to experience task difficulty, depressive symptoms, and negative life changes as a result of providing care. African American spouses were also at risk. Tailoring interventions based on caregivers’ characteristics may improve outcomes. PMID:25141098

  3. Differences in symptoms, functioning, and quality of life between women on long-term sick-leave with musculoskeletal pain with and without concomitant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Gunilla Brodda; Linder, Jürgen; Ekholm, Kristina Schüldt; Ekholm, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to describe the differences in symptoms, functioning and quality of life between women on long-term sick-leave due to protracted musculoskeletal pain with and without concomitant depression. Descriptive and comparisons with/without comorbid depression. 332 female patients were examined by three specialist physicians in psychiatry, orthopedic surgery, and rehabilitation medicine and assigned to four groups according to the ICD-10 diagnoses: low back/joint disorders (LBJ, n = 150), myalgia (M, n = 43), fibromyalgia (FM, n = 87), or depression without somatic pain diagnosis (DE, n = 52). Patients with somatic pain conditions LBJ, M, or FM showed more activity-related difficulties if concomitant depression was present during the activities 'focusing attention', 'making decisions', and 'undertaking a single task'; and in the domains 'energy level', 'memory functions', 'emotional functions', and 'optimism/pessimism'. Patients with FM and concomitant depression perceived higher pain intensity than patients in group DE. No statistically significant differences in physically related activities were noted between each of the somatic pain conditions with and without coexisting depression. FM patients with coexisting depression reported fewer painful sites on their pain drawings compared with FM-patients without depression. Patients with LBJ or FM and concomitant depression reported lower quality of life in the dimensions vitality, social functioning, emotional role, and mental health. Comorbid depression affected disability and restricted working capacity by reducing mental activity and functioning but not by affecting physical activity problems. Women on long-term sick-leave, who have concomitant depression with LBJ or FM, also have more difficulties in focusing attention, making decisions, and carrying out tasks, and with memory functions and optimism/pessimism, as well as reduced quality of life in the dimensions of vitality, social functioning, emotional role

  4. Organization of the upper limb movement for piano key-depression differs between expert pianists and novice players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Shinichi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    The present study investigated the expert-novice difference in the organization of upper-limb movement for the key-depression on the piano. Kinematic and electromyographic recordings were made while experts (N = 7) and novices (N = 7) of classical-piano players performed a right hand octave keystroke to produce four different sound dynamics. The joint torque generated at the key-bottom moment (key-force torque) was also estimated. At all sound dynamics, the experts showed a larger finger attack angle, more flexed shoulder, wrist, and MP joints, more extended elbow joint, and smaller key-force torque at the MP joint than the novices. The level of co-activation in the finger flexor-extensor muscles during the period prior to the key-bottom moment was also lower for the experts. To attain the large attack angle by the experts, as the fingertip depressed the key to the bottom, their shoulder was actively flexed, the forearm was thrust forward, and the hand was rotated forward. The novices, on the other hand, actively extended their shoulder to move the forearm and hand downward to depress the key. These results confirmed a substantial difference in the key-depression movement organization between the experts and novices. These findings also suggest that experts use a synergistically organized multi-joint limb motion that allows them to minimize the biomechanical load and muscular effort to the distal muscles. The novices, on the other hand, tend to rely on a rudimentary synergy of joint motion developed through daily experience.

  5. Ethnic Minorities with Diabetes Differ in Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms and Diabetes-Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter van Loon, Bert Jan; Torensma, Bart; Snoek, Frank J.; Honig, Adriaan

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the association between ethnicity, diabetes-distress, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in adult outpatients with diabetes. Research Design and Methods. Diabetes-distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale, PAID5), depressive and anxiety symptoms (Extended Kessler-10, EK10), and quality of life (Short-Form 12, SF12) were assessed in an ethnic diverse diabetes outpatient population of a teaching hospital in Amsterdam. Descent of one's parents and self-classified ethnicity were obtained to define ethnicity. HbA1c, clinical data, and socioeconomic status were derived from the medical charts. Based on established cut-offs for PAID5- and EK10-scores, emotional distress was dichotomized for the purpose of logistic regression analyses. Results. Of 1007 consecutive patients approached, 575 participated. Forty-nine percent were of non-Dutch ethnicity and 24.7% had type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-distress was reported by 12.5% of the native Dutch patients and by 22.0%, 34.5%, and 42.6% of the Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan patients, respectively. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 9.4% in native Dutch patients and 20.4%, 34.5%, and 27.3% in the other groups mentioned. Diabetes-distress and Moroccan origin were significantly associated (OR = 3.60, p clinical attention. Future research should elucidate explanatory factors and opportunities for tailored interventions. PMID:28373992

  6. Gender differences in the prevalence of depression: a survey in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, W; Gänsicke, M; Gater, R; Rezaki, M; Tiemens, B; Urzúa, R F

    1999-06-01

    Epidemiological surveys demonstrate that unipolar depression is more common in females than in males. Gender-specific cultural and social factors may contribute to the female preponderance. This study explores this possibility in a cross-cultural sample of general-practice patients systematically recruited in the WHO study "Psychological Problems in Primary Care" conducted in 14 countries with identical sampling and assessment strategies. Although absolute prevalence rates are broadly varying between centers proposing that the gender ratio is nearly constant with 1:2. The cultural context does not contribute substantially to the female preponderance. This study lends some support to previous observations that the magnitude of female preponderance is associated with the number of symptoms associated with depression requested for caseness and inversely related to the degree of social impairment. Matching social role variables (marital status, children, occupational status) between females and males reduces the female excess by about 50% across all centers. Therefore, we conclude that social factors are inducing part of the preponderance of females among depressed cases.

  7. Different Kinetics of Puerarin in Plasma of Normal and Depressed Rats After Oral Administration of Chinese Medicine TZ18

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the puerarin in rat plasma following oral administration of TZ18 and compare the pharmacokinetics characteristics of puerarin in normal rats with that in depression model rats. A high performance liquid chromatography method was used to quantify the puerarin due to its Intra- and inter-day precision coefficients of variation and accuracy bias were acceptable (Maximum coefficient of variation was 5.74% for intra-day and 3.09% for inter-day) over the entire range. The recoveries spectively. The concentration-time curves for both normal rats and depression model rats were fit to a twocompartment model with the first order absorption. The results show significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of peak time, peak concentration, and the area under the concentration-time curve between the two kinds of rats.

  8. Differences in anxiety and depression between male and female caregivers of children with a disorder of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Fedele, David A; Mullins, Larry L; Lakshmanan, Yegappan; Wisniewski, Amy B

    2014-07-01

    To examine whether male and female caregivers of children with a disorder of sex development (DSD) differ in levels of anxious and depressive symptoms. Participants included 80 caregivers (40 males, 40 females) of 40 children with a DSD. Children were categorized based on illness characteristics including ambiguous genitalia, life-threatening, and life-threatening with ambiguous genitalia. Caregivers completed measures of anxious and depressive symptoms. A significant caregiver × diagnosis interaction for anxious symptoms emerged, with male caregivers of children with both ambiguous genitalia and a life-threatening condition reporting significantly lower levels of anxious symptoms than female caregivers of the same children. The findings are surprising because of the low level of anxious symptoms reported by male caregivers of children with a complex DSD. It is possible that they have disengaged themselves from the child and/or diagnosis, causing their female counterparts to take on more responsibility.

  9. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why. Depression symptoms in children and teens Common signs and ... in normal activities, and avoidance of social interaction. Depression symptoms in older adults Depression is not a ...

  10. Analysis of similarities and differences of treatment with traditional Chinese medicine between post stroke depression and depression%脑卒中后抑郁与抑郁症中医辨治异同的探讨分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴新萍; 赵文涛

    2016-01-01

    Using the relevant information,we analyzed the similarities and differences of treatment with traditional Chinese medicine between post stroke depression and depression.The results showed that in patients with depression and depression after stroke,the etiology and pathogenesis and the severity of the symptoms were quite different,and there were some differences in different stages of Chinese medicine treatment in patients with depression and depression after stroke.%采用有关资料,对脑卒中后抑郁及抑郁症的中医辨治异同进行分析。结果显示脑卒中后抑郁及抑郁症病因病机及病位症状的严重程度都有较大差异,致使脑卒中后抑郁与抑郁症不同阶段的中医治疗也存在一定差异。

  11. The minimal important difference of the hospital anxiety and depression scale in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büchi Stefan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpretation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, commonly used to assess anxiety and depression in COPD patients, is unclear. Since its minimal important difference has never been established, our aim was to determine it using several approaches. Methods 88 COPD patients with FEV1 ≤ 50% predicted completed the HADS and other patient-important outcome measures before and after an inpatient respiratory rehabilitation. For the anchor-based approach we determined the correlation between the HADS and the anchors that have an established minimal important difference (Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire [CRQ] and Feeling Thermometer. If correlations were ≥ 0.5 we performed linear regression analyses to predict the minimal important difference from the anchors. As distribution-based approach we used the Effect Size approach. Results Based on CRQ emotional function and mastery domain as well as on total scores, the minimal important difference was 1.41 (95% CI 1.18–1.63 and 1.57 (1.37–1.76 for the HADS anxiety score and 1.68 (1.48–1.87 and 1.60 (1.38–1.82 for the HADS total score. Correlations of the HADS depression score and CRQ domain and Feeling Thermometer scores were Conclusion The minimal important difference of the HADS is around 1.5 in COPD patients corresponding to a change from baseline of around 20%. It can be used for the planning and interpretation of trials.

  12. Antidepressant Therapy in Severe Depression May Have Different Effects on Ego-Dystonic and Ego-Syntonic Suicidal Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Brådvik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate whether ego-dystonic and ego-syntonic suicidal ideation occurred at different frequencies during antidepressant therapy. A blind evaluation has been performed on records of 100 suicides with a primary severe depression and 100 matched controls, admitted to the Department of Psychiatry, Lund, Sweden. Ego-dystonic suicidal ideation was more commonly reported during adequate treatment as compared to ego-syntonic ideation (P=.004. Men who committed suicide during adequate antidepressant therapy more often reported ego-dystonic suicidal ideation earlier in their lives compared with those who were not treated (P=.0377. This may indicate that treatment failure for ego-dystonic ideation was a precursor of their suicides. Consequently, ego-dystonic ideation seems to show a poorer response to antidepressant therapy as compared to ego-syntonic ideation, which may be more directly related to depression. Ego-dystonic ideation is proposed to be related to depressive psychosis.

  13. Brain network reorganization differs in response to stress in rats genetically predisposed to depression and stress-resilient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, N; Becker, R; Schwarz, A J; Weber-Fahr, W; Clemm von Hohenberg, C; Vollmayr, B; Sartorius, A

    2016-12-06

    Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remains a pressing clinical problem. Optimizing treatment requires better definition of the specificity of the involved brain circuits. The rat strain bred for negative cognitive state (NC) represents a genetic animal model of TRD with high face, construct and predictive validity. Vice versa, the positive cognitive state (PC) strain represents a stress-resilient phenotype. Although NC rats show depressive-like behavior, some symptoms such as anhedonia require an external trigger, i.e. a stressful event, which is similar to humans when stressful event induces a depressive episode in genetically predisposed individuals (gene-environment interaction). We aimed to distinguish neurobiological predisposition from the depressogenic pathology at the level of brain-network reorganization. For this purpose, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging time series were acquired at 9.4 Tesla scanner in NC (N=11) and PC (N=7) rats before and after stressful event. We used a graph theory analytical approach to calculate the brain-network global and local properties. There was no difference in the global characteristics between the strains. At the local level, the response in the risk strain was characterized with an increased internodal role and reduced local clustering and efficiency of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and prelimbic cortex compared to the stress-resilient strain. We suggest that the increased internodal role of these prefrontal regions could be due to the enhancement of some of their long-range connections, given their connectivity with the amygdala and other default-mode-like network hubs, which could create a bias to attend to negative information characteristic for depression.

  14. The pharmacology of effort-related choice behavior: Dopamine, depression, and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Yohn, Samantha; Lopez Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemi; Alatorre, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    This review paper is focused upon the involvement of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) and related brain systems in effort-based processes. Interference with DA transmission affects instrumental behavior in a manner that interacts with the response requirements of the task, such that rats with impaired DA transmission show a heightened sensitivity to ratio requirements. Impaired DA transmission also affects effort-related choice behavior, which is assessed by tasks that offer a choice between a preferred reinforcer that has a high work requirement vs. less preferred reinforcer that can be obtained with minimal effort. Rats and mice with impaired DA transmission reallocate instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response costs, and show increased selection of low reinforcement/low cost options. Tests of effort-related choice have been developed into models of pathological symptoms of motivation that are seen in disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. These models are being employed to explore the effects of conditions associated with various psychopathologies, and to assess drugs for their potential utility as treatments for effort-related symptoms. Studies of the pharmacology of effort-based choice may contribute to the development of treatments for symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia, which are seen in depression and other disorders.

  15. Parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic achievement: ethnic, gender, and SES differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziszewska, B; Richardson, J L; Dent, C W; Flay, B R

    1996-06-01

    This paper examines whether the relationship between parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic grades varies according to ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Four parenting styles are distinguished, based on patterns of parent-adolescent decision making: autocratic (parents decide), authoritative (joint process but parents decide), permissive (joint process but adolescent decides), and unengaged (adolescent decides). The sample included 3993 15-year-old White, Hispanic, African-American, and Asian adolescents. Results are generally consistent with previous findings: adolescents with authoritative parents had the best outcomes and those with unengaged parents were least well adjusted, while the permissive and the autocratic styles produced intermediate results. For the most part, this pattern held across ethnic and sociodemographic subgroups. There was one exception, suggesting that the relationship between parenting styles, especially the unengaged style, and depressive symptoms may vary according to gender and ethnicity. More research is needed to replicate and explain this pattern in terms of ecological factors, cultural norms, and socialization goals and practices.

  16. The Relationship between Autobiographical Self-Focus and Memory Specificity/Overgenerality: differences between Individuals with and without a Diagnosis of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bender

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research has revealed that clinical depression is related to reduced specificity and/or overgenerality in autobiographical memory. We set out to investigate this relationship by comparing depressed (n = 40 and non-depressed (n = 40 individuals not only in terms of autobiographical memory specificity/generality, but also in terms of narrative structure. Specificity was assessed with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 and participants also provided open-ended memories, which were analyzed for autobiographical cognitive complexity (Woike, 1994. Narrative differentiation, as an indicator of self-focus, was negatively related to specificity and positively to overgenerality of particularly negative autobiographical memories - but only in the depressed sample. Relationships were significantly different among non-depressed individuals. Results are discussed in the context of the relation between specificity/overgenerality and self-focus.

  17. Individual differences in the time course of reward processing: Stage-specific links with depression and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Brittni K; Novak, Keisha D; Lynam, Donald R; Foti, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Reward dysfunction has been implicated in a wide range of psychological disorders, including internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Basic neuroscience research has shown that reward is a multistage process, yet it is unclear how specific stages relate to individual differences in reward sensitivity. The current study utilized event-related potentials elicited during a monetary incentive task to parse sub-stages within anticipatory and consummatory reward processing. Effects of depressive symptoms and trait impulsivity were examined at each sub-stage (N=92). Reward anticipation modulated neural activity across three sub-stages: cue detection (cue-P3), approach behavior (contingent negative variation, CNV), and outcome anticipation (stimulus preceding negativity). Reward delivery modulated activity across two sub-stages: initial evaluation (reward positivity, RewP), and allocation of attention (feedback-P3). Sensation seeking predicted faster reaction times, as well as cue-P3 and RewP amplitudes. Depression and lack of premeditation interacted to predict CNV and RewP amplitudes. Results demonstrate that individual differences in reward functioning are stage-specific.

  18. Regional difference of glucose metabolism reduction in equivocal Alzheimer's disease and elderly depressed patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S. S.; Kang, E. J.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, K. U.; Chung, J. K.; Woo, J. I.; Lee, M. C. [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in cerebral glucose metabolism between patients with equivocal Alzheimer's disease (eAD) and those with elderly major depression (DEP). 31 patients with eAD, 7 patients with DEP, and 15 age matched normal controls were scanned with FDG-PET. Each FDG-PET images was normalized to the cerebellar activity before voxel-voxel analysis using SPM99. In comparison with normal controls, the eAD patents showed the most significant reduction of glucose metabolism (hypometabolism) in anterior inferior temporal gyrus in left, followed by bilateral posterior cingulate, left thalamus, and inferior parietal lobe. Patients with DEP showed hypometabolism in precuneus, inferior and middle frontal gyri in left, and right angular gyrus. Significantly lower activity was found in left inferior temporal gyrus in DEP in comparison to the eAD. Patients with eAD and DEP showed different pattern of hypometabolism, especially in inferior temporal gyrus. FDG brain PET may be useful in differential diagnosis between equivocal Alzheimer's disease and elderly depression.

  19. Reduced density of glutamine synthetase immunoreactive astrocytes in different cortical areas in major depression but not in bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Meyer-Lotz, Gabriela; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Bannier, Jana; Steiner, Johann; Walter, Martin; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for disturbances within the glutamate system in patients with affective disorders, which involve disruptions of the glutamate-glutamine-cycle. The mainly astroglia-located enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia and glutamate to form glutamine, thus playing a central role in glutamate and glutamine homoeostasis. However, GS is also expressed in numerous oligodendrocytes (OLs), another class of glial cells implicated in mood disorder pathology. To learn more about the role of glia-associated GS in mental illnesses, we decided to find out if numerical densities of glial cells immunostained for the enzyme protein differ between subjects with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder (BD), and psychically healthy control cases. Counting of GS expressing astrocytes (ACs) and OLs in eight cortical and two subcortical brain regions of subjects with mood disorder (N = 14), BD (N = 15), and controls (N = 16) revealed that in major depression the densities of ACs were significantly reduced in some cortical but not subcortical gray matter areas, whereas no changes were found for OLs. In BD no alterations of GS-immunoreactive glia were found. From our findings we conclude that (1) GS expressing ACs are prominently involved in glutamate-related disturbances in major depression, but not in BD and (2) GS expressing OLs, though being present in significant numbers in prefrontal cortical areas, play a minor (if any) role in mood disorder pathology. The latter assumption is supported by findings of others showing that - at least in the mouse brain cortex - GS immunoreactive oligodendroglial cells are unable to contribute to the glutamate-glutamine-cycle due to the complete lack of amino acid transporters (Takasaki et al., 2010).

  20. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  1. Postpartum Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne

    Background: In three academic articles, this PhD thesis investigates maternal postpartum depression (PPD) as a risk factor for the infant-mother attachment and infant development. Previous studies have been contradictory with respect to the question of whether PPD can have long term effects...... on offspring. This may be due to not differing between when PPD is only occurring in the postpartum period and when effects are also due to ongoing or recurrent depression. However, it may also be due to viewing maternal depression as a unitary construct, and not considering underlying maternal psychological...... difficulties which may moderate potential adverse effects. The present thesis investigates two potential maternal moderators of risk:. Comorbid personality disorder and adult attachment insecurity. Moreover, the question of early environmental effects of PPD versus effects of later or ongoing depression...

  2. Risk of major depression in patients with chronic renal failure on different treatment modalities: A matched-cohort and population-based study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Feng; Wang, I-Jen; Lang, Hui-Chu

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different treatment modalities on the risk of developing major depression in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) is not well understood. We aimed to explore the incidence of major depression among patients with CRF who were on different dialysis modalities, who had received renal transplantation (RT), and those who had not yet received any of the aforementioned renal replacement therapies. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using a national health insurance research database. This study investigated 89,336 study controls, 17,889 patients with chronic kidney disease on conservative treatment, 3823 patients on hemodialysis (HD), 351 patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD), and 322 patients who had RT. We followed all individuals until the occurrence of major depression or the date of loss to follow-up. The PD group had the highest risk (hazard ratio [HR] 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-4.69), whereas the RT group had the lowest risk (HR 0.18; 95% CI 0.03-1.29) of developing major depression compared with the control group. Patients initiated on PD had a higher risk of developing major depression than patients initiated on HD (pairwise comparison: HR 2.20; 95% CI 1.09-4.46). Different treatment modalities are associated with different risks of developing major depression in patients with CRF. Among renal replacement therapies, patients who have had RT have the lowest risk of developing major depression. Patients who initiate renal therapy on PD may have a higher risk of major depression compared with patients who initiate renal therapy on HD.

  3. Differences in prefrontal, limbic, and white matter lesion volumes according to cognitive status in elderly patients with first-onset subsyndromal depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Young Lee

    Full Text Available The purpose of this preliminary study was to test the hypothesis that subsyndromal depression is associated with the volume of medial prefrontal regional gray matter and that of white matter lesions (WMLs in the brains of cognitively normal older people. We also explored the relationships between subsyndromal depression and medial prefrontal regional gray matter volume, limbic regional gray matter volume, and lobar WMLs in the brains of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD. We performed a cross-sectional study comparing patients with subsyndromal depression and nondepressed controls with normal cognition (n = 59, MCI (n = 27, and AD (n = 27, adjusting for sex, age, years of education, and results of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Frontal WML volume was greater, and right medial orbitofrontal cortical volume was smaller in cognitively normal participants with subsyndromal depression than in those without subsyndromal depression. No volume differences were observed in medial prefrontal, limbic, or WML volumes according to the presence of subsyndromal depression in cognitively impaired patients. The absence of these changes in patients with MCI and AD suggests that brain changes associated with AD pathology may override the changes associated with subsyndromal depression.

  4. An Instrumental Variable Probit (IVP Analysis on Depressed Mood in Korea: The Impact of Gender Differences and Other Socio-Economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Gitto

    2015-08-01

    -economic factors (such as education, residence in metropolitan areas, and so on. As the results of the Wald test carried out after the estimations did not allow to reject the null hypothesis of endogeneity, a probit model was run too. Results Overall, women tend to develop depression more frequently than men. There is an inverse effect of education on depressed mood (probability of -24.6% to report a depressed mood due to high school education, as it emerges from the probit model marginal effects, while marital status and the number of family members may act as protective factors (probability to report a depressed mood of -1.0% for each family member. Depression is significantly associated with socio-economic conditions, such as work and income. Living in metropolitan areas is inversely correlated with depression (probability of -4.1% to report a depressed mood estimated through the probit model: this could be explained considering that, in rural areas, people rarely have immediate access to high-quality health services. Conclusion This study outlines the factors that are more likely to impact on depression, and applies an IVP model to take into account the potential endogeneity of some of the predictors of depressive mood, such as female participation to workforce and health status. A probit model has been estimated too. Depression is associated with a wide range of socioeconomic factors, although the strength and direction of the association can differ by gender. Prevention approaches to contrast depressive symptoms might take into consideration the evidence offered by the present study.

  5. Social capital - a mixed blessing for women? A cross-sectional study of different forms of social relations and self-rated depression in Moscow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlander, Sara; Stickley, Andrew; Kislitsyna, Olga; Jukkala, Tanya; Carlson, Per; Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik

    2016-07-22

    Depression is a major health problem worldwide, especially among women. The condition has been related to a number of factors, such as alcohol consumption, economic situation and, more recently, to social capital. However, there have been relatively few studies about the social capital-depression relationship in Eastern Europe. This paper aims to fill this gap by examining the association between different forms of social capital and self-rated depression in Moscow. Differences between men and women will also be examined, with a special focus on women. Data was obtained from the Moscow Health Survey, which was conducted in 2004 with 1190 Muscovites aged 18 years or above. For depression, a single-item self-reported measure was used. Social capital was operationalised through five questions about different forms of social relations. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to estimate the association between social capital and self-rated depression, separately for men and women. More women (48 %) than men (36 %) reported that they had felt depressed during the last year. An association was found between social capital and reported depression only among women. Women who were divorced or widowed or who had little contact with relatives had higher odds of reporting depression than those with more family contact. Women who regularly engaged with people from different age groups outside of their families were also more likely to report depression than those with less regular contact. Social capital can be a mixed blessing for women. Different forms of social relations can lead to different health outcomes, both positive and negative. Although the family is important for women's mental health in Moscow, extra-familial relations across age groups can be mentally distressing. This suggests that even though social capital can be a valuable resource for mental health, some of its forms can be mentally deleterious to maintain, especially for women. More research is

  6. Gender differences in the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yue; Hong, Lingyao; Guo, Lan; Gao, Xue; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-12-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among adolescents, with a particular focus on gender differences. A total of 19,578 middle and high school students in Chongqing Province were surveyed. Self-reported cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and family- and school-related factors were assessed. A total of 8.8% adolescents reported smoking cigarettes. Tobacco use by boys (16.5%) was significantly higher than by girls (1.9%). Approximately 23.5% of adolescents reported alcohol consumption. Consumption in boys (31.5%) was significantly higher than in girls (16.2%). Depressive symptoms were prevalent in 9.1% of the sample. Girls reported significantly more symptoms (10.4%) than boys (7.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the association between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms was stronger among girls (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.8-2.5) than boys (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4-2.1). A significant association (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4) between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms was revealed in girls only. The significant gender differences found above may provide a basis for the early identification of individuals at high risk for depression.

  7. Postpartum depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT) are types of talk therapy that often help postpartum depression. ...

  8. Gender differences in the association of depression with career indecisiveness, career-decision status, and career-preference crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadassi, Reuma; Waser, Ayelet; Gati, Itamar

    2015-10-01

    Depression has detrimental effects on broad areas of functioning. However, its association with career decision-making factors has been largely unexplored. In the present study, we focused on the association between career decision-making difficulties, career-decision status, and career-preference crystallization, on the one hand, and depression, on the other. The hypothesis that high levels of career decision-making difficulties, less advanced decision status, and low levels of preference crystallization are associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms was tested with a sample of 222 college seniors. In addition, since it has been found that work-related stressors are more often associated with depression among men than women, it was hypothesized that the associations between vocational factors and depression would be stronger for men than for women. The participants filled out online self-report questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms, emotional and personality-related career decision-making difficulties, career-decision status, and career preferences. The results indicated that self-concept and identity-related career decision-making difficulties were associated with depressive symptoms for both men and women. In addition, for men, but not for women, less crystallization of career preferences also predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms. These results show how important it is for counseling psychologists to understand the role of the individual's vocational situation in depression.

  9. Effects of difference in self-esteem between spouses on depressive symptom: Result from a data nationally representative of South Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Woorim; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-12-30

    Although there are many studies on self-esteem, no study has analyzed the relationship between depressive symptom and difference in self-esteem between spouses. We aimed to determine how differences in self-esteem between spouses are associated with depressive symptoms. We used data collected from 2011 to 2013 by the Korean Welfare Panel Study. The initial 2011 baseline data included 3257 married couples over 25 years of age. We used linear mixed-effects models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the data, to analyze the associations between the self-esteem of spouses and CESD-11 scores. About 20% of the respondents had different self-esteem with their intimate partners. Individuals with spouses having lower self-esteem than self significantly higher depression scores. Individuals with spouses having higher self-esteem than self had significantly lower depression scores regardless of sex. Our findings show how different self-esteem with their intimate partners could be associated with depressive symptoms and imply that one's self-esteem could affect the mental health of one's partner. Therefore, we should give more attention to self-esteem, which can affect families and society. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gender differences in quality of life and functional disability for depression outpatients with or without residual symptoms after acute phase treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Wang, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Hu, Yongdong; Niu, Yajuan; Wang, Xueyi; Gao, Chengge; Zhang, Ning; Fang, Yiru; Huang, Jizhong; Liu, Tiebang; Jia, Fujun; Zhu, Xuequan; Hu, Jian; Wang, Gang

    2017-09-01

    Depression is associated with substantial personal suffering and reduced quality of life and functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences on quality of life and functional impairment of outpatients with depression after acute phase treatment. 1503 depression outpatients were recruited from eleven hospitals in China. Subjects were evaluated with sociodemographic characteristics, history and self-report instruments, related to severity of symptoms, function and quality of life. All data were analyzed to determine the gender differences. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education compared to women in total patients and with or without residual symptoms group. Using regression analysis, it was found that gender was significantly statistically related to severity scores of SDS and had no correlation with Q-LES-Q-SF total scores. In the residual symptoms group, greater functional impairment was noted by men in the area of work and social life. Significant gender differences of mood, work and sexual life in quality of life were observed. This is a cross-sectional study of depressed outpatients and duration of acute phase treatment may not an adequate time to measure changes. Depression appears to affect men more seriously than women after acute phase treatment. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education, more functional impairment and lower satisfaction of quality of life in mood, work and sexual life. Gender differences affect acute treatment, remission and recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. How to compare scores from different depression scales: equating the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and the ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR) using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H Felix; Tritt, Karin; Klapp, Burghard F; Fliege, Herbert

    2011-12-01

    A wide range of questionnaires for measuring depression are available. Item Response Theory models can help to evaluate the questionnaires exceeding the boundaries of Classical Test Theory and provide an opportunity to equate the questionnaires. In this study after checking for unidimensionality, a General Partial Credit Model was applied to data from two different depression scales [Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR)] obtained in clinical settings from a consecutive sample, including 4517 observations from a total of 2999 inpatients and outpatients of a psychosomatic clinic. The precision of each questionnaire was compared and the model was used to transform scores based on the assumed underlying latent trait. Both instruments were constructed to measure the same construct and their estimates of depression severity are highly correlated. Our analysis showed that the predicted scores provided by the conversion tables are similar to the observed scores in a validation sample. The PHQ-9 and ISR depression scales measure depression severity across a broad range with similar precision. While the PHQ-9 shows advantages in measuring low or high depression severity, the ISR is more parsimonious and also suitable for clinical purposes. Furthermore, the equation tables derived in this study enhance the comparability of studies using either one of the instruments, but due to substantial statistical spread the comparison of individual scores is imprecise.

  12. Comparison of changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety following two different psychomotor therapy programs in nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Jan; Van de Vliet, Peter; Van Coppenolle, Herman; David, Ans; Peuskens, Joseph; Pieters, Guido; Knapen, Koen

    2005-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to compare the changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety after participation in one of two 16-week psychomotor therapy programs for nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients. The second objective was to study the relationship between changes in these variables. One hundred and ninety-nine inpatients were randomly assigned to either a personalized psychomotor fitness program, consisting of aerobic exercise and weight training, or a general program of psychomotor therapy, consisting of different forms of physical exercises and relaxation training. Physical self-concept was evaluated using the Dutch version of the Physical Self-Perception Profile at baseline, after 8 weeks, and after completion of the 16-week interventions. At the same time points, additional variables of global self-esteem, depression and anxiety were assessed by means of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. After 16 weeks, both groups showed significant improvements in all outcome measures (p values ranged from 0.01 to self-esteem and decreased depression and anxiety levels (p programs are equally effective in enhancing physical self-concept. The relationship between improvements in physical self-concept and enhancements in global self-esteem, depression and anxiety supports the potential role of the physical self-concept in the recovery process of depressed and anxious psychiatric inpatients. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Depressão e síndromes isquêmicas miocárdicas instáveis: diferenças entre homens e mulheres Depression and acute coronary syndromes: gender-related differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória Heloise Perez

    2005-11-01

    . METHODS: Three hundred forty-five consecutive patients with unstable myocardial ischemic syndrome (206 with myocardial infarction and 139 with unstable angina were interviewed. The interviews included questions about sociodemographics, smoking status, screening for depression (Prime MD e BDI, trait and state anxiety, (IDATE, and alcohol consumption (AUDIT. RESULTS: Diagnosis of depression has significantly correlated with female gender, age under 50 years, and higher average scores on trait anxiety and state anxiety. Depressed men (245 were usually younger than 50 years of age, smokers and had higher average score on trait anxiety and state anxiety than those non-depressed. The multivariate analysis highlights that age is negatively associated with depression (OR 0.9519 95% CI 0.9261 - 0.9784 and that higher scores on trait anxiety are positively associated (OR 1.0691 95% CI 1.0375 - 1.1017 with depression in the male gender. In the female sample (100, depressed women differ from non-depressed women in that they have a higher average score on trait anxiety and state anxiety. In the multivariate analysis of the female sample, a higher score on trait anxiety was independently associated with depression (OR 1.1267 95% CI 1.0632 - 1.1940. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that, among hospitalized patients with ACS, women, as well as men under 50 years and who suffer from anxiety are more likely to experience depression.

  14. Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis of Sex Differences in Depression and Prognosis in Persons With Myocardial Infarction : A MINDMAPS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doyle, Frank; McGee, Hannah; Conroy, Ronán; Conradi, Henk Jan; Meijer, Anna; Steeds, Richard; Sato, Hiroshi; Stewart, Donna E; Parakh, Kapil; Carney, Robert; Freedland, Kenneth; Anselmino, Matteo; Pelletier, Roxanne; Bos, Elisabeth H; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Using combined individual patient data from prospective studies, we explored sex differences in depression and prognosis post-myocardial infarction (MI) and determined whether disease indices could account for found differences. METHODS: Individual patient data analysis of 10,175 MI patie

  15. Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis of Sex Differences in Depression and Prognosis in Persons With Myocardial Infarction: A MINDMAPS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doyle, F.; McGee, H.; Conroy, R.; Conradi, H.J.; Meijer, E.; Steeds, A; Sato, H.; Stewart, D.; Parakh, K.; Carney, R.; Freedland, F.; Anselmino, M.; Pelletier, R.; Bos, E.; de Jonge, P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Using combined individual patient data from prospective studies, we explored sex differences in depression and prognosis post-myocardial infarction (MI) and determined whether disease indices could account for found differences. Methods: Individual patient data analysis of 10,175 MI patie

  16. Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis of Sex Differences in Depression and Prognosis in Persons With Myocardial Infarction : A MINDMAPS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doyle, Frank; Mcgee, Hannah; Conroy, Ronn; Conradi, Henk Jan; Meijer, Anna; Steeds, Richard; Sato, Hiroshi; Stewart, Donna E.; Parakh, Kapil; Carney, Robert; Freedland, Kenneth; Anselmino, Matteo; Pelletier, Roxanne; Bos, Elisabeth H.; de Jonge, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Using combined individual patient data from prospective studies, we explored sex differences in depression and prognosis post-myocardial infarction (MI) and determined whether disease indices could account for found differences. Methods: Individual patient data analysis of 10,175 MI patie

  17. Alterations of Hair and Nail Content of Selected Trace Elements in Nonoccupationally Exposed Patients with Chronic Depression from Different Geographical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Błażewicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if altered levels of selected trace elements manifest themselves during chronic depression. To identify elements strongly associated with chronic depression, relationships between the elemental contents of hair and nails and the interelement correlations were checked. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography were used to evaluate the contents of Zn, Cu, Co, Pb, Mn, and Fe in hair and nail samples from a total of 415 subjects (295 patients and 120 healthy volunteers. The study included logistic regression models to predict the probability of chronic depression. To investigate possible intercorrelations among the studied elements, the scaled principal component analysis was used. The research has revealed differences in TE levels in the group of depressed men and women in comparison to the healthy subjects. Statistically significant differences in both hair and nails contents of several elements were observed. Our study also provides strong evidence that the intermediary metabolism of certain elements is age- and gender-dependent. Zn, Mn, Pb, and Fe contents in hair/nails seem to be strongly associated with chronic depression. We found no statistically significant residence-related differences in the contents of studied elements in nonoccupationally exposed patients and healthy subjects.

  18. Race and Ethnic Differences in Hope and Hopelessness as Moderators of the Association between Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jameson K.; Visser, Preston L.; Chang, Edward C.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined trait hope and hopelessness as potential moderators of the association between depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior. Participants: A diverse sample of 372 college students. Methods: Depressive symptoms, hopelessness (Beck Hopelessness Scale), trait hope (Trait Hope Scale), and suicidal behaviors were assessed.…

  19. Multidimensional Perfectionism, Depression, and Satisfaction with Life: Differences among Perfectionists and Tests of a Stress-Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina L.; Gnilka, Philip B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, stress, depression, and satisfaction with life in a sample of undergraduate women. The authors found that maladaptive perfectionists had lower satisfaction with life and higher stress and depression scores compared with adaptive perfectionists. Results also…

  20. Serious diabetes-specific emotional problems in patients with type 2 diabetes who have different levels of comorbid depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokoszka, A; Pouwer, F; Jodko, A

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Depression is a common psychiatric problem in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2). A common view is that the burden of having DM2 contributes to the development of depression in DM2. Aim of the present study was to compare the levels of diabetes-specific emotional problems of DM2 patie...

  1. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191...

  2. Depression and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Marshall, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains four articles related to depression and aging. Compares normal adults with those having a major depressive disorder. Focuses on life satisfaction in the elderly, describing an individualized measure of life satisfaction. Describes similarities and differences between grief and depression. Contains a psychometric analysis of the Zung…

  3. Exploring the relevance of autonomy and relatedness for mental health in healthy and depressed women from two different cultures: when does culture matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkir, Nazli; Arens, Elisabeth A; Barnow, Sven

    2013-08-01

    It is well known that the absence of both autonomy and social support (relatedness) are two important etiologic pathways to major depressive disorder (MDD). However, cross-cultural researchers state that the implications of autonomy and relatedness for mental health vary across cultures. To test these assumptions, the current study investigated the relevance of autonomy and relatedness for mental health in healthy and depressed women from two different cultures (Germans and Turkish immigrants in Germany). One hundred and eight (108) women were evaluated for their levels of autonomy/relatedness satisfaction, for overall psychopathological complaints including depression, for affectivity and for perceived loneliness through self-report measures. Among healthy groups, relatedness satisfaction predicted better mental health in Turkish women, whereas in German women, autonomy satisfaction was the better mental health predictor. Within depressed groups however, cultural differences in mental health outcomes regarding autonomy were no longer evident. Autonomy was associated with higher levels of mental health in Turkish as well as in German patients. Our findings indicate that the relationship between autonomy and mental health is culture-specific in healthy women, but disappears in depressed women. These findings are discussed with consideration of clinical implications and an outlook regarding further research.

  4. Mutation-related differences in exploratory, spatial and depressive-like behavior in pcd and Lurcher cerebellar mutant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eTuma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum is not only essential for motor coordination but is also involved in cognitive and affective processes. These functions of the cerebellum and mechanisms of their disorders in cerebellar injury are not completely understood. There is a wide spectrum of cerebellar mutant mice which are used as models of hereditary cerebellar degenerations. Nevertheless, they differ in pathogenesis of manifestation of the particular mutation and also in the strain background. The aim of this work was to compare spatial navigation, learning and memory in pcd and Lurcher mice, two of the most frequently used cerebellar mutants. The mice were tested in the open field for exploration behavior, in the Morris water maze with visible as well as reversal hidden platform tasks and in the forced swimming test for motivation assessment. Lurcher mice showed different space exploration activity in the open field and a lower tendency to depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test compared with pcd mice. Severe deficit of spatial navigation was shown in both cerebellar mutants. However, the overall performance of Lurcher mice was better than that of pcd mutants. Lurcher mice showed the ability of visual guidance despite difficulties with the direct swim towards a goal. In the probe trial test, Lurcher mice preferred the visible platform rather than the more recent localization of the hidden goal.

  5. Racial/ethnic differences in the association of childhood adversities with depression and the role of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Nagy A; Belew, Daniel; Hao, Guang; Wang, Xiaoling; Treiber, Frank A; Stefanek, Michael; Yassa, Mark; Boswell, Elizabeth; McCall, W Vaughn; Su, Shaoyong

    2017-01-15

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) including childhood abuse and trauma increase depressive symptoms. The role of resilience and how it interacts with both ACEs and the potential development of depressive symptoms, including how race and ethnicity moderate these effects, are much less studied. The aims of this study were to examine: 1) whether there is a dose-response relationship between trauma and depressive symptoms; 2) whether early trauma affected European Americans (EA) and African Americans (AA) in a similar fashion; and 3) whether resilience mitigates the effect of trauma. The present study comprised a cross-sectional study of subjects from a longitudinal cohort. All subjects were 19 years or older with traumatic experiences prior to age 18. Subjects were assessed for depressive symptoms as well as resilience. In 413 subjects enrolled, ACEs were significantly associated with depression severity in a dose-response fashion (presilience showed less depressive symptoms compared to those with low resilience (presilience mitigated the impact of childhood adversities on depressive symptoms in young adults. The results are encouraging, and guides research for therapeutics to boost resilience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prediction of Depression in Cancer Patients With Different Classification Criteria, Linear Discriminant Analysis versus Logistic Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayan, Zahra; Mohammad Gholi Mezerji, Naser; Shayan, Leila; Naseri, Parisa

    2015-11-03

    Logistic regression (LR) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are two popular statistical models for prediction of group membership. Although they are very similar, the LDA makes more assumptions about the data. When categorical and continuous variables used simultaneously, the optimal choice between the two models is questionable. In most studies, classification error (CE) is used to discriminate between subjects in several groups, but this index is not suitable to predict the accuracy of the outcome. The present study compared LR and LDA models using classification indices. This cross-sectional study selected 243 cancer patients. Sample sets of different sizes (n = 50, 100, 150, 200, 220) were randomly selected and the CE, B, and Q classification indices were calculated by the LR and LDA models. CE revealed the a lack of superiority for one model over the other, but the results showed that LR performed better than LDA for the B and Q indices in all situations. No significant effect for sample size on CE was noted for selection of an optimal model. Assessment of the accuracy of prediction of real data indicated that the B and Q indices are appropriate for selection of an optimal model. The results of this study showed that LR performs better in some cases and LDA in others when based on CE. The CE index is not appropriate for classification, although the B and Q indices performed better and offered more efficient criteria for comparison and discrimination between groups.

  7. Effects of early-life abuse differ across development: infant social behavior deficits are followed by adolescent depressive-like behaviors mediated by the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Cortés, Millie Rincón; Belnoue, Laure; Sullivan, Regina M

    2012-05-30

    Abuse during early life, especially from the caregiver, increases vulnerability to develop later-life psychopathologies such as depression. Although signs of depression are typically not expressed until later life, signs of dysfunctional social behavior have been found earlier. How infant abuse alters the trajectory of brain development to produce pathways to pathology is not completely understood. Here we address this question using two different but complementary rat models of early-life abuse from postnatal day 8 (P8) to P12: a naturalistic paradigm, where the mother is provided with insufficient bedding for nest building; and a more controlled paradigm, where infants undergo olfactory classical conditioning. Amygdala neural assessment (c-Fos), as well as social behavior and forced swim tests were performed at preweaning (P20) and adolescence (P45). Our results show that both models of early-life abuse induce deficits in social behavior, even during the preweaning period; however, depressive-like behaviors were observed only during adolescence. Adolescent depressive-like behavior corresponds with an increase in amygdala neural activity in response to forced swim test. A causal relationship between the amygdala and depressive-like behavior was suggested through amygdala temporary deactivation (muscimol infusions), which rescued the depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test. Our results indicate that social behavior deficits in infancy could serve as an early marker for later psychopathology. Moreover, the implication of the amygdala in the ontogeny of depressive-like behaviors in infant abused animals is an important step toward understanding the underlying mechanisms of later-life mental disease associated with early-life abuse.

  8. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Polymorphism (DRD2 TaqIA) Interacts with Maternal Parenting in Predicting Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Evidence of Differential Susceptibility and Age Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxin; Cao, Yanmiao; Wang, Meiping; Ji, Linqin; Chen, Liang; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-07-01

    Most gene-environment interaction research on depression has largely focused on negative environment and to a lesser extent on positive environment. Moreover, to date few studies have directly examined G × E at different periods in development, particularly during early adolescence. The present study addressed these issues by examining the concurrent and prospective longitudinal effects of maternal parenting, DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism, and their interaction on adolescent depressive symptoms in a sample of 1026 Chinese adolescents (Mage = 11.33 ± 0.47 years at T1, 50.3% girls) in a three-wave longitudinal study from age 11 to 13. Results indicated that maternal positive and negative parenting significantly concurrently predicted adolescent depressive symptoms at all three waves, whereas TaqIA polymorphism had no main effect on depressive symptoms. TaqIA polymorphism interacted with negative parenting in predicting concurrent depressive symptoms at age 11 and 12. A1 carriers were more susceptible to negative parenting compared to A2A2 homozygotes, such that adolescents carrying A1 alleles experiencing high negative parenting reported more depressive symptoms but fared better when experiencing low negative parenting. However, the interaction became nonsignificant at age 13, indicating the interaction of TaqIA polymorphism and maternal parenting may vary with development. Also, there was no G × E effect on longitudinal change in depression. The findings provided evidence in support of the differential susceptibility hypothesis and shed light on the potential for dynamic change in gene-environment interactions over development.

  9. Bereavement-related depression: Did the changes induced by DSM-V make a difference? Results from a large population-based survey of French residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Clesse; Emmanuelle, Leray; Florence, Bodeau-Livinec; Mathilde, Husky; Viviane, Kovess-Masfety

    2015-08-15

    DSM-V has been criticized for excessively expanding criteria for bereavement-related depression. The aim of this study was to quantify a potential increase in depression prevalence due to changes in diagnostic criteria and to assess the severity, clinical profile and healthcare use of new cases. A cross-sectional telephone survey was performed in 2005-2006 in four French regions. Twelve-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders was measured by CIDI-SF. Bereavement was assessed in those who endorsed the gate question to the depression module. Persons with bereavement-related depression according to DSM-IV and DSM-V diagnosis criteria were compared. Of the 22,138 respondents, 692 were bereaved. The prevalence of depression among those bereaved was 49.9% (95% CI ¼=43.7−56.0) according to DSM-IV and 59.6% (53.1−66.1) according to DSM-V [corrected]. The overall prevalence of major depression increased from 8.6% (8.1–9.1) with DSM-IV to 8.8% (8.3−9.3) with DSM-V . Cases diagnosed using DSM-IV presented more symptoms than cases diagnosed using DSM-V but clinical features were similar except regarding criterion E׳s symptoms. Healthcare use was similar between the two groups regarding consultations and psychotropic drug prescription. Some DSM-IV and DSM-V criteria were difficult to operationalize in the survey. The observed difference in prevalence according to DSM-IV and DSM-V may be reduced when clinical judgment is taken into account. The overall prevalence of major depression is only marginally increased by the new criteria. However, diagnostic changes increase the prevalence by 10 points among those bereaved. Diagnostic changes do not appear to modify service use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Major depression amid financial crisis in Greece: Will unemployment narrow existing gender differences in the prevalence of the disorder in Greece?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Marina; Angelopoulos, E; Peppou, Lily Evangelia; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Stefanis, Costas

    2016-08-30

    Rises in unemployment as a corollary to the global economic crisis may impinge on the prevalence of depression disproportionally for the two genders. Therefore, differences in the prevalence of the disorder as a function of gender and age were explored in four nationwide surveys in Greece in 2008, 2009, 2011 and 2013. Results indicate that in 2013, men of productive age had a higher prevalence of major depression than women, in contrast to the epidemiology of the disorder. The psychiatry community should be in tune to future changes in the mental health landscape elicited by the social fermentation processes of the global recession.

  11. Racial and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Depressive Symptoms among Black and White Youth: An Examination of the Mediating Effects of Family Structure, Stress and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Byron; Taylor, John

    2012-01-01

    Stress research shows that race, socioeconomic status (SES), and family context significantly impact an adolescent's psychological well-being, yet little is known about the mediating effects of family context on racial and SES differences in depressive symptoms among Black and White youth. We investigate these associations using a sample of 875…

  12. A Person-Centered Approach to Studying the Linkages among Parent-Child Differences in Cultural Orientation, Supportive Parenting, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms in Chinese American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Scott R.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether supportive parenting mediates relations between parent-child differences in cultural orientation (generational dissonance) and depressive symptoms with a sample of 451 first and second generation Chinese American parents and adolescents (12-15 years old at time 1). Using a person-centered approach,…

  13. Development of Sex Differences in Depressive and Co-Occurring Anxious Symptoms during Adolescence: Descriptive Trajectories and Potential Explanations in a Multiwave Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial mechanisms that may account for sex differences in internalizing symptoms of depression and anxiety during adolescence using data from a prospective, multiwave study with a sample of early and middle adolescents (N = 350, 6th to 10th graders; 57% female). Girls showed higher initial levels of only depressive…

  14. Sequential Temporal Dependencies in Associations between Symptoms of Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Application of Bivariate Latent Difference Score Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel W.; King, Lynda A.; McArdle, John J.; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Doron-LaMarca, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid conditions that may arise following exposure to psychological trauma. This study examined their temporal sequencing and mutual influence using bivariate latent difference score structural equation modeling. Longitudinal data from 182 emergency room patients revealed level of…

  15. A Pilot Examination of Differences in College Adjustment Stressors and Depression and Anxiety Symptoms between White, Hispanic and White, Non-Hispanic Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Ryan; Anderson, Elizabeth; Williams, Rush; Bird, Jessica; Matlock, Alyse; Ali, Sania; Edmondson, Christine; Morris, E. Ellen; Mullen, Kacy; Surís, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Differences in four adjustment stressors (family, interpersonal, career, and academic), and depression and anxiety symptoms were examined between White, non-Hispanic and White, Hispanic undergraduate college female students. White, Hispanic female college students reported significantly greater academic and family adjustment stressors than White,…

  16. Depression, stress and anxiety in medical students: A cross-sectional comparison between students from different semesters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moutinho, Ivana Lúcia Damásio; Maddalena, Natalia de Castro Pecci; Roland, Ronald Kleinsorge; Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero; Tibiriçá, Sandra Helena Cerrato; Ezequiel, Oscarina da Silva; Lucchetti, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objective: To compare the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and stress in medical students from all semesters of a Brazilian medical school and assess their respective associated factors. Method...

  17. A Person-centered Approach to Studying the Linkages among Parent–Child Differences in Cultural Orientation, Supportive Parenting, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms in Chinese American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether supportive parenting mediates relations between parent– child differences in cultural orientation (generational dissonance) and depressive symptoms with a sample of 451 first and second generation Chinese American parents and adolescents (12–15 years old at time 1). Using a person-centered approach, meaningful typologies of cultural orientation were derived for fathers, mothers, and adolescents. Overall, results provided support, though qualified, for the notion that generational dissonance is linked to depressive symptoms through decreased supportive parenting. In general, having a parent with a bicultural profile seemed to be most advantageous if adolescents similarly had a bicultural profile, whereas more American oriented adolescents with more Chinese oriented parents reported the least supportive parenting and most depressive symptoms. Directions for future research and the benefits of using a person-centered approach in research of acculturation and generational dissonance are discussed. PMID:20725611

  18. Oil and gas generation potential of different age sediments of the transcarpathian depression according to TOC content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрій Андрійович Локтєв

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of views on genesis of natural gases in the depths of Transcarpathian depression is given in the article. Besides another aspect that is mentioned is definition of potential source rocks of oil and gas within the depression by the analysis of the cores on TOC amount and oil and gas generation potential of Miocene thicknesses of sediments as well as preneogene basement

  19. Depression storage capacities of different ideal pavements as quantified by a terrestrial laser scanning-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, T; Menzel, M; Wessolek, G

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall partition on paved urban surfaces is governed to a great extent by depression storage. This is especially the case for small rainfall events, which are often ignored in urban hydrology. If storage, infiltration and evaporation (important for urban heat island mitigation), rather than storm water run-off, are of interest, high-resolution simulations with exact values for depression storage capacities are required. Terrestrial laser scanners deliver fast, high-resolution surveys of pavement surface morphology. The depression storage capacity can be quantified from 3D points by generating digital elevation models and applying cut-and-fill algorithms in a geographic information system. The method was validated using a test model. It was possible to quantify depressions with a depth of at least 1.4 × 10(-3) m and a surface of at least 15 × 10(-6) m(2) with an uncertainty below 30%. Applying this method, the depression storage capacities for 11 ideal, typical pavement designs were found to vary from 0.07 to 1.4 mm. Realistic urban pavements must also be surveyed, as cracks and puddles from their use history can have a major impact on the depression storage capacities and thus on infiltration, evaporation and, finally, the annual run-off.

  20. Somatic and cognitive-affective depressive symptoms among patients with heart disease: differences by sex and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Aparecida Marosti Dessotte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study investigated the association of somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms with sex and age, among patients hospitalized with heart disease. METHOD: this study was a secondary analysis of two previous observational studies totaling 531 patients with heart disease, hospitalized from 2005 to 2011 in two public hospitals in Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms were assessed using the subscales of the Beck Depression Inventory - I (BDI-I. RESULTS: of 531 participants, 62.7% were male, with a mean age 57.3 years (SD= 13.0 for males and 56.2 years (SD= 12.1 for females. Analyses of variance showed an effect of sex (p<0.001 for somatic and p=0.005 for cognitive-affective symptoms, but no effect of age. Women presented with higher mean values than men in both BDI-I subscales: 7.1 (4.5 vs. 5.4 (4.3 for somatic, and 8.3 (7.9 vs. 6.7 (7.2 for cognitive-affective symptoms. There were no differences by age for somatic (p=0.84 or cognitive-affective symptoms (p=0.84. CONCLUSION: women hospitalized with heart disease had more somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms than men. We found no association of somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms with age. Future research for these patients could reveal whether these differences according to sex continue throughout the rehabilitation process.

  1. Gender difference of relationship between occupational stress and depressive symptoms%职业应激与抑郁症状关系的性别差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余善法; 谷桂珍; 周文慧; 周世义; 杨晓发; 孙世义

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore gender difference of relationship between occupational stress and depressive symptoms.Methods The cross-sectional study was used to investigate 5338 workers in 13 factories and companies,the depressive symptoms were assessed with Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)and the perceived occupational stress was evaluated by the Chinese version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model Questionnaire.Logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between occupational stress and prevalence of depressive symptoms.Results Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 31.8% for all subjects,33.8% for males and 27.7% for females,gender difference of prevalence was significant (P<0.01 ).Psychological demands,physical demands,job control,effort,overcommitment and negative affectivity scores for males were significantly higher than those for females(P<0.01 or 0.05 ),social support,reward and job satisfaction scores for males were significantly lower than those for females (P<0.01).Psychological demands,physical demands,job control,effort,overcommitment and nagetive affectivity scores for workers with depressive symptoms were significantly higher than those for workers without depressive symptoms (P<0.0 1 ) but job control,social support,reward,job satisfaction and positive affectivity scores for workers with depressive symptoms were significantly lower than those for without depressive symptoms (P<0.01).Psychological demands,physical demands,job control,effort,overcommitment and nagetive affectivity scores for male workers with depressive symptoms were significantly higher than those for female counterparts (P<0.01 ),but social support,reward,job satisfaction scores for male workers with depressive symptoms were significantly lower than hose for female workers with depressive symptoms (P<0.01).Ratio of male workers and male workers with depressive symptoms with job strain and

  2. Exploring depression, self-esteem and verbal fluency with different degrees of internet addiction among Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jia; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore depression, self-esteem and verbal fluency functions among normal internet users, mild internet addictions and severe internet addictions. The survey sample consisted of 316 college students, and their internet addiction symptoms, depression and self-esteem symptoms were assessed using the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. From this sample, 16 students with non-addictions, 19 students with mild internet addiction (sub-MIA) and 15 students with severe internet addiction (sub-SIA) were recruited and subjected to the classical verbal fluency tests, including the semantic and phonemic fluency task. The results indicated that severe internet addiction in the survey sample showed the highest tendency towards depressive symptoms and lowest self-esteem scores, and sub-SIA showed poor performance on the semantic fluency task. In conclusion, severe internet addiction was significantly associated with depression, low self-esteem and semantic verbal fluency problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Depressive symptoms, anxiety and academic motivation in youth: Do schools and families make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmelid, Andrea; Stickley, Andrew; Lindblad, Frank; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Henrich, Christopher C; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2015-12-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to examine the association between depressive and anxiety symptoms and academic motivation by gender, and whether positive school and family factors would be associated with academic motivation, in spite of the presence of such symptoms. Study participants were predominantly economically disadvantaged youths aged 13-15 years in a Northeastern US urban public school system. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) served as the basis for a survey undertaken in 2003 and 2004 with information being used from students who participated at both time points (N = 643). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that depressive symptoms were negatively associated with academic motivation, while anxiety was positively related to academic motivation in both genders. Teacher support, school attachment and parental control were positively related to academic motivation even in the presence of internalizing problems. The negative association of depressive symptoms with academic motivation may be potentially decreased by attachment to school.

  4. Neighborhood Safety and Major Depressive Disorder in a National Sample of Black Youth; Gender by Ethnic Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among Black youth. In addition to stress related to their developmental transition, social factors such as a perceived unsafe neighborhood impose additional risks. We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between perceived neighborhood safety and major depressive disorder (MDD among a national sample of Black youth. We used data from the National Survey of American Life - Adolescents (NSAL-A, 2003–2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (age 13 to 17. Demographic factors, perceived neighborhood safety, and MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI were measured. Logistic regressions were used to test the association between neighborhood safety and MDD in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity by gender groups. In the pooled sample of Black youth, those who perceived their neighborhoods to be unsafe were at higher risk of MDD (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.25; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.02-1.51. The perception that one’s neighborhood is unsafe was associated with a higher risk of MDD among African American males (OR=1.41; 95% CI = 1.03–1.93 but not African American females or Caribbean Black males and females. In conclusion, perceived neighborhood safety is not a universal psychological determinant of MDD across ethnic by gender groups of Black youth; however, policies and programs that enhance the sense of neighborhood safety may prevent MDD in male African American youth.

  5. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... starts about 1–3 weeks after childbirth. What causes postpartum depression? Postpartum depression probably is caused by a combination ... better. Can antidepressants cause side effects? Antidepressants can ... If your depression worsens soon after starting medication or if you ...

  6. Caregiver Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  7. Differences in neural and cognitive response to emotional faces in middle-aged dizygotic twins at familial risk of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Svendsen, Anne-Mette Bruun; Harmer, Catherine J

    2017-01-01

    -twin history of depression (high-risk) and 20 were without co-twin history of depression (low-risk). During fMRI, participants viewed fearful and happy faces while performing a gender discrimination task. After the scan, they were given a faces dot-probe task, a facial expression recognition task...... and questionnaires assessing mood, personality traits and coping. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, high-risk twins showed reduced fear vigilance and lower recognition of fear and happiness relative to low-risk twins. During face processing in the scanner, high-risk twins displayed distinct negative functional coupling between...

  8. Neonatal immune activation during early and late postnatal brain development differently influences depression-related behaviors in adolescent and adult C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Majidi-Zolbanin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Immune challenge during early and late neonatal periods can induce robust alterations in physiological and behavioral functions, resulting in greater risk for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression, later in life. In addition, previous studies concluded that increasing age correlates with increased depression behaviors in humans and rodents. This study aimed to investigate for the first time whether immune challenge with a viral mimic, synthetic double-stranded ribonucleic acid (Poly I: C during different neonatal periods can differently affect depression-related behaviors in adolescent and adult mice. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with either saline or Poly I:C (1 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg on postnatal days (PND 3-5 (early neonatal phase or PND 14-16 (late neonatal phase, and then subjected to behavioral tests, including tail suspension test and forced swimming test, during adolescence (PND 35 or 40 and adulthood (PND 85 or 90. Results: The results demonstrated that early neonatal immune activation increases depression-related behaviors in both adolescent and adult mice, but late neonatal immune activation only increases depression in adult mice. In other words, these findings indicated that the nature of the offspring's neuropathology can depend on the severity of the insult, the pup's age at the time of the insult, and offspring age at the time of behavioral testing. Conclusion: These findings suggest that dose and timing of neonatal insult and offspring age may be important factors for evaluating neuropsychiatric disorders in adults who experienced early life infection.

  9. The Relationship between Fatty Acids and Different Depression-Related Brain Regions, and Their Potential Role as Biomarkers of Response to Antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Fernandes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a complex disorder influenced by a variety of biological and environmental factors. Due to significant heterogeneity, there are remarkable differences in how patients respond to treatment. A primary objective of psychiatric research is to identify biological markers that could be used to better predict and enhance responses to antidepressant treatments. Diet impacts various aspects of health, including depression. The fatty acid composition of the Western diet, which has a high ratio of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, is associated with increased incidence of depression. The brain is rich in lipids, and dietary fatty acids act within specific brain regions to regulate processes that impact emotional behavior. This manuscript reviews existing evidence demonstrating brain region-specific fatty acid profiles, and posits that specific fatty acids may serve as predictive biomarkers of response to antidepressants. Furthermore, increasing blood levels of certain fats, such as n-3s, via dietary intervention may serve as an adjunct to improve the efficacy of antidepressants. Notably, most of the existing research regarding fats and depression-related brain regions has focused on n-3s, as compared to n-6s, monounsaturated, and saturated fats. This review article will help guide future work investigating the relationships between fatty acids, brain regions, and antidepressant efficacy.

  10. Differences in relationship conflict, attachment, and depression in treatment-seeking veterans with hazardous substance use, PTSD, or PTSD and hazardous substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Gina P; Held, Philip; Blackburn, Laura; Auerbach, John S; Clark, Allison A; Herrera, Catherine J; Cook, Jerome; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-05-01

    Veterans (N = 133) who were seeking treatment in either the Posttraumatic Stress Program or Substance Use Disorders Program at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) and, based on self-report of symptoms, met clinical norms for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or hazardous substance use (HSU) completed a survey related to relationship conflict behaviors, attachment styles, and depression severity. Participants were grouped into one of three categories on the basis of clinical norm criteria: PTSD only, HSU only, and PTSD + HSU. Participants completed the PTSD Checklist-Military, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Short Form, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Drug Use Disorders Identification Test, and Psychological Aggression and Physical Violence subscales of the Conflict Tactics Scale. Most participants were male and Caucasian. Significant differences were found between groups on depression, avoidant attachment, psychological aggression perpetration and victimization, and physical violence perpetration and victimization. Post hoc analyses revealed that the PTSD + HSU group had significantly higher levels of depression, avoidant attachment, and psychological aggression than the HSU only group. The PTSD + HSU group had significantly higher levels of physical violence than did the PTSD only group, but both groups had similar mean scores on all other variables. Potential treatment implications are discussed.

  11. The Relationship between Fatty Acids and Different Depression-Related Brain Regions, and Their Potential Role as Biomarkers of Response to Antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria Fernanda; Mutch, David M; Leri, Francesco

    2017-03-17

    Depression is a complex disorder influenced by a variety of biological and environmental factors. Due to significant heterogeneity, there are remarkable differences in how patients respond to treatment. A primary objective of psychiatric research is to identify biological markers that could be used to better predict and enhance responses to antidepressant treatments. Diet impacts various aspects of health, including depression. The fatty acid composition of the Western diet, which has a high ratio of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, is associated with increased incidence of depression. The brain is rich in lipids, and dietary fatty acids act within specific brain regions to regulate processes that impact emotional behavior. This manuscript reviews existing evidence demonstrating brain region-specific fatty acid profiles, and posits that specific fatty acids may serve as predictive biomarkers of response to antidepressants. Furthermore, increasing blood levels of certain fats, such as n-3s, via dietary intervention may serve as an adjunct to improve the efficacy of antidepressants. Notably, most of the existing research regarding fats and depression-related brain regions has focused on n-3s, as compared to n-6s, monounsaturated, and saturated fats. This review article will help guide future work investigating the relationships between fatty acids, brain regions, and antidepressant efficacy.

  12. The Relationship between Fatty Acids and Different Depression-Related Brain Regions, and Their Potential Role as Biomarkers of Response to Antidepressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria Fernanda; Mutch, David M.; Leri, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a complex disorder influenced by a variety of biological and environmental factors. Due to significant heterogeneity, there are remarkable differences in how patients respond to treatment. A primary objective of psychiatric research is to identify biological markers that could be used to better predict and enhance responses to antidepressant treatments. Diet impacts various aspects of health, including depression. The fatty acid composition of the Western diet, which has a high ratio of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, is associated with increased incidence of depression. The brain is rich in lipids, and dietary fatty acids act within specific brain regions to regulate processes that impact emotional behavior. This manuscript reviews existing evidence demonstrating brain region-specific fatty acid profiles, and posits that specific fatty acids may serve as predictive biomarkers of response to antidepressants. Furthermore, increasing blood levels of certain fats, such as n-3s, via dietary intervention may serve as an adjunct to improve the efficacy of antidepressants. Notably, most of the existing research regarding fats and depression-related brain regions has focused on n-3s, as compared to n-6s, monounsaturated, and saturated fats. This review article will help guide future work investigating the relationships between fatty acids, brain regions, and antidepressant efficacy. PMID:28304335

  13. Differences in Characteristics and Treatment Received among Depressed Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients with and without Co-Occuring Alcohol Misuse: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiia Pirkola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aimed at examining the differences between depressed psychiatric adolescent outpatients with and without cooccurring alcohol misuse in psychosocial background, clinical characteristics, and treatment received during one-year followup. Furthermore, we investigated factors related to nonattendance at treatment. Materials and Methods. Consecutive 156 adolescent (13–19 years psychiatric outpatients with a unipolar depressive disorder at baseline were interviewed using structured measures at baseline and at 12 months. Alcohol misuse was defined as having an AUDIT score of 8 or more points. The outpatients received “treatment as usual” of clinically defined duration. Results. Among depressive outpatients, poor parental support, parental alcohol use and decreased attendance at treatment associated with alcohol misuse. The severity of alcohol use as measured by AUDIT-score was the strongest factor independently predicting nonattendance at treatment in multivariate analysis. Conclusions. Alcohol misuse indicates family problems, has a deleterious effect on treatment attendance, and should be taken into account when managing treatment for depressive adolescent outpatients.

  14. Individual Differences in Trajectories of Emotion Regulation Processes: The Effects of Maternal Depressive Symptomatology and Children's Physiological Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

    2008-01-01

    Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children's physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation ([delta]RSA) were explored as…

  15. Differences in Patient Health Questionnaire and Aachen Depression Item Bank scores between tablet versus paper-and-pencil administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Lena; Glaesmer, Heide; Boecker, Maren; Forkmann, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    To extend knowledge about measurement equivalence of depression measures assessed by tablet and paper-pencil administration, the present study evaluated the effect of mode of administration (MoA) on scale and item level for the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Aachen Depression Item Bank (ADIB) in elderly patients. Primary care patients (N = 193, ≥60 years) were assessed following a crossover design in Leipzig, Germany. All participants filled out the PHQ-9 and the ADIB in both MoAs under study. Effects of MoA were analyzed by intra-class correlation, mixed-effects regression, and differential item functioning (DIF). Additionally, detection rates between both MoAs were compared using receiver operating characteristics analysis compared to a diagnostic interview (SCID-I, N = 163). No effect of MoA was found in the PHQ-9 on scale score or item level. Two ADIB items showed DIF according to MoA. In terms of discriminatory power, MoA did not influence detection rates of both instruments. In summary, our findings suggest that no severe effect of mode of administration on self-report assessments of depression should be expected. It can be concluded that tablets provide a valid way to electronically assess depressive symptoms in elderly patients. Yet changes in item presentation can influence the psychometric properties and require equivalence testing using sophisticated analyses on item level such as DIF.

  16. A Comparison of Levels of Quality of Life, Depression and Loneliness among Athletes with Different Levels of Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unver, Saban; Atan, Tulin; Cavusoglu, Gul; Erim, Vedat; Yamak, Bade

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the levels of life quality, depression and loneliness among the students of the Faculty of Sports Sciences (FSS), national wrestlers and non national wrestlers in terms of some demographic variables. The participants of the study included 37 students from the Faculty of Sports Sciences of Ondokuz Mayis…

  17. Depression in geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas Asghar-Ali, A; Braun, U K

    2009-02-01

    While the most serious of depressive illnesses in the elderly is major depressive disorder, patients' quality of life can be significantly impacted by dysthmic disorder, sub-threshold depression (minor depression), or a depressive disorder due to a general medical condition, all of which have been shown to be more prevalent than major depression in the community dwelling population of older adults. Older adults are also more likely to develop grief reaction and frequently deal with issues of bereavement. This review will discuss the diagnoses of all relevant depressive diagnoses that primary care physicians are likely to encounter. Among the many different assessment tools that screen for depression the briefest instruments are a two-question screening tool recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and, specifically developed for older adults, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) that is available in a short 15- Yes/No-question version. Many medical illnesses are associated with depressive symptoms. The focus in this review is on dementing illnesses/cerebrovascular disease, dementia of the Alzheimer's type, and Parkinson disease. First-line pharmacological therapy of depression includes selective serotonin inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Side effects of particular drugs can often be geared towards achieving additional benefits, e.g. weight gain associated with the use of some SSRISs may be helpful for patients with dementia.

  18. Age differences in the prevalence and comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Birnbaum, Howard; Shahly, Victoria; Bromet, Evelyn; Hwang, Irving; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sampson, Nancy; Andrade, Laura Helena; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Aimee N.; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Kovess, Viviane; Lara, Carmen; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Browne, Mark Oakley; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Stein, Dan J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although depression appears to decrease in late life, this could be due to misattribution of depressive symptoms to physical disorders that increase in late life. Methods We investigated this issue by studying age differences in comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes (MDE) with chronic physical conditions in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys, a series of community epidemiological surveys carried out in 10 developed countries (n = 51,771) and 8 developing countries (n = 37,265). MDE and other mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Organic exclusion rules were not used to avoid inappropriate exclusion of cases with physical comorbidity. Physical conditions were assessed with a standard chronic conditions checklist. Results Twelve-month DSM-IV/CIDI MDE was significantly less prevalent among respondents ages 65+ than younger respondents in developed but not developing countries. Prevalence of comorbid mental disorders generally either decreased or remained stable with age, while comorbidity of MDE with mental disorders generally increased with age. Prevalence of physical conditions, in comparison, generally increased with age, while comorbidity of MDE with physical conditions generally decreased with age. Depression treatment was lowest among the elderly in developed and developing countries. Conclusions The weakening associations between MDE and physical conditions with increasing age argue against the suggestion that the low estimated prevalence of MDE among the elderly is due to increased confounding with physical disorders. Future study is needed to investigate processes that might lead to a decreasing impact of physical illness on depression among the elderly. PMID:20037917

  19. Standardization of depression measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    comparisons among included measures. Large differences were found in their measurement precision and range, providing a rationale for instrument selection. Published scale-specific threshold scores of depression severity showed remarkable consistencies across different questionnaires. CONCLUSION: An IRT-based......OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... instrument-independent metric for depression severity enables direct comparisons among established measures. The "common ruler" simplifies the interpretation of depression assessment by identifying key thresholds for clinical and epidemiologic decision making and facilitates integrative psychometric research...

  20. Dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression among adult patients with dental anxiety but with different dental-attendance patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernson, Jenny M; Elfström, Magnus L; Hakeberg, Magnus

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression in relation to regularity of dental treatment among persons with either regular dental care or phobic avoidance, whilst controlling for sociodemographic factors. Psychometric questionnaires on dental anxiety, dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression were delivered to 263 adult patients with dental phobic avoidance behavior who were seeking help from a specialized dental fear clinic and to 141 adult patients with dental anxiety who were receiving regular dental care from various public dental clinics. The results showed that the levels of dental and general anxiety and of depression were significantly higher among irregular attendees compared with regular attendees. Irregular attendees admitted fewer adaptive coping strategies. Predictive of irregular dental care were gender, dental anxiety, general anxiety, and the nonuse of the coping strategy 'optimism'. This study further confirms earlier preliminary results that the use of optimistic thinking is predictive for regular dental attendance habits and that male gender is a risk factor for irregular attendance. Moreover, this study adds that a high level of general anxiety indicates a higher risk for irregular dental care.

  1. [Study of influential factors about trait coping style and the correlation between it and anxiety and depression in different student groups in Bengbu district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ying; Tao, Fangbiao; Yao, Rongying; Zhang, Qin; Fu, Lianguo; Han, Hui

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the coping style and their influential factors in different student groups. Use stratified and random cluster sampling to collect 7315 students in seven high school and mid-schools in Bengbu district. The valid questionnaires were 7104. In these students, there were 1919 junior schools students, 1865 high school students, and boys were 3533, girls were 3571. Age from 12 to 22. The questionnaires which contained demographic characteristics, family factors and multidimensional sub-health questionnaire of adolescents (MSQA) were used to test these students. The single factor analysis and Regression analysis were analyzed by SPSS (statistical package for social science) 13.0. There were significance difference between positive coping style, negative coping style and fathers' and mothers' education (P parents' expectations (P < 0.01). The patients' education, friends, characters and coping style were positively correlated (P < 0.01). There were correlation between coping styles and anxiety and depression (P < 0.01). There were positive correlation between passive coping style and anxiety and depression (P < 0.01), and there were negative correlation between active coping style (P < 0.01). There was relationship between patients' education, friends, characters and adolescents' coping style, and there were high correlation between coping style and anxiety and depression. Enhance capacity to respond actively and cultivate optimistic attitude of learning were help to maintain and improve their positive coping style.

  2. Brooding rumination and heart rate variability in women at high and low risk for depression: group differences and moderation by COMT genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Mary L; McGeary, John E; Gibb, Brandon E

    2014-02-01

    There is growing evidence that rumination, perhaps specifically brooding rumination, is a core feature of depression and that it contributes to the development and maintenance of the disorder. A separate line of research has highlighted the role played by heart rate variability (HRV). Both brooding rumination and HRV appear to be driven by disruption in the same neural circuit, heightened amygdala reactivity combined with decreased prefrontal control, and both are highlighted in different units of analysis as reflecting the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) construct of Loss. However, little is known about the relation among these variables. In the current study, we predicted that higher levels of brooding rumination would be associated with lower levels of HRV and that women at high risk for future depression (i.e., those with a history of past major depressive disorder [MDD]) would exhibit higher levels of brooding and lower levels of HRV. We also examined genetic influences on the variables in this model. We predicted that COMT Val158Met genotype, which has been linked to heightened amygdala reactivity and deficits in prefrontal functioning, would be associated with brooding rumination and HRV, particularly among women with a history of past MDD. The results largely supported our hypotheses, providing additional support for relations among the different units of analysis for the Loss construct.

  3. Insomnia in depression: differences in objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality to normal controls and acute effects of trazodone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletu-Zyhlarz, Gerda Maria; Abu-Bakr, Manal Hassan; Anderer, Peter; Gruber, Georg; Mandl, Magdalena; Strobl, Roland; Gollner, Dietmar; Prause, Wolfgang; Saletu, Bernd

    2002-02-01

    Utilizing polysomnography (PSG) and psychometry, objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality was investigated in 11 drug-free patients (five females, six males) aged 35-75 years (mean age 54.1 +/- 11.4) suffering from nonorganic insomnia (F 51.0) related to a depressive episode (F 32) or recurrent depressive disorder (F 33). as compared with 11 age- and sex-matched normal controls (five females, six males) aged 36-75 years (mean age 53.0 +/- 13.5). PSG demonstrated decreased sleep efficiency, total sleep time (TST), total sleep period (TSP) and sleep stage S2, as well as increased wakefulness during TSP, early morning awakening, sleep latency to S1, S2, S3 and sleep stage S1 in depressed patients. Subjective sleep quality and the total score of the Self-Assessment of Sleep and Awakening Quality Scale (SSA) were deteriorated as were morning and evening well being, drive, mood and fine motor activity right. Evening and morning blood pressure, the O2 desaturation index and periodic leg movement (PLM) index were increased. In a subsequent acute, placebo-controlled cross-over design study, the acute effects of 100 mg of trazodone, a serotonin reuptake inhibitor with a sedative action due to 5-HT2 and alpha1 receptor blockade, were investigated in the patients. As compared with placebo, trazodone induced an increase in sleep efficiency (primary target variable), TST, TSP and SWS (S3 + S4), as well as a decrease in wakefulness during the TSP, early morning awakening and S2. There was no change in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep with the exception of an increase in the REM duration in minutes. Trazodone also caused an improvement in subjective sleep quality, affectivity, numerical memory and somatic complaints. All respiratory variables remained within normal limits. Critical flicker frequency and moming diastolic blood pressure were decreased. The present study demonstrated that depression induced significant changes in objective and subjective sleep and awakening

  4. HCV triple therapy in co-infection HIV/HCV is not associated with a different risk of developing major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Fialho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatitis C (HCV treatment options have changed with the development of direct activity antivirals (DAAs and the availability of triple therapies have improved HCV cure rates. A common neuropsychiatric side effect of pegylated-interferon and ribavirin treatment is major depressive disorder (MDD, however little is known about such adverse events with protease inhibitor-based triple therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of MDD in co-infected HIV HCV patients undergoing different HCV treatments. Methods: All participants were co-infected HIV HCV attending the Royal Sussex County Hospital Brighton hepatology outpatient clinic between 2010 and 2014. Participants were assessed for DSM-IV MDD and depression severity (using the Hamilton depression scale (HAMD at baseline and monthly after treatment initiation. HIV and HCV stages, genotype, reinfection and standard demographic variables were recorded. Influence of HCV stage (acute vs. chronic and type of treatment (classic vs triple, emergence of MDD and clearance outcomes were analyzed using repeated measures and logistic regression models. Results: Fifty participants with a mean age of 42.65 years (SD=10.32 were included; most were male (98%. The majority had contracted HCV genotype 1 (64% or 4 (26%. The HCV stage and treatment groups were matched for age and depression at baseline. No significant differences were found on virological outcomes considering HCV stage and treatment. From baseline to SVR, there was a significant increase in HAMD scores, F(4,36=10.09, p<.001; this was not significantly influenced by HCV stage, F(4,35=0.54, p=.708 or HCV treatment group, F(4,35=0.60, p=.664. Those with chronic HCV were more likely to transition to MDD than acute infection (OR 7.77, 95% CI 2.04–29.54, p=.003. No differences were found for depression emergence by HCV treatment group (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.22–3.13, p=.787. Conclusions: HCV triple therapy was not associated with a

  5. Psychological Characteristics of Chronic Depression : A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Jenneke E.; van Oppen, Patricia; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; van der Does, A. J. Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T. E.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Few studies have investigated the importance of psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. Knowledge about psychological differences between chronically depressed persons and nonchronically depressed persons may help to improve treatment of chronic depression. This is

  6. Aggression in Inpatient Adolescents: The Effects of Gender and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Michele; Carey, Michael; Kim, Wun Jung

    2003-01-01

    Examined differences in aggressive behavior among predominantly white adolescent inpatients with and without depression. Survey data indicated that depression and gender interacted significantly. Depressed females demonstrated more physical aggression than nondepressed females, and depressed males demonstrated less aggression than nondepressed…

  7. Methylphenidate Ameliorates Depressive Comorbidity in ADHD Children without any Modification on Differences in Serum Melatonin Concentration between ADHD Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cubero-Millán

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD patients have other associated pathologies, with depressive symptoms as one of the most prevalent. Among the mediators that may participate in ADHD, melatonin is thought to regulate circadian rhythms, neurological function and stress response. To determine (1 the serum baseline daily variations and nocturnal excretion of melatonin in ADHD subtypes and (2 the effect of chronic administration of methylphenidate, as well as the effects on symptomatology, 136 children with ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision: DSM-IV-TR criteria were divided into subgroups using the “Children’s Depression Inventory” (CDI. Blood samples were drawn at 20:00 and 09:00 h, and urine was collected between 21:00 and 09:00 h, at inclusion and after 4.61 ± 2.29 months of treatment. Melatonin and its urine metabolite were measured by radioimmunoassay RIA. Factorial analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. Melatonin was higher predominantly in hyperactive-impulsive/conduct disordered children (PHI/CD of the ADHD subtype, without the influence of comorbid depressive symptoms. Methylphenidate ameliorated this comorbidity without induction of any changes in the serum melatonin profile, but treatment with it was associated with a decrease in 6-s-melatonin excretion in both ADHD subtypes. Conclusions: In untreated children, partial homeostatic restoration of disrupted neuroendocrine equilibrium most likely led to an increased serum melatonin in PHI/CD children. A differential cerebral melatonin metabolization after methylphenidate may underlie some of the clinical benefit.

  8. First- and last-year medical students: is there a difference in the prevalence and intensity of anxiety and depressive symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Bassols

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Medical training is considered a significant stress factor. We sought to assess the prevalence and intensity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in medical students and compare samples of first-year and sixth-year students. Method: This was a cross-sectional study of first- and sixth-year medical students who attended classes regularly. The study instruments were a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. Results: A total of 232 students (110 first-year, 122 sixth-year completed the questionnaires, for a response rate of 67.4%. Overall 50.4% of respondents were male (56.4% of first-year and 45.1% of sixth-year students. Anxiety symptoms were reported by 30.8% of first-year students and 9.4% of sixth-year students (p < 0.001. Female students were more affected by anxiety. There were no significant between-group differences in depressive symptoms. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms was found in first-year medical students as compared with sixth-year students. Strategies should be developed to help medical students, particularly female students, manage these symptoms at the beginning of their medical training.

  9. Suicidal Ideation vs. Suicide Attempts: Clinical and Psychosocial Profile Differences Among Depressed Patients: A Study on Personality Traits, Psychopathological Variables, and Sociodemographic Factors in 228 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitzka, Ute; Spirling, Sina; Ritter, Dirk; Smolka, Michael; Goodday, Sarah; Bauer, Michael; Felber, Werner; Bschor, Tom

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated whether personality traits, psychopathological characteristics, and sociodemographic factors in depressed patients differentiate patients with only suicidal thoughts from those who have attempted suicide. We investigated two groups of patients with an affective disorder: 198 patients with a suicide attempt within the last 3 months (sex ratio male to female, 1:1.3; mean age male to female, 44.8/44.7 years) and 30 patients without a suicide attempt but with suicidal thoughts (sex ratio male to female, 1:2; mean age male to female, 39.4/42.6 years) using a comprehensive measurement (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-4 Axis II disorders, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression Scale, Beck-Hopelessness Scale, Scale for Suicide Ideation, Impulsivity Rating Scale, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Inventory for the Assessment of Aggression Factors, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Ways of Coping Checklist). Several differences distinguished the two groups, namely, in personality traits such as anxiety or coping strategies and sociodemographics (e.g., education level). Personality traits, psychopathological characteristics, and sociodemographic factors are useful tools for assessing suicidal risk. Our findings encourage us to suggest that clinicians pay particular attention to sociodemographic variables such as separation/divorce and a lower education level when conducting risk assessments on suicidal patients.

  10. First- and last-year medical students: is there a difference in the prevalence and intensity of anxiety and depressive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassols, Ana M; Okabayashi, Lucas S; Silva, Anais B da; Carneiro, Bruna B; Feijó, Fernando; Guimarães, Guilherme C; Cortes, Gabriela N; Rohde, Luis A; Eizirik, Claudio L

    2014-09-01

    Medical training is considered a significant stress factor. We sought to assess the prevalence and intensity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in medical students and compare samples of first-year and sixth-year students. This was a cross-sectional study of first- and sixth-year medical students who attended classes regularly. The study instruments were a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). A total of 232 students (110 first-year, 122 sixth-year) completed the questionnaires, for a response rate of 67.4%. Overall 50.4% of respondents were male (56.4% of first-year and 45.1% of sixth-year students). Anxiety symptoms were reported by 30.8% of first-year students and 9.4% of sixth-year students (p students were more affected by anxiety. There were no significant between-group differences in depressive symptoms. A higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms was found in first-year medical students as compared with sixth-year students. Strategies should be developed to help medical students, particularly female students, manage these symptoms at the beginning of their medical training.

  11. Two-Year Gender Differences in Satisfaction With Appearance After Burn Injury and Prediction of Five-Year Depression: A Latent Growth Curve Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghriwati, Nour; Sutter, Megan; Pierce, Bradford S; Perrin, Paul B; Wiechman, Shelley A; Schneider, Jeffrey C

    2017-05-05

    To use latent growth curve and longitudinal structural equation modeling to examine the 2-year trajectory of satisfaction with appearance in adults with burn injury, and that trajectory's effect on depression 5 years after burn injury. Data were collected at discharge after burn injury hospitalization and at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years postdischarge. The Burn Model Systems (BMS) program consisted of a data center and 5 participating burn centers. The sample consisted of adults (N=720) who were hospitalized for a burn injury, enrolled in the BMS database, and completed measures at least once throughout the 5-year study duration. Not applicable. Satisfaction With Appearance Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (depression). Women with burn injury reported higher levels of dissatisfaction with their appearance in comparison to their male counterparts over the 2 years after discharge. Individuals with a larger total body surface area (TBSA) affected by a burn also reported greater body dissatisfaction across the postdischarge 2-year period. Results did not support significant gender or TBSA differences in the rate of change of body dissatisfaction trajectories across these 2 years. Individuals with greater body dissatisfaction at 6 months postdischarge tended to have higher depressive symptoms at 5 years. Six month postdischarge, body dissatisfaction scores also mediated the effects of gender and TBSA on depressive symptoms 5 years later. It is recommended that individuals with heightened body image dissatisfaction after a burn, particularly women and those with larger TBSA, participate in evidence-based psychosocial interventions to improve long-term adjustment. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Postpartum Blues and Postpartum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Ö et al.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum blues which is seen during the postpartum period is a transient psychological state. Most of the mothers experience maternity blues in postpartum period. It remains usually unrecognized by the others. Some sensitive families can misattribute these feelings as depression. In this article, we tried to review the characteristics of maternity blues and its differences from depression. We defined depression and presented the incidence and diagnostic criteria, of major depression as well as the risk factors and clinic findings of postpartum depression. Thus, especially at primary care we aimed to prevent misdiagnosis of both maternity blues and depression

  13. [Recited depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucci, M; Cossio, M

    1984-01-01

    Several subjects who tell their depression and play a part of it in front of the doctor without being really depressed are reported. Some of them try to hide the symptoms (irritability or erethism, ceremonials of obsessive neurosis, shunning of phobia) which, in their opinion, might be detrimental to their reputation. Others neglect to describe some of the symptoms of their polymorphous clinical picture only underlining the depressive signs. Some others play a part of depression because they have believed to recognize themselves in persons presented by mass media, because it seems to them a duty to show an adequate depression in case of mournful event, or because they "convert" their problem into a depression. Some others use depression as a blackmail, or to obtain an advantage from doctor's conviction about their illness. The reason for the high frequency of similar cases in the present time are examined: the scientific divulgation and the acceptance of depression by the modern society are among the most important ones. The peculiar semantic vicissitudes of the word depression are also reviewed. A widening of the boundaries of depression has contributed to an increase in the number of the cases. Finally, in addition to patients who are depressed without being aware of it, the authors focus the inverse possibility: patients who believed or try to make their doctor believe (playing the part of depression in front of them) that they are depressed.

  14. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups – What do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York eHagmayer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive psychological research focusses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analysed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  15. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups-what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  16. Atypical Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... satisfaction and control in your life Help ease depression symptoms such as hopelessness and anger As part of your treatment, it's important to also address other conditions that often accompany atypical depression, in particular anxiety and drug or alcohol use, ...

  17. Teen Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression is a real, treatable brain illness, or health problem. Depression can be caused by big transitions in life, stress, or changes in your body’s chemicals that affect your thoughts and moods. Even if you feel ...

  18. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  19. Depression Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Depression Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... How Do I Know if I Am Experiencing Depression? The following questions may help you determine if ...

  20. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  1. Responsiveness and Minimally Important Differences for 4 Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Short Forms: Physical Function, Pain Interference, Depression, and Anxiety in Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Augustine C; Driban, Jeffrey B; Price, Lori Lyn; Harvey, William F; Rodday, Angie Mae; Wang, Chenchen

    2017-09-01

    Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) instruments can provide valid, interpretable measures of health status among adults with osteoarthritis (OA). However, their ability to detect meaningful change over time is unknown. We evaluated the responsiveness and minimally important differences (MIDs) for 4 PROMIS Short Forms: Physical Function, Pain Interference, Depression, and Anxiety. We analyzed adults with symptomatic knee OA from our randomized trial comparing Tai Chi and physical therapy. Using baseline and 12-week scores, responsiveness was evaluated according to consensus standards by testing 6 a priori hypotheses of the correlations between PROMIS and legacy change scores. Responsiveness was considered high if ≥5 hypotheses were confirmed, and moderate if 3 or 4 were confirmed. MIDs were evaluated according to prospective change for people achieving previously-established MID on legacy comparators. The lowest and highest MIDs meeting a priori quality criteria formed a MID range for each PROMIS Short Form. Among 165 predominantly female (70%) and white (57%) participants, mean age was 61 years and body mass index was 33. PROMIS Physical Function had 5 confirmed hypotheses and Pain Interference, Depression, and Anxiety had 3 or 4. MID ranges were: Depression = 3.0 to 3.1; Anxiety = 2.3 to 3.4; Physical Function = 1.9 to 2.2; and Pain Interference = 2.35 to 2.4. PROMIS Physical Function has high responsiveness, and Depression, Anxiety, and Pain Interference have moderate responsiveness among adults with knee OA. We established the first MIDs for PROMIS in this population, and provided an important standard of reference to better apply or interpret PROMIS in future trials or clinical practice. This study examined whether PROMIS Short Form instruments (Physical Function, Pain Interference, Depression, and Anxiety) were able to detect change over time among adults with knee OA, and provided minimally important change estimates

  2. Prenatal stress-immune programming of sex differences in comorbidity of depression and obesity/metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill M; Holsen, Laura; Huang, Grace; Hammond, Bradley D; James-Todd, Tamarra; Cherkerzian, Sara; Hale, Taben M; Handa, Robert J

    2016-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the number one cause of disability worldwide and is comorbid with many chronic diseases, including obesity/metabolic syndrome (MetS). Women have twice as much risk for MDD and comorbidity with obesity/MetS as men, although pathways for understanding this association remain unclear. On the basis of clinical and preclinical studies, we argue that prenatal maternal stress (ie, excess glucocorticoid expression and associated immune responses) that occurs during the sexual differentiation of the fetal brain has sex-dependent effects on brain development within highly sexually dimorphic regions that regulate mood, stress, metabolic function, the autonomic nervous system, and the vasculature. Furthermore, these effects have lifelong consequences for shared sex-dependent risk of MDD and obesity/MetS. Thus, we propose that there are shared biologic substrates at the anatomical, molecular, and/or genetic levels that produce the comorbid risk for MDD-MetS through sex-dependent fetal origins.

  3. The depression epidemic at work: the role of communication in reducing depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hoeven, C.; Fransen, M.; Brummelhuis, L.; Peper, B.

    2012-01-01

    Building on prior findings indicating that depressed people perceive communication differently than non-depressed people, it is hypothesized that organizational communication mitigates depressive symptoms and therefore prevents them from developing their impact on work outcomes. Data were collected

  4. Exploring culture-specific differences in beliefs about causes, kinship and the heritability of major depressive disorder: the views of Anglo-Celtic and Chinese-Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mimi; Zou, Lilian; Wilde, Alex; Meiser, Bettina; Barlow-Stewart, Kristine; Chan, Bibiana; Mitchell, Philip B; Sousa, Mariana S; Schofield, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore cultural differences in causal attributions and beliefs about heritability of major depressive disorder (MDD). Face-to-face interviews with Anglo-Celtic- and Chinese-Australians community members with a family history of MDD were conducted and subjected to a rigorous qualitative analysis, using the computer software NVivo. Sixteen Anglo-Celtic-Australians and 16 Chinese-Australians were interviewed. Both groups believed that a combination of genetic and environmental factors contributed to MDD, that stress was an important cause of MDD, and that coping factors were significant moderators of the impact of stress on MDD. Both cultural groups believed that the causes of MDD affecting multiple family members included a shared family environment and a "contagion effect", in addition to genetics. Unique to the Chinese-Australian group was the beliefs that parental pressures to exceed academically contributed to MDD; this cultural group also reported beliefs that depression was due to God's will or alternatively fate, which in turn was related to attributions to feng shui and auspicious dates. This study documented key culture-specific differences in beliefs about causes and inheritance of MDD; such differences have major implications for clinician-patient communication about genetic risk associated with having a family history of MDD.

  5. Depressive realism: effects of depression severity and interpretation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendree-Smith, N; Scogin, F

    2000-12-01

    This study examined the theory of depressive realism, which posits that depressed people often are more accurate in perceptions and judgments than nondepressed people. Two possible qualifications to this theory were examined: (1) severity of depression moderates the effect, and (2) length of processing time will impact the presence of bias in depressed people, that is, negative bias will develop over time. College students were presented with a bogus personality profile that actually consisted of items previously rated as neutral in desirability. Participants rated these profiles for desirability initially and then again three days later. Results indicated a significant effect of depression severity on desirability rating. Nondepressed and mildly depressed students found their profiles to be more positive than the moderately/severely depressed students, with both groups having scores in the positive range. However, those participants who were moderately/severely depressed showed a negative bias in their ratings. No support was found for the effect of different times of interpretation.

  6. An Instrumental Variable Probit (IVP) Analysis on Depressed Mood in Korea: The Impact of Gender Differences and Other Socio-Economic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Gitto; Yong-Hwan Noh; Antonio Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is a mental health state whose frequency has been increasing in modern societies. It imposes a great burden, because of the strong impact on people’s quality of life and happiness. Depression can be reliably diagnosed and treated in primary care: if more people could get effective treatments earlier, the costs related to depression would be reversed. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of socio-economic factors and gender on depressed mood, focusing on...

  7. Behandlingsresistent depression kan behandles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2011-01-01

    Depression is considered resistant when two treatment attempts with antidepressants from different classes fail to produce significant clinical improvement. In cases of treatment-resistant depression, it is recommended to reevaluate the diagnosis, clarify comorbidity, substance abuse and lack...... of compliance. Regarding treatment, evidence is sparse, but switching to a different antidepressant, and combination or augmentation with another agent, admission and treatment with ECT are the options. The choice of treatment must be based on the characteristics of the depression, the severity of treatment...

  8. Health Related Quality of Life after ECT for depression: A study exploring the role of different electrode-placements and pulse-widths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Verònica; Li, Adrienne; Oxley, Cristal; Waite, Susan; De Felice, Nick; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Kumar, Divya; Page, Andrew C; Hooke, Geoff; Loo, Colleen K

    2016-12-01

    Prior research has shown large improvements in HRQOL after a course of ECT for depression. However, the effect of different types of ECT on HRQOL outcomes has not been explored. This is important due to the considerable range of ECT treatment modalities that currently exist in clinical practice. HRQOL data from 355 depressed patients in three Australian clinical hospitals, who received ECT given with a range of treatment modalities (combinations of pulse-width and electrode-placement), were analysed. HRQOL was measured at baseline and after ECT, using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF). The association between type of ECT and HRQOL after ECT was examined by regression analysis, controlling for variables that may affect HRQOL outcomes. There was a significant increase in HRQOL scores after ECT (p.0001; t=-23.4). The magnitude of change was large (54% increase, Cohen's d=1.43). Multiple regression analysis yielded a significant model (P.001, R(2)=0.18). Baseline HRQOL score (t=4.83; p.0001), age (t=2.75, p.01) and type of ECT received [Right Unilateral brief vs Bitemporal Ultrabrief (t=-2.99; p.01) and Right Unilateral brief vs Bifrontal Ultrabrief (t=-2.70; p.01)] were significant predictors of HRQOL after the ECT course. Data was collected naturalistically from clinical services, thus ECT modality was not randomly assigned. Site could have confounded results. An acute course of ECT for depression produced statistically and clinically significant improvements in HRQOL. ECT treatment modality can substantially impact HRQOL outcomes, with the possibility of bilateral ultrabrief forms of ECT being less beneficial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethnicity, music experience, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Paul D; Swope, Alan J; Heide, Frederick J

    2009-01-01

    The researchers studied differences in self-reported music experience and depression across ethnic groups, as well as differences in the relationship between music experience and depression across groups. College participants (78 African Americans, 111 Asian Americans, 218 Whites, and 87 in other ethnic groups) completed the Music Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Statistically significant differences across groups were found on depression as well as on the MEQ factor for Subjective/Physical Reactions to music and on MEQ scales for Commitment to Music, Affective Reactions, Positive Psychotropic Effects, and Reactive Musical Behavior. A distinctive pattern of relationship was found between music variables and depression in the Asian American group, relative to the White and Other group. In particular, among Asian Americans there were negative correlations between depression and the MEQ Subjective/ Physical Reactions factor as well as the Affective Reactions scale. Implications were discussed for the literature on ethnicity and depression, music experience, and music therapy.

  10. Patterns of hippocampal atrophy differ among Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joko, Taisuke; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Sasayama, Daimei; Inuzuka, Shin; Ogihara, Tomomi; Yasaki, Takehiko; Hagiwara, Tetsuya; Sugiyama, Nobuhiro; Takahashi, Tohru; Kaneko, Tomoki; Hanihara, Tokiji; Amano, Naoji

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated whether the characteristic changes in hippocampal atrophy seen in coronal scans are useful for differentiating Alzheimer's disease (AD), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and major depressive disorder (MDD). Subjects included 58 patients with AD, 33 with aMCI, 20 with MDD, and 22 normal controls, all aged 60 years or older. For each subject, eight coronal short TI inversion recovery images perpendicular to the hippocampal longitudinal axis were obtained. Images were manually measured using the conventional region of interest method of quantitative analysis. The overall trend in the corrected volumes of the hippocampus was AD atrophy in all slices in AD, atrophy centred on the hippocampal head in aMCI, and atrophy in the slice of the hippocampal body 12 mm from the amygdala in MDD. The present study suggested that our method of comparing hippocampal atrophy by region may be useful in distinguishing AD, aMCI, MDD, and normal controls. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  11. Testosterone and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Kartalcı

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Androgens have various effects on human body and mood. Testosterone, a hormone mainly secreted from testes and adrenals, is one of the most potent androgens. Multiple studies have found that testosterone plays a role in regulating sexual activity, libido, social behaviors, aggression, cognitive functions, sleep control and well-being in men and women. Testosterone deficiency in hypogonadic or elderly men leads to neuropsychiatric problems, such as fatigue, loss of libido, irritability, insomnia and depressive mood. Testosterone replacement therapy consistently reverses these sequel in men. On the other hand, hyperandrogenic states in women are related to aggression and antisocial behavior, which might lead to depressive mood. Low testosterone levels may also result in depression among oophorectomized women. Because of such effects, a relationship between testosterone and depression has long been an issue of speculation, but yet very few studies have addressed this relation. Along with clinical studies, experimental and epidemiological studies show that testosterone is related to depression in men and women. But studies of testosterone concentrations in depression have yielded inconsistent results reporting low as well as high testosterone levels associated with depression. In this article, the physiological and psychological effects of testosterone and evidence regarding its relationship to depressive disorders and possible gender differences have been reviewed.

  12. Cooperation and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan Clark, C; Thorne, Christopher B; Hardy, Sonya; Cropsey, Karen L

    2013-09-25

    Deficits in pro-social cooperation are common in many individuals with mental illnesses such as depression. For decades, researchers have used economic game paradigms to compare cross-cultural cooperative behavior. However, research using economic games to assess cooperative behavior in clinical populations is in the early stages. We hypothesized that individuals with greater depressive symptoms would struggle to maintain reciprocity in iterative games, but not in single-iteration games measuring personal values. Participants (n=41) played four computer-based economic games (prisoner's dilemma, the public goods game, the ultimatum game, and the trust game) measuring different aspects of cooperation. Participants completed the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and other measures of personality and demographics. Analyses assessed the relationships between game performance and psychological distress as measured by the DASS. Significant correlations were found between game performance and depressive symptoms, but not symptoms of anxiety or stress. Performance in the prisoner's dilemma and public goods game was significantly related to depression in a linear regression even when known associations with depressive affect such as age, gender, race, education, marital status, and neuroticism were controlled for. Depressive symptoms were associated with an inability to sustain reciprocal cooperation. Participants showed the predicted deficits in cooperation in these economic games. Economic games show the potential for assessing the social deficits associated with depressive symptoms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 抑郁症临床表现与治疗的性别差异%Gender differences in clinical manifestations and treatment of depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚慧; 江沛; 李焕德

    2012-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common dysphrenia, and there are obvious gender differences in its clinical manifestation. Addi-tionally, pharmacokinetics, including absorbing, distribution, metabo-lism and excretion, and pharmacodynamics, consisting of effects and side effects, in antidepressants has also been observed gender differences to varied extent. Most researches about its causes are focused on the levels of sex hormone and neurotransmhter system. This essay sums up results in this area systematically.%抑郁症是最常见的精神障碍之一,临床上存在明显的性别差异.抗抑郁药物的药代动力学、药效学及不良反应等方面都体现出不同程度的性别差异.目前研究主要集中在激素水平和神经递质系统上.

  14. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milgrom Jeannette

    2008-04-01

    for other risk factors. Conclusion Risk factor profiles for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress differ but are interrelated. Antenatal depression was the strongest predictor of postnatal depression, and in turn postnatal depression was the strongest predictor for parenting stress. These results provide clinical direction suggesting that early identification and treatment of perinatal depression is important.

  15. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-04-16

    antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress differ but are interrelated. Antenatal depression was the strongest predictor of postnatal depression, and in turn postnatal depression was the strongest predictor for parenting stress. These results provide clinical direction suggesting that early identification and treatment of perinatal depression is important.

  16. Activated depression: mixed bipolar disorder or agitated unipolar depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Alan C

    2013-08-01

    The combination of depression and activation presents clinical and diagnostic challenges. It can occur, in either bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder, as increased agitation as a dimension of depression. What is called agitation can consist of expressions of painful inner tension or as disinhibited goal-directed behavior and thought. In bipolar disorder, elements of depression can be combined with those of mania. In this case, the agitation, in addition to increased motor activity and painful inner tension, must include symptoms of mania that are related to goal-directed behavior or manic cognition. These diagnostic considerations are important, as activated depression potentially carries increased behavioral risk, especially for suicidal behavior, and optimal treatments for depressive episodes differ between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

  17. Postpartum Depression After Mild and Severe Preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, Meeke; Berks, Durk; Vogel, Ineke; Franx, Arie; Bangma, Meike; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E.; Visser, Willy; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Habbema, J. Dik F.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Raat, Hein

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms after preeclampsia, to assess the extent to which the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms differs after mild and severe preeclampsia, and to investigate which factors contribute to such differences. Methods: Women

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Depression in Korean Adult Patients with Asthma: Is There a Difference between Elderly and Non-Elderly Patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Gil-Soon; Shin, Yoo Seob; Kim, Joo Hee; Choi, Seon Yoon; Lee, Soo-Keol; Nam, Young-Hee; Lee, Young-Mok; Park, Hae-Sim; ,

    2014-01-01

    Depression is an important comorbidity of asthma. However, little information is available about depression and its potential impact on asthma control in Korean adult asthma patients. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for depression in Korean adults with persistent asthma. The 127 non-elderly (20-64 yr) and 75 elderly (≥65 yr) patients with asthma were recruited. Demographic and clinical data were extracted, and the patients completed the Asthma Specific Quality of Life (AQ...

  19. Associação entre depressão materna e diferenças de gênero no comportamento de crianças: uma revisão sistemática Association between maternal depression and gender differences in child behavior: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Loosli

    2010-01-01

    different manifestations for boys and girls. The objective of the present study was to identify and analyze articles published in indexed journals that address the association between maternal depression and gender differences in relation to child behavior. The review was conducted on the electronic databases MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, LILACS, SciELO, and Index Psi, using the keywords maternal depression and gender and maternal depression and child sex, and was restricted to articles published in the last 5 years (2004 to 2009. Twenty one empirical articles were identified and systematically analyzed. There was a predominance of prospective longitudinal studies, employing non-clinical samples, without a confirmed diagnosis of maternal depression, which was analyzed in combination with others context variables. Data collection procedures were performed using a variety of measures and informants. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies confirmed the negative impact of maternal depression on child variables, pointing to the presence of differences between genders, as follows: during school-age years, externalizing and conduct problems for boys and internalizing and depressive problems for girls; during preschool age, predominance of externalizing problems for boys; during adolescence, internalizing problems for girls. These results suggest the need for different intervention strategies aimed at boys and girls who have been exposed to maternal depression, focusing on developmental tasks and with special attention to both genders during school age and to girls during adolescence.

  20. Metacognitions and Mindful Attention Awareness in Depression: A Comparison Of Currently Depressed, Previously Depressed and Never Depressed Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solem, Stian; Hagen, Roger; Wang, Catharina E A; Hjemdal, Odin; Waterloo, Knut; Eisemann, Martin; Halvorsen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to test (1) how metacognition relates to the concept of mindful attention awareness, and (2) whether metacognitions or mindful attention awareness best predicted symptoms of depression. Data was collected from three samples: currently depressed (n = 37), previously depressed (n = 81) and never depressed controls (n = 50). There was a moderate correlation between mindful attention awareness and three of five metacognitive subscales. Both mindful attention awareness and metacognition were significantly correlated with depression severity scores after controlling for anxiety. The depressed group had significantly more dysfunctional metacognitions and less mindful attention awareness than the never depressed group. Negative beliefs about worry and mindful attention awareness were also significantly different in the previously depressed group compared with the never depressed. This suggests that metacognitions and mindful attention awareness can be vulnerability factors for depression. The results also indicated that anxiety symptoms and negative beliefs about worry were the most important factors in predicting depression. In conclusion, the study shows that metacognitions and mindful attention awareness are two related but separate constructs and that metacognitions emerged as the best predictor of depression. These results provide support for the metacognitive model of emotional disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Metacognitions and mindful attention awareness are related but separate constructs Both mindful attention awareness and metacognition are associated with depression Anxiety and negative beliefs about worry (metacognitions) are most important in predicting depression Addressing metacognitions in therapy should be considered in treatment of depression. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Identifying Differences in Risk Factors for Depression and Anxiety in Pediatric Chronic Disease: A Matched Cross-Sectional Study of Youth with Lupus/Mixed Connective Tissue Disease and Their Diabetic Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrea; Weiss, Pamela; Morales, Knashawn; Gerdes, Marsha; Rearson, Melissa; Vickery, Michelle; Keren, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Objective Depression and anxiety are associated with poor clinical and psychosocial outcomes in youth with chronic disease. To investigate differences in risk factors for depression and anxiety, like central nervous system (CNS) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)/mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), we compared SLE/MCTD youth to type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) peers. Study Design We conducted a cross-sectional study of 50 outpatient pairs, ages 8 years and above, matching SLE/MCTD and T1D subjects by sex and age group. We screened for depression, suicidal ideation and anxiety using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 and the Screen for Childhood Anxiety Related Disorders, respectively. We collected parent-reported mental health treatment data. We compared prevalence and treatment rates between SLE/MCTD and T1D subjects, and identified disease-specific risk factors using logistic regression. Results Depression symptoms were present in 23%, suicidal ideation in 15% and anxiety in 27% of participants. Compared to T1D, SLE/MCTD subjects had lower adjusted rates of depression and suicidal ideation, yet poorer rates of mental health treatment (24% vs 53%). Non-white race/ethnicity and longer disease duration were independent risk factors for depression and suicidal ideation. Depression was associated with poor disease control in both groups, and anxiety with insulin pump use in T1D subjects. Conclusion Depression and anxiety are high and undertreated in SLE/MCTD and T1D youth. Focusing on risk factors such as race/ethnicity and disease duration may improve their mental health care. Further study of CNS and other disease-related factors may identify targets for intervention. PMID:26316371

  2. Presence and correlates of apathy in non-demented depressed and non-depressed older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Groeneweg-Koolhoven

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Apathy is a behavioral syndrome that often co-occurs with depression. Nonetheless, the etiology of apathy and depression may be different. We hypothesized that apathy occurs more often in depressed compared to non-depressed older persons; and that independent correlates for apathy will be different in depressed and non-depressed older persons. Methods: In this cross-sectional study of Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO, a total of 350 depressed older persons according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and 126 non-depressed older persons, aged at least 60 years were recruited in several Medical Centres and general practices. In both depressed and non-depressed older persons, those with and without apathy as assessed with the Apathy Scale (score ≥ 14 were compared with regard to socio-demographic, clinical, and biological characteristics. Results: Apathy was present in 75% of the depressed and 25% of the non- depressed older persons. Independent correlates of apathy in both depressed and non-depressed older persons were male gender and less education. Furthermore, in depressed older persons, higher scores on the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS and, in non-depressed older persons, a higher C-reactive protein (CRP level correlated independently with apathy. Conclusions: Apathy occurred frequently among both depressed and non-depressed older persons. Among depressed older persons, apathy appeared to be a symptom of more serious depression, whereas among non-depressed persons apathy was associated with increased CRP being a marker for immune activation, suggesting a different aetiology for apathy in its own right.

  3. Salience and valence of appearance in a population with a visible difference of appearance: direct and moderated relationships with self-consciousness, anxiety and depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P Moss

    Full Text Available Psychometric measures of appearance salience and valence, CARSAL and CARVAL, have been previously demonstrated to be key factors underpinning appearance related self-consciousness and negative affect in the general population. However, the extent to which the scales are appropriate for people with a visibly different appearance has not previously been reported. Neither has the moderating effect of appearance salience (CARSAL on the relationship between appearance valence (CARVAL and appearance self-consciousness, previously shown in a general population sample, been replicated with people who are visibly different. Twelve hundred and sixty five participants with a visible difference in either secondary care (n = 651 or the community (n = 614 provided data. Analysis confirmed the psychometric qualities of both CARSAL and CARVAL, and the conceptual independence of each scale. The scales also demonstrated independent and interdependent relationships with social anxiety and avoidance in relation to appearance, depression and anxiety. Appearance salience moderated the relationship with valence on these psychosocial measures. In summary, this paper corroborates the use of CARSAL and CARVAL with both visibly different and general adult populations for the measurement of appearance salience and valence.

  4. Salience and valence of appearance in a population with a visible difference of appearance: direct and moderated relationships with self-consciousness, anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Timothy P; Lawson, Victoria; White, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric measures of appearance salience and valence, CARSAL and CARVAL, have been previously demonstrated to be key factors underpinning appearance related self-consciousness and negative affect in the general population. However, the extent to which the scales are appropriate for people with a visibly different appearance has not previously been reported. Neither has the moderating effect of appearance salience (CARSAL) on the relationship between appearance valence (CARVAL) and appearance self-consciousness, previously shown in a general population sample, been replicated with people who are visibly different. Twelve hundred and sixty five participants with a visible difference in either secondary care (n = 651) or the community (n = 614) provided data. Analysis confirmed the psychometric qualities of both CARSAL and CARVAL, and the conceptual independence of each scale. The scales also demonstrated independent and interdependent relationships with social anxiety and avoidance in relation to appearance, depression and anxiety. Appearance salience moderated the relationship with valence on these psychosocial measures. In summary, this paper corroborates the use of CARSAL and CARVAL with both visibly different and general adult populations for the measurement of appearance salience and valence.

  5. Variation in prescribing for anxiety and depression: a reflection of health inequalities, cultural differences or variations in access to care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Jean

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are large variations in mental health prescribing in UK populations. However the underlying reasons for these differences, which may be related to differences in prevalence, cultural expectations or practical difficulties in access to treatment, remain uncertain. Methods Linear modelling was used to investigate whether population characteristics or access to primary care account for variations in mental health prescribing across 39 deprived neighbourhoods. Results The proportion of sampled respondents whose first language was not English and the ratio of general practitioners to population explained 61% of variation. Deprivation and mental health status were not significant predictors of prescribing in these relatively deprived communities. Conclusion These findings suggest that mental health prescribing, within deprived areas, as well as reflecting cultural and social differences in prescribing, may also be a proxy measure of access to care.

  6. Postpartum Anxiety and Depression in Different Delivery Modes%不同分娩方式产妇的焦虑抑郁情绪调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟琭葭; 谢馨钰; 吕敏; 景璐石

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the different maternal anxiety and depression brought by different delivery modes,and analyze the occurrence and the possible influencing factors.Methods 380 cases of pregnant women hospitalized from October 2013 to May 2014 in one hospital and one Maternal & Child Health Hospital in Chengdu were divided into cesarean section group and natural birth group according to different modes of delivery,General information questionnaire,self rating depression scale,self rating anxiety scale were used to evaluate the maternity patients within 5 days after delivery.Results There was statistically significant difference between cesarean section group and natural birth group in terms of anxiety within the 3 days after delivery (t 1 =-3.292,t 2 =-2.31 6,t 3 =-2.666,P <0.05 ).Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed the influence factor of cesarean group's anxiety was lactation quantity,the influence factors of natural birth group were postpartum days,ambulation and anal exhaust time.Cesarean section group′s depression gradually reduced within the 3 days after delivery but increased afterwards;natural birth group's depression gradually reduced within 5 days.Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed the influence factors of cesarean group depression were lactation quantity and postpartum self urination time,and the influence factors of natural birth group were lactation quantity and postpartum days.Conclusion Postpartum anxiety and depression are common in both modes of delivery.It is of significant importance in postpartum recovery and the healthy growth of the infants to pay attention to the mental health of maternity patients and conduct psychological intervention in a timely manner.%目的:探讨不同分娩方式产妇焦虑抑郁情绪差异,分析其发生状况以及可能的影响因素。方法根据分娩方式不同将2013年10月至2014年5月在成都市某医院产科及某区妇幼保健院分娩的380例产妇分为剖宫产组

  7. 富油凹陷不同洼陷烃源岩的热演化及生烃特征差异性%DIVERSITY IN THE THERMAL EVOLUTION AND HYDROCARBON GENERATION OF SOURCE SOCKS IN DIFFERENT SUB-DEPRESSIONS OF RICH OIL DEPRESSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋有录; 卓勤功; 谈玉明; 鲁雪松

    2009-01-01

    Every rich oil depression in the Bohai Bay Basin generally consists of several sub-depressions which are commonly independent hydrocarbon-generating centers. Due to the differences in sedimentary-burial history of these sub-depressions, there are obvious differences in thermal evolution and hydrocarbon generation of source rocks between different sub-depressions and their different structural positions. Taking the main source rocks of Paleogene Shahejie Formation in Dongpu Depression and Dongying Depression of the Bohai Bay Basin for example, the article demonstrated a comparative analysis in the thermal history and hydrocarbon generation history of source rock between major sub-depressions in two depressions, and the control effects on the reservoir formation and distribution were illustrated in detail. The result shows that, in rich oil depression which consists of several hydrocarbon generation sub-depressions , the source rock in the most deep buried sub-depression adjacent to fault in steep slop is the best, which is widely distributed with high thermal evolution degree, great hydrocarbon generation potential and rich resources. Because of the distinction of the conditions of source rock and burial-thermal history, the hydrocarbon-generating cha-racteristics of source rock in different members of the same strata series and different structural positions in the same sub-depression show relatively large diversity. There are obvious diversities in hydrocarbon generation of source rock in different rich oil depressions.%渤海湾盆地富油凹陷通常发育多个生烃洼陷,每个洼陷往往为相对独立的生烃中心;由于沉积埋藏史的差异,不同洼陷及其不同构造部位烃源岩的热演化和生烃特征存在明显差异.以渤海湾盆地东濮凹陷和东营凹陷古近系沙河街组主要烃源岩系为例,对比分析了两凹陷中主要生烃洼陷烃源岩的热演化及生烃史特征,并探讨了其对油气藏形成及分布的

  8. Memories of Recent Life Events: Differences in Emotional Reactivity and Regulation of Individuals with High and Low Levels of Depressive Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Watson, Lynn Ann; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Existing studies investigating involuntary memories (IMs) in the context of depression extend their hypotheses from PTSD models. Findings suggest that the frequency and suppression of IMs are associated with depression. However, in order to fully understand the memory-mental health relationship, ...... maladaptive cognitive strategies. Future research could focus on metacognition related to both IMs and word-cued memories....

  9. Differences in the Prevalence, Severity and Symptom Profiles of Depression in Boys and Adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder versus Normally Developing Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, severity and symptom profiles for major depressive disorder (MDD) were compared in samples of boys and adolescents with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Self-reports were obtained on the Depression subscale of the Child and Adolescent Symptoms Inventory (CASI-D) with 70 ASD and 50 non-ASD male participants between the…

  10. Depression and religiosity in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorski, M; Warzecha, A

    2011-09-12

    We investigated the hypothesis that religious commitment could help counter general affective distress, accompanying depressive symptoms, in older age. A total of 34 older adults, all catholic believers, completed self-reported questionnaires on the presence of depressive symptoms, religiosity, health, worry, and the style of coping with stress. The depressive and non-depressive subgroups were then created. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 50%, with the substantial predominance of females. Regression analyses indicate that health expectations and worry significantly worsen with increasing intensity of depressive symptoms. The results further show that religious engagement was not different between the depressive and non-depressive subgroups. Religiosity failed to influence the intensity of depressive symptoms or the strategy of coping with stress in either subgroup, although a trend was noted for better health expectations with increasing religious engagement in depressive subjects. We conclude that religiosity is unlikely to significantly ameliorate dysphoric distress accompanying older age.

  11. Depression and religiosity in older age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokorski M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigated the hypothesis that religious commitment could help counter general affective distress, accompanying depressive symptoms, in older age. A total of 34 older adults, all catholic believers, completed self-reported questionnaires on the presence of depressive symptoms, religiosity, health, worry, and the style of coping with stress. The depressive and non-depressive subgroups were then created. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 50%, with the substantial predominance of females. Regression analyses indicate that health expectations and worry significantly worsen with increasing intensity of depressive symptoms. The results further show that religious engagement was not different between the depressive and non-depressive subgroups. Religiosity failed to influence the intensity of depressive symptoms or the strategy of coping with stress in either subgroup, although a trend was noted for better health expectations with increasing religious engagement in depressive subjects. We conclude that religiosity is unlikely to significantly ameliorate dysphoric distress accompanying older age.

  12. Personality in recovered depressed elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Bender, M; Sloane, R B

    1992-01-01

    Personality traits in euthymic elderly subjects with and without past histories of major depressive episodes were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Social Adjustment Scale-SR. Recovered depressed subjects were characterized by significantly more personality traits from DSM-III-R Clusters B and C than controls, and they exhibited differences in social adjustment, as well. Subjects who have recovered from depressive episodes may show significant differences in personality and social adjustment that might represent residua of past depression, a trait characteristic, or a risk factor for recurrence.

  13. Evidence for Broadening Criteria for Atypical Depression Which May Define a Reactive Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Brett; Angst, Jules

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1) The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2) Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite/weight. (3) Several studies have found atypical depression to be comorbid with headaches, bulimia, and body image issues. (4) Most probands who report atypical depression meet criteria for "somatic depression," defined as depression associated with several of disordered eating, poor body image, headaches, fatigue, and insomnia. The gender difference in prevalence of atypical depression results from its overlap with somatic depression. Somatic depression is associated with psychosocial measures related to gender, linking it with the descriptions of atypical depression as "reactive" appearing in the studies upon which the original criteria for atypical depression were based. Conclusion. Insomnia, disordered eating, poor body image, and aches/pains should be added as criteria for atypical depression matching criteria for somatic depression defining a reactive depressive disorder possibly distinct from endogenous melancholic depression.

  14. Evidence for Broadening Criteria for Atypical Depression Which May Define a Reactive Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Silverstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1 The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2 Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite/weight. (3 Several studies have found atypical depression to be comorbid with headaches, bulimia, and body image issues. (4 Most probands who report atypical depression meet criteria for “somatic depression,” defined as depression associated with several of disordered eating, poor body image, headaches, fatigue, and insomnia. The gender difference in prevalence of atypical depression results from its overlap with somatic depression. Somatic depression is associated with psychosocial measures related to gender, linking it with the descriptions of atypical depression as “reactive” appearing in the studies upon which the original criteria for atypical depression were based. Conclusion. Insomnia, disordered eating, poor body image, and aches/pains should be added as criteria for atypical depression matching criteria for somatic depression defining a reactive depressive disorder possibly distinct from endogenous melancholic depression.

  15. The Narcissism of Depression or the Depression of Narcissism and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitris

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that it has long been recognised that narcissism can contribute to depression, we have become accustomed to referring to depression mostly in terms of a neurotic disturbance. The author highlights the difference between the narcissistic elements in depression, which is based on guilt, and the graver narcissistic depression, which…

  16. The Narcissism of Depression or the Depression of Narcissism and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitris

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that it has long been recognised that narcissism can contribute to depression, we have become accustomed to referring to depression mostly in terms of a neurotic disturbance. The author highlights the difference between the narcissistic elements in depression, which is based on guilt, and the graver narcissistic depression, which…

  17. Depression and social problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, E M; Williams, J M; Claridge, G C

    1992-02-01

    Twenty depressed patients with major depressive disorder, 20 nondepressed matched control subjects, and 17 patients with anxiety disorders were compared in different measures of social problem solving. Problem solving was assessed with the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Test (Study 1), the solution of personal problems, and a problem-solving questionnaire (Study 2). Results showed that, as predicted, depressed subjects suffered from a deficit in problem solving in all three measures. The majority of these deficits were also displayed by the clinical control group rather than being specific to a diagnosis of depression. However, depressed subjects produced less effective solutions than did normal and clinical control subjects. The results suggest that depressed and anxious patients may have difficulties at different stages of the problem-solving process.

  18. Adolescence depressions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matot, J P

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the depressive problematics emerging during adolescence in the frame of the transformations that characterize this period of life, with a focus on the interference of socio-cultural dimensions...

  19. Similarities and differences of functional connectivity in drug-naïve, first-episode adolescent and young adult with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengnan; Womer, Fay; Geng, Haiyang; Jiang, Xiaowei; Zhou, Qian; Chang, Miao; Zhou, Yifang; Tang, Yanqing; Wang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia (SZ) are considered two distinct psychiatric disorders. Yet, they have considerable overlap in symptomatology and clinical features, particularly in the initial phases of illness. The amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC) appear to have critical roles in these disorders; however, abnormalities appear to manifest differently. In our study forty-nine drug-naïve, first-episode MDD, 45 drug-naïve, first-episode SZ, and 50 healthy control (HC) participants from 13 to 30 years old underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Functional connectivity (FC) between the amygdala and PFC was compared among the three groups. Significant differences in FC were observed between the amygdala and ventral PFC (VPFC), dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), and dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC) among the three groups. Further analyses demonstrated that MDD showed decreased amygdala-VPFC FC and SZ had reductions in amygdala-dACC FC. Both the diagnostic groups had significantly decreased amygdala-DLPFC FC. These indicate abnormalities in amygdala-PFC FC and further support the importance of the interaction between the amygdala and PFC in adolescents and young adults with these disorders. Additionally, the alterations in amygdala-PFC FC may underlie the initial similarities observed between MDD and SZ and suggest potential markers of differentiation between the disorders at first onset. PMID:28287187

  20. DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS—AN INTERCENTRE COMPARISON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev; Khandelwal, Sudhir; Varma, Vijay K.; Wig, N.N.; Rao, Usha; Tripathi, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY 45 Psychotic Depressives from PGI, Chandigarh have been compared with 90 Psychotic Depressives from Madurai Centre on 40 symptoms using SADD schedule. Differences in the symptomatology have been highlightened. PMID:21965942

  1. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety (worry and oversensitivity, social concerns and concentration, and physiological anxiety) as well as total anxiety symptoms at an initial assessment and 1 year later. Total anxiety and worry and oversensitivity symptoms are found to predict later depressive symptoms more strongly for girls than for boys. There is a similar pattern of results for social concerns and concentration symptoms, although this does not reach statistical significance. Physiological anxiety predicts later depressive symptoms for both boys and girls. These findings highlight the importance of anxiety for the development of depression in adolescence, particularly worry and oversensitivity among girls. PMID:19756209

  2. Neurobiology of anxious depression: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Dawn F; Niciu, Mark J; Mathews, Daniel C; Richards, Erica M; Zarate, Carlos A

    2013-04-01

    Anxious depression is a common, distinct clinical subtype of major depressive disorder (MDD). This review summarizes current neurobiological knowledge regarding anxious depression. Peer-reviewed articles, published January 1970 through September 2012, were identified via PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, using the following key words: anxious depression electroencephalography (EEG), anxious depression functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), anxious depression genetics, anxious depression neurobiology, and anxious melancholia neurobiology. Despite a general dearth of neurobiological research, the results suggest that anxious depression-when defined either syndromally or dimensionally-has distinct neurobiological findings that separate it from nonanxious depression. Structural neuroimaging, EEG, genetics, and neuropsychiatric studies revealed differences in subjects with anxious depression compared to other groups. Endocrine differences between individuals with anxious depression and those with nonanxious depression have also been noted, as evidenced by abnormal responses elicited by exogenous stimulation of the system. Despite these findings, heterogeneity in the definition of anxious depression complicates the results. Because exploring the neurobiology of this depressive subtype is important for improving diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, enrichment strategies to decrease heterogeneity within the field should be employed for future research.

  3. Understanding differences in alcohol consumption and depressed mood between U.S.- and foreign-born Asian and Caucasian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jih-Cheng J; Hsu, Sharon H; Mittmann, Angela J; Litt, Dana; Geisner, Irene M

    2016-01-01

    The number and proportion of foreign-born individuals in the U.S. population has increased in recent decades. From 1970 to 2007, the foreign-born population more than tripled to approximately 37 million (U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 , 2008 ). Foreign-born students are a key subpopulation of college students. About 23% of U.S. undergraduate college students in 2007-2008 were either born outside of the United States (10%) or were children of at least one first-generation immigrant parent (13%; National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education [NCES], 2012 ). Asian students constitute the majority (30%) of foreign-born undergraduates. Although foreign-born Asian students compose nearly one-quarter of the college population, limited research has examined how rates of alcohol use and depression differ between foreign-born and U.S.-born Asian college students (Gonzalez, Reynolds, & Skewes, 2011 ; Ralston & Palfai, 2012 ). The limited research is worrisome given their increasing rates of college enrollment (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011 ), alcohol consumption (Aud, Fox, & KewalRamani, 2010 ), alcohol abuse and dependence (Grant et al., 2004 ), and underutilization of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001 ). Collectively, these factors point to the need for further research tailored to Asian college drinkers.

  4. Differences between effects of psychological versus pharmacological treatments on functional and morphological brain alterations in anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quidé, Yann; Witteveen, Anke B; El-Hage, Wissam; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    The most prevalent mental disorders, anxiety and mood disorders, are associated with both functional and morphological brain changes that commonly involve the 'fear network' including the (medial) prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. Patients suffering from anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder often show excessive amygdala and reduced prefrontal cortex functioning. It is, however, still unclear whether these brain abnormalities disappear or diminish following effective treatment. This review aims to compare the effects of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy on functional and morphological brain measures in these disorders. Sixty-three studies were included, 30 investigating psychotherapy effects and 33 investigating pharmacotherapy effects. Despite methodological differences, results suggest a functional normalization of the 'fear network'. Pharmacotherapy particularly decreases over-activity of limbic structures (bottom-up effect) while psychotherapy tends to increase activity and recruitment of frontal areas (top-down effect), especially the anterior cingulate cortex. Additionally, pharmacotherapy, but not psychotherapy, has been associated with morphological changes, depending on the disorder. These findings suggest that both types of treatments normalize (functional) brain abnormalities each in specific ways.

  5. Differences in medication adherence and healthcare resource utilization patterns: older versus newer antidepressant agents in patients with depression and/or anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, David V; Keene, Matthew S; Eaddy, Michael; Krulewicz, Stan; Kraus, John E; Carpenter, David J

    2008-01-01

    Given the number of antidepressants available and their rising costs, healthcare payers have initiated restrictive reimbursement policies for newer antidepressants, without consideration for differences in their effectiveness or tolerability. The objective of this study was to comprehensively compare medication adherence rates and associated healthcare utilization costs for patients using later-generation versus earlier-generation antidepressants in a managed care setting. Antidepressants launched after 2002 were deemed third-generation antidepressants, while antidepressants available prior to 2002 were deemed first-generation (TCAs and MAOIs) and second-generation (serotonin and noradrenaline [norepinephrine]-dopamine reuptake inhibitors). Retrospective database analysis using medical and pharmacy data from over 75 managed care plans covering 55 million lives. All patients receiving an antidepressant between 1 January 2002 and 30 September 2004 were identified. The index date for patients was the date of their first antidepressant prescription within this time period. Patients had to (i) have a diagnosis of depression or anxiety disorder, or depression and anxiety disorder within 6 months prior to or 30 days after their index prescription; (ii) be at least 18 years of age, without having taken antidepressant therapy for 6 months prior to their index date; and (iii) be continuously eligible for 6 months prior to their index date and during their 6-month follow-up period. Patients were excluded if they had a diagnosis of psychosis-related disease, Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, or were initiated on psychosis-related medications. INTERVENTION/MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Patients meeting selection criteria were followed for 6 months to assess rates of antidepressant adherence, therapy change rates and medical healthcare costs. A total of 266 665 patients met the study criteria. Approximately 66% were female, with a mean age of 39 years. About 63% had a diagnosis of

  6. Creativity, depression, and circannual variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitton, S C; Hughes, R B

    1995-12-01

    Verbal creativity has been linked to personal and family histories of bipolar depression. The present studies investigated the relationship between creativity and atypical symptoms of bipolar depression such as seasonal mood variations. Although more creative individuals, as measured by scores on the Remote Associates Test and a writing sample, perceived seasonal fluctuations in their creativity, no significant differences in performance were found.

  7. Gender influence on manganese induced depression-like behavior and Mn and Fe deposition in different regions of CNS and excretory organs in intraperitoneally exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, A T; Guimarães, N C; Santana, D F; Gonçalves, M R; Souza, V C O; Barbosa Júnior, F; Pandossio, J E; Santos, V S

    2017-02-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal for mammals. It can modulate the action of endogenous substances, as neurotransmitters, but in excess also can trigger known neurotoxic effects. Many studies have been conducted assessing Mn neurotoxicity. However, Mn bioaccumulation in different brain tissues and behavior effects involving gender-specific studies are conflicted in the literature. Therefore, the aim of this work was to compare Mn effects, after 30days of intraperitoneal treatment, in male and female rats, submitted to forced swim and open field tests. After that, were evaluated Mn and Fe tissue levels in CNS, liver, and kidneys. Wistar rats were divided into saline, Mn 1mg/kg, Mn 5mg/kg, and imipramine (as forced swim control). Then, animals were euthanized by anesthesia overdose followed by decapitation and the collected tissue were striatum, hippocampus, brainstem, cortex, cerebellum, hepatic tissue, and renal tissue. Mn and Fe were determined by ICP-MS. There was a dose-dependent effect on accumulation of Mn in the cerebellum and brainstem to the dosage of 5mg/kg. In hippocampus there were bioaccumulation differences between gender and dose, and an increase of Fe in the groups exposed to Mn. Excess metals in the brain dissected has a strong influence on memory and learning processes and suggests pro-depressive effects, possibly triggered by the reduction of monoamines due to excessive metal bioaccumulation. It was concluded that, under this experimental design, Mn exposure cause metal deposition on dissected CNS, liver and kidney. There an effect at lower doses that was gender-dependent and males had more pronounced behavioral damage compared to females, although with increasing dose, females had an indication of motor damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metacognition and depressive realism: evidence for the level-of-depression account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderstrom, Nicholas C; Davalos, Deana B; Vázquez, Susana M

    2011-09-01

    Introduction. The present study examined the relationship between metacognition (i.e., "thinking about thinking") and depression. More specifically, the depressive realism hypothesis (Alloy & Abramson, 1979), which posits that depressed people have a more accurate view of reality than nondepressed people, was tested. Methods. Nondepressed, mildly depressed, and moderately depressed individuals predicted their memory performance by making judgements of learning after each studied item. These predictions were then compared with actual performance on a free recall task to assess calibration, an index of metacognitive accuracy. Results and conclusions. Consistent with the depressive realism hypothesis, mild depression was associated with better calibration than nondepression. However, this "sadder but wiser" phenomenon appears to only exist to point, as moderate depression and nondepression showed no calibration differences. Thus, the level-of-depression account of depressive realism is supported.

  9. Can Lupus Cause Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lupus Living well with lupus Can lupus cause depression? Life with lupus can be challenging. With symptoms ... treatable illness called clinical depression. Symptoms of Clinical Depression People are considered clinically depressed when they have ...

  10. Older Adults and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find more information? Reprints Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... depression need treatment to feel better. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...

  11. Depression and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Symptoms Depression Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Depression Depression Fatigue Walking (Gait) Difficulties Numbness or Tingling ... away from addictive substances such as alcohol. Clinical depression It’s important to distinguish between mild, everyday “blues” — ...

  12. Depressive symptoms and cognitive performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Park, Hyuntae; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Lee, Sangyoon; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-10-01

    Many longitudinal studies have found that older adults with depressive symptoms or depression have increased risk of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationships between depressive symptoms or depression, cognitive function, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and volumetric MRI measurements in older adults. A total of 4352 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years) participated in the study. We investigated medical history and geriatric depression scale-15 (GDS-15) items to determine depression and depressive symptoms. Cognitive tests included the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), story memory, word list memory, trail-making tests, and the symbol digit substitution task. Of the 4352 participants, 570 (13%) fulfilled the criteria for depressive symptoms (GDS-15: 6 + points) and 87 (2%) were diagnosed with depression. All cognitive tests showed significant differences between the 'no depressive symptoms', 'depressive symptoms', and 'depression' groups. The 'depressive symptoms' and 'depression' groups showed lower serum BDNF (p depressive symptoms' group. The 'depressive symptoms' group exhibited greater atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe than did the 'no depressive symptoms' group (p = 0.023). These results suggest that memory, executive function, and processing speed examinations are useful to identify cognitive decline in older adults who have depressive symptoms and depression. Serum BDNF concentration and atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe may in part mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline.

  13. The validity of the severity-psychosis hypothesis in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Bille, Jim; Søltoft-Jensen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Psychotic depression (PD) is classified as a subtype of severe depression in the current diagnostic manuals. Accordingly, it is a common conception among psychiatrists that psychotic features in depression arise as a consequence of depressive severity. The aim of this study was to determine wheth...... the severity of depressive and psychotic symptoms correlate in accordance with this "severity-psychosis" hypothesis and to detect potential differences in the clinical features of PD and non-psychotic depression (non-PD)....

  14. Differences in resting state regional cerebral blood flow assessed with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT and brain atlas matching between depressed patients with and without tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A; Pagani, M; Jacobsson, H; Lindberg, G; Larsson, S A; Wägner, A; Hällstrom, T

    2002-05-01

    An increased occurrence of major depressive disorder has been reported in tinnitus patients, and of tinnitus in depressive patients. Involvement of several Brodmann areas (BAs) has been reported in tinnitus perception. The aim of this study was to assess the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in depressed patients with and without tinnitus. The rCBF distribution at rest was compared among 45 patients with a lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder, of whom 27 had severe tinnitus, and 26 normal healthy subjects. 99mTc-hexamethylenepropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), using a three-headed gamma camera, was performed and the uptake in 34 functional sub-volumes of the brain bilaterally was assessed by a computerized brain atlas. Decreased rCBF in right frontal lobe BA 45 (Ptinnitus patients compared with non-tinnitus patients. The proportion of tinnitus patients with pronounced rCBF alterations in one or more of the temporal lobe BAs 41+21+22 was increased compared to gender matched controls (Ptinnitus (Ptinnitus patients only in three limbic BAs (Ptinnitus patients only in five BAs subserving auditory perception and processing (Pdepressed patients with and without tinnitus were found in this study. The rCBF alterations were distributed in the cortex and were particularly specific in the auditory cortex. These findings suggest that taking audiological symptoms into account may yield more consistent results between rCBF studies of depression.

  15. Gender Differences in the Effect of Depressive Symptoms on Prospective Alcohol Expectancies, Coping Motives, and Alcohol Outcomes in the First Year of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon; Jones, Richard N.; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2015-01-01

    Problematic alcohol use and risk for dependence peak during late adolescence, particularly among first-year college students. Although students matriculating into college with depressive symptoms experience elevated risk for alcohol problems, few studies have examined the intervening mechanisms of risk. In this study, we examined depressed mood at college entry on prospective alcohol expectancies, drinking motives, and alcohol outcomes during the first year of college, adjusting for pre-college factors. Participants (N = 614; 59 % female, 33 % non-White) were incoming college students from three universities who completed online self-report surveys prior to matriculating into college and at the end of their first year in college. We utilized path analysis to test our hypotheses. In women, the path that linked depressive symptoms to consequences was primarily attributable to the effect of pre-college drinking to cope on drinking to cope in college, which in turn was associated with alcohol consequences. In men, the effect of depressive symptoms on alcohol consequences in college was independent of pre-college and college factors, thus indicating the need for research that identifies mechanisms of risk in males. Interventions that address coping deficits and motivations for drinking may be particularly beneficial for depressed adolescent females during this high-risk developmental period. PMID:26036995

  16. [Depression: diagnosis, treatment and course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuppäck, Christoph

    2011-12-01

    Depressions are very common mental diseases. The diagnosis is made by psychopathology criteria and the course of the disorder. There is a growing body to the knowledge about etiology and treatment of depression - neuro-imaging, neuroplasticity, CREB and BDNF are all modified by antidepressants treatment and/or psychotherapy. As differential diagnoses, depressive syndromes on the basis of organic diseases but also burn-out syndromes may play a role, different therapeutic efforts are necessary. The treatment of depression consists of psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic strategies, combinations of both are useful. Many psychopharmacological substances with differing mechanisms of action are available - combinations of antidepressants with complementing mechanisms are possible. The course of depressions is mainly influenced by "working therapies". Comorbid somatic diseases and their successful treatment are of relevance for the long term course.

  17. 社会支持对不同性取向人群抑郁的作用分析%The Role of Social Supports on Depression of Different Sexual Orientation People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玮; 罗黄金; 井凯

    2015-01-01

    Objective:to analysis the role of social supports on depression of different sexual orientation people .Meth-ods:425 people of different sexual orientation were texted by CES -D and PSSS through the network sampling meth-od.Results:(1) social support of different sexual orientation people and significantly relate to depression ;(2) the regression equation of homosexuality's family support for depression is significant .Conclusion:( 1 ) comparing with heterosexuality and bisexuality ,homosexuality get less social support and more depression;(2) family support com-pared to other social supports for homosexuality may be more helpful in reducing depression .%本研究目的:分析不同种类的社会支持系统对不同人群的抑郁产生的作用. 方法:通过网络抽样法,采用CES-D、PSSS对425名不同性取向者进行调查. 结果:⑴除了同性恋的抑郁与社会支持中其他社会支持之间的相关未达到显著水平外,其他性取向的抑郁与社会支持各维度间的相关均达到显著水平;⑵同性恋的家庭支持对抑郁的回归方程显著. 结论:⑴同性恋相比于异性恋和双性恋获得更少的社会支持,并出现更多的抑郁情绪;⑵家庭支持相比其他社会支持对于同性恋减少抑郁情绪可能更具有帮助作用.

  18. 不同抗抑郁治疗对卒中后抑郁患者影响的临床研究%The impact of clinical research in different antidepressant treatment for stroke patients with depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫海燕; 袁栋才; 张凤春; 周娜; 吴睿

    2012-01-01

    Objective To contrast the efficacy of conventional therapy, psychotherapy, Tianeptine and psychotherapy combined with tianeptine to the nerve functional rehabilitation and depression degree in the treatment of post stroke depression. Methods All patients were divided into four groups randomly: control group (group A), psychotherapy group (group B), Tianeptine group (group C) and psychotherapy combined with Tianeptine group (group D). These groups were graded with HAM A for the depression degree and ADLS fore-and-aft treatment respectively. And the results were analysed. Results The treatment group in 12 weeks to depression degree of ease and the improvement of the ability of daily life had statistically significant differences (P < 0.05), and group D was more effective than others (P < 0.01). Conclusion Psychotherapy combined with tianeptine to the nerve functional rehabilitation and the depression degree in the treatment of post-stroke depression is more effective than others. Psychotherapy and Tianeptine both have evident curing effect to the nerve functional rehabilitation with the depression degree in the treatment of post-stroke depression. The group of psychological treatment joint drug therapy is more effective than others.%目的 比较常规治疗、心理治疗、噻奈普汀及心理治疗合并噻奈普汀4种不同的结果 对脑卒中后抑郁患者神经功能康复的影响.方法 将入选的患者随机分为对照组(A组)、心理治疗组(B组)、噻奈普汀治疗组(C组)和心理治疗并噻奈普汀治疗组(D组),应用汉密尔顿抑郁量表对患者治疗前和治疗后进行抑郁程度评分和日常生活能力评分,然后对结果进行分析.结果各组治疗12周后,抑郁程度的减轻及对日常生活能力的改善差异有统计学意义(P < 0.05),其中D组差异最为显著(P < 0.01).结论 心理治疗、噻奈普汀均对脑卒中后抑郁神经功能康复有明显的疗效,以心理治疗联合药物治疗组效果最佳,药物治疗次之.

  19. Modalidades de enxertia para maracujazeiro: avaliação preliminar nas condições da Depressão Cuiabana Preliminary evaluation of differents grafting methods of passionfruits tree under Cuiabá Depression conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Givanildo Roncatto; Janaina Batista Lenza Soares; João Pedro Valente

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar duas modalidades de enxertia para a cultura do maracujazeiro nas condições da Depressão Cuiabana. O ensaio foi realizado no viveiro da Fazenda Experimental da Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária - FAMEV, da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, localizada no município de Santo Antônio do Leverger. Foram utilizadas modalidades de enxertia do tipo garfagem em fenda cheia e fenda lateral, em três pontos distintos dos porta-enxertos: acima da inserção d...

  20. Sex differences in depression-like behavior after nerve injury are associated with differential changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in mice subjected to early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinaka, Takashi; Kinoshita, Megumi; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2015-04-10

    We recently demonstrated that exposure to early life stress exacerbates nerve injury-induced thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in adult male and female mice. Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic pain causes emotional dysfunction, such as anxiety and depression. In the present study, we investigated the impact of early life stress on depression-like behavior after nerve injury in mice. In addition, we examined the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Early life stress was induced by maternal separation between 2 and 3 weeks of age combined with social isolation after weaning (MSSI). At 9 weeks of age, the sciatic nerve was partially ligated to elicit neuropathic pain. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the forced swim test at 12 weeks of age. Tissue samples from different regions of the brain were collected at the end of maternal separation (3 weeks of age) or after the forced swim test (12 weeks of age). At 12 weeks of age, immobility time in the forced swim test was increased only in MSSI-stressed female mice with nerve injury. BDNF expression was increased in male, but not female, MSSI-stressed mice at 3 weeks of age. However, MSSI stress did not impact BDNF expression in male or female mice at 12 weeks of age. Our findings suggest that exposure to early life stress exacerbates emotional dysfunction induced by neuropathic pain in a sex-dependent manner. Changes in BDNF expression after early life stress may be associated with neuropathic pain-induced depression-like behavior in adulthood. Furthermore, sex differences in BDNF expression after exposure to early life stress may contribute to sex-specific susceptibility to neuropathic pain-induced emotional dysfunction.

  1. Investigation and study of depression status and influencing factors of rural widowed elderly with different genders%农村不同性别丧偶老人抑郁状况及影响因素的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓莲; 雷利霞; 周繁华; 李晨曦

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the depression status and its influencing factors of Chenzhou rural widowed elderly with different genders.Methods A random sample of 342 widowed elderly from 30 villages was investigated using the Geriatric Depression Scale and a self-designed questionnaire.Results Widowed elderly depression detection rate was 29.8%,depressive symptoms among elderly women detection rate was 34.7%,higher than men's depressive symptoms detection rate,which was 22.9%.Binary Logistic regression analysis showed:Alone,decreased self-care ability was the common risk factors of depressive symptoms of widowed elderly.The impact on men was bigger than on female.Age,chronic diseases were the main factors affecting depression status of elderly men,and economic security was the main factors affecting the depression status of elderly women.Conclusions The incidence of depressive symptoms in rural widowed elderly is high,but there are differences between widowed elderly with different genders in depression status and influencing factors.Therefore the community workers need to take targeted interventions to promote mental health for the elderly.%目的 了解郴州市农村不同性别丧偶老人的抑郁状况及影响因素.方法 利用老年抑郁量表及自行设计的调查表,对随机抽取的30个村组中342名丧偶老人进行调查,并对结果进行分析.结果 丧偶老人抑郁症状的检出率为29.8%,其中女性老人抑郁症状检出率为34.7%,男性老人的抑郁症状检出率为22.9%,女性老人的抑郁症状检出率明显高于男性老人,两者之间差异有统计学意义;二分类Logistic回归分析显示:独居、自理能力降低为丧偶老人抑郁症状发生的共同危险因素,且对男性老人的影响大于女性老人;年龄、慢性病是影响男性老人抑郁状况的主要因素,经济保障是影响女性老人抑郁状况的主要因素.结论 农村丧偶老人抑郁症状发生率高,但不同性别

  2. Depressive symptoms in the Netherlands 1975–1996 : a theoretical framework and an empirical analysis of socio-demographic characteristics, gender differences and changes over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivian Meertens, Vivian; Scheepers, Peer; Tax, Bert

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the longitudinal trend of depressive symptoms in the Netherlands, using large-scale national data recorded over the period 1975–1996. Our analyses showed fluctuations in the overall longitudinal trend. On the basis of a general theoretical framework, we formulated hypotheses

  3. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Role of Gender-Typed Characteristics, Self-Esteem, Body Image, Stressful Life Events, and Pubertal Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Diane; Fortin, Laurier; Potvin, Pierre; Papillon, Myra

    2002-01-01

    In a study of French-speaking adolescents (n=547), five measures designed to examine psychological well being found that body image, self-esteem, and negative stressful life events mediate the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Further analysis of a subsample who recently transitioned to high school also found…

  4. Depression and anxiety in patients with and without same-sex attraction: differences in clinical expression, lifestyle factors, and vulnerability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Boschloo, L.; Schoevers, R.A.; Sandfort, T.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare clinical expressions (severity and loneliness), lifestyle factors (substance use), and vulnerability indicators (stressful childhood experiences) in patients with any same-sex attraction versus heterosexual patients diagnosed with depression and/or an

  5. Co-occurrence of major depressive episode and posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors of war: how is it different from either condition alone?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Ajdukovic, D.; Bogic, M.; Franciskovic, T.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, L.; Popovski, M.; Priebe, S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Major depressive episode (MDE) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been shown to be the most common mental disorders following traumatic war experiences and have been found to frequently co-occur. This study, designed as a randomized cross-sectional interview survey, aimed to id

  6. Depression and anxiety in patients with and without same-sex attraction : differences in clinical expression, lifestyle factors, and vulnerability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Boschloo, Lynn; Schoevers, Robert A.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare clinical expressions (severity and loneliness), lifestyle factors (substance use), and vulnerability indicators (stressful childhood experiences) in patients with any same-sex attraction versus heterosexual patients diagnosed with depression and/or an

  7. Depressive symptoms in the Netherlands 1975–1996 : a theoretical framework and an empirical analysis of socio-demographic characteristics, gender differences and changes over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivian Meertens, Vivian; Scheepers, Peer; Tax, Bert

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the longitudinal trend of depressive symptoms in the Netherlands, using large-scale national data recorded over the period 1975–1996. Our analyses showed fluctuations in the overall longitudinal trend. On the basis of a general theoretical framework, we formulated hypotheses co

  8. 青少年抑郁综合认知模型及其性别差异%A Study of the Integrated Cognitive Model of Depression for Adolescents and Its Gender Difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丽霞; 史光远; 张玉静; 于园

    2012-01-01

    Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ) and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) twice -about 4 months apart. The results of the path analysis indicated : (1) The correlations among the measures were significant and repeated measures t-tests revealed that all the measures increased significantly from Timel to Time2; (2) The modified ICM-A best model fitted the Chinese adolescent data and there was a gender difference in the path estimate from the interaction between dysfunctional attitudes and negative life events to automatic thoughts. We concluded that at the increasing phase of adolescents' depressive symptoms dysfunctional attitudes could be a common cognitive moderator of depression, whereas automatic thoughts could be specific cognitive mediators of depression and there was a gender difference in the model. The findings support the moderating role of dysfunctional attitudes and the mediating role of automatic thoughts in the relationships between negative life events and depressive symptoms at the increasing phase of adolescents' depressive symptoms. This indicates the main cognitive constructs of Chinese adolescents, such as the roles of dysfunctional attitudes and automatic thoughts, may share similarities when compared to Western populations. This provides initial support that Western-based theories and treatments for depression may be suitable for use in some non-Western populations. Cognitive intervention will be effective in Chinese adolescents' depression prevention. And the current investigation provides preliminary evidence of the gender difference in the moderating role of dysfunctional attitudes%Beck抑郁认知理论认为功能失调性态度和自动思维对抑郁的形成和发展有着重要的影响,但是不同水平的认知因素在青少年抑郁中起什么样的作用还有待于进一步的研究.根据Oei和Kwon (2007)综合认知模型(ICM),我们假设在青少年负性生活事件和抑郁症状间功能失调性态度是调

  9. Intervention Effect of Different Sports on Depression in College Students%不同运动项目对大学生抑郁症状干预效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忍发; 李军; 杨敏丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the intervention effect of the different sports items on mild and moderate depression in college students. Methods Using the depression self-rating scale Self-rating depression scale, SDS, 120 university students with depression score in the mild and moderate level (41-55 scores) were screened. The enrolled students were divided into 3 groups: dance sport practice group, hasketball practice group, and table tennis practice group. Students in each groups were given 16-weeks exercises under the guidance of professional teachers, then the self rating depression scale was used to track the depression changes in students every 4 weeks after exercises. Results Depression scores of students in each group after the intervention were significantly lower than before the intervention P <0.01. Exercises significantly improved the somatization and depression factor 2 symptoms of students all P< 0.01. The intervention effect of in dance sport group was better than other sports groups P < 0.05. Conclusions Different kinds of sports can be effective in decreasing the light level of depression of the students. The dance sport practice is the best sport for interfering with the mental health of college students.%目的 研究不同体育运动项目对大学生轻度或中度抑郁症状的干预效果.方法 采用抑郁自评量表(self-rating depression scale,SDS)筛选抑郁得分在轻度和中度水平(41 ~ 55分)的大学生共120名,分为体育舞蹈练习组、篮球练习组和乒乓球练习组,各组均在专业教师的指导下进行为期16周练习,运用抑郁自评量表跟踪被试者每4周后的抑郁变化情况.结果 干预后各组的抑郁得分显著低于干预前(P<0.01);运动显著改善了被试者的躯体化和抑郁因子2类症状(P<0.01);其中体育舞蹈组的效应量和效应速度均优于其它运动组(P<0.01).结论 不同的体育运动均可有效降低大学生的抑郁水平;体育舞蹈练习是

  10. Effect of different therapies of Chinese medicine on the expressions of c-Fos and c-Jun proteins in hippocampus of rats with post-stroke depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan Wang; Mei Chen; Binhui Zhang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: c-fos and c-jun, the important immediate early genes (IEG), are regarded as the markers for the location and function of neuronal activity, as well as the third signal messengers, they couple the stress stimulation and the gene expression in neuron, and hippocampus is involved in the process of signal transmission after stress stimulation induced depression.OBJECTIVE: To observe the therapeutic effects of Bushen Yiqi (tonifying kidney to benefit qi), Huoxue Huayu (promoting blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis) and Ditan Kaiqiao (eliminating phlegm for resuscitation) on the expressions of c-Fos and c-Jun proteins in hippocampus and spontaneous behaviors of rats with post-stroke depression (PSD), and compare the results with those of fluoxetine, which is known to have definite effect on depression.DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial.SETrING: Zhejiang College of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: The trial was completed in Zhejiang College of Traditional Chinese Medicine from January to July in 2003. Fifty-six healthy adult Wistar male rats of clean grade, weighing (250±50) g, were randomly divided into 7 groups with 8 rats in each group: control group, model group, forced swimming group,Bushen Yiqi group; Huoxue Huayu, Ditan Kaiqiao group and fluoxetine group. The Bushen Yiqi Tang con tained Renshen, Huangqi, Heshouwu, Gouqi, Shudi, etc., crude drugs 1 800 g/L. The Huoxue Huayu Tang contained Danshen, Chuanxiong, Chishao, Yujin, etc., crude drugs 3 600 g/L. The Dian Kaiqiao Tang contained Banxia, Danxing, Changpu, Yuanzhi, etc., crude drug 1 000 g/L.METHODS: ① Except the control group and forced swimming group, rats in the other groups were made into PSD models by deligating the bilateral common carotid arteries permanently. ② Rats in the control group, model group and forced swimming group were intragastrically perfused by saline (3 mL for each time); those in the Bushen Yiqi group, Huoxue Huayu, Ditan Kaiqiao group and fluoxetine

  11. Beta-amyloid deposition and cognitive function in patients with major depressive disorder with different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment: {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kuan-Yi; Liu, Chia-Yih; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Lee, Chin-Pang [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Psychiatry, Tao-Yuan (China); Chen, Cheng-Sheng [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital and College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung (China); Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lin, Kun-Ju [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Kuei Shan Hsiang, Taoyuan (China); Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences and Healthy Aging Research Center, Tao-Yuan (China)

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the amyloid burden, as assessed by {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) positron emission tomography PET, in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and the relationship between amyloid burden and cognition in MDD patients. The study included 55 MDD patients without dementia and 21 healthy control subjects (HCs) who were assessed using a comprehensive cognitive test battery and {sup 18}F-florbetapir PET imaging. The standardized uptake value ratios (SUVR) in eight cortical regions using the whole cerebellum as reference region were determined and voxel-wise comparisons between the HC and MDD groups were performed. Vascular risk factors, serum homocysteine level and the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype were also determined. Among the 55 MDD patients, 22 (40.0 %) had MCI, 12 (21.8 %) non-amnestic MCI (naMCI) and 10 (18.2 %) amnestic MCI (aMCI). The MDD patients with aMCI had the highest relative {sup 18}F-florbetapir uptake in all cortical regions, and a significant difference in relative {sup 18}F-florbetapir uptake was found in the parietal region as compared with that in naMCI subjects (P < 0.05) and HCs (P < 0.01). Voxel-wise analyses revealed significantly increased relative {sup 18}F-florbetapir uptake in the MDD patients with aMCI and naMCI in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital areas (P < 0.005). The global cortical SUVR was significantly negatively correlated with MMSE score (r = -0.342, P = 0.010) and memory function (r = -0.328, P = 0.015). The negative correlation between the global SUVR and memory in the MDD patients remained significant in multiple regression analyses that included age, educational level, ApoE genotype, and depression severity (β = -3.607, t = -2.874, P = 0.006). We found preliminary evidence of brain beta-amyloid deposition in MDD patients with different subtypes of MCI. Our findings in MDD patients support the

  12. Treatment adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus correlates with different coping styles, low perception of self-influence on disease, and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokoszka A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrzej Kokoszka1,2 1II Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Warsaw, 2Department of Psychology, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland Background: Insulin analogs are regarded as more convenient to use than human insulin; however, they require a different administration scheme due to their unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. This study aimed to assess difficulties with adherence to treatment with insulin analogs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, who had previously been treated with human insulin. The associations between difficulties with adherence and clinical, demographic, and psychological characteristics were also evaluated.Patients and methods: The study was conducted on 3,467 consecutively enrolled patients with T2DM (54.4% women, mean age 63.9 years (SD =9.57, who had recently undergone a physician-directed change in treatment from human insulin to insulin analogs. The questionnaires addressed difficulties with switching the therapy, coping styles, well-being, and perception of self-influence on the disease.Results: No adherence problems in switching therapy were reported in 56.6% of patients. Specific moderate difficulties were reported in 10.4%–22.1% of patients, major difficulties in 0.7%–6.9% of patients, and very significant difficulties in 0.03%–1.3% of patients. Overall, remembering to modify the insulin dose in the case of additional meals was the most frequently reported difficulty, and problems with identifying hypoglycemic symptoms were the least frequently reported. The increased risk of difficulties was moderately related to low perception of self-influence on diabetes and poor well-being. The intensity of problems was higher among those who were less-educated, lived in rural areas, had complications, and/or reported maladaptive coping styles.Conclusion: Switching from human insulin to an insulin analog did not cause adherence problems in more than

  13. Helping your teen with depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen ...

  14. Nervous function and manifestations of mental psychology in patients with post-stroke depression of different syndrome types of traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Dong; Bo Yang; Jingling Song; Lihua Yu

    2007-01-01

    daily life (ADL) was], symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90; including total scores, positive scores, mean and average scores of positive items), Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD) and Hamilton anxiety rating scale symptom type, two symptom types and ≥ 3 symptom types; meanwhile, they were also divided into deficiency symptom, excess symptom and deficiency-excess symptom. Scores among various groups were compared simultaneously.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of nervous function and mental psychology of PSD patients with various symptoms.of sputum-stasis stagnation, 64 in qi stagnation and blood stasis, 21 in kidney-essence deficiency, 33 in deficiency of the spleen and stomach, and 16 in phlegm-fire disturbing the heart. In the comparison of the scores of nervous function and psychological tests among different syndrome types, the scores of most motor functions of upper and lower limbs, total scores of FMA and ADL in PSD patients of sputum-stasis stagnation, qi stagnation and blood stasis, kidney-essence deficiency were obviously lower than those of the total samples and PSD patients of deficiency of the spleen and stomach and phlegm-fire disturbing the heart,whereas the total scores of NDS, HAMD, HAMA, SCL-90 and SCL-90 positive items, average number of SCL-90 positive items and average score of SCL-90 positive items in the former three groups were all types: In the comparison of the scores of nervous function and psychological tests among the PSD patients with different number of syndrome types, the scores of most motor functions of upper and lower limbs, total scores of FMA and ADL in PSD patients with one or two syndrome types were obviously higher than those of the total samples and the PSD patients with three or more syndrome types, whereas the total scores of NDS, HAMD, HAMA, SCL-90 and SCL-90 positive items, average number of SCL-90 positive items and average score of SCL-90 positive items were all obviously lower in the former two than in the latter two (P

  15. Genetik og stressende livsbegivenheder interagerer ved depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann

    2013-01-01

    to a lesser extent are preceded by stressful life events. Clinical features do not differ between depressions with or without prior stressful life events. Certain genetic variations in the serotonin receptor system seem to increase the risk of developing depression in relation to experiencing stressful life......The aim of the present review was to present clinical aspects of recent research in genes, the experience of stressful life events and depression. 60-70% experience a moderate to severe stressful life event half a year prior to the first onset of depression, whereas later depressive episodes...

  16. The relationship of hormone-metabolic disorders and indicators of anxiety and depression in young men with obesity on different types of therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M E Tel'nova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess hormonal and metabolic parameters and psychological status of young men with obesity. Methods: The study included 60 men with obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2 divided in two groups. Patients in the first group (n=30 received orlistat for 12 weeks (120 mg 3 times daily with meal. Patients in second group (n=30 followed hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercise. All patients were examined before treatment and after 12 weeks. Evaluation included hormonal and biochemical analyses, 48 patients were examined by psychological questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Results: Patients that received orlistat treatment showed significant decrease of body mass: 50% of patients had decrease more than 5%, 30% of patients - more than 10% (p<0,05. In first group after 12 weeks of treatment level of cortisol decreased and level of testosterone increased. The results of treatment in second group were less significant. There was a significant decrease in anxiety and depression scales in patients taking orlistat (p<0,05. High levels of social anxiety did not decrease in both groups after treatment. As a result of orlistat treatment there was a decrease in external eating behavior and increase in expression of restraint eating behavior by DEBQ (p<0,05. Conclusions: treatment with orlistat reduces body weight, which is correlated by improvement of hormonal and biochemical parameters. Weight loss is accompanied by changes in rates of anxiety and depression.

  17. Stress sensitivity interacts with depression history to predict depressive symptoms among youth: prospective changes following first depression onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technow, Jessica R; Hazel, Nicholas A; Abela, John R Z; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2015-04-01

    Predictors of depressive symptoms may differ before and after the first onset of major depression due to stress sensitization. Dependent stressors, or those to which characteristics of individuals contribute, have been shown to predict depressive symptoms in youth. The current study sought to clarify how stressors' roles may differ before and after the first depressive episode. Adolescents (N = 382, aged 11 to 15 at baseline) were assessed at baseline and every 3 months over the course of 2 years with measures of stressors and depressive symptoms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted every 6 months to assess for clinically significant depressive episodes. Hierarchical linear modeling showed a significant interaction between history of depression and idiographic fluctuations in dependent stressors to predict prospective elevations of symptoms, such that dependent stressors were more predictive of depressive symptoms after onset of disorder. Independent stressors predicted symptoms, but the strength of the association did not vary by depression history. These results suggest a synthesis of dependent stress and stress sensitization processes that might maintain inter-episode depressive symptoms among youth with a history of clinical depression.

  18. 抑郁症性别差异与BDNF的关系及其中医对策%The Gender Differences in Depression and BDNF and its TCM Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任梅荣; 赵博

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of female depression was significantly higher than that of male, about two times of male, but the mechanism of domestic and foreign research is little.. The changes of brain source nerve growth factor (BDNF) expression are related to the gender difference in the onset of depression, especially for sex differences. Whether BDNF is one of the targets for pharmacodynamics of TCM, and a new way for treating depression by TCM.%女性抑郁症的发病率明显高于男性,约为男性的两倍,但国内外研究机制甚少。脑源性神经生长因子(BDNF)表达的变化与抑郁症的发病特别是性别差异性具有相关性。BDNF是否为中医的药效学起效靶点之一,是中医对于治疗抑郁症的一个新思路和对策。

  19. Measuring depression in women around menopausal age. Towards a validation of the Edinburgh Depression Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becht, M.C.; van Erp, C.F.; Teeuwisse, T.M.; van Heck, G.L.; van Son, M.J.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Background: The relationship between menopause and depression is still rather unclear. Studies using different methodology especially those lacking a clear definition of depression are hardly comparable. Since the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) is not influenced by (menopause-related) somatic symp

  20. What is depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Fosgerau, Christina Fogtmann

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of depression is defined by psychiatrists, and guidelines for treatment of patients with depression are created in psychiatry. However, most patients with depression are treated exclusively in general practice. Psychiatrists point out that general practitioners' (GPs') treatment of ...

  1. Depression Strikes…Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Depression Depression Strikes… Anyone Winter 2017 Table of Contents Anyone can suffer from depression. And almost everyone has a friend or family ...

  2. Depression and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depression and other mental health issues? Reference Share Depression and College Students Download PDF Download ePub Order ... Answers to college students’ frequently asked questions about depression Feeling moody, sad, or grouchy? Who doesn’t ...

  3. Postpartum Depression Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Where can I find more information? Share Postpartum Depression Facts Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ...

  4. Recognizing teen depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000648.htm Recognizing teen depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... life. Be Aware of the Risk for Teen Depression Your teen is more at risk for depression ...

  5. Men and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in crisis? For more information Share Men and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or irritable sometimes, or has ...

  6. Overview of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Wistya Tri Mayasari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Depression is a state of disorder tone generally feeling characterized by feelings of sadness, apathy, pessimism, and loneliness. Epidemiology of depression showed a lifetime prevalence of 7-12% for men and 20-25% for women. The reason for the prevalence differences between men and women not much can be explained, but biological factors and socio-cultural influences. In the depression is sadness lasts for days so that it can disrupt work, study, eat, sleep, and enjoyment. The cause of depression is not just one, but multifactorial. Most of the cause may arise from or the people themselves. Because it is not clear on anatomy, biochemistry, or physiology. To diagnose depression may use criteria of PPDGJ or using DSM-IV-TR /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  7. Various forms of depression

    OpenAIRE

    BENAZZI, FRANCO

    2006-01-01

    The current subtyping of depression is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) categorical division of bipolar and depressive disorders. Current evidence, however, supports a dimensional approach to depression, as a continuum/spectrum of overlapping disorders, ranging from bipolar I depression to major depressive disorder. Types of depression which have recently been the focus of most research will be reviewed ; bipolar II depressi...

  8. [Depressive symptoms and sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Robert

    2014-10-01

    The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolic syndrome and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Rutigliano, Grazia; Baroni, Stefano; Landi, Paola; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-08-01

    Major depression is associated with a 4-fold increased risk for premature death, largely accounted by cardiovascular disease (CVD). The relationship between depression and CVD is thought to be mediated by the so-called metabolic syndrome (MeS). Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated a co-occurrence of depression with MeS components, ie, visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Although the exact mechanisms linking MeS to depression are unclear, different hypotheses have been put forward. On the one hand, MeS could be the hallmark of the unhealthy lifestyle habits of depressed patients. On the other, MeS and depression might share common alterations of the stress system, including the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the autonomic nervous system, the immune system, and platelet and endothelial function. Both the conditions induce a low grade chronic inflammatory state that, in turn, leads to increased oxidative and nitrosative (O&NS) damage of neurons, pancreatic cells, and endothelium. Recently, neurobiological research revealed that peripheral hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin, which are classically involved in homeostatic energy balance, may play a role in mood regulation. Metabolic risk should be routinely assessed in depressed patients and taken into account in therapeutic decisions. Alternative targets should be considered for innovative antidepressant agents, including cytokines and their receptors, intracellular inflammatory mediators, glucocorticoids receptors, O&NS pathways, and peripheral mediators.

  10. The association between depression and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gunhild Tidemann; Maartensson, Solvej; Osler, Merete

    2017-01-01

    on depression, use of antidepressants and the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) from a survey in 2004, in which 58.8% (n=6292) of the men participated. Information on mortality and cause of death was retrieved from registers for the period between 2004 and 2011. RESULTS: Depression diagnosis from hospital...... registers as well as self-reported depression, use of antidepressants and having a high MDI-score were significantly associated with mortality from all, natural and unnatural causes. The associations were of a similar magnitude for the register-based measure of depression and for the survey-based measures......BACKGROUND: A number of studies have associated depression with a high mortality risk. However, in surveys, depression is often measured by self-reports in selected sub-samples, while register studies have been based on hospital diagnosis or purchase of antidepressants. We examined how different...

  11. Men navigating inward and outward through depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jeffery L; Badger, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Understanding of depression among men remains poor. When compared to women, men remain under diagnosed for depression and continue to commit suicide four times the rate of women. This grounded theory study explored the social psychological process that occurred in men who suffered from depression. Nine men participated in the study that ranged in age, educational level, and marital status. The theory that emerged from this study was Navigating Inward and Outward Through Depression. This study uncovered six stages men navigated through: being different, concealing feelings disconnecting, hitting bottom, acknowledging and confronting and healing with others. This study advances our understanding of men and depression by providing meanings to the behaviors men express when depressed. Based on these findings, further research can lead to better screening tools and early diagnosis of depression in men. © 2014.

  12. [Olfaction in depressive disorders: Issues and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, G; Schaal, B

    2017-04-01

    Research on sensorial interactions with psychiatric diseases and particularly with the depressive syndrome has mainly focused on visual or auditory processes and much less on olfaction. The depressive illness is one of the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses in the community, with approximately one in five women and one in eight men experiencing a major depressive episode during their lifetime. Although genetic, epigenetic, neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neuroendocrinological and neuroimmunological changes can be detected during depression, the etiology of depression remains partly unclear. The current explanatory models are based on two main factors, i.e. pharmacological dysfunctions and stress effects. In this way and because of strong connections between olfactory pathways and cerebral areas implied in mood regulation and emotions (i.e. the limbic system and prefrontal areas), the interactions between olfaction and depression could constitute a relevant way of research at three different levels. First, olfactory dysfunction observed in depression could serve the diagnosis and contribute to a better understanding of mechanisms implied in thymic pathologies. Published papers show a decrease of olfactory sensitivity in major depression which does not occur in bipolar or saisonal depression. Second, it has been shown that olfactory deficits could induce depressive symptoms. In this context, an animal model (olfactory bulbectomized rat) reinforces the hypothesis of the important role of olfaction in depression based on neuroanatomical and neurochemical observations. Third, several publications have demonstrated that odors can positively impact the depressive mood. Thus, a remediation by odors in depression appears to be a promising way. From several decades, the olfaction/depression interactions have been covered by a broad literature. Thus, the present review will not propose an exhaustive examination but aims to point out the most recently published papers and

  13. Modalidades de enxertia para maracujazeiro: avaliação preliminar nas condições da Depressão Cuiabana Preliminary evaluation of differents grafting methods of passionfruits tree under Cuiabá Depression conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Roncatto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar duas modalidades de enxertia para a cultura do maracujazeiro nas condições da Depressão Cuiabana. O ensaio foi realizado no viveiro da Fazenda Experimental da Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária - FAMEV, da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, localizada no município de Santo Antônio do Leverger. Foram utilizadas modalidades de enxertia do tipo garfagem em fenda cheia e fenda lateral, em três pontos distintos dos porta-enxertos: acima da inserção das primeiras folhas ou enxertia de topo, acima de três folhas e acima de cinco folhas. As mudas utilizadas como porta-enxerto foram obtidas através de sementes oriundas do IAC (Instituto Agronômico de Campinas - SP da cultivar IAC 275 e do acesso Roxinho-miúdo. Os garfos usados como enxertos foram retirados de plantas jovens da cultivar IAC 275, com três meses de idade e diâmetro de 0,5 cm. A percentagem de pegamento da enxertia e o desenvolvimento de plantas foram superiores pelo método de garfagem em fenda cheia, sendo também maiores em porta-enxertos com cinco folhas, em relação aos de três e aos sem folhas. A garfagem em fenda cheia mostrou-se mais adequada, uma vez que, com essa modalidade, obtiveram-se 98% de pegamento.This research attempts to evaluate the two grafting methods to the culture of the passionfruit tree under Cuiabá depression conditions. The trial was done at Experimental Farm nursery of the Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine Faculty - FAMEV of the Mato Grosso Federal University, located in Santo Antônio do Leverger town. It was used grafting methods type of full cleft grafting and lateral grafting, in three points in the rootstock: the top of the plant, above of 3 leafs and above of 5 leafs. The seedlings used like rootstocks were resultant of seeds came from Agronomic Institute of Campinas/IAC - SP of the cultivated IAC 275 of the acess Roxinho miúdo. The saddle graftings were taken from seedlings with 3 months old

  14. Mediating effects of bullying involvement on the relationship of body mass index with social phobia, depression, suicidality, and self-esteem and sex differences in adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Liu, Tai-Ling; Ko, Chih-Hung; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2014-03-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the mediating effect of bullying involvement on the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and mental health problems, including social phobia, depression, suicidality, and low self-esteem among adolescents in Taiwan. The moderation effect of sex on the mediating role of bullying involvement was also examined. Five thousand two hundred and fifty-two students of high schools completed the questionnaires. Victimization and perpetration of passive and active bullying were assessed using the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. BMI was calculated from self-reported weight and height measurements. The Social Phobia Inventory, the Mandarin Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, the suicidality-related questionnaire from the epidemiological version of the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were applied to assess social phobia, depression, suicidality, and low self-esteem, respectively. The mediating effect of bullying involvement on the associations between increased BMI and mental health problems was examined by the Sobel test. The moderation effect of sex on the mediating role of bullying involvement was tested by the multiple-group structural equation model. Victimization of passive and active bullying and perpetration of passive bullying, but not perpetration of active bullying, had a mediating effect on the relationships between increased BMI and all four mental health problems. Sex did not have a significant moderation effect on the mediating role of bullying involvement. Bullying involvement should be a target of prevention and intervention in developing a strategy to improve mental health among adolescents with increased BMI.

  15. Depression history, depression vulnerability and the experience of everyday negative events

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Grady, Megan A.; Tennen, Howard; Armeli, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether deficits in dealing with daily problems emerge before a depressive episode (i.e., pre-existing vulnerability) or after a depressive episode (i.e., psychosocial scar). Participants completed a 30-day daily diary in which they reported their most negative event of the day, their appraisals of that event, and their mood. Three years later, they completed a structured depression interview. The sample consisted of 350 college students, 24 of whom had a past history of depression and 54 of whom experienced a depressive episode subsequent to dairy completion. Multilevel modeling revealed that students with past depression blamed others more than the never-depressed and those with subsequent depression, which supported the scar hypothesis. In support of the vulnerability hypothesis, as compared to the never-depressed group, participants with past depression demonstrated steeper declines in positive mood on more stressful days but did not significantly differ from the subsequent depression group. Overall, our findings do not provide clear support for either hypothesis; however, this study is the first to use a daily diary design to directly compare individuals with past depression to individuals who would subsequently experience depression. PMID:21170154

  16. Atypical depressive symptoms and obesity in a national sample of older adults with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Yu, Kar-Ming

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study are to present findings on the rate of obesity associated with classic, atypical, and undifferentiated depression by comparing with those without depression in a nationally representative sample of United States older adults. The authors used data from the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), which included 10,557 adults 60 years of age and older. Chi-square tests were used to compare classic, atypical, and undifferentiated as well as nondepressed control in sociodemographic characteristics. Then, logistic regressions adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics were used to evaluate associations of rate of current obesity (defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) > 30) across the three depressive groups (classic, atypical, and undifferentiated depression) and nondepressed control. Lifetime, current, and past depression were examined. Significant differences were found between atypical and classic depression in sex, age, marital status, race, and personal income. After adjusting for sex, age, marital status, race, and personal income, the rate of obesity was significantly greater for respondents with atypical depression than respondents with classic, undifferentiated depression, or without depression. Same results were found in lifetime, current, and past depression. Our findings suggest that the heterogeneity of depression should be considered when examining the effect of depression on obesity in old age. Prevention measures should be designed and delivered to older adults with atypical depression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sex differences in the rapid and the sustained antidepressant-like effects of ketamine in stress-naïve and "depressed" mice exposed to chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschelli, A; Sens, J; Herchick, S; Thelen, C; Pitychoutis, P M

    2015-04-02

    During the past decade, one of the most striking discoveries in the treatment of major depression was the clinical finding that a single infusion of a sub-anesthetic dose of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine produces a rapid (i.e. within a few hours) and long-lasting (i.e. up to two weeks) antidepressant effect in both treatment-resistant depressed patients and in animal models of depression. Notably, converging clinical and preclinical evidence support that responsiveness to antidepressant drugs is sex-differentiated. Strikingly, research regarding the antidepressant-like effects of ketamine has focused almost exclusively on the male sex. Herein we report that female C57BL/6J stress-naïve mice are more sensitive to the rapid and the sustained antidepressant-like effects of ketamine in the forced swim test (FST). In particular, female mice responded to lower doses of ketamine (i.e. 3mg/kg at 30 min and 5mg/kg at 24h post-injection), doses that were not effective in their male counterparts. Moreover, tissue levels of the excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate, as well as serotonergic activity, were affected in a sex-dependent manner in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, at the same time-points. Most importantly, a single injection of ketamine (10mg/kg) induced sex-dependent behavioral effects in mice subjected to the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression. Intriguingly, female mice were more reactive to the earlier effects of ketamine, as assessed in the open field and the FST (at 30 min and 24h post-treatment, respectively) but the antidepressant potential of the drug proved to be longer lasting in males, as assessed in the splash test and the FST (days 5 and 7 post-treatment, respectively). Taken together, present data revealed that ketamine treatment induces sex-dependent rapid and sustained neurochemical and behavioral antidepressant-like effects in stress-naïve and CMS-exposed C57BL/6J mice.

  18. Body Concept, Disability, and Depression in Patients with Spasmodic Torticollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jahanshahi

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-five patients with idiopathic spasmodic torticollis were compared with an equally chronic group of 49 cervical spondylosis sufferers in terms of body concept, depression, and disability. The torticollis patients were significantly more depressed and disabled and had a more negative body concept. Depression had different determinants in the two groups. Extent of disfigurement was a major predictor of depression in torticollis. Neuroticism accounted for the greatest proportion of the variance of depression in cervical spondylosis.

  19. 不同时期脑卒中后抑郁的心理分析治疗及护理对策%Psychoanalysis treatment on post-stroke depression in different periods and the nursing strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓华; 段勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the psychoanalysis treatment on post-stroke depression in different periodsand the nursing strategies. Methods36 cases of patients with post-stroke depression were treated and nursed with the method of psychoanalysis, and prescribed with appropriate antidepressant treatment. To compare the changes of pre and post treatment with the scores of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). Results23 cases were cured (63.89%), 11 cases were getting better (30.56%), and 2 cases were ineffective (5.55%). The total effective rate is 94.44%. ConclusionThe method of proper psychoanalysis treatment and nursing, accompanying with appropriate antidepressant treatment , can notably relieve the depressive symptoms and improve the patients’ activities of daily living.%目的:探讨不同时期脑卒中后抑郁的心理分析治疗及护理对策方法。方法对36例脑卒中后抑郁的病人进行心理分析治疗和护理,并且适当给予抗抑郁药物治疗,治疗前后用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评分对比变化。结果治愈23例(63.89%),好转11例(30.56%),无效2例(5.55%),总有效率94.44%。结论对脑卒中后抑郁的病人进行正确的心理分析治疗及护理,并适当抗抑郁药物治疗,能明显改善患者的抑郁症状,提高患者日常生活活动能力。

  20. Repeated exposure to corticosterone increases depression-like behavior in two different versions of the forced swim test without altering nonspecific locomotor activity or muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Wendie; Fournier, Neil M; Kalynchuk, Lisa E

    2009-08-01

    We have recently shown that repeated high dose injections of corticosterone (CORT) reliably increase depression-like behavior on a modified one-day version of the forced swim test. The main purpose of this experiment was to compare the effect of these CORT injections on our one-day version of the forced swim test and the more traditional two-day version of the test. A second purpose was to determine whether altered behavior in the forced swim test could be due to nonspecific changes in locomotor activity or muscle strength. Separate groups of rats received a high dose CORT injection (40 mg/kg) or a vehicle injection once per day for 21 consecutive days. Then, half the rats from each group were exposed to the traditional two-day forced swim test and the other half were exposed to our one-day forced swim test. After the forced swim testing, all the rats were tested in an open field and in a wire suspension grip strength test. The CORT injections significantly increased the time spent immobile and decreased the time spent swimming in both versions of the forced swim test. However, they had no significant effect on activity in the open field or grip strength in the wire suspension test. These results show that repeated CORT injections increase depression-like behavior regardless of the specific parameters of forced swim testing, and that these effects are independent of changes in locomotor activity or muscle strength.

  1. 不同等级医院急诊科护士焦虑抑郁心理的对比研究%Comparison of Anxiety and Depression of Emergency Nurses from Hospitals at Different Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓丽; 金玉莲; 缪心军; 黄红艳; 陈红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anxiety and depression of emergency nurses from hospitals at different levels in Wenzhou in order to facilitate better intervention.Methods In total of 3 tertiary hospitals, 4 secondary hospitals and 6 primary hospitals in Wenzhou were randomly selected. Emergency nurses from these hospitals were investigated with symptom checklist (SCL-90), and 10 items of anxiety and 13 items of depression in SCL-90 were analyzed. Results In total of 172 nurses were recruited, 136 were emergency nurses and 36 were specialty nurses; among the emergency nurses, 61 were from tertiary hospitals, 43 from secondary hospitals, and 32 from primary hospitals. Among the emergency nurses from hospitals at different levels, nurses from primary hospitals had higher scores of anxiety than nurses from secondary and tertiary hospitals, and the differences were statistically significant (p0.05). Emergency nurses from primary hospitals had higher depression scores than emergency nurses from secondary hospitals, and the differences were statistically significant (p0.05). Emergency nurses from tertiary hospitals had higher depression scores than emergency nurses from secondary hospitals, and the differences were statistically significant (p0.05);一级医院急诊科护士抑郁评分高于二级医院,差异有显著性(P0.05);三级医院急诊科护士抑郁评分高于二级医院,差异有显著性(P<0.05)。三级医院急诊科护士的焦虑评分高于三级医院专科护士,差异有显著性(P<0.01);三级医院急诊科护士的抑郁评分高于专科护士,差异有显著性(P<0.05)。结论温州地区急诊科护士面临的心理健康问题比专科护士严重,不同等级医院急诊科护士的焦虑抑郁问题,以一级医院最为明显,其次为三级医院。管理部门应当拟定相应的干预措施和关怀政策,以利于其更好的服务患者。

  2. How older adults combine medical and experiential notions of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittink, Marsha N; Dahlberg, Britt; Biruk, Crystal; Barg, Frances K

    2008-09-01

    Past research has suggested that patients might not accept depression treatment in part because of differences between patient and doctor understandings of depression. In this article, we use a cultural models approach to explore how older adults incorporate clinical and experiential knowledge into their model of depression. We conducted semistructured interviews about depression with 19 patients aged 65 years and older who were identified by their physicians as depressed. We found that whereas older adults viewed as helpful the doctor's ability to identify symptoms and "put it all together" into a diagnosis, they felt that this viewpoint omitted important information about the etiology and feeling of depression grounded in embodied experience and social context. Our findings suggest that more emphasis on issues related to the etiology of depression, the effect of depression on social relationships, and emotions emanating from depression might lead to more acceptable depression treatments for older adults.

  3. Differentiating burnout from depression: personality matters!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Christoph Melchers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress related affective disorders have been identified as a core health problem of the 21st century. In the endeavor to identify vulnerability factors, personality has been discussed as a major factor explaining and predicting disorders like depression or burnout. An unsolved question is whether there are specific personality factors allowing differentiation of burnout from depression. The present study tested the relation between one of the most prominent, biological personality theories, Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, and common measures of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory General and depression (Beck Depression Inventory 2 in a sample of German employees (N=944 and a sample of inpatients (N = 425. Although the same personality traits (harm avoidance and self-directedness were predominantly associated with burnout and depression, there was a much stronger association to depression than to burnout in both samples. Besides, we observed specific associations between personality traits and subcomponents of burnout. Our results underline differences in the association of burnout vs. depression to personality, which may mirror differences in scope: While symptoms of depression affect all aspects of life, burnout is supposed to be specifically related to the workplace and its requirements. The much stronger association of personality to depression can be important to select appropriate therapy methods and to develop a more specified treatment for burnout in comparison to depression.

  4. Differentiating Burnout from Depression: Personality Matters!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchers, Martin Christoph; Plieger, Thomas; Meermann, Rolf; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Stress-related affective disorders have been identified as a core health problem of the twenty-first century. In the endeavor to identify vulnerability factors, personality has been discussed as a major factor explaining and predicting disorders like depression or burnout. An unsolved question is whether there are specific personality factors allowing differentiation of burnout from depression. The present study tested the relation between one of the most prominent, biological personality theories, Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory, and common measures of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory General) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory 2) in a sample of German employees (N = 944) and a sample of inpatients (N = 425). Although the same personality traits (harm avoidance and self-directedness) were predominantly associated with burnout and depression, there was a much stronger association to depression than to burnout in both samples. Besides, we observed specific associations between personality traits and subcomponents of burnout. Our results underline differences in the association of burnout vs. depression to personality, which may mirror differences in scope. While symptoms of depression affect all aspects of life, burnout is supposed to be specifically related to the workplace and its requirements. The much stronger association of personality to depression can be important to select appropriate therapy methods and to develop a more specified treatment for burnout in comparison to depression.

  5. Differentiating Burnout from Depression: Personality Matters!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchers, Martin Christoph; Plieger, Thomas; Meermann, Rolf; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Stress-related affective disorders have been identified as a core health problem of the twenty-first century. In the endeavor to identify vulnerability factors, personality has been discussed as a major factor explaining and predicting disorders like depression or burnout. An unsolved question is whether there are specific personality factors allowing differentiation of burnout from depression. The present study tested the relation between one of the most prominent, biological personality theories, Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory, and common measures of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory General) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory 2) in a sample of German employees (N = 944) and a sample of inpatients (N = 425). Although the same personality traits (harm avoidance and self-directedness) were predominantly associated with burnout and depression, there was a much stronger association to depression than to burnout in both samples. Besides, we observed specific associations between personality traits and subcomponents of burnout. Our results underline differences in the association of burnout vs. depression to personality, which may mirror differences in scope. While symptoms of depression affect all aspects of life, burnout is supposed to be specifically related to the workplace and its requirements. The much stronger association of personality to depression can be important to select appropriate therapy methods and to develop a more specified treatment for burnout in comparison to depression. PMID:26321963

  6. Postpartum Depression After Mild and Severe Preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, Meeke; Berks, Durk; Vogel, Ineke; Franx, Arie; Bangma, Meike; Darlington, Anne-Sophie E.; Visser, Willy; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Habbema, J. Dik F.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Raat, Hein

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms after preeclampsia, to assess the extent to which the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms differs after mild and severe preeclampsia, and to investigate which factors contribute to such differences. Methods: Women diagn

  7. 不同品系小鼠在三种常见抑郁检测方法中的行为学表现%Different Behavioral Activities of Different Mouse Strains Detected by Three Common Tests for Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李腾飞; 孙秀萍; 石哲; 高江晖; 刘新民; 刘华钢

    2011-01-01

    swimming test were not significantly different. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that among the four mice strains tested, C57BL/6 strain displays less spontaneous activity and less exploration in a novel environment. They are likely to cause behavioral despair under acute stress stimulation. Therefore, the C57BL/6 mice may be probably the strain of choice as an acute stress animal model for studies of depression.

  8. Associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The association between depression and insulin resistance has been investigated in only a few studies, with contradictory results reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between symptoms of depression and insulin resistance varies across glucose...... established type 2 diabetes mellitus. Main outcome measures were insulin resistance defined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and symptoms of depression using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). RESULTS: In the total sample, we found a weak.......942). The association between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance was similar for men and women. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We found only weak associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance, which did not differ among different glucose metabolism subgroups or between men and women....

  9. An exploratory statistical approach to depression pattern identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qing Yi; Griffiths, Frances; Parsons, Nick; Gunn, Jane

    2013-02-01

    Depression is a complex phenomenon thought to be due to the interaction of biological, psychological and social factors. Currently depression assessment uses self-reported depressive symptoms but this is limited in the degree to which it can characterise the different expressions of depression emerging from the complex causal pathways that are thought to underlie depression. In this study, we aimed to represent the different patterns of depression with pattern values unique to each individual, where each value combines all the available information about an individual’s depression. We considered the depressed individual as a subsystem of an open complex system, proposed Generalized Information Entropy (GIE) to represent the general characteristics of information entropy of the system, and then implemented Maximum Entropy Estimates to derive equations for depression patterns. We also introduced a numerical simulation method to process the depression related data obtained by the Diamond Cohort Study which has been underway in Australia since 2005 involving 789 people. Unlike traditional assessment, we obtained a unique value for each depressed individual which gives an overall assessment of the depression pattern. Our work provides a novel way to visualise and quantitatively measure the depression pattern of the depressed individual which could be used for pattern categorisation. This may have potential for tailoring health interventions to depressed individuals to maximize health benefit.

  10. Depression in France and Brazil: factorial structure of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale in inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Marcelo Pio de Almeida; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes; Poirier-Littré, Marie France; Bourdel, Marie Chantal; Loo, Henri; Guelfi, Julien Daniel

    2004-02-01

    Among various research strategies for depression, the cross-cultural approach is a useful tool to investigate depressive disorders. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was applied to 130 depressed inpatients in France and Brazil. Items were factorized by principal component analysis with Varimax rotation using the Kaiser or simulation method for factor sorting. Three factors were obtained in France, and four in Brazil. The first factor includes the core symptoms of depression in both samples. Qualitative and quantitative differences appeared in the anxiety factor between Brazilian and French samples. Insomnia items appeared as another factor for both groups. A limitation of this study is that it was conducted with small inpatient samples. Principal component analysis of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression for depressive inpatients in these two countries showed a similar structure. Differences observed were in the way anxiety items were distributed.

  11. [Causes of depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Francisco Alonso

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes four nosological categories of depressive disorder according to the fundamental or prime cause: endogen depression, situative depression, psychogen depression and somatogen (also pharmacogen or addictive) depression. Recent advances in neurobiology provide the commun pathogenic mechanism distribuited in neurochemical, neuroendocrine and neuroinmune factors, with at the end a cellular and molecular sequence beyond the synapse. There is an increased risk of depression multiplied by three or four in the elderly, obese, unemployed and inmigrant and it is very frequent in terminally ill patients with a pervasive desire for death. Finally, eight personalized preventive guidelines enable to decrease the individual risk of depression in more than a fifty per cent.

  12. Effect of concomitant administration of three different antidepressants with vitamin B6 on depression and obsessive compulsive disorder in mice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesripour, Azadeh; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Kuchak, Athar

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is a cofactor of various enzymes influencing numerous neurotransmitters in the brain such as norepinephrin, and serotonin. Since these neurotransmitters influence mood, the aim the present work to evaluate the effect of vitamin B6 on depression and obsessive compulsive behavior when coadministred with clomipramine, fluoxetine, or venlafaxine. Male mice weighing 25–30 g were used. The immobility time and latency to immobility was measured in the forced swimming test as a model of despair and the number of marbles buried (MB) in an open field was used as the model of obsessive compulsive behavior in mice. Vitamin B6 (100 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to animals for six days and on the last day antidepressants were also administered and the tests took place with 30 min intervals. Immobility was reduced in vitamin B6 + clomipramine (141 ± 15 s) or venlafaxine (116 ± 15 s) but it was not significant comparing with the drugs alone. No beneficial response was seen in co-administration of vitamin B6 with fluoxetine compared to fluoxetine alone. Fluoxetine also increased the latency to first immobility. Vitamin B6 + clomipramine or venlafaxine reduced the MB behaviour by 77 ± 12% and 83 ± 7% respectively, while using them alone was less effective. Fluoxetine was very effective in reducing MB behaviour (95 ± 3.4%) thus using vitamin B6 concomitantly was not useful. Therefore vitamin B6 as a harmless agent could be suggested in depression and particularly in obsessive compulsive disorder as an adjuvant for better drug response.

  13. Therapieresistente Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holsboer-Trachsler E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In der Behandlung einer Depression wird ein Nichtansprechen auf zwei adäquate Antidepressivatherapien während je 6–8 Wochen als Therapieresistenz bezeichnet. Da häufig zu geringe Dosierungen oder eine zu kurze Behandlungsdauer die Ursache für ein Nichtansprechen sind, sollte in einem ersten Schritt die medikamentöse Therapie hinsichtlich Dauer und Dosierung, eventuell unter Einbezug von Plasmaspiegelbestimmungen, überprüft und optimiert werden. Als pharmakologische Maßnahmen werden zunächst ein Wechsel des Antidepressivums und danach eine Kombination von verschiedenen Antidepressiva mit unterschiedlichem biochemischem Wirkungsansatz empfohlen. Zeigen beide nicht den gewünschten Erfolg, so sollte zusätzlich zur bestehenden Antidepressivabehandlung eine Augmentationstherapie, primär mit Lithium und/oder dem Schilddrüsenhormon T3, durchgeführt werden. Ein neuer, vielversprechender Behandlungsansatz ist eine Augmentationstherapie mit atypischen Neuroleptika. Als akut wirkende nichtpharmakologische Zusatzmaßnahme hat sich der partielle Schlafentzug bewährt. Weitere nichtpharmakologische Strategien umfassen Psychotherapie, Elektrokrampftherapie und Vagusnervstimulationsbehandlung.

  14. Risk factors of depression occurrence in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this lecture is focus on different aspects of occurerence of depression in Adolescence, especially with focus on risk factors. I introduced epidemiology of depression : causes, treatment, and prevention (Abela & Hankin,2008). The special part of the lecture was focus on etiology of depression. Adolescence is characterized by positive gains in cognitive maturity, better interpersonal skills, new experiences, increased autonomy, and hormonal changes (Feldman & Elliot, 1990). Alt...

  15. Current maternal depression moderates the relation between critical expressed emotion in mothers and depressive symptoms in their adolescent daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, William; Kalpakci, Allison; Sharp, Carla

    2015-06-30

    Prior studies have examined critical expressed emotion (EE-Crit) in mothers in the intergenerational transmission of depression. However, the potential moderating effect of maternal depression diagnostic status in relation to EE-Crit and youth depressive symptoms has yet to be determined. A total of N=121 biological mother/daughter dyads that differed in maternal depression diagnostic status were recruited for the present study: (1) currently depressed mothers (current depression, n=29); (2) formerly depressed mothers (past depression, n=39); and (3) mothers free from any psychiatric history (healthy controls, n=53). Mothers were administered structured clinical interviews and completed self-report measures of EE-Crit and psychopathology, and daughters self-reported depressive symptoms. Results indicated no significant group differences in EE-Crit; however, current maternal depression status moderated EE-Crit such that the magnitude of the relation between EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms was significantly greater in daughters of currently depressed mothers. These findings highlight the importance of considering current maternal depression, rather than a history of maternal depression, in relation to EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms, providing impetus for future investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 不同运动项目干预对老年妇女抑郁焦虑情绪的影响%Influence on Depression and Anxiety of Old Women by Different Physical Exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾龙; 官铁宇; 唐孝龙; 周洁; 李金昆

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究不同运动项目对老年妇女抑郁、焦虑的影响。方法:以乌鲁木齐市区有抑郁和焦虑症状倾向但无严重躯体疾病和严重精神疾患的老年女性为研究对象,根据研究对象个人情况研制针对性的登山运动、太极拳运动、民族舞蹈运动的运动处方并实施8周,采用抑郁自评量表(SDS)和焦虑自评量表(SAS)分别对76名研究对象实施运动处方前后进行测评。结果:经过4周规律的运动后,研究对象的抑郁和焦虑情绪均有显著缓解,8周后改善更为明显。结论:长期中等强度的登山运动、太极拳运动和民族舞蹈运动均可有效改善老年妇女的抑郁和焦虑情绪;就运动项目而言,民族舞蹈运动在老年妇女抑郁情绪改善方面,更易产生心理裨益,太极拳运动在老年妇女焦虑情绪改善方面,更易产生心理裨益。%Objective:To study the effects of different physical exercise item on depression and anxiety of older women.Methods:The studies were the old women who tend to depression and anxiety but no serious physical illness and severe mental disorders in Urumqi urban areas.According to the constitution of the studies,the mountaineering,Taijiquan and folk dance prescription were designed.and implemented for 8 weeks.Used self-rating depression scale(SDS) and self-rating anxiety scale(SAS),the 76 studies depression and anxiety level were tested and evaluated before and after exercise.Results: After 4 weeks regular exercise,the depression and anxiety level of studies were significantly alleviated,and more significant improvement after 8 weeks.Conclusion: Long-term moderate mountaineering,Taijiquan and folk dance exercise can improve old women's depression and anxiety.On exercise item,the folk dance has more psychological benefits to improve depressed mood and Taijiquan has more psychological benefit to improve anxiety mood in old women.

  17. Depression Narratives in Blogs: A Collaborative Quest for Coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotliar, Dan M

    2016-07-01

    People with depression often suffer from severe social seclusion, and the lack of an agreed upon etiology for depression makes it difficult to satisfactorily narrate and "ritually control" it. Focusing on blogs by women with major depression, I delineate the ways in which bloggers publicly express and collaboratively reconstruct their depression narratives. Specifically, using thematic analysis, I argue that depression blogs uniquely bridge between the seclusion that characterizes depression and the exposure offered in blogs, and thus offer people a rare opportunity to publicly share very intimate depression narratives, form communal bonds with their readers, and collaboratively revise their narratives. Depression blogs are also shown to function as "narrative sandboxes"-protected spaces in which bloggers can temporarily and experimentally add or remove different sections from their illness narratives, assess the compatibility of different cultural frameworks, and interchangeably use various metaphors, in an attempt to satisfactorily explain depression.

  18. Depression. Does it affect the comprehension of receptive skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashtchi, Mojgan; Zokaee, Zahra; Ghaffarinejad, Ali R; Sadeghi, Mohammad M

    2012-07-01

    To compare the comprehension of depressed and non-depressed male and female Iranian learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in receptive skills, and to investigate whether inefficiency in learning English could be due to depression. We selected 126 boys and 96 girls aged between 15 and 18 by simple random sampling from 2 high schools in Kerman, Iran to examine whether there was any significant relationship between depression and comprehension of receptive skills in males and females. We undertook this descriptive, correlational study between January and May 2011 in Kerman, Iran. After administration of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), we found that 93 students were non-depressed, 65 had minimal depression, 48 mild depression, and 16 suffered from severe depression. The correlation between participants` scores on listening and reading test with depression level indicated a significant relationship between depression and comprehension of both listening, and reading. Males had higher scores in both reading and listening. In listening, there was no significant difference among the levels of depression and males and females. Regarding the reading skill, there was no significant difference among levels of depression; however, the reading comprehension of males and females differed significantly. Learners who show a deficiency in receptive skills should be examined for the possibility of suffering from some degree of depression.

  19. Blood Test Might Someday Distinguish Early Depression, Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Blood Test Might Someday Distinguish Early Depression, Schizophrenia A screen is still in development stages but ... doctors to tell the difference between depression and schizophrenia, especially early on. Now, researchers say they're ...

  20. Association of Physical Fitness with Depression in Women with Fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Estévez-López, Fernando; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: . The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical fitness and depressive symptoms in women with fibromyalgia (FM). We also assessed whether different fitness components present independent relationships with depressive symptoms. DESIGN: . Cross-sectional study...

  1. The effects of gender and depression severity on the association between alpha asymmetry and depression across four brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesulola, Emmanuel; Sharpley, Christopher F; Agnew, Linda L

    2017-03-15

    Data describing the association between EEG asymmetry and depression status have been equivocal. Effects from brain regions involved, depression severity, and the generalisability of findings across genders, have been inconsistently examined and/or verified. This study investigated these issues within a community sample to potentially expand the asymmetry hypothesis to non-severe depression participants. The singular effects of brain region and electrode site, gender, and depression severity, plus the interaction between gender and depression severity across brain regions were investigated in a study of alpha asymmetry among 46 males and 54 females (M age=32.5 yr, SD=14.13 yr) using the Self-rating Depression Scale (Zung, 1973). There was no significant difference across genders or age for depression severity. Dichotomous classification of depressed state produced similar but slightly different results from analysis of the whole range of depression status, although the frontal region was the only area where depression was consistently significantly associated with EEG asymmetry, and then only for females. However, the direction of those differences for females was opposite of that predicted by the EEG asymmetry-depression hypothesis. Several methodological issues that may have contributed to these findings are discussed, with suggestions made for future research that focusses upon individual depression symptom profiles rather than dichotomous or total depression scores in order to assist in developing a clinically-relevant model of EEG asymmetry in depressed persons.

  2. Study on alleviation of psychological intervention in different periods on depressive symptoms for pregnant women%不同时期心理干预对改善孕产妇抑郁症状的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾水琴; 崔菊芬; 邹建英; 林玉萍

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨不同时期心理干预对改善孕产妇抑郁症状的作用.方法 将900例孕16周至24周的孕妇,用随机等样本分配至A组、B组、C组,每组300例.3组均予常规医疗、护理和健康教育,B组在孕24周、28周、32周、36周增加心理干预,C组在孕37周、临产前、产后第1~2天、出院前进行心理干预.使用爱丁堡产后抑郁量表对3组孕产妇进行抑郁症状评估.结果 3组爱丁堡产后抑郁量表评分比较,F=46.531,P<0.01;B组和C组在孕37周后抑郁症状发生率低于A组;B组在孕37周评分降低明显,C组在产后第42天评分降低明显.结论 不同时期心理干预均能有效缓解孕产妇的抑郁症状,但孕中期心理干预效果持续更久.%Objective To study the effect of psychological intervention in different periods on depressive symptoms for pregnant women. Method Divide 900 pregnant women in 16 - 24 weeks of pregnancy into Group A, B and C equally by random sample. All patients receive routine medical care and health education. Patients in group B receive enhanced psychological intervention in the 24th, 28th, 32nd and 36th of pregnancy. Patients in group C receive psychological intervention in 37th week, before labor, 1 - 2 days after labor and before discharge. Assess depressive symptoms for pregnant women in 3 groups by Edingburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Result Comparison on scores of Edingburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for 3 groups,F=46. 531, P<0. 01. Depression rate of Group B and C after 37th week of pregnancy is lower than Group A. Score of Group B reduces obviously in 37 th week of pregnancy. Score of Group B reduces obviously in 42 nd day after labor. Conclusion Psychological intervention in different periods can relieve depressive symptoms for pregnant women. Psychological intervention in second trimester has longer effect.

  3. Depressed suicide attempters with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Maria; Stanley, Barbara; Ystgaard, Mette; Mehlum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder are well-established risk factors for suicidal behavior. This study compared depressed suicide attempters with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder with respect to additional diagnoses, global functioning, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, history of traumatic exposure, and suicidal behavior. Adult patients consecutively admitted to a general hospital after a suicide attempt were interviewed and assessed for DSM-IV diagnosis and clinical correlates. Sixty-four patients (71%) were diagnosed with depression; of them, 21 patients (32%) had posttraumatic stress disorder. There were no group differences in social adjustment, depressive symptoms, or suicidal intent. However, the group with comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had more additional Axis I diagnoses, a higher degree of childhood trauma exposure, and more often reported previous suicide attempts, non-suicidal self-harm, and vengeful suicidal motives. These findings underline the clinical importance of diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in suicide attempters.

  4. Late onset depression: A recent update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mahapatra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Late onset depression has recently emerged as a serious mental health issue in the geriatric population with significant public health implications. It is often challenging to diagnose and treat this entity. Various theories have been postulated to elucidate the etiology of late onset depression, but a unifying hypothesis is lacking. Although the vascular hypothesis is most researched; a complex interaction of multiple vulnerability factors is the current focus of attention. Numerous psychosocial variables have been implicated to play a significant role in predicting the onset and severity of late-life depression. Phenomenological differences have been delineated from depression occurring at a younger age, but the findings are equivocal. A better understanding of the natural trajectory of depression in the elderly is required for early diagnosis and effective treatment. This review attempts to summarize the current status of evidence regarding epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and treatment options available for late-onset depression.

  5. Attempted suicide, depression and physical diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Jensen, Knud

    1994-01-01

    . Statistically, the risk of repetition of parasuicide for patients with a somatic disease but without depression was significantly less. The 7 patients committing suicide were older and a tendency was found towards painful somatic diseases and depression as risk factors for suicide....... on analgesics for pain. Patients that suffered from a somatic disease differed from other suicide attempters in depression score, age, pain and the presence of psychosis. Fewer of the somatically ill suicide attempters had a psychosis. Patients complaining of pain were more often depressed and abused medicine...

  6. Acute Unstable Depressive Syndrome (AUDS) is associated more frequently with epilepsy than major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaler, Arne E; Morken, Gunnar; Iversen, Valentina C

    2010-01-01

    present with an Acute Unstable Depressive Syndrome (AUDS) that does not meet DSM-IV criteria of a Major Depressive Episode (MDE). In a previous publication we have documented that AUDS patients indeed have more often a history of epileptic seizures and abnormal EEG recordings than MDE patients (Vaaler et......Depressive disorders are frequent in epilepsy and associated with reduced seizure control. Almost 50% of interictal depressive disorders have to be classified as atypical depressions according to DSM-4 criteria. Research has mainly focused on depressive symptoms in defined populations with epilepsy...... al. 2009). This study aimed to further classify the differences of depressive symptoms at admittance and follow-up of patients with AUDS and MDE....

  7. Acute Unstable Depressive Syndrome (AUDS) is associated more frequently with epilepsy than major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaler, Arne E; Morken, Gunnar; Iversen, Valentina C

    2010-01-01

    Depressive disorders are frequent in epilepsy and associated with reduced seizure control. Almost 50% of interictal depressive disorders have to be classified as atypical depressions according to DSM-4 criteria. Research has mainly focused on depressive symptoms in defined populations with epilepsy...... present with an Acute Unstable Depressive Syndrome (AUDS) that does not meet DSM-IV criteria of a Major Depressive Episode (MDE). In a previous publication we have documented that AUDS patients indeed have more often a history of epileptic seizures and abnormal EEG recordings than MDE patients (Vaaler et...... al. 2009). This study aimed to further classify the differences of depressive symptoms at admittance and follow-up of patients with AUDS and MDE....

  8. Analysis of the Anxiety and Depression for Patients with Type 2 Diabetic Retinopathy in Different Period%不同时期2型糖尿病视网膜病变患者焦虑抑郁分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奎香; 贺庆娟; 李廷

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the anxiety and depression status of patients with type 2 diabetic retinopathy in different period. Methods Experimental group (patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy)and control group (patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy ) were all patients to our hospital,each group had 50 people. Cross-sectional survey about Hamilton rating scalefor anxiety (HAMA) and depression self-rating scale (HAMD)were carried out,then do statistical analysis. Results Patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy got higher scores higher in anxiety depression test than that who with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. And the dif erence has statistical significance.Conclusion Higher at ention should be paid to psychological treatment for patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy,and early intervention treatment of diabetic retinopathy for patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy.%目的探讨非增殖期与增殖期糖尿病病变患者的焦虑抑郁心理状态。方法试验组及对照组均取于我院就诊的患有增殖期及非增殖期糖尿病视网膜病变的患者,各50例,对其进行焦虑及抑郁自评量表调查并对结果进行统计分析。结果增殖期糖尿病视网膜病变患者焦虑抑郁得分较非增殖期患者明显增高,差异有统计学意义。结论应重视对增殖期糖尿病视网膜病变患者的心理治疗及非增殖期糖尿病视网膜病变患者的早期干预治疗。

  9. Neonatal taurine and alanine modulate anxiety-like behavior and decelerate cortical spreading depression in rats previously suckled under different litter sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Elian da Silva; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2015-11-01

    The amino acids taurine and alanine play a role in several physiological processes, including behavior and the electrical activity of the brain. In this study, we investigated the effect of treatment with taurine or alanine on anxiety-like behavior and the excitability-dependent phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD), using rats suckled in litters with 9 and 15 pups (groups L9 and L15). From postnatal days 7 to 27, the animals received per gavage 300 mg/kg/day of taurine or alanine or both. At 28 days, we tested the animals in the elevated plus maze, and at 33-35 days, we recorded CSD and analyzed its velocity of propagation, amplitude, and duration. Compared with water-treated controls, the L9 groups treated with taurine or alanine displayed anxiolytic behavior (higher number of entries in the open arms; p taurine, alanine, or both) treated at adulthood (90-110 days). The L15 condition resulted in smaller durations and higher CSD velocities compared with the L9 condition. Besides reinforcing previous evidence of behavioral modulation by taurine and alanine, our data are the first confirmation that treatment with these amino acids decelerates CSD regardless of lactation conditions (normal versus unfavorable lactation) or age at amino acid administration (young versus adult). The results suggest a modulating role for both amino acids on anxiety behavior and neuronal electrical activity.

  10. [Depression in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaud, A S

    1991-03-01

    Depressive symptoms are frequent during schizophrenia. Depression occurs in the course of a schizo affective psychose or in the course of a schizophrenia (either with acute psychotic symptoms, either without acute psychotic symptoms). Differentiating depression from negative symptoms of schizophrenia or from antipsychotic drug induced side effects can be difficult. The question to know whether depression is intrinsic to the disease process itself whether it is secondary to the schizophrenic process is still a matter of inquiry. Efficacy of antidepressive drugs during depression in schizophrenia remains a matter of controversy. Depression increases the risk for pejorative evolution and for suicide in schizophrenia.

  11. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Winthorst Wim H; Post Wendy J; Meesters Ybe; Penninx Brenda WHJ; Nolen Willem A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1) healthy controls 2) patients with a major depressive disorder, 3) patients with any anxiety disorder and 4) patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder. Methods Data...

  12. Prevalence of Depression in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Every woman during different stages of her growth faces various crises, and one of these crises, menopause, may create different problems. In modern societies, psychological disorders and particularly depression is one of the problems of menopausal women. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depression in postmenopausal women referred to selected health centers of Ahvaz in 2014. Patients and Methods This study was cross-sectional study. In this study, 1280 postmenopausal women aged between 40 and 65 years old who were referred to selected health centers of Ahvaz in 2014 were randomly enrolled. Hamilton depression scale and demographic questionnaire were used for gathering information. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics and analytical statistics (Independent t test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation and logistic regression were carried out (CI 95%. Results The mean ± SD score of depression for the subjects was 9.37 ± 4.62. The results showed that 59.8% of the 1280 samples were depressed; in particular, 39.8% had mild depression, 16% moderate depression, and 4% severe depression. There is a significant and inverse relation between variables of age, exposure to cigarette smoking, and the relationship with their spouses and the level of their depression, so higher age, more exposure to smoking, and better relation with their husbands, lead to the less depression. The results showed that the level of education is associated with depression. The highest rate of depression was in illiterate women; the finding also showed that there is a relationship between income and the severity of depression (Regression Log. T test showed that the mean depression level of employed postmenopausal women is higher than housewives postmenopausal women, and this difference is statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusions A significant percentage of women in their menopause experience

  13. Depressive symptoms in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmez, Nasrettin; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Evensen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The present study examined if any patient characteristics at baseline predicted depressive symptoms at 10 years and whether patients prone to depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment had a different prognosis in the following years. METHOD: A total of 299 first-episode psychosis...

  14. Cracking the Cycles of Depression and Mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joel

    1978-01-01

    Some newly reported research results indicate that slightly abnormal biological rhythms, both long- and short-term, may be key factors in the development of depression and manic-depression. The results may also hold clues about why certain drugs work or fail to work with different individuals. (Author/BB)

  15. Migraine symptomatology and major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Lannie; Penninx, Brenda; Nyholt, Dale R.; Distel, Marijn A.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Johannes H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Migraine and major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently co-occur, but it is unclear whether depression is associated with a specific subtype of migraine. The objective of this study was to investigate whether migraine is qualitatively different in MDD patients (N = 1816)

  16. Burnout and Depression: Two Entities or One?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Bianchi, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the overlap in burnout and depression. Method: The sample comprised 1,386 schoolteachers (mean [M][subscript age] = 43; M[subscript years taught] = 15; 77% women) from 18 different U.S. states. We assessed burnout, using the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure, and depression, using the depression…

  17. Black and Blue: Depression and African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowden, Keith O; Thompson Adams, Linda; Wiley, Dana

    2016-10-01

    Depression is a common mental disorder affecting individuals. Although many strides have been made in the area of depression, little is known about depression in special populations, especially African American men. African American men often differ in their presentation of depression and are often misdiagnosed. African American men are at greater risk for depression, but they are less likely to participate in mental health care. This article explores depression in African American by looking at environmental factors, sigma, role, and other unique to this populations, such as John Henryism. Interventions to encourage early screening and participation in care are also discussed.

  18. A Cross-Cultural Understanding of Depression Among Abused Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janet Y H; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y T; Bullock, Linda

    2016-10-01

    Little research has addressed depression in abused women across cultures. This review examines depression and intimate partner violence (IPV) by comparing and contrasting the IPV definitions, family dynamics, coping, and expressions of depression of women in China, Japan, India, and the United States. Findings reveal that depression is expressed differently across cultures. Somatization is commonly found in Asian countries, but it is not properly assessed by existing Westernized depression assessment tools. In addition, cultural factors were shown to shape abused women's ways of adaptive coping. Cultural awareness and sensitivity are fundamental for successful assessment and intervention for abused women with depression.

  19. 电针百会和印堂穴对不同人群抑郁症的干预%EA Baihui and Yintang depression for the intervention of different groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗伯托·刚萨雷斯; 牛婷立; 马良宵; 王轩; 牛欣

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察电针百会和印堂穴对不同人群抑郁症的干预作用.方法:研究工作在墨西哥国立理工大学顺势疗法医学院进行.研究对象为墨西哥普通人群,共有302例自愿受试者参与研究,其中女性240例,男性62例.具体操作方法:电针百会和印堂穴,配合针刺三阴交,每次20min,每周1次.电针强度以患者耐受为度.所有受试者在治疗前和治疗第6次、11次、15次后,分别进行汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)17项测评,以此评估抑郁症的程度和演变.结果:对HAMD评分≥13并接收11次治疗的43例自愿者进行了统计分析.治疗前和治疗第6次、第11次之间得到的数据有显著的差异(P<0.01).治疗第11次以后治疗效果仍然持续,但治疗第6次,11次及15次之间的差异无统计学意义.结论:本研究项目的穴位配方能有效地控制及降低抑郁症症状,对干预抑郁症的发展起重要作用.%Objective: EA Baihui and Yintang depression for the intervention of different groups.Methods: Research in the National University of Mexico School of Medicine for homeopathy. Study for the general population in Mexico, a total of 302 volunteers participated in the study, 240 cases were women, men, 62 cases. To do: EA Baihui and Yintang, acupuncture Sanyinjiao, 20 minutes, once a week. EA strength for the degree of patient tolerance. All volunteers before treatment and in the treatment of the 6th, 11, and IS times, respectively, for Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) 17 evaluation, to assess the degree of depression and evolution. Results: On the HAMD scores 13 and receive 11 volunteers treated 43 patients for statistical analysis. Results Before treatment, the sixth and 1 lth between the data obtained showed significant response differences (P<0.01). Eleventh after treatment still remain, but the 6,11 and 15 times the difference between the obvious, that there is no statistical value. Conclusion: The results of this research project

  20. 度洛西汀与帕罗西汀治疗不同症状抑郁症的比较研究%Comparative study of duloxetine and paroxitine in the treatment of depression with different symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏昆岭; 成玉敏; 桑文华; 刘增龙

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare efficacy of duloxetine and paroxitine in the treatment of depression with different symptoms.Methods A total of 126 patients who met the criteria of ICD - 10 for depression were assigned to two groups based on different complaints (mental or somatic complaints).Every group was randomly divided into two subgroups treated with duloxetine 60 mg per day or paroxitine 20 mg per day for 6 weeks.The efficacy was assessed by Hamilton depression scale (HAMD), and the safety was assessed by treatment emergent symptom scale (TESS).Results The efficacy rates of the dulixetine subgroup and the paroxitine subgroup were 84% and 75% in the patients with mental complaints, there was no significant difference between two subgroups ( P > 0.05 ).In the patients with somatic complaints, the efficacy rates of the duloxetine subgroup and the paroxitine subgroup were 80% and 55%respectively, there was significant difference between two subgroups (P <0.05).Conclusion Duloxetine could show better efficacy than paroxitine in the patients with somatic symptoms.%目的 比较度洛西汀与帕罗西汀治疗不同症状抑郁症的疗效.方法 将126例符合ICD-10抑郁症诊断标准的患者,按不同主诉(精神症状或躯体症状)分为2组,每组再随机分为2个亚组,分别采用度洛西汀(每天60 mg)和帕罗西汀(每天20 mg)治疗6周,用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评定疗效,用副反应量表(TESS)评定药物不良反应.结果 在以精神症状为主的患者中,度洛西汀组与帕罗西汀组的有效率分别为84%和75%,两者比较差异无显著性(P>0.05);在以躯体症状为主的患者中,度洛西汀组与帕罗西汀组的有效率分别为80%和55%,两者比较差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论 与帕罗西汀相比,度洛西汀治疗伴有躯体症状的抑郁症患者疗效更好.

  1. Prospective incidence of first onsets and recurrences of depression in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y; Whitehouse, Wayne G; Hogan, Michael E; Panzarella, Catherine; Rose, Donna T

    2006-02-01

    Do negative cognitive styles provide similar vulnerability to first onsets versus recurrences of depressive disorders, and are these associations specific to depression? The authors followed for 2.5 years prospectively college freshmen (N = 347) with no initial psychiatric disorders at high-risk (HR) versus low-risk (LR) for depression on the basis of their cognitive styles. HR participants had odds of major, minor, and hopelessness depression that were 3.5-6.8 times greater than the odds for LR individuals. Negative cognitive styles were similarly predictive of first onsets and recurrences of major depression and hopelessness depression but predicted first onsets of minor depression more strongly than recurrences. The risk groups did not differ in incidence of anxiety disorders not comorbid with depression or other disorders, but HR participants were more likely to have an onset of anxiety comorbid with depression. 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Depression and its relationship with poor exercise capacity, BODE index and muscle wasting in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-shair, Khaled; Dockry, Rachel; Mallia-Milanes, Brendan

    2009-01-01

    walk distance (6MWD), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and MRC dyspnoea and Borg scales. RESULTS: The CES-D and BASDEC scales detected almost similar prevalence rates of depression (21% vs 17%) with a Kappa coefficient of 0.68, p... affect some of the characteristics of depressed patients rather than the prevalence rate of depression. Depression was associated with poor exercise performance and BODE index in COPD.......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression in stable COPD patients varies markedly, possibly because of use of different scales. We aimed to assess depression using 2 different depression scales and to examine the association between depression and poor exercise performance, BODE index and muscle...

  3. Pituitary gland volume in currently depressed and remitted depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Valentina; Allen, Nicholas B; Fornito, Alex; Pantelis, Christos; De Plato, Giovanni; Ang, Anthony; Yücel, Murat

    2009-04-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with increased pituitary gland volume (PGV), which is thought to reflect stress-related dysregulation related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. However, it is unclear whether PGV alteration reflects a "dynamic" change related to current mood instability or if it is a stable marker of illness vulnerability. In this study we investigated PGV in currently depressed patients (cMDD) (n=31), remitted depressed patients (rMDD) (n=31) and healthy controls (n=33), using 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The groups were matched for age and gender. We found no significant PGV, intra-cranial volume (ICV) or whole brain volume (WBV) differences between cMDD patients, rMDD patients and healthy controls. Furthermore, PGV was not correlated with clinical features of depression (e.g., age of onset; number of episodes; and scores on subscales of the Beck Depression Inventory, the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, and the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire). In conclusion, PGV does not appear to be a marker of current or past MDD in adult patients.

  4. Family dynamics and postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammentie, T; Tarkka, M-T; Astedt-Kurki, P; Paavilainen, E; Laippala, P

    2004-04-01

    Research has shown that postnatal depression (PND) affects 10-15% of mothers in Western societies. PND is not easily identified and therefore it often remains undetected. Untreated depression has a detrimental effect on the mother and child and the entire family. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the state of family dynamics after delivery and whether the mother's PND was associated with family dynamics. The study used a survey covering the catchment area of one Finnish university hospital. Both primi- and multiparas took part and data were collected using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for mothers and the Family Dynamics Measure II (FDM II) for both mothers and fathers. The data were analysed using SPSS statistical programme and frequency and percentage distributions, means and standard deviations were examined. Correlations were analysed using Spearman's correlation coefficients. The significance of any differences between mothers' and fathers' scores was determined with a paired t-test. Of the families participating in the study (373 mothers and 314 partners), 13% of the mothers suffered from PND symptoms (EPDS score of 13 or more). As a whole, family dynamics in the families participating in the study were reported to be rather good. However, mothers having depressive symptoms reported more negative family dynamics compared with other families. With the exception of individuation, mothers having depressive symptoms reported more negative family dynamics than their partners. With the exception of role reciprocity, non-depressed mothers reported more positive family dynamics than their partners. Knowledge of the association of mothers' PND with family dynamics could help to develop nursing care at maternity and child welfare clinics and maternity hospitals. Depressed mothers and their families need support to be able to make family dynamics as good as possible.

  5. Managing depression in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kerry A.; Wolfe, Vicky V.; Fisman, Sandra; DePace, JoAnne; Steele, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate family physicians’ practice patterns for managing depression and mental health concerns among adolescent and adult patients. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SETTING London, Ont, a mid-sized Canadian city. PARTICIPANTS One hundred sixty-three family physicians identified through the London and District Academy of Medicine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Practice patterns for managing depression, including screening, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, shared care, and training needs. RESULTS Response rate was 63%. Family physicians reported spending a substantial portion of their time during patient visits (26% to 50%) addressing mental health issues, with depression being the most common issue (51% to 75% of patients with mental health issues). About 40% of respondents did routine mental health screening, and 60% screened patients with risk factors for depression. Shared care with mental health professionals was common (care was shared for 26% to 50% of patients). Physicians and patients were moderately satisfied with shared care, but were frustrated by long waiting lists and communication barriers. Most physicians provided psychotherapy to patients in the form of general advice. Differences in practice patterns were observed; physicians treated more adults than adolescents with depression, and they reported greater comfort in treating adults. Although 33% of physicians described using cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), they reported having little training in CBT. Moderate interest was expressed in CBT training, with a preference for a workshop format. CONCLUSION Although 40% of family physicians routinely screen patients for mental health issues, depression is often not detected. Satisfaction with shared care can be increased through better communication with mental health professionals. Physicians’ management of adolescent patients can be improved by further medical training, consultation, and collaboration with mental health professionals

  6. [Lipids, depression and suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, A; Reggers, J; Castronovo, V; Ansseau, M

    2003-01-01

    Polyunsatured fatty acids are made out of a hydrocarbonated chain of variable length with several double bonds. The position of the first double bond (omega) differentiates polyunsatured omega 3 fatty acids (for example: alpha-linolenic acid or alpha-LNA) and polyunsatured omega 6 fatty acids (for example: linoleic acid or LA). These two classes of fatty acids are said to be essential because they cannot be synthetised by the organism and have to be taken from alimentation. The omega 3 are present in linseed oil, nuts, soya beans, wheat and cold water fish whereas omega 6 are present in maize, sunflower and sesame oil. Fatty acids are part of phospholipids and, consequently, of all biological membranes. The membrane fluidity, of crucial importance for its functioning, depends on its lipidic components. Phospholipids composed of chains of polyunsatured fatty acids increase the membrane fluidity because, by bending some chains, double bonds prevent them from compacting themselves perfectly. Membrane fluidity is also determined by the phospholipids/free cholesterol ratio, as cholesterol increases membrane viscosity. A diet based on a high proportion of essential polyunsatured fatty acids (fluid) would allow a higher incorporation of cholesterol (rigid) in the membranes to balance their fluidity, which would contribute to lower blood cholesterol levels. Brain membranes have a very high content in essential polyunsatured fatty acids for which they depend on alimentation. Any dietary lack of essential polyunsatured fatty acids has consequences on cerebral development, modifying the activity of enzymes of the cerebral membranes and decreasing efficiency in learning tasks. The prevalence of depression seems to increase continuously since the beginning of the century. Though different factors most probably contribute to this evolution, it has been suggested that it could be related to an evolution of alimentary patterns in the Western world, in which polyunsatured omega 3

  7. Memory training in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Vanderhasselt, M.A.; Vrijsen, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    Memory biases, that is, general memory impairments as well as specific mood-congruent memory biases, are important vulnerability factors in depression. Recently, computerized memory trainings have been developed to target these biases, reducing rumination and lightening depressive symptoms. This

  8. Depression and Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and Suicide Risk (2014) Definition: A mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and ... i Prevalence: 1. Ranges of lifetime risk for depression: from 6.7% overall to 40% in men, ...

  9. Depression and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Depression Thursday, 01 September 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to depression may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  10. Heart disease and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000790.htm Heart disease and depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... a heart attack or heart surgery Signs of Depression It is pretty common to feel down or ...

  11. Learning about depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000325.htm Learning about depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... trigger or reason. What are the Signs of Depression? You may notice some or all of the ...

  12. Depression - stopping your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  13. Depression and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Depression Thursday, 01 September 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to depression may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  14. Depression Disturbs Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.

  15. Cognitive Functions and Depression in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per G. Farup

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is associated with depression and depression with impaired cognitive functions. The primary aim was to study associations between depression and cognitive functions in patients with IBS. Methods. IBS (according to the Rome III criteria, cognitive functions (evaluated with a set of neuropsychological tests, and depression (measured with Beck Depression Inventory II and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale were analysed in patients with idiopathic depression and in patients with unspecified neurological symptoms. Results. 18 and 48 patients with a mean age of 47 and 45 years were included in the “Depression” and “Neurological” group, respectively. In the “Depression” group, the degree of depression was significantly higher in patients with IBS than in those without. Depression was associated with impaired cognitive function in 6 out of 17 neuropsychological tests indicating reduced set shifting, verbal fluency, attention, and psychomotor speed. IBS was statistically significantly associated with depression but not with any of the tests for cognitive functions. Conclusions. IBS was associated with depression but not with impaired cognitive functions. Since the idiopathic depression was associated with cognitive deficits, the findings could indicate that the depression in patients with IBS differs from an idiopathic depression.

  16. Coping Styles, Aggression and Interpersonal Conflicts among Depressed and Non-Depressed People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Nazir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study compared people with depressive symp¬toms and people without depressive symptoms with reference to their coping styles, level of aggression and interpersonal conflicts.Methods: A purposive sample of 128 people (64 depressed and 64 normal controls was selected from four different teaching hospitals of Lahore. Both the groups were matched on four demographic levels i.e. age, gender, education and monthly income. Symptom Checklist-R was used to screen out depressed and non-depressed people. The Brief COPE, the Aggres¬sion Questionnaire and the Bergen Social Relationship Scale were used to assess coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts respectively. The Independent t-test was used to compare the groups. Binary logistic Regression was also carried out to predict the role of research variables in causing depression.Results: The results showed that level of aggression and interpersonal conflict was significantly more in people with depressive symptoms as compared to control group. On the other hand control group was using more adaptive coping styles than people with depressive symptoms but no difference was found in the use of maladaptive coping styles. Conclusion: The present findings revealed that coping styles, aggression and interpersonal conflicts play important role in depression. Therefore, these dimen-sions must be considered while dealing with the depressive patients. Implications for preventive work are also discussed in the light of previous researches.

  17. Preventing Depression in Adults With Subthreshold Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buntrock, Claudia; Berking, Matthias; Smit, Filip

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological interventions for the prevention of depression might be a cost-effective way to reduce the burden associated with depressive disorders. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a Web-based guided self-help intervention to prevent major depressive disorder (MDD......) in people with subthreshold depression (sD). METHODS: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial was conducted with follow-up at 12 months. Participants were recruited from the general population via a large statutory health insurance company and an open access website. Participants were randomized to a Web......-based guided self-help intervention (ie, cognitive-behavioral therapy and problem-solving therapy assisted by supervised graduate students or health care professionals) in addition to usual care or to usual care supplemented with Web-based psycho-education (enhanced usual care). Depression-free years (DFYs...

  18. Clinical manifestations of geriatric depression in a memory clinic: toward a proposed subtyping of geriatric depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Carol; Machnicki, Gerardo; Serrano, Cecilia M; Rojas, Galeno; Vazquez, Gustavo; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2011-11-01

    As the older population increases so does the number of older psychiatric patients. Elderly psychiatric patients manifest certain specific and unique characteristics. Different subtypes of depressive syndromes exist in late-life depression, and many of these are associated with cognitive impairment. A total of 109 depressive patients and 30 normal subjects matched by age and educational level were evaluated using a neuropsychiatric interview and an extensive neuropsychological battery. Depressive patients were classified into four different groups by SCAN 2.1 (schedules for clinical assessment in Neuropsychiatry): major depression disorder (n: 34), dysthymia disorder (n: 29), subsyndromal depression (n: 28), and depression due to mild dementia of Alzheimer's type (n: 18). We found significant associations (pdepressive status and demographic or clinical factors that include marital status (OR: 3.4, CI: 1.2-9.6), level of daily activity (OR: 5.3, CI: 2-14), heart disease (OR: 12.5, CI: 1.6-96.3), and high blood cholesterol levels (p:.032). Neuropsychological differences were observed among the four depressive groups and also between depressive patients and controls. Significant differences were observed in daily life activities and caregivers' burden between depressive patients and normal subjects. Geriatric depression is associated with heart disease, high cholesterol blood levels, marital status, and daily inactivity. Different subtypes of geriatric depression have particular clinical features, such as cognitive profiles, daily life activities, and caregivers' burden, that can help to differentiate among them. The cohort referred to a memory clinic with memory complaints is a biased sample, and the results cannot be generalized to other non-memory symptomatic cohorts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sexual orientation and depression in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Roger L; Lasiuk, Gerri; Norris, Colleen M

    2017-03-01

    Depression is a global concern and it is well known that certain segments of the population are at greater risk. Sexual minorities are recognized as being more likely to suffer from depression due to social stigma and prejudice. The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between sexual orientation and depression in the Canadian population. The study used the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health data. The sample comprised 24,788 Canadians living in the ten provinces. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship of depression and sexual orientation. After adjusting for known risk factors for depression, there was no difference in prevalence of past 12-month or lifetime major depressive episode between sexual minorities and heterosexuals. Bisexuals did have a near significant trend towards higher prevalence of both past 12-month and lifetime depression as a combined group, but there were not clear differences when stratified by sex. This study supports important emerging trends in the relationship between sexual orientation and depression. Research on the mental health of sexual minority people must take into account differences between sexual minority groups and avoid aggregating mental health disorders into broad categories. These findings have implications for public health planning and clinical recommendations.

  20. Depression in cerebrovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Voskresenskaya, Tatyana

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the topical problem of depression in cerebrovascular diseases. It shows its possible causes, mechanisms of occurrence, clinical picture and negative impact on the course of cerebrovascular disease and recovery of neurological functions. There is a bilateral association between stroke and depression: on the one hand, stroke is a risk factor for the development of depression and, on the other, depression is a both direct and indirect risk factor for the development of stroke...

  1. [Multiple mechanisms of depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Lin; Ruan, Ke-Feng; Gao, Jun-Wei; Wu, Fei; Zhang, Ji-Quan

    2013-08-01

    Depression is a grievous mental disease with an increasing high morbidity year by year and a serious social harm. The pathogenesises of depression is complicated and involves with multi-mechanisms and multi-organs. Recent studies demondtrate that in the nerval system and endocrine system there are many types of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as their receptors, involved in depression. This paper reviews the research progress of depression in recent years.

  2. Method of treating depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, Fritz

    2013-04-09

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  3. Method of treating depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Fritz [East Patchogue, NY

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  4. 心肌梗死患者急性期与恢复期焦虑抑郁状况因素分析%Analysis of factors influencing anxiety and depression at different stages among patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凌燕; 卢惠娟; 许燕玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the levels of anxiety and depression at different stages among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI),to explore the influencing factors,and to improve the stress management of AMI patients.Methods A total of 100 AMI patients from Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital from February to June 2012 were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) during hospitalization and 2-3 months of follow-up.Results Among 100 patients,the incidence of anxiety was 29%,38% and 44% during hospitalization,early rehabilitation and rehabilitation,respectively.The incidence of depression was 40%,50% and 53% during hospitalization,early rehabilitation and rehabilitation,respectively.The influencing factors during hospitalization were education background,profession and age.During early rehabilitation the per capita household monthly income,medical payment method,myocardial infarction area and history were the influencing factors.While during rehabilitation the family care,marriage status,sports habit,and household were the influencing factors (P < 0.05).Conclusion The incidence of anxiety and depression among AMI patients increases with time going on.It is influenced by various factors at different stages of AMI.The patients' status should be evaluated comprehensively,and the effective intervention should be provided to prevent and reduce the negative psychological impacts.%目的 了解急性心肌梗死(acute myocardial infarction,AMI)患者住院急性期、恢复初期和恢复期的焦虑抑郁状况及相关因素.方法 采用便利抽样法,选取2012年2-6月收治于上海交通大学附属第六人民医院的AMI患者100例,采用综合医院焦虑/抑郁情绪测定表(hospital anxiety and depression scale,HADS)对其发病的急性期、恢复初期和恢复期进行问卷调查.结果 AMI患者在住院急性期焦虑阳性检出率占29%,恢复初期占38%,恢复期占44%;在住院急

  5. Prevalence of subsequent depression to an episode of myocardial infarction in Cartagena, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Franco Ray; García-del-Río Carlos; Barrios-Ayola Francisco; Bula-Anichiarico Doris; Fuentes-de-Oro Nacira; Corrales-Santander Hugo; Adie-Villafañe Richard

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: depression is the main cause of disability and suicide worldwide, ithas been associated with different diseases. At least 65% of patients with myocardialinfarction (MI) experience depressive symptoms and 15 to 20% are diagnosed withmajor depression. It is unknown the prevalence of depression after MI in our midst.Objectives: estimate the prevalence of subsequent depression to an episode of MI inthree hospitals of Cartagena, Colombia and describe the severity of the depression,th...

  6. Underlying motivation in the approach and avoidance goals of depressed and non-depressed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Katherine A L; MacLeod, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    Neurobiological theories predict decreased approach motivation and increased avoidance motivation in depression, but the results of previous studies have been equivocal. This study addressed a key limitation of previous research by assessing participants' underlying motivation for adopting their goals. Depressed (N=26) and non-depressed (N=33) participants listed approach and avoidance goals and wrote down their underlying reasons for adopting those goals. The groups did not differ on either the number of goals or underlying reasons but when underlying reasons were coded for approach or avoidance motivation depressed participants, compared to controls, showed less approach motivation and more avoidance motivation in relation to their approach goals. There were no effects related to avoidance goals. The results suggest that while the goals of depressed persons appear to be similar to those who are not depressed there are important differences at the level of underlying motivation.

  7. Clinical Judgments of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Douglas N.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated degree to which judges could simulate Basic Personality Inventory (BPI) responses of a clinically depressed patient group. Judgmental profiles of depressed patients indicated very high reliabilities across information conditions, a high association with actual profiles of clinically depressed patients, and differentiation from other…

  8. Depression (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Depression KidsHealth > For Parents > Depression A A A What's ... to Help en español Comprender la depresión About Depression It's normal for kids to feel sad, down, ...

  9. Handling Depression | Smokefree 60+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everyone feels blue now and then. It's a part of life. But if your feelings last more than few days and interfere with your normal daily activities, you may be suffering from depression. On this page: Symptoms of depression Who gets depressed and why?

  10. Depression (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Depression KidsHealth > For Parents > Depression Print A A A ... to Help en español Comprender la depresión About Depression It's normal for kids to feel sad, down, ...

  11. Measuring psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Meyers, B S; Flint, A J

    Psychotic depression (PD) is a highly debilitating condition, which needs intensive monitoring. However, there is no established rating scale for evaluating the severity of PD. The aim of this analysis was to assess the psychometric properties of established depression rating scales and a number...... of new composite rating scales, covering both depressive and psychotic symptoms, in relation to PD....

  12. Measuring psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Meyers, B S; Flint, A J

    Psychotic depression (PD) is a highly debilitating condition, which needs intensive monitoring. However, there is no established rating scale for evaluating the severity of PD. The aim of this analysis was to assess the psychometric properties of established depression rating scales and a number...... of new composite rating scales, covering both depressive and psychotic symptoms, in relation to PD....

  13. Therapeutics of postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Michael; Sharma, Verinder

    2017-05-01

    Postpartum depression is a prevalent disorder affecting many women of reproductive age. Despite increasing public awareness, it is frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated leading to significant maternal morbidity and adverse child outcomes. When identified, postpartum depression is usually treated as major depressive disorder. Many studies have identified the postpartum as a period of high risk for first presentations and relapses of bipolar disorder. Areas covered: This article reviews the acute and prophylactic treatment of postpartum major depressive disorder, bipolar depression and major depressive disorder with mixed features. The safety of antidepressant and mood stabilizing medications in pregnancy and breastfeeding will also be reviewed. Expert commentary: Differentiating postpartum major depressive disorder and postpartum bipolar depression can be difficult given their clinical similarities but accurate identification is vital for initiating proper treatment. Antidepressants are the mainstay of drug treatment for postpartum major depressive disorder, yet randomized controlled trials have shown conflicting results. A paucity of evidence exists for the effectiveness of antidepressant prophylaxis in the prevention of recurrences of major depressive disorder. Mood stabilizing medications reduce the risk of postpartum bipolar depression relapse but no randomized controlled trials have examined their use in the acute or prophylactic treatment of postpartum bipolar depression.

  14. A psychoanalytical perspective on nowadays depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Bruno Viana Campos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the phenomenon of epidemic depression nowadays as a symptom of the socio-cultural setting of contemporary subjectivity, through a critique to the framework of psychiatric psychopathology from psychoanalysis. It shows the importance of taking depression as an expression of collusion in the removal of the subject in contemporary times, as the result of a movement of social medicalization. It also presents an overview of the understanding of depression in psychoanalytic psychopathology, highlighting its structural unspecificity and pointing out different trends about their fundamental position in the Lacanian and object relations traditions. It argues that the depressive problems must be taken in their different structural arrangements, as an expression of failure and fixings along the narcissistic-melancholy axis of subjectivity constitution as a relevant and comprising model for understanding the problem of depression in psychoanalysis.

  15. [Diagnosis and therapy of depression in family practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torzsa, Péter; Szeifert, Lilla; Dunai, Klaudia; Kalabay, László; Novák, Márta

    2009-09-06

    Depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders, according to Hungarian and international data. In Western- Europe, lifetime prevalence of major depression is 13%, while one-year prevalence is 4%. The prevalence of severe depressive symptoms is similar in Hungary: approximately 5 to 8% of all patients seen by primary care physicians suffer from some kind of depressive disorders. Depression is more prevalent in women and in the elderly. According to the World Health Organization, depression is the third most common disabling disorder. Patients with depression experience impaired quality of life, anxiety, sleep disturbances, alcohol and drug abuse, and different somatic disorders. Furthermore, depression is the most important risk factor for suicide. Primary care physicians have a crucial role in the screening and diagnosing of depressive disorders. Depressive disorders can exist not only in patients complaining about depressed mood, but also in patients with "medically unexplained symptoms" (headache, fatigue, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, weight change). Primary care physicians should have appropriate knowledge about the different therapeutic options (including various psychotherapies, antidepressant medications and other treatment options) to be able to treat their patients properly. We review the literature about the significance and epidemiology of depression and summarize the diagnostic and therapeutic options of depressive disorders in primary care practice.

  16. Associations among smoking, anhedonia, and reward learning in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverant, Gabrielle I; Sloan, Denise M; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Harte, Christopher B; Kamholz, Barbara W; Rosebrock, Laina E; Cohen, Andrew L; Fava, Maurizio; Kaplan, Gary B

    2014-09-01

    Depression and cigarette smoking co-occur at high rates. However, the etiological mechanisms that contribute to this relationship remain unclear. Anhedonia and associated impairments in reward learning are key features of depression, which also have been linked to the onset and maintenance of cigarette smoking. However, few studies have investigated differences in anhedonia and reward learning among depressed smokers and depressed nonsmokers. The goal of this study was to examine putative differences in anhedonia and reward learning in depressed smokers (n=36) and depressed nonsmokers (n=44). To this end, participants completed self-report measures of anhedonia and behavioral activation (BAS reward responsiveness scores) and as well as a probabilistic reward task rooted in signal detection theory, which measures reward learning (Pizzagalli, Jahn, & O'Shea, 2005). When considering self-report measures, depressed smokers reported higher trait anhedonia and reduced BAS reward responsiveness scores compared to depressed nonsmokers. In contrast to self-report measures, nicotine-satiated depressed smokers demonstrated greater acquisition of reward-based learning compared to depressed nonsmokers as indexed by the probabilistic reward task. Findings may point to a potential mechanism underlying the frequent co-occurrence of smoking and depression. These results highlight the importance of continued investigation of the role of anhedonia and reward system functioning in the co-occurrence of depression and nicotine abuse. Results also may support the use of treatments targeting reward learning (e.g., behavioral activation) to enhance smoking cessation among individuals with depression.

  17. SPECT and PET in Late-Life Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, Tiago S; Oude Voshaar, Richard; De Deyn, Peter; Dierckx, Rudi; van Waarde, Aren; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Otte, Andreas; de Vries, Erik FJ; van Waarde, Aren; den Boer, Johan A

    2014-01-01

    Late-life late onset depression (i.e., depression with an age of onset above 60 yrs) appears to differ from depression with early onset in its association with cerebral small vessel disease, beta-amyloid and tau deposition, and neurodegenerative processes. Multimodality imaging (SPECT, PET, MRI) sup

  18. Efficacy of Psychosocial Treatments for Geriatric Depression: A Quantitative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Forrest; McElreath, Lisa

    1994-01-01

    Conducted meta-analysis of 17 studies examining efficacy of psychosocial treatments for depression among older adults. Treatments were reliably more effective than no-treatment on self-rated and clinician-rated measures of depression. Effect sizes for studies involving participants with major depression disorder were reliably different from zero,…

  19. Humorous Stimuli and Depression: An Examination of Beck's Premise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Forrest R.; Merbaum, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Studied the relationship between depression and humor in 85 college students who took the Beck Depression Inventory and then rated 10 cartoons. Results showed no difference between mildly depressed and nondepressed subjects. However, some trends were noted on a mood scale related to immediate feelings and humor preference. (Author/JAC)

  20. Post-Adoption Depression: Clinical Windows on an Emerging Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speilman, Eda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of post-adoption depression--with both parallels and differences from postpartum depression--has emerged as a salient descriptor of the experience of a significant minority of newly adoptive parents. This article offers a clinical perspective on post-adoption depression through the stories of several families seen in…

  1. Depression, Health, and Somatic Complaints in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahurin, Kathleen A.; Gatz, Margaret

    Although depression is considered to be common in the elderly, reliable rates of prevalence are lacking. Studies have shown that age differences on measures of depressive symptomatology can be attributed to higher levels of somatic complaints. In order to examine whether the association between somatic and depressive symptoms varies as a function…

  2. Importance of Depression in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustman, Patrick J.; Clouse, Ray E.; Anderson, Ryan J.

    Depression doubles the likelihood of comorbid depression, which presents as major depression in 11% and subsyndromal depression in 31% of patients with the medical illness. The course of depression is chronic, and afflicted patients suffer an average of one episode annually. Depression has unique importance in diabetes because of its association…

  3. [Depression. A symbolic archetypal psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofri, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Jung understood that our psyche had an archetypal structure and that its best representant was mythology. This is a different theoretical framework, with an underlying anthropology that allows us to think pathology under other epistemologic concepts. Pathology can be thought as with positive and negative aspects to consider. This approach lets us consider different types of depression based on an archetypal mythologem, which allows us to think different forms of treatment.

  4. Maternal history of depression is associated with enhanced theory of mind in depressed and nondepressed adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Kate Leslie; Washburn, Dustin; Theriault, Jordan Eugene; Lee, Lisa; Sabbagh, Mark Alan

    2011-08-30

    Theory of mind forms the basis of social cognition and develops on a stereotyped ontogenetic timetable. Yet, there are individual differences in theory of mind that may be transmitted through genetic and/or environmental mechanisms. In the current study we examined the relation of maternal history of depression to individual differences in theory of mind in a sample of adult women. Sixty-one depressed women (23% with a positive maternal history of depression) and 30 non-depressed women (33% with a positive maternal history of depression) completed the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes task', a test of theory of mind decoding. Women with a maternal history of depression performed better on the Eyes task than those without. Further, the younger the mother's onset of depression, the better the current probands' Eyes task performance. These results are consistent with a broader literature linking hypersensitive social cognition and depression risk. We discuss the potential clinical implications of our results.

  5. Attribution style of patients with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavić Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The role of attribution in psychopathology has been investigated most systematically within the depression context. The presumption which makes people depressive consists, to an excessive degree, of internal, stable and global attributions to negative occurrences. Negative attributions for unpleasant events are associated with the loss of self-respect which follows. Objective Establishing the characteristics of attribution style of depressive patients. Methods The investigation included 62 subjects. The first group consisted of 32 patients with endogenous depression in remission. The second group included 30 healthy subjects. The characteristics of attribution style, in both groups, were tested by the Attribution Style Questionnaire (ASQ. Results The group of depressive patients, in comparison with healthy subjects, exhibited a significantly more marked internal attribution for negative events (t(60=-3.700; p<0.01 and global internal negative attributions (t(60=-4.023; p<0.01. There was no significant difference between the groups in the stability of these negative attributions (t(60=-1.937; p>0.05, and also the composite score which represents the measure of hopelessness did not make a significant difference between depressive and healthy subjects (t(60=-1.810; p>0.05. Conclusion Depressive patients exhibit an inclination towards internal and global attribution for negative events. These negative attributions do not have stable character, i.e. these attributions vary in time. Characteristics of attribution judgments of depressive people do not represent a permanent pattern within their cognitive style.

  6. MEMORY SONGS DECREASE DEPRESSION FOR STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmayetty Harmayetty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological, physical and phsycosocial changes in stroke patient could be a stressor that induced a depression state. There would be an emotional disturbance in stroke patient and stroke attack would be recurrent, if it was not treated. One of the alternative techniques to reduce depression is musical therapy especially memory songs. Method: This study was used a quasy experimental pre-post test purposive sampling design. The population was stroke patients who treated in Neurological Ward A and Stroke Unit Dr Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. There were 12 respondents divided into 6 respondents for treatment group and 6 respondents for control group. The independent variable was music (memory song and dependent variable was depression. Data were collected by using questionnaire which adapted from Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Geriatric Depression Rating Scale, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that there was a difference between pre test and post test in depression (p=0.0196 and there was a difference in the depression between treatment group and control group (p=0.002. Discussion: It can be concluded that music (memory songs has an effect to the depression of stroke patient. Further studies are needed to concerning other factors that may affect the relaxation technique especially in listening music.

  7. Understanding childhood depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Das, Partha Pratim

    2007-02-01

    Major depressive disorder in children is a severe and a chronically disabling disorder. This population appears to be a special group in terms of consequences of poor psychosocial and academic outcome and increased risk of substance abuse, and suicide. Studies have revealed several major findings in genetic, familial, psychological, and biological aspects of such depression, some of which have explored into the issue of its relationship with adult depression. Considerable advances have been made now in the area of childhood depression providing a better understanding of its nature. We review literature available on historical aspect, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and aetiology of childhood depression.

  8. Measuring Depression Over Time . . . or not? : Lack of Unidimensionality and Longitudinal Measurement Invariance in Four Common Rating Scales of Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fried, Eiko I.; van Borkulo, Claudia D.; Epskamp, Sacha; Schoevers, Robert A.; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Borsboom, Denny

    2016-01-01

    In depression research, symptoms are routinely assessed via rating scales and added to construct sum-scores. These scores are used as a proxy for depression severity in cross-sectional research, and differences in sum-scores over time are taken to reflect changes in an underlying depression construc

  9. Measuring depression over time . . . Or not? : Lack of unidimensionality and longitudinal measurement invariance in four common rating scales of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fried, E.I.; van Borkulo, C.D.; Epskamp, S.; Schoevers, R.A.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.

    2016-01-01

    In depression research, symptoms are routinely assessed via rating scales and added to construct sum-scores. These scores are used as a proxy for depression severity in cross-sectional research, and differences in sum-scores over time are taken to reflect changes in an underlying depression construc

  10. Measuring Depression Over Time ... or not? Lack of Unidimensionality and Longitudinal Measurement Invariance in Four Common Rating Scales of Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fried, Eiko I.; van Borkulo, Claudia D.; Epskamp, Sacha; Schoevers, Robert A.; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Borsboom, Denny

    2016-01-01

    In depression research, symptoms are routinely assessed via rating scales and added to construct sum-scores. These scores are used as a proxy for depression severity in cross-sectional research, and differences in sum-scores over time are taken to reflect changes in an underlying depression construc

  11. Bidirectionality Between Sleep Symptoms and Cores Depressive Symptoms and Their Long-Term Course in Major Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmans, Mara E J; Conradi, Henk Jan; Bos, Elisabeth H; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; de Jonge, Peter

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bidirectional dynamic relationship between sleep symptoms and core depressive symptoms and to identify subgroups differing with respect to their course. METHODS: The weekly state of depressive symptoms in depressed primary care patients (N = 267) was assessed retrospec

  12. Maternal depression during pregnancy and the postnatal period: risks and possible mechanisms for offspring depression at 18 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, R. M.; Evans, J.; Kounali, D.; Lewis, G.; Heron, J.; Ramchandani, P.G.; O’Connor, T.; Stein, A.

    2014-01-01

    Context Some relatively small studies suggest that maternal postnatal depression is a risk factor for offspring adolescent depression. However no large cohort studies have addressed this issue. Furthermore only one small study has examined the association between antenatal depression and later offspring depression. Understanding these associations is important to inform prevention. Objective To investigate the hypothesis that there are independent associations between antenatal and postnatal depression with offspring depression; and that the risk pathways are different, such that the risk associated with postnatal depression is moderated by disadvantage (low maternal education) but the risk associated with antenatal depression is not. Design Prospective investigation of associations between symptoms of antenatal and postnatal parental depression with offspring depression at age 18. Setting UK community based birth cohort (ALSPAC). Participants Data from over 4,500 parents and their adolescent offspring. Main Outcome Measure Diagnosis of offspring major depression, aged 18, using ICD-10. Results Antenatal depression was an independent risk factor. Offspring were 1.28 times (95% CI 1.08 to 1.51, p=0.003) more likely to have depression at 18 for each s.d increase in maternal depression score antenatally, independently of later maternal depression. Postnatal depression was also a risk factor for mothers with low education, with offspring 1.26 times (95% CI 1.06 to 1.50, p=0.009) more likely to have depression for each s.d increase in postnatal depression score. However, for more educated mothers, there was little association (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.36, p=0.420). Moderation analyses found that maternal education moderated the effects of postnatal but not antenatal depression. Paternal depression antenatally was not associated with offspring depression, while postnatally paternal depression showed a similar pattern to maternal depression. Conclusions The findings

  13. Depression in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan; Pine, Daniel S; Thapar, Ajay K

    2012-01-01

    Unipolar depressive disorder in adolescence is common worldwide but often unrecognised. The incidence, notably in girls, rises sharply after puberty and, by the end of adolescence, the 1 year prevalence rate exceeds 4%. The burden is highest in low-income and middle-income countries. Depression is associated with sub stantial present and future morbidity, and heightens suicide risk. The strongest risk factors for depression in adolescents are a family history of depression and exposure to psychosocial stress. Inherited risks, developmental factors, sex hormones, and psychosocial adversity interact to increase risk through hormonal factors and associated perturbed neural pathways. Although many similarities between depression in adolescence and depression in adulthood exist, in adolescents the use of antidepressants is of concern and opinions about clinical management are divided. Effective treatments are available, but choices are dependent on depression severity and available resources. Prevention strategies targeted at high-risk groups are promising. PMID:22305766

  14. [Depression and neurological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piber, D; Hinkelmann, K; Gold, S M; Heesen, C; Spitzer, C; Endres, M; Otte, C

    2012-11-01

    In many neurological diseases a depressive syndrome is a characteristic sign of the primary disease or is an important comorbidity. Post-stroke depression, for example, is a common and relevant complication following ischemic brain infarction. Approximately 4 out of every 10 stroke patients develop depressive disorders in the course of the disease which have a disadvantageous effect on the course and the prognosis. On the other hand depression is also a risk factor for certain neurological diseases as was recently demonstrated in a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies which revealed a much higher stroke risk for depressive patients. Furthermore, depression plays an important role in other neurological diseases with respect to the course and quality of life, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy. This article gives a review of the most important epidemiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of depressive disorders as a comorbidity of neurological diseases and as a risk factor for neurological diseases.

  15. Geriatric depression and its relation with cognitive impairment and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Carol; Tartaglini, María Florencia; Stefani, Dorina; Salgado, Pablo; Taragano, Fernando E; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2014-01-01

    Different subtypes of depressive syndromes exist in late life; many of them have cognitive impairment and sometimes it is difficult to differentiate them from dementia. This research aimed to investigate subtypes of geriatric depression associated with cognitive impairment, searched for differential variables and tried to propose a study model. A hundred and eighteen depressive patients and forty normal subjects matched by age and educational level were evaluated with an extensive neuropsychological battery, scales to evaluate neuropsychiatric symptoms and daily life activities (DLA). Depressive patients were classified in groups by SCAN 2.1: Major Depression Disorder (MDD) (n: 31), Dysthymia Disorder (DD) (n: 31), Subsyndromal Depression Disorder (SSD) (n: 29), Depression due to Dementia (n: 27) (DdD). Neuropsychological significant differences (pdepressive groups, demonstrating distinctive cognitive profiles. Moreover, significant differences (pdepression. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) were significant variables that helped to differentiate depressive groups. Significant correlations between BDI and Neuropsychological tests were found in MDD and DD groups. Depressive symptoms and its relation with neuropsychological variables, MMSE, cognitive profiles, DLA and age of onset of depression should be taken into consideration for the study of subtypes of geriatric depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Neurobiology of depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braus, D F

    2010-03-01

    Basic and clinical neurosciences have effectively advanced research on aetiology, pathogenesis and therapy options of psychiatric disorders. The objectives of the present short review were to summarise the key findings regarding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) on the gene, cell as well as system level. Consistent with structural findings, which report alterations in regions of emotionally relevant networks of the brain in depressive disorders, findings of functional studies point to changes in an ordered interaction of ventral-limbic and dorsal-neocortical regions of the brain. Genetic and stress vulnerabilities as well as social rhythm disrupting interact to initiate a cascade of neurobiological alterations that disrupt this dynamic system. On the cellular level, monoamine as well as glutamate neurotransmission, circadian rhythm disturbance, glucocorticoids, inflammatory cytokines and brain-derived growth factors are relevant mediators of these pathological alterations. Progressive effects of recurrent and chronic MDD may then lead to further structural and functional abnormalities. Thus, treatment providers are directed to recog-nise that the factors that may initiate an MDD episode and those that maintain the illness are likely to be different. Given these long-term consequences, an essential objective of treatment must be to restore as early as possible normative functioning and prevent further neurobiological structural alterations.

  17. Declínio cognitivo, depressão e qualidade de vida em pacientes de diferentes estágios da doença renal crônica Cognitive decline, depression and quality of life in patients at different stages of chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aparecida de Lima Condé

    2010-09-01

    hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cognitive function, depression and quality of life in patients at different stages of chronic kidney disease. METHOD: Cross-sectional study carried out from June to December 2007 in 119 patients: 27 in peritoneal dialysis, 30 in hemodialysis, 32 in pre-dialysis and 30 with arterial hypertension. Several tests were performed: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Verbal Fluency Test, Digits, Clock Test, Codes, SF-36 (Quality of Life and the Beck Depression Inventory. Additionally, clinical and laboratory data of the patients were collected and medication use was recorded. RESULTS: There was no difference in mean age of the patients among the groups. There was no statistical difference when cognitive impairment was assessed by the Mini-mental test (p = 0.558. The Digit Span test (p = 0.01 and Clock test (p = 0.02 were significantly worse in the hemodialysis patients, and there was a trend with Code test (p = 0.09 in these patients. There was no difference between groups in the level of depression and Quality of Life. CONCLUSION: These results show that cognitive impairment is frequent among patients in with CKD, particularly in those undergoing hemodialysis and suggest the need to conduct longitudinal studies to confirm whether or not there is an influence of dialysis treatment on the cognitive decline.

  18. Rational or uncommitted? Depression and indecisiveness in interpersonal decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicka, M

    1997-09-01

    Two studies were run which tested the prediction that clinically depressed persons, known for difficulties in making a decision, would process predecisional information relevant to an interpersonal choice in a more impartial, less biased way than non-depressed persons. Both studies provided confirmation for this hypothesis. In each case, the depressed group focused less on specific alternatives, asked more criterion-based questions, and made decisions on the basis of information which was more evenly distributed over alternatives, thus conforming less to biasing, dominance structuring processes, than non-depressed participants. The depressed and non-depressed participants did not differ, however, in evaluative aspects of their decisions, suggesting a relative independence of affective and informational aspects of predecisional processes. The question arises; are depressed patients less biased and hence more rational when making decisions or are they just indifferent and uncommitted? The data have been discussed with reference to research on effortful versus automatic information processing in depression.

  19. Identification of a circuit-based endophenotype for familial depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Marc J; Dubin, Marc; Weissman, Myrna M; Weissman, Myrna; Xu, Dongrong; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Liu, Jun; Warner, Virginia; Peterson, Bradley S; Peterson, Bradley

    2012-03-31

    Frontal and parietal lesions may cause depression, and cortical thinning of the right frontal and parietal lobes has been shown to be a marker of risk for familial major depression. We studied biological offspring within a three-generation cohort, in which risk was defined by the depression status of the first generation, to identify regional volume differences associated with risk for depression throughout the cerebrum. We found reduced frontal and parietal white matter volumes in the high-risk group, including in persons without any personal history of depression, suggesting that hypoplasia of frontal and parietal white matter is an endophenotype for familial depression. In addition, white matter volumes in these regions correlated with current severity of symptoms of depression, inattention, and impulsivity. White matter volumes also correlated strongly with the degree of thinning in the right parietal cortex. These findings support a model of pathogenesis in which hypoplasia within a neural network for attention and emotional processing predisposes to depression.

  20. Gendered portraits of depression in Swedish newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengs, Carita; Johansson, Eva; Danielsson, Ulla; Lehti, Arja; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Mass media are influential mediators of information, knowledge, and narratives of health and illness. In this article, we report on an examination of personal accounts of illness as presented in three Swedish newspapers, focusing on the gendered representation of laypersons' experiences of depression. A database search identified all articles mentioning depression during the year 2002. Twenty six articles focusing on personal experiences of depression were then subjected to a qualitative content analysis. We identified four themes: displaying a successful facade, experiencing a cracking facade, losing and regaining control, and explaining the illness. We found both similarities and differences with regard to gendered experiences. The mediated accounts of depression both upheld and challenged traditional gender stereotypes. The women's stories were more detailed, relational, emotionally oriented, and embodied. The portrayal of men was less emotional and expressive, and described a more dramatic onset of depression, reflecting hegemonic patterns of masculinity.

  1. Measuring treatment response in psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Meyers, Barnett S; Flint, Alastair J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no established psychometric instrument dedicated to the measurement of severity in psychotic depression (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether a new composite rating scale, the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), covering both the psychotic...... and the depressive domains of PD, could detect differences in effect between two psychopharmacological treatment regimens. METHODS: We reanalyzed the data from the Study of Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression (STOP-PD), which compared the effect of Olanzapine+Sertraline (n=129) versus Olanzapine+Placebo (n=130......). The response to the two regimens was compared using both a mixed effects model and effect size statistics on the total scores of three rating scales: the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17), its 6-item melancholia subscale (HAM-D6), and the 11-item PDAS consisting of the HAM-D6 plus five items...

  2. Fatigue and Depressive Symptoms in Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna; Rantanen, Taina; Era, Pertti

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is considered an important indicator of aging-related declines in health and functional abilities. Previous studies have indicated strong associations between fatigue and depressive symptoms among younger populations and in patient groups with specific diseases. However, it is not known how...... different measures of fatigue are associated with depressive symptoms among general older populations. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults reporting mobility-related or general feelings fatigue. The study population consisted...... of 75-year-old community-living individuals (n = 561). Both, mobility-related and general fatigue, were associated in a stepwise relationship with depressive symptoms: a higher level of fatigue was related to higher level of depressive symptoms. Especially major general fatigue was strongly associated...

  3. The difference of implicit memory between anorexia nervosa and depressive disorder%神经性厌食症与抑郁症在内隐记忆方面的差别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟智勇; 吴小立; 王相兰; 韩自力

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨神经性厌食症与抑郁症在内隐记忆方面的差别.方法 选择2005年9月至2009年10月在中山大学附属第三医院精神科住院,初步诊断为神经性厌食症、抑郁症女性患者各21例.利用加工分离程序,分析抑郁症患者与神经性厌食症患者在内隐记忆测试上的差异.并对结果进行统计学比较.结果 入院诊断为抑郁症的21例患者,其中3例出院时诊断为神经性厌食症,误诊率为14.3%;入院诊断为神经性厌食症的21例患者,其中5例出院时诊断为抑郁症,误诊率为23.8%.抑郁症组和神经性厌食症组在负性词汇及与厌食症相关词汇上存在内隐记忆偏差[(0.65±0.09)%比(0.55±0.08)%,P<0.05;(0.43±0.10)%比(0.55±0.10)%,P<0.01].结论 神经性厌食症和抑郁症在内隐记忆测试上的差别,可应用于这两种疾病的临床鉴别诊断.%Objective To explore the difference of implicit memory between anorexia nervosa(AN) and depressive disorder. Methods Forty-two women patients with initial diagnosis of anorexia nervosa(n=21) or de-pressive disorder(n=21) were recruited from the inpatient unit of psychiatry department of the Third Affiliated Hospital of SUN Yat-sen University during September 2005 to October 2009. The processes dissociation procedure was applied to analyze the difference of implicit memory test in the two groups. Results In 21 patients with initial diagnosis of depressive disorder,3 were diagnosed of anorexia nervosa on discharge,showing a misdiagnosis rate of 14.3%. In other 21 patients with initial diagnosis of anorexia nervosa,5 were diagnosed of depressive disorder on discharge,showing a misdiagnosis rate of 23.8%. There were implicit memory bias in negative terms and vocabulary associated with anorexia nervosa in both groups [(0.65± 0.09) % vs (0. 55 ± 0.08) %,P<0.05;(0.43 ±0.10)% vs (0.55±0.10)%,P<0.01]. Conclusion Our study suggests that the bias in implicit memory test may be a practical tool

  4. The Temple-Wisconsin Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression Project: lifetime history of axis I psychopathology in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, L B; Abramson, L Y; Hogan, M E; Whitehouse, W G; Rose, D T; Robinson, M S; Kim, R S; Lapkin, J B

    2000-08-01

    The authors tested the cognitive vulnerability hypotheses of depression with a retrospective behavioral high-risk design. Individuals without current Axis I diagnoses who exhibited either negative or positive cognitive styles were compared on lifetime prevalence of depressive and other disorders and the clinical parameters of depressive episodes. Consistent with predictions, cognitively high-risk participants had higher lifetime prevalence than low-risk participants of major and hopelessness depression and marginally higher prevalence of minor depression. These group differences were specific to depressive disorders. The high-risk group also had more severe depressions than the low-risk group, but not longer duration or earlier onset depressions. The risk group differences in prevalence of depressive disorders were not mediated by current depressive symptoms.

  5. Differences in psychomotor activity in patients suffering from unipolar and bipolar affective disorder in the remitted or mild/moderate depressive state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj;

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in psychomotor activity are a central and essential feature of affective disorder. Studies measuring differences in psychomotor activity between unipolar and bipolar disorder show divergent results and none have used a combined heart rate and movement monitor for measuring activity...

  6. [Depression in palliative care: prevalence and assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julião, Miguel; Barbosa, António

    2011-12-01

    Depression is the most common mental health problem in palliative care, yet it's widely misunderstood, underdiagnosed, undertreated and considered a complex medical task. Psychological distress is a major cause of suffering among patients and families and it's highly correlated with reduced quality of life and amplification of pain. Terminally-ill individuals who suffer from depression are also at high risk of suicide and desire for a hastened death. Every patient receiving palliative care should receive a complete personal and familial psychiatric history, with risk factors, as well as the typical signs and symptoms in the terminal disease. There are two different approaches to assess depression in palliative care: Categorial vs Dimensional The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is the most used assessment method for depression in advanced disease and it's validated to the Portuguese population. HADS overcomes the biggest problem when evaluating depression in the terminally-ill: the influence of somatic symptoms due to the underlying disease on the results of the depression scales. In this article we revise other approaches for the assessment of depression in advanced disease: single question vs two-item question; structured clinical interview and diagnostic criteria. Clinicians who care for terminally-ill patients must develop competences on the psychological area, developing state-of-the-art clinical skills that provide quality of life and comfort to patients and their families.

  7. Depression in Medical Disorders: Diagnostic Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozden Arısoy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms are very common among referrals to general hospital and comprise the most frequent cause for psychiatric consultation. Comorbidity of medical and psychiatric disorders are common among uneducated, unemployed people with low income. These conditions make it difficult to recognize and treat such patient group. The prevalence of medical disorders increase when there is a difficulty in reaching health services. The depressive mood may decrease the person’s willingness to access health service. Additionally, the problems in most of the people seeking for medical help are not recognized by the health providers. It is quiet difficult to diagnose depression in patients with medical disorders. Being sick, being in an hospital, inability to work, loss of functionality lead to a change in social roles which may cause mourning-like symptoms, symptoms quite similar to depression’s. Besides, vegetative and somatic symptoms used for the diagnosis of depression can be direct consequences of the medical disorder itself. Thus such phenomenological signs and symptoms are suggested not to be considered as sufficient criteria for a diagnosis of depression among patients with medical disorder. This diagnostic complexity is also reflected in the studies searching for depression prevalence in medical disorders. For instance, the prevalence of depression ranges between 0% to 100% among renal patients. The physical signs and symptoms of medical conditions can overlap with the symptoms of depression and this overlap stands as one of the major diagnostic challenge for researchers. There are several other reasons that might explain the discrepancies in depression prevalence among patients with medical disorders such as changes in diagnostic criteria over time, use of different diagnostic scales for depression, and studying the prevalence of depression in non-standardized populations. Depression prevalence is affected from demographic variables, type

  8. Depressive behavior induced by social isolation of predisposed female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanier-Gomes, Patrícia Helena; de Abreu Silva, Tomaz Eugênio; Zanetti, Guilherme Cia; Benati, Évelyn Raquel; Pinheiro, Nanci Mendes; Murta, Beatriz Martins Tavares; Crema, Virgínia Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Depression is a mood disorder that is more prevalent in women and has been closely associated with chronic stress. Many models of depression have been suggested that consider different forms of stress. In fact, stress is present in the life of every human being, but only a few develop depression. Accordingly, it seems wrong to consider all stressed animals to be depressed, emphasizing the importance of predisposition for this mood disorder. Based on this finding, we evaluated a predisposition to depressive behavior of female rats on the forced swim test (FST), and the more immobile the animal was during the FST, the more predisposed to depression it was considered to be. Then, animals were subjected to the stress of social isolation for 21 days and were re-evaluated by the FST. The Predisposed/Isolated rats presented higher immobility times. Once all the rats had prior experience in the FST, we calculated an Index of Increase by Isolation, confirming the previous results. Based on this result, we considered the Predisposed/Isolated group as presenting depressive behavior ('Depressed') and the Nonpredisposed/Nonisolated group as the control group ('Nondepressed'). The animals were distributed into 4 new groups: Nondepressed/Vehicle, Nondepressed/Amitriptyline, Depressed/Vehicle, Depressed/Amitriptyline. After 21 days of treatment, only the Depressed/Vehicle group differed from the other 3 groups, demonstrating the efficacy of amitriptyline in treating the depressive behavior of the Depressed animals, validating the model. This study shows that conducting an FST prior to any manipulation can predict predisposition to depressive behavior in female rats and that the social isolation of predisposed animals for 21 days is effective in inducing depressive behavior. This behavior can be considered real depressive behavior because it takes into account predisposition, chronic mild stress, and the prevalent gender.

  9. Age and gender difference of clinical and non-clinical depressive symptoms in children%儿童临床与非临床抑郁症状的年龄、性别特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐改玲; 甄龙; 谷岩; 杨桂伏; 从恩朝; 徐灵敏

    2013-01-01

    scores of girls were higher than that of boys in clinical group (t=2.16, P=0.048). There was no statistically signiifcant main effect of gender in non-clinical group (F=0.21, P=0.646). No signiifcant difference in DSSC scores existed among different age groups in clinical group (F=0.82, P=0.573). There was signiifcant main effect of age in non-clinical group (F=1.96, P=0.048). Conclusions There were different age and gender distribution of clinical and non-clinical depressive symptoms in children.

  10. Depression Among Sexually Transmitted Disease Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄长征; 李碧芳; 涂亚庭; 刘志香; 林能兴

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the depression status of patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).Methods: The depression status of fifty-one hospitalized STD patients was evaluated in a randomized control study using Zung's Quantitative Table. 18 healthy control patients with similar demographic backgrounds were randomly chosen as controls. Patients with scores above or equal to 40 were considered to be suffering from depression.Results: The prevalence rate of depression in the patient group was obviously higher than that of in the control (X2=16.456,P<0.01). Prevalence of depression was found to be significantly related to occupation (P<0.05). Though the prevalence was not found to differ significantly between those with a treatment course less than 2 months and those with one longer or equal to 2 months (X2=0.041, P>0.05), the mean depression scores of the former group were significantly higher than those of the latter (P<0.01). No significant differences were found between new versus relapsing disease, married versus non-married, male versus female, or differing educational backgrounds.Conclusion: STD patients showed significant prevalence of depression.

  11. Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

  12. DEPRESSED-PATIENTS PARENTAL REPRESENTATIONS - STABILITY ACROSS CHANGES IN DEPRESSED MOOD AND SPECIFICITY ACROSS DIAGNOSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GERLSMA, C; DAS, J; EMMELKAMP, PMG

    1993-01-01

    Parental representations of a Dutch sample of psychiatric patients with diagnoses of dysthymia and unipolar depression were compared with those of a matched sample of non-depressed patients and a matched sample of healthy controls. No differences in recalled parental rearing styles were found betwee

  13. The Latent Symptom Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Outpatients with Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C.; Zhang, K. Anne; Bagby, R. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a self-report instrument frequently used in clinical and research settings to assess depression severity. Although investigators have examined the factor structure of the BDI-II, a clear consensus on the best fitting model has not yet emerged, resulting in different recommendations regarding how to best…

  14. Patterns of Adolescent Depression to Age 20: The Role of Maternal Depression and Youth Interpersonal Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…

  15. 不同时间点心脏移植等待者的焦虑和抑郁状态分析%Anxiety and depression status among patients waiting for heart transplantation surgery at different time points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶尘宇; 庄亚敏; 张颖; 季建林; 陈昊

    2015-01-01

    preoperatively admitted to the Cardiac Surgery Department.The scales were assessed repeatedly at the 1st day,3rd day,7th day,10th day and so on until the operation took place.Result The mean scores of HAMD and HAMA of 93 patients in the waiting list were separately 13.11 ±3.81 and 14.20±4.57.Among them 18(19.4%) were classified as moderately depressed,31(33.3%) had moderately anxious symptoms,and 14(14.1%) had severe anxious symptoms.Thirty-six patients were preoperatively admitted to hospital.Their mean scores of HAMD and HAMA were separately 13.19-± 3.82 and 16.17 ± 4.35.Among them 7(19.4%) were classified as moderate depression at the time of admission,16 (44.4%) had moderately anxious symptoms and 9 (25.0%) had severe anxious symptoms.The scores of HAMD had significant difference (t =3.383,P =0.002) before and after admission.Paired t test was separately conducted to analyze the first assessment and the 3rd-day assessment of HAMA and HAMD total scores after admission of all the inpatients.The results showed the scores were statistically different (for HAMA,t =2.786,P =0.009; for HAMD,t =14.024,P =0.000).Repeated ANOVA was used to analyze the recipients who had three assessments.The results had statistical difference (for HAMA,F =4.568,P=0.020; for HAMD,F=5.626,P =0.034) and the difference of HAMD score at different time points had a linear trend (F =8.273,P =0.013).Conclusion After hospital admission,the depression symptoms will be significantly alleviated.When waiting for the transplant in the hospital,the anxiety symptoms alleviate slightly in three days and then aggravate significantly.The depression symptoms alleviate slightly continuously.

  16. Depression and attachment problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Pettem, O; M. West; Mahoney, A; Keller, A.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics related to attachment of 42 depressed psychiatric patients and 42 non-depressed psychiatric controls. The depressed subjects demonstrated an anxious pattern of attachment, characterized by either intense care-seeking in relation to their attachment figure or angry withdrawal from their attachment figure when their desire for security was frustrated. The results are discussed in terms of Bowlby's attachment construct.

  17. Comorbidity of Anxiety-Depression among Australian University Students: Implications for Student Counsellors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence, factor structure and scale item differences in anxiety-depression comorbidity were investigated in a sample of Australian university students defined according to the presence of anxiety and/or depression. The incidence of anxiety-depression comorbidity was over 32%, about four times that for anxiety or depression alone.…

  18. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Depressed Women and Its Relationship with Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Bolat KONUKÇU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective: Schemas are deep enduring cognitive structures that are the source of dysfunctional cognitions, emotions and behaviors, activate after critical incidents in depression. A subset of schemas called Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS which are hyphotised to arise from early traumatic and adverse life events are also claimed to be related with not only personality disorders but also mood disorders. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and depression and relationship between schema scores and depression severity in depressed women and compare it with non-depressed controls.Methods: 40 women attending to an outpatient psychiatry clinic and 30 healthy controls participated. All participants were assessed with SCID-1. Data were obtained by using a Sociodemographic Questionnaires, Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3 (YSQ and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI.Results: All except one (enmeshment/undeveloped self maladaptive schema scores of depressed women were higher than controls. BDI was correlated to some schema and schema domain scores in both depressed and control groups but the correlations were stronger in control group. Mean emotional deprivation, negativism, abandonment and instability, failure EMS scores showed the highest difference between two groups. The schema domains most related to depression symptom severity were disconnection and rejection, impaired autonomy and performance.Conclusions: Almost all early maladaptive schemas are related to depression, and some schemas are related to depression symptom severity but these correlations are weaker in control group. This may mean that EMS are stable and mood independent structures. Although other schemas are related to depression, mostly related EMS in women might be emotional deprivation schema. These schemas may also overlap with Beck’s unlovability core belief or sociotropy dimension

  19. Depression spectrum disease with and without depression in first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, A J; Feldman-Koffler, F; Weissenburger, J E; Giles, D E; Roffwarg, H P; Orsulak, P J

    1995-12-13

    Family history was assessed in 211 outpatients with unipolar major depression and diagnoses were rendered according to Winokur et al. (Winokur et al. (1978) J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 166, 764-768) family history typology. The subclassification of Depression Spectrum Disease with Alcoholism and Depression (DSDA + D) was applied to those patients reporting at least one first-degree relative suffering from alcoholism and another first-degree relative suffering from depression (n = 103), while Depression Spectrum Disease with Alcoholism (DSDA) was applied to those patients with at least one first-degree relative suffering from alcoholism, but none suffering from depression (n = 108). These two groups were compared on demographic, clinical and biological characteristics. They were also compared with 162 patients who reported the presence of depression and absence of alcoholism in first-degree relatives, designated as Familial Pure Depressive Disease (FPDD) by the Winokur et al. (1978) classification. Results revealed that the DSDA + D group was younger, had an earlier age at onset of depression and experienced more episodes of depression than did the DSDA group. No differences were found between the two groups on biological measures. The FPDD group was more similar to the DSDA + D group than the DSDA group in terms of age at onset and number of depressives episodes. However, the FPDD group had a longer length of illness than either of the DSD groups. These data suggest that the DSD group should be more narrowly defined (excluding those with a positive family history of depression) in future clinical research studies.

  20. Major depression and depressive symptoms in Australian Gulf War veterans 20 years after the Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikin, J F; McKenzie, D P; Gwini, S M; Kelsall, H L; Creamer, M; McFarlane, A C; Clarke, D M; Wright, B; Sim, M

    2016-01-01

    Risk of major depression (depression) was elevated in Australia's Gulf War veterans in a 2000-2002 (baseline) study. A follow up study has measured the Gulf War-related risk factors for depression, also the current prevalence and severity of depression, use of anti-depressant medication, and persistence, remittance or incidence of depression since baseline in Gulf War veterans and a military comparison group. Participants completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview v.2.1, the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the Military Service Experience Questionnaire, and consented to Repatriation Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (RPBS) and PBS linkage. Prevalence of depression (9.7% Gulf War veterans and 7.7% comparison group; adj RR=1.2, 95% CI 0.8-1.7), and pattern of persistence, remittance and incidence of depression since baseline, were similar in the two groups, however veterans reported slightly more severe symptoms (adj median difference 1, 95% CI 0.26-1.74) and were more likely to have been dispensed anti-depressant medication (adj RR=1.56, 95% CI 1.05-2.32). Depression amongst veterans was associated with self-reported Gulf War-related stressors in a dose-response relationship (adj RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.09). Lower participation rates at follow up resulted in reduced statistical power compared with baseline, Gulf War related stressor data collected at baseline was at risk of recall bias, and RPBS and PBS databases do not capture all dispensed Nervous System medications. More than 20 years after the Gulf War, veterans are experiencing slightly more severe depressive symptoms than a military comparison group, and depression continues to be associated with Gulf War-related stressors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.