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Sample records for non-malignant disorders including

  1. [The spleen in non-malignant haematological disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüfer, Axel; Wuillemin, Walter A

    2013-03-01

    The spleen functions as a filter of the circulating blood, removing aging or abnormal red blood cells, intraerythrocyte inclusions as well as foreign particals. As the spleen is composed of lymphocytic tissue, circulatory elements and mononuclear phagocytic cells it plays an important role in the nonspecific as well as the specific immune response. Additionally, the spleen serves as a reservoir for circulating blood cells, especially platelet sequestration by the spleen is well do cumented. The spleen produces blood cells during fetal development and in certain haematological disorders such as myelofibrosis. The destruction of red blood cells within the splenic cords releases iron in the circulation, which is recycled and used to manufacture new erythrocytes in the bone marrow. In several non-malignant haematological disorders antibody-coated cells are cleared from the circulation by phagocytic cells of the spleen. This involves erythrocytes in autoimmunhaemolytic anaemias, platelets in immunthrombocytopenia and neutrophils in Felty syndrome. In hereditary spherocytosis the spleen destroys the resulting defective, spherical red cells. In pyruvate kinase deficiency impaired production of adenosine triphosphate leads to destruction of red blood cells in the spleen or in the liver. In sickle cell anaemia the defective erythrocytes cause sludging and thrombosis in small vessels with infarcts for instance in the spleen, which over time can result in autosplenectomy. In thalassaemia major abnormal haemoglobin forms protein precipitates in the red cells with development of a severe hypochromic anaemia with haemolysis and intramedullary inef fective erythropoiesis. Therapeutic splenectomy can be an option in all of these mentioned non-malignant haematological disorders. The rationale and the pathophysiology of its role in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is probably at least well understood. The use of new and effective drugs such as the monoclonal antibody rituximab or

  2. Radiotherapy of non-malignant disorders: where do we stand?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leer, J.W.H.; Houtte, P. van; Seegenschmiedt, H.

    2007-01-01

    During a consensus meeting in Nice the role of radiotherapy in benign disorders was discussed. Based on this meeting we categorized the indication into three categories: (A) accepted indication; (B) only accepted in clinical trial; (C) not accepted. The results of this consensus meeting are presente

  3. DEGRO guidelines for the radiotherapy of non-malignant disorders. Part III: Hyperproliferative disorders

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    Seegenschmiedt, M.H. [Center for Radiotherapy, Hamburg (Germany); Micke, Oliver [Franziskus Hospital Bielefeld, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Bielefeld (Germany); Niewald, Marcus [University of Saarland, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Muecke, Ralph [Lippe Hospital Lemgo, Department of Radiotherapy, Lemgo (Germany); Marien Hospital Herne, Ruhr University Bochum, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Herne (Germany); Eich, Hans Theodor; Kriz, Jan [University of Muenster, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Muenster (Germany); Heyd, Reinhard [Municipal Hospital Aschaffenburg, Radiotherapy Practice, Aschaffenburg (Germany); Collaboration: The German Cooperative Group on Radiotherapy of Benign Diseases (GCG-BD)

    2015-07-15

    Radiation therapy (RT) is an established and effective treatment modality in the management of a large variety of hyperproliferative disorders and benign neoplasms. Objective of this article is to summarize the updated DEGRO consensus S2e guideline recommendations. This report comprises an overview of the relevant aspects of the updated guidelines with regard to treatment decision, dose prescription, and RT technique for a selected group of disorders including Morbus Dupuytren (MD)/Morbus Ledderhose (ML), keloids, Peyronie's disease (induratio penis plastica, IPP), desmoid tumors, pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas (sVH), and Gorham-Stout syndrome (GSS). On the basis of results in the literature, we attempted to classify the level of evidence (LoE) and the grade of recommendation (GR) according to the Oxford criteria. There is comprehensive evidence in the literature that RT is a reasonable and effective treatment modality for the treatment of all the above-mentioned disorders. The LoE varies from 2c to 4, and GR varies from A to C. The use of RT can be recommended for the interdisciplinary management of most of the reported disorders. It can be used in the primary treatment approach and as an effective adjunct to other treatment modalities or in some indications as a valuable alternative treatment option. We hope that the updated DEGRO S2e consensus guideline recommendations are a helpful tool for radiation oncologists in the clinical decision-making process. (orig.) [German] Die Radiotherapie (RT) ist eine etablierte und effektive Therapieoption fuer zahlreiche hyperproliferative Erkrankungen und gutartige Neubildungen. Gegenstand dieses Artikels ist die Zusammenfassung der aktualisierten DEGRO-S2e-Konsensus-Leitlinienempfehlungen.. Die Arbeit enthaelt eine Uebersicht ueber die relevanten Aspekte der aktualisierten Leitlinien bezueglich der Indikationsstellung, der Dosisverschreibung und den Bestrahlungstechniken fuer

  4. DEGRO practical guidelines for the radiotherapy of non-malignant disorders. Pt. IV. Symptomatic functional disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinartz, Gabriele; Eich, Hans Theodor [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Radiation Oncology, Muenster (Germany); Pohl, Fabian [University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Radiotherapy, Regensburg (Germany); Collaboration: German Cooperative Group on Radiotherapy for Benign Diseases (GCG-BD)

    2015-04-01

    To summarize the updated DEGRO consensus S2e guideline recommendations for the treatment of benign symptomatic functional disorders with low-dose radiotherapy. This overview reports on the role of low-dose radiotherapy in the treatment of functional disorders in cases of heterotopic ossification (HO) and Graves orbitopathy (GO). The most relevant aspects of the DEGRO S2e Consensus Guideline ''Radiation Therapy of Benign Diseases 2014'' regarding diagnostics, treatment decision, dose prescription, as well as performance of radiotherapy and results are summarized. For both indications (HO, GO), retrospective and some prospective analyses have shown remarkable effects in terms of symptom relief. Nevertheless, the level of evidence (LoE) and the grade of recommendation (GR) vary: LoE 1-2 and GR A-B (HO), LoE 2 and GR B (GO). Low-dose radiotherapy for benign symptomatic functional disorders has proven to be effective, according to different authors, for 25-100 % of the patients studied and therefore it may be a reasonable prophylactic and therapeutic option if noninvasive or invasive methods have been used without persistent success. For HO, a single-fraction dose of 7-8 Gy or fractionated radiation with five fractions of 3.5 Gy is recommended. For GO, single-fraction doses of 0.3-2.0 Gy, and total doses of 2.4-20 Gy/series, applied in one daily fraction are recommended. (orig.) [German] Zusammenfassung der Empfehlungen der DEGRO-S2e-Leitlinie zur Niedrigdosis-Radiotherapie von gutartigen symptomatischen funktionellen Erkrankungen. Die vorliegende Leitlinie berichtet ueber die Bedeutung der Niedrigdosis-Radiotherapie in der Behandlung von funktionellen Erkrankungen, in diesem Fall von heterotoper Ossifikation (HO) und endokriner Orbitopathie (EO). Es werden die wichtigsten Aspekte der aktuellen DEGRO-S2e-Konsensusleitlinie ''Strahlentherapie gutartiger Erkrankungen 2014'' bezueglich Diagnostik, Therapieentscheidungen

  5. DEGRO guidelines for the radiotherapy of non-malignant disorders. Part II: Painful degenerative skeletal disorders

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    Ott, Oliver J. [University Hospitals Erlangen, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Niewald, Marcus [Saarland University Medical School, Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Weitmann, Hajo-Dirk [Fulda Hospital, Dept. of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Fulda (Germany); Jacob, Ingrid [Municipal Hospital Traunstein, Dept. of Radiotherapy, Traunstein (Germany); Adamietz, Irenaeus A. [Marien Hospital Herne/Ruhr University Bochum, Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Herne (Germany); Schaefer, Ulrich [Lippe Hospital, Dept. of Radiotherapy, Lemgo (Germany); Keilholz, Ludwig [Bayreuth Hospital, Dept. of Radiotherapy, Bayreuth (Germany); Heyd, Reinhard [Center for Radiosurgery, Frankfurt a. M. (Germany); Muecke, Ralph [Marien Hospital Herne/Ruhr University Bochum, Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Herne (Germany); Lippe Hospital, Dept. of Radiotherapy, Lemgo (Germany); Collaboration: German Cooperative Group on Radiotherapy for Benign Diseases (GCG-BD)

    2014-09-20

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the updated DEGRO consensus S2e guideline recommendations for the treatment of benign painful degenerative skeletal disorders with low-dose radiotherapy. This overview reports on the role of low-dose radiotherapy in the treatment of enthesiopathies (shoulder syndrome, trochanteric bursitis, plantar fasciitis, and elbow syndrome) and painful arthrosis (knee, hip, hand, and finger joints). The most relevant aspects of the DEGRO S2e Consensus Guideline Radiation Therapy of Benign Diseases 2014 regarding diagnostics, treatment decision, dose prescription as well as performance of radiotherapy and results are summarized. For all indications mentioned above, retrospective and some prospective analyses have shown remarkable effects in terms of pain relief. Nevertheless, the Level of Evidence (LoE) and the Grade of Recommendation (GR) vary: LoE 1b-4 and GR A-C. Low-dose radiotherapy for painful degenerative skeletal disorders is effective in the majority of the patients and therefore it may be a reasonable therapeutic alternative when simple and non-invasive methods have been used without persistent success. For all discussed entities, single fraction doses of 0.5-1.0 Gy and total doses of 3.0-6.0 Gy/series applied with 2-3 fractions per week are recommended. (orig.) [German] Zusammenfassung der Empfehlungen der DEGRO-S2e-Leitlinie zur Niedrigdosis-Radiotherapie von gutartigen schmerzhaften degenerativen Skeletterkrankungen. Die vorliegende Zusammenfassung berichtet ueber die Bedeutung der Niedrigdosis-Radiotherapie in der Behandlung von Enthesiopathien (Schultersyndrom, Ellenbogensyndrom, Bursitis trochanterica, Fasciitis plantaris) und schmerzhaften Arthrosen (Knie-, Hueft, Hand- und Fingergelenksarthrosen). Die wichtigsten Aspekte der aktuellen DEGRO-S2e-Konsensus-Leitlinie Strahlentherapie gutartiger Erkrankungen bezueglich Diagnostik, Therapieentscheidungen, Dosisempfehlungen und Durchfuehrung einer Radiotherapie werden

  6. DEGRO practical guidelines for radiotherapy of non-malignant disorders. Part I: physical principles, radiobiological mechanisms, and radiogenic risk

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    Reichl, Berthold [Hospital Weiden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Weiden (Germany); Block, Andreas [Hospital Dortmund, Institute for Medical Radiation Physics and Radiation Protection, Dortmund (Germany); Schaefer, Ulrich [Lippe Hospital, Dept. of Radiotherapy, Lemgo (Germany); Bert, Christoph; Mueller, Reinhold [University Hospitals Erlangen, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Jung, Horst [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Hamburg (Germany); Roedel, Franz [University Hospital Goethe-University, Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Collaboration: the German Cooperative Group on Radiotherapy for Benign Diseases (GCG-BD)

    2015-09-15

    Synopsis of the introductory paragraph of the DEGRO consensus S2e-guideline recommendations for the radiotherapy of benign disorders, including physical principles, radiobiological mechanisms, and radiogenic risk. This work is based on the S2e-guideline recommendations published November 14, 2013. The basic principles of radiation physics and treatment delivery, evaluation of putative underlying radiobiological mechanisms, and the assessment of genetic and cancer risk following low-dose irradiation will be presented. Radiation therapy of benign diseases is performed according to similar physical principles as those governing treatment of malignant diseases in radiation oncology, using the same techniques and workflows. These methods comprise usage of orthovoltage X-ray units, gamma irradiation facilities, linear accelerators (LINACs), and brachytherapy. Experimental in vitro and in vivo models recently confirmed the clinically observed anti-inflammatory effect of low-dose X-irradiation, and implicated a multitude of radiobiological mechanisms. These include modulation of different immunological pathways, as well as the activities of endothelial cells, mono- and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and macrophages. The use of effective dose for radiogenic risk assessment and the corresponding tumor incidence rate of 5.5 %/Sv are currently controversially discussed. Some authors argue that the risk of radiation-induced cancers should be estimated on the basis of epidemiological data. However, such data are rarely available at present and associated with high variability. Current radiobiological studies clearly demonstrate a therapeutic effectiveness of radiation therapy used to treat benign diseases and implicate various molecular mechanisms. Radiogenic risks should be taken into account when applying radiation treatment for benign diseases. (orig.) [German] Zusammenfassung des einfuehrenden Kapitels der DEGRO-S2e-Leitlinie zur Strahlentherapie gutartiger Erkrankungen

  7. Application of biomarkers in population studies for respiratory non-malignant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, P

    1995-07-26

    Though the use of biomarkers has been mainly suggested for cancer studies, the possibility of its use in non malignant disease is considered. Markers of internal dose, markers of biologically effective dose and markers of early biologically effect have been typically used in basic research and, more recently, in epidemiology to characterize genotoxic carcinogenic agents. These markers (e.g. adducts to DNA or proteins) may be used mainly in the presence of chronic exposure to toxic agents (e.g. benzene or benzopyrene), additional markers such as carboxyhemoglobin, expired air to measure various VOC and heavy metals in biological fluids are also considered in the paper. Since airway obstructive disease (asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema) are the main disorders influenced by environmental factors (including air pollution), markers of individual susceptibility, such as atopy increased responsiveness of airways, initial level of lung function, must be considered for a more precise evaluation of the relationship between environmental exposure and health effects. Currently, the application of the determination of markers of exposure in non malignant disorders is very limited. In fact, the relationships between acute adverse respiratory effects and the exposure to air pollutants appears difficult since markers for common air pollutants are not available, and their detection appears difficult in acute conditions. Characterization of long term exposure may be performed in organ fluids (blood, urine, saliva) however it is important to recognize that concentration at that level may not reflect that observed in the target organ (e.g. lung).

  8. Helicobacter pylori and non-malignant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Takahisa; Delchier, Jean-Charles

    2009-09-01

    It is well known that Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with many nonmalignant disorders such as gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastric polyp, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)/aspirin-induced gastric injury, and functional dyspepsia. In 2008, interesting articles on the association of H. pylori infection with these disorders were presented, some of which intended to reveal the mechanisms of inter-individual differences in response to H. pylori infection, and have demonstrated that genetic differences in host and bacterial factors as well as environmental factors account for these differences. A decline in the occurrence of peptic ulcer related to H. pylori was confirmed. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and GERD was also confirmed but the impact of gastric atrophy on the prevention of GERD remained debatable. For NSAID-induced gastric injury, eradication of H. pylori infection has been recommended. During this year, eradication of H. pylori infection was recommended for patients treated with antiplatelet therapy as well as aspirin and NSAID. It was also reported that for patients with functional dyspepsia, eradication of H. pylori offers a modest but significant benefit.

  9. Effectiveness of Massage Therapy for Chronic, Non-Malignant Pain: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. I. Tsao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous reviews of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain have focused on discrete pain conditions. This article aims to provide a broad overview of the literature on the effectiveness of massage for a variety of chronic, non-malignant pain complaints to identify gaps in the research and to inform future clinical trials. Computerized databases were searched for relevant studies including prior reviews and primary trials of massage therapy for chronic, non-malignant pain. Existing research provides fairly robust support for the analgesic effects of massage for non-specific low back pain, but only moderate support for such effects on shoulder pain and headache pain. There is only modest, preliminary support for massage in the treatment of fibromyalgia, mixed chronic pain conditions, neck pain and carpal tunnel syndrome. Thus, research to date provides varying levels of evidence for the benefits of massage therapy for different chronic pain conditions. Future studies should employ rigorous study designs and include follow-up assessments for additional quantification of the longer-term effects of massage on chronic pain.

  10. High Lysyl Oxidase (LOX) in the Non-Malignant Prostate Epithelium Predicts a Poor Outcome in Prostate Cancer Patient Managed by Watchful Waiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Maria; Hägglöf, Christina; Hammarsten, Peter; Thysell, Elin; Stattin, Pär; Egevad, Lars; Granfors, Torvald; Jernberg, Emma; Wikstrom, Pernilla; Halin Bergström, Sofia; Bergh, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) has been shown to both promote and suppress tumor progression, but its role in prostate cancer is largely unknown. LOX immunoreactivity was scored in prostate tumor epithelium, tumor stroma and in the tumor-adjacent non-malignant prostate epithelium and stroma. LOX scores in tumor and non-malignant prostate tissues were then examined for possible associations with clinical characteristics and survival in a historical cohort of men that were diagnosed with prostate cancer at transurethral resection and followed by watchful waiting. Men with a low LOX score in the non-malignant prostate epithelium had significantly longer cancer specific survival than men with a high score. Furthermore, LOX score in non-malignant prostate epithelium remained prognostic in a multivariable analysis including Gleason score. LOX score in prostate tumor epithelium positively correlated to Gleason score and metastases but was not associated with cancer survival. LOX score in tumor and non-malignant prostate stroma appeared unrelated to these tumor characteristics. In radical prostatectomy specimens, LOX immune-staining corresponded to LOX in-situ hybridization and LOX mRNA levels were found to be similar between tumor and adjacent non-malignant areas, but significantly increased in bone metastases samples. LOX levels both in tumors and in the surrounding tumor-bearing organ are apparently related to prostate cancer aggressiveness.

  11. Neuropsychological assessment of chronic non-malignant pain patients treated in a multidisciplinary pain centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgren, Per; Christrup, Lona Louring; Petersen, Morten Aa

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of pain, sedation, pain medications and socio-demographics on cognitive functioning in chronic non-malignant pain patients. Chronic non-malignant pain patients (N=91) treated in a multidisciplinary pain centre were compared with age and sex ma...

  12. Prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in patients with subacute non-malignant pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte H; Pilegaard, Marc S; Vaegter, Henrik B

    2016-01-01

    : Multiple site pain, high pain severity, older age, baseline disability and longer pain duration were identified as potential prognostic factors for disability across pain sites. There was limited evidence that anxiety and depression were associated with disability in patients with subacute pain, indicating......OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to identify generic prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in subacute pain patients. SETTING: General practice and other primary care facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (>18 years) with a subacute (≤3-month) non-malignant pain condition. Eligibility...... criteria were cohort studies investigating the prediction of disability or long-term sick leave in adults with a subacute pain condition in a primary care setting. 19 studies were included, referring to a total of 6266 patients suffering from pain in the head, neck, back and shoulders. PRIMARY...

  13. Differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies with CT spectral imaging: a preliminary study

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    Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Yan; Lang, Ning; Yuan, Huishu [Peking University Third Hospital, No.49 North Garden Street, Haidian District, Beijing (China); Li, Jianying [GE Healthcare, CT imaging Research Center, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-15

    To investigate the value of dual-energy spectral computed tomography (DESCT) for differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies during venous phase. This study was institutional review board-approved, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Thirty-seven patients were examined by DESCT during venous phase. Twenty patients had malignant vertebral tumours, 17 had non-malignant vertebral tumours. The iodine/water densities for the lesion, the lesion-to-muscle ratio, and lesion-to-artery ratio for iodine density measurements were calculated and compared between the two groups with the two-tailed Student t test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Sensitivity and specificity were compared between the qualitative and quantitative studies. The iodine density, lesion-to-muscle ratio, and lesion-to-artery ratio of the iodine density measurement for malignant vertebral tumours were significantly different from the respective values for non-malignancies (all p < 0.05). Using 0.52 as the threshold value for the lesion-to-artery iodine density ratio, one could obtain sensitivity of 85 % and specificity of 100 % for differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies, significantly higher than the qualitative diagnosis. DESCT imaging enables analysis of a number of additional quantitative CT parameters to improve the accuracy for differentiating malignant vertebral tumours from non-malignancies during venous phase. (orig.)

  14. A mega-ethnography of eleven qualitative evidence syntheses exploring the experience of living with chronic non-malignant pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toye, Fran; Seers, Kate; Hannink, Erin; Barker, Karen

    2017-08-01

    Each year over five million people develop chronic non-malignant pain and can experience healthcare as an adversarial struggle. The aims of this study were: (1) to bring together qualitative evidence syntheses that explore patients' experience of living with chronic non-malignant pain and develop conceptual understanding of what it is like to live with chronic non-malignant pain for improved healthcare; (2) to undertake the first mega-ethnography of qualitative evidence syntheses using the methods of meta-ethnography. We used the seven stages of meta-ethnography refined for large studies. The innovation of mega-ethnography is to use conceptual findings from qualitative evidence syntheses as primary data. We searched 7 bibliographic databases from inception until February 2016 to identify qualitative evidence syntheses that explored patients' experience of living with chronic non-malignant pain. We identified 82 potential studies from 556 titles, screened 34 full text articles and included 11 qualitative evidence syntheses synthesising a total of 187 qualitative studies reporting more than 5000 international participants living with chronic pain. We abstracted concepts into 7 conceptual categories: (1) my life is impoverished and confined; (2) struggling against my body to be me; (3) the quest for the diagnostic 'holy grail'; (4) lost personal credibility; (5) trying to keep up appearances; (6) need to be treated with dignity; and (7) deciding to end the quest for the grail is not easy. Each conceptual category was supported by at least 7 of the 11 qualitative evidence syntheses. This is the first mega-ethnography, or synthesis of qualitative evidence syntheses using the methods of meta-ethnography. Findings help us to understand that the decision to end the quest for a diagnosis can leave patients feeling vulnerable and this may contribute to the adversarial nature of the clinical encounter. This knowledge demonstrates that treating a patient with a sense that they

  15. Neuropsychological and neuroanatomical sequelae of chronic non-malignant pain and opioid analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Cady; Cianfrini, Leanne

    2013-01-01

    The pervasive disease of chronic pain is a common challenge for the clinical rehabilitation professional. Concurrent with physical and emotional symptoms, pain-related cognitive impairment has been reported. Although opioid analgesics are frequently prescribed, concern exists that opioids possess adverse cognitive effects of their own. To review the neuropsychological and neuroanatomical sequelae of chronic non-malignant pain and opioid therapy, to clarify roles and benefits of neuropsychological assessment in a chronic pain population, and to provide recommendations for clinical practice and future research. This non-systematic review sought to provide a comprehensive synthesis of relevant neurobiology, neuroimaging, neuropsychological, and rehabilitation research literatures. We included citations from seminal and current texts as well as relevant original and review articles from 1980-2012 in PubMed and PubMedCentral online research databases. To date, evidence from opioid studies suggests only mild deficits in specific cognitive domains (e.g., memory, attention/concentration) and only under specific conditions (e.g., dose escalations). Additionally, neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence suggests that pain itself results in cognitive sequelae. Methodological improvements in future research will allow for better delineation of the contributing effects of pain and opioids, with an overall goal of improving evidence-based clinical treatment recommendations.

  16. The role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in differentiation between malignant and non malignant pleural effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. Atef

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Pleural fluid level of TNF-α can be used in differentiating malignant from non malignant effusion. Also levels of TNF-α in the serum and pleural fluid could be useful as a complementary marker in the differential diagnosis of two most common types of exudates (tuberculous and malignant.

  17. Epidemiology of chronic non-malignant pain in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Jensen, Marianne K; Sjøgren, Per; Ekholm, Ola; Rasmussen, Niels K

    2003-12-01

    A series of health surveys are conducted every sixth to seventh year in Denmark. In the most recent survey of 2000, a national random sample (>16 years) was drawn from the Danish Central Personal Register. Out of the original sample 12,333 (74%) were interviewed and of these 10,066 returned a completed questionnaire (SF-36). The present study includes only those who both took part in the interview and the postal questionnaire. Cancer patients were excluded. Persons suffering from chronic pain (PG) were identified through the question 'Do you have chronic/long lasting pain lasting 6 months or more'? An overall chronic pain prevalence of 19% was found -16% for men and 21% for women. Prevalence of chronic pain increased with increasing age. Persons >/=67 years had 3.9 higher odds of suffering from chronic pain than persons in the age group 16-24 years. Compared with married persons, divorced or separated persons had 1.5 higher odds of chronic pain. Odds for chronic pain were 1.9 higher among those with an education of less than 10 years compared with individuals with an education of 13 years or more. During a 14-day period reporters of chronic pain had an average of 0.8 days (range 0-10) lost due to illness compared with an average of 0.4 days (range 0-10) for the control group (CG) (Odds Ratio (OR)) 2.0). Persons with a job which required high physical strain were more likely to report chronic pain compared with those with a sedentary job (OR 2.2). The odds of quitting one's job because of ill health were seven times higher among people belonging to the PG. A strong association between chronic pain and poor self-rated health was also demonstrated. The PG had twice as many contacts with various health professionals compared with the CG, and the health care system was, on average, utilised 25% more (overall contacts) by the PG than by the general population. Among the persons in the PG, 33% were not satisfied with the examinations carried out in connection with their

  18. A Descriptive Study on the Neonatal Morbidity Profile of Autism Spectrum Disorders, Including a Comparison with Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atladóttir, H. Ó.; Schendel, D. E.; Parner, E. T.; Henriksen, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the profile of specific neonatal morbidities in children later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and to compare this profile with the profile of children with hyperkinetic disorder, cerebral palsy, epilepsy or intellectual disability. This is a Danish population based cohort study, including all…

  19. Analgesic use by ageing and elderly patients with chronic non-malignant pain: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mary-Claire; Cousins, Grainne; Henman, Martin C

    2017-08-01

    Background Analgesics are used in the management of chronic non-malignant pain (CNMP), a condition which is highly prevalent among older adults. CNMP may not only be physically distressing but also complicated by psychosocial and economic factors. An individual's perception and use of analgesics may be influenced by a range of factors such as perceptions of risk or benefits, ability to purchase medication or access to non-pharmacological therapies or specialist care. Objective The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions and experiences of analgesics by ageing and elderly individuals with CNMP and identify factors that influence their use. Setting Telephone interviews with 28 members of Chronic Pain Ireland aged ≥50. Method In-depth semi-structured interviews; audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analysed. Main outcome measure Experiences and perceptions of ageing and elderly individuals with CNMP taking analgesics. Results A combination of factors specific to the patient and arising from outside influences informed perceptions and experiences of analgesics. Pain severity, perceived efficacy of analgesics, occurrence of adverse-effects and concerns about addiction/dependence were identified as internal factors influencing medication use. External factors included views of family members, access to specialised care and the individual's interaction with healthcare professionals (HCPs). Conclusion Individuals with CNMP regard analgesics as an important method for managing pain and are relied upon when other interventions are difficult to access. HCPs in primary care, who are the main point of contact for patients, need to take into account the various factors that may influence analgesic use when consulting with this patient group.

  20. Smoking history, nicotine dependence and opioid use in patients with chronic non-malignant pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, K; Jensen, H I; Højsted, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between smoking and addiction to opioids in patients with chronic non-malignant pain. This could be explained by a susceptibility in some patients to develop addiction. Another explanation could be that nicotine influences both...... pain and the opioid system. The objective of the study was to investigate whether smoking, former smoking ± nicotine use and nicotine dependence in patients with chronic non-malignant pain were associated with opioid use and addiction to opioids. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional study carried...... as in the general population. The prevalence of patients using opioids was 54% and the prevalence of addiction to opioids was 6%. No significant differences in addiction were found between the different smoking groups, but smokers and former smokers using nicotine tended to use opioids more frequently and at higher...

  1. Health care costs, work productivity and activity impairment in non-malignant chronic pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Christian; Handberg, Gitte; Axelsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the costs of non-malignant chronic pain in patients awaiting treatment in a multidisciplinary pain clinic in a hospital setting. Health care costs due to chronic pain are particular high during the first year after pain onset, and remain high compared with health care costs...... before pain onset. The majority of chronic pain patients incur the costs of alternative treatments. Chronic pain causes production losses at work, as well as impairment of non-work activities....

  2. Should an obsessive-compulsive spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A; Stein, Dan J; Rauch, Scott L; Hollander, Eric; Fallon, Brian A; Barsky, Arthur; Fineberg, Naomi; Mataix-Cols, David; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; Saxena, Sanjaya; Wilhelm, Sabine; Kelly, Megan M; Clark, Lee Anna; Pinto, Anthony; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Farrow, Joanne; Leckman, James

    2010-06-01

    The obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum has been discussed in the literature for two decades. Proponents of this concept propose that certain disorders characterized by repetitive thoughts and/or behaviors are related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and suggest that such disorders be grouped together in the same category (i.e. grouping, or "chapter") in DSM. This article addresses this topic and presents options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. The article builds upon and extends prior reviews of this topic that were prepared for and discussed at a DSM-V Research Planning Conference on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders held in 2006. Our preliminary recommendation is that an OC-spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V. Furthermore, we preliminarily recommend that consideration be given to including this group of disorders within a larger supraordinate category of "Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders." These preliminary recommendations must be evaluated in light of recommendations for, and constraints upon, the overall structure of DSM-V.

  3. To Include or Not to Include: Evaluations and Reasoning about the Failure to Include Peers with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Turiel, Elliot; DeWitt, Mila N.; Wolfberg, Pamela J.

    2017-01-01

    Given the significant role that typically developing children play in the social lives of children with autism spectrum disorder, it is important to understand how they evaluate and reason about the inclusion/exclusion of children with autism spectrum disorder in social situations. The objective of this study is to determine elementary students'…

  4. Prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in patients with subacute non-malignant pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte H; Pilegaard, Marc S; Vaegter, Henrik B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to identify generic prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in subacute pain patients. SETTING: General practice and other primary care facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (>18 years) with a subacute (≤3-month) non-malignant pain condition. Eligibility......: Multiple site pain, high pain severity, older age, baseline disability and longer pain duration were identified as potential prognostic factors for disability across pain sites. There was limited evidence that anxiety and depression were associated with disability in patients with subacute pain, indicating...

  5. Benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in advanced malignant and non-malignant diseases in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steffen T; Higginson, Irene J; Booth, Sara; Harding, Richard; Weingärtner, Vera; Bausewein, Claudia

    2016-10-20

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2010, on 'Benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in advanced malignant and non-malignant diseases in adults'. Breathlessness is one of the most common symptoms experienced in the advanced stages of malignant and non-malignant disease. Benzodiazepines are widely used for the relief of breathlessness in advanced diseases and are regularly recommended in the literature. At the time of the previously published Cochrane review, there was no evidence for a beneficial effect of benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in people with advanced cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The primary objective of this review was to determine the efficacy of benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in people with advanced disease. Secondary objectives were to determine the efficacy of different benzodiazepines, different doses of benzodiazepines, different routes of application, adverse effects of benzodiazepines, and the efficacy in different disease groups. This is an update of a review published in 2010. We searched 14 electronic databases up to September 2009 for the original review. We checked the reference lists of all relevant studies, key textbooks, reviews, and websites. For the update, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE and registers of clinical trials for further ongoing or unpublished studies, up to August 2016. We contacted study investigators and experts in the field of palliative care asking for further studies, unpublished data, or study details when necessary. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) assessing the effect of benzodiazepines compared with placebo or active control in relieving breathlessness in people with advanced stages of cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic heart failure (CHF), motor neurone disease (MND), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF

  6. Bone marrow transplantation for non-malignant diseases using treosulfan-based conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinur-Schejter, Yael; Krauss, Aviva C; Erlich, Odeya; Gorelik, Natan; Yahel, Anat; Porat, Iris; Weintraub, Michael; Stein, Jerry; Zaidman, Irina; Stepensky, Polina

    2015-02-01

    Treosulfan (treo) is an alkylating agent with a low acute toxicity profile that is increasingly used in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, predominantly in non-malignant diseases. Treosulfan is usually combined with additional agents, but there is scant evidence to allow comparison between different conditioning protocols using treosulfan. We present the experience of three pediatric transplantation centers in Israel using different treosulfan-based conditioning regimens. Data were collected retrospectively on 44 children who underwent 45 hematopoietic stem cell transplantations using treosulfan in combination with either fludarabine (flu) and thiotepa (tt) (n = 20), cyclophosphamide (cy) (n = 6) or fludarabine alone (n = 19). Overall survival (OS) was 70.5%. Disease free survival (DFS) was 54.6%. There was no statistically significant difference between treatment groups in either OS or DFS. Overall survival in patients younger than one year was higher (88.2%). There were significantly more patients with 100% donor chimerism transplanted with flu/treo/tt compared with flu/treo or treo/cy (94.7% compared to 66.7% and 16.7%, respectively). Further prospective studies are required to determine the optimal treosulfan-based preparative regimen for children with non-malignant diseases. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:299-304. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Acupuncture for neurological disorders in the Cochrane reviews:Characteristics of included reviews and studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deren Wang; Weimin Yang; Ming Liu

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize Cochrane reviews of acupuncture for neurological disorders, and characteristics of included reviews and studies.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online search of the Cochrane Library (Issue 7 of 12, July 2010) was performed with the key word "acupuncture" and systematic evaluations for acupuncture for neurological disorders were screened.STUDY SELECTION: Systematic reviews on acupuncture in the treatment of neurological disorders were included, and the characteristics of these reviews were analyzed based on methods recommended by the Cochrane collaboration.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Basic characteristics, methodological quality, main reasons for excluding trials, results and conclusions of Cochrane reviews were assessed.RESULTS: A total of 18 Cochrane systematic reviews were included, including 13 completed reviews and five research protocols. The 13 completed reviews involved 111 randomized controlled trials, including 43 trials (38.7%) conducted in China, 47 trials (42.3%) using sham-acupuncture or placebo as control, 15 trials (13.5%) with relatively high quality, 91 trials (81.9%) reporting data on follow-up. Primary outcomes used in the Cochrane reviews were reported by 65 trials (58.6%), and adverse events were reported in 11 trials (9.9%). Two hundred and eighty three trials were excluded. Two reviews on headache suggested that acupuncture is a valuable non-drug treatment for patients with chronic or recurrent headache, and has better curative effects on migraine compared with preventative drug treatment. CONCLUSION: Of the Cochrane reviews on acupuncture in the treatment of neurological disorders, two reviews evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture in treating headaches drew positive conculsions, while other reviews did not obtain positive conclusions due to a small sample size or low methodological quality. The methodological quality of acupuncture trials needs further improvement.

  8. Photodynamic therapy for malignant and non-malignant diseases: clinical investigation and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANG Yong-gang; ZHANG Xiu-ping; LI Jian; HUANG Zheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a relatively new treatment modality. Clinical PDT procedure involves the administration of a photosensitizer followed by local illumination with visible light of a specific wavelength. In the presence of molecule oxygen, the light illumination of photosensitizer can lead to a series of photochemical reactions and consequently generate a variety of cytotoxic species.The nature, location and quantity of PDT-induced cytotoxic species and the sensitivity of the target cells determine the outcome of a PDT treatment.Since the first government approval of photosensitizer Photofrin was granted, for the treatment of bladder cancer in Canada in 1993,1 the utilization of PDT in the treatment of malignant and non-malignant diseases has increased significantly due to the improvement in photosensitizers and light applicators. Several similar photosensitizers have been developed and utilization in China since the 1980s.2

  9. Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust. Part II. Dry wood industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on associations between dry wood dust exposure and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between dry wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. Papers took into consideration smoking and when dealing with lung function age. A total of 37 papers forms the basis of this review. The results support an association between dry wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis is seen across the studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent has consistently been disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected to be a major cause of wood dust induced asthma.

  10. Familial PRRT2 mutation with heterogeneous paroxysmal disorders including paroxysmal torticollis and hemiplegic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Russell C; Gardiner, Alice; Antony, Jayne; Houlden, Henry

    2012-10-01

    PRRT2 is the gene recently associated with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), benign familial infantile epilepsy, and choreoathetosis infantile convulsions. We report four family members with PRRT2 mutations who had heterogeneous paroxysmal disorders. The index patient had transient infantile paroxysmal torticollis, then benign infantile epilepsy that responded to carbamazepine. The index patient's father had PKD and migraine with aphasia, and his two brothers had hemiplegic migraine with onset in childhood. All four family members had the same PRRT2 c.649dupC mutation. We conclude that heterogeneous paroxysmal disorders are associated with PRRT2 mutations and include paroxysmal torticollis and hemiplegic migraine. We propose that PRRT2 is a new gene for hemiplegic migraine. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  11. Text messaging interventions for individuals with mental health disorders including substance use: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tyler; Simpson, Scot; Hughes, Christine

    2016-09-30

    We completed a systematic review of the literature to characterize the impact of text messaging interventions on medication adherence or mental health related outcomes in people with mental health disorders including substance use. Four electronic databases were searched from January 1999 to October 2015. Seven studies met our inclusion criteria: three studies evaluated text messaging in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder diagnosis, two studies evaluated text messaging in patients with chronic alcohol dependence, and two studies reviewed text messaging in patients with mood disorders. Six studies were randomized controlled trials and one was a prospective pilot study with pre-post intervention design. Text messaging frequency ranged from once weekly to twelve per day. The effect of text messaging on medication adherence was measured in five studies; one study reporting significant improvements in the text messaging intervention group. The effect of text messaging on mental health related outcomes was measured in all seven studies, with five studies showing significant improvements in a variety of psychiatric and social functioning assessments. Collectively, these studies suggest text messaging is a promising tool to support management of patients with mental illness. Further research examining theory-based text messaging interventions in larger samples of patients is required.

  12. Pharmacotherapy in the Management of Voiding and Storage Disorders, Including Enuresis and Encopresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Enuresis and encopresis are disorders of the bladder and rectum, and this article helps in understanding the neurobiology of lower urinary tract and anorectal function to help in the treatment of these disorders. Treatment for children with these disorders emphasizes either a psychological or pharmacological approach.

  13. Can non-malignant biopsy features identify men at increased risk of biopsy-detectable prostate cancer at re-screening after 4 years?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, Tineke; Roobol, Monique J.; Schroder, Fritz H.; van der Kwast, Theodorus H.; Roemeling, Stijn; van der Cruijsen-Koeter, Ingrid W.; Bangma, Chris H.; van Leenders, Geert J. L. H.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To identify pathological features in non-malignant sextant prostate needle biopsies and assess their predictive value for detecting prostate cancer on biopsy 4 years later. PATIENTS AND METHODS We selected and reviewed the biopsy specimens of 121 men that were diagnosed as non-malignant d

  14. [Bipolar disorder and quality of life: A cross-sectional study including 104 Tunisian patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrag, I; Hajji, K; Hadj Ammar, M; Zarrouk, L; Kachouri, R; Nasr, M

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder affects many psychosocial and functional aspects, leading to a real social handicap and an alteration in quality of life. To evaluate bipolar patients' quality of life and to identify the risk factors responsible for a deterioration. Our cross-sectional study lasted for four months and included 104 bipolar patients treated at the psychiatry consultation of the university hospital in Mahdia. The data were collected through a questionnaire composed of 52 items exploring the general characteristics of subjects, the clinical and evolutional characteristics of bipolar disorder and providing information on the treatment. Quality of life was measured using the SF-36 (Short form) generic scale. A global average score was calculated and it was considered that quality of life was altered if the score was less than 66.7, according to the threshold value of Léan. Moreover, an average score was calculated for each dimension, thus permitting us to identify those most affected. We standardized initial average scores. The assessment of quality of life revealed a global average of 52.2 and an alteration in 78.8% of patients. The study of the dimensional average scores revealed that all dimensions were affected. The standardization also revealed deterioration in all dimensions, the mental component being particularly more affected than the physical component with respectively estimated scores of 31.7 and 40.5. The analytic approach concerned the relationship between qualitative and quantitative variables and the occurrence of an alteration in quality of life. For this effect, a bivariate study displayed a statistically significant correlation between the eight dimensions of the SF-36 and 8 variables. In order to take into account the relationships that link each variable to the others, and to avoid the bias of the bivariate study, a logistic regression analysis was performed. Only 4 variables with discriminating weight emerged from this analysis. According to the

  15. Comparing the results of DAADD and ABC of children included in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Milene Rossi Pereira; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2014-01-01

    To verify if there are characteristic behaviors of the different diagnosis included in the autism spectrum according to the Differential Assessment of Autism and Other Developmental Disorders (DAADD) and to the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). Participants were 45 individuals and their respective speech-language therapists. All therapists are graduate students working with the children for at least 1 year. This time was considered sufficient to the therapists to have the information required by the DAADD questionnaire. It is comprised by 3 protocols specifically designed to children with 2 to 4 years, 4 to 6 years and 6 to 8 years, the same criteria used to separate the research groups, G1, G2 and G3, respectively. Data referring to the ABC were retrieved from the subject's files at the Laboratório de Investigação Fonoaudiológica nos Distúrbios do Espectro do Autismo (Research Laboratory on Language Disorders in the Autism Spectrum) of the School of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, where it is routinely applied during the annual assessment. Answers to the different areas of DAADD are similar to the different areas of ABC. These data show data the diagnosis by DAADD is easier in older children. Although there is no significant difference, the large occurrence of Rett's syndrome diagnosis according to the DAADD was associated to higher risk for autism according to the ABC in G1. With increasing age this tendency decreases and either in G2 and G3 Autism is the most frequent diagnosis. Although the results of both questionnaires tend to agree more with increasing age, the DAADD is more sensitive in the different ages while the ABC if more specific only to older children.

  16. Should DSM-V include dimensional diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helzer, John E; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Bierut, Laura Jean; Regier, Darrel A; Schuckit, Marc A; Guth, Sarah E

    2006-02-01

    This program calls attention to the upcoming timetable for the revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV and the publication of DSM-V. It is vitally important for Research Society of Alcoholism members to be aware of the current discussions of the important scientific questions related to the next DSM revision and to use the opportunity for input. The title of the symposium highlights 1 key question, i.e., whether the DSM definitions should remain strictly categorical as in the past or whether a dimensional component should be included in this revision. Two substantive and 1 conceptual paper are included in this portion of the symposium. The fourth and final presentation detailing the revision timetable and the opportunities for input is by Dr. Darrel Regier. Dr. Regier is the director of American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education the research and education branch of the American Psychiatric Association and the organization within the APA that will oversee the DSM revision. The discussion is by Marc Schuckit, who was chair of the Substance Use disorders (SUD) Committee for DSM-IV and cochair of the international group of experts reviewing the SUD definitions for DSM-V.

  17. [Hypersexual disorder will not be included in the DSM V : a contextual analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, I; Pitchot, W

    2013-01-01

    Hypersexuality disorder has not been added to the list of psychiatric disorders for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) V, to be published in May 2013. The evolution of the concept of hypersexuality disorder and its series of different models call into question the controversial context within which its inclusion is considered for the DSM V. A brief contextual analysis makes clear that the creation of this concept follows moral norms and psychosocial values. The construction of hypersexuality disorder in terms of a diagnostic entity rests on the clash of social forces at play in the development process. This article lays the foundation to contemplate the manner in which entities for psychiatric disorders are constructed.

  18. Binge eating disorder should be included in DSM-IV: a reply to Fairburn et al.'s "the classification of recurrent overeating: the binge eating disorder proposal".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, R L; Stunkard, A; Yanovski, S; Marcus, M D; Wadden, T; Wing, R; Mitchell, J; Hasin, D

    1993-03-01

    Extensive recent research supports a proposal that a new eating disorder, binge eating disorder (BED), be included in DSM-IV. BED criteria define a relatively pure group of individuals who are distressed by recurrent binge eating who do not exhibit the compensatory features of bulimia nervosa. This large number of patients currently can only be diagnosed as eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Recognizing this new disorder will help stimulate research and clinical programs for these patients. Fairburn et al.'s critique of BED fails to acknowledge the large body of knowledge that indicates that BED represents a distinct and definable subgroup of eating disordered patients and that the diagnosis provides useful information about psychopathology, prognosis, and outcome (Fairburn, Welch, & Hay [in press]. The classification of recurrent overeating: The "binge eating disorder" proposal. International Journal of Eating Disorders.) Against any reasonable standard for adding a new diagnosis to DSM-IV, BED meets the test.

  19. Different glycosylation of cadherins from human bladder non-malignant and cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lityńska Anna

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to determine whether stage of invasiveness of bladder cancer cell lines contributes to alterations in glycan pattern of their cadherins. Results Human non-malignant epithelial cell of ureter HCV29, v-raf transfected HCV29 line (BC3726 and transitional cell cancers of urine bladder Hu456 and T24 were grown in cell culture. Equal amounts of protein from each cell extracts were separated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and were blotted on an Immobilon P membrane. Cadherins were immunodetected using anti-pan cadherin mAb and lectin blotting assays were performed, in parallel. N-oligosaccharides were analysed by specific reaction with Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA, Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA, Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA, Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA, Aleuria aurantia agglutinin (AAA, Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA-L and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA. The cadherin from HCV29 cell line possessed bi- and/or 2,4-branched triantennary complex type glycans, some of which were α2,6-sialylated. The cadherin from BC3726 cell line exhibited exclusively high mannose type glycans. Cadherins from Hu456 and T24 cell lines expressed high mannose type glycans as well as β1,6-branched oligosaccharides with poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures and α2,3-linked sialic acid residues. Additionally, the presence of fucose and α2,6-sialic acid residues on the cadherin from T24 cell line was detected. Conclusions These results indicate that N-glycosylation pattern of cadherin from bladder cancer cell line undergoes modification during carcinogenesis.

  20. The Effects of Including a Callous-Unemotional Specifier for the Diagnosis of Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Frick, Paul J.; Youngstrom, Eric; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Jennifer Kogos

    2012-01-01

    Background: "With Significant Callous-Unemotional Traits" has been proposed as a specifier for conduct disorder (CD) in the upcoming revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). The impact of this specifier on children diagnosed with CD should be considered. Methods: A multi-site cross-sectional design with…

  1. Should borderline personality disorder be included in the fourth edition of the Chinese classification of mental disorders?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Jie; LEUNG Freedom

    2007-01-01

    @@ Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious Bpersonality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of disturbances in mood regulation, impulse control, self-image and interpersonal relationships.1 In the United States, the prevalence of BPD has been estimated at 1%-2% of the general population, 10% of psychiatric outpatients, and 20% of inpatients.2,3 According to the 4th text revision of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-Ⅳ-TR),1 about 75% of BPD patients are women. The BPD diagnosis has been associated with heightened risk (8.5% to 10.0% among BPD patients) for completed suicide, a rate almost 50times higher than in the general population.4

  2. Inducing Order from Disordered Copolymers: On Demand Generation of Triblock Morphologies Including Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tureau, Maëva S.; Kuan, Wei-Fan; Rong, Lixia; Hsiao, Benjamin S.; Epps, III, Thomas H. (Delaware); (Buffalo)

    2015-10-15

    Disordered block copolymers are generally impractical in nanopatterning applications due to their inability to self-assemble into well-defined nanostructures. However, inducing order in low molecular weight disordered systems permits the design of periodic structures with smaller characteristic sizes. Here, we have induced nanoscale phase separation from disordered triblock copolymer melts to form well-ordered lamellae, hexagonally packed cylinders, and a triply periodic gyroid network structure, using a copolymer/homopolymer blending approach, which incorporates constituent homopolymers into selective block domains. This versatile blending approach allows one to precisely target multiple nanostructures from a single disordered material and can be applied to a wide variety of triblock copolymer systems for nanotemplating and nanoscale separation applications requiring nanoscale feature sizes and/or high areal feature densities.

  3. Fluoro-edenite induces fibulin-3 overexpression in non-malignant human mesothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Salemi, Rossella; Marconi, Andrea; Loreto, Carla; Graziano, Adriana C.; Cardile, Venera; Basile, Maria S.; Candido, Saverio; Falzone, Luca; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Fenga, Concettina; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to asbestos is associated with the development of mesothelioma. In addition to asbestos, other fibers have been identified as risk factors for malignant and non-malignant diseases of the lungs. Among these, fluoro-edenite (FE) was found in patients from Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy) with pleural and lung disease, suggesting its role for tumor expansion. In this context, the identification of early biomarkers useful for the diagnosis of cancer is mandatory. Fibulin-3 represents an important marker for the diagnosis of mesothelioma. However, it remains to be determined whether it is directly associated with exposure to asbestos-like fibers. In the present study, peripheral blood levels of fibulin-3 from 40 asbestos-exposed workers were compared with those detected in 27 street cleaners from Biancavilla. Intriguingly, the results showed that fibulin-3 levels were higher in the group of street cleaners compared with those of the asbestos-exposed workers, suggesting that these workers used the personal protective equipment according to the current regulations. These data suggest that subjects exposed to FE should be monitored for the risk of mesothelioma. FE and volcanic particulates are probably contained within dust inhaled by street cleaners from Biancavilla during their work activities. Based on these criteria, in this study, such fibers were used to treat mesothelial cells (MeT5A) in order to verify whether fibulin-3 levels are affected by these treatments. The results showed that only treatment with FE was associated with fibulin-3 overexpression at both the transcript and protein levels. It was previously demonstrated that mesothelial cells exhibited low levels of p27 following treatment with FE. Notably, p27 downregulation is associated with stathmin upregulation in cancer, conferring an aggressive phenotype of tumor cells. This observation prompted us to perform a computational evaluation demonstrating the activation of stathmin in lung cancer in

  4. Combined prolonged-release oxycodone and naloxone improves bowel function in patients receiving opioids for moderate-to-severe non-malignant chronic pain: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwenstein, O; Leyendecker, P; Hopp, M; Schutter, U; Rogers, P D; Uhl, R; Bond, S; Kremers, W; Nichols, T; Krain, B; Reimer, K

    2009-03-01

    This randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group multicentre study assessed the impact of a total daily dose of 60-80 mg oral oxycodone prolonged-release (PR)/naloxone PR (OXN PR) as fixed-ratio combination for patients with opioid-induced constipation (OIC) having moderate-to-severe, non-malignant pain. During pre-randomisation patients receiving opioids for moderate-to-severe non-malignant pain were converted to oxycodone PR (OXY PR) and titrated to an effective analgesic dose. During randomisation 265 patients on a stable OXY PR dose (60-80 mg/day) and with OIC were included in the full analysis population to receive OXN PR or OXY PR alone. Primary outcome was improvement in symptoms of constipation as measured by the Bowel Function Index (BFI). Secondary/exploratory outcomes examined analgesic efficacy and other bowel function parameters. After 4 weeks of treatment, patients receiving OXN PR showed a significant improvement in bowel function compared with those in the OXY PR group (-14.9; 95% CI: -17.9, -11.9; pPR had a median number of 3.0 complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBM) per week compared with only 1.0 for OXY PR alone. Laxative intake was lower in the OXN PR than the OXY PR group. Furthermore, improvements in bowel function were achieved without loss of analgesic efficacy; pain intensity scores were comparable between the groups and consistent for duration of the study. Most frequently reported adverse events were consistent with those reported for opioid analgesics; no new or unexpected adverse reactions attributable to OXN PR used in higher doses were observed. This study shows that the fixed-ratio combination of OXN PR is superior to OXY PR alone in terms of bowel function, while providing effective equivalent analgesia.

  5. Exploring Teachers' Strategies for Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Mainstream Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Proulx, Meghann; Scott, Helen; Thomson, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    As the rates of diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) increase and more students with ASD are enrolled in mainstream schools, educators face many challenges in teaching and managing social and behavioural development while ensuring academic success for all students. This descriptive, qualitative study, embedded within an inclusive…

  6. Benefits of Including Siblings in the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraioli, Suzannah J.; Hansford, Amy; Harris, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Having a brother or sister with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly impact the life of a typically developing sibling. These relationships are generally characterized by less frequent and nurturing interactions than are evident in sibling constellations with neurotypical children or children with other developmental disabilities.…

  7. Including Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Around 80% of pupils with attention deficit disorders are educated in mainstream schools. The difficulties relating to inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity experienced by such pupils present mainstream educators with a unique set of challenges and opportunities. In this article, Neil Humphrey, Senior Lecturer in the Psychology of Education…

  8. Developmental trauma disorder: pros and cons of including formal criteria in the psychiatric diagnostic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Marc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article reviews the current debate on developmental trauma disorder (DTD with respect to formalizing its diagnostic criteria. Victims of abuse, neglect, and maltreatment in childhood often develop a wide range of age-dependent psychopathologies with various mental comorbidities. The supporters of a formal DTD diagnosis argue that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD does not cover all consequences of severe and complex traumatization in childhood. Discussion Traumatized individuals are difficult to treat, but clinical experience has shown that they tend to benefit from specific trauma therapy. A main argument against inclusion of formal DTD criteria into existing diagnostic systems is that emphasis on the etiology of the disorder might force current diagnostic systems to deviate from their purely descriptive nature. Furthermore, comorbidities and biological aspects of the disorder may be underdiagnosed using the DTD criteria. Summary Here, we discuss arguments for and against the proposal of DTD criteria and address implications and consequences for the clinical practice.

  9. Breakthrough pain in opioid-treated chronic non-malignant pain patients referred to a multidisciplinary pain centre: a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsted, J; Nielsen, P R; Eriksen, Jacob Gram;

    2006-01-01

    Breakthrough pain (BTP) has not formerly been discussed as such in chronic non-malignant pain patients referred to pain centres and clinics. The purpose of the study was to investigate the prevalence, characteristics and mechanisms of BTP in opioid-treated chronic non-malignant pain patients refe...... referred to a pain centre and to assess the short-term effects of pain treatment.......Breakthrough pain (BTP) has not formerly been discussed as such in chronic non-malignant pain patients referred to pain centres and clinics. The purpose of the study was to investigate the prevalence, characteristics and mechanisms of BTP in opioid-treated chronic non-malignant pain patients...

  10. Pharmacological consequences of long-term morphine treatment in patients with cancer and chronic non-malignant pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gertrud; Sjøgren, Per; Hansen, Steen Honoré;

    2004-01-01

    In patients with pain of malignant origin morphine may be administered in high and often increasing doses during extended periods of time. In patients with chronic pain of non-malignant origin morphine may be an important remedy, and in these cases the goal is to keep the morphine dose stable. Th....... The pharmacokinetic as well as the pharmacodynamic consequences of long-term morphine treatment with special reference to the two most important metabolites of morphine morphine-6-glucuronide (M-6-G) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M-3-G) remain to be settled....

  11. Experiences of Students with Specific Learning Disorder (Including ADHD) in Online College Degree Programs: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Seleta LeAnn

    2016-01-01

    Enrollment in online degree programs is rapidly expanding due to the convenience and affordability offered to students and improvements in technology. The purpose of this hermeneutical phenomenological study was to understand the shared experiences of students with documented specific learning disorders (including Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity…

  12. Treosulfan-based conditioning regimens for allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with non-malignant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatter, M A; Boztug, H; Pötschger, U; Sykora, K-W; Lankester, A; Yaniv, I; Sedlacek, P; Glogova, E; Veys, P; Gennery, A R; Peters, C

    2015-12-01

    An increasing number of children with non-malignant diseases can be cured by allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Treosulfan (L-treitol-1,4-bis-methanesulfonate) is being used more frequently for conditioning, owing to its' lower toxicity profile compared with conventional myeloablative regimens. A retrospective analysis was performed of children registered in the EBMT database, who received treosulfan before HSCT between January 2005 and 2010, to identify possible dose-related toxicity and determine the incidence of engraftment, treatment-related mortality and overall survival (OS). Results from 316 transplants from 11 different countries are presented. Ninety-five (30%) were under 1 year of age at the time of transplant. OS was 83% and event-free survival was 76%; 3-year OS and event-free survival of infants below 1 year were 79% and 73%, respectively. No association was found with age at transplant, dose of treosulfan given, other agents used in combination with treosulfan, donor type, stem cell source, or second or subsequent transplant. In this report of the largest number of children to date receiving treosulfan for non-malignant diseases, treosulfan is shown to be a safe and effective agent even for those under 1 year of age at the time of transplant. Further prospective studies are needed using precisely defined protocols with pharmacokinetic monitoring and detailed chimerism analysis. In addition, long-term studies will be vital to determine long-term effects, for example, on fertility in comparison with other regimens.

  13. Burden and health-related quality of life of eating disorders, including Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID), in the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Phillipa; Mitchison, Deborah; Collado, Abraham Ernesto Lopez; González-Chica, David Alejandro; Stocks, Nigel; Touyz, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology and health related quality of life (HRQoL) of the new DSM-5 diagnoses, Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in the Australian population. We aimed to investigate the prevalance and burden of these disorders. We conducted two sequential population-based surveys including individuals aged over 15 years who were interviewed in 2014 (n = 2732) and 2015 (n =3005). Demographic information and diagnostic features of DSM-5 eating disorders were asked including the occurrence of regular (at least weekly over the past 3 months) objective binge eating with levels of distress, extreme dietary restriction/fasting for weight/shape control, purging behaviors, overvaluation of shape and/or weight, and the presence of an avoidant/restrictive food intake without overvaluation of shape and/or weight. In 2014 functional impact or role performance was measured with the 'days out of role' question and in 2015, Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) was assessed with the Short Form -12 item questionnaire (SF-12v1). The 2014 and 2015 3-month prevalence of eating disorders were: anorexia nervosa-broad 0.4% (95% CI 0.2-0.7) and 0.5% (0.3-0.9); bulimia nervosa 1.1% (0.7-1.5) and 1.2% (0.9-1.7); ARFID 0.3% (0.1-0.5) and 0.3% (0.2-0.6). The 2015 3-month prevalence rates were: BED-broad 1.5% (1.1-2.0); Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED) 3.2 (2.6-3.9); and Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorder (UFED) 10.4% (0.9-11.5). Most people with OSFED had atypical anorexia nervosa and majority with UFED were characterised by having recurrent binge eating without marked distress. Eating disorders were represented throughout sociodemographic groups and those with bulimia nervosa and BED-broad had mean weight (BMI, kg/m(2)) in the obese range. Mental HRQoL was poor in all eating disorder groups but particularly poor for those with BED-broad and ARFID. Individuals with bulimia nervosa, BED-broad and

  14. Everyone's Included: Supporting Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Responsive Classroom Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterman, Kathleen G.; Sapona, Regina H.

    2002-01-01

    This case study discusses how Jon, a boy with autism, was fully included into general education classrooms in grades K-2 that implemented tenets of the "Responsive Classroom." The guiding principles of a responsive classroom approach, benefits for children with autism, and the need for collaboration among professionals are discussed.…

  15. Ionizing radiation predisposes non-malignant human mammaryepithelial cells to undergo TGF beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymaltransition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Chou, William S.; Costes, Sylvain; Gascard, Philippe; Mott, Joni D.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2007-04-06

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}) is a tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis, but it can switch to a tumor promoter during neoplastic progression. Ionizing radiation (IR), both a carcinogen and a therapeutic agent, induces TGF{beta}, activation in vivo. We now show that IR sensitizes human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Non-malignant HMEC (MCF10A, HMT3522 S1 and 184v) were irradiated with 2 Gy shortly after attachment in monolayer culture, or treated with a low concentration of TGF{beta} (0.4 ng/ml), or double-treated. All double-treated (IR+TGF{beta}) HMEC underwent a morphological shift from cuboidal to spindle-shaped. This phenotype was accompanied by decreased expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, {beta}-catenin and ZO-1, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin. Furthermore, double-treatment increased cell motility, promoted invasion and disrupted acinar morphogenesis of cells subsequently plated in Matrigel{trademark}. Neither radiation nor TGF{beta} alone elicited EMT, even though IR increased chronic TGF{beta} signaling and activity. Gene expression profiling revealed that double treated cells exhibit a specific 10-gene signature associated with Erk/MAPK signaling. We hypothesized that IR-induced MAPK activation primes non-malignant HMEC to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated EMT. Consistent with this, Erk phosphorylation were transiently induced by irradiation, persisted in irradiated cells treated with TGF{beta}, and treatment with U0126, a Mek inhibitor, blocked the EMT phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that the interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways elicit heritable phenotypes that could contribute to neoplastic progression.

  16. Struggling for a normal life: work as an individual self-care management strategy among persons living with non-malignant chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Gudrun; Anderssen, Norman

    2014-01-01

    A significant part of the population suffers from non-malignant chronic pain that is not treated by pain specialists. No successful long-term treatment exists. The patients have to deal with their condition in collaboration with health personnel establishing treatment programmes under uncertain circumstances with few guidelines. Thus, there is a strong need for knowledge on how patients with chronic non-malignant pain manage their condition. The aim of the study was to explore how patients with chronic non-malignant pain deal with their condition. Twenty patients with chronic non-malignant pain (aged 26-63 in year 2006) told in an open-ended interview situation, how they lived with and dealt with their condition. The interviews were analysed within a phenomenological meaning condensation framework. For all patients the pain was as an integrated part of their life that required huge efforts to cope with. Typically, the patients experienced loneliness, fear of stigmatization and despair because of their unpredictable condition, and they wanted to come back to a normalized daily life, first and foremost by getting back to paid work. In general, the patients developed individual strategies that were influenced by their local contexts and life situation as well as the pain itself. This may be interpreted in line with Bourdieu's notions of habitus, strategies and social capital.

  17. [The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of non malignant diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonenberg, Anna; Leoniak, Marcin; Zarzycki, Wiesław

    2006-01-01

    The early medical complications of Chernobyl accident include post radiation disease, which were diagnosed in 134 subjects affected by ionizing radiation. 28 persons died during the first 100 days after the event. The increase occurrence of coronary heart disease, endocrine, haematological, dermatological and other diseases were observed after disaster in the contaminated territories. We also discussed the impact of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl accident on pregnancy and congenital defects occurrence. Changes following the Chernobyl accident, as the inhabitants migration from contaminated regions, political and economic conversions, led to depression, anxiety, and even to "epidemic" of mental diseases. Increased suicide rate, car accidents, alcohol and drug abuse have been observed in this population. Nowadays vegetative neurosis is more often diagnosed in Ukrainian children. Epidemiological studies were conducted on the ionising radiation effect on the health and on the dose of received radiation after Chernobyl accident face numerous problems as the absence of reliable data regarding diseases in the contaminated territories.

  18. Non-malignant reactions associated with Chernobyl exposures in immigrants to Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cwikel, J.; Abdelgani, A. [Spitzer School of Social Work, Ben Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel); Quastel, M.R.; Wishkerman, V. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Sorola Hospital, Ben Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel); Kordysh, E.; Merkin, L.; Goldsmith, J.R. [Dept. of Epidemiology, Ben Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2001-07-01

    About 850,000 immigrants to Israel for the Former Soviet Union since 1990 include an estimated 150,000 persons formerly living in areas affected by the Chernobyl disaster. As part of an effort to evaluate and counsel some of these in our Region (the Negev) we have organized a clinic and in 1991 were able to offer measurements of the body burden of 137 Cesium. We have also obtained health histories, and for children undertaken studies of thyroid function. With the help of Dr. Ingrid Emerit of the University of Paris we have studied the clastogenic factor in children and in clean-up workers (liquidators). The body burden data showed that the longer the immigrants were in Israel, the lower their body burden, but independent of the time since immigration, those who immigrated from areas with more than 37 Gbq/km{sup 2} of ground level contamination had higher body burdens than those from areas with less contamination. Thus general populations could be divided into two groups based on exposure and a third group with presumably greater exposure were the 80 or so liquidators. (orig.)

  19. The effects of erythropoietin signaling on telomerase regulation in non-erythroid malignant and non-malignant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uziel, Orit, E-mail: Oritu@clalit.org.il [Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Kanfer, Gil [Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Dep. of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Beery, Einat [Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Yelin, Dana; Shepshelovich, Daniel [Medicine A, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Bakhanashvili, Mary [Unit of Infectious Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer (Israel); Nordenberg, Jardena [Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Dep. of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Endocrinology Laboratory, Beilinson Medical Center, Petah-Tikva (Israel); Lahav, Meir [Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Medicine A, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv (Israel)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We assumed that some of erythropoietin adverse effects may be mediated by telomerase activity. • EPO administration increased telomerase activity, cells proliferation and migration. • The inhibition of telomerase modestly repressed the proliferative effect of erythropoietin. • Telomere shortening caused by long term inhibition of the enzyme totally abolished that effect. • This effect was mediated via the Lyn–AKT axis and not by the canonical JAK2–STAT pathway. - Abstract: Treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) in several cancers is associated with decreased survival due to cancer progression. Due to the major importance of telomerase in cancer biology we hypothesized that some of these effects may be mediated through EPO effect on telomerase. For this aim we explored the possible effects of EPO on telomerase regulation, cell migration and chemosensitivity in non-erythroid malignant and non-malignant cells. Cell proliferation, telomerase activity (TA) and cell migration increased in response to EPO. EPO had no effect on cancer cells sensitivity to cisplatinum and on the cell cycle status. The inhibition of telomerase modestly repressed the proliferative effect of EPO. Telomere shortening caused by long term inhibition of the enzyme abolished the effect of EPO, suggesting that EPO effects on cancer cells are related to telomere dynamics. TA was correlated with the levels of Epo-R. The increase in TA was mediated post-translationally through the Lyn-Src and not the canonical JAK2 pathway.

  20. Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust. Part I. Fresh wood and mixed wood industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews associations in literature between exposure to wood dust from fresh wood and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. The papers took into account smoking, and when dealing with lung function took age into consideration. A total of 25 papers concerning exposure to fresh wood and mixed wood formed the basis of this review. The results support an association between fresh wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between fresh wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis was seen across studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent was consistently disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected of being a major cause of wood dust induced asthma. Concurrent exposure to microorganisms and terpenes probably add to the inherent risk of wood dust exposure in the fresh wood industry.

  1. Analysis of the chromosome X exome in patients with autism spectrum disorders identified novel candidate genes, including TMLHE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, C; Lamari, F; Héron, D; Mignot, C; Rastetter, A; Keren, B; Cohen, D; Faudet, A; Bouteiller, D; Gilleron, M; Jacquette, A; Whalen, S; Afenjar, A; Périsse, D; Laurent, C; Dupuits, C; Gautier, C; Gérard, M; Huguet, G; Caillet, S; Leheup, B; Leboyer, M; Gillberg, C; Delorme, R; Bourgeron, T; Brice, A; Depienne, C

    2012-01-01

    The striking excess of affected males in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggests that genes located on chromosome X contribute to the etiology of these disorders. To identify new X-linked genes associated with ASD, we analyzed the entire chromosome X exome by next-generation sequencing in 12 unrelated families with two affected males. Thirty-six possibly deleterious variants in 33 candidate genes were found, including PHF8 and HUWE1, previously implicated in intellectual disability (ID). A nonsense mutation in TMLHE, which encodes the ɛ-N-trimethyllysine hydroxylase catalyzing the first step of carnitine biosynthesis, was identified in two brothers with autism and ID. By screening the TMLHE coding sequence in 501 male patients with ASD, we identified two additional missense substitutions not found in controls and not reported in databases. Functional analyses confirmed that the mutations were associated with a loss-of-function and led to an increase in trimethyllysine, the precursor of carnitine biosynthesis, in the plasma of patients. This study supports the hypothesis that rare variants on the X chromosome are involved in the etiology of ASD and contribute to the sex-ratio disequilibrium. PMID:23092983

  2. Analysis of the chromosome X exome in patients with autism spectrum disorders identified novel candidate genes, including TMLHE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, C; Lamari, F; Héron, D; Mignot, C; Rastetter, A; Keren, B; Cohen, D; Faudet, A; Bouteiller, D; Gilleron, M; Jacquette, A; Whalen, S; Afenjar, A; Périsse, D; Laurent, C; Dupuits, C; Gautier, C; Gérard, M; Huguet, G; Caillet, S; Leheup, B; Leboyer, M; Gillberg, C; Delorme, R; Bourgeron, T; Brice, A; Depienne, C

    2012-10-23

    The striking excess of affected males in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggests that genes located on chromosome X contribute to the etiology of these disorders. To identify new X-linked genes associated with ASD, we analyzed the entire chromosome X exome by next-generation sequencing in 12 unrelated families with two affected males. Thirty-six possibly deleterious variants in 33 candidate genes were found, including PHF8 and HUWE1, previously implicated in intellectual disability (ID). A nonsense mutation in TMLHE, which encodes the ɛ-N-trimethyllysine hydroxylase catalyzing the first step of carnitine biosynthesis, was identified in two brothers with autism and ID. By screening the TMLHE coding sequence in 501 male patients with ASD, we identified two additional missense substitutions not found in controls and not reported in databases. Functional analyses confirmed that the mutations were associated with a loss-of-function and led to an increase in trimethyllysine, the precursor of carnitine biosynthesis, in the plasma of patients. This study supports the hypothesis that rare variants on the X chromosome are involved in the etiology of ASD and contribute to the sex-ratio disequilibrium.

  3. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who are Minimally Verbal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-06-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70% of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement.

  4. Prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in patients with subacute non-malignant pain: a systematic review of cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Gitte H; Pilegaard, Marc S; Vaegter, Henrik B; Rosendal, Marianne; Ørtenblad, Lisbeth; Væggemose, Ulla; Christensen, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This systematic review aims to identify generic prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in subacute pain patients. Setting General practice and other primary care facilities. Participants Adults (>18 years) with a subacute (≤3-month) non-malignant pain condition. Eligibility criteria were cohort studies investigating the prediction of disability or long-term sick leave in adults with a subacute pain condition in a primary care setting. 19 studies were included, referring to a total of 6266 patients suffering from pain in the head, neck, back and shoulders. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was long-term disability (>3 months) due to a pain condition. The secondary outcome was sick leave, defined as ‘absence from work’ or ‘return-to-work’. Results PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and PEDro databases were searched from 16 January 2003 to 16 January 2014. The quality of evidence was presented according to the GRADE WG recommendations. Several factors were found to be associated with disability at follow-up for at least two different pain symptoms. However, owing to insufficient studies, no generic risk factors for sick leave were identified. Conclusions Multiple site pain, high pain severity, older age, baseline disability and longer pain duration were identified as potential prognostic factors for disability across pain sites. There was limited evidence that anxiety and depression were associated with disability in patients with subacute pain, indicating that these factors may not play as large a role as expected in developing disability due to a pain condition. Quality of evidence was moderate, low or very low, implying that confidence in the results is limited. Large prospective prognostic factor studies are needed with sufficient study populations and transparent reporting of all factors examined. Trial registration number CRD42014008914. PMID:26739716

  5. Prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in patients with subacute non-malignant pain: a systematic review of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Gitte H; Pilegaard, Marc S; Vaegter, Henrik B; Rosendal, Marianne; Ørtenblad, Lisbeth; Væggemose, Ulla; Christensen, Robin

    2016-01-06

    This systematic review aims to identify generic prognostic factors for disability and sick leave in subacute pain patients. General practice and other primary care facilities. Adults (>18 years) with a subacute (≤ 3-month) non-malignant pain condition. Eligibility criteria were cohort studies investigating the prediction of disability or long-term sick leave in adults with a subacute pain condition in a primary care setting. 19 studies were included, referring to a total of 6266 patients suffering from pain in the head, neck, back and shoulders. The primary outcome was long-term disability (>3 months) due to a pain condition. The secondary outcome was sick leave, defined as 'absence from work' or 'return-to-work'. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and PEDro databases were searched from 16 January 2003 to 16 January 2014. The quality of evidence was presented according to the GRADE WG recommendations. Several factors were found to be associated with disability at follow-up for at least two different pain symptoms. However, owing to insufficient studies, no generic risk factors for sick leave were identified. Multiple site pain, high pain severity, older age, baseline disability and longer pain duration were identified as potential prognostic factors for disability across pain sites. There was limited evidence that anxiety and depression were associated with disability in patients with subacute pain, indicating that these factors may not play as large a role as expected in developing disability due to a pain condition. Quality of evidence was moderate, low or very low, implying that confidence in the results is limited. Large prospective prognostic factor studies are needed with sufficient study populations and transparent reporting of all factors examined. CRD42014008914. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non-clinical sample: psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Eline L; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-09-01

    With DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM-5-based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder that were included in previous studies on the scales, and also for separation anxiety disorder, which is included in the DSM-5 chapter on anxiety disorders. Moreover, they completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Adult version (SCARED-A). The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales demonstrated high internal consistency, and the scales correlated significantly and substantially with corresponding SCARED-A subscales, supporting convergent validity. Separation anxiety appeared present among adults, supporting the DSM-5 recognition of separation anxiety as an anxiety disorder across the life span. To conclude, the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales are a valuable tool to screen for specific adult anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety. Research in more diverse and clinical samples with anxiety disorders is needed. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non‐clinical sample: psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bögels, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With DSM‐5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM‐5‐based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder that were included in previous studies on the scales, and also for separation anxiety disorder, which is included in the DSM‐5 chapter on anxiety disorders. Moreover, they completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Adult version (SCARED‐A). The DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales demonstrated high internal consistency, and the scales correlated significantly and substantially with corresponding SCARED‐A subscales, supporting convergent validity. Separation anxiety appeared present among adults, supporting the DSM‐5 recognition of separation anxiety as an anxiety disorder across the life span. To conclude, the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales are a valuable tool to screen for specific adult anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety. Research in more diverse and clinical samples with anxiety disorders is needed. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27378317

  8. Multisystem Disease, Including Eosinophilia and Progressive Hyper-Creatine-Kinase-emia over 10 Years, Suggests Mitochondrial Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eosinophilia has not been reported as a manifestation of a mitochondrial disorder (MID. Here, we report a patient with clinical features suggesting a MID and permanent eosinophilia, multisystem disease, and progressive hyper-creatine-kinase (CK-emia for at least 10 years. Materials and Methods: Methods applied included a clinical exam, blood chemical investigations, electrophysiological investigations, imaging, and invasive cardiological investigations. The patient was repeatedly followed up over several years. He required replacement cardiac surgery. Results: In a 57-year-old male, eosinophilia was first detected at the age of 44 years and has remained almost constantly present until today. In addition to eosinophilia, he developed progressive hyper-CK-emia at the age of 47 years. His history was further positive for hepatopathy, hyperlipidemia, hypothyroidism, renal insufficiency, spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture, double vision, exercise intolerance, muscle aching, mild hypoacusis, sensory neuropathy, seizures, and mitral insufficiency/stenosis requiring valve replacement therapy, oral anticoagulation, and pacemaker implantation. Based on the multisystem nature of his abnormalities and permanent hyper-CK-emia, a MID was suspected. Conclusion: Eosinophilia can be associated with a MID with myopathy, possibly as a reaction to myofiber necrosis. If eosinophilia is associated with progressive hyper-CK-emia and multisystem disease, a MID should be suspected.

  9. Utility of FDG-PETCT and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in differentiating between cerebral lymphoma and non-malignant CNS lesions in HIV-infected patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwood, Thomas D., E-mail: tdwestwood@googlemail.com [Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Hogan, Celia, E-mail: celiahogan@hotmail.com [Monsall Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, North Manchester General Hospital, Pennine Acute Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Julyan, Peter J., E-mail: Peter.Julyan@christie.nhs.uk [Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Coutts, Glyn, E-mail: Glyn.Coutts@christie.nhs.uk [Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Bonington, Suzie, E-mail: suzi.bonington@christie.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Carrington, Bernadette, E-mail: Bernadette.Carrington@christie.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Taylor, Ben, E-mail: Ben.taylor@christie.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Khoo, Saye, E-mail: S.H.Khoo@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Royal Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Bonington, Alec, E-mail: Alec.Bonington@pat.nhs.uk [Monsall Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, North Manchester General Hospital, Pennine Acute Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    Background and purpose: In HIV infected patients, MRI cannot reliably differentiate between central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and non-malignant CNS lesions, particularly cerebral toxoplasmosis (CTOX). This study prospectively investigates the utility of FDG PET-CT and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in discriminating CNS lymphoma from non-malignant CNS lesions in HIV infected patients, and assesses the ability of FDG PET-CT to guide the use of early brain biopsy. Methods: 10 HIV patients with neurological symptoms and contrast enhancing lesions on MRI were commenced on anti-toxoplasmosis therapy before undergoing FDG PET-CT and MRS. Brain biopsies were sought in those with FDG PET-CT suggestive of CNS lymphoma, and in those with a negative FDG PET-CT scan who failed to respond to therapy. Final diagnosis was based on histology or treatment response. Results: Two patients were confirmed to have CNS lymphoma and FDG PET-CT was consistent with this diagnosis in both. Six patients had cerebral toxoplasmosis in all of whom FDG PET-CT was consistent with non-malignant disease. One patient had progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), FDG PET-CT was equivocal. One patient had a haemorrhagic brain metastasis and FDG PET-CT wrongly suggested non-malignant disease. MRS was performed successfully in eight subjects: three results were suggestive of CNS lymphoma (one true positive, two false positive), four suggested CTOX (two false negative, two true negative), one scan was equivocal. Conclusion: FDG PET-CT correctly identified all cases of CNS lymphoma and CTOX, supporting its use in this situation. MRS was unhelpful in our cohort.

  10. A case-control study of malignant and non-malignant respiratory disease among employees of a fiberglass manufacturing facility. II. Exposure assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiazze, L.; Watkins, D. K.; Fryar, C.; Kozono, J

    1993-01-01

    A case-control study of malignant and non-malignant respiratory disease among employees of the Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation's Newark, Ohio plant was undertaken. The aim was to determine the extent to which exposures to substances in the Newark plant environment, to non-workplace factors, or to a combination may play a part in the risk of mortality from respiratory disease among workers in this plant. A historical environmental reconstruction of the plant was undertaken to characterise ...

  11. A systematic review into the use of superficial heat and cold applications in the management of non-malignant, non-procedural pain in older adults.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Background Hot and cold treatments are an example of simple, inexpensive techniques that can be easily utilised to manage pain. Despite recommendations for the use of hot and cold modalities in the treatment of pain there is little and conflicting empirical evidence to support this. There is a need to summarise the available literature in this area. Aim To systematically review the use of superficially administered heat and cold therapy in the management of non-malignant, non-proced...

  12. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post- ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a ...

  13. Designing and recruiting to UK autism spectrum disorder research databases: do they include representative children with valid ASD diagnoses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnell, F; George, B; McConachie, H; Johnson, M; Hardy, R; Parr, J R

    2015-09-04

    (1) Describe how the Autism Spectrum Database-UK (ASD-UK) was established; (2) investigate the representativeness of the first 1000 children and families who participated, compared to those who chose not to; (3) investigate the reliability of the parent-reported Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnoses, and present evidence about the validity of diagnoses, that is, whether children recruited actually have an ASD; (4) present evidence about the representativeness of the ASD-UK children and families, by comparing their characteristics with the first 1000 children and families from the regional Database of children with ASD living in the North East (Dasl(n)e), and children and families identified from epidemiological studies. Recruitment through a network of 50 UK child health teams and self-referral. Parents/carers with a child with ASD, aged 2-16 years, completed questionnaires about ASD and some gave professionals' reports about their children. 1000 families registered with ASD-UK in 30 months. Children of families who participated, and of the 208 who chose not to, were found to be very similar on: gender ratio, year of birth, ASD diagnosis and social deprivation score. The reliability of parent-reported ASD diagnoses of children was very high when compared with clinical reports (over 96%); no database child without ASD was identified. A comparison of gender, ASD diagnosis, age at diagnosis, school placement, learning disability, and deprivation score of children and families from ASD-UK with 1084 children and families from Dasl(n)e, and families from population studies, showed that ASD-UK families are representative of families of children with ASD overall. ASD-UK includes families providing parent-reported data about their child and family, who appear to be broadly representative of UK children with ASD. Families continue to join the databases and more than 3000 families can now be contacted by researchers about UK autism research. Published by the BMJ

  14. Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder and the serotonergic system : A comprehensive review including new MDMA-related clinical cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litjens, Ruud P W; Brunt, Tibor M.; Alderliefste, Gerard Jan; Westerink, Remco H S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239425952

    2014-01-01

    Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a drug-induced condition associated with inaccurate visual representations. Since the underlying mechanism(s) are largely unknown, this review aims to uncover aspects underlying its etiology. Available evidence on HPPD and drug-related altered vi

  15. Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder and the serotonergic system : A comprehensive review including new MDMA-related clinical cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litjens, Ruud P W; Brunt, Tibor M.; Alderliefste, Gerard Jan; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-01-01

    Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a drug-induced condition associated with inaccurate visual representations. Since the underlying mechanism(s) are largely unknown, this review aims to uncover aspects underlying its etiology. Available evidence on HPPD and drug-related altered vi

  16. A case-control study of malignant and non-malignant respiratory disease among employees of a fiberglass manufacturing facility. II. Exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiazze, L; Watkins, D K; Fryar, C; Kozono, J

    1993-08-01

    A case-control study of malignant and non-malignant respiratory disease among employees of the Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation's Newark, Ohio plant was undertaken. The aim was to determine the extent to which exposures to substances in the Newark plant environment, to non-workplace factors, or to a combination may play a part in the risk of mortality from respiratory disease among workers in this plant. A historical environmental reconstruction of the plant was undertaken to characterise the exposure profile for workers in this plant from its beginnings in 1934 to the end of 1987. The exposure profile provided estimates of cumulative exposure to respirable fibres, fine fibres, asbestos, talc, formaldehyde, silica, and asphalt fumes. Employment histories from Owens-Corning Fiberglas provided information on employment characteristics (duration of employment, year of hire, age at first hire) and an interview survey obtained information on demographic characteristics (birthdate, race, education, marital state, parent's ethnic background, and place of birth), lifetime residence, occupational and smoking histories, hobbies, and personal and family medical history. Matched, unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) were used to assess the association between lung cancer or non-malignant respiratory disease and the cumulative exposure history, demographic characteristics, and employment variables. Only the smoking variables and employment characteristics (year of hire and age at first hire) were statistically significant for lung cancer. For non-malignant respiratory disease, only the smoking variables were statistically significant in the univariate analysis. Of the variables entered into a conditional logistic regression model for lung cancer, only smoking (smoked for six months or more v never smoked: OR = 26.17, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 3.316-206.5) and age at first hire (35 and over v less than 35: OR = 0.244, 95% CI 0.083-0.717) were statistically significant. There

  17. Borrelidin has limited anti-cancer effects in bcl-2 overexpressing breast cancer and leukemia cells and reveals toxicity in non-malignant breast epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafiuc, Diana; Weiß, Marlene; Mylonas, Ioannis; Brüning, Ansgar

    2014-10-01

    Clinically effective anti-cancer drugs have to tread a narrow line between selective cytotoxicity on tumor cells and tolerable adverse effects against healthy tissues. This causes the failure of many potential cancer drugs in advanced clinical trials, hence signifying the importance of a comprehensive initial estimate of the cytotoxicity of prospective anti-cancer drugs in preclinical studies. In this study, the cytotoxicity of borrelidin, a macrolide antibiotic with a high cytotoxic selectivity for proliferating endothelial cells and leukemia cells, was tested on malignant and non-malignant breast cells. Highly metastatic breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435) showed promising results and exhibited good sensitivity to borrelidin at low nanomolar concentrations, but borrelidin was cytotoxic to a non-malignant breast epithelial cell line (MCF10A) as well. Furthermore, although a high sensitivity of endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells; HUVEC) and individual leukemia cell lines (Jurkat and IM9) to borrelidin was confirmed in this study, another leukemia cell line (HL60) and an immortalized endothelial cell line (EA.hy926) displayed a significantly decreased sensitivity. Reduced sensitivity to borrelidin was associated with elevated bcl-2 expression in these cell lines. In conclusion, the results presented show that borrelidin displays high and selective cytotoxicity against subgroups of cancer cells and endothelial cells, but, owing to its non-specific toxicity to non-malignant cells, its clinical application might be restricted because of likely adverse effects and limited efficacy in bcl2-overexpressing cancer cells. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Intact and cleaved forms of the urokinase receptor enhance discrimination of cancer from non-malignant conditions in patients presenting with symptoms related to colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, A F; Høyer-Hansen, G; Nielsen, H J;

    2009-01-01

    plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) was proposed as a marker in CRC patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate the individual molecular forms of suPAR as discriminators in a group of patients undergoing endoscopical examination following symptoms related to colorectal cancer. METHODS: In a case......-control study comprising 308 patients undergoing endoscopical examination following CRC-related symptoms, 77 CRC patients with adenocarcinoma were age and gender matched to: 77 patients with adenomas; 77 with other non-malignant findings, and 77 with no findings. The different uPAR forms were measured...

  19. Associations between demographics and health-related quality of life for chronic non-malignant pain patients treated at a multidisciplinary pain centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene; Plesner, Karin; Kvorning, Nina

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the associations between demographics and health-related quality of life for chronic non-malignant pain patients. DESIGN: A cohort study. SETTING: A multidisciplinary Danish pain centre. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: All patients treated at the centre between 2007 and 2013. MAIN.......7 ± 14.4 (range 18-89), and 21% were able to work full or part time. On a Numeric Rating Scale from 0 to 10, median pain-intensity was 8 (interquartile range 7-8) and pain-discomfort 8 (interquartile range 7-9) at time of referral. More than half of the patients had symptoms of anxiety and depression...

  20. Evaluation of participants with suspected heritable platelet function disorders including recommendation and validation of a streamlined agonist panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Ban B; Lowe, Gillian C; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Bem, Danai; Daly, Martina E; Makris, Mike; Mumford, Andrew; Wilde, Jonathan T; Watson, Steve P

    2012-12-13

    Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) is used worldwide for the investigation of heritable platelet function disorders (PFDs), but interpretation of results is complicated by the feedback effects of ADP and thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) and by the overlap with the response of healthy volunteers. Over 5 years, we have performed lumi-aggregometry on 9 platelet agonists in 111 unrelated research participants with suspected PFDs and in 70 healthy volunteers. Abnormal LTA or ATP secretion test results were identified in 58% of participants. In 84% of these, the patterns of response were consistent with defects in Gi receptor signaling, the TxA(2) pathway, and dense granule secretion. Participants with defects in signaling to Gq-coupled receptor agonists and to collagen were also identified. Targeted genotyping identified 3 participants with function-disrupting mutations in the P2Y(12) ADP and TxA(2) receptors. The results of the present study illustrate that detailed phenotypic analysis using LTA and ATP secretion is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of PFDs. Our data also enable subdivision at the level of platelet-signaling pathways and in some cases to individual receptors. We further demonstrate that most PFDs can be reliably diagnosed using a streamlined panel of key platelet agonists and specified concentrations suitable for testing in most clinical diagnostic laboratories.

  1. Broadening the etiological discourse on Alzheimer's disease to include trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder as psychosocial risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P R; Burnette, Denise

    2013-08-01

    Biomedical perspectives have long dominated research on the etiology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD); yet these approaches do not solely explain observed variations in individual AD trajectories. More robust biopsychosocial models regard the course of AD as a dialectical interplay of neuropathological and psychosocial influences. Drawing on this broader conceptualization, we conducted an extensive review of empirical and theoretical literature on the associations of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and AD to develop a working model that conceptualizes the role of psychosocial stressors and physiological mechanisms in the onset and course of AD. The proposed model suggests two pathways. In the first, previous life trauma acts as a risk factor for later-life onset of AD, either directly or mediated by PTSD or PTSD correlates. In the second, de novo AD experiential trauma is associated with accelerated cognitive decline, either directly or mediated through PTSD or PTSD correlates. Evidence synthesized in this paper indicates that previous life trauma and PTSD are strong candidates as psychosocial risk factors for AD and warrant further empirical scrutiny. Psychosocial and neurological-based intervention implications are discussed. A biopsychosocial approach has the capacity to enhance understanding of individual AD trajectories, moving the field toward 'person-centered' models of care.

  2. Colorectal cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease in asbestos cement and cement workers. Studies on mortality, cancer morbidity, and radiographical changes in lung parenchyma and pleura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsson, K.

    1993-09-01

    Radiologically visible parenchymal changes (small opacities >= 1/0;ILO 1980 classification) were present in 20% of a sample of workers (N=174), employed for 20 years (median) in an asbestos cement plant. Exposure-response relationships were found, after controlling for age and smoking habits. In a sample of asbestos cement workers with symptoms and signs suggestive of pulmonary disease (N=33), increased lung density measured by x-ray computed tomography, and reduced static lung volumes and lung compliance was found. In a cohort of asbestos cement workers (N=1.929) with an estimated median exposure of 1.2 fibres/ml, the mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease was increased in comparison to a regional reference cohort (N=1.233). A two-to three-fold increase of non-malignant respiratory mortality was noted among workers employed for more than a decade in the asbestos cement plant, compared to cement workers (N=1.526), who in their turn did not experience and increased risk compared to the general population. In the cohorts of asbestos cement and cement workers, there was a tow-to three-fold increased incidence of cancer in the right part of the colon, compared to the general population as well as to external reference cohorts of other industrial workers (N=3.965) and fishermen (N=8.092). A causal relation with the exposure to mineral dust and fibres was supported by the findings of higher risk estimated in subgroups with high cumulated asbestos doses or longer duration of cement work. The incidence of cancer in the left part of the colon was not increased. Morbidity data, but not mortality data, disclosed the subsite-specific risk pattern. Both asbestos cement workers and cement workers has an increased incidence of rectal cancer, compared with the general population, and with the fishermen. The risk was, however, of the same magnitude among the other industrial workers. 181 refs.

  3. Enhanced action of apigenin and naringenin combination on estrogen receptor activation in non-malignant colonocytes: implications on sorghum-derived phytoestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liyi; Allred, Kimberly F; Dykes, Linda; Allred, Clinton D; Awika, Joseph M

    2015-03-01

    Activation of estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) is an important mechanism for colon cancer prevention. Specific sorghum varieties that contain flavones were shown to activate ER in non-malignant colonocytes at low concentrations. This study aimed to determine positive interactions among estrogenic flavonoids most relevant in sorghum. Apigenin and naringenin were tested separately and in combination for their ability to influence ER-mediated cell growth in non-malignant young adult mouse colonocytes (YAMC). Sorghum extracts high in specific flavanones and flavones were also tested. Apigenin reduced ER-mediated YAMC cell growth comparable to physiological levels of estradiol (E₂, 1 nM) at 1 μM; naringenin had similar effect at 10 μM. However, when combined, 0.1 μM apigenin plus 0.05 μM naringenin produced similar effect as 1 nM E₂; these concentrations represented 1/10th and 1/200th, respectively, of the active concentrations of apigenin and naringenin, demonstrating a strong enhanced action. A sorghum extract higher in flavones (apigenin and luteolin) (4.8 mg g(-1)) was more effective (5 μg mL(-1)) at activating ER in YAMC than a higher flavanone (naringenin and eriodictyol) (28.1 mg g(-1)) sorghum extract (10 μg mL(-1)). Enhanced actions observed for apigenin and naringenin were adequate to explain the level of effects produced by the high flavone and flavanone sorghum extracts. Strong positive interactions among sorghum flavonoids may enhance their ability to contribute to colon cancer prevention beyond what can be modeled using target compounds in isolation.

  4. Non-malignant T-cells lacking multiple pan-T markers can be found in lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Gao, Li; Gong, Ming; Tang, Yin; Li, Yan; Zhang, Wen-Tao; Huang, Fan-Zhou; Zhang, Chun-Xia; Chen, Yan-Rong; Gao, Ya-Yue; Li, Zhen-Ling; Ma, Yi-Gai

    2018-01-01

    In order to observe and ascertain the properties of a sub-group of T cells in the lymph node (LN) from seven patients who did not suffer from T cell lymphoproliferative disorders (T-LPDs), the expression levels of several pan-T markers were evaluated by multiparameter flow cytometry (FC) and the clonality of these T-cells was evaluated by both FC analysis and PCR assessment. It turned out that multiple pan-T-cell markers such as CD2, CD5 and CD7 were found to be lost in these T cells. The majority of them were positive for TCRαβ, only a minority of them being positive for TCRγδ. A subset of these T-cells were positive for CD4 or CD8 or dual-negative for CD4 and CD8. Oligoclonality was detected in one case by FC, while clonal TCR rearrangement was detected in three cases. Absence of multiple pan-T-cell markers could be found in benign T cells in LNs.

  5. Cultured cells of the nervous system, including human neurones, in the study of the neuro-degenerative disorder, Alzheimer's disease: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boni, U

    1985-01-01

    Human nervous-system cells in culture are a suitable model for the study of the degenerative changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer-diseased brain contains a factor which induces the formation of paired helical filaments (PHF) in cultured cells, similar to that seen in Alzheimer's disease. The excitotoxic amino acids, glutamate and aspartate, induce similar PHE formation in cultured cells. The neurotoxic element aluminium is present in high concentrations in the brain in several human neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. In cultured-cell systems, aluminium interacts with acidic nuclear proteins, decreases steroid binding, produces a form of neurofibrillary degeneration and alters nucleoside metabolism.

  6. The long-term safety and efficacy of intrathecal therapy using sufentanil in chronic intractable non-malignant pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Jose Jesus; Monsivais, Diane Burn

    2014-07-01

    This report describes the long term safety and efficacy of intrathecal therapy using Sufentanil for the management of chronic intractable neuropathic pain in 12 chronic pain patients. Standardized psychological screening was used to determine treatment suitability. Evaluation data included the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Wong-Baker Faces Scale, Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire, and complications (granulomas, toxicity, withdrawal, or deaths). SPSS version 18 was used for data analysis. Pre- and post- treatment BPI measures and pain scale scores showed a statistically significant difference. There were no complications directly related to drug toxicity, nor drug withdrawals, granulomas, or deaths. Intrathecal therapy with Sufentanil therapy offers a good treatment alternative for those cases that have failed both surgery and standard pain treatment. Strict patient selection based on psychological screening, control of co-morbidities, a proper pain management may contribute to successful outcome.

  7. Bryostatin-1 causes radiosensitization of BMG-1 malignant glioma cells through differential activation of protein kinase-Cδ not evident in the non-malignant AA8 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagur, Raghubendra Singh; Hambarde, Shashank; Chandna, Sudhir

    2015-03-01

    Bryostatin-1 (bryo-1), a non-phorbol ester, is known to sensitize mammalian cells against certain chemotherapeutic drugs. We assessed its ability to modify radiation response of mammalian cells using Chinese hamster fibroblasts AA8 cells and human malignant glioma BMG-1 cells. In the malignant glioma BMG-1 cell line, bryo-1 pre-treatment significantly enhanced radiation-induced growth inhibition and cytogenetic damage, and further reduced the clonogenic cell survival as compared to cells irradiated at the clinically relevant dose of 2 Gy. PKCδ expression increased significantly when bryo-1 pre-treated BMG-1 glioma cells were irradiated at 2 Gy and induced prolonged ERK-1/2 activation associated with p21 overexpression. Silencing PKCδ resulted in inhibition of bryo-1-induced radiosensitization. In contrast, bryo-1 failed to alter radiosensitivity (cell survival; growth inhibition; cytogenetic damage) or activate ERK1/2 pathway in the AA8 fibroblasts despite PKCδ phosphorylation at its regulatory (Y155) domain, indicating alternate mechanisms in these non-malignant cells as compared to the glioma cells. This study suggests that bryo-1 may effectively enhance the radiosensitivity of malignant cells and warrants further in-depth investigations to evaluate its radiosensitizing potential in various cell types.

  8. Positive Response to Thermobalancing Therapy Enabled by Therapeutic Device in Men with Non-Malignant Prostate Diseases: BPH and Chronic Prostatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gerasimovich Aghajanyan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common types of non-malignant prostate diseases are benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and chronic prostatitis (CP. The aim of this study was to find out whether thermobalancing therapy with a physiotherapeutic device is effective for BPH and CP. Methods: During a 2.5-year period, 124 men with BPH over the age of 55 were investigated. Clinical parameters were tested twice: via the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS and via ultrasound measurement of prostate volume (PV and uroflowmetry maximum flow rate (Qmax, before and after six months of therapy. In 45 men with CP under the age of 55, the dynamics of the National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI were studied. Results: The results of the investigated index tests in men with BPH confirmed a decrease in IPSS (p < 0.001, a reduction in PV (p < 0.001, an increase in Qmax (p < 0.001, and an improvement of quality of life (QoL (p < 0.001. NIH-CPSI scores in men with CP indicated positive dynamics. Conclusions: The observed positive changes in IPSS, PV, and Qmax in men with BPH and the improvement in NIH-CPSI-QoL in patients with CP after using a physiotherapeutic device for six months as mono-therapy, support the view that thermobalancing therapy with the device can be recommended for these patients. Furthermore, the therapeutic device is free of side effects.

  9. Enteric bacterial metabolites propionic and butyric acid modulate gene expression, including CREB-dependent catecholaminergic neurotransmission, in PC12 cells--possible relevance to autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra B Nankova

    Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA like propionic (PPA, and butyric acid (BA, which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals

  10. Study on the social maturity, self-perception, and associated factors, including motor coordination, of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Fumiko; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to identify characteristics of social maturity and self-perception in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to elucidate associated factors, including motor coordination. The subjects were 15 children (14 boys and 1 girl, in elementary school grades 3 to 6). Their characteristics were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), the Japanese version of the Social Maturity Scale-R (S-M scale), and Harter's Self Perception Profile for Children (SPPC). The results of the study suggested that most of the subjects had some degree of motor problem and delay of social maturity. They also suggested an association between social maturity and static-dynamic balance, which was one of the indices of motor coordination.

  11. A randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a single session of nurse administered massage for short term relief of chronic non-malignant pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulson Katrina

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Massage is increasingly used to manage chronic pain but its benefit has not been clearly established. The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of a single session of nurse-administered massage for the short term relief of chronic non-malignant pain and anxiety. Methods A randomised controlled trial design was used, in which the patients were assigned to a massage or control group. The massage group received a 15 minute manual massage and the control group a 15 minute visit to talk about their pain. Adult patients attending a pain relief unit with a diagnosis of chronic pain whose pain was described as moderate or severe were eligible for the study. An observer blind to the patients' treatment group carried out assessments immediately before (baseline, after treatment and 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours later. Pain was assessed using 100 mm visual analogue scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Pain Relief was assessed using a five point verbal rating scale. Anxiety was assessed with the Spielberger short form State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results 101 patients were randomised and evaluated, 50 in the massage and 51 in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups at baseline interview. Patients in the massage but not the control group had significantly less pain compared to baseline immediately after and one hour post treatment. 95% confidence interval for the difference in mean pain reduction at one hour post treatment between the massage and control groups is 5.47 mm to 24.70 mm. Patients in the massage but not the control group had a statistically significant reduction in anxiety compared to baseline immediately after and at 1 hour post treatment. Conclusion Massage is effective in the short term for chronic pain of moderate to severe intensity. Trial Registration [ISRCTN98406653

  12. The effect of flexible cognitive-behavioural therapy and medical treatment, including antidepressants on post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in traumatised refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Caecilie Böck; Nordentoft, Merete; Ekstrøm, Morten

    2016-01-01

    design (registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00917397, EUDRACT no. 2008-006714-15). Participants were refugees with war-related traumatic experiences, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and without psychotic disorder. Treatment was weekly sessions with a physician and/or psychologist over 6 months...

  13. The DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non‐clinical sample: psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Eline L.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With DSM‐5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM‐5‐based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized an...

  14. Bofu-tsu-shosan, an oriental herbal medicine, exerts a combinatorial favorable metabolic modulation including antihypertensive effect on a mouse model of human metabolic disorders with visceral obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Azushima

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that metabolic dysfunction with visceral obesity is a major medical problem associated with the development of hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2DM and dyslipidemia, and ultimately severe cardiovascular and renal disease. Therefore, an effective anti-obesity treatment with a concomitant improvement in metabolic profile is important for the treatment of metabolic dysfunction with visceral obesity. Bofu-tsu-shosan (BOF is one of oriental herbal medicine and is clinically available to treat obesity in Japan. Although BOF is a candidate as a novel therapeutic strategy to improve metabolic dysfunction with obesity, the mechanism of its beneficial effect is not fully elucidated. Here, we investigated mechanism of therapeutic effects of BOF on KKAy mice, a model of human metabolic disorders with obesity. Chronic treatment of KKAy mice with BOF persistently decreased food intake, body weight gain, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. In addition, both tissue weight and cell size of white adipose tissue (WAT were decreased, with concomitant increases in the expression of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors genes in WAT as well as the circulating adiponectin level by BOF treatment. Furthermore, gene expression of uncoupling protein-1, a thermogenesis factor, in brown adipose tissue and rectal temperature were both elevated by BOF. Intriguingly, plasma acylated-ghrelin, an active form of orexigenic hormone, and short-term food intake were significantly decreased by single bolus administration of BOF. These results indicate that BOF exerts a combinatorial favorable metabolic modulation including antihypertensive effect, at least partially, via its beneficial effect on adipose tissue function and its appetite-inhibitory property through suppression on the ghrelin system.

  15. Advances in unrelated and alternative donor hematopoietic cell transplantation for nonmalignant disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shenoy, Shalini; Boelens, Jaap J.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of hematopoietic cell transplantation in non-malignant disorders has increased exponentially with the recognition that multiple diseases can be controlled or cured if engrafted with donor-derived cells. This review provides an overview of advances made in alternative

  16. Advances in unrelated and alternative donor hematopoietic cell transplantation for nonmalignant disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shenoy, Shalini; Boelens, Jaap J.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of hematopoietic cell transplantation in non-malignant disorders has increased exponentially with the recognition that multiple diseases can be controlled or cured if engrafted with donor-derived cells. This review provides an overview of advances made in alternative dono

  17. Kinetics of 3H-serotonin uptake by platelets in infantile autism and developmental language disorder (including five pairs of twins)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsui, T.; Okuda, M.; Usuda, S.; Koizumi, T.

    1986-03-01

    The kinetics of 5-HT uptake by platelets was studied in cases of infantile autism and developmental language disorder (DLD) and normal subjects. Two patients of the autism group were twins, and the seven patients of the DLD group were members of four pairs of twins. The Vmax values (means +/- SD) for autism and DLD were 6.46 +/- .90 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min and 4.85 +/- 1.50 pmol 5-HT/10(7) cells/min, respectively. These values were both significantly higher than that of 2.25 +/- .97 pmole 5-HT/10(7) cells/min for normal children. The Km values of the three groups were not significantly different. Data on the five pairs of twins examined suggested that the elevated Vmax of 5-HT uptake by platelets was determined genetically.

  18. Non-analgesic effects of opioids: the cognitive effects of opioids in chronic pain of malignant and non-malignant origin. An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højsted, Jette; Kurita, Geana Paula; Kendall, Sally; Lundorff, Lena; de Mattos Pimenta, Cibele Andrucioli; Sjøgren, Per

    2012-01-01

    Opioids constitute the basis for pharmacological treatment of moderate to severe pain in cancer pain and non-cancer pain patients. Their action is mediated by the activation of opioid receptors, which integrates the pain modulation system with other effects in the central nervous system including cognition resulting in complex interactions between pain, opioids and cognition. The literature on this complexity is sparse and information regarding the cognitive effects of opioids in chronic pain patients is substantially lacking. Two previous systematic reviews on cancer pain and non-cancer pain patients only using controlled studies were updated. Fourteen controlled studies on the cognitive effects of opioids in chronic non-cancer pain patients and eleven controlled studies in cancer pain patients were included and analyzed. Opioid treatment involved slightly opposite outcomes in the two patient groups: no effects or worsening of cognitive function in cancer pain patients and no effect or improvements in the chronic non-cancer pain patients, however, due to methodological limitations and a huge variety of designs definite conclusions are difficult to draw from the studies. In studies of higher quality of evidence opioid induced deficits in cognitive functioning were associated with dose increase and the use of supplemental doses of opioids in cancer patients. Future perspectives should comprise the conduction of high quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving relevant control groups and validated neuropsychological assessments tools before and after opioid treatment in order to further explore the complex interaction between pain, opioids and cognition.

  19. Opiáceo intratecal na dor crônica não neoplásica: alívio e qualidade de vida Intrathecal opioids for treatment of intractable non-malignant pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIBELE ANDRUCIOLI DE MATTOS PIMENTA

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available O uso de agentes morfínicos para o controle da dor crônica não relacionada a câncer é controverso. Este estudo aferiu o alívio da dor e as mudanças nas atividades de 11 doentes com dor crônica não associada ao câncer, tratados pela infusão intratecal de fármacos morfínicos através de bombas implantáveis. A dor era neuropática em 5 doentes e miofascial em 6. A duração média da queixa álgica foi 5,3 anos. A média da intensidade da dor antes da infusão foi 8,6. Sete doentes apresentavam dor durante 6 ou mais horas por dia. Após o tratamento, a média de intensidade da dor reduziu-se para 3,9. Somente 1 doente manteve dor com duração superior a 6 horas. O tratamento melhorou o desempenho de 36,36% dos aspectos funcionais avaliados. O tempo médio de tratamento foi 19,6 meses. A infusão crônica de agentes morfínicos por via intratecal proporcionou alívio da dor, mas não melhorou a funcionalidade com a mesma magnitude.The use of opioids for treatment of non-malignant pain is controversial. The evaluation of pain relief and of the quality of life of 11 severely incapacitated chronic non-cancer pain patients treated with long term intrathecal infusion of opioids trought implantable pumps was performed. The mean duration of pain complaints was 5.3 years. The mean pain intensity was 8.6. In 7 patients, pain episodes lasted at least 6 hours daily. The mean duration of the therapy was 19.6 months. After the treatment the mean pain score became 3.9. In only 1 patient, the duration of pain episodes was still longer than 6 hours. Quality of life improved in 36.36% of the cases. The long term spinal opioids through implantable pumps for non-malignant pains results in pain relief but not necessarily improves the quality of life.

  20. Quantification of acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide in the headspace of malignant and non-malignant lung cells in vitro by SIFT-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulé-Suso, Josep; Pysanenko, Andriy; Spanel, Patrik; Smith, David

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, showed that CALU-1 lung cancer cell cultures emit acetaldehyde in proportion to the number of cells in the culture medium. However, studies in another laboratory led to conflicting results, so these SIFT-MS studies have been repeated and extended to include NL20 normal lung epithelial cells and 35FL121 Tel+ telomerase positive lung fibroblast cells. Thus, SIFT-MS has been used to quantify acetaldehyde and, additionally, carbon dioxide, acetone and ethanol in the headspace of the cell culture medium alone and the headspace of the appropriate medium containing 50 x 10(6) or 80 x 10(6) cells following incubation for 16 h at 37 degrees C. Three independent experiments were carried out for each cell type for both cell numbers and for each of the two culture media used. The results showed that acetone and ethanol were only released by the culture medium, specifically from the foetal calf serum contained in the medium, and not by the cells. Acetaldehyde was also released by the medium, but at relatively lower levels than the other three compounds, and was also generated by the CALU-1 and NL20 cell cultures in proportions to the number of cells in the medium. However, following incubation, the acetaldehyde levels in the headspace of the 35FL121 Tel+ cell cultures were much lower than those present in the headspace of the medium alone. Carbon dioxide was clearly generated by the CALU-1 and 35FL121 Tel+ cells indicating that they were respiring normally, but much less was produced by the NL20 cells, presumably indicating that normal metabolism was being inhibited.

  1. Epidemiología, prevalencia y calidad de vida del dolor crónico no oncológico: Estudio ITACA Epidemiology, prevalence and quality of life of non-malignant chronic pain: ITACA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Casals

    2004-07-01

    lumbar degenerativo o inflamatorio, con una evolución media del mismo de 5,32 ± 6,31 años, viven en familia, tienen sobrepeso y habitan en zonas urbanas. Existe una relación directa entre la intensidad del dolor y el grado de afectación de la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Se aprecia una mayor repercusión sobre el índice físico que el mental en la calidad de vida de la población estudiada. Los indicadores negativos de salud física son padecer artrosis y la intensidad de dolor, los positivos el dolor visceral y la escasa limitación de la actividad física. Las variables que influyen negativamente en la esfera mental de la calidad de vida están representadas por el sexo femenino, no tener estudios y tener una invalidez de la actividad.Objective: To describe and analyze the epidemiological, clinical and quality of life features of patients with non-neuropathic non-malignant chronic pain recruited for the ITACA study (Impact of Analgesic Treatment on Quality of Life in Algias in which 100 Pain Units of our country participated. Material and methods: The ITACA study was a prospective, observational, multicentric pharmacoepidemiological study performed during the first half of 2001. Data from the study population were obtained during the first recruitment visit. Results: The study included 907 patients, 66.03% women and 33.97% men, with an average age of 57.43 ± 11.34 years. Forty-eight per cent of patients had an age ranging from 55 to 70 years; 92.56% lived with their family and 74.44% lived in an urban setting; 42.37% had overweight and 28,99%, obesity. The cause of chronic pain was, in order of frequency: lumbalgia (52.92%, followed by osteroarthritis (33.96% and arthrosis (30.65%. The nociceptive process had lasted for 5.32 ± 6.31 years. Seventy-nine per cent of the study population had some kind of restriction of their physical activity. Concomitant drugs were administered to 78.84% of the patients for the management of pain and 69.6% followed other drug

  2. Anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, Michelle G; Stein, Murray B; Eley, Thalia C; Milad, Mohammed R; Holmes, Andrew; Rapee, Ronald M; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-05-04

    Anxiety disorders constitute the largest group of mental disorders in most western societies and are a leading cause of disability. The essential features of anxiety disorders are excessive and enduring fear, anxiety or avoidance of perceived threats, and can also include panic attacks. Although the neurobiology of individual anxiety disorders is largely unknown, some generalizations have been identified for most disorders, such as alterations in the limbic system, dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and genetic factors. In addition, general risk factors for anxiety disorders include female sex and a family history of anxiety, although disorder-specific risk factors have also been identified. The diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders varies for the individual disorders, but are generally similar across the two most common classification systems: the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition (ICD-10). Despite their public health significance, the vast majority of anxiety disorders remain undetected and untreated by health care systems, even in economically advanced countries. If untreated, these disorders are usually chronic with waxing and waning symptoms. Impairments associated with anxiety disorders range from limitations in role functioning to severe disabilities, such as the patient being unable to leave their home.

  3. Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depression or mania. The two types of schizoaffective disorder — both of which include some symptoms of schizophrenia — are: Bipolar type , which includes episodes of mania and sometimes major depression Depressive type , which includes only major depressive episodes ...

  4. Borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorder - borderline ... Cause of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is unknown. Genetic, family, and social factors are thought to play roles. Risk factors for BPD include: Abandonment ...

  5. Should We Expand the Toolbox of Psychiatric Treatment Methods to Include Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)? A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of rTMS in Psychiatric Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotema, Christina W.; Blom, Jan Dirk; Hoek, Hans W.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe treatment method with few side effects However, efficacy for various psychiatric disorders is currently not clear Data sources: A literature search was performed from 1966 through October 2008 using PubMed, Ovid Medline, Embase

  6. Cyclothymic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... swings (these are less severe than in bipolar disorder or major depression) Ongoing symptoms, with no more than 2 symptom-free months in a row Exams and Tests ... Treatments for this disorder include mood-stabilizing medicine, antidepressants, talk therapy, or ...

  7. [Eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders.

  8. Parathyroid Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much phosphorous. Causes include injury to the glands, endocrine disorders, or genetic conditions. Treatment is aimed at restoring the balance of calcium and phosphorous. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  9. Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 21 (Down syndrome) . Other trisomies include trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) . Monosomy is another ... which there is an extra chromosome. Trisomy 13 (Patau Syndrome): A chromosomal disorder that causes serious problems with ...

  10. Phonological disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and language problems. Other risk factors may include poverty and coming from a large family. Phonological disorders ... In a child developing normal speech patterns: By age 3, at least one half of what a child says should be ...

  11. [The prognostic significance of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for phobic anxiety disorders, vegetative and cognitive impairments during conservative treatment including adaptol of some functional and organic diseases of nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhivolupov, S A; Samartsev, I N; Marchenko, A A; Puliatkina, O V

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the efficacy of adaptol in the treatment of 45 patients with somatoform dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system and 30 patients with closed head injury. The condition of patients during the treatment was evaluated with clinical and neuropsychological scales. The serum level of BDNF before and after the treatment has been studied as well. Adaptol has been shown to enhance the production of BDNF, reduce significantly the intensity of anxiety, autonomic disorders and improve intellectual processes. The dose-dependent effect of the drug has been demonstrated. In conclusion, adaptol can be recommended for treatment of diseases that demand stimulation of neuroplasticity in the CNS.

  12. Helping the most vulnerable out of the poverty trap and reducing inequality: Policies, strategies, and services for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder, including intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities: BASE Project Report (Volume 2) NILT Survey Autism Module

    OpenAIRE

    Dillenburger, Karola; Jordan, Julie-Ann; McKerr, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of the BASE Project was to establish how to help individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder out of poverty by promoting social inclusion. In order to achieve this, a range of methodologies were utilised that aimed to provide a baseline against which the effect of the Autism Act (NI) 2011 and the associated Autism Strategy (2013-2020) and Action Plans can be measured. The BASE Project is reported in 5 volumes. Volume 2 reports on the analysis of the autism module of the Nort...

  13. Helping the most vulnerable out of the poverty trap and reducing inequality: Policies, strategies, and services for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder, including intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities: Benchmarking Autism Services Efficacy: BASE Project (Volume 3) Secondary Data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    1) Executive SummaryLegislation (Autism Act NI, 2011), a cross-departmental strategy (Autism Strategy 2013-2020) and a first action plan (2013-2016) have been developed in Northern Ireland in order to support individuals and families affected by Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) without a prior thorough baseline assessment of need. At the same time, there are large existing data sets about the population in NI that had never been subjected to a secondary data analysis with regards to data on ASD...

  14. Disordered eating practices in gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satherley, R; Howard, R; Higgs, S

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review evidence concerning disordered eating practices in dietary-controlled gastrointestinal conditions. Three key questions were examined: a) are disordered eating practices a feature of GI disorders?; b) what abnormal eating practices are present in those with GI disorders?; and c) what factors are associated with the presence of disordered eating in those with GI disorders? By exploring these questions, we aim to develop a conceptual model of disordered eating development in GI disease. Five key databases, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings (1900-2014) and MEDLINE (1950-2014), PubMed, PsycINFO (1967-2014) and Google Scholar, were searched for papers relating to disordered eating practices in those with GI disorders. All papers were quality assessed before being included in the review. Nine papers were included in the review. The majority of papers reported that the prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls. Disordered eating patterns in dietary-controlled GI disorders may be associated with both anxiety and GI symptoms. Evidence concerning the correlates of disordered eating was limited. The presence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls, but the direction of the relationship is not clear. Implications for further research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sleep Disorders in Childhood Neurogenetic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Beth Mann Dosier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic advances in the past three decades have transformed our understanding and treatment of many human diseases including neurogenetic disorders. Most neurogenetic disorders can be classified as “rare disease,” but collectively neurogenetic disorders are not rare and are commonly encountered in general pediatric practice. The authors decided to select eight relatively well-known neurogenetic disorders including Down syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Smith–Magenis syndrome, congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, achondroplasia, mucopolysaccharidoses, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Each disorder is presented in the following format: overview, clinical characteristics, developmental aspects, associated sleep disorders, management and research/future directions.

  16. Examining social competence, self-perception, quality of life, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescent females with and without autism spectrum disorder: a quantitative design including between-groups and correlational analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, T Rene; Schuttler, Jessica Oeth

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent females with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are an understudied population, yet are also quite vulnerable, due to the increased complexities of social interaction and increased risk for internalizing symptoms in adolescence. Most research literature currently focuses on males with ASD, limiting our understanding of social experiences for females with ASD, and thus the potential to better inform supports and intervention to promote social-emotional functioning. This study examined similarities and differences in selected indicators of social-emotional health (social competence, self-perception, quality of life) and problematic behaviors such as externalizing and internalizing symptoms for adolescent females with and without ASD. This study employed a quantitative design utilizing correlational analysis as well as t test comparisons to examine selected indicators of social-emotional health and problematic symptoms using the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS), Youth Quality of Life Instrument (YQOL), and the Self-Perceptions Profile for Adolescents (SPPA) for adolescent females with ASD in relation to their typically developing peers. Significant differences were found between females with and without ASD in terms of their self-ratings of social-emotional health and problematic behaviors. The no-ASD group rated themselves higher across all areas of social-emotional health. Findings also suggest strong relationships between these constructs, especially for females without ASD. Parent reports of autism symptoms and social-emotional health indicated that as symptoms of autism are more severe, so too was the impact on individuals' social competence. Adolescent females with ASD perceive themselves as having lower social competence, self-worth, and quality of life and higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms as compared to their typically developing peers. Parent ratings indicate that higher levels of autism symptoms relate to lower

  17. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders that can cause such problems. Such physical disorders include food allergies, digestive tract disorders that impair food absorption (malabsorption—see Overview of Malabsorption ), and cancer. ...

  18. Prevalence of Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Infection in Patients with Hematologic Disorders and Non-Hematologic Malignancies in a Tertiary Referral Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaeikhoo, Hasan; Soleymani, Mosayeb; Rajaeinejad, Mohsen; Keyhani, Manoutchehr

    2017-04-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first retrovirus identified in human. The current evidence is quite scarce regarding the potential role of HTLV-1 in pathogenesis of hematologic disorders and non-hematologic malignancies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in patients with hematologic disorders and non-hematologic malignancies. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 505 cases of definite diagnosis of hematologic disorders including malignancies as well as non-malignant disorders such as polycythemia and myelofibrosis and non-hematologic malignancies referred to the hematology and medical oncology ward at Army Hospital 501 from January 2015 to January 2016. A 3-mL blood specimen was collected from each patient and tested for the presence of anti-HTLV-1 antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed using SPSS software package version 19 (IBM, New York, USA). Data are presented as mean ± SD if normally distributed and otherwise as median (range). Totally, 242 (48%) males and 263 (52%) females with a mean ± SD age of 52.09 ± 16.24 were enrolled in this study. In total, there were 9 (1.78%) cases positive for HTLV-1 infection including 4 males and 5 females. Seven out of 287 (2.4%) patients with hematologic disorders were infected by HTLV-1. In non-hematologic malignancies, 2 out of 211 cases were positive (0.9%). There was no HTLV-1 positive case in 7 patients with both hematologic and non-hematologic disorders. The difference in HTLV-1 infection prevalence between patients with hematologic disorders and non-hematologic malignancies was not statistically significant different (P = 0.31). There was no association between sex and transfusion history with HTLV-1 infection in this population (P = 0.9 and 0.7, respectively). Our study revealed that the prevalence of HTLV-1 in hematologic disorders is higher than the general population. Further larger prospective studies are

  19. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  20. Tongue Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  1. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  2. Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

  3. Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury and Delayed Sequelae: A Review - Traumatic Brain Injury and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (Concussion) are Precursors to Later-Onset Brain Disorders, Including Early-Onset Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Kiraly, Michael A.; Kiraly, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Brain injuries are too common. Most people are unaware of the incidence of and horrendous consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Research and the advent of sophisticated imaging have led to progression in the understanding of brain pathophysiology following TBI. Seminal evidence from animal and human experiments demonstrate links between TBI and the subsequent onset of premature, psychiatric syndromes and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzh...

  5. Lithium and Thyroid Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lut Tamam; Emel Kulan; Nurgul Ozpoyraz

    2003-01-01

    Lithium is a mood stabilizator drug which has been used in the treatment of many mental disorders including bipolar disorders, cyclothymia, recurrent depression, and schizoaffective disorder for the last 50 years. Clinical and experimental studies have shown that patients under lithium treatment could develop thyroid disorders in a range from single disorder in TSH response to severe mxyedema. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(2.000): 99-114

  6. Lithium and Thyroid Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is a mood stabilizator drug which has been used in the treatment of many mental disorders including bipolar disorders, cyclothymia, recurrent depression, and schizoaffective disorder for the last 50 years. Clinical and experimental studies have shown that patients under lithium treatment could develop thyroid disorders in a range from single disorder in TSH response to severe mxyedema. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(2.000: 99-114

  7. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  8. Traumatic Brain Injury and Delayed Sequelae: A Review - Traumatic Brain Injury and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (Concussion are Precursors to Later-Onset Brain Disorders, Including Early-Onset Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Kiraly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain injuries are too common. Most people are unaware of the incidence of and horrendous consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI and mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI. Research and the advent of sophisticated imaging have led to progression in the understanding of brain pathophysiology following TBI. Seminal evidence from animal and human experiments demonstrate links between TBI and the subsequent onset of premature, psychiatric syndromes and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD and Parkinson's disease (PD. Objectives of this summary are, therefore, to instill appreciation regarding the importance of brain injury prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, and to increase awareness regarding the long-term delayed consequences following TBI.

  9. Movement disorders and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H

    2012-11-01

    This article summarizes what is currently known about sleep disturbances in several movement disorders including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, parkinsonism, dystonia, Huntington disease, myoclonus, and ataxias. There is an association between movement disorders and sleep. In some cases the prevalence of sleep disorders is much higher in patients with movement disorder, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. In other cases, sleep difficulties worsen the involuntary movements. In many cases the medications used to treat patients with movement disorder disturb sleep or cause daytime sleepiness. The importance of discussing sleep issues in patients with movement disorders cannot be underestimated.

  10. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  11. Common Eye Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.cdc.gov/emailupdates/">What's this? Submit Button Common Eye Disorders Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... macular degeneration, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Other common eye disorders include amblyopia and strabismus. For a ...

  12. Differences in compassion fatigue, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and relationship satisfaction, including sexual desire and functioning, between male and female detectives who investigate sexual offenses against children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Eric J; Lating, Jeffrey M; Lowry, Jenny L; Martino, Traci P

    2010-01-01

    Law enforcement detectives who work with traumatized individuals, especially children who were victims of sexual abuse or assault, are likely to experience job-related emotional distress. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations among compassion fatigue, probable PTSD symptoms, and personal relationship satisfaction, including communication and sexual satisfaction, in a sample of 47 male and female detectives. Responses to the administered questionnaires indicated a relation between compassion fatigue symptoms and probable PTSD symptoms. There also were compelling gender differences. For example, for male detectives, open communication with their spouse or significant other was negatively correlated with burnout, indicating the more open the communication, the lower the reported burnout. However for female detectives there was a negative correlation between open communication with spouse or significant other and compassion satisfaction, suggesting that more open communication was related to lower levels of satisfaction with their ability to be a professional caregiver Furthermore, although stepwise regression analysis indicated that years of service as a detective is independently associated with sexual desire, female detectives evidenced less sexual desire and more difficulty with sexual functioning than did male detectives. Implications of these preliminary findings are discussed and limitations addressed.

  13. Suicides and Suicide Attempts during Long-Term Treatment with Antidepressants: A Meta-Analysis of 29 Placebo-Controlled Studies Including 6,934 Patients with Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Cora; Bschor, Tom; Franklin, Jeremy; Baethge, Christopher

    It is unclear whether antidepressants can prevent suicides or suicide attempts, particularly during long-term use. We carried out a comprehensive review of long-term studies of antidepressants (relapse prevention). Sources were obtained from 5 review articles and by searches of MEDLINE, PubMed Central and a hand search of bibliographies. We meta-analyzed placebo-controlled antidepressant RCTs of at least 3 months' duration and calculated suicide and suicide attempt incidence rates, incidence rate ratios and Peto odds ratios (ORs). Out of 807 studies screened 29 were included, covering 6,934 patients (5,529 patient-years). In total, 1.45 suicides and 2.76 suicide attempts per 1,000 patient-years were reported. Seven out of 8 suicides and 13 out of 14 suicide attempts occurred in antidepressant arms, resulting in incidence rate ratios of 5.03 (0.78-114.1; p = 0.102) for suicides and of 9.02 (1.58-193.6; p = 0.007) for suicide attempts. Peto ORs were 2.6 (0.6-11.2; nonsignificant) and 3.4 (1.1-11.0; p = 0.04), respectively. Dropouts due to unknown reasons were similar in the antidepressant and placebo arms (9.6 vs. 9.9%). The majority of suicides and suicide attempts originated from 1 study, accounting for a fifth of all patient-years in this meta-analysis. Leaving out this study resulted in a nonsignificant incidence rate ratio for suicide attempts of 3.83 (0.53-91.01). Therapists should be aware of the lack of proof from RCTs that antidepressants prevent suicides and suicide attempts. We cannot conclude with certainty whether antidepressants increase the risk for suicide or suicide attempts. Researchers must report all suicides and suicide attempts in RCTs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Binge Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Turan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge Eating Disorder, characterized by frequent and persistent overeating episodes that are accompanied by feeling of loss of control over eating without regular compensatory behaviors and was identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as a new eating disorder category. Binge Eating Disorder is the most common eating disorder among adults. Binge Eating Disorder is associated with significant morbidity, including medical complications related to obesity, eating disorder psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity; reduced quality of life, and impaired social functioning. Current treatments of Binge Eating Disorder include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and bariatric surgery. In this review, the definition, epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and also mainly treatment of Binge Eating Disorder are discussed.

  15. Eating disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  16. Amnestic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Savage, G.

    2015-01-01

    Amnestic disorders may involve deficits in the encoding or storage of information in memory, or in retrieval of information from memory. Etiologies vary and include traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, and psychiatric illness. Different forms of amnesia can be distinguished: anterograd

  17. Penis Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Problems with the penis can cause pain and affect a man's sexual function and fertility. Penis disorders include Erectile dysfunction - inability to get or keep an erection Priapism - a painful erection that does not go away Peyronie's disease - bending of the penis during ...

  18. ANXIETY DISORDERS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Ashwani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher preponderance of 2:1 as compared to males. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by various combinations of key features - Irritability, fear, Insomnia, Nervousness, Tachycardia, Inability to concentrate, poor coping skills, Palpitation, Sweating, Agoraphobia and Social Withdrawal. The anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social anxiety disorder (SAD, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, are among the disabling medical disorders. The neurobiology of anxiety disorders is not fully understood, but several different biologic abnormalities have been implicated in their etiology. The GABA, NE and 5HT systems play crucial roles in mediating the affective circuitry underlying the highly related clinical disorders of anxiety. Anxiety is a common psychiatric condition characterized by unnecessary aggression, poor quality of life, fear, worry, avoidance, and compulsive rituals that are associated with significant distress.

  19. [Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercadante, M.T.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Schwartzman, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative

  20. Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farah

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and self-concept disturbances, are more prevalent among women than men. Women with eating disorders are also at risk for long-term psychological and social problems, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse and suicide. For instance, in 2000, the prevalence of depression among women who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of anorexia (11.5% or bulimia (15.4 % was more than twice the rate of depression (5.7 % among the general population of Canadian women. The highest incidence of depression was found in women aged 25 to 39 years for both anorexia and bulimia. Data Gaps and Recommendations Hospitalization data are the most recent and accessible information available. However, this data captures only the more severe cases. It does not include the individuals with eating disorders who may visit clinics or family doctors, or use hospital outpatient services or no services at all. Currently, there is no process for collecting this information systematically across Canada; consequently, the number of cases obtained from hospitalization data is underestimated. Other limitations noted during the literature review include the overuse of clinical samples, lack of longitudinal data, appropriate comparison groups, large samples, and ethnic group analysis.

  1. Feeding and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Swallowing Feeding and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Children What are ... children with feeding and swallowing disorders ? What are feeding and swallowing disorders? Feeding disorders include problems gathering ...

  2. Sleep Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian sleep has evolved under the influence of the day-night cycle and in response to reproductive needs, food seeking, and predator avoidance, resulting in circadian (predictive) and homeostatic (reactive) regulation. A molecular clock characterized by transcription/translation feedback loops...... mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive sleep apneas...

  3. Academic Choice for Included Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerbetz, Mandi Davis; Kostewicz, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    Students with emotional disturbances present with behavioral and academic deficits that often limit their participation in general education settings. As an antecedent intervention, academic choice provides multiple choices surrounding academic work promoting academic and behavioral gains. The authors examined the effects of assignment choice with…

  4. STXBP1 encephalopathy: A neurodevelopmental disorder including epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamberger, H.; Nikanorova, M.; Willemsen, M.H.; Accorsi, P.; Angriman, M.; Baier, H.; Benkel-Herrenbrueck, I.; Benoit, V.; Budetta, M.; Caliebe, A.; Cantalupo, G.; Capovilla, G.; Casara, G.; Courage, C.; Deprez, M.; Destree, A.; Dilena, R.; Erasmus, C.E.; Fannemel, M.; Fjaer, R.; Giordano, L.; Helbig, K.L.; Heyne, H.O.; Klepper, J.; Kluger, G.J.; Lederer, D.; Lodi, M.; Maier, O.; Merkenschlager, A.; Michelberger, N.; Minetti, C.; Muhle, H.; Phalin, J.; Ramsey, K.; Romeo, A.; Schallner, J.; Schanze, I.; Shinawi, M.; Sleegers, K.; Sterbova, K.; Syrbe, S.; Traverso, M.; Tzschach, A.; Uldall, P.; Coster, R. van; Verhelst, H.; Viri, M.; Winter, S.; Wolff, M.; Zenker, M.; Zoccante, L.; Jonghe, P. De; Helbig, I.; Striano, P.; Lemke, J.R.; Moller, R.S.; Weckhuysen, S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To give a comprehensive overview of the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of STXBP1 encephalopathy (STXBP1-E) by systematically reviewing newly diagnosed and previously reported patients. METHODS: We recruited newly diagnosed patients with STXBP1 mutations through an international network o

  5. Integumentary Disorders Including Cutaneous Neoplasia in Older Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knottenbelt, Derek C

    2016-08-01

    Few skin diseases specifically or exclusively affect older horses and donkeys. Hypertrichosis (hirsutism) associated with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction is probably the most recognized and best understood exception and is the most common age-related skin condition in equids. Many other conditions are known to be more serious in older horses. Horses affected with immune-compromising conditions can be more severely affected by infectious diseases of the skin or heavy and pathologically significant parasitism. Neoplasia of the skin is probably more prevalent and worse in older horses, although many of the more serious skin tumors develop initially at a younger age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manic depression; Bipolar affective disorder; Mood disorder - bipolar; Manic depressive disorder ... Fatigue or lack of energy Feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness, or guilt Loss of pleasure in activities once ...

  7. 纤维乳腺导管镜对乳腺非肿瘤性良性病变的诊断及治疗价值(附120例报告)%The diagnosis and treatment value of fibroptic ductoscopy in non-malignant mammary lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂巍; 赵曼; 金光华; 于作夫; 曲文志; 潘金娣; 胡松; 宋翔

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of fiberoptic ductoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of patients with galactophoritis or mammary duct ectasia. Methods From November 2005 to March 2008, fiberoptic ductoscopy were performed in 120 women with nipple discharge. The duct of 95 cases as non-malignant lesion were insufflated and perfusioned with entamycin and dexamethasone. Results Ninty-five of 120 cases were non-malignant disease,which contained one side 81 and two sides 14; the discharge was bloody,ivory, stramineous in 21, 17, 57 patinents, respectively; and the dignosis were 17 mammary duct ectasia, 53 galactophoritis, and 25 mammary duct ectasia with galactophoritis. Of the 95 cases, hich were intradutal insufflated and perfusioned with gentamycin and dexamethasone, the nipple discharge were decreased or disappeared in 81 cases, the effective rate was 85.3%. Conclusion Fiberoptic ductoscopy is a convenient,safe, accurate method in diagnosis and treatment of patients with galactophoritis or mammary duct ectasia.%目的 总结纤维乳腺导管镜在乳管炎及乳管扩张症等非肿瘤性良性病变中的诊断及治疗价值.方法 2005年11月至2008年3月,对120例乳头溢液病例行FDS检查,并对其中95例非肿瘤性良性病变疾病者行术中乳管冲洗,给予庆大霉素及地塞米松灌注治疗.结果 95例非肿瘤性良性病变中,单侧81例,双侧14例,溢液为血性者21例,乳白色者17例,淡黄色者57.FDS拟诊为乳管扩张症17例,乳管炎53例,乳管炎合并乳管扩张症25例.95例经乳管冲洗,庆大霉素及地塞米松灌注治疗后81例溢液减少或消失,有效率为85.3%.结论 FDS检查乳头溢液安全、有效、准确、可靠.对非肿瘤性良性疾病诊断准确,并有明确治疗效果.

  8. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases.

  9. Personality disorder diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Widiger, Thomas A

    2003-01-01

    Every person has a characteristic manner of thinking, feeling, and relating to others. Some of these personality traits can be so dysfunctional as to warrant a diagnosis of personality disorder. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD- 10) includes ten personality disorder diagnoses. Three issues of particular importance for the diagnosis of personality disorders are their differentiation from other mental disorders, from general persona...

  10. Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recent significant stress or emotional trauma Being female — women are much more likely to develop conversion disorder Having a mental health condition, such as mood or anxiety disorders, dissociative disorder or certain personality disorders Having ...

  11. Conduct disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conduct disorder is often linked to attention-deficit disorder . Conduct disorder also can be an early sign of ... child or teen has a history of conduct disorder behaviors. A physical examination and blood tests can help ...

  12. Psychotic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychotic disorders are severe mental disorders that cause abnormal thinking and perceptions. People with psychoses lose touch ... is not there. Schizophrenia is one type of psychotic disorder. People with bipolar disorder may also have ...

  13. Differential effect of methyl-, butyl- and propylparaben and 17β-estradiol on selected cell cycle and apoptosis gene and protein expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A non-malignant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Anna Maria; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa Łucja

    2014-09-01

    Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid used widely as antimicrobial preservatives in consumer products, including pharmaceuticals, foods and cosmetics. We showed previously that methyl-, butyl- and propylparaben parabens, even at low doses, stimulate the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and non-transformed MCF-10A breast epithelial cells. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this represents a direct effect on cell cycle and apoptotic gene expression. MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells were exposed to methyl, butyl- and propylparaben (20 nm) or 17β-estradiol (10 nm). Cell cycle and apoptotic gene expression were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and protein expression by Western blot. 17β-estradiol upregulated G1 /S phase genes and downregulated cell cycle progression inhibitors in both MCF-7 and MCF-10A. Upregulation of Bcl-xL and downregulation of caspase 9 was observed in MCF-7, while upregulation of Bcl-xL, BCL2L2 and caspase 9 was noted in MCF-10A. Cyclins in MCF-7 cells were not affected by any of the parabens. Methyl- and butylparaben had no effect on the expression of selected apoptotic genes in MCF-7. In MCF-10A, all parabens tested increased the expression of G1 /S phase genes, and downregulated cell cycle inhibitors. Methylparaben increased pro-survival gene. Butylparaben increased BCL2L1 gene, as did 17β-estradiol, while propylparaben upregulated both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. There are differences in cell cycle and apoptosis gene expression between parabens and 17β-estradiol in MCF-7 cells. In MCF-10A cells, most of the genes activated by parabens were comparable to those activated by 17β-estradiol.

  14. O uso de opióides no tratamento da dor crônica não oncológica: o papel da metadona El uso de opioides en el tratamiento del dolor crónico no oncológica: el papel de la metadona Opioids for treating non malignant chronic pain: the role of methadone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sady Ribeiro

    2002-09-01

    importante en los últimos años. En este estudio, objetivamos evaluar críticamente las informaciones disponibles en la literatura a respecto del uso de opioides para tratamiento del dolor crónico no oncológico y el papel de la metadona como opción terapéutica. CONTENIDO: Los estudios disponibles aun son limitados, más demuestran que determinadas subpoblaciones de pacientes portadores de dolor crónico, pueden alcanzar analgesia importante, con poca tolerancia y bajo potencial para adición, principalmente aquellos refractarios a los esquemas terapéuticos convencionales. Morfina es el opioide patrón, también otras alternativas pueden ser utilizadas como oxicodona, hidromorfona o fentanil. Metadona es un opioide sintético, inicialmente utilizado para prevenir síndrome de abstinencia en paciente dependientes, que también constituye una opción importante en el tratamiento del dolor crónico no oncológico, principalmente dolor neuropático. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar del creciente conocimiento sobre el uso de opioides en el dolor crónico no oncológico, nuevos estudios mejor controlados aun son necesarios para una discusión más científica a respecto del asunto. La metadona administrada por vía oral presenta una buena relación costeo-beneficio, representando una alternativa efectiva para mejor control del dolor en algunos pacientes.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The use of opioids for cancer pain has already well established by several well-controlled clinical trials. However, there is a major controversy about long-term use of opioids in non-malignant chronic pain, which has been significantly intensified in the last few years. This study aimed at evaluating available data on the use of opioids for treating non-malignant chronic pain and the role of methadone as a therapeutic alternative. CONTENTS: There are few available studies, but they show that some subpopulations of chronic pain patients may achieve sustained analgesia with minor tolerance and low addiction

  15. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  16. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  17. [Skin-picking disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U

    2015-10-01

    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated.

  18. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  19. The cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph ePhillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.

  20. The (non)malignancy of cancerous amino acidic substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, David; Taylor, Martin S; Thornton, Janet M

    2010-02-15

    The process of natural selection acts both on individual organisms within a population and on individual cells within an organism as they develop into cancer. In this work, we have taken a first step toward understanding the differences in selection pressures exerted on the human genome under these disparate circumstances. Focusing on single amino acid substitutions, we have found that cancer-related mutations (CRMs) are frequent in evolutionarily conserved sites, whereas single amino acid polymorphisms (SAPs) tend to appear in sites having a more relaxed evolutionary pressure. Those CRMs classed as cancer driver mutations show greater enrichment for conserved sites than passenger mutations. Consistent with this, driver mutations are enriched for sites annotated as key functional residues and their neighbors, and are more likely to be located on the surface of proteins than expected by chance. Overall the pattern of CRM and polymorphism is remarkably similar, but we do see a clear signal indicative of diversifying selection for disruptive amino acid substitutions in the cancer driver mutations. The ultimate consequence of the appearance of those mutations must be advantageous for the tumor cell, leading to cell population-growth and migration events similar to those seen in natural ecosystems.

  1. Helicobacter pylori and non-malignant upper gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasapolli, Riccardo; Malfertheiner, Peter; Kandulski, Arne

    2016-09-01

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has been further decreased over the last decades along with decreasing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori-associated PUD. A delayed H. pylori eradication has been associated with an increased risk of rehospitalization for complicated recurrent peptic ulcer and reemphasized the importance of eradication especially in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). PUB associated with NSAID/aspirin intake and H. pylori revealed an additive interaction in gastric pathophysiology which favors the "test-and-treat" strategy for H. pylori in patients with specific risk factors. The H. pylori-negative and NSAID-negative "idiopathic PUD" have been increasingly observed and associated with slower healing tendency, higher risk of recurrence, and greater mortality. Helicobacter pylori-associated dyspepsia has been further investigated and finally defined by the Kyoto consensus. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is advised as first option in this group of patients. Only in the case of symptom persistence or recurrence after eradication therapy, dyspeptic patients should be classified as functional dyspepsia (FD). There were few new data in 2015 on the role of H. pylori infection in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and in particular Barrett's esophagus. A lower prevalence of gastric atrophy with less acid output in patients with erosive esophagitis confirmed previous findings. In patients with erosive esophagitis, no difference was observed in healing rates neither between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients nor between patients that underwent eradication therapy compared to patients without eradication. These findings are in line with the current consensus guidelines concluding that H. pylori eradication has no effects on symptoms and does not aggravate preexisting GERD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Therapeutical solutions for non-malignant eso-bronchial fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galie, N; Grigorie, V

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of surgical treatment for the patients with eso-respiratory fistulas. The following cases revealed the anesthesic and surgical difficulties, and also intraoperative and postoperative complications that can occur when the esophageal contents get into the respiratory system. In these situations, therapy must be adapted according to fistula's topography and etiology, and also to patients' biological conditions.

  3. Therapeutical solutions for non-malignant eso-bronchial fistulas

    OpenAIRE

    Galie, N; Grigorie, V

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of surgical treatment for the patients with eso-respiratory fistulas. The following cases revealed the anesthesic and surgical difficulties, and also intraoperative and postoperative complications that can occur when the esophageal contents get into the respiratory system. In these situations, therapy must be adapted according to fistula’s topography and etiology, and also to patients’ biological conditions.

  4. Epidemiology of chronic non-malignant pain in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Jensen, Marianne K; Sjøgren, Per

    2003-01-01

    % more (overall contacts) by the PG than by the general population. Among the persons in the PG, 33% were not satisfied with the examinations carried out in connection with their pain condition and 40% were not satisfied with the treatment offered. Nearly 130,000 adults, corresponding to 3% of the Danish...

  5. Role of endosonography in non-malignant pancreatic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyung W Noh; Surakit Pungpapong; Massimo Raimondo

    2007-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as a valuable tool in the evaluation of benign and malignant pancreatic diseases. The ability to obtain high quality images and perform fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has led EUS to become the diagnostic test of choice when evaluating the pancreas. This article will review the role of EUS in benign pancreatic diseases.

  6. [Deglutition disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, E K

    1998-08-01

    Dysphagia is related to the impairment of food passage from the mouth to the stomach. Globus pharyngis implies the frequent and often painful sensation of a lump in the throat that usually does not interfere with swallowing and may even be relieved by food intake. The diagnosis is based upon a careful history, clinical examination, endoscopy, dynamic imaging (videofluoroscopy, cinematography, videosonography) and electrophysiologic procedures (including pharyngoesophageal manometry, electromyography and pH determinations). Structural lesions of the cervical spine such as diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis are rare causes of dysphagia. Dysphagia following anterior cervical fusion as well as globus and dysphonia due to dysfunction of the vertebral joints are more likely. Symptoms with swallowing fluids indicate a neurogenic origin. Dyscoordinated swallowing, nasal reflux, dysphonia or general weakness may also occur. Chronic aspiration with respiratory compromize is the main consequence in a variety of neurological disorders as well as in cases of postsurgical dysphagia. Relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter indicates coordinated muscle movement between the pharynx and esophagus. Dysfunction of the pharyngoesophageal segment may lead to cricopharyngeal achalasia. A dyskinetic sphincter commonly represents an extrapharyngeal cause: i.e., disease associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Disorders of the esophageal phase of deglutition can produce retrosternal pain, heartburn, regurgitation and vomiting, as well as laryngeal and respiratory signs. Esophageal motility disorders include lower achalasia, tumors, peptic strictures, inflammatory diseases, drug-induced ulcers, rings and webs. Motility disorders present with aperistaltic, spontaneous contractions, diffuse esophagospasm, or a hypermotile esophagus. Gastroesophageal reflux with esophagitis must always be excluded, especially in patients with a globus sensation. The multiple features of the

  7. Sleep Disorders (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time. A sleep disorder assessment includes a physical exam, health history, and sleep history. Your doctor will ... before bedtime. Avoid foods and drinks that have caffeine , including dietary supplements to control appetite . Other habits ...

  8. Schizoaffective disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of schizoaffective disorder is unknown. Changes in genes and chemicals in the brain (neurotransmitters) may play a role. Schizoaffective disorder is thought to be less common than schizophrenia and mood disorders. Women may have the condition ...

  9. Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  10. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner B

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Berit Kerner Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a “risk” allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are

  11. Eating disorders in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    JÁGLOVÁ, Štěpánka

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor degree work deals with disorders food intake, in particular, mental anorexia and mental bulimia in maturing period. The theoretical part is aimed at maturing problems and food intake disorders generally. There is characteristics and division of maturing period into early and late adolescence including psychological and physical changes which are typical for this period. Then food intake disorders, their causes, effects and their possible treatment are specified. The aim of the pr...

  12. Temporomandibular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Thomas; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2017-01-01

    , limitations in jaw movement, and noise from the TMJs during jaw movements. TMD affects up to 15% of adults and 7% of adolescents. Chronic pain is the overwhelming reason that patients with TMD seek treatment. TMD can associate with impaired general health, depression, and other psychological disabilities......, and may affect the quality of life of the patient. Assessment Evaluations indicate that the recently published Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) are reliable and valid. These criteria cover the most common types of TMD, which include pain-related disorders (e.g., myalgia, headache attributable to TMD...

  13. Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders? Pleurisy (PLUR-ih-se) is a ... Many conditions can cause pleurisy, including viral infections. Other Pleural Disorders Pneumothorax Air or gas can build ...

  14. Tic disorders and Tourette's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic categories of tic disorders include both transient and chronic tic disorders and Tourette's disorder. Changes for this group of disorders proposed for the forthcoming DSM-5 system include: (1) The term "stereotyped" will be eliminated in the definition of tics and the new definition...... tic disorders into those with motor tics or with vocal tics only; (5) specification of the absence of a period longer than 3 months without tics will disappear for Tourette's Disorder. This overview discusses a number of implications resulting from these diagnostic modifications of the diagnostic...

  15. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other mental health disorders, including the effects of stress and gender differences on these disorders. With a fuller understanding of all the ways alcohol and other mental health disorders affect one another, researchers may be able to better ...

  16. A Review of Co-Morbid Disorders of Asperger's Disorder and the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stephanie; Curwen, Tracey; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    This review includes empirical peer-reviewed articles which support the examination of Asperger's Disorder and co-morbid disorders, as well as an analysis of how adolescents with Asperger's Disorder transition to adulthood. Although the focus was on Asperger's Disorder, some studies include Autism Spectrum Disorder samples. It was found that…

  17. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Ingmar

    2011-07-01

    Recent research has shown that depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis are more common than previously supposed in elderly populations without dementia. It is unclear whether the frequency of these disorders increases or decreases with age. Clinical expression of psychiatric disorders in old age may be different from that seen in younger age groups, with less and often milder symptoms. Concurrently, comorbidity between different psychiatric disorders is immense, as well as comorbidity with somatic disorders. Cognitive function is often decreased in people with depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis, but whether these disorders are risk factors for dementia is unclear. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly are often related to cerebral neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular disease, although psychosocial risk factors are also important. Psychiatric disorders, common among the elderly, have consequences that include social deprivation, poor quality of life, cognitive decline, disability, increased risk for somatic disorders, suicide, and increased nonsuicidal mortality.

  18. Mitochondrial disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeviani, M; Tiranti, V; Piantadosi, C

    1998-01-01

    Mitochondrial respiration, the most efficient metabolic pathway devoted to energy production, is at the crosspoint of 2 quite different genetic systems, the nuclear genome and the mitochondrial genome (mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA). The latter encodes a few essential components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and has unique molecular and genetic properties that account for some of the peculiar features of mitochondrial disorders. However, the perpetuation, propagation, and expression of mtDNA, the majority of the subunits of the respiratory complexes, as well as a number of genes involved in their assembly and turnover, are contained in the nuclear genome. Although mitochondrial disorders have been known for more than 30 years, a major breakthrough in their understanding has come much later, with the discovery of an impressive, ever-increasing number of mutations of mitochondrial DNA. Partial deletions or duplications of mtDNA, or maternally inherited point mutations, have been associated with well-defined clinical syndromes. However, phenotypes transmitted as mendelian traits have also been identified. These include clinical entities defined on the basis of specific biochemical defects, and also a few autosomal dominant or recessive syndromes associated with multiple deletions or tissue-specific depletion of mtDNA. Given the complexity of mitochondrial genetics and biochemistry, the clinical manifestations of mitochondrial disorders are extremely heterogenous. They range from lesions of single tissues or structures, such as the optic nerve in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy or the cochlea in maternally inherited nonsyndromic deafness, to more widespread lesions including myopathies, encephalomyopathies, cardiopathies, or complex multisystem syndromes. The recent advances in genetic studies provide both diagnostic tools and new pathogenetic insights in this rapidly expanding area of human pathology.

  19. Neuromuscular disorders in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidon, Amanda C; Massey, E Wayne

    2012-08-01

    Preexisting and coincident neuromuscular disorders in pregnancy are challenging for clinicians because of the heterogeneity of disease and the limited data in the literature. Many questions arise regarding the effect of disease on the pregnancy, delivery, and newborn in addition to the effect of pregnancy on the course of disease. Each disorder has particular considerations and possible complications. An interdisciplinary team of physicians is essential. This article discusses the most recent literature on neuromuscular disorders in pregnancy including acquired root, plexus, and peripheral nerve lesions; acquired and inherited neuropathies and myopathies; disorders of the neuromuscular junction; and motor neuron diseases.

  20. Mood and affect disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Michael H; Pinsky, Elizabeth G

    2015-02-01

    Depressive disorders are common in children and adolescents, with estimates for depressive episodes as high as 18.2% for girls and 7.7% for boys by age 17 years, and are a major cause of morbidity and even mortality. The primary care pediatrician should be able to (1) diagnose depressive disorders and use standardized instruments; (2) ask about suicide, self-harm, homicide, substance use, mania, and psychosis; (3) triage the severity of illness; (4) be aware of the differential diagnosis, including normal development, other depressive disorders, bipolar disorders, and comorbid disorders, such as anxiety and substance use; (5) refer to evidenced-based psychotherapies; (6) prescribe first-line medications; and (7) provide ongoing coordination in a medical home. Pediatric bipolar disorders and the new disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) diagnoses are controversial but not uncommon, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0.8% to 4.3% in children at various ages. Although the pediatrician is not likely to be prescribing medications for children with bipolar disorder and DMDD diagnoses, all clinicians should be familiar with common neuroleptics and other mood stabilizers, including important potential adverse effects. Basic management of depressive and bipolar disorders is an important skill for primary care pediatricians.

  1. [Pharmacotherapy of Anxiety Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanzger, P

    2016-05-01

    Anxiety disorders belong to the most frequent psychiatric disorders according to epidemiological studies and are associated with a high economic burden. Panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia belong to the most important clinical disorders. The etiology is complex, including genetic, neurobiological as well as psychosocial factors. With regard to treatment, both psychotherapy and medication can be employed according to current treatment guidelines. With regard to psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) represents the treatment of choice. As for pharmacological treatment, in particular modern antidepressants and pregabalin are recommended. However, several recommendations have to be considered in daily clinical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Skin picking disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Keuthen, Nancy J; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J

    2012-11-01

    Although skin picking has been documented in the medical literature since the 19th century, only now is it receiving serious consideration as a DSM psychiatric disorder in discussions for DSM-5. Recent community prevalence studies suggest that skin picking disorder appears to be as common as many other psychiatric disorders, with reported prevalences ranging from 1.4% to 5.4%. Clinical evaluation of patients with skin picking disorder entails a broad physical and psychiatric examination, encouraging an interdisciplinary approach to evaluation and treatment. Approaches to treatment should include cognitive-behavioral therapy (including habit reversal or acceptance-enhanced behavior therapy) and medication (serotonin reuptake inhibitors, N-acetylcysteine, or naltrexone). Based on clinical experience and research findings, the authors recommend several management approaches to skin picking disorder.

  3. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... separation or divorce and differences in expectations and parenting styles. Your child's key medical information, including other physical ... way to prevent oppositional defiant disorder. However, positive parenting and ... child's self-esteem and rebuild a positive relationship between you and ...

  4. Toe Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe arthritis, can cause toe problems and pain. Gout often causes pain in the big toe. Common toe problems include Corns and bunions Ingrown toenails Sprains and dislocations Fractures Treatments for toe injuries and disorders vary. They might ...

  5. with obsessive compulsive disorder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-25

    Sep 25, 2007 ... received the diagnosis of OCD, according to ICD-10 DCR1S, were included. ... morbid anxiety disorders, concurrent major illness or systemic dysfunction ..... a comparison with social phobic and normal control subjects. J.

  6. 半导体激光联合电针、中频电治疗及护理颞下颌关节紊乱综合症的疗效观察%Semiconductor laser including joint, intermediate frequency electric therapy curative effect observation and nursing of TMJ disorder syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁红梅; 何增义

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the semiconductor laser combined acusector and intermediate frequency elec-tric effect for the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorder syndrome. Methods:56 cases in line with the diag-nostic criteria of temporomandibular joint disorder syndrome were divided into observation group and control group, 28 cases, control group using the intermediate frequency electric therapy, on the basis of the observation group in the control group therapy combined with semiconductor laser and cupping treatment, two groups of the same nursing measures, compare the curative effect after 10 d. Results: The control group, 10 cases were cured, 3 cases had marked effect, improvement in 7 cases, 8 no effect, the total effective rate was 71.4%;Observation group 19 cases cured, 5 cases were markedly effective, better in 2 cases, 2 had no effect, the total effective rate was 92.9%;The clini-cal curative effect of observation group was obviously better than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion:Semicon-ductor laser including joint, intermediate frequency electric therapy and nursing temporal jaw joint disorder syn-drome clinical curative effect is distinct, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, to improve the jaw joints and restore mastica-tory muscle function, and is superior to the intermediate frequency electric therapy alone.%目的:观察半导体激光联合电针及中频电治疗颞下颌关节紊乱综合征的效果。方法:将56例符合诊断标准的颞下颌关节紊乱综合征患者分为观察组和对照组,各28例,对照组使用中频电治疗,观察组在对照组治疗的基础上加用半导体激光和电针治疗,两组采用相同护理措施,10d后进行疗效比较。结果:对照组治愈10例,显效3例,好转7例,无效8例,总有效率71.4%;观察组治愈19例,显效5例,好转2例,无效2例,总有效率92.9%;观察组临床疗效明显优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:半导体激光联合电针、

  7. Myotonic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankodi Ami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Myotonia reflects a state of muscle fiber hyperexcitability. Impaired transmembrane conductance of either chloride or sodium ions results in myotonia. Myotonic disorders include the myotonic dystrophies and nondystrophic myotonias. Mutations in the genes encoding chloride (ClC-1 or sodium (SCN4A channels expressed exclusively in skeletal muscle cause nondystrophic myotonias. Genetic defects in the myotonic dystrophies do not involve ion channel or its regulator proteins. Recent research supports a novel RNA-mediated disease mechanism of myotonia in the myotonic dystrophies. Myotonic dystrophy Type 1 is caused by CTG repeat expansion in the 3′ untranslated region in the Dystrophia Myotonica Protein Kinase (DMPK gene. Myotonic dystrophy Type 2 is caused by CCTG repeat expansion in the first intron in Zinc Finger Protein 9 (ZNF9 gene. The expanded repeat is transcribed in RNA and forms discrete inclusions in nucleus in both types of myotonic dystrophies. Mutant RNA sequesters MBNL1, a splice regulator protein and depletes MBNL1 from the nucleoplasm. Loss of MBNL1 results in altered splicing of ClC-1 mRNA. Altered splice products do not encode functional ClC-1 protein. Subsequent loss of chloride conductance in muscle membrane causes myotonia in the myotonic dystrophies. The purpose of this review is to discuss the clinical presentation, recent advances in understanding the disease mechanism with particular emphasis on myotonic dystrophies and potential therapy options in myotonic disorders.

  8. Primary headache disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoliel, Rafael; Eliav, Eli

    2013-07-01

    Primary headache disorders include migraine, tension-type headaches, and the trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TACs). "Primary" refers to a lack of clear underlying causative pathology, trauma, or systemic disease. The TACs include cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, and short-lasting neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing; hemicrania continua, although classified separately by the International Headache Society, shares many features of both migraine and the TACs. This article describes the features and treatment of these disorders.

  9. Growth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because their parents are. But some children have growth disorders. Growth disorders are problems that prevent children from developing ... or other features. Very slow or very fast growth can sometimes signal a gland problem or disease. ...

  10. Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body ... that produce the energy. You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or ...

  11. Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This is the basis for a condition called agoraphobia. A person who has agoraphobia finds it difficult to leave home (or another ... Disorders Education Program Last Updated: April 2014 Tags: agoraphobia, Alprazolam, antidepressants, anxiety disorders, behavior therapy, clonazepam, klonopin, ...

  12. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anxiety Disorders KidsHealth > For Teens > Anxiety Disorders A A ... Do en español Trastornos de ansiedad What Is Anxiety? Liam had always looked out for his younger ...

  13. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in ...

  14. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

  15. Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  16. Menstrual Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Menstrual Disorders in Teens Page Content Article Body Within ... test Measurement of gonadotropins, prolactin and androgens How Menstrual Disorders are treated with Drug Therapy: After exclusion ...

  17. Conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000954.htm Conversion disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Conversion disorder is a mental condition in which a person ...

  18. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Binge-eating, which is out-of-control eating Women are more likely than men to have eating disorders. They usually start in the teenage years and often occur along with depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. Eating disorders can lead ...

  19. Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  20. Traumatic Stress Disorders and Risk of Subsequent Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder or Bipolar Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Niels; Trabjerg, Betina; Arendt, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Traumatic stress disorders are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, there is a lack of prospective longitudinal studies investigating the risk of severe mental illness for people diagnosed with traumatic stress disorders. We aimed to assess if patients...... with acute stress reaction (ASR) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders or bipolar disorder. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study covering the entire Danish population including information on inpatient and outpatient mental hospitals...... over 2 decades. Predictors were in- or outpatient diagnoses of ASR or PTSD. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% CIs of schizophrenia, schizophrenia spectrum disorder, and bipolar disorder. RESULTS: Persons with a traumatic stress disorder had a significantly increased risk...

  1. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity.

  2. Psychobiology of anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J

    2008-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is currently classified as an anxiety disorder. However, there is growing interest in the concept of an obsessive-compulsive spectrum of disorders (OCSDs). The relationship between anxiety disorders and OCSDs has been questioned. The psychobiology of anxiety disorders and OCSDs is briefly reviewed in this article. While there appear to be several distinct contrasts in the underlying psychobiology of these conditions, there is also evidence of overlapping mechanisms. In addition, there are crucial gaps in our current database, confounding nosological decision-making. Conceptualizing various anxiety disorders and putative OCSDs as lying within a broader spectrum of emotional disorders may be useful. However, clinicians must also recognize that individual anxiety and obsessive-compulsive spectrum conditions, including disorders characterized by body-focused repetitive behaviors, have distinct psychobiological underpinnings and require different treatment approaches.

  3. Autoimmune autonomic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckeon, Andrew; Benarroch, Eduardo E

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune autonomic disorders occur because of an immune response directed against sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric ganglia, autonomic nerves, or central autonomic pathways. In general, peripheral autoimmune disorders manifest with either generalized or restricted autonomic failure, whereas central autoimmune disorders manifest primarily with autonomic hyperactivity. Some autonomic disorders are generalized, and others are limited in their anatomic extent, e.g., isolated gastrointestinal dysmotility. Historically, these disorders were poorly recognized, and thought to be neurodegenerative. Over the last 20 years a number of autoantibody biomarkers have been discovered that have enabled the identification of certain patients as having an autoimmune basis for either autonomic failure or hyperactivity. Peripheral autoimmune autonomic disorders include autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG), paraneoplastic autonomic neuropathy, and acute autonomic and sensory neuropathy. AAG manifests with acute or subacute onset of generalized or selective autonomic failure. Antibody targeting the α3 subunit of the ganglionic-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α3gAChR) is detected in approximately 50% of cases of AAG. Some other disorders are characterized immunologically by paraneoplastic antibodies with a high positive predictive value for cancer, such as antineuronal nuclear antibody, type 1 (ANNA-1: anti-Hu); others still are seronegative. Recognition of an autoimmune basis for autonomic disorders is important, as their manifestations are disabling, may reflect an underlying neoplasm, and have the potential to improve with a combination of symptomatic and immune therapies.

  4. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  5. Movement disorders in cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna, Raja; Jankovic, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    Movement disorders can occur as primary (idiopathic) or genetic disease, as a manifestation of an underlying neurodegenerative disorder, or secondary to a wide range of neurological or systemic diseases. Cerebrovascular diseases represent up to 22% of secondary movement disorders, and involuntary movements develop after 1-4% of strokes. Post-stroke movement disorders can manifest in parkinsonism or a wide range of hyperkinetic movement disorders including chorea, ballism, athetosis, dystonia, tremor, myoclonus, stereotypies, and akathisia. Some of these disorders occur immediately after acute stroke, whereas others can develop later, and yet others represent delayed-onset progressive movement disorders. These movement disorders have been encountered in patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes, subarachnoid haemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformations, and dural arteriovenous fistula affecting the basal ganglia, their connections, or both.

  6. Addictive eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, M

    1989-03-01

    Addictive eating disorders have been a part of history and have only recently been recognized as psychiatric disorders. Increased publicity has enabled family and friends of eating disordered individuals to recognize the disease and seek help for them from trained medical professionals. Everyone is "at risk," but certain subpopulations have been "coming out of the closet" in epidemic proportions. An ever-increasing number of high school-aged and college-aged females have developed some form of eating disorder, from fad diets to self-induced vomiting. In these individuals, the obsession with thinness takes priority over family, friends, schoolwork, or career. Strangely enough, the eating disordered person's addiction is not to food but to the feeling of numbness her behavior brings. Over time, the need to control is desperately sought and many patients transfer their obsession to other patterns of self-abuse. Nursing intervention should include setting the appropriate example in terms of the professional's relationship with food, while providing much needed emotional support. An innovative method of intervention available to nursing professionals includes the use of creative, visual imagery to repeatedly diffuse fear and anxiety about food until a level of personal autonomy over the disorder and other emotional concerns is achieved. Therefore, a system of recovery can be designed for the anorectic or bulimic patient and the experience of recovery from the eating disorder can be a lifelong process of personal growth.

  7. [Differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Masatoshi

    2011-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of dissociative disorders includes many psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorders (especially bipolar II disorder), depressive disorder (especially atypical depression), epilepsy, Asperger syndrome, and borderline personality disorder. The theme of this paper is the differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia. Schneiderian first-rank symptoms in schizophrenia are common in dissociative disorders, especially in dissociative identity disorder (DID). Many DID patients have been misdiagnosed as schizophrenics and treated with neuroleptics. We compared and examined Schneiderian symptoms of schizophrenia and those of dissociative disorders from a structural viewpoint. In dissociative disorders, delusional perception and somatic passivity are not seen. "Lateness" and "Precedence of the Other" originated from the concept of "Pattern Reversal" (H. Yasunaga)" is characteristic of schizophrenia. It is important to check these basic structure of schizophrenia in subjective experiences in differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia.

  8. Nonspecific eating disorders - a subjective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Michalska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this paper was to characterise nonspecific eating disorders (other than anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Method. The Medline database was searched for articles on nonspecific eating disorders. The following disorders were described: binge eating disorder (BED, pica, rumination disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, night eating syndrome (NES, sleep-related eating disorder (SRED, bigorexia, orthorexia, focusing on diagnosis, symptoms, assessment, comorbidities, clinical implications and treatment. Results. All of the included disorders may have dangerous consequences, both somatic and psychological. They are often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Approximately a few percent of general population can be diagnosed with each disorder, from 0.5–4.7% (SRED to about 7% (orthorexia. With the growing literature on the subject and changes in DSM-5, clinicians recognise and treat those disorders more often. Conclusions. More studies have to be conducted in order to differentiate disorders and treat or prevent them appropriately.

  9. Nonspecific eating disorders - a subjective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Aneta; Szejko, Natalia; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wojnar, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to characterise nonspecific eating disorders (other than anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa). The Medline database was searched for articles on nonspecific eating disorders. The following disorders were described: binge eating disorder (BED), pica, rumination disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, night eating syndrome (NES), sleep-related eating disorder (SRED), bigorexia, orthorexia, focusing on diagnosis, symptoms, assessment, comorbidities, clinical implications and treatment. All of the included disorders may have dangerous consequences, both somatic and psychological. They are often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Approximately a few percent of general population can be diagnosed with each disorder, from 0.5-4.7% (SRED) to about 7% (orthorexia). With the growing literature on the subject and changes in DSM-5, clinicians recognise and treat those disorders more often. More studies have to be conducted in order to differentiate disorders and treat or prevent them appropriately.

  10. Biodiversity conservation including uncharismatic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    Recent papers mention ideas on the topics of biodiversity conservation strategies and priorities (Redford et al. 2003; Lamoreux et al. 2006; Rodrı´guez et al. 2006), the current status of biodiversity (Loreau et al. 2006), the obligations of conservation biologists regarding management policies...... (Chapron 2006; Schwartz 2006), and the main threats to biodiversity (including invasive species) (Bawa 2006). I suggest, however, that these articles do not really deal with biodiversity. Rather, they all focus on a few obviously charismatic groups (mammals, birds, some plants, fishes, human culture...

  11. The clinical effect of clomipramine in chronic idiopathic pain disorder revisited using the Spielberger State Anxiety Symptom Scale (SSASS) as outcome scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Gormsen, Lise; Loldrup, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have re-analysed our previous double-blind, placebo-controlled clomipramine study, changing the focus from depression to anxiety both in the response analysis and in the classification of minor affective states. METHODS: The Spielberger State Anxiety Symptom Scale (SSASS) including......, the effect size was below 0.40. LIMITATIONS: No attempt has been made to measure the degree of pure neuropathic pain in the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic non-malignant pain, clomipramine is superior to placebo as regards anxiolytic effect measured by Spielberger State Anxiety Symptom Scale...

  12. Metabolic disorders in menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Stachowiak; Tomasz Pertyński; Magdalena Pertyńska-Marczewska

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM) or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopaus...

  13. FLUXNET2015 Dataset: Batteries included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, G.; Papale, D.; Agarwal, D.; Trotta, C.; Chu, H.; Canfora, E.; Torn, M. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis datasets have become one of the signature products of the FLUXNET global network. They are composed from contributions of individual site teams to regional networks, being then compiled into uniform data products - now used in a wide variety of research efforts: from plant-scale microbiology to global-scale climate change. The FLUXNET Marconi Dataset in 2000 was the first in the series, followed by the FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset in 2007, with significant additions of data products and coverage, solidifying the adoption of the datasets as a research tool. The FLUXNET2015 Dataset counts with another round of substantial improvements, including extended quality control processes and checks, use of downscaled reanalysis data for filling long gaps in micrometeorological variables, multiple methods for USTAR threshold estimation and flux partitioning, and uncertainty estimates - all of which accompanied by auxiliary flags. This "batteries included" approach provides a lot of information for someone who wants to explore the data (and the processing methods) in detail. This inevitably leads to a large number of data variables. Although dealing with all these variables might seem overwhelming at first, especially to someone looking at eddy covariance data for the first time, there is method to our madness. In this work we describe the data products and variables that are part of the FLUXNET2015 Dataset, and the rationale behind the organization of the dataset, covering the simplified version (labeled SUBSET), the complete version (labeled FULLSET), and the auxiliary products in the dataset.

  14. Micturition disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Julie K

    2015-07-01

    Evaluation of dogs and cats with micturition disorders can be challenging. It is important to determine the duration, timing, and frequency of the disorder, as well as assessing for any additional medical problems, such as neurologic or orthopedic disease, that may be affecting micturition. Observation of the patient during voiding can be particularly helpful in determining the type of disorder. Treatment of micturition disorders is varied and outcome depends on an accurate diagnosis. Patient response is also highly variable, even with appropriate therapy, and owners' expectations must be set accordingly.

  15. Families classification including multiopposition asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Andrea; Spoto, Federica; Knežević, Zoran; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our new classification of asteroid families, upgraded by using catalog with > 500,000 asteroids. We discuss the outcome of the most recent update of the family list and of their membership. We found enough evidence to perform 9 mergers of the previously independent families. By introducing an improved method of estimation of the expected family growth in the less populous regions (e.g. at high inclination) we were able to reliably decide on rejection of one tiny group as a probable statistical fluke. Thus we reduced our current list to 115 families. We also present newly determined ages for 6 families, including complex 135 and 221, improving also our understanding of the dynamical vs. collisional families relationship. We conclude with some recommendations for the future work and for the family name problem.

  16. Achilles tendon disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinfeld, Steven B

    2014-03-01

    Achilles tendon disorders include tendinosis, paratenonitis, insertional tendinitis, retrocalcaneal bursitis, and frank rupture. Patients present with pain and swelling in the posterior aspect of the ankle. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound are helpful in confirming the diagnosis and guiding treatment. Nonsurgical management of Achilles tendon disorders includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, bracing, and footwear modification. Surgical treatment includes debridement of the diseased area of the tendon with direct repair. Tendon transfer may be necessary to augment the strength of the Achilles tendon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hip Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems. Osteoarthritis can cause pain and limited motion. Osteoporosis of the hip causes weak bones that break easily. Both of these are common in older people. Treatment for hip disorders may include rest, medicines, physical therapy, or surgery, including hip replacement.

  18. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  19. Overview of Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  20. Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among U.S. Adults Any Disorder Among Children Any Anxiety Disorder Among Adults Any Anxiety Disorder Among Children Agoraphobia Among Adults Agoraphobia Among Children Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Adults Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Children Obsessive Compulsive Disorder ...

  1. Panic Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among U.S. Adults Any Disorder Among Children Any Anxiety Disorder Among Adults Any Anxiety Disorder Among Children Agoraphobia Among Adults Agoraphobia Among Children Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Adults Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Children Obsessive Compulsive Disorder ...

  2. Including Magnetostriction in Micromagnetic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.; Williams, Wyn; Fabian, Karl; Nagy, Lesleis

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic anomalies that identify crustal spreading are predominantly recorded by basalts formed at the mid-ocean ridges, whose magnetic signals are dominated by iron-titanium-oxides (Fe3-xTixO4), so called "titanomagnetites", of which the Fe2.4Ti0.6O4 (TM60) phase is the most common. With sufficient quantities of titanium present, these minerals exhibit strong magnetostriction. To date, models of these grains in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) range have failed to accurately account for this effect. In particular, a popular analytic treatment provided by Kittel (1949) for describing the magnetostrictive energy as an effective increase of the anisotropy constant can produce unphysical strains for non-uniform magnetizations. I will present a rigorous approach based on work by Brown (1966) and by Kroner (1958) for including magnetostriction in micromagnetic codes which is suitable for modelling hysteresis loops and finding remanent states in the PSD regime. Preliminary results suggest the more rigorously defined micromagnetic models exhibit higher coercivities and extended single domain ranges when compared to more simplistic approaches.

  3. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  4. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  5. Conduct disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic

  6. Personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, L.M.C.; Verheul, R.; Verster, J.C.; Brady, K.; Galanter, M.; Conrod, P.

    2012-01-01

    Subject of this chapter is the often found combination of personality disorders and ­substance abuse disorders. The serious nature of this comorbidity is shown through the discussion of prevalence and epidemiological data. Literature shows that the comorbidity, hampering the diagnostic process, is s

  7. Updates on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Bledsoe, Jesse

    2011-10-01

    The relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to learning disorders was reviewed and included reading disability, mathematics learning disability, and nonverbal learning disability. Genetic, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological functioning were examined for each disorder, along with a discussion of any existing literature when ADHD co-occurred with the disorder. All the disorders were found to frequently co-occur with ADHD. A review of the underlying neuroanatomic and neurofunctional data found specific structures that frequently co-occur in these disorders with others that are specific to the individual diagnosis. Aberrations in structure and/or function were found for the caudate, corpus callosum, and cerebellum, making these structures sensitive for the disorder but not specific. Suggestions for future research, particularly in relation to intervention, are provided.

  8. Meige's Syndrome: Rare Neurological Disorder Presenting as Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debadatta, Mohapatra; Mishra, Ajay K

    2013-07-01

    Meige's syndrome is a rare neurological syndrome characterized by oromandibular dystonia and blepharospasm. Its pathophysiology is not clearly determined. A 35-year-old female presented to psychiatric department with blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia with clinical provisional diagnosis of psychiatric disorder (Conversion Disorder). After thorough physical examination including detailed neurological exam and psychiatric evaluation no formal medical or psychiatric diagnosis could be made. The other differential diagnoses of extra pyramidal symptom, tardive dyskinesia, conversion disorder, anxiety disorder were ruled out by formal diagnostic criteria. Consequently with suspicion of Meige's syndrome she was referred to the department of Neurology and the diagnosis was confirmed. Hence, Meige's syndrome could be misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder such as conversion disorder or anxiety disorder because clinical features of Meige's syndrome are highly variable and affected by psychological factors and also can be inhibited voluntarily to some extent.

  9. Autoimmune movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckeon, Andrew; Vincent, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune movement disorders encapsulate a large and diverse group of neurologic disorders occurring either in isolation or accompanying more diffuse autoimmune encephalitic illnesses. The full range of movement phenomena has been described and, as they often occur in adults, many of the presentations can mimic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington disease. Disorders may be ataxic, hypokinetic (parkinsonism), or hyperkinetic (myoclonus, chorea, tics, and other dyskinetic disorders). The autoantibody targets are diverse and include neuronal surface proteins such as leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and glycine receptors, as well as antibodies (such as intracellular antigens) that are markers of a central nervous system process mediated by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. However, there are two conditions, stiff-person syndrome (also known as stiff-man syndrome) and progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), that are always autoimmune movement disorders. In some instances (such as Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody-1 (PCA-1) autoimmunity), antibodies detected in serum and cerebrospinal fluid can be indicative of a paraneoplastic cause, and may direct the cancer search. In other instances (such as 65kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) autoimmunity), a paraneoplastic cause is very unlikely, and early treatment with immunotherapy may promote improvement or recovery. Here we describe the different types of movement disorder and the clinical features and antibodies associated with them, and discuss treatment.

  10. Neuroinflammation in bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios D Kotzalidis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature based on peripheral immunity findings speculated that neuroinflammation, with its connection to microglial activation, is linked to bipolar disorder. The endorsement of the neuroinflammatory hypotheses of bipolar disorder requires the demonstration of causality, which requires longitudinal studies. We aimed to review the evidence for neuroinflammation as a pathogenic mechanism of the bipolar disorder. We carried out a hyper inclusive PubMed search using all appropriate neuroinflammation-related terms and crossed them with bipolar disorder-related terms. The search produced 310 articles and the number rose to 350 after adding articles from other search engines and reference lists. Twenty papers were included that appropriately tackled the issue of the presence (but not of its pathophysiological role of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder. Of these, 15 were postmortem and 5 were carried out in living humans. Most articles were consistent with the presence of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder, but factors such as treatment may mask it. All studies were cross-sectional, preventing causality to be inferred. Thus, no inference can be currently made about the role of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder, but a link is likely. The issue remains little investigated, despite an excess of reviews on this topic.

  11. Comorbid personality disorders in subjects with panic disorder: which personality disorders increase clinical severity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ozkan

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Personality disorders are common in subjects with panic disorder. Personality disorders have shown to affect the course of panic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine which personality disorders effect clinical severity in subjects with panic disorder. This study included 122 adults (71 female, 41 male, who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia. Clinical assessment was conducted by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II and the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS, Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Patients who had a history of sexual abuse were assessed with Sexual Abuse Severity Scale. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, agoraphobia, different panic attack symptoms, sexual abuse, and early onset of disorders. The rates of comorbid Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders were 80.3% and 33.9%, consecutively, in patients with panic disorder. Panic disorder patients with comorbid personality disorders had more severe anxiety, depression and agoraphobia symptoms, and had earlier ages of onset, and lower levels of functioning. The rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were 34.8% and 9.8%, consecutively, in subjects with panic disorder. The rate of patients with panic disorder had a history of childhood sexual abuse was 12.5%. The predictor of sexual abuse was more than one comorbid Axis II diagnosis. The predictors of suicide attempt were comorbid paranoid and borderline personality disorders, and the predictor of suicidal ideation was major depressive disorder in subjects with panic disorder. In conclusion, this study documents that comorbid personality disorders increase the clinical severity of panic disorder. Patients with more than one

  12. [Conduct disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Christina

    2014-05-01

    The diagnosis conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by aggressive (e.g., physical aggression) as well as nonaggressive symptoms (e.g., violation of rules, truancy). Conclusions regarding the course and prognosis, or recommendations for effective interventions, seem not to be equally valid for the whole patient group. DSM-IV-TR included subtyping age-of-onset as a prognostic criterion, even though the evidence base for subtyping from age of onset was rather sparse. The relevant literature on CD has grown substantially since the publication of DSM-IV-TR in 1994. For the new DSM-5 edition, some important issues were discussed, for example, consideration of personality traits, female-specific or dimensional criteria, and adding a childhood-limited subtype (Moffitt et al., 2008). Nevertheless, the diagnostic protocol for CD was not changed in the most parts in the new edition of the DSM-5; the addition of a CD specifier with limited emotions is the most relevant change. On the basis of the existing evidence base, this review discusses whether the modifications in DSM-5 are helpful for fulfilling the requirements of a reliable and valid psychiatric classification.

  13. Anxiety Disorders: Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  14. Screening for Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  15. Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorder Specific Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Depression Bipolar Disorder Suicide and Prevention Stress Related Illnesses Myth-Conceptions Find ...

  16. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  17. Neuroimaging in anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Kirsten; Bandelow, Borwin; Gruber, Oliver; Wedekind, Dirk

    2009-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies have gained increasing importance in validating neurobiological network hypotheses for anxiety disorders. Functional imaging procedures and radioligand binding studies in healthy subjects and in patients with anxiety disorders provide growing evidence of the existence of a complex anxiety network, including limbic, brainstem, temporal, and prefrontal cortical regions. Obviously, "normal anxiety" does not equal "pathological anxiety" although many phenomena are evident in healthy subjects, however to a lower extent. Differential effects of distinct brain regions and lateralization phenomena in different anxiety disorders are mentioned. An overview of neuroimaging investigations in anxiety disorders is given after a brief summary of results from healthy volunteers. Concluding implications for future research are made by the authors.

  18. Paranoid personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebwasser, Joseph; Chemerinski, Eran; Roussos, Panos; Siever, Larry J

    2013-12-01

    Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is currently included in DSM-IV's "odd cluster" or "cluster A." In the present article, the authors review available information pertaining to the psychometric properties of PPD, as derived from the relevant literature and from databases of personality disorder study groups. There is comparatively little published evidence for the reliability and validity of PPD, and researchers by and large have tended not to study the disorder, either because of investigators' difficulty recruiting individuals with PPD into research studies, or (as seems more likely) because the trait-paranoia from which many psychiatric patients suffer has seemed better explained by other DSM-IV disorders on Axis I and/or Axis II than by PPD. Given the scant empirical evidence on PPD, it seems reasonable to remove it as an independent diagnosis from the next edition of DSM, and instead to encourage clinicians to code trait-paranoia using a dimensional approach.

  19. Modeling psychiatric disorders through reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen J. Brennand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, are extremely heritable complex genetic neurodevelopmental disorders. It is now possible to directly reprogram fibroblasts from psychiatric patients into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs and subsequently differentiate these disorder-specific hiPSCs into neurons. This means that researchers can generate nearly limitless quantities of live human neurons with genetic backgrounds that are known to result in psychiatric disorders, without knowing which genes are interacting to produce the disease state in each patient. With these new human-cell-based models, scientists can investigate the precise cell types that are affected in these disorders and elucidate the cellular and molecular defects that contribute to disease initiation and progression. Here, we present a short review of experiments using hiPSCs and other sophisticated in vitro approaches to study the pathways underlying psychiatric disorders.

  20. The physics of disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Purusattam

    2012-01-01

    Disordered systems are ubiquitous in nature and their study remains a profound and challenging subject of current research. Ideas and methods from the physics of Disordered systems have been fruitfully applied to several fields ranging from computer science to neuroscience. This book contains a selection of lectures delivered at the 'SERC School on Disordered Systems', spanning topics from classic results to frontier areas of research in this field. Spin glasses, disordered Ising models, quantum disordered systems, structural glasses, dilute magnets, interfaces in random field systems and disordered vortex systems are among the topics discussed in the text, in chapters authored by active researchers in the field, including Bikas Chakrabarti, Arnab Das, Deepak Kumar, Gautam Menon, G. Ravikumar, Purusattam Ray, Srikanth Sastry and Prabodh Shukla. This book provides a gentle and comprehensive introduction to the physics of disordered systems and is aimed at graduate students and young scientists either working i...

  1. [Affective disorders and eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  2. [Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  3. Bipolar disorder and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Látalová, K

    2009-06-01

    In clinical practice, overt aggressive behaviour is frequently observed in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder. It can be dangerous and complicates patient care. Nevertheless, it has not been adequately studied as a phenomenon that is separate from other symptoms such as agitation. The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical context, and clinical management of aggression in patients with bipolar disorder. MEDLINE and PsycInfo data bases were searched for articles published between 1966 and November 2008 using the combination of key words 'aggression' or 'violence' with 'bipolar disorder'. For the treatment searches, generic names of mood stabilisers and antipsychotics were used in combination with key words 'bipolar disorder' and 'aggression'. No language constraint was applied. Articles dealing with children and adolescents were not included. Acutely ill hospitalised bipolar patients have a higher risk for aggression than other inpatients. In a population survey, the prevalence of aggressive behaviour after age 15 years was 0.66% in persons without lifetime psychiatric disorder, but 25.34% in bipolar I disorder. Comorbidity with personality disorders and substance use disorders is frequent, and it elevates the risk of aggression in bipolar patients. Impulsive aggression appears to be the most frequent subtype observed in bipolar patients. Clinical management of aggression combines pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. A major problem with the evidence is that aggression is frequently reported only as one of the items contributing to the total score on a scale or a subscale. This makes it impossible to ascertain specifically aggressive behaviour. Large controlled head-to-head randomised controlled studies comparing treatments for aggressive behaviour in bipolar disorder are not yet available. There is some evidence favouring divalproex, but it is not particularly strong .We do not know if there are any efficacy

  4. Eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treasure, Janet; Claudino, Angélica M; Zucker, Nancy

    2010-02-13

    This Seminar adds to the previous Lancet Seminar about eating disorders, published in 2003, with an emphasis on the biological contributions to illness onset and maintenance. The diagnostic criteria are in the process of review, and the probable four new categories are: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorder not otherwise specified. These categories will also be broader than they were previously, which will affect the population prevalence; the present lifetime prevalence of all eating disorders is about 5%. Eating disorders can be associated with profound and protracted physical and psychosocial morbidity. The causal factors underpinning eating disorders have been clarified by understanding about the central control of appetite. Cultural, social, and interpersonal elements can trigger onset, and changes in neural networks can sustain the illness. Overall, apart from studies reporting pharmacological treatments for binge eating disorder, advances in treatment for adults have been scarce, other than interest in new forms of treatment delivery. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Motor disorders in neurodevelopmental disorders. Tics and stereotypies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirís-Puñal, Jesús

    2014-02-24

    Tics are repetitive, sharp, rapid, non-rhythmic movements or utterances that are the result of sudden, abrupt and involuntary muscular contractions. Stereotypies are repetitive, apparently impulsive, rhythmic, purposeless movements that follow an individual repertoire that is specific to each individual and that occur under a variable time pattern, which may be either transient or persistent. Both are included in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), among the neurodevelopmental disorders, and together with coordination development disorder go to make up the group of motor disorders. For tics, the categories of 'Tourette's disorder', 'chronic motor or vocal tic disorder' and 'unspecified tic disorder' have been maintained, whereas the category 'transient tics' has disappeared and 'provisional tic disorder' and 'other specified tic disorders' have been incorporated. Within stereotypic movement disorder, the DSM-5 replaces 'non-functional' by 'apparently purposeless'; the thresholds of the need for medical care are withdrawn and replaced with the manual's standard involvement criterion; mental retardation is no longer mentioned and emphasis is placed on the severity of the stereotypic movement; and a criterion concerning the onset of symptoms and specifiers of the existence or not of self-injurious behaviours have been added, together with the association with genetic or general medical diseases or extrinsic factors. Moreover, a categorisation depending on severity has also been included.

  6. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation activity worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group including the global survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwieser, D; Baldomero, H; Szer, J; Gratwohl, M; Aljurf, M; Atsuta, Y; Bouzas, L F; Confer, D; Greinix, H; Horowitz, M; Iida, M; Lipton, J; Mohty, M; Novitzky, N; Nunez, J; Passweg, J; Pasquini, M C; Kodera, Y; Apperley, J; Seber, A; Gratwohl, A

    2016-06-01

    Data on 68 146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCTs were registered from unrelated 16 433 donors than related 15 493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared with 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCTs/team). An increase of 167% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four World Health Organization regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood transplantation.

  7. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Activity Worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT Analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group (WBMT) including the global survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederwieser, Dietger; Baldomero, Helen; Szer, Jeff; Gratwohl, Michael; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Bouzas, Luis Fernando; Confer, Dennis; Greinix, Hildegard; Horowitz, Mary; Iida, Minako; Lipton, Jeff; Mohty, Mohamad; Novitzky, Nicolas; Nunez, José; Passweg, Jakob; Pasquini, Marcelo C.; Kodera, Yoshihisa; Apperley, Jane; Seber, Adriana; Gratwohl, Alois

    2016-01-01

    Data on 68,146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCT were registered from unrelated 16,433 than related 15,493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared to 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCT/team). An increase of 67% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A SWOT analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four WHO regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood. PMID:26901703

  8. [Delusional disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Marion; Llorca, Pierre-Michel

    2015-02-01

    Delusional disorders are divided in French nosography into three clinical disease entities: paranoid delusions, psychose hallucinatoire chronique, and paraphrenia. Their common characteristics are a late start, a chronic evolution, no cognitive impairment and no dissociation. Delusio- nal syndrome is often at the forefront with a predominant mechanism characterizing each disorder (interpretation for paranoid delusions, hallucination for psychose hallucinatoire chronique and imagination for paraphrenia). Although these disorders are less sensitive to the medication than schizophrenia, care is based on second generation antipsychotic treatment, in association with psychotherapy and social care. The aim of treatment is to alleviate delusion intensity to improve global functioning and to prevent violent incidents or suicide attempt.

  9. Opioid dependence treatment, including buprenorphine/naloxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisch, Dennis W; Fye, Carol L; Boardman, Kathy D; Sather, Mike R

    2002-02-01

    To review opioid dependence (OD) and its treatment. Pharmacologic treatments, including the use of buprenorphine/naloxone, are presented. Pharmaceutical care functions for outpatient OD treatment are discussed. Primary and review articles were identified by MEDLINE and HEALTHSTAR searches (from 1966 to November 2000) and through secondary sources. Tertiary sources were also reviewed regarding general concepts of OD and its treatment. Relevant articles were reviewed after identification from published abstracts. Articles were selected based on the objectives for this article. Studies of the treatment of OD with buprenorphine were selected based on the topic (pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, adverse reactions) and study design (randomized, controlled clinical trials in patients with OD with active/placebo comparisons and/or comparisons of active OD treatments). Articles regarding pharmacists' activities in the treatment and prevention of OD were reviewed for the pharmaceutical care section. OD is considered a medical disorder with costly adverse health outcomes. Although methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is cost-effective for OD, only about 12% of individuals with OD receive this treatment. Psychological and pharmacologic modalities are used to treat OD, but patients often relapse. Drug therapy includes alpha 2-agonists for withdrawal symptoms, detoxification regimens with or without opioids, opioid antagonists, and opioid replacement including methadone, levomethadyl acetate, and buprenorphine. The Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 1999 allows for office-based opioid replacement therapies. Sublingual buprenorphine with naloxone can be used in this milieu. Buprenorphine with naloxone is currently under new drug application review with the Food and Drug Administration. Clinical research shows buprenorphine to be equal in effectiveness to methadone, but safer in overdose due to its ceiling effect on respiratory depression. It has lower abuse potential and fewer

  10. Chronic complex dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: disorders of emotion dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of chronic complex dissociative disorders (DD), as it is for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic complex DD include dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the most common form of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS, type 1), now known as Other Specified Dissociative Disorders (OSDD, type 1). BPD is a common comorbid disorder with DD, although preliminary research indicates the disorders have some distinguishing features as well as considerable overlap. This article focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, psychological profile, treatment, and neurobiology of chronic complex DD with emphasis placed on the role of emotion dysregulation in each of these areas. Trauma experts conceptualize borderline symptoms as often being trauma based, as are chronic complex DD. We review the preliminary research that compares DD to BPD in the hopes that this will stimulate additional comparative research.

  11. Postmodern Stress Disorder (PMSD): A Possible New Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiser, Arnold R

    2015-11-01

    The murder of cardiovascular surgeon, Michael Davidson, MD, suggests the existence of a new disorder, postmodern stress disorder. This disorder is characterized by repetitive exposure to digital images of violence in a variety of electronic media, including films, television, video games, music videos, and other online sources. This disorder appears to be a variant of posttraumatic stress disorder, and shares with it excessive stimulation of the amygdala and loss of the normal inhibitory inputs from the orbitofrontal cingulate cortical gyrus. In postmodern stress disorder, repetitive digital microtraumas appear to have an effect similar to that of macrotraumas of warfare or civilian assaults. Other elements of the disorder include the development of fixed ideas of bullying or public shaming, access to weapons, and loss of impulse control. This syndrome could explain a number of previously inexplicable murders/suicides. Violence against health care professionals is a profound concern for the medical profession, as are assaults on nonclinicians. The recommendation is made to change forensic procedures to include obtaining historic information concerning the use of digital media during investigations of violent crimes and murders so that the disorder may be further characterized. Gaining an understanding of this disorder will require a multidisciplinary approach to this life-threatening public health problem. Research should also focus on the development and evaluation of possible antidotes to postmodern toxicities.

  12. [Suicide risk in somatoform disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Giancarlo; Maniscalco, Ignazio; Mathà, Sandra; Ficco, Carlotta; Pernther, Georg; Sanna, Livia; Pompili, Maurizio; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Conca, Andreas

    2017-09-22

    The somatoform disorders include a group of complex disorders consist of somatic symptoms for which there are no identifiable organic cause or pathogenetic mechanisms. Given the importance of these disorders and the need to clarify the diagnosis of somatoform disorder affecting the suicide risk, we took into consideration the scientific literature to investigate the correlation between the two conditions. We performed a bibliographic search through Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, SciELO, ORCID, Google Scholar, DOAJ using the following terms: somatoform, somatization disorder, pain disorder AND psychological factor, suicide, parasuicide, suicidality. In all studies reported in our review, the suicidal behavior risk is high. But in the majority, the data are relatively unreliable because it takes into account the category nosographic "Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders", too wide to be able to identify the clinical characteristics of patients at risk of only somatoform disorder. Several studies conclude that psychiatric comorbidity increases the suicide risk: patients with two or more psychiatric disorders are more likely to commit a suicide attempt; in particular if there is a axis I diagnosis, the risk reduplicate. The somatization disorder seems to have a significant psychiatric comorbidity in particular with anxious and affective disorders spectrum.

  13. Functional neuroimaging of sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofzinger, Eric A

    2008-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging methods provide a means to understand brain function in patients with sleep disorders. This paper summarizes functional neuroimaging findings in sleep disorders patients, and studies addressing the pharmacology of sleep and sleep disorders. Areas in which functional neuroimaging methods may be helpful in sleep medicine, and in which future development is advised, include: 1) clarification of pathophysiology; 2) aid in differential diagnosis; 3) assessment of treatment response; 4) guiding new drug development; and 5) monitoring treatment response.

  14. Procedures for restoring vestibular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss therapeutic possibilities for disorders of the vestibular organs and the neurons involved, which confront ENT clinicians in everyday practice. Treatment of such disorders can be tackled either symptomatically or causally. The possible strategies for restoring the body's vestibular sense, visual function and co-ordination include medication, as well as physical and surgical procedures. Prophylactic or preventive measures are possible in some disorders which involve vert...

  15. Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with blood disorders. Magnitude of the Problem Complications from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) kill more people each year than breast cancer, motor vehicle accidents, and HIV combined. Sickle cell trait ...

  16. Bleeding disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can occur when certain factors are low or missing. Bleeding problems can range from mild to severe. Some bleeding disorders are present at birth and are passed through families (inherited). Others develop from: Illnesses such as vitamin ...

  17. Panic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recalling a past attack may trigger panic attacks. Exams and Tests Many people with panic disorder first ... of exercise Getting enough sleep Reducing or avoiding caffeine, certain cold medicines, and stimulants Support Groups You ...

  18. Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk for blood clots? Do You Know About Thalassemia? Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... become hard, sticky, and shaped like a C. Thalassemia Red blood cell disorder that affects hemoglobin. Von ...

  19. TMJ Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that the conditions fall into three main categories: Myofascial pain involves discomfort or pain in the muscles ... exist with TMJ disorders, such as chronic fatigue syndrome, sleep disturbances or fibromyalgia, a painful condition that ...

  20. Muscle disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  1. Muscle Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  2. Taste Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may help scientists develop drugs targeting the gut taste receptors to treat obesity and diabetes. Where can I ... Smell Smell Disorders News Unraveling the enigma of salty taste detection: New findings could help identify successful ...

  3. Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  4. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This kind of research can help guide the development of new means of diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders. Treatments and Therapies Adequate nutrition, reducing excessive exercise, and stopping purging behaviors are the foundations of treatment. Treatment plans are ...

  5. [Pervasive developmental disorders: controversies concerning the classification of autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, E

    2000-01-01

    Autistic Disorder was described by Leo Kanner in 1943. Since that time not only the name of this disorder (initially early infantile autism) has changed but also it's relation to other disorders. DSM-IV includes autism together with Rett's Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Asperger's Disorder and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified into one category: Pervasive Developmental Disorders. The definition and contents of Pervasive Developmental Disorders raise many controversies. Differentiation between particular disorders within this category is also difficult. This paper discusses some of these problems.

  6. Trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), skin picking disorder, and stereotypic movement disorder: toward DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Grant, Jon E; Franklin, Martin E; Keuthen, Nancy; Lochner, Christine; Singer, Harvey S; Woods, Douglas W

    2010-06-01

    In DSM-IV-TR, trichotillomania (TTM) is classified as an impulse control disorder (not classified elsewhere), skin picking lacks its own diagnostic category (but might be diagnosed as an impulse control disorder not otherwise specified), and stereotypic movement disorder is classified as a disorder usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. ICD-10 classifies TTM as a habit and impulse disorder, and includes stereotyped movement disorders in a section on other behavioral and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence. This article provides a focused review of nosological issues relevant to DSM-V, given recent empirical findings. This review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V: (1) Although TTM fits optimally into a category of body-focused repetitive behavioral disorders, in a nosology comprised of relatively few major categories it fits best within a category of motoric obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, (2) available evidence does not support continuing to include (current) diagnostic criteria B and C for TTM in DSM-V, (3) the text for TTM should be updated to describe subtypes and forms of hair pulling, (4) there are persuasive reasons for referring to TTM as "hair pulling disorder (trichotillomania)," (5) diagnostic criteria for skin picking disorder should be included in DSM-V or in DSM-Vs Appendix of Criteria Sets Provided for Further Study, and (6) the diagnostic criteria for stereotypic movement disorder should be clarified and simplified, bringing them in line with those for hair pulling and skin picking disorder.

  7. Genetics of homocysteine metabolism and associated disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brustolin, S; Giugliani, R; Félix, T.M

    2010-01-01

    .... Hyperhomocysteinemia is observed in approximately 5% of the general population and is associated with an increased risk for many disorders, including vascular and neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune disorders, birth defects, diabetes, renal disease...

  8. Personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services and to s...... increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task.......Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting...

  9. Which clinical signs are valid indicators for speech language disorder?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margot I. Visser-Bochane; Dr. Margreet R. Luinge; Sijmen A. Reijneveld; W.P. Krijnen; Dr. C.P. van der Schans

    2016-01-01

    Speech language disorders, which include speech sound disorders and language disorders, are common in early childhood. These problems, and in particular language problems, frequently go under diagnosed, because current screening instruments have no satisfying psychometric properties. Recent research

  10. Hypercalcemic Disorders in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokes, Victoria J; Nielsen, Morten F; Hannan, Fadil M

    2017-01-01

    , and familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism, and less commonly, as part of inherited complex syndromic disorders such as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN). Advances in identifying the genetic causes have resulted in increased understanding of the underlying biological pathways and improvements......Hypercalcemia is defined as a serum calcium concentration that is greater than 2 standard deviations above the normal mean, which in children may vary with age and sex, reflecting changes in the normal physiology at each developmental stage. Hypercalcemic disorders in children may present......-independent hypercalcemia in children include hypervitaminosis; granulomatous disorders and endocrinopathies. Congenital syndromes associated with PTH-independent hypercalcemia include idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH); William's syndrome; and inborn errors of metabolism. PTH-dependent hypercalcemia is usually...

  11. The overlap between binge eating disorder and substance use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Binge eating disorder (BED) is a relatively common condition, especially in young adult females, and is characterized by chronic over-consumption of food resulting in embarrassment, distress, and potential health problems. It is formally included as a disorder in DSM-5...

  12. Etiology of temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, C S

    1995-12-01

    This article discusses the subject of causation (etiology) as it has been applied to the field of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). These disorders have been the focus of considerable disagreement about what constitutes proper diagnosis and treatment, and it is clear that the main basis for these controversies has been conflicting views about the etiology of the various disorders. Many earlier theories emphasized dental morphological factors of malocclusion, occlusal dysharmony, and bad mandibular alignment as being primarily responsible for the development of TMD symptoms. Certain versions of these dental/skeletal concepts have long been a part of the belief system of the orthodontic specialty, leading to some special orthodontic protocols for managing TM disorders. Today, it is generally agreed that the etiology of TM disorders includes a multifactorial combination of physical and psychosocial factors, with some of them being either poorly understood or difficult to assess. In most cases, there are no special occlusal or orthodontic factors to be considered, and therefore occlusion-changing procedures are not generally required for successful treatment. This means that contemporary orthodontists must face the same challenge as all their other dental colleagues: to learn about modern concepts of diagnosis and treatment for all types of orofacial pain patients, and then to use currently recommended protocols for pain management and musculoskeletal therapy for those patients who have temporomandibular disorders.

  13. Transverse myelitis spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandit Lekha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute transverse myelitis (ATM is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder that affects the spinal cord focally resulting in motor sensory and autonomic dysfunction. Establishing the diagnosis of ATM is not as difficult as determining the possible etiology. There is a difference in the perception of ATM seen in the West as compared to developing countries. In the West multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. An attack of ATM may be the beginning of MS. However, this may not be the case in developing countries where MS is uncommon. Most often transverse myelitis is monophasic and at best represents a site-restricted form of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM. Traditionally the combination of optic neuritis and ATM, occurring as a monophasic illness would have been called as neuromyelitis optica (NMO. Changing concepts in the definition of NMO and the discovery of a biomarker, neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin (NMO_IgG, has changed the way relapsing autoimmune disorders are being perceived currently. A variety of idiopathic inflammatory disorders such as Japanese form of optic spinal MS, recurrent myelitis, and recurrent optic neuritis have been brought under the umbrella of neuromyelitis spectrum disorders because of the association with NMO-IgG. Complete transverse myelitis accompanied by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis which is seronegative for this biomarker has also been reported from several countries including Japan, Australia, and India. Thus, ATM is a heterogeneous disorder with a varied clinical spectrum, etiology, and outcome.

  14. Traumatic Stress Disorders and Risk of Subsequent Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder or Bipolar Disorder: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkels, Niels; Trabjerg, Betina; Arendt, Mikkel; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic stress disorders are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, there is a lack of prospective longitudinal studies investigating the risk of severe mental illness for people diagnosed with traumatic stress disorders. We aimed to assess if patients with acute stress reaction (ASR) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders or bipolar disorder. We performed a prospective cohort study covering the entire Danish population including information on inpatient and outpatient mental hospitals over 2 decades. Predictors were in- or outpatient diagnoses of ASR or PTSD. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% CIs of schizophrenia, schizophrenia spectrum disorder, and bipolar disorder. Persons with a traumatic stress disorder had a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia (IRR 3.80, CI 2.33-5.80), schizophrenia spectrum disorder (IRR 2.34, CI 1.46-3.53), and bipolar disorder (IRR 4.22, CI 2.25-7.13). Risks were highest in the first year after diagnosis of the traumatic stress disorder and remained significantly elevated after more than 5 years. Mental illness in a parent could not explain the association. Our findings support an association between diagnosed traumatic stress disorders and subsequent schizophrenia spectrum disorder or bipolar disorder. If replicated, this may increase clinical focus on patients with traumatic stress disorders. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Somatoform disorders in the family doctor's practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prykhodko V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Somatoform disorders – psychogenic diseases are characterized by pathological physical symptoms that resemble somatic illness. Thus, any organic manifestations, which can be attributed to known diseases are not detected, but there are non-specific functional impairments. Somatoform disorders include somatization disorder, undifferentiated somatoform disorder, hypocho¬n¬driacal disorder, somatoform dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system and stable somatoform pain disorder. The first part of the article reviewes features of the clinical manifestations of somatization disorder and undifferentiated somatoform disorder. Role of non-benzodiazepine tranquilizers (ADAPTOL and metabolic drugs (VASONAT in the treatment of patients with somatoform disorders is discussed. In review article data of neurologists and cardiologists on the effectiveness of anxiolytic drug ADAPTOL and metabolic drug VASONAT in different clinical groups of patients (coronary artery disease, chronic ischemia of the brain, which can significantly improve quality of life, increase exercise tolerance, improve cognitive function and correct mental and emotional disorders are presented.

  16. Bipolar Disorder (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Bipolar Disorder A A ... Bipolar Disorder en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical ...

  17. Psychological Disorder in Adolescents and Adults with Asperger Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantam, Digby

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of psychological disorder in adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome suggests that these individuals commonly develop a psychological disorder secondary to Asperger syndrome including affective disorders, anxiety-related disorders, and conduct disorders. Treatment usually involves a combination of psychoeducation, social change,…

  18. Valerian for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, L S; Atallah, A N; Soares, B G O

    2006-10-18

    Anxiety disorders are very common mental health problems in the general population and in primary care settings. Herbal medicines are popular and used worldwide and might be considered as a treatment option for anxiety if shown to be effective and safe. To investigate the effectiveness and safety of valerian for treating anxiety disorders. Electronic searches: The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) searched on 04/08/2006, MEDLINE, Lilacs. References of all identified studies were inspected for additional studies. First authors of each included study, manufacturers of valerian products, and experts in the field were contacted for information regarding unpublished trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials of valerian extract of any dose, regime, or method of administration, for people with any primary diagnosis of general anxiety disorder, anxiety neurosis, chronic anxiety status, or any other disorder in which anxiety is the primary symptom (panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social phobia, agoraphobia, other types of phobia, postraumatic stress disorder). Effectiveness was measured using clinical outcome measures and other scales for anxiety symptoms. Two review authors independently applied inclusion criteria, extracted and entered data, and performed the trial quality assessments. Where disagreements occurred, the third review author was consulted. Methodological quality of included trials was assessed using Cochrane Handbook criteria. For dichotomous outcomes, relative risk (RR) was calculated, and for continuous outcomes, the weighted mean difference (WMD) was calculated, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. One RCT involving 36 patients wih generalised anxiety disorder was eligible for inclusion. This was a 4 week pilot study of valerian, diazepam and placebo. There were no significant differences between the

  19. The Internet gaming disorder scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, J.S.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Gentile, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the American Psychiatric Association included Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in the appendix of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The main aim of the current study was to test the reliability and validity of 4 survey instruments to measur

  20. The Internet gaming disorder scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, J.S.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Gentile, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the American Psychiatric Association included Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in the appendix of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The main aim of the current study was to test the reliability and validity of 4 survey instruments to measur

  1. Movement disorders in spinocerebellar ataxias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaalen, J. van; Giunti, P.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) can present with a large variety of noncerebellar symptoms, including movement disorders. In fact, movement disorders are frequent in many of the various SCA subtypes, and they can be the presenting, dominant, or even isolated disease feature. When c

  2. Dimensions of multiple personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J B

    1994-06-01

    Research on multiple personality disorder (MPD) has burgeoned, and large-scale investigations indicate that a typical MPD patient is a woman, a victim of childhood abuse (especially sexual abuse), a person whose symptoms meet criteria for other psychiatric disorders, and a person who would employ many psychological defenses. Treatment approaches have frequently included hypnotherapy, which requires skill and caution.

  3. Metabolic disorders in menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Stachowiak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women’s life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT. According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy. Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities.

  4. Metabolic disorders in menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Grzegorz; Pertyński, Tomasz; Pertyńska-Marczewska, Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance - IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus - T2DM) or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women's life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases) in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT). According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy). Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities.

  5. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t live without, including sex hormones and cortisol. Cortisol helps you respond to stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not enough hormones. In Cushing's ... too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. ...

  6. Women's Sexual Pain Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; Granot, Michal; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar; Binik, Yitzchak M.; Wesselmann, Ursula; Pukall, Caroline F.; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Achtrari, Chahin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Women's sexual pain disorders include dyspareunia and vaginismus and there is need for state-of-the-art information in this area. Aim. To update the scientific evidence published in 2004, from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatme

  7. Exporting Our Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association will release its newest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5). This tome has evolved over the decades, originally including just 112 diagnoses across 128 pages. The upcoming edition is expected to eclipse the 943 pages, and 350+ disorders of the current DSM-IV-TR, offering a variety of…

  8. Movement disorders in systemic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poewe, Werner; Djamshidian-Tehrani, Atbin

    2015-02-01

    Movement disorders, classically involving dysfunction of the basal ganglia commonly occur in neurodegenerative and structural brain disorders. At times, however, movement disorders can be the initial manifestation of a systemic disease. In this article we discuss the most common movement disorders which may present in infectious, autoimmune, paraneoplastic, metabolic and endocrine diseases. Management often has to be multidisciplinary involving primary care physicians, neurologists, allied health professionals including nurses, occupational therapists and less frequently neurosurgeons. Recognizing and treating the underlying systemic disease is important in order to improve the neurological symptoms.

  9. Comorbidity in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) : a report from the International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochner, Christine; Fineberg, Naomi A; Zohar, Joseph; van Ameringen, Michael; Juven-Wetzler, Alzbeta; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo; Cuzen, Natalie L; Hollander, Eric; Denys, D.; Nicolini, Humberto; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Pallanti, Stefano; Stein, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity. Comorbid disorders include mood and anxiety disorders as well as obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs). This paper aims to investigate comorbidity of DSM Axis I-disorders, includin

  10. [Anxiety disorders in DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the DSM-5 appeared officially in May 2013 during the development of the 166th Annual Meetingof the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in San Francisco. The drafting process was long and complex; much of the debate became public so that the expectations were great. And it must be said that the new edition did not disappoint, as many changes were made in relation to their predecessors. In Chapter of Anxiety Disorders, which is reviewed in this article, the changes were significant. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and Stress-related disorders were excluded and new clinical pictures, such as separation anxiety disorder and selective mutism, were included. And took place was the long awaited split between panic disorder and agoraphobia, now two separate disorders.

  11. Neurodegenerative disorders and metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Germaine

    2013-08-01

    Most genetic causes of neurodegenerative disorders in childhood are due to neurometabolic disease. There are over 200 disorders, including aminoacidopathies, creatine disorders, mitochondrial cytopathies, peroxisomal disorders and lysosomal storage disorders. However, diagnosis can pose a challenge to the clinician when patients present with non-specific problems like epilepsy, developmental delay, autism, dystonia and ataxia. The variety of specialist tests involved can also be daunting. This review aims to give a practical approach to the investigation and diagnosis of neurometabolic disease from the neonatal period to late childhood while prioritising disorders where there are therapeutic options. In particular, patients who have a complex clinical picture of several neurological and non-neurological features should be investigated.

  12. Anxiety Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Christopher M; Daunis, Daniel J; Lokko, Hermioni N; Campbell, Kirsti A; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-11-01

    Anxiety and its associated disorders are common in patients with cardiovascular disease and may significantly influence cardiac health. Anxiety disorders are associated with the onset and progression of cardiac disease, and in many instances have been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including mortality. Both physiologic (autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, changes in platelet aggregation) and health behavior mechanisms may help to explain the relationships between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Given the associations between anxiety disorders and poor cardiac health, the timely and accurate identification and treatment of these conditions is of the utmost importance. Fortunately, pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions for the management of anxiety disorders are generally safe and effective. Further study is needed to determine whether interventions to treat anxiety disorders ultimately impact both psychiatric and cardiovascular health.

  13. The Stigma of Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Lindsay; Nieweglowski, Katherine; Corrigan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the recent literature on the stigma of personality disorders, including an overview of general mental illness stigma and an examination of the personality-specific stigma. Overall, public knowledge of personality disorders is low, and people with personality disorders may be perceived as purposefully misbehaving rather than experiencing an illness. Health provider stigma seems particularly pernicious for those with borderline personality disorder. Most stigma research on personality disorders has been completed outside the USA, and few stigma-change interventions specific to personality disorder have been scientifically tested. Limited evidence suggests that health provider training can improve stigmatizing attitudes and that interventions combining positive messages of recovery potential with biological etiology will be most impactful to reduce stigma. Anti-stigma interventions designed specifically for health providers, family members, criminal justice personnel, and law enforcement seem particularly beneficial, given these sources of stigma.

  14. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet.

  15. Myoclonic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Eberhardt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Few movement disorders seem to make a straightforward approach to diagnosis and treatment more difficult and frustrating than myoclonus, due to its plethora of causes and its variable classifications. Nevertheless, in recent years, exciting advances have been made in the elucidation of the pathophysiology and genetic basis of many disorders presenting with myoclonus. Here, we provide a review of all of the important types of myoclonus encountered in pediatric and adult neurology, with an emphasis on the recent developments that have led to a deeper understanding of this intriguing phenomenon. An up-to-date list of the genetic basis of all major myoclonic disorders is presented. Randomized studies are scarce in myoclonus therapy, but helpful pragmatic approaches at diagnosis as well as treatment have been recently suggested.

  16. Conversion Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacov Rofé

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder remains a mystery that has only become more complicated with the decline of the scientific status of psychoanalysis (e.g., Piper, Lillevik, & Kritzer, 2008; Rofé, 2008 and recent neurological findings suggest that this behavior is controlled by biological mechanisms (van Beilen, Vogt, & Leenders, 2010. Moreover, existing theories have difficulty explaining the efficacy of various interventions, such as psychoanalysis, behavior therapy, drug therapy and religious therapy. This article reviews research and clinical evidence pertaining to both the development and treatment of conversion disorder and shows that this seemingly incompatible evidence can be integrated within a new theory, the Rational-Choice Theory of Neurosis (RCTN; Rofé, 2010. Despite the striking differences, RCTN continues Freud's framework of thinking as it employs a new concept of repression and replaces the unconscious with self-deception. Moreover, it incorporates Freud's idea, implicitly expressed in his theory, that neurotic disorders are, in fact, rational behaviors.

  17. [Headache disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Takao; Kikui, Shoji

    2013-09-01

    Primary headache disorders such as migraine, tension-type headache, and cluster headache are prevalent and disabling neurological disorders. Although most headache disorders are largely treatable, they are under-recognized, under-diagnosed, and under-treated. Many headache sufferers in Japan do not receive appropriate and effective health care; hence, the illness, which should be relieved, persists and acts as an individual and societal burden. One of the barriers most responsible for this is poor awareness of the disorders. For lifting the burden, health care must be improved. Education is an essential way to resolve these issues at multiple levels. We have a Japanese version of the international headache classification and diagnostic criteria II (ICHD-II) and guidelines for the management of chronic headaches. Utilization of these resources is key for the improvement of headache management in our country. Not only neurologists, but also neurosurgeons and other medical specialists are participating in headache care in Japan. The Japanese Headache Society and the Japanese Society for Neurology should play major roles in health care service, education programs, as well as clinical and basic research for headache disorders. The road map for realizing our aim on headache treatment is as follows: (1) increase the number of units concerning headache in lectures for medical students, implement training programs for residents and neurologists, and offer continuous medical educations for physicians and neurologists; (2) secure more funding for headache research; (3) propagate medical care for headache in primary care settings and regional fundamental hospitals; (4) reform the health care system for headache and incentivize appropriate compensation for headache care in public health insurance; and (5) spread appropriate information on medical and socio-ethical issues related to headache for the sufferers and citizens. The authors expect that many neurologists have an

  18. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar mood disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-19

    Jun 19, 2009 ... aspects of this disorder, including its diagnosis, co-morbidities, longitudinal .... narcissistic personality constructs may also present with an inflated self-esteem ... of time and are often ultraradian (multiple cycles occurring within.

  19. Phosphate homeostasis and disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghat, P; Sodi, R; Swaminathan, R

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies of inherited disorders of phosphate metabolism have shed new light on the understanding of phosphate metabolism. Phosphate has important functions in the body and several mechanisms have evolved to regulate phosphate balance including vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and phosphatonins such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). Disorders of phosphate homeostasis leading to hypo- and hyperphosphataemia are common and have clinical and biochemical consequences. Notably, recent studies have linked hyperphosphataemia with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This review outlines the recent advances in the understanding of phosphate homeostasis and describes the causes, investigation and management of hypo- and hyperphosphataemia.

  20. Selected disorders of malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zafreen; Osayande, Amimi S

    2011-09-01

    Malabsorption syndrome encompasses numerous clinical entities that result in chronic diarrhea, abdominal distention, and failure to thrive. These disorders may be congenital or acquired and include cystic fibrosis and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome; the rare congenital lactase deficiency; glucose-galactose malabsorption; sucrase-isomaltase deficiency; adult-type hypolactasia leading to acquired lactose intolerance. The pathology may be due to impairment in absorption or digestion of nutrients resulting in Nutritional deficiency, gastrointestinal symptoms, and extra gastrointestinal symptoms. Treatment is aimed at correcting the deficiencies and symptoms to improve quality of life. Common disorders of malabsorption celiac disease, pernicious anemia, and lactase deficiency are discussed in this article.

  1. Photoaggravated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Susan M; Murphy, Gillian M

    2014-07-01

    Photoaggravated skin disorders are diseases that occur without UV radiation but are sometimes or frequently exacerbated by UV radiation. In conditions, such as lupus erythematosus, photoaggravation occurs in a majority of patients, whereas in conditions, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, only a subset of patients demonstrate photoaggravation. Polymorphous light eruption is a common photodermatosis in all skin types, making it important to differentiate photoaggravation of an underlying disorder, such as lupus erythematosus, from superimposed polymorphous light eruption. Disease-specific treatments should be instituted where possible. A key component of management of photoaggravated conditions is photoprotection with behavioral change, UV-protective clothing, and broad-spectrum sunscreen.

  2. A Personality Disorders: Schizotypal, Schizoid and Paranoid Personality Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Esterberg, Michelle L.; Goulding, Sandra M.; Walker, Elaine F.

    2010-01-01

    Cluster A personality disorders (PD), including schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), paranoid personality disorder (PPD), and schizoid PD, are marked by odd and eccentric behaviors, and are grouped together because of common patterns in symptomatology as well as shared genetic and environmental risk factors. The DSM-IV-TR describes personality disorders as representing stable and enduring patterns of maladaptive traits, and much of what is understood about Cluster A personality disorders i...

  3. A Personality Disorders: Schizotypal, Schizoid and Paranoid Personality Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Esterberg, Michelle L.; Goulding, Sandra M.; Walker, Elaine F.

    2010-01-01

    Cluster A personality disorders (PD), including schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), paranoid personality disorder (PPD), and schizoid PD, are marked by odd and eccentric behaviors, and are grouped together because of common patterns in symptomatology as well as shared genetic and environmental risk factors. The DSM-IV-TR describes personality disorders as representing stable and enduring patterns of maladaptive traits, and much of what is understood about Cluster A personality disorders i...

  4. Obsessive compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obsessions or compulsions that cause personal distress or social dysfunction affect about 1% of adult men and 1.5% of adult women. About half of adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have an episodic course, whereas the other half have continuous problems. Prevalence in children and adolescents is 2.7%. The disorder persists in about 40% of children and adolescents at mean follow-up of 5.7 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of initial treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder in adults? What are the effects of initial treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder in children and adolescents? What are the effects of maintenance treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder in adults? What are the effects of maintenance treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder in children and adolescents? What are the effects of treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder in adults who have not responded to initial treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 43 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: addition of antipsychotics to serotonin reuptake inhibitors, behavioural therapy alone or with serotonin reuptake inhibitors, cognitive therapy or cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) (alone or

  5. [Epidemiology of mood disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouillon, Frédéric

    2008-02-29

    The 12 months and lifetime prevalence of is respectively 5 and 9% in the general population; moreover 10 to 20% of general practice patients are depressed. Depression is involved in about 40 to 80% of suicide and induces one of the greatest social burden. Mood disorders are more frequent in women, individual living alone and people with low socio-economic level. Risk factors are stressfull life events, biological vulnerability (genetic factors), somatic diseases, psychiatric comorbidity including personality disorders and addictions. Depressive disorders are underdiagnosed and undertreated despite efficacious pharmacological and psychotherapeutic strategies in their treatment. It's the reason why public health programs to prevent depression have been promoted by many countries like European Alliance against Depression. Their efficacy must be evaluated as their cost-efficiency.

  6. [Cannabis-induced disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, M; Preuss, U; Hoch, E

    2017-03-01

    Use and misuse of cannabis and marihuana are frequent. About 5% of the adult population are current users but only 1.2% are dependent. The medical use of cannabis is controversial but there is some evidence for improvement of chronic pain and spasticity. The somatic toxicity of cannabis is well proven but limited and psychiatric disorders induced by cannabis are of more relevance, e.g. cognitive disorders, amotivational syndrome, psychoses and delusional disorders as well as physical and psychological dependence. The withdrawal symptoms are usually mild and do not require pharmacological interventions. To date there is no established pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention. Psychosocial interventions include psychoeducation, behavioral therapy and motivational enhancement. The CANDIS protocol is the best established German intervention among abstinence-oriented therapies.

  7. Frequency of Different Psychiatric Disorders in Patients With Functional Bowel Disorders: A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhraei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Functional gastrointestinal (GI disorders are very common and many patients with such disorders are not satisfied with treatment outcomes. Psychological aspects of functional disorders need special attention that may play an important role in patient management. Objectives In this study, psychology evaluation was performed for a population of patients with functional bowel disorders. Patients and Methods One hundred patients with functional bowel disorders including 50 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS referred to GI clinics were candidates for psychiatry evaluation; of those 60 patients completed the study. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed using a structured clinical interview based on diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV (DSM IV. Results Of 60 patients with functional bowel disorders (including 39 IBS, 51 (85% were diagnosed with at least one psychiatry disorder. The most common disorders were dysthymia (25% and obsessive-compulsive disorder (20%. There was no significant difference between IBS patients and other functional bowel disorders regarding the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Conclusions Psychiatric disorders are very prevalent among patients with functional bowel disorders. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate management of associated psychiatric disorders along with GI targeted treatments may lead to a better outcome in these patients.

  8. The Comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children and Arabic Speech Sound Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Ruaa Osama

    2016-01-01

    Children with Attention-Deficiency/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) often have co-existing learning disabilities and developmental weaknesses or delays in some areas including speech (Rief, 2005). Seeing that phonological disorders include articulation errors and other forms of speech disorders, studies pertaining to children with ADHD symptoms who…

  9. Eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontić Olga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.

  10. Psychiatric Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009122 The comparative study on plasma interleukin and soluble interleukin receptors between first-episode schizophrenic patients and first-episode depressive patients. SHI Tianyuan(师天元),et al.2nd Affili Hosp, Xinxiang Med Univ, Xinxiang 453002.Chin J Nerv Ment Dis 2009;35(1):26-29. Objective To explore the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and depressive disorder at cellular level.

  11. Conversion Disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fisher, Robert S; Stonnington, Cynthia M; Barry, John J

    2006-01-01

    ... to proceed after establishing a diagnosis of conversion disorder. Case Presentation "Ms. A," a 53-year-old left-handed woman, was admitted to our epilepsy monitoring unit for evaluation of a 4-month history of tremors, head bobbing, and episodic loss of awareness. The onset of these symptoms was 1 week after she had visited an emergency department...

  12. Cell therapy for pediatric disorders of glia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albuquerque Osório, Maria Joana; Goldman, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    The childhood disorders of glia comprise a group of diseases that include the pediatric leukodystrophies and lysosomal storage disorders, cerebral palsies and perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathies, and selected neurodevelopmental disorders of glial origin. Essentially, all of these disorders...... (GPCs) and their derivatives, the glial disorders may be uniquely attractive targets for cell-based therapeutic strategies, and the pediatric disorders especially so. As a result, GPCs, which can distribute throughout the neuraxis and give rise to new astrocytes and myelinogenic oligodendrocytes, have...... become of great interest as candidates for the therapeutic restoration of normal glial architecture and function, as well as new myelin, to the pediatric brain....

  13. Non-neoplastic disorders of the esophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Non-neoplastic disorders of the esophagus include esophagitis, esophageal diverticulum, esophageal injury, foreign body, fistulous formation between the esophagus and the surrounding structures and mucocele. Since these disorders have variable symptoms and radiologic findings, it needs to differentiated from other disorders other than esophageal diseases. Being knowledgeable of CT findings suggest that these disorders can help diagnose non-neoplastic disorders of the esophagus. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of non-neoplastic disorders of the esophagus.

  14. Night Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Tuncel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia with awakenings followed by nocturnal food ingestion. Recently night eating syndrome, conceptualized as a delayed circadian intake of food. Sleep-related eating disorder, thought to represent a parasomnia and as such included within the revised International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2, and characterized by nocturnal partial arousals associated with recurrent episodes of involuntary food consumption and altered levels of consciousness. Whether, however, sleep-related eating disorder and night eating syndrome represent different diseases or are part of a continuum is still debated. This review summarizes their characteristics, treatment outcomes and differences between them.

  15. DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS IN EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koralia Todorova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Depressive disorders are the most frequent psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy but very often remain unrecognized and untreated. We examined 103 epileptic patients, aged 18-60 years, 40 males and 63 females, for the presence of interictal depressive disorder. All subjects underwent clinical psychiatric examination, including evaluation on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17. A questionnaire for demographic and seizure-related variables was also completed. Concurrent depressive disorder (clinically presented according to ICD-10 diagnostic criteria affected 28.3% of all evaluated patients. Based on HAM-D-17 scores depression was defined as mild - 80% of all depressed patients, moderate - 17% and severe - 3%. Atypical presentation of interictal depressive disorder was frequent. Depression has a tremendous effect on one’s family, social and psychological functioning, even more than the actual seizure frequency and severity. Diagnostic difficulties come through the atypical mode of presentation of depressive disorders in epilepsy. Proper neuropsychiatric evaluation is essential for improving treatment and quality of life for patients with epilepsy.

  16. [Creativity and bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maçkalı, Zeynep; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Oral, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder has been an intriguing topic since ancient times. Early studies focused on describing characteristics of creative people. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, researchers began to focus on the relationship between mood disorders and creativity. Initially, the studies were based on biographical texts and the obtained results indicated a relationship between these two concepts. The limitations of the retrospective studies led the researchers to develop systematic investigations into this area. The systematic studies that have focused on artistic creativity have examined both the prevalence of mood disorders and the creative process. In addition, a group of researchers addressed the relationship in terms of affective temperaments. Through the end of the 90's, the scope of creativity was widened and the notion of everyday creativity was proposed. The emergence of this notion led researchers to investigate the associations of the creative process in ordinary (non-artist) individuals. In this review, the descriptions of creativity and creative process are mentioned. Also, the creative process is addressed with regards to bipolar disorder. Then, the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder are evaluated in terms of aforementioned studies (biographical, systematic, psychobiographical, affective temperaments). In addition, a new model, the "Shared Vulnerability Model" which was developed to explain the relationship between creativity and psychopathology is introduced. Finally, the methodological limitations and the suggestions for resolving these limitations are included.

  17. [Affective disorders and personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurel, M; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    Coexistence in an individual of an affective disorder and a personality disorder is very common and there is an abundant literature on it. Articles are numerous and heterogeneous ; the results are sometimes imprecise or discordant. Some data are, despite these reserves, shared by the scientific community. The main consensus is first on a bad prognosis, with a high rate of all DSM axes comorbidities, secondly on the trap of a same phenomenology for different underlying mechanisms. A review is presented. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring the Perception of Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Donna M.; Tyson, Graham A.; Gullifer, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    With current preparation for the release of the fifth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-5) in 2013, many changes have been proposed for the diagnostic criteria, including changes to the pervasive development disorder category--of which Asperger's disorder is a part. Using focus group discussions…

  19. Sleep Disorders in Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir; Dragisic, Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory disturbances during sleep are recognized as extremely common disorders with important clinical consequences. Breathing disorders during sleep can result in broad range of clinical manifestations, the most prevalent of which are unrefreshing sleep, daytime sleepiness and fatigue, and cognitive impairmant. There is also evidence that respiratory-related sleep disturbances can contribute to several common cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, including systemic hypertension, cardia...

  20. Exploring the Perception of Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Donna M.; Tyson, Graham A.; Gullifer, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    With current preparation for the release of the fifth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-5) in 2013, many changes have been proposed for the diagnostic criteria, including changes to the pervasive development disorder category--of which Asperger's disorder is a part. Using focus group discussions…

  1. Personality disorders and dimensions in pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2012-06-01

    Comorbid DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders appear to be common in pathological gambling (PG) and may contribute to the chronic problems often associated with the disorder. This study sought to examine the relationship between PG, personality disorders, and impulsivity in a sample of pathological gamblers. Personality assessments included the SCID-II, Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire, Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. A total of 77 individuals with DSM-IV PG were included in this study, of which 35 (45.5%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder. Specific aspects of impulsivity were associated with certain personality disorders in PG when grouped by cluster, yet the presence of a personality disorder was not positively correlated with gambling severity. It remains unclear how the presence of a personality disorder and aspects of impulsivity may affect treatment outcome. Further exploration of these disorders and dimensions of personality may encourage a more inclusively global treatment approach.

  2. Treatments for delusional disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Mike; Khokhar, Waqqas Ahmad; Thacker, Simon P

    2015-05-22

    Delusional disorder is commonly considered to be difficult to treat. Antipsychotic medications are frequently used and there is growing interest in a potential role for psychological therapies such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in the treatment of delusional disorder. To evaluate the effectiveness of medication (antipsychotic medication, antidepressants, mood stabilisers) and psychotherapy, in comparison with placebo in delusional disorder. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (28 February 2012). Relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating treatments in delusional disorder. All review authors extracted data independently for the one eligible trial. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis with a fixed-effect model. Where possible, we calculated illustrative comparative risks for primary outcomes. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), again with a fixed-effect model. We assessed the risk of bias of the included study and used the GRADE approach to rate the quality of the evidence. Only one randomised trial met our inclusion criteria, despite our initial search yielding 141 citations. This was a small study, with 17 people completing a trial comparing CBT to an attention placebo (supportive psychotherapy) for people with delusional disorder. Most participants were already taking medication and this was continued during the trial. We were not able to include any randomised trials on medications of any type due to poor data reporting, which left us with no usable data for these trials. For the included study, usable data were limited, risk of bias varied and the numbers involved were small, making interpretation of data difficult. In particular there were no data on outcomes such as global state and behaviour, nor any information on possible adverse effects.A positive effect for CBT was found for social self esteem

  3. Neurobiological correlates of panic disorder and agoraphobia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haddad M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Panic Disorder and agoraphobia offer considerable diagnostic and management challenges, particularly in general practice. We describe a typical case of panic disorder in a young adult. The recent advances in our understanding of brain functions can be used to explain to a certain extent the biologic basis of panic disorder. A hypothetical model integrating current views on panic disorder and agoraphobia has been proposed. The management principles including the role of cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy have been discussed.

  4. Temporomandibular joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buescher, Jennifer J

    2007-11-15

    Temporomandibular joint disorders are common in adults; as many as one third of adults report having one or more symptoms, which include jaw or neck pain, headache, and clicking or grating within the joint. Most symptoms improve without treatment, but various noninvasive therapies may reduce pain for patients who have not experienced relief from self-care therapies. Physical therapy modalities (e.g., iontophoresis, phonophoresis), psychological therapies (e.g., cognitive behavior therapy), relaxation techniques, and complementary therapies (e.g., acupuncture, hypnosis) are all used for the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders; however, no therapies have been shown to be uniformly superior for the treatment of pain or oral dysfunction. Noninvasive therapies should be attempted before pursuing invasive, permanent, or semi-permanent treatments that have the potential to cause irreparable harm. Dental occlusion therapy (e.g., oral splinting) is a common treatment for temporomandibular joint disorders, but a recent systematic review found insufficient evidence for or against its use. Some patients with intractable temporomandibular joint disorders develop chronic pain syndrome and may benefit from treatment, including antidepressants or cognitive behavior therapy.

  5. Clinicopathological correlation of acquired hypopigmentary disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha B Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hypopigmentary disorders comprise a significant group of disorders that affect Indians and Asians. The pigment disturbance in darker skin individuals can be very distressing to the patient and the family. These disorders cover a wide array of pathologies including infections, autoimmune processes, lymphoproliferative disorders, and sclerosing diseases. Histological diagnosis is particularly important because treatments for these diseases are varied and specific. This review will focus on histopathological diagnosis based on clinicopathological correlation for commonly encountered disorders such as leprosy, vitiligo, lichen sclerosus, pityriasis alba (PA, and pityriasis versicolor (PV. Atypical or uncommon clinical presentation of classic diseases such as hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (HMF and hypopigmented sarcoidosis are also included.

  6. 42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the patient and the physical therapist, occupational therapist, or speech-language pathologist, as... potential, except when the assessment is related solely to vocational rehabilitation. (d) Speech-language pathology services. These are services for the diagnosis and treatment of speech and language disorders...

  7. Bipolar Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders is a well known concept. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is the most commonly seen comorbid anxiety disorder in bipolar patients. Some genetic variants, neurotransmitters especially serotonergic systems and second-messenger systems are thought to be responsible for its etiology. Bipolar disorder alters the clinical aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder and is associated with poorer outcome. The determination of comorbidity between bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder is quite important for appropriate clinical management and treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 429-437

  8. Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Dwight V; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2003-12-01

    There is increased recognition that bipolar disorder has an early age of onset. The prevalence of bipolar disorder in prepubertal children has not been determined, however the prevalence in adolescence is approximately 1%. Bipolar disorder in children poses a diagnostic challenge since the symptoms may differ from those in late adolescence and adulthood. Comorbid disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, further complicate both the diagnosis and course of the disorder. There is increasing evidence of the chronicity and severity of this disorder in youths. Bipolar disorder significantly disrupts a child's psychosocial development including impairments in academic functioning, family functioning, and relationship with peers. Although this disorder has significant morbidity in children and adolescents, there is a paucity of controlled studies to assess the efficacy and safety of mood stabilizers in the treatment of this disorder in youths. The treatment literature consists largely of case studies, retrospective chart reviews, and open-label studies. There is a compelling need for double-blind, placebo-controlled trials to determine whether commonly used medications to treat this disorder are significantly superior to placebo. Since many children in clinical practice require more than one psychotropic medication to adequately manage this disorder, studies of combination treatments are warranted. This review will provide an overview of the literature of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, including discussion of the prevalence, diagnosis, epidemiology, course of the illness, and treatment issues.

  9. Gendered mental disorders: masculine and feminine stereotypes about mental disorders and their relation to stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Guy; Ebersole, Ashley; Casner, Robert; Coston, Nykhala

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that stereotypes can intersect. For example, the intersection of stereotypes about gender and mental disorders could result in perceptions of gendered mental disorders. In the current research, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people view specific disorders as being masculine or feminine. The masculine stereotype included antisocial personality disorder, addictions, and paraphilias. The feminine stereotype included eating disorders, histrionic personality disorder, body dysmorphia, and orgasmic disorder. In both studies, the perception of disorders as masculine was positively correlated with stigma. Study 3 showed that the positive correlation between masculinity and stigma also occurred when examining specific symptoms rather than full mental disorders. The findings provide further evidence for the intersection of stereotypes and indicate a novel factor in the understanding of stigma.

  10. [Differential diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality disorder)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübner, S; Völkl, G; Soyka, M

    1998-05-01

    Recently the concept of dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) has attracted increasing public and scientific interest. However, it is rarely diagnosed in the clinical setting. the reported case of a 47-year-old woman with a history of child abuse demonstrates the problems of differential diagnosis. A number of psychopathologic symptoms pointed to a multiple personality disorder, but in the follow-up psychotic symptoms such as delusions, possible hallucinations and bizarre behavior clearly emerged. The differential diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder includes paranoid schizophrenia, as in the case described, borderline personality disorder, hysteria, simulation and the false memory syndrome. Finally, social and cultural factors have to be considered.

  11. Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy for Patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, Julie P.; Dillon, Kristy S.; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2013-01-01

    There is a wide variety of what have been called “dissociative disorders,” including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. Some of these diagnoses, particularly dissociative identity disorder, are controversial and have been questioned by many clinicians over the years. The disorders may be under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed, but many persons who have experienced trauma rep...

  12. Genetic disorders producing compressive radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Joseph M

    2006-11-01

    Back pain is a frequent complaint seen in neurological practice. In evaluating back pain, neurologists are asked to evaluate patients for radiculopathy, determine whether they may benefit from surgery, and help guide management. Although disc herniation is the most common etiology of compressive radiculopathy, there are many other causes, including genetic disorders. This article is a discussion of genetic disorders that cause or contribute to radiculopathies. These genetic disorders include neurofibromatosis, Paget's disease of bone, and ankylosing spondylitis. Numerous genetic disorders can also lead to deformities of the spine, including spinal muscular atrophy, Friedreich's ataxia, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, familial dysautonomia, idiopathic torsional dystonia, Marfan's syndrome, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. However, the extent of radiculopathy caused by spine deformities is essentially absent from the literature. Finally, recent investigation into the heritability of disc degeneration and lumbar disc herniation suggests a significant genetic component in the etiology of lumbar disc disease.

  13. Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anxiety, anxiety disorders, anxious, behavior therapy, GAD, generalized anxiety disorder, mental health neuroses, mood disorders, psychiatric disorder, psychotherapy Family Health, Men, Seniors, Women January 1996 Copyright © American Academy of Family PhysiciansThis ...

  14. Psychiatric Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011392 Association Study of GABRB2 gene and antidepressant response to SNRI in patients with major depression. LIU Shanming(劉善明),et al.Psychiatry Dept West China Hosp,Sichuan Univ.Chengdu 610041. Abstract:Objective To investigate whether the Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2(GABRB2) gene polymorphisms is associated with the therapeutic response to venlafaxine,Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor(SNRI) in major depressive disorder patients. Methods The study sample consisted

  15. Psychiatric disorders of patients seeking obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hung-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were retrospectively recruited from an obesity treatment center in Taiwan. The obesity treatments included bariatric surgery and non-surgery treatment. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical evaluation with two questionnaires and a psychiatric referral when needed. The psychiatric diagnosis was made thorough psychiatric clinic interviews using the SCID. A total of 841 patients were recruited. We compared the difference in psychiatric disorder prevalence between patients with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Results Of the 841 patients, 42% had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and eating disorders were the most prevalent categories of psychiatric disorders. Females had more mood disorders and eating disorders than males. The surgical group had more binge-eating disorder, adjustment disorder, and sleep disorders than the non-surgical group. Conclusion A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was found among ethnic Chinese seeking obesity treatment. This is consistent with study results in the US and Europe.

  16. Stereotyped movement disorder in ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Woods, Douglas W

    2014-01-01

    According to current proposals for ICD-11, stereotyped movement disorder will be classified in the grouping of neurodevelopmental disorders, with a qualifier to indicate whether self-injury is present, similar to the classification of stereotypic movement disorder in DSM-5. At the same time, the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders has proposed a grouping of body-focused repetitive behavior disorders within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRD) cluster to include trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder. DSM-5 has taken a slightly different approach: trichotillomania and excoriation (skin picking) disorder are included in the OCRD grouping, while body-focused repetitive behavior disorder is listed under other specified forms of OCRD. DSM-5 also includes a separate category of nonsuicidal self-injury in the section on "conditions for further study." There are a number of unresolved nosological questions regarding the relationships among stereotyped movement disorder, body-focused repetitive behavior disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury. In this article, we attempt to provide preliminary answers to some of these questions as they relate to the ICD-11 classification of mental and behavioral disorders.

  17. Pain Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Capela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain disorder is a psychiatric disorder diagnosed when the pain becomes the predominant focus of the clinical presentation and causes significant distress or impairment. Besides the high economic impact, there is a reciprocal relationship with the affective state. Pain is a subjective sensation and its severity and quality of experience in an individual is dependent on a complex mix of factors. In the treatment of acute pain, the primary purpose is pain relief, while chronic pain typically requires a combination of psychotropic drugs. In this context, it is also important to recognize and treat depression. Psychological treatments aimed at providing mechanisms to allow patients to "control and live with the pain" rather than aspire to eliminate it completely. A growing group of researchers proposes the elimination of the chapter of Somatoform Disorders and the modification of the category "psychological factors affecting a medical condition" to "psychological factors affecting an identified or feared medical condition" with clinical entities as ubchapters, largely based upon Diagnostics for Psychosomatic Research criteria.

  18. Personality disorders: review and clinical application in daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstman, Kurt B; Rasmussen, Norman H

    2011-12-01

    Personality disorders have been documented in approximately 9 percent of the general U.S. population. Psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and brief interventions designed for use by family physicians can improve the health of patients with these disorders. Personality disorders are classified into clusters A, B, and C. Cluster A includes schizoid, schizotypal, and paranoid personality disorders. Cluster B includes borderline, histrionic, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders. Cluster C disorders are more prevalent and include avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. Many patients with personality disorders can be treated by family physicians. Patients with borderline personality disorder may benefit from the use of omega-3 fatty acids, second-generation antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers. Patients with antisocial personality disorder may benefit from the use of mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antidepressants. Other therapeutic interventions include motivational interviewing and solution-based problem solving.

  19. The accuracy of positron emission tomography in the detection of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierickx, Daan; Tousseyn, Thomas; Requilé, Annelies; Verscuren, Raf; Sagaert, Xavier; Morscio, Julie; Wlodarska, Iwona; Herreman, An; Kuypers, Dirk; Van Cleemput, Johan; Nevens, Frederik; Dupont, Lieven; Uyttebroeck, Anne; Pirenne, Jacques; De Wolf-Peeters, Christiane; Verhoef, Gregor; Brepoels, Lieselot; Gheysens, Olivier

    2013-05-01

    value of 9.0 (range 2.0-18.6) and 17.4 (range 2.6-26.4). Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder often had an atypical presentation on positron emission tomography with high incidence of extranodal involvement. In conclusion, from these data, we can conclude that 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography is highly sensitive for detecting posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder and has an excellent ability to differentiate posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder from non-malignant diseases.

  20. Thyroid disorders in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Li, J

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid disorders include autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), thyroid goiter, nodule and cancer. AITD mainly consist of autoimmune thyroiditis and Graves disease. The common characteristic of thyroid disorders is female preponderance in their prevalence. The female-to-male rate ratio is reported at 4~6:1 for AITD and about 3~4:1 for thyroid nodule. For PTC, it is greatest during reproductive age and drops from five and more in patients aged 20-24, to 3.4 in patients aged 35-44 to one in patients over 80. The effects of female gonadal hormones and X chromosome inactivation on thyroid gland and immune system greatly contribute to the female predilection of AITD. The former mainly include prolactin and estrogen. The direct actions of estrogen on the thyroid tissue contribute to the development of thyroid goiter, nodule and cancer in women.

  1. Menopause related sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichling, Philip S; Sahni, Jyotsna

    2005-07-15

    Sleep difficulty is one of the hallmarks of menopause. Following recent studies showing no cardiac benefit and increased breast cancer, the question of indications for hormonal therapy has become even more pertinent. Three sets of sleep disorders are associated with menopause: insomnia/depression, sleep disordered breathing and fibromyalgia. The primary predictor of disturbed sleep architecture is the presence of vasomotor symptoms. This subset of women has lower sleep efficiency and more sleep complaints. The same group is at higher risk of insomnia and depression. The "domino theory" of sleep disruption leading to insomnia followed by depression has the most scientific support. Estrogen itself may also have an antidepressant as well as a direct sleep effect. Treatment of insomnia in responsive individuals may be a major remaining indication for hormone therapy. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) increases markedly at menopause for reasons that include both weight gain and unclear hormonal mechanisms. Due to the general under-recognition of SDB, health care providers should not assume sleep complaints are due to vasomotor related insomnia/depression without considering SDB. Fibromyalgia has gender, age and probably hormonal associations. Sleep complaints are almost universal in FM. There are associated polysomnogram (PSG) findings. FM patients have increased central nervous system levels of the nociceptive neuropeptide substance P (SP) and lower serotonin levels resulting in a lower pain threshold to normal stimuli. High SP and low serotonin have significant potential to affect sleep and mood. Treatment of sleep itself seems to improve, if not resolve FM. Menopausal sleep disruption can exacerbate other pre-existing sleep disorders including RLS and circadian disorders.

  2. Hypercalcemic Disorders in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokes, Victoria J; Nielsen, Morten F; Hannan, Fadil M

    2017-01-01

    , and familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism, and less commonly, as part of inherited complex syndromic disorders such as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN). Advances in identifying the genetic causes have resulted in increased understanding of the underlying biological pathways and improvements...... in diagnosis. The management of symptomatic hypercalcemia includes interventions such as fluids, anti-resorptive medications and parathyroid surgery. This article presents a clinical, biochemical and genetic approach to investigating the causes of pediatric hypercalcemia....

  3. Hypercalcemic Disorders in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Victoria J; Nielsen, Morten F; Hannan, Fadil M; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2017-09-15

    Hypercalcemia is defined as a serum calcium concentration that is greater than 2 standard deviations above the normal mean, which in children may vary with age and sex, reflecting changes in the normal physiology at each developmental stage. Hypercalcemic disorders in children may present with hypotonia, poor feeding, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, lethargy, polyuria, dehydration, failure to thrive and seizures. In severe cases renal failure, pancreatitis and reduced consciousness may also occur and older children and adolescents may present with psychiatric symptoms. The causes of hypercalcemia in children can be classified as parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent or PTH-independent, and may be congenital or acquired. PTH-independent hypercalcemia, i.e. hypercalcemia associated with a suppressed PTH, is commoner in children than PTH-dependent hypercalcemia. Acquired causes of PTH-independent hypercalcemia in children include hypervitaminosis; granulomatous disorders and endocrinopathies. Congenital syndromes associated with PTH-independent hypercalcemia include idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH); William's syndrome; and inborn errors of metabolism. PTH-dependent hypercalcemia is usually caused by parathyroid tumors, which may give rise to primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) or tertiary hyperparathyroidism, which usually arises in association with chronic renal failure and in the treatment of hypophosphatemic rickets. Acquired causes of PTH-dependent hypercalcemia in neonates include maternal hypocalcemia and extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation. PHPT usually occurs as an isolated non-syndromic and non-hereditary endocrinopathy, but may also occur as a hereditary hypercalcemic disorder such as familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism, and familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism, and less commonly, as part of inherited complex syndromic disorders such as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN). Advances in

  4. St. John's wort for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome

    2013-03-01

    St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) has been extensively studied and reviewed for its use in depression; however, there is less salient discussion on its clinical application for a range of other psychiatric disorders. This article outlines the current evidence of the efficacy of St John's wort in common psychiatric disorders, including major depression, bipolar depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and somatization disorder. Mechanisms of action, including emerging pharmacogenetic data, safety, and clinical considerations are also detailed.

  5. [Are eating disorders addictions?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzl, Johann F; Biebl, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    The various eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior and are seen as typical "psychosomatic disorders". The subdivision of anorexia nervosa into two subtypes, namely "anorexia nervosa restricting type" and "anorexia nervosa bulimic type" has proved to be very good. It is to be assumed that eating disorders are not a homogeneous group, and that the various subtypes of eating disorders are also heterogeneous at several levels. Co-morbid psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders, anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders, and personality disorders, are often found in eating- disordered patients. Many anorectics of the restrictive type and orthorectics show co-morbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and avoidant or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, while a co-morbidity of affective disorders, addiction, personality disorders, especially multi-impulsivity and borderline personality disorder, is frequently found in anorectics of bulimic type, bulimics, and binge eaters. Addictive behavior manifests itself in permanent preoccupation with food and eating, withdrawal symptoms, continuation of disturbed eating behavior in spite of negative consequences, loss of control, and frequent relapse. There are some indications that there is a basic psychological disturbance common to eating disorders, especially bulimia nervosa, and to substance-related disorders, namely a personality disorder with an emotional instability and multi-impulsivity. The possible associations between eating disorders and mental disorders, particularly addictions, will be discussed.

  6. Stacking disorder in ice I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Tamsin L; Murray, Benjamin J; Salzmann, Christoph G; Molinero, Valeria; Pickering, Steven J; Whale, Thomas F

    2015-01-07

    Traditionally, ice I was considered to exist in two well-defined crystalline forms at ambient pressure: stable hexagonal ice (ice Ih) and metastable cubic ice (ice Ic). However, it is becoming increasingly evident that what has been called cubic ice in the past does not have a structure consistent with the cubic crystal system. Instead, it is a stacking-disordered material containing cubic sequences interlaced with hexagonal sequences, which is termed stacking-disordered ice (ice Isd). In this article, we summarise previous work on ice with stacking disorder including ice that was called cubic ice in the past. We also present new experimental data which shows that ice which crystallises after heterogeneous nucleation in water droplets containing solid inclusions also contains stacking disorder even at freezing temperatures of around -15 °C. This supports the results from molecular simulations, that the structure of ice that crystallises initially from supercooled water is always stacking-disordered and that this metastable ice can transform to the stable hexagonal phase subject to the kinetics of recrystallization. We also show that stacking disorder in ice which forms from water droplets is quantitatively distinct from ice made via other routes. The emerging picture of ice I is that of a very complex material which frequently contains stacking disorder and this stacking disorder can vary in complexity depending on the route of formation and thermal history.

  7. Emerging Treatments in Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, constitute a class of common and deadly psychiatric disorders. While numerous studies in humans highlight the important role of neurobiological alterations in the development of ED-related behaviors, the precise neural substrate that mediates this risk is unknown. Historically, pharmacological interventions have played a limited role in the treatment of eating disorders, typically providing symptomatic relief of comorbid psychiatric issues, like depression and anxiety, in support of the standard nutritional and psychological treatments. To date there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved medications or procedures for anorexia nervosa, and only one Food and Drug Administration-approved medication each for bulimia nervosa (fluoxetine) and binge-eating disorder (lisdexamfetamine). While there is little primary interest in drug development for eating disorders, postmarket monitoring of medications and procedures approved for other indications has identified several novel treatment options for patients with eating disorders. In this review, I utilize searches of the PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov databases to highlight emerging treatments in eating disorders.

  8. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  9. Imprinting disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggermann, Thomas; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Maher, Eamonn R

    2015-01-01

    Congenital imprinting disorders (IDs) are characterised by molecular changes affecting imprinted chromosomal regions and genes, i.e. genes that are expressed in a parent-of-origin specific manner. Recent years have seen a great expansion in the range of alterations in regulation, dosage or DNA...... impacts upon growth, development and metabolism. Thus, detailed and systematic analysis of IDs can not only identify unifying principles of molecular epigenetics in health and disease, but also support personalisation of diagnosis and management for individual patients and families....

  10. Prevalence of substance use disorders in psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    obtained from several Danish population-based registers. The study population was defined as all individuals with incidents of schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, other psychoses, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD...... % for schizophrenia, 35 % for schizotypal disorder, 28 % for other psychoses, 32 % for bipolar disorder, 25 % for depression, 25 % for anxiety, 11 % for OCD, 17% for PTSD, and 46 % for personality disorders. Alcohol use disorder was the most dominating SUD in every psychiatric category (25 % of all included patients...

  11. [Dis-social personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermeyer, E; Herpertz, S C

    2006-05-01

    Deviant behavior is gaining in clinical importance if it is founded on stable, characteristic, and enduring patterns of psychopathologically relevant personality traits which have their onset in childhood or adolescence. The classification of these traits shows variations, so that a distinction between the ICD-10 diagnosis of dis-social personality disorder, DSM-IV diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and the concept "psychopathy" is necessary. Our knowledge about the biological basis of antisocial behavior includes neurophysiologic, psychophysiologic, and genetic findings. Also relevant are results of neurotransmitter studies and structural resp. functional neuroimaging findings. Psychosocial risk factors include parental deficits, rejection, disregard, unstable relations, and abuse. Efficient psychotherapeutic treatment is cognitive-behavioral. Pharmacologic treatment is largely "off-label". The diagnosis of antisocial and dis-social personality disorders allows no conclusions on criminal responsibility. In addition to psychiatric diagnostics, considerations on the severity of the disorder and its effects on the ability to inhibit actions are necessary.

  12. Sensory aspects of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette's syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed.

  13. Dissociative disorders in medical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Edward

    2013-10-01

    Despite the challenges of conducting research on dissociation and the dissociative disorders, our understanding has grown greatly over the past three decades, including our knowledge of the often overlooked sensorimotor manifestations of dissociation, more commonly referred to as somatoform dissociation. This article will first review the definitions and presentations of dissociation in general along with recent research on the concept of somatoform dissociation. Then, each of the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder will be discussed in further detail as well as how they might present in a medical setting. Current recommendations for diagnosis and treatment will also be provided.

  14. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and eating disorders across the lifespan: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Rivka L; Rawana, Jennine S

    2016-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders are common and concerning mental health disorders. There is both empirical and theoretical support for an association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. This systematic review aims to summarize the extant literature on the comorbidity of ADHD and eating disorders across the lifespan, including the influences of sex, age, eating disorder diagnosis, and potential mediators. A total of 37 peer-reviewed studies on diagnosed ADHD and eating disturbances were identified through key research databases. Twenty-six studies supported a strong empirical association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. The systematic review findings suggest that children with ADHD are at risk for disordered eating, while adolescents, emerging adults, and adults are at risk for both eating disorders and disordered eating. Methodological considerations, future research, and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Compulsive masturbation in a patient with delusional disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Karia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compulsive masturbation is a type of paraphilia related disorder in which a person engages in masturbatory behavior to such an extent that it causes socio-occupational dysfunction. The psychiatric co-morbidities associated with it include mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, etc. Here, we report a case of a patient with the delusional disorder having compulsive masturbation.

  17. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: What an Educator Needs to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Amrita; Murdick, Nikki L.; Gartin, Barbara C.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) impairs social, emotional and academic functioning. Individuals with OCD may have co-morbid disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, or Tourette syndrome. Challenges occur when students with OCD become a part of the general education…

  18. Relationship of Personality Disorders to the Course of Major Depressive Disorder in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodol, Andrew E.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Keyes, Katherine; Geier, Timothy; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of specific personality disorder co-morbidity on the course of major depressive disorder in a nationally-representative sample. Method Data were drawn from 1,996 participants in a national survey. Participants who met criteria for major depressive disorder at baseline in face-to-face interviews (2001–2002) were re-interviewed three years later (2004–2005) to determine persistence and recurrence. Predictors included all DSM-IV personality disorders. Control variables included demographic characteristics, other Axis I disorders, family and treatment histories, and previously established predictors of the course of major depressive disorder. Results 15.1% of participants had persistent major depressive disorder and 7.3% of those who remitted had a recurrence. Univariate analyses indicated that avoidant, borderline, histrionic, paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders all elevated the risk for persistence. With Axis I co-morbidity controlled, all but histrionic personality disorder remained significant. With all other personality disorders controlled, borderline and schizotypal remained significant predictors. In final, multivariate analyses that controlled for age at onset of major depressive disorder, number of previous episodes, duration of current episode, family history, and treatment, borderline personality disorder remained a robust predictor of major depressive disorder persistence. Neither personality disorders nor other clinical variables predicted recurrence. Conclusions In this nationally-representative sample of adults with major depressive disorder, borderline personality disorder robustly predicted persistence, a finding that converges with recent clinical studies. Personality psychopathology, particularly borderline personality disorder, should be assessed in all patients with major depressive disorder, considered in prognosis, and addressed in treatment. PMID:21245088

  19. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  20. Bipolar and related disorders and depressive disorders in DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łojko,Dorota

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, a version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, having number 5, was published. The DSM is a textbook which aims to present diagnostic criteria for each psychiatric disorder recognized by the U.S. healthcare system. The DSM-5 comprises the most updated diagnostic criteria of psychiatric disorders as well as their description, and provides a common language for clinicians to communicate about the patients. Diagnostic criteria of the DSM-5 have been popular all over the world, including countries where the ICD-10 classification is obligatory, and are widely used for clinical and neurobiological research in psychiatry. In this article, two chapters of the DSM-5 pertained to mood (affective disorders are presented, such as “Bipolar and related disorders” and “Depressive disorders” replacing the chapter titled “Mood disorders” in the previous version of DSM-IV. The aim of this article is to discuss a structure of new classification, to point out differences compared with previous version (DSM-IV. New diagnostic categories, such as e.g. disruptive mood dysregulation disorder or premenstrual dysphoric disorder were depicted as well as some elements of dimensional approach to mood disorders were presented.

  1. Autism and sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti A Devnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available “Autism Spectrum Disorders” (ASDs are neurodevelopment disorders and are characterized by persistent impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication. Sleep problems in ASD, are a prominent feature that have an impact on social interaction, day to day life, academic achievement, and have been correlated with increased maternal stress and parental sleep disruption. Polysomnography studies of ASD children showed most of their abnormalities related to rapid eye movement (REM sleep which included decreased quantity, increased undifferentiated sleep, immature organization of eye movements into discrete bursts, decreased time in bed, total sleep time, REM sleep latency, and increased proportion of stage 1 sleep. Implementation of nonpharmacotherapeutic measures such as bedtime routines and sleep-wise approach is the mainstay of behavioral management. Treatment strategies along with limited regulated pharmacotherapy can help improve the quality of life in ASD children and have a beneficial impact on the family. PubMed search was performed for English language articles from January 1995 to January 2015. Following key words: Autism spectrum disorder, sleep disorders and autism, REM sleep and autism, cognitive behavioral therapy, sleep-wise approach, melatonin and ASD were used. Only articles reporting primary data relevant to the above questions were included.

  2. Early improvement in eating attitudes during cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: the impact of personality disorder cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Emma C; Waller, Glenn; Gannon, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    The personality disorders are commonly comorbid with the eating disorders. Personality disorder pathology is often suggested to impair the treatment of axis 1 disorders, including the eating disorders. This study examined whether personality disorder cognitions reduce the impact of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for eating disorders, in terms of treatment dropout and change in eating disorder attitudes in the early stages of treatment. Participants were individuals with a diagnosed eating disorder, presenting for individual outpatient CBT. They completed measures of personality disorder cognitions and eating disorder attitudes at sessions one and six of CBT. Drop-out rates prior to session six were recorded. CBT had a relatively rapid onset of action, with a significant reduction in eating disorder attitudes over the first six sessions. Eating disorder attitudes were most strongly associated with cognitions related to anxiety-based personality disorders (avoidant, obsessive-compulsive and dependent). Individuals who dropped out of treatment prematurely had significantly higher levels of dependent personality disorder cognitions than those who remained in treatment. For those who remained in treatment, higher levels of avoidant, histrionic and borderline personality disorder cognitions were associated with a greater change in global eating disorder attitudes. CBT's action and retention of patients might be improved by consideration of such personality disorder cognitions when formulating and treating the eating disorders.

  3. New Described Dermatological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müzeyyen Gönül

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many advances in dermatology have been made in recent years. In the present review article, newly described disorders from the last six years are presented in detail. We divided these reports into different sections, including syndromes, autoinflammatory diseases, tumors, and unclassified disease. Syndromes included are “circumferential skin creases Kunze type” and “unusual type of pachyonychia congenita or a new syndrome”; autoinflammatory diseases include “chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE syndrome,” “pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH syndrome,” and “pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PAPASH syndrome”; tumors include “acquired reactive digital fibroma,” “onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma,” “infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma,” and “acral histiocytic nodules”; unclassified disorders include “saurian papulosis,” “symmetrical acrokeratoderma,” “confetti-like macular atrophy,” and “skin spicules,” “erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans.”

  4. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical implications including smartphone addiction

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addicti...

  5. Oxytocin and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Nur Say

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113

  6. Overview of Optic Nerve Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  7. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among U.S. Adults Any Disorder Among Children Any Anxiety Disorder Among Adults Any Anxiety Disorder Among Children Agoraphobia Among Adults Agoraphobia Among Children Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Adults Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Children Obsessive Compulsive Disorder ...

  8. Vaccination and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gkampeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

  9. Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Ambar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychogenic movement Disorders (PMD may result from somatoform disorders, factitious disorders, malingering, depression anxiety disorders and less frequently, histrionic personality disorders. First recognized by Henry Head in early twentieth century, PMD s commonly encountered and clues to their differentiation from organic disease. A generally accepted management protocol has been outlined.

  10. Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... co-occurring mental disorders, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders, along with substance abuse, self- ... Study Borderline Personality Disorder Studies Research Results PubMed: Journal Articles about Borderline Personality ... Contact Us Staff Directories Privacy Notice Policies FOIA ...

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorder - A Complex Genetic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Hristo Y.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder is an entity that reflects a scientific consensus that several previously separated disorders are actually a single spectrum disorder with different levels of symptom severity in two core domains - deficits in social communication and interaction, and restricted repetitive behaviors. Autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed in all racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups and because of its increased prevalence, reported worldwide through the last years, made it one of the most discussed child psychiatric disorders. In term of aetiology as several other complex diseases, Autism spectrum disorder is considered to have a strong genetic component.

  12. Metabolic, endocrine, and other genetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmoush, Hisham M; Melhem, Elias R; Vossough, Arastoo

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic, endocrine, and genetic diseases of the brain include a very large array of disorders caused by a wide range of underlying abnormalities and involving a variety of brain structures. Often these disorders manifest as recognizable, though sometimes overlapping, patterns on neuroimaging studies that may enable a diagnosis based on imaging or may alternatively provide enough clues to direct further diagnostic evaluation. The diagnostic workup can include various biochemical laboratory or genetic studies. In this chapter, after a brief review of normal white-matter development, we will describe a variety of leukodystrophies resulting from metabolic disorders involving the brain, including mitochondrial and respiratory chain diseases. We will then describe various acidurias, urea cycle disorders, disorders related to copper and iron metabolism, and disorders of ganglioside and mucopolysaccharide metabolism. Lastly, various other hypomyelinating and dysmyelinating leukodystrophies, including vanishing white-matter disease, megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts, and oculocerebrorenal syndrome will be presented. In the following section on endocrine disorders, we will examine various disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, including developmental, inflammatory, and neoplastic diseases. Neonatal hypoglycemia will also be briefly reviewed. In the final section, we will review a few of the common genetic phakomatoses. Throughout the text, both imaging and brief clinical features of the various disorders will be discussed. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Body dysmorphic disorder and olfactory reference disorder: proposals for ICD-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Veale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the historical background and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD and olfactory reference disorder, and describes the proposals of the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders related to these categories. This paper examines the possible classification of BDD symptoms in ICD-10. Four different possible diagnoses are found (hypochondriacal disorder, schizotypal disorder, delusional disorder, or other persistent delusional disorder. This has led to significant confusion and lack of clear identification in ICD-10. Olfactory reference disorder can also be classified as a delusional disorder in ICD-10, but there is no diagnosis for non-delusional cases. The Working Group reviewed the classification and diagnostic criteria of BDD in DSM-5, as well as cultural variations of BDD and olfactory reference disorder that include Taijin Kyofusho. The Working Group has proposed the inclusion of both BDD and olfactory reference disorder in ICD-11, and has provided diagnostic guidelines and guidance on differential diagnosis. The Working Group's proposals for ICD-11 related to BDD and olfactory reference disorder are consistent with available global evidence and current understanding of common mechanisms in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, and resolve considerable confusion inherent in ICD-10. The proposals explicitly recognize cultural factors. They are intended to improve clinical utility related to appropriate identification, treatment, and resource allocation related to these disorders.

  14. Sudden death in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Garrido, Beatriz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. "Sudden death" has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds) must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.

  15. Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Haemophilus influenzae Disease (Including Hib) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... and Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Haemophilus influenzae , including Hib, disease causes different symptoms depending on ...

  16. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  17. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hills, M.A.; Klint, P.; Vinju, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two complementary analy

  18. Comorbidity in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a report from the International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Christine; Fineberg, Naomi A; Zohar, Joseph; van Ameringen, Michael; Juven-Wetzler, Alzbeta; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo; Cuzen, Natalie L; Hollander, Eric; Denys, Damiaan; Nicolini, Humberto; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Pallanti, Stefano; Stein, Dan J

    2014-10-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity. Comorbid disorders include mood and anxiety disorders as well as obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs). This paper aims to investigate comorbidity of DSM Axis I-disorders, including OCSDs, in patients with OCD from 10 centers affiliated with the International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS). This is a cross-sectional study of comorbidity of Axis I disorders including OCSDs in 457 outpatients with primary OCD (37% male; 63% female), with ages ranging from 12 to 88years (mean: 39.8±13). Treating clinicians assessed Axis I disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and assessed OCSDs using the Structured Clinical Interview for OCD related/spectrum disorders (SCID-OCSD). In terms of the OCSDs, highest comorbidity rates were found for tic disorder (12.5%), BDD (8.71%) and self-injurious behavior (7.43%). In terms of the other Axis I-disorders, major depressive disorder (MDD; 15%), social anxiety disorder (SAD; 14%), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 13%) and dysthymic disorder (13%) were most prevalent. High comorbidity of some OCSDs in OCD supports the formal recognition of these conditions in a separate chapter of the nosology. Rates of other Axis I disorders are high in both the general population and in OCSDs, indicating that these may often also need to be the focus of intervention in OCD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Patients with hematological disorders requiring admission to medical intensive care unit: Characteristics, survival and prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash H

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This retrospective chart review assessed the characteristics and outcome of patients with hematological disorders who required admission to medical intensive care unit over a 4 year period (January 1998 to December 2001. Results: There were a total of 104 patients, 67 (64% male, 37 (36% female subjects, with a mean age of 36.3 ± 15.3 years (range 10 to 65 years. The mean duration from hospital admission to ICU transfer was 11 days. Sixty-nine (66% had malignant and 35 (34% had non-malignant conditions. Respiratory distress was the commonest reason for ICU admission 58 (56%. The other indications were hemodynamic instability 38 (36%, low sensorium 22 (21%, following cardio-pulmonary arrest 12 (11.5% and generalized tonic-clonic seizures 5 (5%. Forty-three (42% patients had absolute neutophil count (ANC less than 500, 48 (47.5% had platelet count < 20000. The mean duration of ICU stay was 4 days (range < 24 hours to 28 days. Sixty-nine (66% patients required mechanical ventilation, 61 (59% required hemodynamic support. Pneumonia or sepsis was diagnosed in 71 (68%. Twenty-five (24% survived ICU stay and 20 (19% survived to hospital discharge. ICU admission following cardio-pulmonary arrest, advanced malignancy, requirement of mechanical ventilation, vasopressor support, ANC count < 500 and platelet count < 20000 were the predictors of adverse outcome. Associated organ dysfunction further increases the mortality.

  20. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system (enzymes) ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. ...

  1. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same time, which is also known as major depressive disorder with mixed features. Bipolar Disorder and Other Illnesses Some bipolar disorder symptoms are similar to other illnesses, which can make ...

  2. Reactive Attachment Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder. Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) Children with RAD are less likely to interact with other people because of negative experiences with adults in their early years. They have difficulty calming ...

  3. Developmental coordination disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001533.htm Developmental coordination disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Developmental coordination disorder is a childhood disorder. It leads to ...

  4. Kids and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Kids and Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Kids and Eating Disorders Print ... withdrawing from social activities previous continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ...

  5. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leg (causing most often swelling, redness, and/or warmth of the leg or shortness of breath) Petechiae ( ... Disorders Symptoms of Blood Disorders Medical History and Physical Examination for Blood Disorders Laboratory Tests for Blood ...

  6. Children with Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but a common one is a specific learning disorder. Children with learning disorders can have intelligence in the normal but the specific learning disorder may make teachers and parents concerned about their ...

  7. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  8. Paranoid personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorder - paranoid; PPD ... American Psychiatric Association. Paranoid personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of ental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013:649-652. Blais MA, ...

  9. Histrionic personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorder - histrionic; Attention seeking - histrionic personality disorder ... Causes of histrionic personality disorder are unknown. Genes and early childhood events may be responsible. It is diagnosed more often in women than ...

  10. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder in ... the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over time ...

  11. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our ePublications > Binge eating disorder fact sheet ePublications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...

  12. Gaze disorders: A clinical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulikottil Wilson Vinny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A single clear binocular vision is made possible by the nature through the oculomotor system along with inputs from the cortical areas as well their descending pathways to the brainstem. Six systems of supranuclear control mechanisms play a crucial role in this regard. These are the saccadic system, the smooth pursuit system, the vestibular system, the optokinetic system, the fixation system, and the vergence system. In gaze disorders, lesions at different levels of the brain spare some of the eye movement systems while affecting others. The resulting pattern of eye movements helps clinicians to localize lesions accurately in the central nervous system. Common lesions causing gaze palsies include cerebral infarcts, demyelinating lesions, multiple sclerosis, tumors, Wernicke's encephalopathy, metabolic disorders, and neurodegenerative disorders such as progressive supranuclear palsy. Evaluation of the different gaze disorders is a bane of most budding neurologists and neurosurgeons. However, a simple and systematic clinical approach to this problem can make their early diagnosis rather easy.

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorder - A Complex Genetic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov Hristo Y.; Stoyanova Vili K.; Popov Nikolay T.; Vachev Tihomir I.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is an entity that reflects a scientific consensus that several previously separated disorders are actually a single spectrum disorder with different levels of symptom severity in two core domains - deficits in social communication and interaction, and restricted repetitive behaviors. Autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed in all racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups and because of its increased prevalence, reported worldwide through the last years, made it one of the...

  14. Trichotillomania, stereotypic movement disorder, and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Garner, Joseph P; Keuthen, Nancy J; Franklin, Martin E; Walkup, John T; Woods, Douglas W

    2007-08-01

    Trichotillomania is currently classified as an impulse control disorder not otherwise classified, whereas body-focused behaviors other than hair-pulling may be diagnosed as stereotypic movement disorder. A number of disorders characterized by repetitive, body-focused behaviors (eg, skin-picking) are prevalent and disabling and may have phenomenological and psychobiological overlap. Such disorders deserve greater recognition in the official nosology, and there would seem to be clinical utility in classifying them in the same diagnostic category.

  15. Disordered gambling and co-morbidity of psychiatric disorders among college students: an examination of problem drinking, anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Usdan, Stuart; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the occurrence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., problem drinking, anxiety, and depression) among college students who met the threshold for disordered gambling. The participants included a large sample of undergraduate students (n = 1,430) who were enrolled in an introductory health course at a large, southeastern university in Spring 2011 and completed an online assessment that included scales to assess disordered gambling, problem drinking, anxiety, and depression. We calculated screening scores, computed prevalence rates for each disorder, and calculated Pearson correlations and Chi square tests to examine correlations and co-morbid relationships between the four disorders. Analyses indicated that all disorders were significantly associated (p college students who experience disordered gambling (and other psychiatric disorders) are at increased risk of experiencing co-occurring disorders, it might be useful for college health professionals to concurrently screen and intervene for co-occurring disorders.

  16. A critique of the literature on etiology of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rikani, Azadeh A.; Choudhry, Zia; Choudhry, Adnan M.; Ikram, Huma; Asghar, Muhammad W; Kajal, Dilkash; WAHEED, Abdul; Mobassarah, Nusrat J

    2013-01-01

    The development of eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and atypical eating disorders that affect many young women and even men in the productive period of their lives is complex and varied. While numbers of presumed risk factors contributing to the development of eating disorders are increasing, previous evidence for biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural effects on the development of eating disorders have not been conclusi...

  17. Processing art sculptures relative to the issue of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    KONEČNÁ, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the problems of eating disorders. Objective of the thesis is definition of eating disorder, a description of the individual faults an as a practical part there is an artistic creation of specific disorders. Theoretical part includes characteristics, division and insight into history. There are described four forms of eating disorders: anorexia, bulimia, obesity and bigorexia. In the practical part is the visual processing of transformation of two excessive eating disord...

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  19. Learning Disorders in Epilepsy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beghi, Massimiliano; Cornaggia, Cesare Maria; Frigeni, Barbara; Beghi, Ettore

    2006-01-01

    Learning disorders (LD) are disorders interfering with academic performance or with daily living activities requiring reading, writing, or mathematical abilities in subjects with a normal intelligence quotient...

  20. Prions mediated neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W-J; Chen, W-W; Zhang, X

    2015-11-01

    Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that are devoid of nucleic acid and cause a group of rare and invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorders, affecting approximately 1 person per 1 million inhabitants annually worldwide. These disorders include Creutzfeld-Jacob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), kuru, fatal insomnia (FI), and variable protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr), all of which involve a conformational change of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) into the abnormal scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) through a posttranslational process during which PrPc acquires high β-sheet content. This structural change is accompanied by profound changes in the physicochemical properties of PrPC, rendering the molecule resistant to proteolysis. The conformational change of PrPC can occur due to either spontaneous conversion, dominant mutations in the prion protein (PRNP) gene encoding PrPC, or infection with pathogenic isoform PrPsc from exogenous sources. There is general agreement that PrPC serves as a substrate for conversion to abnormal PrPSc. This latter multiplies exponentially and aggregates in the brain, forming deposits that are associated with the neurodegenerative changes. Although the understanding of the primary causes of prion-induced neurodegeneration is still limited, propagation of PrPSc and neurotoxic signaling seem to interplay in pathogenic process of prions. Here, we review recent findings that have provided fresh insights into this process, and present an overview of incidence, causes and spectrum of related disorders.

  1. Autoantibodies in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Hoffmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. The identification of autoantibodies targeting the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R, which causes neurological and psychiatric symptoms, has reinvigorated the hypothesis that other patient subgroups may also suffer from an underlying autoimmune condition. In recent years, a wide range of neuropsychiatric diseases and autoantibodies targeting ion-channels or neuronal receptors including NMDA-R, voltage gated potassium channel complex (VGKC complex, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA-R, γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA-R and dopamine receptor (DR were studied and conflicting reports have been published regarding the seroprevalence of these autoantibodies. A clear causative role of autoantibodies on psychiatric symptoms has as yet only been shown for the NMDA-R. Several other autoantibodies have been related to the presence of certain symptoms and antibody effector mechanisms have been proposed. However, extensive clinical studies with large multicenter efforts to standardize diagnostic procedures for autoimmune etiology and animal studies are needed to confirm the pathogenicity of these autoantibodies. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of neuronal autoantibodies in the major neuropsychiatric disorders: psychotic, major depression, autism spectrum, obsessive-compulsive and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders.

  2. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD.

  3. Pharmacotherapy of panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B Pull

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Charles B Pull1, Cristian Damsa21Department of Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg, Luxembourg; 2Department of Psychiatry, Clinical Investigation Program, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, USAAbstract: Panic disorder (PD is a common, persistent and disabling mental disorder. It is often associated with agoraphobia. The present article reviews the current status of pharmacotherapy for PD with or without agoraphobia as well as the current status of treatments combing pharmacotherapy with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT. The review has been written with a focus on randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and reviews that have been published over the past few years. Effective pharmacological treatments include tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and various benzodiazepines. Treatment results obtained with CBT compare well with pharmacotherapy, with evidence that CBT is at least as effective as pharmacotherapy. Combining pharmacotherapy with CBT has been found to be superior to antidepressant pharmacotherapy or CBT alone, but only in the acute-phase treatment. Long term studies on treatments combining pharmacotherapy and CBT for PD with or without agoraphobia have found little benefit, however, for combination therapies versus monotherapies. New investigations explore the potential additional value of sequential versus concomitant treatments, of cognitive enhancers and virtual reality exposure therapy, and of education, self management and Internet-based interventions.Keywords: Panic disorder, agoraphobia, pharmacotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, combination treatments.

  4. Tissue-Specific Effects of Bariatric Surgery Including Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon N. Dankel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the molecular links between obesity and disease is potentially of great benefit for society. In this paper we discuss proposed mechanisms whereby bariatric surgery improves metabolic health, including acute effects on glucose metabolism and long-term effects on metabolic tissues (adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver and mitochondrial function. More short-term randomized controlled trials should be performed that include simultaneous measurement of metabolic parameters in different tissues, such as tissue gene expression, protein profile, and lipid content. By directly comparing different surgical procedures using a wider array of metabolic parameters, one may further unravel the mechanisms of aberrant metabolic regulation in obesity and related disorders.

  5. Sleep and sleep disorders in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidozzi, F

    2013-04-01

    Sleep disorders in the menopause are common. Although these disorders may be due to the menopause itself and/or the associated vasomotor symptoms, the etiology is multifactorial and includes a number of other associated conditions. They may simply arise as part of the aging process and not be specifically related to the decrease in estrogen levels or, alternatively, because of breathing or limb movement syndromes, depression, anxiety, co-morbid medical diseases, medication, pain and/or psychosocial factors. The most commonly encountered sleep disorders in menopausal women include insomnia, nocturnal breathing disturbances and the associated sleep disorders that accompany the restless leg syndrome, periodic leg movement syndrome, depression and anxiety. This review article addresses sleep and the sleep disorders associated with menopause and briefly the role that hormone therapy may play in alleviating these disorders.

  6. Symptomatic cholelithiasis and functional disorders of the biliary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafasso, Danielle E; Smith, Richard R

    2014-04-01

    Symptomatic cholelithiasis and functional disorders of the biliary tract present with similar signs and symptoms. The functional disorders of the biliary tract include functional gallbladder disorder, dyskinesia, and the sphincter of Oddi disorders. Although the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis are relatively straightforward, the diagnosis and treatment of functional disorders can be much more challenging. Many aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of functional disorders are in need of further study. This article discusses uncomplicated gallstone disease and the functional disorders of the biliary tract to emphasize and update the essential components of diagnosis and management. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Hartnup disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating a high-protein diet Taking supplements containing nicotinamide Undergoing mental health treatment, such as taking antidepressants ... Complications when they occur may include: Changes in skin color that are permanent Mental health problems Rash ...

  8. Adjustment disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a different home or a different city Unexpected catastrophes Worries about money Triggers of stress in teenagers and young adults may include: Family problems or conflict School problems Sexuality issues There is no way to ...

  9. Pericardial Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pericardium is a membrane, or sac, that surrounds your heart. It holds the heart in place and helps it work properly. Problems with the pericardium include Pericarditis - an inflammation of the sac. It ...

  10. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seem to play a role, including genetics, brain biochemistry, an overactive fight–flight response, stressful life circumstances, ... or fatigue during waking hours trouble concentrating irritability These problems can affect a child's day-to-day ...

  11. Cephalic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include a study to evaluate increased risk of neural tube defects and various other congenital malformations in association ... involved in neurulation -- the process of forming the neural tube. Investigators are also conducting a variety of genetic ...

  12. Urethral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or injury. They include Urethral cancer - a rare cancer that happens more often in men Urethral stricture - a narrowing of the opening of the urethra Urethritis - inflammation of the urethra, sometimes caused by ...

  13. [Cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakano, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary to take the psychological characteristics of anxiety into account when we consider the improvement of anxiety. Anxiety is generally observed basic emotion in human and never extinguishable. Therefore, it is important for patients with anxiety disorders to learn how to manage their daily anxious responses, even after their pathological anxiety is successfully treated and improved. Considering these points, comprehensive psychological treatment, including not only effective intervention to pathological anxiety but also anxiety management program, is needed in treating anxiety disorders effectively. Reviewing previous studies on effectiveness of psychotherapy for anxiety disorders shows that the cognitive behavior therapy is the most effective intervention in terms of extinction of pathological anxiety, prolonged effectiveness of the treatment, prognosis, prevention of recurrence, and improvement of patients' quality of life. In this article, firstly, basic conceptualization and case formulation of anxiety disorders are discussed theoretically. Secondly, effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, general anxiety disorder, and specific phobia, is reviewed. And finally, challenges of cognitive behavior therapy are discussed in terms of further development and dissemination of cognitive behavior therapy in Japan.

  14. [Neurological Disorders and Pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlit, P

    2016-02-01

    Neurological disorders caused by pregnancy and puerperium include the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, the amniotic fluid embolism syndrome (AFES), the postpartum angiopathy due to reversible vasoconstriction syndrome, and the Sheehan syndrome. Hypertension and proteinuria are the hallmarks of preeclampsia, seizures define eclampsia. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets constitute the HELLP syndrome. Vision disturbances including cortical blindness occur in the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). The Sheehan syndrome presents with panhypopituitarism post partum due to apoplexia of the pituitary gland in severe peripartal blood loss leading to longstanding hypotension. Some neurological disorders occur during pregnancy and puerperium with an increased frequency. These include stroke, sinus thrombosis, the restless legs syndrome and peripheral nerve syndromes, especially the carpal tunnel syndrome. Chronic neurologic diseases need an interdisciplinary approach during pregnancy. Some anticonvulsants double the risk of birth defects. The highest risk exists for valproic acid, the lowest for lamotrigine and levetiracetam. For MS interval treatment, glatiramer acetate and interferones seem to be safe during pregnancy. All other drugs should be avoided.

  15. Endocrine disorders and the neurologic manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jeesuk

    2014-01-01

    The nervous system and the endocrine system are closely interrelated and both involved intimately in maintaining homeostasis. Endocrine dysfunctions may lead to various neurologic manifestations such as headache, myopathy, and acute encephalopathy including coma. It is important to recognize the neurologic signs and symptoms caused by the endocrine disorders while managing endocrine disorders. This article provides an overview of the neurologic manifestations found in various endocrine disord...

  16. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research

    OpenAIRE

    Przybylski, Andrew K.

    2016-01-01

    The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group’s research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding—a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionna...

  17. [Sleep disorder and lifestyle-related disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Rei; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disorder is associated with the lifestyle-related diseases including obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by producing bioactive secretory proteins, also known as adipokines, that can directly act on nearby or remote organs. Recently, the associations between these adipokines and sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea have been reported. In this review, we focus on the relationship between sleep disorder and lifestyle-related diseases.

  18. Psychiatric Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    15.1 Schizophrenia2007274 Effect and safety of combination therapy of valproate with lithium on recurrent mania. XU Wenwei(徐文炜), et al. Dept Psychiat, Wuxi Ment Health Center, Wuxi 214151. Chin J Psychiat 2007;40(2):86-89. Objective The study was to explore the effectiveness and safety of chronic combination reatment of valproate with lithium on recurrent mania. Method All 105 patients with mania-onset were andomly assigned to receive sodium valproate plus lithium (n=35), and monotherapy with lithium n=35) or sodium valproate (n=35), and were followed up for 5 years. At baseline, the symptom was valuated with the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (BRMS). The drug dosage, times of relapse, effects nd safcty was compared among the three groups. Results After the acute therapy, the reductions in BRMS core were(43±29)% in lithium group, (42±27)% in valproate group, and (58±25)% in combination roup, respectively, with significant differences between the three groups (F=3.579, P=0.031). At ollowed-up, tile relapse times was significantly less in combination group than that in lithium and valproate roup(mean times of 2.0±1.5, 3.5±1.8, and 3.5±2.2, P=0.001). The combination therapy had etter effectiveness especially in patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder(F=4.120, P=0.033) than the ther two monotherapy group. The mean dosage of single drug in combination group was significantly lower han that in lithium and valproate group (P<0.01; P<0.001). There were no significantly statistic differences on side-effects among three groups. Conclusion The efficacy of combination therapy of valproate with lithium on mania is better than the monotherapy of lithium or valproate in the light of safety and reduced occurrence.

  19. Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Ruiz, Eva M; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders has not been studied in depth. In addition, clinical implications involved in the appearance of both disorders are very important. A systematic literature review of MEDLINE published up to September 2013 was performed, analyzing all the articles that studied the comorbidity of both conditions (bipolar disorder and eating disorders) and others research that studied the efficacy of pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy to improve these illnesses. In this review we found a high comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders, especially of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Studies show that lithium and topiramate are 2 of the more effective pharmacological agents in the treatment of both disorders. There are a lot of studies that show evidence of comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders. However, further research is needed on assessment and treatment when these conditions co-exist, as well as study into the biopsychological aspects to determine the comorbid aetiology. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. [Personality disorders in the DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuritárné Szabó, Ildikó

    2012-01-01

    Significant changes are proposed in the personality disorders section of the 5th. edition of the DSM. The article summarizes the historical background of the personality disorder classification, including personality-types theory, trait-theory, and clinical concepts based upon psychiatric and psychoanalytical traditions. After briefly summarizing concerns on current approach to diagnosing personality disorders in DSM-IV, we summarise the most important features of the newly developed personality disorders classification, including concepts have been modified during long years of investigation. The new system will have modified less than was originally intended, and will be a hybrid model of dimensional categorical approach to diagnosing personality disorders. The ten personality disorder types are reduced to six, and they will have new criteria based on maladaptive trait dimensions. The trait structure model was derived from existing personality and personality disorder trait models, and includes five broad higher-order trait domains, which are negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism. A new set of general criteria are developed for defining personality disorder. Self and interpersonal functioning represent the core impairment in personality functioning central to personality disorder, and the presence of maladaptive personality traits is also required. Severity continuum of personality pathology can be rated on the Levels of Personality Functioning Scale.

  1. Risk factors for suicide among children and youths with bipolar spectrum and early bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Rajewska-Rager

    2015-06-01

    the overview of recent years literature available in PubMed/MEDLINE database, including the following search criteria: early onset bipolar disorder, bipolar disorder in children and young people, the spectrum of bipolar disorder, and suicidal ideation, suicidal intent, suicide.

  2. 75 FR 10294 - National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... ON DEAFNESS AND OTHER COMMUNICATION DISORDERS, including consideration of personnel qualifications..., Division of Intramural Research, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, 5...

  3. Virtual reality exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Maryrose; Cukor, Judith; Difede, Joann; Rizzo, Albert; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov

    2010-08-01

    Anxiety disorders, including phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder, are common and disabling disorders that often involve avoidance behavior. Cognitive-behavioral treatments, specifically imaginal and in vivo forms of exposure therapy, have been accepted and successful forms of treatment for these disorders. Virtual reality exposure therapy, an alternative to more traditional exposure-based therapies, involves immersion in a computer-generated virtual environment that minimizes avoidance and facilitates emotional processing. In this article, we review evidence on the application of virtual reality exposure therapy to the treatment of specific phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder and discuss its advantages and cautions.

  4. Orofacial manifestations of hematological disorders: Anemia and hemostatic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titilope A Adeyemo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the literature and identify orofacial manifestations of hematological diseases, with particular reference to anemias and disorders of hemostasis. A computerized literature search using MEDLINE was conducted for published articles on orofacial manifestations of hematological diseases, with emphasis on anemia. Mesh phrases used in the search were: oral diseases AND anaemia; orofacial diseases AND anaemia; orofacial lesions AND anaemia; orofacial manifestations AND disorders of haemostasis. The Boolean operator "AND" was used to combine and narrow the searches. Anemic disorders associated with orofacial signs and symptoms include iron deficiency anemia, Plummer-Vinson syndrome, megaloblastic anemia, sickle cell anemia, thalassaemia and aplastic anemia. The manifestations include conjunctiva and facial pallor, atrophic glossitis, angular stomatitis, dysphagia, magenta tongue, midfacial overgrowth, osteoclerosis, osteomyelitis and paraesthesia/anesthesia of the mental nerve. Orofacial petechiae, conjunctivae hemorrhage, nose-bleeding, spontaneous and post-traumatic gingival hemorrhage and prolonged post-extraction bleeding are common orofacial manifestations of inherited hemostatic disorders such as von Willebrand′s disease and hemophilia. A wide array of anemic and hemostatic disorders encountered in internal medicine has manifestations in the oral cavity and the facial region. Most of these manifestations are non-specific, but should alert the hematologist and the dental surgeon to the possibilities of a concurrent disease of hemopoiesis or hemostasis or a latent one that may subsequently manifest itself.

  5. Sleep disorders in kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santo, R M; Perna, A; Di Iorio, B R; Cirillo, M

    2010-03-01

    Sleep disorders are common in patients with end stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. However also a well functioning renal graft does not cure the poor sleep pattern which now emerges as a problem even in early chronic kidney disease (CKD). When patients are made aware for the first time of a disease such as CKD, which may brink to dialysis or at the best to a renal transplant patients begin to experience a disordered sleep. Sleeping disorders include insomnia (I), sleep apnoea (SAS), restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), excessive daily sleeping (EDS), sleepwalking, nightmares, and narcolepsy. Disordered sleep did not meet the clinical and scientific interest it deserves, in addition and we do not have a well defined solution for sleeping complaints. However, awareness that a poor sleep is associated with poor quality of life and carries an increase in mortality risk has recently stimulated interest in the field. There are many putative causes for a disordered sleep in chronic kidney disease and in end-stage renal disease. For a unifying hypothesis demographic factors, lifestyles, disease related factors, psychological factors, treatment related factors, and social factor must be taken into consideration.

  6. Tongue Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your tongue helps you taste, swallow, and chew. You also use it to speak. Your tongue is made up of many muscles. The upper surface contains your taste buds. Problems with the tongue include Pain Swelling Changes in color or texture ...

  7. Balance Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... going to fall Lightheadedness, faintness, or a floating sensation Blurred vision Confusion or disorientation. Other symptoms might include nausea ... if I might faint? Do I have blurred vision? Do I ever feel disoriented—losing my sense of time or location? How can I help ...

  8. Cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Baldaçara,Leonardo; Borgio,João Guilherme Fiorani; Lacerda, Acioly Luiz Tavares de [UNIFESP; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin [UNIFESP

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electron...

  9. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Lung Disease including Asthma and Adult Vaccination Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... more about health insurance options. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Heart Disease, ...

  10. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  11. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., drunkenness, vagrancy, disturbing the peace, curfew violation, loitering, false fire alarm, non-specific charges of suspicion or investigation, and traffic violations (except data will be included on arrests...

  12. Including risk in the balanced scorecard

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    iiSouthern African Business Review Special Edition Accounting Research 2015. Including risk in the .... customer, internal business process and learning and growth perspectives comprise ...... Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Kaplan ...

  13. Validation of the exercise and eating disorders questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsen, Marit; Bjørnelv, Sigrid; Rø, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Compulsive exercise is a well-known feature in eating disorders. The Exercise and Eating Disorder (EED) self-report questionnaire was developed to assess aspects of compulsive exercise not adequately captured by existing instruments. This study aimed to test psychometric properties and the factor structure of the EED among women with eating disorders and a control group. Method: The study included 449 female participants, including 244 eating disorders patients and...

  14. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand......Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  15. Can Violence cause Eating Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2015-09-01

    The origin and course of eating disorders and nutrition have a multifactorial etiology and should therefore take into consideration: psychological factors, evolutionary, biological and socio-cultural (Juli 2012). Among the psychological factors we will focus on violence (in any form) and in particular on the consequences that they have on women, which vary in severity. Recent studies show that women get sick more than men, both from depression and eating disorders, with a ratio of 2:1; this difference begins in adolescence and continues throughout the course of life (Niolu 2010). The cause of this difference remains unclear. Many studies agree that during adolescence girls have negative feelings more frequently and for a longer duration caused by stressful life events and difficult circumstances, such as abuse or violence. This results in an increased likelihood of developing a symptom that will be connected to eating disorders and/or depression. As far as the role of food is concerned in eating disorders, it has a symbolic significance and offers emotional comfort. Eating means to incorporate and assimilate, and even in an ideal sense, the characteristics of the foods become part of the individual. Feelings that lead to binges with food are normally a result of feelings related to abuse or violence and lead to abnormal behavior which leads to binging and the final result being that the person is left feeling guilty and ashamed. Research confirms that 30% of patients who have been diagnosed with eating disorders, especially bulimia, have a history of sexual abuse during childhood. Ignoring the significance of this factor can result in the unleashing of this disease as the patient uses the disorder as his expressive theater (Mencarelli 2008). Factors that contribute to the possibility of developing an eating disorder are both the age of the patient at the time of the abuse and the duration of the abuse. The psychological effects that follow may include dissociative

  16. [Asperger's syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD) refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term,,autistic spectrum disorders" was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger's Syndrome (AS) remains the most controversial diagnosis in terms of its place within autism spectrum disorders. AS if often described as an equivalent of High Functioning Autism (HFA) or as a separate spectrum-related disorder with unique diagnostic criteria. Another important issue is the relationship between AS and speech disorders. Although it is relatively easy to draw a line between children with classical autism and speech disorders, the clear cut frontiers between them still remain to be found. The main distinguishing feature is the lack of stereotypic interests and unimpaired social interaction observed in children with speech disorders, such as semantic-pragmatic disorder.

  17. Managing bipolar disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric

    2009-09-01

    Bipolar disorders are recurrent disturbances in mood that include periods both of depression and mania. Classic bipolar disorders, with manic episodes lasting for at least several days, often start in adolescence, but are uncommon in earlier childhood. Treatment of mania in young patients should include ensuring the individual's safety, and administration of a mood-stabilizing drug, or, in severe cases, a neuroleptic. Prophylaxis with lithium or an anticonvulsant should then be considered. In younger children, brief outbursts of excessive emotion--especially anger--should be recognized as a notable clinical problem. These outbursts do not necessarily constitute the beginnings of a classic bipolar disorder, but should trigger a diagnostic differential that also includes attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, reaction to hostile environments, severe mood dysregulation, substance misuse, and autism spectrum disorders.

  18. A critique of the literature on etiology of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikani, Azadeh A; Choudhry, Zia; Choudhry, Adnan M; Ikram, Huma; Asghar, Muhammad W; Kajal, Dilkash; Waheed, Abdul; Mobassarah, Nusrat J

    2013-10-01

    The development of eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and atypical eating disorders that affect many young women and even men in the productive period of their lives is complex and varied. While numbers of presumed risk factors contributing to the development of eating disorders are increasing, previous evidence for biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural effects on the development of eating disorders have not been conclusive. Despite the fact that a huge body of research has carefully examined the possible risk factors associated with the eating disorders, they have failed not only to uncover the exact etiology of eating disorders, but also to understand the interaction between different causes of eating disorders. This failure may be due complexities of eating disorders, limitations of the studies or combination of two factors. In this review, some risk factors including biological, psychological, developmental, and sociocultural are discussed.

  19. Annual Research Review: Transgenic Mouse Models of Childhood-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Holly R.; Feng, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Childhood-onset psychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), mood disorders, obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSD), and schizophrenia (SZ), affect many school-age children, leading to a lower quality of life, including difficulties in school and personal relationships that…

  20. Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Its Behavioral, Neurological, and Genetic Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kathryn L.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common developmental disorder often associated with other developmental disorders including speech, language, and reading disorders. Here, we review the principal features of ADHD and current diagnostic standards for the disorder. We outline the ADHD subtypes, which are based upon the dimensions…

  1. Annual Research Review: Transgenic Mouse Models of Childhood-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Holly R.; Feng, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Childhood-onset psychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), mood disorders, obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSD), and schizophrenia (SZ), affect many school-age children, leading to a lower quality of life, including difficulties in school and personal relationships that…

  2. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  3. Disordered hyperuniform heterogeneous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2016-10-01

    Disordered hyperuniform many-body systems are distinguishable states of matter that lie between a crystal and liquid: they are like perfect crystals in the way they suppress large-scale density fluctuations and yet are like liquids or glasses in that they are statistically isotropic with no Bragg peaks. These systems play a vital role in a number of fundamental and applied problems: glass formation, jamming, rigidity, photonic and electronic band structure, localization of waves and excitations, self-organization, fluid dynamics, quantum systems, and pure mathematics. Much of what we know theoretically about disordered hyperuniform states of matter involves many-particle systems. In this paper, we derive new rigorous criteria that disordered hyperuniform two-phase heterogeneous materials must obey and explore their consequences. Two-phase heterogeneous media are ubiquitous; examples include composites and porous media, biological media, foams, polymer blends, granular media, cellular solids, and colloids. We begin by obtaining some results that apply to hyperuniform two-phase media in which one phase is a sphere packing in d-dimensional Euclidean space {{{R}}d} . Among other results, we rigorously establish the requirements for packings of spheres of different sizes to be ‘multihyperuniform’. We then consider hyperuniformity for general two-phase media in {{{R}}d} . Here we apply realizability conditions for an autocovariance function and its associated spectral density of a two-phase medium, and then incorporate hyperuniformity as a constraint in order to derive new conditions. We show that some functional forms can immediately be eliminated from consideration and identify other forms that are allowable. Specific examples and counterexamples are described. Contact is made with well-known microstructural models (e.g. overlapping spheres and checkerboards) as well as irregular phase-separation and Turing-type patterns. We also ascertain a family of

  4. Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summary – Sept. 23, 2014 Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Formats View PDF (PDF) 692 kB Help with ... Web page Understanding Your Child's Condition What is autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? ASD includes a range of behavioral symptoms. ...

  5. Physiological Disorders of Pear Shoot Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiological disorders are some of the most difficult challenges in micropropagation. Little is known of the causes of plant growth disorders which include callus formation, hyperhydricity, shoot tip necrosis, leaf lesions, epinasty, fasciation and hypertrophy. During our study of mineral nutritio...

  6. Feedback in Group Psychotherapy for Eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Poulsen, Stig; Lindschou, Jane

    2017-01-01

    -generated allocation sequence concealed to the investigators. One-hundred and 59 adult participants, diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or eating disorder not otherwise specified according to DSM-IV, were included. Eighty participants were allocated to the experimental group, and 79 participants...

  7. Neuropsychological profile of delusional disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leposavić, Ivana; Leposavić, Ljubica; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of delusions, were mainly focused on specific forms of this disorder, such as Cotard or Capgras type of delusions. Comparatively small numbers of investigations were concerned with cognitive deficiencies accompanying the delusions. The substance of this study includes the detection of neuropsychological dysfunctions in patients with delusional disorder, and tracing of these cognitive distortions to appropriate brain regions. The investigation is designed as a comparative study. Inpatients with delusion are compared with normal subjects from the aspect of the following cognitive functions: attention, memory, visuospatial and visuoconstruction organization, executive ability, verbal divergent thinking. Attention, memory (verbal modality) and psychomotor skill tasks are most susceptible to delusional effects. The neuropsychological profile of patients with delusional disorder includes impediment of complex attention modalities. From this primary disorder, there also stems a disorder of verbal memory in the sense of reduced recognition. These cognitive distortions suggest a dysfunction of the anterior regions of the cerebrum, mainly of the prefrontal and sinistral temporal regions.

  8. DSM-5 and paraphilic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Given that paraphilic disorders are diagnosed largely in forensic settings, virtually every significant change in the criteria has forensic implications. Several controversial changes were considered during the DSM-5 revision process, but most were ultimately not included in the published text. However, any changes that make it easier to assign a paraphilic disorder diagnosis to an individual must be considered with caution. Criterion A for paraphilic disorders has been changed to reduce one potential risk that could result in false-positive diagnoses (i.e., allowing evaluators to diagnose a paraphilic disorder based entirely on the presence of sexual acts). In contrast, many of the other changes including some of those in the text, make it easier to diagnose a specific paraphilia and thus increase the risk of false-positive diagnoses. Since the assignment of a paraphilic disorder diagnosis can result in adverse legal consequences, the actual forensic impact of the changes will depend on how the legal system incorporates these new definitions into statutes and case law. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  9. Adult onset tic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Chouinard, S; Ford, B.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Tic disorders presenting during adulthood have infrequently been described in the medical literature. Most reports depict adult onset secondary tic disorders caused by trauma, encephalitis, and other acquired conditions. Only rare reports describe idiopathic adult onset tic disorders, and most of these cases represent recurrent childhood tic disorders.
OBJECTIVE—To describe a large series of patients with tic disorders presenting during adulthood, to compare cl...

  10. Subcortical volumes differentiate Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and remitted Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchet, Matthew D; Livermore, Emily E; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Glover, Gary H; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-09-01

    Subcortical gray matter regions have been implicated in mood disorders, including Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD). It is unclear, however, whether or how these regions differ among mood disorders and whether such abnormalities are state- or trait-like. In this study, we examined differences in subcortical gray matter volumes among euthymic BD, MDD, remitted MDD (RMD), and healthy (CTL) individuals. Using automated gray matter segmentation of T1-weighted MRI images, we estimated volumes of 16 major subcortical gray matter structures in 40 BD, 57 MDD, 35 RMD, and 61 CTL individuals. We used multivariate analysis of variance to examine group differences in these structures, and support vector machines (SVMs) to assess individual-by-individual classification. Analyses yielded significant group differences for caudate (p = 0.029) and ventral diencephalon (VD) volumes (p = 0.003). For the caudate, both the BD (p = 0.004) and the MDD (p = 0.037) participants had smaller volumes than did the CTL participants. For the VD, the MDD participants had larger volumes than did the BD and CTL participants (ps disorders are characterized by anomalies in subcortical gray matter volumes and that the caudate and VD contribute uniquely to differential affective pathology. Identifying abnormalities in subcortical gray matter may prove useful for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mood disorders.

  11. Temporal Cognitive Disorders of Autistic Patients%孤独症患者的时间认知障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹; 黄希庭

    2003-01-01

    Besides cognitive disorders, such as disorders of learning, language, etc, the autistic patients generally have tempo-ral cognitive disorders as well, including disorders of sense of time, disorders of memory of time, disorders of temporal behaviour,and disorders of self - consistency. Researchers discussed the possible causes of the temporal cognitive disorders of autistic patients from various ways such as of physiology, heredity, and environment;whereas, there axe no generally accepted conclusions till now. Further researches axe still needed.

  12. Autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, Rajeshree

    2005-04-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders is a complex developmental disorder with social and communication dysfunction at its core. It has a wide clinical spectrum with a common triad of impairments -- social communication, social interaction and social imagination. Even mild or subtle difficulties can have a profound and devastating impact on the child. To be able to provide suitable treatments and interventions the distinctive way of thinking and learning of autistic children has to be understood. The core areas of social, emotional, communication and language deficits have to be addressed at all levels of functioning. The important goals of assessment include a categorical diagnosis of autism that looks at differential diagnosis, a refined precise documentation of the child's functioning in various developmental domains and ascertaining presence of co-morbid conditions. The interventions have to be adapted to the individual's chronological age, developmental phase and level of functioning. The strategies of curriculum delivery and teaching the child with autism is distinctive and includes presence of structure to increase predictability and strategies to reduce arousal of anxiety.

  13. Personality Disorder in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Attrition and Change During Long-term Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gift, Thomas E; Reimherr, Frederick W; Marchant, Barrie K; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2016-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are commonly found in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are associated with increased ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. To assess the impact of PDs or personality traits on retention rates in ADHD trials and whether treating ADHD affects the expression of PD, data were analyzed from 2 methylphenidate trials. Assessment of PDs and personality traits included using the Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory IV and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Personality Disorders. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were evaluated using the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale. Major findings were that subjects with cluster A, cluster B, passive-aggressive, or more than 1 PD showed more attrition. Subjects dropping out also had more schizoid and narcissistic traits. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms (p Disorders Inventory IV items that improved most, 8 resembled ADHD or oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

  14. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. [Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    This booklet provides an overview of the causes, symptoms, and incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and addresses the key features of OCD, including obsessions, compulsions, realizations of senselessness, resistance, and shame and secrecy. Research findings into the causes of OCD are reviewed which indicate that the brains of…

  15. Molecular Genetics of Mitochondrial Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lee-Jun C.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) disorders (RCDs) are a group of genetically and clinically heterogeneous diseases because of the fact that protein components of the RC are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes and are essential in all cells. In addition, the biogenesis, structure, and function of mitochondria, including DNA…

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafodatskaya, Daria; Chung, Brian; Szatmari, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate…

  17. Neuroimaging of Lipid Storage Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Deborah; Auerbach, Sarah; Robinson, Paul; Gropman, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Lipid storage diseases, also known as the lipidoses, are a group of inherited metabolic disorders in which there is lipid accumulation in various cell types, including the central nervous system, because of the deficiency of a variety of enzymes. Over time, excessive storage can cause permanent cellular and tissue damage. The brain is particularly…

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafodatskaya, Daria; Chung, Brian; Szatmari, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate…

  19. [Perioperative disorders of mental functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonković, Dinko; Adam, Visnja Nesek; Kovacević, Marko; Bogović, Tajana Zah; Drvar, Zeljko; Baronica, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Mental disorders are characterized by disturbances of thought, perception, affect and behavior, which occur as a result of brain damage. Recognizing and treating these conditions is necessary not only for psychiatrists but for all physicians. Disorder of mental function is one of the most common associated conditions in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, disturbances of mental function often remain unrecognized. In ICU patients, different types of mental function disorders may develop. They range from sleep disorders, severe depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to cognitive disorders including delirium. The causes of mental dysfunction in ICU patients can be divided into environmental and medical. Cognitive disorders are related to mental processes such as learning ability, memory, perception and problem solving. Cognitive disorders are usually not prominent in the early postoperative period and in many cases are discovered after hospital discharge because of difficulties in performing everyday activities at home or at work. The etiology of postoperative cognitive impairment is unclear. Older age, previous presence of cognitive dysfunction, severity of disease, and polypharmacy with more than four drugs are some of the risk factors identified. Delirium is a multifactorial disorder. It is an acute confusional state characterized by alteration of consciousness with reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention. It is considered as the most common form of mental distress in ICU patients. Nearly 30% of all hospitalized patients pass through deliriant phase during their hospital stay. Delirium can last for several days to several weeks. Almost always it ends with complete withdrawal of psychopathological symptoms. Sometimes it can evolve into a chronic brain syndrome (dementia). The causes are often multifactorial and require a number of measures to ease the symptoms. Delirious patient is at risk of complications of immobility and

  20. Dreams and Nightmares in Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Although the relationship between dreaming and psychopathology has been studied quite extensively, research on dreaming in patients with personality disorders has been very scarce. In patients with borderline personality disorder, negatively toned dreams and heightened nightmare frequency have been found-characteristics not determined by co-morbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. The review includes suggestions for future studies as the existing results clearly indicate that this line of research is most interesting. Lastly, clinical recommendations especially regarding the treatment of the often found co-morbid nightmare disorder will be given.

  1. Mucocutaneous disorders in Hiv positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar H

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight HIV positive patients were included in this study. They were evaluated for their mucocutaneous disorders, sexually transmitted diseases and other systemic disorders between 1994-95 in the department of Dermatology and STD Dr R M L Hospital of New Delhi. The heterosexual contact with commercial sex workers (CSWs was the most common route of HIV transmission. Chancroid, syphilis and genital warts were common STDs found in HIV positive patients. Oral thrush (67.9% was the commonest mucocutaneous disorder found in these patients followed by herpes zoster (25% and seborrhoeic dermatitis (21.4%. There was no unusual clinical presentation seen in mucocutaneous disorders and STDs.

  2. Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Maria A

    2015-12-01

    Disruption in the interaction between the central nervous system, nerves, and muscles cause movement disorders. These disorders can negatively affect quality of life. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been identified as a therapy for Parkinson disease and essential tremor that has significant advantages compared with medicinal therapies. Surgical intervention for these disorders before DBS included ablative therapies such as thalamotomy and pallidotomy. These procedures were not reversible and did not allow for treatment adjustments. The advent of DBS progressed therapies for significant movement disorders into the realm of being reversible and adjustable based on patient symptoms.

  3. Sleep disorders in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israt Jahan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Israt Jahan1, Robert A Hauser2, Kelly L Sullivan1, Amber Miller1, Theresa A Zesiewicz11Department of Neurology, Parkinson’s Research Foundation, 2Departments of Neurology, Molecular Pharmacology, and Physiology, University of South Florida, Parkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Center, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: Sleep disorders occur commonly in Parkinson’s disease (PD, and reduce quality of life. Sleep-related problems in PD include insomnia, restless legs syndrome, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep apnea, parasomnias, excessive daytime sleepiness, and sleep attacks. This article reviews sleep disorders and their treatment in PD. Keywords: insomnia, restless legs syndrome, sleep apnea

  4. Dissociative identity disorder: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, M M

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature into dissociative identity disorder. This disorder, previously known as multiple personality disorder, is increasingly diagnosed, in part because of more focused diagnostic tools, but also because people are accessing services to assist with the longterm problems of early child abuse and neglect. Dissociative identity disorder is examined in the literature according to a variety of discourses, each of which suggest different ways of conceptualizing problems and therapeutic approaches. These discourses reviewed include: psychiatry, psychology, corporeality, feminism, social constructivism, anthropology, and postmodernism. The paper concludes with an examination of the nursing literature and suggests opportunities for nursing research into this complex mental health problem.

  5. A Personality Disorders: Schizotypal, Schizoid and Paranoid Personality Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterberg, Michelle L; Goulding, Sandra M; Walker, Elaine F

    2010-12-01

    Cluster A personality disorders (PD), including schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), paranoid personality disorder (PPD), and schizoid PD, are marked by odd and eccentric behaviors, and are grouped together because of common patterns in symptomatology as well as shared genetic and environmental risk factors. The DSM-IV-TR describes personality disorders as representing stable and enduring patterns of maladaptive traits, and much of what is understood about Cluster A personality disorders in particular stems from research with adult populations. Less in known about these disorders in children and adolescents, and controversy remains regarding diagnosis of personality disorders in general in youth. The current paper reviews the available research on Cluster A personality disorders in childhood and adolescence; specifically, we discuss differentiating between the three disorders and distinguishing them from other syndromes, measuring Cluster A disorders in youth, and the nature and course of these disorders throughout childhood and adolescence. We also present recent longitudinal data from a sample of adolescents diagnosed with Cluster A personality disorders from our research laboratory, and suggest directions for future research in this important but understudied area.

  6. A Personality Disorders: Schizotypal, Schizoid and Paranoid Personality Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterberg, Michelle L.; Goulding, Sandra M.

    2010-01-01

    Cluster A personality disorders (PD), including schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), paranoid personality disorder (PPD), and schizoid PD, are marked by odd and eccentric behaviors, and are grouped together because of common patterns in symptomatology as well as shared genetic and environmental risk factors. The DSM-IV-TR describes personality disorders as representing stable and enduring patterns of maladaptive traits, and much of what is understood about Cluster A personality disorders in particular stems from research with adult populations. Less in known about these disorders in children and adolescents, and controversy remains regarding diagnosis of personality disorders in general in youth. The current paper reviews the available research on Cluster A personality disorders in childhood and adolescence; specifically, we discuss differentiating between the three disorders and distinguishing them from other syndromes, measuring Cluster A disorders in youth, and the nature and course of these disorders throughout childhood and adolescence. We also present recent longitudinal data from a sample of adolescents diagnosed with Cluster A personality disorders from our research laboratory, and suggest directions for future research in this important but understudied area. PMID:21116455

  7. Recent developments in superconducting materials including ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachikawa, Kyoji

    1987-06-01

    This report describes the history of superconduction starting in 1911, when the superconducting phenomenon was first observed in murcury, until the recent discovery of superconducting materials with high critical temperatures. After outlining the BCS theory, basic characteristics are discussed including the critical temperature, magnetic field and current density to be reached for realizing the superconducting state. Various techniques for practical superconducting materials are discussed, including methods for producing extra fine multiconductor wires from such superconducting alloys as Nb-Ti, intermetallic Nb/sub 3/Sn compound and V/sub 3/Ga, as well as methods for producing wires of Nb/sub 3/Al, Nb/sub 3/(Al, Ge) and Nb/sub 3/Ge such as continuous melt quenching, electron beam irradiation, laser beam irradiation and chemical evaporation. Characteristics of superconducting ceramics are described, along with their applications including superconducting magnets and superconducting elements. (15 figs, 1 tab, 19 refs)

  8. Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise

    2014-01-01

    judgements of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations including athletes from aquatic sports ranges from 18-45 % in female athletes and 0-28 % in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behaviour at all periods of development pathway......Disordered eating behaviour (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern due to their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy...

  9. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  10. Electrochemical cell structure including an ionomeric barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Hibbs, Michael

    2017-06-20

    An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron vanadium phosphorous alloy, such as VP.sub.x, wherein x is 1-5. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.

  11. Ophthalmic Disorders in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon J. Krinsky-McHale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A myriad of ophthalmic disorders is associated with the phenotype of Down syndrome including strabismus, cataracts, and refractive errors potentially resulting in significant visual impairment. Ophthalmic sequelae have been extensively studied in children and adolescents with Down syndrome but less often in older adults. In-depth review of medical records of older adults with Down syndrome indicated that ophthalmic disorders were common. Cataracts were the most frequent ophthalmic disorder reported, followed by refractive errors, strabismus, and presbyopia. Severity of intellectual disability was unrelated to the presence of ophthalmic disorders. Also, ophthalmic disorders were associated with lower vision-dependent functional and cognitive abilities, although not to the extent that was expected. The high prevalence of ophthalmic disorders highlights the need for periodic evaluations and individualized treatment plans for adults with Down syndrome, in general, but especially when concerns are identified.

  12. Endocrine disorders and the neurologic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jeesuk

    2014-12-01

    The nervous system and the endocrine system are closely interrelated and both involved intimately in maintaining homeostasis. Endocrine dysfunctions may lead to various neurologic manifestations such as headache, myopathy, and acute encephalopathy including coma. It is important to recognize the neurologic signs and symptoms caused by the endocrine disorders while managing endocrine disorders. This article provides an overview of the neurologic manifestations found in various endocrine disorders that affect pediatric patients. It is valuable to think about 'endocrine disorder' as a cause of the neurologic manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of hormonal imbalance can rapidly relieve the neurologic symptoms. Better understanding of the interaction between the endocrine system and the nervous system, combined with the knowledge about the pathophysiology of the neurologic manifestations presented in the endocrine disorders might allow earlier diagnosis and better treatment of the endocrine disorders.

  13. The effectiveness of anticonvulsants in psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunze, Heinz C. R.

    2008-01-01

    Anticonvulsant drugs are widely used in psychiatric indications. These include mainly alcohol and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromes, panic and anxiety disorders, dementia, schizophrenia, affective disorders, bipolar affective disorders in particular, and, to some extent, personality disorders, A further area in which neurology and psychiatry overlap is pain conditions, in which some anticonvulsants, and also typical psychiatric medications such as antidepressants, are helpful. From the beginning of their psychiatric use, anticonvulsants have also been used to ameliorate specific symptoms of psychiatric disorders independently of their causality and underlying illness, eg, aggression, and, more recently, cognitive impairment, as seen in affective disorders and schizophrenia. With new anticonvulsants currently under development, it is likely that their use in psychiatry will further increase, and that psychiatrists need to learn about their differential efficacy and safety profiles to the same extent as do neurologists. PMID:18472486

  14. Functions of intrinsic disorder in transmembrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Magnus; Kragelund, Birthe B.

    2017-01-01

    mechanisms. (3) Trafficking of membrane proteins. (4) Transient membrane associations. (5) Post-translational modifications most notably phosphorylation and (6) disorder-linked isoform dependent function. We finish the review by discussing the future challenges facing the membrane protein community regarding......Intrinsic disorder is common in integral membrane proteins, particularly in the intracellular domains. Despite this observation, these domains are not always recognized as being disordered. In this review, we will discuss the biological functions of intrinsically disordered regions of membrane...... proteins, and address why the flexibility afforded by disorder is mechanistically important. Intrinsically disordered regions are present in many common classes of membrane proteins including ion channels and transporters; G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), receptor tyrosine kinases and cytokine...

  15. The Case for Strategies that Include Men

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Case for Strategies that Include Men. Denise M Roth and .... one set of approaches advocated using medical cri- teria to identify and ... planning, offering services for the prevention and ..... are equipped with the basic minimum needed to respond to ..... Lane SD Television minidramas: social marketing and evaluation in ...

  16. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joint...

  17. An acoustic finite element including viscothermal effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.; Wijnant, Y.H.; Boer, de A.

    2007-01-01

    In acoustics it is generally assumed that viscous- en thermal boundary layer effects play a minor role in the propagation of sound waves. Hence, these effects are neglected in the basic set of equations describing the sound field. However, for geometries that include small confinements of air or thi

  18. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Included items. 65.820 Section 65.820 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE...) Cash working capital. The average amount of investor-supplied capital needed to provide funds for...

  19. Nuclear Chemistry: Include It in Your Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Charles H.; Sheline, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the topics that might be included in a nuclear chemistry section are explored. Offers radioactivity, closed shells in nuclei, energy of nuclear processes, nuclear reactions, and fission and fusion as topics of interest. Provided are ideas and examples for each. (MVL)

  20. Including the Excluded: One School for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EFA 2000 Bulletin, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of "EFA 2000" focuses on the theme of inclusive education, i.e., including children with disabilities in general education classrooms. The cover story discusses a 1995 UNESCO survey of 63 countries that showed that integration of children with disabilities in regular schools is a declared policy in almost every country.…

  1. Disorders of lymph flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, C L; Witte, M H

    1995-04-01

    a long latent period and sporadic episodes of lymphangitis, which culminates in intense scarring. Examples are pulmonary fibrosis (e.g., pneumoconiosis), regional enteritis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, and perhaps chronic pancreatitis and cirrhosis of the liver. Transdifferentiation and ultimately transformation of endothelial and other vascular accessory cells during lymph stasis also may be pivotal to a wide range of dysplastic and neoplastic vascular disorders, including Stewart-Treves angiosarcoma, AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, and lymphangitic metastatic carcinomatosis. Lymphscintigraphy has now replaced conventional lymphography as the procedure of choice to corroborate the diagnosis of peripheral lymphedema, whereas MR imaging using paramagnetic and superparamagnetic contrast agents has the potential to yield huge dividends in furthering understanding of a variety of enigmatic edematous states, including lymphedema. Not only are better explanations and insights into swelling disorders likely to be forthcoming, but, equally important, these new, safe, noninvasive imaging techniques can and should be used to monitor the evolution and document the efficacy of commonly advocated operations and nonoperative remedies for defective lymph transport and function.

  2. A review of Indian research on co-occurring psychiatric disorders and alcohol use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive use of alcohol has been identified as a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Excessive use of alcohol is a component cause of more than 200 disease and injury conditions. Alcohol use has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality across all regions of the world including South-East Asia. Epidemiological as well as clinic-based studies from Western countries have reported a high prevalence of co-occurrence of alcohol use disorder and psychiatric disorders. The research has established the clinical relevance of this comorbidity as it is often associated with poor treatment outcome, severe illness course, and high service utilization. Understandably, dual disorders in from of alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders present diagnostic and management challenge. The current article is aimed to review systematically the published Indian literature on comorbid alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders.

  3. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Yeon Hur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays critical physiological roles in the energy extraction and in the control of local or systemic immunity. Gut microbiota and its disturbance also appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases including metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, etc. In the metabolic point of view, gut microbiota can modulate lipid accumulation, lipopolysaccharide content and the production of short-chain fatty acids that affect food intake, inflammatory tone, or insulin signaling. Several strategies have been developed to change gut microbiota such as prebiotics, probiotics, certain antidiabetic drugs or fecal microbiota transplantation, which have diverse effects on body metabolism and on the development of metabolic disorders.

  4. Charles Darwin and panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barloon, T J; Noyes, R

    1997-01-08

    Charles Darwin (1809-1882) suffered from a chronic illness that, throughout much of his adult life, impaired his functioning and severely limited his activities. The writings of this famous scientist as well as biographical materials indicate that he probably suffered from an anxiety disorder. His symptoms, when considered individually, suggest a variety of conditions, but taken together they point toward panic disorder with agoraphobia. This diagnosis brings coherence to Darwin's activities and explains his secluded lifestyle, including difficulty in speaking before groups and meeting with colleagues.

  5. Weak disorder in Fibonacci sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Naim, E [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Krapivsky, P L [Department of Physics and Center for Molecular Cybernetics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2006-05-19

    We study how weak disorder affects the growth of the Fibonacci series. We introduce a family of stochastic sequences that grow by the normal Fibonacci recursion with probability 1 - {epsilon}, but follow a different recursion rule with a small probability {epsilon}. We focus on the weak disorder limit and obtain the Lyapunov exponent that characterizes the typical growth of the sequence elements, using perturbation theory. The limiting distribution for the ratio of consecutive sequence elements is obtained as well. A number of variations to the basic Fibonacci recursion including shift, doubling and copying are considered. (letter to the editor)

  6. topical phenytoin versus eusol in the treatment of non-malignant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-03-03

    Mar 3, 2003 ... solution of lime (EUSOL) in terms of rate of ulcer healing, analgesic and antibacterial properties in ... beneficial role in the biology of wound repair(4). Its ability to .... granulation tissue by increasing fibroblast proliferation(15-.

  7. Systemic non-malignant osteoporosis and reduction of edentulous alveolar ridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poštić Srđan D

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Systemic osteoporosis damages skeletal bones to different degrees. The aim of this study was to determine the intensity and correlation of the osteoporotic changes in the bone density of the skeleton and body mass index (BMI with a reduction in edentulous mandibles, and to assess possibility of reparation of layers of mandibles with increase of mineral content in jaws of patients affected by osteoporosis. Material and Methods. In this study, 99 edentulous patients with decreased bone density comprised the experimental group, and 48 edentulous patients with normal bone densities formed the control. The age of the examined patients was 69.02 ± 7,9, range 53-74 of females and 69.11 ± 7.1, range 59-76 years. Radiographs of the hands and panoramic radiographs were done for all the patients. The values of BMI, metacarpal index, density of lumbar spine (L2-L4, in the phalanx and in segments of the mandibles as well as the edentulous alveolar ridges heights were measured, assessed and calculated. Results. The lowest value of the total skeletal density was established in the osteoporotic patients on the basis of the average T-score of- 2.5 in men, and - 2.6 in women. Minimum values of the edentulous ridges heights (right/left, in mm were measured in both osteoporotic females (21.84/22.39 and males 24.90/24.96 patients. By comparison of the densities of the metacarpal bones, proximal phalanx, segments of the edentulous mandibles and based on the numerical values of the edentulous ridges heights, x2 = 3.81 was found in men and x2 = 4.03 was found in women with normal bone densities; x2 = 5.92 was found in men and x2 = 6.25 was found in women with osteopenia; x2 = 2.63 was found in men and x2 = 3.85 was found in women with osteoporosis, on the level of probability of 0.05. After application of calcium and calcitonin in solutions, moderate increment of density (p < 0.05; p < 0.01 was verified, compensating up to 4% of total loss of mass, minerals and solidity of denture bearing areas of osteoporotic mandibles. Conclusion. Systemic osteoporosis leads to decrease of densities of bones of mandibles and causes reduction of edentulous ridges.

  8. A Very Rare Cause of Subglottic Stenosis: Non-Malignant Intratracheal Thyroid Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Aydogmus

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of subglottic stenosis associated with benign thyroid tissue involvement due to relapse of multinodular goiter despite surgery 14 years ago.The patient had undergone bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy 14 years ago and the pathology report had been multinodular thyroid tissue at the time. The patient recently presented to an emergency service due to sudden development of respiratory distress and was then directed to our center. Cervical tomography showed bilateral thyroid tissue that narrowed the tracheal diameter by 80% by invading the trachea from the left wall at the level of the thyroid gland. The patient required urgent tracheostomy due to serious respiratory trouble. The trachea was incised vertically about 2.5 cm below the cricoid cartilage. A 2 cm endotracheal lesion with margins that could not be distinguished from the left vocal cord was observed and biopsies were taken from both this lesion and the tissue surrounding the trachea. A Montgomery T-tube extending from the subglottic area to the distal section was placed. Pathology evaluation revealed histopathological findings that matched normal thyroid tissue. Although infrequent, tracheal invasion associated with a thyroid cancer is known to occur. We present a case with postoperative intratracheal relapse due to a benign cause and the emergency treatment.

  9. Narcissistic Personality Disorder and suicidal behavior in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Daniel; Lawrence, Ryan; Parekh, Amrita; Galfalvy, Hanga; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Brent, David A; Mann, J John; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Oquendo, Maria A

    2017-02-01

    The relationship of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) to suicidal behavior is understudied. The modest body of existing research suggests that NPD is protective against low-lethality suicide attempts, but is associated with high lethality attempts. Mood-disordered patients (N = 657) received structured interviews including Axis I and II diagnosis and standardized clinical measures. Following chi-square and t-tests, a logistical regression model was constructed to identify predictors of suicide attempt. While there was no bivariate relationship of NPD on suicide attempt, in the logistic regression patients with NPD were 2.4 times less likely to make a suicide attempt (OR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.19 - 0.88; p < 0.05), compared with non-NPD patients and controlling for possible confounding variables. NPD was not associated with attempt lethality. NPD patients were more likely to be male, to have a substance use disorder, and to have high aggression and hostility scores. Limitations include that the sample consists of only mood-disordered patients, a modest sample size of NPD, and the data are cross-sectional. The multivariate protective effect of NPD on suicide attempt is consistent with most previous research. The lower impulsivity of NPD patients and less severe personality pathology relative to other personality disorders may contribute to this effect. No relationship of NPD to attempt lethality was found, contradicting other research, but perhaps reflecting differences between study samples. Future studies should oversample NPD patients and include suicide death as an outcome. Clinical implications include discussion of individualized suicide risk assessment with NPD patients.

  10. SKIRT: Stellar Kinematics Including Radiative Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baes, Maarten; Dejonghe, Herwig; Davies, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    SKIRT is a radiative transfer code based on the Monte Carlo technique. The name SKIRT, acronym for Stellar Kinematics Including Radiative Transfer, reflects the original motivation for its creation: it has been developed to study the effects of dust absorption and scattering on the observed kinematics of dusty galaxies. In a second stage, the SKIRT code was extended with a module to self-consistently calculate the dust emission spectrum under the assumption of local thermal equilibrium. This LTE version of SKIRT has been used to model the dust extinction and emission of various types of galaxies, as well as circumstellar discs and clumpy tori around active galactic nuclei. A new, extended version of SKIRT code can perform efficient 3D radiative transfer calculations including a self-consistent calculation of the dust temperature distribution and the associated FIR/submm emission with a full incorporation of the emission of transiently heated grains and PAH molecules.

  11. Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snitchler, Gregory L. (Shrewsbury, MA); Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Voccio, John P. (Somerville, MA)

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

  12. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  13. Specific learning disorder: prevalence and gender differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Moll

    Full Text Available Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.

  14. Specific learning disorder: prevalence and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Kunze, Sarah; Neuhoff, Nina; Bruder, Jennifer; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics) is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.

  15. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  16. Asperger disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manu; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sarkhel, Sujit; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Asperger disorder was first described in 1944 by the Austrian pediatrician, Hans Asperger. It was introduced as a separate diagnostic category from autistic disorder in DSM-IV and ICD-10. The pattern of comorbidity in Asperger disorder is different from autistic disorder, with a higher level of psychosis, violent behavior, anxiety, and mood disorders. We present three cases of Asperger disorder diagnosed for the first time in adulthood, with psychosis being the predominant reason for the referral. In each case, the psychosis improved with antipsychotic treatment, although core autistic symptoms remained the same.

  17. Neuroimaging in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurrent attacks, significantly disrupts the functionality of a chronic mental disorder. Although there is growing number of studies on the neurobiological basis of the disorder, the pathophysiology has not yet been clearly understood. Structural and functional imaging techniques present a better understanding of the etiology of bipolar disorder and has contributed significantly to the development of the diagnostic approach. Recent developments in brain imaging modalities have let us learn more about the underlying abnormalities in neural systems of bipolar patients. Identification of objective biomarkers would help to determine the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, a disorder which causes significant deterioration in neurocognitive and emotional areas.

  18. Bipolar disorder in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippis, Melissa; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2013-08-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious psychiatric condition that may have onset in childhood. It is important for physicians to recognize the symptoms of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents in order to accurately diagnose this illness early in its course. Evidence regarding the efficacy of various treatments is necessary to guide the management of bipolar disorder in youth. For example, several medications commonly used for adults with bipolar disorder have not shown efficacy for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. This article reviews the prevalence, diagnosis, course, and treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents and provides physicians with information that will aid in diagnosis and treatment.

  19. The involvement of Reelin in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, Timothy D; Fatemi, S Hossein

    2013-05-01

    Reelin is a glycoprotein that serves important roles both during development (regulation of neuronal migration and brain lamination) and in adulthood (maintenance of synaptic function). A number of neuropsychiatric disorders including autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, Alzheimer's disease and lissencephaly share a common feature of abnormal Reelin expression in the brain. Altered Reelin expression has been hypothesized to impair neuronal connectivity and synaptic plasticity, leading ultimately to the cognitive deficits present in these disorders. The mechanisms for abnormal Reelin expression in some of these disorders are currently unknown although possible explanations include early developmental insults, mutations, hypermethylation of the promoter for the Reelin gene (RELN), miRNA silencing of Reelin mRNA, FMRP underexpression and Reelin processing abnormalities. Increasing Reelin expression through pharmacological therapies may help ameliorate symptoms resulting from Reelin deficits. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Neurodevelopmental Disorders'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sudden death in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Garrido B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Jáuregui-Garrido1, Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera2,31Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, 3Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.Keywords: sudden death, cardiovascular complications, refeeding syndrome, QT interval, hypokalemia