WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-malformed control group

  1. Evaluation of the representativeness of a Dutch non-malformed control group for the general pregnant population : are these controls useful for EUROCAT?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, J.; Zetstra-van der Woude, A.P.; Bos, Jens; De Jong-Van den Berg, L.T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose A case-control study is the most powerful design to test the risk of specific congenital malformations associated with a specific drug. However, malformation registries often lack non-malformed controls. For the Dutch EUROCAT, we collected a non-malformed control group: the 'Healthy Pregnant

  2. The Challenge of Recruiting Control Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja

    2011-01-01

      Recruitment of a large and reliable control group is a challenge in psychological survey based research. The effect of recruitment styles and age on response-rate, data quality, and individual differences were investigated in a control group for a postal survey of elderly bereaved people. This ...... incentive had the highest response-rate (51%), good data quality, and no sampling bias in individual differences. This method can be highly recommended in future control group recruitment....

  3. 78 FR 46851 - Controlled Group Regulation Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... controlled group rules should be applied in connection with the RIC ``asset diversification'' test. This... the Income Tax Regulations (26 CFR part 1) relating to the application of the ``controlled group...)(B) provides that, to qualify as a RIC, a taxpayer must meet an asset diversification test pursuant...

  4. The Control Group and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Hunter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social scientists use a mixture of different methodologies, which creates problems for researchers attempting to review the cumulative results of all studies.  Standard practice for review studies using meta-analysis is to adjust the findings of all studies that use control groups and to include studies not having control groups without adjustment for extraneous effects, or to not use studies that lack a control group, which could produce an erroneous result.  Our study develops a novel meta-analytic procedure that combines the evidence on control group change with evidence on change from the intervention, making it possible to adjust for the effects of extraneous factors in all studies and bridges the gap between control group studies and other types of studies. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v5i1.18302

  5. Control groups in recent septic shock trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettilä, Ville; Hjortrup, Peter Buhl; Jakob, Stephan M

    2016-01-01

    , and mortality outcomes, and calculated a data completeness score to provide an overall view of quality of reporting. RESULTS: A total of 24 RCTs were included (mean n = 287 patients and 71 % of eligible patients were randomized). Of the 24 studies, 14 (58 %) presented baseline data on vasopressors and 58......PURPOSE: The interpretation of septic shock trial data is profoundly affected by patients, control intervention, co-interventions and selected outcome measures. We evaluated the reporting of control groups in recent septic shock trials. METHODS: We searched for original articles presenting...... randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in adult septic shock patients from 2006 to 2016. We included RCTs focusing on septic shock patients with at least two parallel groups and at least 50 patients in the control group. We selected and evaluated data items regarding patients, control group characteristics...

  6. Controlling Functional Group Architecture in Artificial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-02

    further enable enzyme encapsulation to improve the efficiency of light-driven hydrogen fuel production. 5. Changes in key personnel, if applicable : -None ...Controlling Functional Group Architecture in Artificial Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W9132T-14-2-0002 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...cycloadditions to modify reactive groups within the phospholipid membrane structure and how the nature of the reactive elements, the copper catalyst

  7. GROUP VELOCITY CONTROL SCHEME WITH LOW DISSIPATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to prevent smearing the discontinuity, a modified term is added to the third order Upwind Compact Difference scheme to lower the dissipation error. Moreover, the dispersion error is controled to hold back the non-physical oscillation by means of the group velocity control. The scheme is used to simulate the interactions of shock-density stratified interface and the disturbed interface developing to vortex rollers. Numerical results are satisfactory.

  8. Potential explanations for control group benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda O; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer L; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J; Zuber, Jeffrey K; Kennedy, Sarah E

    2012-10-01

    Estimating effectiveness of clinical interventions depends on detecting differences between the responses of intervention and control groups. The outcome, intervention, and moderating factors all may influence the between group change. The absence of a clinically or statistically meaningful difference may also result from control group improvement due to nonspecific factors such as participants' perception of attention, positive regard, expectations, desire to please, and therapeutic alliance with the care provider. We examined perceived benefit and sources of benefit for control caregivers who participated in the CONNECT randomized controlled trial of a dementia caregiving intervention. After the final scheduled data collection in CONNECT, control group participants were asked whether they believed they benefited from study participation. Those who reported benefit were asked to describe the benefit received. Data were analyzed qualitatively. Of 60 available control caregivers, 82% reported a perceived benefit from study participation in five areas: getting information about dementia and caregiving; having someone to talk to and feeling supported; receiving understanding and validation of feelings; knowledge that others were in similar situations; and perceived appreciation of own abilities. Control caregivers who reported benefit were less burdened and depressed and spent less time on duty at baseline than those who did not report benefit. From caregivers' responses, we have identified the assessment battery, both content and time spent in data collection, as a possible mechanism of action for benefit. Study limitations include the better baseline characteristics of the control caregivers who reported benefit, the sample size of benefit control caregivers, the possibility of perceptions of benefit being a function of social desirability, and the lack of a similar question about benefit being asked of intervention caregivers. These findings suggest that the

  9. Pain control: mastery through group experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, E; Baptiste, S

    1981-02-01

    This paper describes a group program which is part of the therapeutic management of out-patients with chronic pain at the multidisciplinary Pain Clinic in Hamilton, Ontario (McMaster Division, Chedoke-McMaster Hospital). The programme seeks to assist chronic pain sufferers in developing more adaptive coping styles. Groups of 12--14 patients meet for 9 weeks, 3 h/week, under the co-leadership of a physiotherapist and an occupational therapist with backgrounds in psychology and psychiatry. Seventy-five patients with diverse aetiologies of chronic pain have completed these "pain control classes". Outcome was assessed on the basis of several parameters. Results indicate a considerable reduction in depression, pain perception and analgesic intake. Conversely, employment figures increased from 20 to 48% after completion of the program. 21% were considered failures. Significant variables differentiating successes from failures were sex, marital status, work incentive, employment and absence of litigation or Workmen's Compensation claims.

  10. Striving for Group Agency: Threat to Personal Control Increases the Attractiveness of Agentic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine eStollberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93 that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects. Turning to groups people are not (yet part of, Study 2 (N = 47 showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78 replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control.

  11. Striving for group agency: threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of agentic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollberg, Janine; Fritsche, Immo; Bäcker, Anna

    2015-01-01

    When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups) but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93) that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects). Turning to groups people are not (yet) part of, Study 2 (N = 47) showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78) replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control.

  12. Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Russell, A F; O'Riain, M J; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A; Manser, M; Sharpe, L; McIlrath, G M; Small, T; Moss, A; Monfort, S

    2001-01-19

    "Limited control" models of reproductive skew in cooperative societies suggest that the frequency of breeding by subordinates is determined by the outcome of power struggles with dominants. In contrast, "optimal skew" models suggest that dominants have full control of subordinate reproduction and allow subordinates to breed only when this serves to retain subordinates' assistance with rearing dominants' own litters. The results of our 7-year field study of cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, support the predictions of limited control models and provide no indication that dominant females grant reproductive concessions to subordinates to retain their assistance with future breeding attempts.

  13. 78 FR 36541 - Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Department of the Air Force Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting ACTION: Public ICWG... be hosting a Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) meeting for the Navstar GPS public signals....mil by August 7, 2013. Public Interface Control Working Group Meeting (ICWG) Date(s) and Times:...

  14. Command Control Group Behaviors. Objective 1. A Methodology for and Identification of Command Control Group Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    recordings were DD I JAN 73 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED i SECUPITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (K4hen Data Entered) ’Ii...numbers of per- sonnet and 2weapons we now have at our disposal. The command and control (C ) process is one such factor where deficiencies invite...OBSERVATIONAL TASKS Position Codes: 01 10 S1 02 20 S2 03 Brigade 3 30 S3 04 40 S4 05 50 XO 06 60 Entire Group 07 70 Commander (71-"A" Co, 72-"B" Co, 73 -"C" Co

  15. Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

  16. Controllability of Linear Systems with inner derivation on Lie Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Jouan, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    A vector field on a connected Lie group is said to be linear if its flow is a one parameter group of automorphisms. A control-affine system is linear if the drift is linear and the controlled vector fields right invariant. The controllability properties of such systems are studied, mainly in the case where the derivation of the group Lie algebra that can be associated to the linear vector field is inner. After some general considerations controllability properties on semi simple, nilpotent an...

  17. Controllability of Linear Systems on Generalized Heisenberg Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Dath, Mouhamadou; Jouan, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of controllability of linear systems on generalized Heisenberg groups. Some general necessary controllability conditions and some sufficient ones are provided. We introduce the notion of decoupled systems, and more precise controllability criteria are stated for them.

  18. Intrinsic Optimal Control for Mechanical Systems on Lie Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic infinite horizon optimal control problem of mechanical systems on Lie group is investigated. The geometric optimal control problem is built on the intrinsic coordinate-free model, which is provided with Levi-Civita connection. In order to obtain an analytical solution of the optimal problem in the geometric viewpoint, a simplified nominal system on Lie group with an extra feedback loop is presented. With geodesic distance and Riemann metric on Lie group integrated into the cost function, a dynamic programming approach is employed and an analytical solution of the optimal problem on Lie group is obtained via the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. For a special case on SO(3, the intrinsic optimal control method is used for a quadrotor rotation control problem and simulation results are provided to show the control performance.

  19. Systematic review of control groups in nutrition education intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wu, FanFan; Spaccarotella, Kim; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Zhang, Yingting

    2017-07-11

    Well-designed research trials are critical for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition education interventions. To determine whether behavioral and/or cognition changes can be attributed to an intervention, the experimental design must include a control or comparison condition against which outcomes from the experimental group can be compared. Despite the impact different types of control groups can have on study outcomes, the treatment provided to participants in the control condition has received limited attention in the literature. A systematic review of control groups in nutrition education interventions was conducted to better understand how control conditions are described in peer-reviewed journal articles compared with experimental conditions. To be included in the systematic review, articles had to be indexed in CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, WoS, and/or ERIC and report primary research findings of controlled nutrition education intervention trials conducted in the United States with free-living consumer populations and published in English between January 2005 and December 2015. Key elements extracted during data collection included treatment provided to the experimental and control groups (e.g., overall intervention content, tailoring methods, delivery mode, format, duration, setting, and session descriptions, and procedures for standardizing, fidelity of implementation, and blinding); rationale for control group type selected; sample size and attrition; and theoretical foundation. The search yielded 43 publications; about one-third of these had an inactive control condition, which is considered a weak study design. Nearly two-thirds of reviewed studies had an active control condition considered a stronger research design; however, many failed to report one or more key elements of the intervention, especially for the control condition. None of the experimental and control group treatments were sufficiently detailed to permit replication of the

  20. Using electric fields for pulse compression and group velocity control

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qian; Thuresson, Axel; Rippe, Lars; Kröll, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we experimentally demonstrate a new way of controlling the group velocity of an optical pulse by using a combination of spectral hole burning, slow light effect and linear Stark effect in a rare-earth-ion-doped crystal. The group velocity can be changed continuously by a factor of 20 without significant pulse distortion or absorption of the pulse energy. With a similar technique, an optical pulse can also be compressed in time. Theoretical simulations were developed to simulate the group velocity control and the pulse compression processes. The group velocity as well as the pulse reshaping are solely controlled by external voltages which makes it promising in quantum information and quantum communication processes. It is also proposed that the group velocity can be changed even more in an Er doped crystal while at the same time having a transmission band matching the telecommunication wavelength.

  1. Stability control of gate groups in deep wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi-biao Guo; Ping-ye Guo; Mao-hong Huang; Yin-gen Liu [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China). School of Geotechnical Engineering

    2009-03-15

    In order to study stability control methods for a deep gate group under complex stresses, we conducted field investigations and analyses of reasons for damage in the Xuzhou coal mining district. Three reasons are proposed: deep high stress, improper roadway layout and support technology. The stability control countermeasures of the gate group consist of an intensive design technology and responding bolt-mesh-anchor truss support technology. Our research method has been applied at the -1000 m level gate group in Qishan Coal Mine. Suitable countermeasures have been tested by field monitoring. 16 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Stability control of gate groups in deep wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhi-biao; GUO Ping-ye; HUANG Mao-hong; LIU Yin-gen

    2009-01-01

    In order to study stability control methods for a deep gate group under complex stresses, we conducted field investiga-tions and analyses of reasons for damage in the Xuzhou mining district. Three reasons are proposed: deep high stress, improper roadway layout and support technology. The stability control countermeasures of the gate group consist of an intensive design technology and responding bolt-mesh-anchor truss support technology. Our research method has been applied at the -1000 m level gate group in Qishan Coal Mine. Suitable countermeasures have been tested by field monitoring.

  3. Control groups in recent septic shock trials: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettilä, Ville; Hjortrup, Peter Buhl; Jakob, Stephan M; Wilkman, Erika; Perner, Anders; Takala, Jukka

    2016-12-01

    The interpretation of septic shock trial data is profoundly affected by patients, control intervention, co-interventions and selected outcome measures. We evaluated the reporting of control groups in recent septic shock trials. We searched for original articles presenting randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in adult septic shock patients from 2006 to 2016. We included RCTs focusing on septic shock patients with at least two parallel groups and at least 50 patients in the control group. We selected and evaluated data items regarding patients, control group characteristics, and mortality outcomes, and calculated a data completeness score to provide an overall view of quality of reporting. A total of 24 RCTs were included (mean n = 287 patients and 71 % of eligible patients were randomized). Of the 24 studies, 14 (58 %) presented baseline data on vasopressors and 58 % the proportion of patients with elevated lactate values. Five studies (21 %) provided data to estimate the proportion of septic shock patients fulfilling the Sepsis-3 definition. The mean data completeness score was 19 out of 36 (range 8-32). Of 18 predefined control group characteristics, a mean of 8 (range 2-17) were reported. Only 2 (8 %) trials provided adequate data to confirm that their control group treatment represented usual care. Recent trials in septic shock provide inadequate data on the control group treatment and hemodynamic values. We propose a standardized trial dataset to be created and validated, comprising characteristics of patient population, interventions administered, hemodynamic values achieved, surrogate organ dysfunction, and mortality outcomes, to allow better analysis and interpretation of future trial results.

  4. Coordination of baseload power plant group control with static reactive power compensator control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Szczerba

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive power sources in power system nodes: generators and static reactive power compensators, are controlled by control systems. Generators – by generator node group controllers, compensators – by voltage controllers. The paper presents issues of these control systems’ coordination and proposals for its implementation.

  5. 78 FR 67132 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice..., 2013 Vol. 78 No. 206. This new meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply...

  6. 77 FR 70421 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply products...

  7. 78 FR 63459 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Air Force. ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply products to the Department of Defense (DoD), and GPS simulator users, both government and DoD contractors...

  8. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of group psychoeducation versus group support in the maintenance of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Christopher

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-didactically delivered curriculum based group psychoeducation has been shown to be more effective than both group support in a specialist mood disorder centre in Spain (with effects lasting up to five years, and treatment as usual in Australia. It is unclear whether the specific content and form of group psychoeducation is effective or the chance to meet and work collaboratively with other peers. The main objective of this trial is to determine whether curriculum based group psychoeducation is more clinically and cost effective than unstructured peer group support. Methods/design Single blind two centre cluster randomised controlled trial of 21 sessions group psychoeducation versus 21 sessions group peer support in adults with bipolar 1 or 2 disorder, not in current episode but relapsed in the previous two years. Individual randomisation is to either group at each site. The groups are carefully matched for the number and type of therapists, length and frequency of the interventions and overall aim of the groups but differ in content and style of delivery. The primary outcome is time to next bipolar episode with measures of the therapeutic process, barriers and drivers to the effective delivery of the interventions and economic analysis. Follow up is for 96 weeks after randomisation. Discussion The trial has features of both an efficacy and an effectiveness trial design. For generalisability in England it is set in routine public mental health practice with a high degree of expert patient involvement. Trial Registration ISRCTN62761948 Funding National Institute for Health Research, England.

  9. A comparison of donor and control group quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Abdul Talib Abdul Mutalib, Muzalwana; Mohd Satar, Nurulhuda; Abdullah, Nawi; Chong, Chin-Sieng; Ng, Kok-Peng; Lim, Soo-Kun

    2014-03-03

    Informed consent of prospective donors should include information about the quality of life (QoL) of existing donors, especially those within the relevant country. This study aimed to provide information on Malaysian organ donors' QoL relative to a control group. Using a shorter version of the SF-36, QoL of 80 donors from the University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC), Malaysia was surveyed and compared to QoL of 80 selected healthy individuals. ANOVA and General Linear Model (GLM) procedure were each applied for the QoL comparison, which was based on gender and age. Donors recorded a better QoL relative to the control group. Comparison across gender revealed that differences are more obvious for males than females. Donor/control comparison across age groups reveals that donors aged 56 and above reported significantly better QoL in most domains relative to other age groups. Information on donor QoL should be made available to the public to present a comprehensive picture of the consequences of organ donation. Nonetheless, we also argue that, despite the merits of organ donation, caution is required before concluding that donors have better QoL because the present research outcomes may reflect a self-selection bias in which respondents only included donors engaging in regular follow-ups.

  10. Fourth order accurate compact scheme with group velocity control (GVC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For solving complex flow field with multi-scale structure higher order accurate schemes are preferred. Among high order schemes the compact schemes have higher resolving efficiency. When the compact and upwind compact schemes are used to solve aerodynamic problems there are numerical oscillations near the shocks. The reason of oscillation production is because of non-uniform group velocity of wave packets in numerical solutions. For improvement of resolution of the shock a parameter function is introduced in compact scheme to control the group velocity. The newly developed method is simple. It has higher accuracy and less stencil of grid points.

  11. FEATURES OF TAX CONTROL ON THE CONSOLIDATED GROUP OF TAXPAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Shuvalova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article features of formation of the consolidated base on income tax of the organizations, difficulties of tax control of all participants of the consolidated group oftaxpayers are opened. On the basis of theanalysis of statistical reportes of FederalTax Service of Russia subjects of the Russian Federation in whom need of carryingout tax audits is proved are revealed.

  12. From deception trials to control reagents - The introduction of the control group about a century ago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, T

    2000-01-01

    This is the story of the remarkable psychologist John E. Coover, who, in the early 1900s, was the first to advocate the comparison of experimental and control ol groups as a methodological necessity. Moreover, the author raises the issue of why control groups were launched about a century ago, and w

  13. Hypovitaminosis D according to psychiatric diagnosis groups: A study with control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Güliz Mert

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the risk factor for different psychiatric disorders has been indicated as hypovit-aminosis D. The present study aimed to compare 25 (OH D level between 4 different types of psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and anxiety disorder and healthy controls, and to assess the risk factors of hypovitaminosis D in psychiatric inpatients. Method: This retrospective study included 974 individuals [depression (n=553, bipolar disorder (n=135, schizophrenia (n=186 and anxiety disorder (n=100] who received inpatient treatment in psychiatry clinic between 2012 and 2014, and 574 individuals in control group who were not diagnosed with a psychiatric condition. A 25 (OH D level less than 21 ng/mL was considered to indicate hypovitaminosis D. Results: 25 (OH D level average of the control group was found to be significantly higher than that of the four psychiatric diagnosis groups (p0.05. Lo-gistic regression analysis of the study parameters suggested that the female gender (odds ratio: 3.46; 95% confidence interval: 0.99-1.01, winter and spring seasons (odds ratio: 2.56; 95% con-fidence interval: 1.69-3.86 and odds ratio: 2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.33-3.11, respectively were significant predictors in level of vitamin D in psychiatric inpatients. Conclusions: Hypovitaminosis D is a condition that frequently exists in inpatients in psychiatry clinic suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder and depression. Being a female, winter and spring are the most remarkable risk factors in these patients.

  14. Mitochondrial control region diversity in Sindhi ethnic group of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Memona; Rakha, Allah; Noreen, Saadia; Salahuddin, Zeenat

    2017-05-01

    The entire mitochondrial DNA control region (nt 16024-576) of 88 unrelated individuals of Sindhi ethnic group residing in different parts of Sindh province of Pakistan was sequenced. Out of 66 different observed haplotypes 50 were unique and 16 were shared by more than one individual. Results showed admixture of mtDNA pool constituting the haplogroups derived mainly from South Asia (47.6%) and West Eurasian (35.7%) whereas the contribution of the African haplogroup was very small (2.4%). High values of genetic diversity (0.992), power of discrimination (0.981) and low value of random match probability (0.018) indicates that mtDNA analysis for this population can effectively be used for forensic casework. The results are valuable contribution towards building mtDNA population variation database for this particular ethnic group from Pakistan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Controlling group velocity in a superconductive quantum circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Tian-Hui; Yang Guo-Jian

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the controllable group velocity of a microwave probe field in a superconductive quantum circuit (SQC) pumped by microwave fields,and the use of such a SQC function as an artificial A-type three-level atom.The exchange between the subluminal and the superluminal states of the probe field can be realized simply by sweeping the pumping intensity,and the superluminal state is usually realized with a lower absorption.This work is one of the efforts to extend the study of electromagnetically induced transparency and its related properties from the lightwave band to the microwave band.

  16. 26 CFR 1.414(b)-1 - Controlled group of corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled group of corporations. 1.414(b)-1... Controlled group of corporations. (a) Defintion of controlled group of corporations. For purposes of this section, the term “controlled group of corporations” has the same meaning as is assigned to the term...

  17. Consensus definitions and application guidelines for control groups in cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teunissen, Charlotte; Menge, Til; Altintas, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    definitions and nomenclature for the following groups: healthy controls (HCs), spinal anesthesia subjects (SASs), inflammatory neurological disease controls (INDCs), peripheral inflammatory neurological disease controls (PINDCs), non-inflammatory neurological controls (NINDCs), symptomatic controls (SCs...

  18. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit

    2016-01-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and…

  19. Motion Control for Nonholonomic Systems on Matrix Lie Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    exponentially stabilizing control law uSO(3) = H(x)ucfs(t, T (x)) (6.12) = H(x) =  cosx2 cosx3 − sec x2 sinx3 − cos x2 sinx3 − sec x2 cosx3  given ω is...nilpotentization, we constructed exponentially stabilizing control laws for non-nilpotent systems by extending the region of attraction of otherwise only locally...California Institute of Technology. Morin, P., Pomet, J.-B., & Samson, C. 1996. Design of Homogeneous Time- Varying Stabilizing Control Laws for Driftless

  20. Group Theoretical Approach for Controlled Quantum Mechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-06

    evolution equation with Hamiltonians which may possess discrete , continuous, and mixed spectrum. For such a quantum system, the Hamiltonian operator...study of classical linear and nonlinear systems, which proves to be very useful in understanding the design problems such as disturbance decoupling...developed by Kunita can then be implemented to establish controllability conditions for the original time-dependent Schrodinger control problem. The end

  1. Control Group Design, Contamination and Drop-Out in Exercise Oncology Trials : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, Charlotte N. Steins; Courneya, Kerry S.; Velthuis, Miranda J.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Jones, Lee W.; Friedenreich, Christine; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H. M.; May, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Important considerations for exercise trials in cancer patients are contamination and differential drop-out among the control group members that might jeopardize the internal validity. This systematic review provides an overview of different control groups design characteristics of

  2. Control of group of mobile autonomous agents via local strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixin GAO; Daizhan CHENG; Yiguang HONG

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the formation control problem of multi-agent systems in a distributed fashion.Two cases of the information propagating topologies among multiple agents,characterized by graphics model,are considered.One is fixed topology.The other is switching topology which represents the limited and less reliable information exchange.The local formation control strategies established in this paper are based on a simple modification of the existing consensus control strategies.Moreover,some existing convergence conditions ale shown to be a special case of our model even in the continuous-time consensus case.Therefore.the results of this paper extend the existing results about the consensus problem.

  3. Self-interest versus group-interest in antiviral control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boven

    Full Text Available Antiviral agents have been hailed to hold considerable promise for the treatment and prevention of emerging viral diseases like H5N1 avian influenza and SARS. However, antiviral drugs are not completely harmless, and the conditions under which individuals are willing to participate in a large-scale antiviral drug treatment program are as yet unknown. We provide population dynamical and game theoretical analyses of large-scale prophylactic antiviral treatment programs. Throughout we compare the antiviral control strategy that is optimal from the public health perspective with the control strategy that would evolve if individuals make their own, rational decisions. To this end we investigate the conditions under which a large-scale antiviral control program can prevent an epidemic, and we analyze at what point in an unfolding epidemic the risk of infection starts to outweigh the cost of antiviral treatment. This enables investigation of how the optimal control strategy is moulded by the efficacy of antiviral drugs, the risk of mortality by antiviral prophylaxis, and the transmissibility of the pathogen. Our analyses show that there can be a strong incentive for an individual to take less antiviral drugs than is optimal from the public health perspective. In particular, when public health asks for early and aggressive control to prevent or curb an emerging pathogen, for the individual antiviral drug treatment is attractive only when the risk of infection has become non-negligible. It is even possible that from a public health perspective a situation in which everybody takes antiviral drugs is optimal, while the process of individual choice leads to a situation where nobody is willing to take antiviral drugs.

  4. A fluorescence switch based on a controllable photochromic naphthopyran group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Lizhen [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Wang Guang, E-mail: wangg923@nenu.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Zhao Xiancai [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2011-08-15

    A fluorescence switch based on photoisomerization of naphthopyran (NP) has been designed by employing 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-benzimidazole (BPI) and the naphthopyran containing two pyran rings (NP) as fluorescent dye and photochromic compound, respectively. The fluorescence switch of benzimidazole derivative can be modulated either by controlling the irradiation time of UV light or by adjusting the amount ratio of fluorescent benzimidazole derivative to photochromic naphthopyran in both solution and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) film. The experimental results indicated that the decrease of fluorescence intensity of benzimidazole derivative is attributed to the interaction of benzimidazole with naphthopyran. - Highlights: > Naphthopyran was first used to fabricate fluorescence switch with benzimidazole derivative. > Fluorescence intensity can be modulated by controlling the UV irradiation time. > Fluorescence intensity can be adjusted by changing the ratio of benzimidazole derivative to naphthopyran. > Decrease of fluorescence intensity is attributed to the interaction of benzimidazole derivative and naphthopyran.

  5. Control of Block Copolymer Morphology through End-functional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Gyuha; Park, Moon Jeong

    2014-03-01

    Recently, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-containing polymer electrolytes have attracted significant attention to be applied for lithium batteries. As the realization of high mechanical strength from the polymer electrolyte becomes of critical importance in high-energy lithium batteries, much effort has been devoted to developing PEO-based block copolymers comprising mechanically robust polymer chains. Interest in this topic has been further stimulated by multiple observations of significant electrolytic conductivity enhancement imparted by microphase separation of block copolymers. In the present study, we report an intriguing methodology for modulating the morphology of poly(styrene-ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) block copolymers with a single ionic group tethered at the chain end of PEO. Unique intra- and inter-chain interactions deduced from the end functional group afforded enriched nanostructures, i.e. disorder, lamellae, hexagonal cylinder, and gyroid, with significant differences in conductivities depending on lithium salt concentration. In particular, a gyorid morphology with a twofold-enhanced lithium ion transport efficiency was found for the end-functionalized PS-PEO block copolymer, attributed to the structural advantages of the gyroid having co-continuous ionic channels.

  6. Spin-Orbit Twisted Spin Waves: Group Velocity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, F.; Baboux, F.; Ullrich, C. A.; D'Amico, I.; Vignale, G.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.

    2016-09-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the interplay between spin-orbit coupling (SOC), Coulomb interaction, and motion of conduction electrons in a magnetized two-dimensional electron gas. Via a transformation of the many-body Hamiltonian we introduce the concept of spin-orbit twisted spin waves, whose energy dispersions and damping rates are obtained by a simple wave-vector shift of the spin waves without SOC. These theoretical predictions are validated by Raman scattering measurements. With optical gating of the density, we vary the strength of the SOC to alter the group velocity of the spin wave. The findings presented here differ from that of spin systems subject to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Our results pave the way for novel applications in spin-wave routing devices and for the realization of lenses for spin waves.

  7. HIERARCHICAL ACCESS CONTROL IN DYNAMIC PEER GROUPS USING SYMMETRIC POLYNOMIAL AND TREE BASED GROUP ELLIPTIC CURVE DIFFIE HELLMAN SCHEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeesa Begum Jeddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical Access Control in group communication is an active area of research which is difficult to achieve it. Its primary objective is to allow users of a higher authority group to access information or resource held by lower group users and preventing the lower group users to access information held by higher class users. Large collection of collaborative applications in organizations inherently has hierarchical structures for functioning, where providing security by efficient group key management is a big challenging issue. While preserving centralized methods for hierarchical access control, it is difficult to achieve efficiency as a single membership change will result in lot of changes which are difficult to maintain. So, using distributed key agreement techniques is more appropriate for this scenario. This study explore on novel group key agreement approach, which combines both the symmetric polynomial scheme and Tree Based Group elliptic Curve key exchange. Also, it yields a secure protocol suite that is good in fault-tolerant and simple. The efficiency of SP-TGECDH is better than many other schemes. Using TGECDH makes the scheme suitable small Low powered devices.

  8. Interaction of Polycomb-group proteins controlling flowering in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanvivattana, Yindee; Bishopp, Anthony; Schubert, Daniel; Stock, Christine; Moon, Yong-Hwan; Sung, Z Renee; Goodrich, Justin

    2004-11-01

    In Arabidopsis, the EMBYRONIC FLOWER2 (EMF2), VERNALISATION2 (VRN2) and FERTILISATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM2 (FIS2) genes encode related Polycomb-group (Pc-G) proteins. Their homologues in animals act together with other Pc-G proteins as part of a multimeric complex, Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), which functions as a histone methyltransferase. Despite similarities between the fis2 mutant phenotype and those of some other plant Pc-G members, it has remained unclear how the FIS2/EMF2/VRN2 class Pc-G genes interact with the others. We have identified a weak emf2 allele that reveals a novel phenotype with striking similarity to that of severe mutations in another Pc-G gene, CURLY LEAF (CLF), suggesting that the two genes may act in a common pathway. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that EMF2 and CLF interact genetically and that this reflects interaction of their protein products through two conserved motifs, the VEFS domain and the C5 domain. We show that the full function of CLF is masked by partial redundancy with a closely related gene, SWINGER (SWN), so that null clf mutants have a much less severe phenotype than emf2 mutants. Analysis in yeast further indicates a potential for the CLF and SWN proteins to interact with the other VEFS domain proteins VRN2 and FIS2. The functions of individual Pc-G members may therefore be broader than single mutant phenotypes reveal. We suggest that plants have Pc-G protein complexes similar to the Polycomb Repressive Complex2 (PRC2) of animals, but the duplication and subsequent diversification of components has given rise to different complexes with partially discrete functions.

  9. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerfving, Annemi; Johansson, Fredrik; Elgán, Tobias H

    2014-01-24

    Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children's coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7-13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the "Ladder of life" which measures overall life satisfaction, and "Jag tycker jag är" (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale "Familjeklimat" (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from troubled families. This quasi-experimental study

  10. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  11. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  12. Roentgenographic findings in hyaline membrane disease treated with exogenous surfactant: comparison with control group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lim, Chae Ha; Lim, Woo Young; Kim, Young Sook; Byen, Ju Nam; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul [Chosun Univ. College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    To compare, with the use of chest radiographic findings, improvement and complications in newborns treated with exogenous surfactant for hyaline membrane disease (HMD), and an untreated control group. Thirty-six patients with HMD were randomly assigned to a control group (n=18) or surfactant treated group (n=18). As part of an initial evaluation of their pulmonary status, we then performed a retrospective statistical analysis of chest radiographic findings obtained in exogenous surfactant treated and untreated infants within the first 90 minutes of life. Subsequent examinations were performed at less than 24 hours of age. Chest radiograph before treatment showed no significant differences between the two groups, but significant improvement was noted in the surfactant treated group, in contrast to the control group. The most common chest radiographic finding after surfactant administration was uniform (n=15) or disproportionate (n=2) improvement of pulmonary aeration. Patent ductus arteriosus developed in three treated neonates and in four cases in the control group. Air leak occurred in three cases in the treated group and in five cases in the control group. In one treated patient pulmonary hemorrhage developed and intracranial hemorrhage occurred in three treated neonates and in four cases in the control group. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was developed in 6 cases of treated group and 3 cases of control group. A chest radiograph is considered to be helpful in the evaluation of improvement and complications of HMD in infants treated with surfactant.

  13. Group Lidcombe Program Treatment for Early Stuttering: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Simone; Onslow, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study adds to the Lidcombe Program evidence base by comparing individual and group treatment of preschoolers who stutter. Method: A randomized controlled trial of 54 preschoolers was designed to establish whether group delivery outcomes were not inferior to the individual model. The group arm used a rolling group model, in which a…

  14. Involvement of Consumer Groups in Tobacco Control: Russia and Belarus Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Yanin

    2017-05-01

    5. Cooperation of consumer organizations from Russia (KONFOP and Belarus (Belarus Consumer Society, launched to promote best Tobacco Control practices, according to FCTC provisions, is a success story of involvement of consumer groups in Tobacco Control.

  15. Demanda por grupos, psicologia e controle Group demand, psychology and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahão de Oliveira Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traz uma reflexão sobre uma capacitação para o trabalho grupal, destinado às equipes das UBSs (Unidades Básica de Saúde do SUS (Sistema Único de Saúde e agentes comunitários de saúde de um município do interior do Estado de São Paulo. Trata-se de analisar o pedido explicitado pela equipe, de mostrar a reflexão a respeito desse pedido, as circunstâncias dos problemas colocados, a experiência dos vários trabalhadores da equipe e a escuta do que se passa do lado da população. Parar para ouvir os parceiros do trabalho e refletir sobre a intervenção fez a equipe trabalhar sua sensibilidade diante das questões da população, do que vem a ser saúde e poder assumir outra postura que não seja a de servir ao controle da população e trabalhar para a construção da sociedade de controle.This article brings a reflection about a training for group work developed with UBSs (Basic Units of Health technical staff from SUS (Unified System of Health and agents of health from a county in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The procedure involves: (1 to analyze the explicit demand form the crew, (2 to show a reflection about this demand, (3 to show the context of the problems, (4 to consider the experience of workers on the crew, and (5 to listen to what happens from population's standpoint. Stop listening to the job partners and reflecting about the intervention made the crew work.

  16. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusion Working Group (FWG)) was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project.

  17. Fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with in-wheel motors using actuator-grouping sliding mode controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boyuan; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua

    2016-05-01

    Although electric vehicles with in-wheel motors have been regarded as one of the promising vehicle architectures in recent years, the probability of in-wheel motor fault is still a crucial issue due to the system complexity and large number of control actuators. In this study, a modified sliding mode control (SMC) is applied to achieve fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with four-wheel-independent-steering (4WIS) and four-wheel-independent-driving (4WID). Unlike in traditional SMC, in this approach the steering geometry is re-arranged according to the location of faulty wheels in the modified SMC. Three SMC control laws for longitudinal velocity control, lateral velocity control and yaw rate control are designed based on specific vehicle motion scenarios. In addition the actuator-grouping SMC method is proposed so that driving actuators are grouped and each group of actuators can be used to achieve the specific control target, which avoids the strong coupling effect between each control target. Simulation results prove that the proposed modified SMC can achieve good vehicle dynamics control performance in normal driving and large steering angle turning scenarios. In addition, the proposed actuator-grouping SMC can solve the coupling effect of different control targets and the control performance is improved.

  18. Control group design, contamination and drop-out in exercise oncology trials: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steins Bisschop, Charlotte N; Courneya, Kerry S; Velthuis, Miranda J; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Jones, Lee W; Friedenreich, Christine; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H M; May, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Important considerations for exercise trials in cancer patients are contamination and differential drop-out among the control group members that might jeopardize the internal validity. This systematic review provides an overview of different control groups design characteristics of exercise-oncology trials and explores the association with contamination and drop-out rates. Randomized controlled exercise-oncology trials from two Cochrane reviews were included. Additionally, a computer-aided search using Medline (Pubmed), Embase and CINAHL was conducted after completion date of the Cochrane reviews. Eligible studies were classified according to three control group design characteristics: the exercise instruction given to controls before start of the study (exercise allowed or not); and the intervention the control group was offered during (any (e.g., education sessions or telephone contacts) or none) or after (any (e.g., cross-over or exercise instruction) or none) the intervention period. Contamination (yes or no) and excess drop-out rates (i.e., drop-out rate of the control group minus the drop-out rate exercise group) were described according to the three design characteristics of the control group and according to the combinations of these three characteristics; so we additionally made subgroups based on combinations of type and timing of instructions received. 40 exercise-oncology trials were included based on pre-specified eligibility criteria. The lowest contamination (7.1% of studies) and low drop-out rates (excess drop-out rate -4.7±9.2) were found in control groups offered an intervention after the intervention period. When control groups were offered an intervention both during and after the intervention period, contamination (0%) and excess drop-out rates (-10.0±12.8%) were even lower. Control groups receiving an intervention during and after the study intervention period have lower contamination and drop-out rates. The present findings can be

  19. Control Group Design, Contamination and Drop-Out in Exercise Oncology Trials : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, Charlotte N. Steins; Courneya, Kerry S.; Velthuis, Miranda J.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Jones, Lee W.; Friedenreich, Christine; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H. M.; May, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Important considerations for exercise trials in cancer patients are contamination and differential drop-out among the control group members that might jeopardize the internal validity. This systematic review provides an overview of different control groups design characteristics of exercise-

  20. The quality of control groups in nonrandomized studies published in the Journal of Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shepard P; Malay, Sunitha; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate control group selection in nonrandomized studies published in the Journal of Hand Surgery American (JHS). We reviewed all papers published in JHS in 2013 to identify studies that used nonrandomized control groups. Data collected included type of study design and control group characteristics. We then appraised studies to determine whether authors discussed confounding and selection bias and how they controlled for confounding. Thirty-seven nonrandomized studies were published in JHS in 2013. The source of control was either the same institution as the study group, a different institution, a database, or not provided in the manuscript. Twenty-nine (78%) studies statistically compared key characteristics between control and study group. Confounding was controlled with matching, exclusion criteria, or regression analysis. Twenty-two (59%) papers explicitly discussed the threat of confounding and 18 (49%) identified sources of selection bias. In our review of nonrandomized studies published in JHS, papers had well-defined controls that were similar to the study group, allowing for reasonable comparisons. However, we identified substantial confounding and bias that were not addressed as explicit limitations, which might lead the reader to overestimate the scientific validity of the data. Incorporating a brief discussion of control group selection in scientific manuscripts should help readers interpret the study more appropriately. Authors, reviewers, and editors should strive to address this component of clinical importance. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution of ABO and Rh Blood Groups in Patients With Keratoconus: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderan, Mohammad; Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Shoar, Saeed; Kamaleddin, Mohammad Amin; Naderan, Morteza; Rezagholizadeh, Farzaneh; Zolfaghari, Masoome; Pahlevani, Rozhin

    2015-07-01

    Association of keratoconus (KC) with genetic predisposition and environmental factors has been well documented. However, no single study has investigated the possible relationship between ABO and Rh blood groups and KC. A case-control study was designed in a university hospital enrolling 214 patients with KC in the case group and equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects in the control group. Primary characteristics, ABO blood group, and Rh factors were compared between the two groups. Topographic findings of KC eyes and the severity of the diseases were investigated according to the distribution of the blood groups. Blood group O and Rh(+) phenotype were most frequent in both groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of ABO blood groups or Rh factors. Mean keratometery (K), central corneal thickness, thinnest corneal thickness, flat K, steep K, sphere and cylinder, spherical equivalent, and uncorrected visual acuity were all similar between ABO blood groups and Rh(+) and Rh(-) groups. However, the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) had the highest value in AB blood group (0.35 ± 0.22 logMAR, P=0.005). Moreover, the blood group AB revealed the highest frequency for grade 3 KC, followed by grades 1, 2, and 4 (P=0.003). We observed no significant excess of any particular blood group among KC cases compared with healthy subjects. Except BCVA, none of the keratometric or topographic findings was significantly different between blood groups.

  2. Diabetes self-care behaviors and disease control in support group attenders and nonattenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chii-Jun

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence rate and mortality rate of diabetes continue to increase annually. Complications associated with poor control of diabetes include renal dialysis, amputation, heart disease, stroke, retinopathy, and vascular disease, all of which have an impact at the individual, family, and national level. This study compares diabetes self-care behavior and disease control efficacy between attenders and nonattenders of a diabetes support group. We used a questionnaire with good validity and reliability to conduct a cross-sectional survey. Diabetes support groups have been established throughout Taiwan for around 2 years. Participants for this study were recruited randomly from a register of support group participants. Support group instructors were asked to collect questionnaires from those attending and not attending their support groups. Ten groups volunteered to participate in this study. We received 147 valid questionnaires from participants attending support groups (attenders) and 93 questionnaires from participants who did not (nonattenders). There were no statistically significant differences between support group attenders and nonattenders in terms of age, educational level, or time since diagnosis of diabetes. Thus, we assumed these two groups as adequately similar to conduct statistical comparisons. Scores for diabetes self-care behavior, disease control, and use of the diabetes passport were all significantly higher among support group attenders than their nonattender peers. Results indicate that people attending diabetes support groups are more likely to have better self-care behavior and disease control than nonattenders. Therefore, we suggest that the government actively promote policies supportive of diabetes support groups.

  3. Controllability of affine right-invariant systems on solvable Lie groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Sachkov

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present some recent results on controllability of right-invariant systems on Lie groups. From the Lie-theoretical point of view, we study conditions under which subsemigroups generated by half-planes in the Lie algebra of a Lie group coincide with the whole Lie group.

  4. Bias from historical control groups used in orthodontic research: a meta-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Koretsi, Vasiliki; Jäger, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    The validity of meta-analysis is dependent upon the quality of included studies. Here, we investigated whether the design of untreated control groups (i.e. source and timing of data collection) influences the results of clinical trials in orthodontic research. This meta-epidemiological study used unrestricted literature searching for meta-analyses in orthodontics including clinical trials with untreated control groups. Differences in standardized mean differences (ΔSMD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated according to the untreated control group through multivariable random-effects meta-regression controlling for nature of the interventional group and study sample size. Effects were pooled with random-effects synthesis, followed by mixed-effect subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Studies with historical control groups reported deflated treatment effects compared to studies with concurrent control groups (13 meta-analyses; ΔSMD = -0.31; 95% CI = -0.53, -0.10; P = 0.004). Significant differences were found according to the type of historical control group (based either on growth study or clinical archive; 11 meta-analyses; ΔSMD = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.21, 0.59; P control groups in orthodontic clinical research was associated with deflation of treatment effects, which was independent from whether the interventional group was prospective or retrospective and from the study's sample size. Caution is warranted when interpreting clinical studies with historical untreated control groups or when interpreting systematic reviews that include such studies. PROSPERO (CRD42015024179). None. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, Mike; /Fermilab; Kim, Ki-Yong; /Maryland U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  6. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Church, Mike; 10.1063/1.3520295

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  7. The Demand-Control Model: Specific demands, specific Control, and well-defined groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, J. de; Dollard, M.F.; Dormann, C.; Blanc, P.M.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Demand-Control Model (DCM), accompanied by three goals. Firstly, we used alternative, more focused, and multifaceted measures of both job demands and job control that are relevant and applicable to today's working contexts. Secondly, this study intended to

  8. Surface developmental dyslexia is as prevalent as phonological dyslexia when appropriate control groups are employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybrow, Dean P; Hanley, J Richard

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the incidence of developmental surface and phonological dyslexia using reading-age-matched control groups have identified many more phonological dyslexics (poor nonword reading relative to irregular-word reading) than surface dyslexics (poor irregular-word reading relative to nonword reading). However, because the measures that have been used to estimate reading age include irregular-word reading ability, they appear inappropriate for assessing the incidence of surface dyslexia. The current study used a novel method for generating control groups whose reading ability was matched to that of the dyslexic sample. The incidence of surface dyslexia was assessed by comparing dyslexic performance with that of a control group who were matched with the dyslexics on a test of nonword reading. The incidence of phonological dyslexia was assessed with reference to a control group who were matched with the dyslexics at irregular-word reading. These control groups led to the identification of an approximately equal number of children with surface and phonological dyslexia. It appeared that selecting control participants who were matched with dyslexics for reading age led to the recruitment of individuals with relatively high nonword reading scores relative to their irregular-word reading scores compared with other types of control group. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. SITUATIONAL CONTROL OF HOT BLAST STOVES GROUP BASED ON DECISION TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Kobysh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was developed the control system of group of hot blast stoves, which operates on the basis of the packing heating control subsystem and subsystem of forecasting of modes duration in the hot blast stoves APCS of iron smelting in a blast furnace. With the use of multi-criteria optimization methods, implemented the adjustment of control system conduct, which takes into account the current production situation that has arisen in the course of the heating packing of each hot blast stove group. Developed a situation recognition algorithm and the choice of scenarios of control based on a decision tree.

  10. Management of adolescents with very poorly controlled type 1 diabetes by nurses: a parallel group randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kassai, Behrouz; Rabilloud, Muriel; Bernoux, Delphine; Michal, Catherine; Riche, Benjamin; Ginhoux, Tiphanie; Laudy, Valérie; Terral, Daniel; Didier-Wright, Catherine; Maire, Veronique; Dumont, Catherine; Cottancin, Gilles; Plasse, Muriel; Jeannoel, Guy-Patrick; Khoury, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds Fluctuation in glycemia due to hormonal changes, growth periods, physical activity, and emotions make diabetes management difficult during adolescence. Our objective was to show that a close control of patients’ self-management of diabetes by nurse-counseling could probably improve metabolic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods We designed a multicenter, randomized controlled, parallel group, clinical trial. Seventy seven adolescents aged 12–17 years with A1C >8 % ...

  11. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... knowledge of the transaction and of the controlled group relationship; and (3) Press releases; Forms 10Q. If... become effective by the 30th day, Company R has the reporting obligation. (3) Merger/consolidation within...

  12. Glycemic control, compliance, and satisfaction for diabetic gravidas in centering group care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Laura I; Jelin, Angie C; Iqbal, Sara N; Belna, Sarah L; Fries, Melissa H; Patel, Misbah; Desale, Sameer; Ramsey, Patrick S

    2017-05-01

    To determine if diabetic gravidas enrolled in Centering® group care have improved glycemic control compared to those attending standard prenatal care. To compare compliance and patient satisfaction between the groups. We conducted a prospective cohort study of diabetics enrolled in centering group care from October 2013 to December 2015. Glycemic control, compliance and patient satisfaction (five-point Likert scale) were evaluated. Student's t-test, Chi-Square and mixed effects model were used to compare outcomes. We compared 20 patients in centering to 28 standard prenatal care controls. Mean fasting blood sugar was lower with centering group care (91.0 versus 105.5 mg/dL, p =0.017). There was no difference in change in fasting blood sugar over time between the two groups (p = 0.458). The percentage of time patients brought their blood glucose logs did not differ between the centering group and standard prenatal care (70.7 versus 73.9%, p = 0.973). Women in centering group care had better patient satisfaction scores for "ability to be seen by a physician" (5 versus 4, p = 0.041) and "time in waiting room" (5 versus 4, p =0.001). Fasting blood sugar was lower for patients in centering group care. Change in blood sugar over time did not differ between groups. Diabetic gravidas enrolled in centering group care report improved patient satisfaction.

  13. Resource Allocation in Divisionalized Groups : A Study of Investment Manuals and Corporate Means of Control

    OpenAIRE

    Segelod, Esbjörn

    1995-01-01

    How do corporate management in divisionalized groups control the direction of investments? There are many case-studies and postal surveys of capital budgeting procedures. This study represents a different approach, being founded on analyses of investment manuals and interviews with corporate managers of Swedish-based groups. Comparisons are made with UK and US studies throughout the book. The book shows how investment requests are handled and the means of control which corporate managers deem...

  14. The Arabidopsis thaliana MEDEA Polycomb group protein controls expression of PHERES1 by parental imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Claudia; Page, Damian R; Gagliardini, Valeria; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2005-01-01

    The maternally expressed Arabidopsis thaliana Polycomb group protein MEDEA (MEA) controls expression of the MADS-box gene PHERES1 (PHE1). Here, we show that PHE1 is mainly paternally expressed but maternally repressed and that this maternal repression of PHE1 breaks down in seeds lacking maternal MEA activity. Because Polycomb group proteins control parental imprinting in mammals as well, the independent recruitment of similar protein machineries for the imprinting of genes is a notable example of convergent evolution.

  15. Collective action control by goals and plans: applying a self-regulation perspective to group performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieber, Frank; Thürmer, J Lukas; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    In celebration of the 125th anniversary of The American Journal of Psychology, this article discusses a seminal publication by Marjorie Shaw (1932) on small group performance in the rational solution of complex problems. We then propose an approach for the effective regulation of group goal striving based on the collective action control perspective. From this perspective, group performance might be hindered by a collective intention-behavior gap: Groups fail to act on their intentions despite being strongly committed to the collective goal, knowing what the necessary actions are, and being capable of performing them. To reduce this gap, we suggest specific if-then plans (implementation intentions) in which groups specify when, where, and how to act toward their collective goal as an easily applicable self-regulation strategy to automate collective action control. Studies in which implementation intentions improved group performance in hidden profile, escalation of commitment, and cooperation task paradigms are reported and discussed.

  16. Quasi-Experiments in Schools: The Case for Historical Cohort Control Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara M. Walser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is increased emphasis on using experimental and quasi-experimental methods to evaluate educational programs; however, educational evaluators and school leaders are often faced with challenges when implementing such designs in educational settings. Use of a historical cohort control group design provides a viable option for conducting quasi-experiments in school-based outcome evaluation. A cohort is a successive group that goes through some experience together, such as a grade level or a training program. A historical cohort comparison group is a cohort group selected from pre-treatment archival data and matched to a subsequent cohort currently receiving a treatment. Although prone to the same threats to study validity as any quasi-experiment, issues related to selection, history, and maturation can be particularly challenging. However, use of a historical cohort control group can reduce noncomparability of treatment and control conditions through local, focal matching. In addition, a historical cohort control group design can alleviate concerns about denying program access to students in order to form a control group, minimize resource requirements and disruption to school routines, and make use of archival data schools and school districts collect and find meaningful.

  17. Doing Anger Differently: Two Controlled Trials of Percussion Group Psychotherapy for Adolescent Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…

  18. Improving Student Confidence in Using Group Work Standards: A Controlled Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgowan, Mark J.; Wong, Stephen E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This is a replication of a study that examined the effects of teaching foundation competencies in group work to social work students and assessed their self-confidence in applying these skills. This study improves on the first by utilizing a controlled design. Method: Twenty-six master of social work students were taught group work…

  19. Control of individual daily growth in group housed pigs using feeding stations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, P.J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In this thesis, it was examined whether it is possible to control individual daily growth and carcass composition in group-housed pigs using feeding stations. A forelegs weighing system to estimate the daily individual body weight (BW) of group-housed pigs was developed and validated. In two experim

  20. Nurture Groups: A Large-Scale, Controlled Study of Effects on Development and Academic Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sue; MacKay, Tommy; Kearney, Maura

    2009-01-01

    Nurture groups have contributed to inclusive practices in primary schools in the UK for some time now and have frequently been the subject of articles in this journal. This large-scale, controlled study of nurture groups across 32 schools in the City of Glasgow provides further evidence for their effectiveness in addressing the emotional…

  1. A single blind randomized control trial on support groups for Chinese persons with mild dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young DKW

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Daniel KW Young,1 Timothy CY Kwok,2 Petrus YN Ng1 1Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Purpose: Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Research methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. Results: At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59% of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48 to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18, which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, P<0.05, while the control group’s participants did not show any significant change. Conclusion: This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants. Keywords: support group, mild dementia, Chinese, depression

  2. Comparison of two control groups for estimation of oral cholera vaccine effectiveness using a case-control study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Molly F; Jerome, J Gregory; Matias, Wilfredo R; Ternier, Ralph; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Harris, Jason B; Ivers, Louise C

    2017-10-13

    Case-control studies to quantify oral cholera vaccine effectiveness (VE) often rely on neighbors without diarrhea as community controls. Test-negative controls can be easily recruited and may minimize bias due to differential health-seeking behavior and recall. We compared VE estimates derived from community and test-negative controls and conducted bias-indicator analyses to assess potential bias with community controls. From October 2012 through November 2016, patients with acute watery diarrhea were recruited from cholera treatment centers in rural Haiti. Cholera cases had a positive stool culture. Non-cholera diarrhea cases (test-negative controls and non-cholera diarrhea cases for bias-indicator analyses) had a negative culture and rapid test. Up to four community controls were matched to diarrhea cases by age group, time, and neighborhood. Primary analyses included 181 cholera cases, 157 non-cholera diarrhea cases, 716 VE community controls and 625 bias-indicator community controls. VE for self-reported vaccination with two doses was consistent across the two control groups, with statistically significant VE estimates ranging from 72 to 74%. Sensitivity analyses revealed similar, though somewhat attenuated estimates for self-reported two dose VE. Bias-indicator estimates were consistently less than one, with VE estimates ranging from 19 to 43%, some of which were statistically significant. OCV estimates from case-control analyses using community and test-negative controls were similar. While bias-indicator analyses suggested possible over-estimation of VE estimates using community controls, test-negative analyses suggested this bias, if present, was minimal. Test-negative controls can be a valid low-cost and time-efficient alternative to community controls for OCV effectiveness estimation and may be especially relevant in emergency situations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. 76 FR 8353 - Positioning Systems Directorate Will Be Hosting an Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Positioning Systems Directorate Will Be Hosting an Interface Control Working... Positioning Systems Directorate will be hosting an Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) meeting for...

  4. Control Algorithms Along Relative Equilibria of Underactuated Lagrangian Systems on Lie Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Bullo, F.

    2008-01-01

    We present novel algorithms to control underactuated mechanical systems. For a class of invariant systems on Lie groups, we design iterative small-amplitude control forces to accelerate along, decelerate along, and stabilize relative equilibria. The technical approach is based upon a perturbation...

  5. Elevator Group-Control Policy Based on Neural Network Optimized by Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hong; WAN Jianru; ZHANG Zhichao; LIU Yingpei; LI Guangye

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the diversity and nonlinearity of the elevator system control target, an effective group method based on a hybrid algorithm of genetic algorithm and neural network is presented in this paper. The genetic algo-rithm is used to search the weight of the neural network. At the same time, the multi-objective-based evaluation function is adopted, in which there are three main indicators including the passenger waiting time, car passengers number and the number of stops. Different weights are given to meet the actual needs. The optimal values of the evaluation function are obtained, and the optimal dispatch control of the elevator group control system based on neural network is realized. By analyzing the running of the elevator group control system, all the processes and steps are presented. The validity of the hybrid algorithm is verified by the dynamic imitation performance.

  6. International Conference on Harmonisation; choice of control group and related issues in clinical trials; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-14

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "E10 Choice of Control Group and Related Issues in Clinical Trials." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance sets forth general principles that are relevant to all controlled trials and are especially pertinent to the major clinical trials intended to demonstrate drug (including biological drug) efficacy. The guidance describes the principal types of control groups and discusses their appropriateness in particular situations. The guidance is intended to assist sponsors and investigators in the choice of control groups for clinical trials.

  7. DETERMINATION OF BRAKING OPTIMAL MODE OF CONTROLLED CUT OF DESIGN GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dorosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The application of automation systems of breaking up process on the gravity hump is the efficiency improvement of their operation, absolute provision of trains breaking up safety demands, as well as improvement of hump staff working conditions. One of the main tasks of the indicated systems is the assurance of cuts reliable separation at all elements of their rolling route to the classification track. This task is a sophisticated optimization problem and has not received a final decision. Therefore, the task of determining the cuts braking mode is quite relevant. The purpose of this research is to find the optimal braking mode of control cut of design group. Methodology. In order to achieve the purpose is offered to use the direct search methods in the work, namely the Box complex method. This method does not require smoothness of the objective function, takes into account its limitations and does not require calculation of the function derivatives, and uses only its value. Findings. Using the Box method was developed iterative procedure for determining the control cut optimal braking mode of design group. The procedure maximizes the smallest controlled time interval in the group. To evaluate the effectiveness of designed procedure the series of simulation experiments of determining the control cut braking mode of design group was performed. The results confirmed the efficiency of the developed optimization procedure. Originality. The author formalized the task of optimizing control cut braking mode of design group, taking into account the cuts separation of design group at all elements (switches, retarders during cuts rolling to the classification track. The problem of determining the optimal control cut braking mode of design group was solved. The developed braking mode ensures cuts reliable separation of the group not only at the switches but at the retarders of brake position. Practical value. The developed procedure can be

  8. Laughter yoga versus group exercise program in elderly depressed women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Mahvash; Mojtahed, Ali; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Mojtahed, Mohammad; Shafiabady, Abdollah; Delavar, Ali; Honari, Habib

    2011-03-01

    Laughter Yoga founded by M. Kataria is a combination of unconditioned laughter and yogic breathing. Its effect on mental and physical aspects of healthy individuals was shown to be beneficial. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Kataria's Laughter Yoga and group exercise therapy in decreasing depression and increasing life satisfaction in older adult women of a cultural community of Tehran, Iran. Seventy depressed old women who were members of a cultural community of Tehran were chosen by Geriatric depression scale (score>10). After completion of Life Satisfaction Scale pre-test and demographic questionnaire, subjects were randomized into three groups of laughter therapy, exercise therapy, and control. Subsequently, depression post-test and life satisfaction post-test were done for all three groups. The data were analyzed using analysis of covariance and Bonferroni's correction. Sixty subjects completed the study. The analysis revealed a significant difference in decrease in depression scores of both Laughter Yoga and exercise therapy group in comparison to control group (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). There was no significant difference between Laughter Yoga and exercise therapy groups. The increase in life satisfaction of Laughter Yoga group showed a significant difference in comparison with control group (p<0.001). No significant difference was found between exercise therapy and either control or Laughter Yoga group. Our findings showed that Laughter Yoga is at least as effective as group exercise program in improvement of depression and life satisfaction of elderly depressed women. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. ABO blood group system and gastric cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Liu, Lei; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Jianian; Yan, Min; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan

    2012-10-17

    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for meta-analysis. In our case-control study, the risk of gastric cancer in blood group A was significantly higher than that in non-A groups (O, B and AB) (odd ratio, OR1.34; 95% confidential interval, CI 1.25-1.44). Compared with non-O groups (A, B and AB), individuals with blood group O demonstrated a reduced risk of gastric cancer (OR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.72-0.88). The proportion of H. pylori infection in blood group A individuals was significantly higher than that in non-A blood groups (OR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.05-1.93). We further combined our data with the published data of others, and crossreferenced the risk of gastric cancer with the blood type, finding consistent evidence that gastric cancer risk in the blood A group was higher than that in the non-A groups (OR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.07-1.15), and that blood type O individuals were consistently shown gastric cancer risk reduction (OR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.89-0.94). Our study concluded that there was a slightly increased risk of gastric cancer in blood group A individuals, and people with blood type A are more prone to be infected by H. pylori than other ABO blood type individuals, whereas, a slightly decreased risk of gastric cancer was identified in blood type O individuals.

  10. Positive and Negative Perfectionism in Migrainus Patients Compaired with Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Afshar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: The positive and negative effects of perfectionism on human cognition, affection and behavior have been emphasized. Perfectionism has been conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, with both adaptive and maladaptive aspects, which is one of the common personality traits that cause lifelong stress in human and results in anxiety, depression and physical and mental distress.The aim of this study was to assess the positive and negative perfectionism in migrainus patients in comparison with control group. Materials & Methods: This is an analytical (Case-control study which was performed on 91 migraine patients and 88 healthy individuals. The pqtients and controls completed a standard 40 item questionnaire for perfectionism – PANPS (20 for positive and 20 for negative perfectionism . The patients in both groups were matched for gender and age. Mean of positive and negative perfectionism scores for two groups was statistically analysed using SPSS software. Results: Mean positive perfectionism score was 83.47±8.5 for migraine group and 65.47±7.54 for control group (p=0.0001. The difference between two groups was significant. Mean of negative perfectionism score was 74.12±10.6 for migraine group and 51.79±7.8 for control group(p=0.0001. Conclusion: The results show that migraine patients have higher mean of perfectionism scores than healthy individuals. Based on this study and other clinical experiences more attention to psychotherapy is necessary for better management of migraine and recognition of personality profile in migraine patient helps to reduce patient’s complaints.

  11. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus M. Gomes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20; the 60-64 age group (n=20; the 65-69 age group (n=20; and the 70-74 age group (n=20. The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05; however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05 as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women.

  12. Meteorological Support Interface Control Working Group (MSICWG) Instrumentation, Data Format, and Networks Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, James; Roberts, Barry C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of instrumentation discussed at the Meteorological Interface Control Working Group (MSICWG), a reference for data formats currently used by members of the group, a summary of proposed formats for future use by the group, an overview of the data networks of the group's members. This document will be updated as new systems are introduced, old systems are retired, and when the MSICWG community necessitates a change to the formats. The MSICWG consists of personnel from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC), NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG), and the United States Air Force (USAF) 45th Space Wing and Weather Squadron. The purpose of the group is to coordinate the distribution of weather related data to support NASA space launch related activities.

  13. IMPACTS OF GROUP-BASED SIGNAL CONTROL POLICY ON DRIVER BEHAVIOR AND INTERSECTION SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshuang TANG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the typical stage-based policy commonly applied in Japan, the group-based control (often called movement-based in the traffic control industry in Japan refers to such a control pattern that the controller is capable of separately allocating time to each signal group instead of stage based on traffic demand. In order to investigate its applicability at signalized intersections in Japan, an intersection located in Yokkaichi City of Mie Prefecture was selected as an experimental application site by the Japan Universal Traffic Management Society (UTMS. Based on the data collected at the intersection before and after implementing the group-based control policy respectively, this study evaluated the impacts of such a policy on driver behavior and intersection safety. To specify those impacts, a few models utilizing cycle-based data were first developed to interpret the occurrence probability and rate of red-light-running (RLR. Furthermore, analyses were performed on the yellow-entry time (Ye of the last cleared vehicle and post encroachment time (PET during the phase switching. Conclusions supported that the group-based control policy, along with certain other factors, directly or indirectly influenced the RLR behavior of through and right-turn traffics. Meanwhile, it has potential safety benefits as well, indicated by the declined Ye and increased PET values.

  14. A national study of the psychological impact of bank robbery with a randomized control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark

    but surprisingly significantly higher than the follow-up robbery group. The results are discussed in relation to existing research and the effect of other factors such as prior traumatic exposure. In conclusion bank robberies are a traumatizing event for the employees, especially when disregarding avoidance...... of bank employees exposed to robbery (response rate: 73.6 %). Several related factors were also investigated including prior traumatic exposure, anxiety, and general traumatic symptoms. The results were compared to a randomized control group of bank employees never exposed to robbery (N= 303......). The estimated ASD rate was 11.1 % (n = 41), and the estimated PTSD rate was 6.2 % (n = 23). Both prevalence rates were limited by the avoidance diagnostic criteria. Preliminary results indicated that the control group scored significantly lower than the acute robbery group on general traumatization and anxiety...

  15. Self-development groups reduce medical school stress: a controlled intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stordal Kirsten I

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High stress levels and mental health problems are common among medical students and there is a lack of studies on group interventions that aim to reduce such distress during medical school. Methods A full class of students (n = 129 participated in group sessions during their third year of medical school in Bergen, Norway. The subsequent third-year class (n = 152 acted as control group, in order to create a quasi-experimental design. Two types of group intervention sessions were offered to the first class. One option was self-development groups led by trained group psychotherapists. Alternatively, students could choose discussion groups that focused on themes of special relevance to doctors, led by experienced general practitioners. The intervention comprised of 12 weekly group sessions each lasting 90 minutes. Data were gathered before the intervention (T1, and three months post intervention (T2. Distress was measured using the Perceived Medical School Stress (PMSS and Symptom Check List-5 (SCL-5 assessments. Results The intervention group showed a significant reduction in PMSS over the observation period. The subsequent year control group stayed on the same PMSS levels over the similar period. The intervention was a significant predictor of PMSS reduction in a multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and sex, β = -1.93 (-3.47 to -0.38, P = 0.02. When we analysed the effects of self-development and discussion groups with the control group as reference, self-development group was the only significant predictor of PMSS reduction, β = -2.18 (-4.03 to -0.33, P = 0.02. There was no interaction with gender in our analysis. This implicates no significant difference between men and women concerning the effect of the self-development group. There was no reduction in general mental distress (SCL-5 over this period. Conclusion A three-month follow-up showed that the intervention had a positive effect on perceived medical school

  16. Diabetes Support Groups Improve Patient’s Compliance and Control Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamrotul Izzah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing information is not enough to improve diabetic patient’s compliance and achieve goals of therapy. Patient’s good awareness as well as emotional and social supports from family and community may play an important role to improve their compliance and clinical outcomes. Therefore, diabetes support groups were developed and each support group consisted of two pharmacists, two nurses, diabetic patients and their family members. A total of 70 type 2 diabetic patient’s were enrolled and randomized into support group 1 and support group 2. Patients in the group 1 received information leaflets only, while patient in the group 2 received pharmacist counselling and information leaflets at each meeting. Patient’s awareness of diabetes and compliance with medications were assessed by a short questionnaire at baseline and final follow-up. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were also evaluated in both groups. At the end of study, the overall patient’s awareness and compliance improved by 61.5%. The random and fasting blood glucose levels decreased over than 30% in the group 2 and around 14% in the group 1. This study reveals that collaboration between health care professionals and community in the diabetes support group might help diabetic patients to increase their knowledge and compliance with the diabetes therapy as well as glycaemic control.

  17. Comparison of group motor control training versus individual training for people suffering from back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, Heike; Mätzold, Franz; Hamilton, Christine; Wagner, Petra

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of "motor-control training" (MCT) using the model of deficits in the activation of transversus abdominis (TrA) in people with recurrent back pain. The purpose of this investigation was to establish whether MCT - implemented within a new group intervention (experimental group) - is able to produce results similar to those of a conventional intervention applied individually (control group) to people suffering from back pain. Using the form of an experimental pre-post-test design, the study consisted of an experimental group (N = 18, mean age M = 45.2; SD = 18.4; 9 ♂, 9 ♀) and a comparison group (N = 13; age = 56.6; SD = 18.5; 6 ♂, 7 ♀). The training covered a period of six weeks, with two training sessions per week. The amount of training was the same in both groups. Aside from the same extent of training, the participants in the experimental group completed training content in the group interventions identical to that completed by the comparison group in the individual treatments. To clarify: The difference between the two groups was that the participants in the individual-therapy control group received individual feedback on their exercise performance and correction notes from the instructor. This degree of individual attention was not given within the group therapy. The selective activation of the M. transversus abdominis (TrA) was the main focus of the intervention, with the intent of improving its stabilising corset function, especially within the lumbar region, via increased tension of the thoracolumbar fascia. To record the progress of both groups, the anterolateral abdominal muscle recruitment of the M. transversus abdominis (TrA) was measured as a main influencing factor for anterolateral stabilisation of the spine. For measurements of muscle recruitment, rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (M-Turbo™ SonoSite(®) Erlangen in B-Mode) according to Whittaker (2007) was used. Furthermore, the relationship between pain

  18. Improving Parental Stress Levels Among Mothers Living with HIV: A Randomized Control Group Intervention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Erica R.; Davies, Susan L.; Aban, Inmaculada; Mugavero, Michael J.; Shrestha, Sadeep; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette

    2015-01-01

    Limited knowledge exists regarding parenting efficacy interventions for mothers living with HIV (MLH). This study evaluated the impact of a supportive group intervention on lowering parenting stress among MLH. Eighty MLH were randomized to a parenting (N=34) or health focused (control) (N=46) group intervention. Pre- and post-intervention stress levels were assessed using the Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF). Differences in PSI/SF scores were examined using ANOVA, and predictors of P...

  19. Group Singing as a Therapy during Diabetes Training--A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groener, J B; Neus, I; Kopf, S; Hartmann, M; Schanz, J; Kliemank, E; Wetekam, B; Kihm, L; Fleming, T; Herzog, W; Nawroth, P P

    2015-11-01

    Comprehensive diabetes treatment has been shown to reduce quality of life in diabetic patients. However, there is evidence to suggest that group singing can have positive effects on quality of life in various clinical settings. In this randomized controlled pilot study, the effect of singing as a therapy to reduce stress and improve quality of life was investigated in insulin-dependent diabetic patients, undergoing a lifestyle intervention program. Patients from the singing group felt less discontented following treatment. This effect, however, was lost after 3 months. No effect on serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels could be seen when comparing the singing group with the control group, although reduced levels of ACTH and cortisol 3 days after treatment could be found and were still present after 3 months within the group of patients who undertook singing as a therapy. Singing led to an increase in bodyweight, which interestingly had no effect on glucose control or methylglyoxal levels. Therefore, singing during a lifestyle intervention program for insulin-dependent diabetic patients had a short lasting and weak effect on patients' mood without affecting glucose control, but no significant effect on stress related hormones. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Output Feedback Control for Couple-Group Consensus of Multiagent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the couple-group consensus problem for multiagent systems via output feedback control. Both continuous- and discrete-time cases are considered. The consensus problems are converted into the stability problem of the error systems by the system transformation. We obtain two necessary and sufficient conditions of couple-group consensus in different forms for each case. Two different algorithms are used to design the control gains for continuous- and discrete-time case, respectively. Finally, simulation examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  1. CAG repeat polymorphism in the androgen receptor (AR) gene of SBMA patients and a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sułek, Anna; Hoffman-Zacharska, Dorota; Krysa, Wioletta; Szirkowiec, Walentyna; Fidziańska, Elzbieta; Zaremba, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked form of motor neuron disease characterized by progressive atrophy of the muscles, dysphagia, dysarthria and mild androgen insensitivity. SBMA is caused by CAG repeat expansion in the androgen receptor gene. CAG repeat polymorphism was analysed in a Polish control group (n = 150) and patients suspected of SBMA (n = 60). Normal and abnormal ranges of CAG repeats were established in the control group and in 21 patients whose clinical diagnosis of SBMA was molecularly confirmed. The ranges are similar to those reported for other populations.

  2. Polycomb-group (Pc-G) Proteins Control Seed Development in Arabidopsis thaliana L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Xue Wang; Li-Geng Ma

    2007-01-01

    Polycomb-group (Pc-G) proteins repress their target gene expression by assemble complexes in Drosophila and mammals. Three groups of Pc-G genes, controlling seed development, flower development and vernalization response, have been identified in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.). MEDEA (MEA), FERTIL IZA TION INDEPENDENT SEED2 (FIS2), and FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE) are Pc-G genes in Arabidopsis. Their functions in seed development have been extensively explored. The advanced findings of molecular mechanism on how MEA, FIS2 and FIE control seed development in Arabidopsis are reviewed in this paper.

  3. Intervention for children with word-finding difficulties: a parallel group randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Wendy; Hughes, Lucy Mari; Masterson, Jackie; Thomas, Michael; Fedor, Anna; Roncoli, Silvia; Fern-Pollak, Liory; Shepherd, Donna-Lynn; Howard, David; Shobbrook, Kate; Kapikian, Anna

    2017-07-31

    The study investigated the outcome of a word-web intervention for children diagnosed with word-finding difficulties (WFDs). Twenty children age 6-8 years with WFDs confirmed by a discrepancy between comprehension and production on the Test of Word Finding-2, were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 11) and waiting control (n = 9) groups. The intervention group had six sessions of intervention which used word-webs and targeted children's meta-cognitive awareness and word-retrieval. On the treated experimental set (n = 25 items) the intervention group gained on average four times as many items as the waiting control group (d = 2.30). There were also gains on personally chosen items for the intervention group. There was little change on untreated items for either group. The study is the first randomised control trial to demonstrate an effect of word-finding therapy with children with language difficulties in mainstream school. The improvement in word-finding for treated items was obtained following a clinically realistic intervention in terms of approach, intensity and duration.

  4. Control algorithms along relative equilibria of underactuated Lagrangian systems on Lie groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Bullo, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    We present novel algorithms to control underactuated mechanical systems. For a class of invariant systems on Lie groups, we design iterative small-amplitude control forces to accelerate along, decelerate along, and stabilize relative equilibria. The technical approach is based upon a perturbation...... analysis and the design of inversion primitives and composition methods. We illustrate the algorithms on an underactuated planar rigid body and on a satellite with two thrusters....

  5. Controlling self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptides at high pH using heterocyclic capping groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam D.; Wojciechowski, Jonathan P.; Robinson, Andrew B.; Heu, Celine; Garvey, Christopher J.; Ratcliffe, Julian; Waddington, Lynne J.; Gardiner, James; Thordarson, Pall

    2017-03-01

    Using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), it is shown that the existence of pre-assembled structures at high pH for a capped diphenylalanine hydrogel is controlled by the selection of N-terminal heterocyclic capping group, namely indole or carbazole. At high pH, changing from a somewhat hydrophilic indole capping group to a more hydrophobic carbazole capping group results in a shift from a high proportion of monomers to self-assembled fibers or wormlike micelles. The presence of these different self-assembled structures at high pH is confirmed through NMR and circular dichroism spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy.

  6. Controlling self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptides at high pH using heterocyclic capping groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam D.; Wojciechowski, Jonathan P.; Robinson, Andrew B.; Heu, Celine; Garvey, Christopher J.; Ratcliffe, Julian; Waddington, Lynne J.; Gardiner, James; Thordarson, Pall

    2017-01-01

    Using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), it is shown that the existence of pre-assembled structures at high pH for a capped diphenylalanine hydrogel is controlled by the selection of N-terminal heterocyclic capping group, namely indole or carbazole. At high pH, changing from a somewhat hydrophilic indole capping group to a more hydrophobic carbazole capping group results in a shift from a high proportion of monomers to self-assembled fibers or wormlike micelles. The presence of these different self-assembled structures at high pH is confirmed through NMR and circular dichroism spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. PMID:28272523

  7. ROLES OF INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES IN AN EMERGING COUNTRY: CONTROL AND COORDINATION IN FAMILY BUSINESS GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Ataay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maman (1999 proposed that, in countries in which business groups are dominant forms for organizing economic activities, the interlocking directorate is a managerial tool that can be prioritized to control and coordinate activities of their affiliated firms within the same groups and align their business objectives. This organizational connection appears to be an intentional strategy on the part of the groups‟ headquarters. In order to study the interlocking ties in Turkish family business groups (FBG, this study focused on interlocking directorates among listed firms in Turkey. The findings of preliminary study reveal that almost all of the interlocking ties were within the business groups (BG in our sample. This is the result of assignment of familyaffiliated and/or professional inside directors to the various boards of companies in the BG. We also found that compare to vertical ties; business groups are using more horizontal interlocking connections to bond their affiliated companies together.

  8. The Control Attitudes Scale-Revised: psychometric evaluation in three groups of patients with cardiac illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Debra K; Riegel, Barbara; McKinley, Sharon; Doering, Lynn V; Meischke, Hendrika; Heo, Seongkum; Lennie, Terry A; Dracup, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Perceived control is a construct with important theoretical and clinical implications for healthcare providers, yet practical application of the construct in research and clinical practice awaits development of an easily administered instrument to measure perceived control with evidence of reliability and validity. To test the psychometric properties of the Control Attitudes Scale-Revised (CAS-R) using a sample of 3,396 individuals with coronary heart disease, 513 patients with acute myocardial infarction, and 146 patients with heart failure. Analyses were done separately in each patient group. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha to determine internal consistency, and item homogeneity was assessed using item-total and interitem correlations. Validity was examined using principal component analysis and testing hypotheses about known associations. Cronbach's alpha values for the CAS-R in patients with coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, and heart failure were all greater than .70. Item-total and interitem correlation coefficients for all items were acceptable in the groups. In factor analyses, the same single factor was extracted in all groups, and all items were loaded moderately or strongly to the factor in each group. As hypothesized in the final construct validity test, in all groups, patients with higher levels of perceived control had less depression and less anxiety compared with those of patients who had lower levels of perceived control. This study provides evidence of the reliability and validity of the 8-item CAS-R as a measure of perceived control in patients with cardiac illness and provides important insight into a key patient construct.

  9. A randomised controlled trial of group cognitive behavioural therapy for perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Alicia K; Egan, Sarah J; Kane, Robert T; Rees, Clare S

    2015-05-01

    Perfectionism is associated with symptoms of anxiety disorders, eating disorders and mood disorders. Treatments targeting perfectionism may reduce the symptoms of these disorders (Egan, Wade, & Shafran, 2011). This study is the first randomised controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for perfectionism. Forty-two participants with elevated perfectionism and a range of anxiety, eating and mood disorders were randomised to group CBT for perfectionism or a waitlist control. The treatment group reported significantly greater pre-post reductions in perfectionism, symptoms of depression, eating disorders, social anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and rumination, as well as significantly greater pre-post increases in self-esteem and quality of life compared to the waitlist control group. The impact of treatment on most of these outcomes was mediated by pre-post change in perfectionism (Concern over Mistakes). Treatment gains were reliable and clinically significant, and were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Findings support group CBT for perfectionism being an efficacious treatment for perfectionism and related psychopathology, as well as increasing self-esteem and quality of life.

  10. Group memory rehabilitation for people with multiple sclerosis: a feasibility randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sara E; das Nair, Roshan; Schwartz, Annette F; Lincoln, Nadina B

    2014-06-01

    To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a group memory rehabilitation programme combining compensation and restitution strategies. Randomized controlled trial. Community. People with multiple sclerosis who reported memory difficulties were recruited. A group memory rehabilitation programme, comprising ten 1.5-hour sessions, was compared with a waiting list control. The primary outcome was the Everyday Memory Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included the General Health Questionnaire 28 and MS Impact Scale administered four and eight months after randomization. In addition, those in the intervention group gave feedback about the intervention. Forty-eight participants were recruited. They were aged 34-72 years (mean 54.3, SD 11.0) and 33 (69%) were women. There were no significant differences between the two groups on the Everyday Memory Questionnaire or MS Impact Scale (P > 0.05) at four or eight months after randomization. However, the intervention group reported significantly better mood than controls on the GHQ-28 at eight months (P = 0.04). Participants showed minimal benefit from the memory rehabilitation programme on quantitative measures but the intervention was well received, as indicated by positive feedback at the end of the intervention. There was no significant effect of the intervention on memory but there was a significant effect on mood. The results suggest a larger scale study is justified. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Differences Between Human Figure Drawings of Child Molesters and Control Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Frances A.; Johnston, Shawn A.

    1986-01-01

    Attempted to identify differences between human figure drawings of adult and juvenile child molesters and adult and juvenile control groups, based on ratings obtained for psychodiagnostic signs. Results revealed, for the molesters, factors of overall quality with a component of gender identity confusion, figure-size only, fingers only, and hidden…

  12. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, J.; van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP). The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space h

  13. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, J.; van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP). The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space

  14. Learning in the tutorial group: a balance between individual freedom and institutional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Anita; Aanstoot, Janna; Hammarström, Inger Lundeborg; Samuelsson, Christina; Johannesson, Eva; Sandström, Karin; Berglind, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates factors in problem-based learning tutorial groups which promote or inhibit learning. The informants were tutors and students from speech-language pathology and physiotherapy programmes. Semi-structured focus-group interviews and individual interviews were used. Results revealed three themes: Responsibility. Time and Support. Under responsibility, the delicate balance between individual and institutional responsibility and control was shown. Time included short and long-term perspectives on learning. Under support, supporting documents, activities and personnel resources were mentioned. In summary, an increased control by the program and tutors decreases student's motivation to assume responsibility for learning. Support in tutorial groups needs to adapt to student progression and to be well aligned to tutorial work to have the intended effect. A lifelong learning perspective may help students develop a meta-awareness regarding learning that could make tutorial work more meaningful.

  15. Standard versus prosocial online support groups for distressed breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golant Mitch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Internet can increase access to psychosocial care for breast cancer survivors through online support groups. This study will test a novel prosocial online group that emphasizes both opportunities for getting and giving help. Based on the helper therapy principle, it is hypothesized that the addition of structured helping opportunities and coaching on how to help others online will increase the psychological benefits of a standard online group. Methods/Design A two-armed randomized controlled trial with pretest and posttest. Non-metastatic breast cancer survivors with elevated psychological distress will be randomized to either a standard facilitated online group or to a prosocial facilitated online group, which combines online exchanges of support with structured helping opportunities (blogging, breast cancer outreach and coaching on how best to give support to others. Validated and reliable measures will be administered to women approximately one month before and after the interventions. Self-esteem, positive affect, and sense of belonging will be tested as potential mediators of the primary outcomes of depressive/anxious symptoms and sense of purpose in life. Discussion This study will test an innovative approach to maximizing the psychological benefits of cancer online support groups. The theory-based prosocial online support group intervention model is sustainable, because it can be implemented by private non-profit or other organizations, such as cancer centers, which mostly offer face-to-face support groups with limited patient reach. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01396174

  16. Variation of phytoplankton functional groups modulated by hydraulic controls in Hongze Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chang; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Hao, Daping; Doblin, Martina A; Ren, Ying; Wei, Jielin; Feng, Yawei

    2015-11-01

    Hongze Lake is a large, shallow, polymictic, eutrophic lake in the eastern China. Phytoplankton functional groups in this lake were investigated from March 2011 to February 2013, and a comparison was made between the eastern, western, and northern regions. The lake shows strong fluctuations in water level caused by monsoon rains and regular hydraulic controls. By application of the phytoplankton functional group approach, this study aims to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics and analyze their influencing factors. Altogether, 18 functional groups of phytoplankton were identified, encompassing 187 species. In order to seek the best variable describing the phytoplankton functional group distribution, 14 of the groups were analyzed in detail using redundancy analysis. Due to the turbid condition of the lake, the dominant functional groups were those tolerant of low light. The predominant functional groups in the annual succession were D (Cyclotella spp. and Synedra acus), T (Planctonema lauterbornii), P (Fragilaria crotonensis), X1 (Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella pyrenoidosa), C (Cyclotella meneghiniana and Cyclotella ocellata), and Y (Cryptomonas erosa). An opposite relationship between water level and the biomass of predominant groups was observed in the present study. Water level fluctuations, caused by monsoonal climate and artificial drawdown, were significant factors influencing phytoplankton succession in Hongze Lake, since they alter the hydrological conditions and influence light and nutrient availability. The clearly demonstrated factors, which significantly influence phytoplankton dynamics in Hongze Lake, will help government manage the large shallow lakes with frequent water level fluctuations.

  17. The sonographic findings of subclinical atherosclerosis in common carotid arteries: Rheumatoid arthritis patients Versus control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmani M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: High Resolution sonography of common carotid artery is a safe method for rapid diagnosis of atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA. The purpose of this study was to compare sonographic findings of subclinical atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis patients and control group and comparing the prevalence of atheromatous plaques and Intima- media thickness in arteries of the groups. "nMethods: Fifty RA patients and fifty non-RA persons were evaluated in a cross- sectional, Descriptive study. The sonographic findings of common carotid artery of these two groups were compared."n "nResults: After analysis of the sonographic findings of common carotid arteries of 100 females in our study (50 patients with the mean age of 48.1y/o [23-61] and 50 control group with the mean age of 47y/o [23-61], the prevalence of RA patients with atheromatous plaques was 32% and in control group was 6%. [OR=7.4, 95%CI=2-27.3, p=0.001]. The mean (SD of the Intima- Media Thickness (IMT in RA patients was 7.76 mm (1, 04 while in control group was 6.10 mm (0.95. From 38 RA patients with less or equal 5 joints involvement in hand radiography, 13.2% had atheromatous plaques and the mean (SD of the IMT was 7.6 (±1.1 mm. From 12 patients with more than 5 joints involvement in radiography, 91.7% had atheromatous plaques and the mean (SD of the IMT was 8.4 (±0.7 mm. [p=0.012]."n "nConclusions: Regarding higher prevalence of vascular problems in RA patients, screening and early diagnosis of vascular pathologies could be of value in reducing morbidity and mortality of these patients.

  18. Psychoeducative groups help control type 2 diabetes in a primary care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Cervantes Cuesta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to measure the impact of a psychoeducational group intervention in diabetes using glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, the body mass index (BMI and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF compared with conventional educational measures provided individually. Methods: A quasi-experimental study (pre/post-intervention with a non-equivalent control group was conducted, including 72 type 2 individuals with diabetes (mean data: age 63.08 years, HbA1C 6.98%, BMI 30.48 kg/m². The beneficial effect of psychoeducational group therapy in the study group (PGT was compared with conventional diabetes education in the control group (CG. Results: The PGT had a higher mean HbA1c reduction (-0.51 ± 1.7 vs. -0.06 ± 0.53%, p 0.003, met the objectives of optimal control of HbA1c to a higher degree (80% vs. 48%, p 0.005 and greater mean weight reduction (-1.93 ± 3.57 vs. 0.52 ± 1.73 kg, p 0002 than the CG.A significant improvement in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was achieved in PGT (all p < 0.05. Conclusions: PGT patients achieved a significant improvement in HbA1C, BMI and CVRF, and outperformed the conventional diabetes education group in achieving the optimal diabetes control objectives. Structural changes in the assistance programs should be considered to introduce these more efficient therapies for diabetes education in primary care.

  19. Decentralized control algorithms of a group of vehicles in 2D space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshikhopov, V. K.; Medvedev, M. Y.; Fedorenko, R. V.; Gurenko, B. V.

    2017-02-01

    The problem of decentralized control of group of robots, described by kinematic and dynamic equations of motion in the plane, is considered. Group performs predetermined rectangular area passing at a fixed speed, keeping the line and a uniform distribution. The environment may contain a priori unknown moving or stationary obstacles. Decentralized control algorithms, based on the formation of repellers in the state space of robots, are proposed. These repellers form repulsive forces generated by dynamic subsystems that extend the state space of robots. These repulsive forces are dynamic functions of distances and velocities of robots in the area of operation of the group. The process of formation of repellers allows to take into account the dynamic properties of robots, such as the maximum speed and acceleration. The robots local control law formulas are derived based on positionally-trajectory control method, which allows to operate with non-linear models. Lyapunov function in the form of a quadratic function of the state variables is constructed to obtain a nonlinear closed-loop control system. Due to the fact that a closed system is decomposed into two independent subsystems Lyapunov function is also constructed as two independent functions. Numerical simulation of the motion of a group of five robots is presented. In this simulation obstacles are presented by the boundaries of working area and a movable object of a given radius, moving rectilinear and uniform. Obstacle speed is comparable to the speeds of the robots in a group. The advantage of the proposed method is ensuring the stability of the trajectories and consideration of the limitations on the speed and acceleration at the trajectory planning stage. Proposed approach can be used for more general robots' models, including robots in the three-dimensional environment.

  20. Application of photoremovable protecting group for controlled release of plant growth regulators by sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Sanghamitra; Ikbal, Mohammed; Kumar, Ashutosh; Pradeep Singh, N D

    2012-06-01

    We report a novel technique for controlled release of plant growth regulators (PGRs) by sunlight using photoremovable protecting group (PRPG) as a delivery device. In the present work, carboxyl-containing PGRs of the auxin group [indoleacetic acid (IAA) and naphthoxyacetic acid (NOAA)] were chemically caged using PRPGs of coumarin derivatives. Photophysical studies showed that caged PGRs exhibited good fluorescence properties. Irradiation of caged PGRs by sunlight in both aqueous ethanol and soil media resulted in controlled release of PGRs. The results of the bioactivity experiments indicated that caged PGRs showed better enhancement in the root and shoot length growth of Cicer arietinum compared to PGRs after 10days of sunlight exposure. Our results indicated that use of PRPG as a delivery device for controlled release of PGRs by sunlight in soil holds great interest for field application since it can overcome the rapid loss of PGRs in environmental conditions.

  1. Comparison of Value System among a Group of Military Prisoners with Controls in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmood Mirzamani Ph.D

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Religious values were investigated in a group of Iranian Revolutionary Guards in Tehran .Methods: The sample consisted of official duty troops and conscripts who were in prison due to a crime. One hundred thirty seven individuals cooperated with us in the project (37 Official personnel and 100 conscripts. The instruments used included a demographic questionnaire containing personal data and the Allport, Vernon and Lindzey's Study of Values Test. Most statistical methods used descriptive statistical methods such as frequency, mean, tables and t-test.Results: The results showed that religious value was lower in the criminal group than the control group (p<.001. Discussion: This study showed lower religious value scores in the criminals group, suggesting the possibility that lower religious value increases the probability of committing crimes .

  2. "Rate of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in Infertile Females and Control Group"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Badami

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Infertility in famale is one of the most important sequela of genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. In the present study the frequency of these bacteries was studied in 125 infertile female by direct and indirect immunofluorscence tests and culture method and compared with 250 normal population. Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from 32 (35.6% of infertile females compare with 18 (7.2% of normal population. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from 41 (32.8% of infertile females compare to 48 (19.2% of normal population. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by direct IF in 11 (8.8% of infertile and 2 (0.8% control group. The antibody titer against D-K serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis was also measured in both groups of infertile and normal population and a positive titer of 1/16 and above was detected in 26 (20.8% of infertile cases and in 8 (3.2% of control group. The rate of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in case and control groups was significant (respectively P<0.0001, P<0.0001, p= 0.0018.

  3. A common control group - optimising the experiment design to maximise sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bate

    Full Text Available Methods for choosing an appropriate sample size in animal experiments have received much attention in the statistical and biological literature. Due to ethical constraints the number of animals used is always reduced where possible. However, as the number of animals decreases so the risk of obtaining inconclusive results increases. By using a more efficient experimental design we can, for a given number of animals, reduce this risk. In this paper two popular cases are considered, where planned comparisons are made to compare treatments back to control and when researchers plan to make all pairwise comparisons. By using theoretical and empirical techniques we show that for studies where all pairwise comparisons are made the traditional balanced design, as suggested in the literature, maximises sensitivity. For studies that involve planned comparisons of the treatment groups back to the control group, which are inherently more sensitive due to the reduced multiple testing burden, the sensitivity is maximised by increasing the number of animals in the control group while decreasing the number in the treated groups.

  4. [Evaluation of an educational group intervention in the control of patients with cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Girbau, M Núria; Lladó-Blanch, M Magdalena; Seco-Salcedo, M Carmen; Gómez-Saldaña, Ana; Medina-Peralta, Manuel; Riera-Torres, Roser; Pera, Guillem

    2011-01-01

    To compare an educational group intervention with individual care to improve clinical and management variables among patients with cardiovascular risk (CVR) in community health care (PC). A randomised controlled experimental study was developed in 7 PC centres of Barcelona (Spain). A total of 2,127 patients included in the chronic diseases protocol of the centres were selected. The intervention group (IG) attended four educative workshops led by their nurses during one year. Clinical and management variables (number of visits, pharmaceutical expenditure, nurse time consumption) were measured at baseline and 3 months after the intervention in the IG and in the control group (CG). Pre-post-intervention and IG vs. CG differences were analysed. Among the 672 patients belonging to the IG, 144 were lost due to failing to attend the workshops. CG (n=824) had no withdrawals. At the end of follow-up there were no significant differences between their clinical variables. The number of visits and pharmaceutical expenditure increased in the IG. However, the annual dedication of nurses per patient per year was 39.59 minutes in the IG and 60 minutes in the CG. Nurse group control of patients with CVR in PC saves nurse-time compared with the usual individual visits. However, further studies are needed to better define what type of patient that is more susceptible to follow cardiovascular control through group workshops and whether this time-saving is related to the use of other health resources. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of an intermittent and continuous forearm muscles fatigue protocol with motorcycle riders and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, M; Torrado, P; Busquets, A; Ríos, J G; Angulo-Barroso, R

    2013-02-01

    Motorcycle races' long duration justify the study of forearm muscles fatigue, especially knowing the frequently associated forearm discomfort pathology. Moreover, while continuous fatigue protocols yield unequivocal results, EMG outcomes from an intermittent protocol are quite controversial. This study examined the forearm muscle fatigue patterns produced during these two protocols, comparing riders with a control group, and relating maximal voluntary contraction with EMG parameters (amplitude - NRMS and median frequency - NMF) of both protocols to the forearm discomfort among motorcycle riders. Twenty riders and 39 controls performed in separate days both protocols simulating the braking gesture and posture of a rider. EMG of flexor digitorum superficialis (FS) and carpi radialis (CR) were monitored. CR revealed more differences among protocols and groups compared to FS. The greater CR activation in riders could be interpreted as a neuromotor strategy to improve braking precision. When FS fatigue increased, the control group progressively shift toward a bigger CR activation, adopting an intermuscular activation pattern closer to riders. Despite the absence of NMF decrement throughout the intermittent protocol, which suggest that we should have shorten the recovery times from the actual 1 min, the superior number of rounds performed by the riders proved that this protocol discriminates better riders against controls and is more related to forearm discomfort.

  6. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Fink

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP. The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. Electricity for the heat pumps is generated by a central CHP unit, which also provides thermal energy to a district heating system. The paper reviews recent smart grid control approaches for central and distributed levels. An online algorithm is described based on the earliest deadline first theory that can be used on the aggregator level to control the CHP and to give signals to the heat pump controllers if they should start or should wait. The central controller requires only a limited amount of privacy-insensitive information from the heat pump controllers about their deadlines, which the heat pump controllers calculate for themselves by model predictions. In this way, a robust heat pump and CHP control is obtained, which is able to minimize energy demand and results in the desired thermal comfort for the households. The simulations demonstrate fast computation times due to minor computational and communication overheads.

  7. Closing plenary summary of working group 4 instrumentation and controls for ERL2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassner, D.; Obina, T.

    2011-10-16

    Working group 4 was charged with presentations and discussions on instrumentation and controls with regards to Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). There were 4 sessions spanning 3.5 hours in which 7 talks were delivered, the first being an invited plenary presentation. The time allotted for each talk was limited to 20-25 minutes in order to allow 5-10 minutes for discussion. Most of the talks were held in joint session with working group 5 (Unwanted Beam Loss). This format was effective for the purpose of this workshop. A final series of discussion sessions were also held with working group 5. Summary of the working group 4 activities, presented in the closing plenary session. We had a plenary presentation on operational performance, experience, and future plans at the existing ERL injector prototype at Cornell. This included instrumentation data, controls system configurations, as well as description of future needs. This was followed by four talks from KEK and RIKEN/SPring-8 that described electron beam instrumentation already in use or under development that can be applied to ERL facilities. The final talks described the ERLs under construction at KEK and BNL. The format of having joint sessions with working group 5 was beneficial as there were a significant number of common topics and concerns with regards to the causes of beam loss, instrumentation hardware, and techniques used to measure and analyze beam loss.

  8. Comparison of Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide Level between Children with Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noormohammad Noori

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy is revealed with left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the children with dilated cardiomyopathy and control group regarding the level of Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP and its relationship with echocardiography findings Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 37 children with dilated cardiomyopathy and free of any clinical symptoms and 37 healthy age- and sex-matched children referring to Ali-e-Asghar and Ali Ebne Abitaleb hospitals in Zahedan, Iran. After taking history, echocardiography was performed for both groups. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software and appropriate statistical tests. Results: The two groups were significantly different regarding most of the echocardiographic parameters (P < 0.05. Also, a significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the mean CGRP levels (P = 0.001. Among echocardiographic parameters, CGRP was directly related to Interventricular Septal dimension in Systole (IVSS (P = 0.022, R = 0.375. However, no significant relationship was observed between CGRP level and Ross classification. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed an increase in CGRP serum levels in the case group. Besides, a direct correlation was observed between CGRP level and IVSS.

  9. A survey of ring-building network protocols suitable for command and control group communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobeih, Ahmed; Yurcik, William

    2005-05-01

    Multicasting is the enabling technology for group communication. However, network-layer multicasting (e.g., IP multicast) has not been widely adopted more than 10 years of its invention due to the concerns related to deployment, scalability and network management. Application-layer multicast (ALM) has been proposed as an alternative for IP multicast. In ALM, group communications take place on an overlay network in which each edge corresponds to a direct unicast path between two group members. ALM protocols differ in, among other aspects, the topology of the underlying overlay network (e.g., tree, mesh or ring). Ring-based ALM protocols have the advantages of providing a constant node degree, and enabling the implementation of reliable and totally-ordered message delivery through the use of a ring with a token that contains ordering and flow control information. In addition, a ring overlay network topology is inherently reliable to single node failures. In this paper, we provide a survey and a taxonomy of several ring-building group communication protocols. Investigating the major characteristics of ring-building network protocols is an important step towards understanding which of them are suitable for command and control group communications.

  10. A group randomized controlled trial integrating obesity prevention and control for postpartum adolescents in a home visiting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire-Joshu, Debra L; Schwarz, Cynthia D; Peskoe, Sarah B; Budd, Elizabeth L; Brownson, Ross C; Joshu, Corinne E

    2015-06-26

    Adolescence represents a critical period for the development of overweight that tracks into adulthood. This risk is significantly heightened for adolescents that become pregnant, many of whom experience postpartum weight retention. The aim of this study was to evaluate Balance Adolescent Lifestyle Activities and Nutrition Choices for Energy (BALANCE), a multicomponent obesity prevention intervention targeting postpartum adolescents participating in a national home visiting child development-parent education program. A group randomized, nested cohort design was used with 1325 adolescents, 694 intervention and 490 control, (mean age = 17.8 years, 52 % underrepresented minorities) located across 30 states. Participatory methods were used to integrate lifestyle behavior change strategies within standard parent education practice. Content targeted replacement of high-risk obesogenic patterns (e.g. sweetened drink and high fat snack consumption, sedentary activity) with positive behaviors (e.g. water intake, fruit and vegetables, increased walking). Parent educators delivered BALANCE through home visits, school based classroom-group meetings, and website activities. Control adolescents received standard child development information. Phase I included baseline to posttest (12 months); Phase II included baseline to follow-up (24 months). When compared to the control group, BALANCE adolescents who were ≥12 weeks postpartum were 89 % more likely (p = 0.02) to maintain a normal BMI or improve an overweight/obese BMI by 12 months; this change was not sustained at 24 months. When compared to the control group, BALANCE adolescents significantly improved fruit and vegetable intake (p = .03). In stratified analyses, water intake improved among younger BALANCE teens (p = .001) and overweight/obese BALANCE teens (p = .05) when compared to control counterparts. There were no significant differences between groups in sweetened drink and snack consumption

  11. Teaching Emotional Intelligence: A Control Group Study of a Brief Educational Intervention for Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Gorgas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emotional Intelligence (EI is defined as an ability to perceive another’s emotional state combined with an ability to modify one’s own. Physicians with this ability are at a distinct advantage, both in fostering teams and in making sound decisions. Studies have shown that higher physician EI’s are associated with lower incidence of burn-out, longer careers, more positive patient-physician interactions, increased empathy, and improved communication skills. We explored the potential for EI to be learned as a skill (as opposed to being an innate ability through a brief educational intervention with emergency medicine (EM residents. Methods: This study was conducted at a large urban EM residency program. Residents were randomized to either EI intervention or control groups. The intervention was a two-hour session focused on improving the skill of social perspective taking (SPT, a skill related to social awareness. Due to time limitations, we used a 10-item sample of the Hay 360 Emotional Competence Inventory to measure EI at three time points for the training group: before (pre and after (post training, and at six-months post training (follow up; and at two time points for the control group: pre- and follow up. The preliminary analysis was a four-way analysis of variance with one repeated measure: Group x Gender x Program Year over Time. We also completed post-hoc tests. Results: Thirty-three EM residents participated in the study (33 of 36, 92%, 19 in the EI intervention group and 14 in the control group. We found a significant interaction effect between Group and Time (p<0.05. Post-hoc tests revealed a significant increase in EI scores from Time 1 to 3 for the EI intervention group (62.6% to 74.2%, but no statistical change was observed for the controls (66.8% to 66.1%, p=0.77. We observed no main effects involving gender or level of training. Conclusion: Our brief EI training showed a delayed but statistically significant

  12. Teaching Emotional Intelligence: A Control Group Study of a Brief Educational Intervention for Emergency Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgas, Diane L; Greenberger, Sarah; Bahner, David P; Way, David P

    2015-11-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) is defined as an ability to perceive another's emotional state combined with an ability to modify one's own. Physicians with this ability are at a distinct advantage, both in fostering teams and in making sound decisions. Studies have shown that higher physician EI's are associated with lower incidence of burn-out, longer careers, more positive patient-physician interactions, increased empathy, and improved communication skills. We explored the potential for EI to be learned as a skill (as opposed to being an innate ability) through a brief educational intervention with emergency medicine (EM) residents. This study was conducted at a large urban EM residency program. Residents were randomized to either EI intervention or control groups. The intervention was a two-hour session focused on improving the skill of social perspective taking (SPT), a skill related to social awareness. Due to time limitations, we used a 10-item sample of the Hay 360 Emotional Competence Inventory to measure EI at three time points for the training group: before (pre) and after (post) training, and at six-months post training (follow up); and at two time points for the control group: pre- and follow up. The preliminary analysis was a four-way analysis of variance with one repeated measure: Group x Gender x Program Year over Time. We also completed post-hoc tests. Thirty-three EM residents participated in the study (33 of 36, 92%), 19 in the EI intervention group and 14 in the control group. We found a significant interaction effect between Group and Time (p≤0.05). Post-hoc tests revealed a significant increase in EI scores from Time 1 to 3 for the EI intervention group (62.6% to 74.2%), but no statistical change was observed for the controls (66.8% to 66.1%, p=0.77). We observed no main effects involving gender or level of training. Our brief EI training showed a delayed but statistically significant positive impact on EM residents six months after the

  13. Mentalization and Life Stories among Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and a Control Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Majse; Bøye, Rikke; Heinskou, Torben;

    2016-01-01

    been examined in patients with BPD and this was the aim of our ongoing study. 30 patients with BPD and 30 controls will participate in the study. Mentalization is assessed using both self-report and performance measures (Empathic Quotient, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 and Mayer, Salovey, Caruso...... Emotional Intelligence Test). Life stories are assessed by having participants describe up to 10 chapters and rate causal coherence of these chapters. We expect that patients with BPD will show poorer mentalization and less causally coherent life stories compared to the control group. Furthermore, we expect...

  14. Revisiting Executive Pay in Family-Controlled Firms: Family Premium in Large Business Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, Juyoung; Kim, Woochan

    2014-01-01

    According to the prior literature, family executives of family-controlled firms receive lower compensation than non-family executives. One of the key driving forces behind this is the existence of family members who are not involved in management, but own significant fraction of shares and closely monitor and/or discipline those involved in management. In this paper, we show that this assumption falls apart if family-controlled firm is part of a large business group, where most of the family ...

  15. Simultaneous interpreters vs. professional multilingual controls: Group differences in cognitive control as well as brain structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Maxi; Schubert, Torsten; Strobach, Tilo; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2016-07-01

    There is a vast amount of literature indicating that multiple language expertise leads to positive transfer effects onto other non-language cognitive domains possibly due to enhanced cognitive control. However, there is hardly any evidence about underlying mechanisms on how complex behavior like simultaneous interpreting benefits cognitive functioning in other non-language domains. Therefore, we investigated whether simultaneous interpreters (SIs) exhibit cognitive benefits in tasks measuring aspects of cognitive control compared to a professional multilingual control group. We furthermore investigated in how far potential cognitive benefits are related to brain structure (using voxel-based morphometry) and function (using regions-of-interest-based functional connectivity and graph-analytical measures on low-frequency BOLD signals in resting-state brain data). Concerning cognitive control, the results reveal that SIs exhibit less mixing costs in a task switching paradigm and a dual-task advantage compared to professional multilingual controls. In addition, SIs show more gray matter volume in the left frontal pole (BA 10) compared to controls. Graph theoretical analyses revealed that this region exhibits higher network values for global efficiency and degree and is functionally more strongly connected to the left inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus in SIs compared to controls. Thus, the data provide evidence that SIs possess cognitive benefits in tasks measuring cognitive control. It is discussed in how far the central role of the left frontal pole and its stronger functional connectivity to the left inferior frontal gyrus represents a correlate of the neural mechanisms for the observed behavioral effects.

  16. Consumption of Cisatracurium in different age groups, using a closed loop computer controlled system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joomye, Shehzaad; Yan, Donglai; Wang, Haiyun; Zhou, Guoqiang; Wang, Guolin

    2014-01-01

    We devised this study to quantify the effect of age on the consumption of cisatracurium under general anaesthesia, using a computer controlled closed loop infusion system. We further investigated this effect on, sufentanil and propofol consumption. 74 patients of physical status I and II, requiring general anaesthesia for elective abdominal surgery, were assigned to three groups. Patients in group 1 were aged from 20 to 45, group 2 were from 46 to 64, and group 3 above 65 years old. General Anesthesia was maintained with propofol and muscle paralysis was maintained using a closed-loop computer controlled infusion of cisatracurium. For analgesia, intermittent bolus of sufentanil 10 μg was given. Cisatracurium consumption in group 1, 2 and 3 were 1.8 ± 0.3, 1.6 ± 0.4 and 1.3 ± 0.4 μg/kg/min respectively. There was significant difference of cisatracurium consumption between group 1 and 3 (P = 0.002), and the consumption of cisatracurium in group 3 was less as compared with group 2 (P = 0.04). The average recovery index of patients in group 1, 2 and 3 were 8.8 ± 2.6, 11.5 ± 2.9 and 12.7 ± 2.5 minutes respectively. There were difference between group 1 and 2 (P = 0.02). As compared with group 1, the recovery index was still longer in group 3 (P = 0.001). Patients in group 1, 2 and 3 consumed an average sufentanil 0.4 ± 0.1, 0.4 ± 0.1 and 0.3 ± 0.1 μg/kg/hr, respectively. There were statistical significant between group 1 and 3 (P < 0.0001), and the same trend was found between group 2 and 3 (P = 0.03). The Consumption of propofol in group 1, 2 and 3 were 5.1 ± 0.4, 4.3 ± 0.6 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mg/kg/hr. The difference in the propofol consumption was found statistically significant when comparing between any two groups. We concluded that the sensitivity of anesthetic agents increased with age. Less medication was required to achieve a desirable effect in older patients specially those

  17. Control groups in paediatric epilepsy research: do first-degree cousins show familial effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Melissa; Morrison, Blaise; Jones, Jana E; Jackson, Daren C; Almane, Dace; Seidenberg, Michael; Zhao, Qianqian; Rathouz, Paul J; Hermann, Bruce P

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether first-degree cousins of children with idiopathic focal and genetic generalized epilepsies show any association across measures of cognition, behaviour, and brain structure. The presence/absence of associations addresses the question of whether and to what extent first-degree cousins may serve as unbiased controls in research addressing the cognitive, psychiatric, and neuroimaging features of paediatric epilepsies. Participants were children (aged 8-18) with epilepsy who had at least one first-degree cousin control enrolled in the study (n=37) and all enrolled cousin controls (n=100). Participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and brain imaging (cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar volumes), and parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Data (based on 42 outcome measures) from cousin controls were regressed on the corresponding epilepsy cognitive, behavioural, and imaging measures in a linear mixed model and case/control correlations were examined. Of the 42 uncorrected correlations involving cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging measures, only two were significant (p0.25). Similar results held for the cognition/behaviour and brain imaging measures separately. Given the lack of association between cases and first-degree cousin performances on measures of cognition, behaviour, and neuroimaging, the results suggest a non-significant genetic influence on control group performance. First-degree cousins appear to be unbiased controls for cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging research in paediatric epilepsy.

  18. Recommendations on multiple testing adjustment in multi-arm trials with a shared control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Dena R; Brown, Julia M; Todd, Susan; Gregory, Walter M

    2016-09-19

    Multi-arm clinical trials assessing multiple experimental treatments against a shared control group can offer efficiency advantages over independent trials through assessing an increased number of hypotheses. Published opinion is divided on the requirement for multiple testing adjustment to control the family-wise type-I error rate (FWER). The probability of a false positive error in multi-arm trials compared to equivalent independent trials is affected by the correlation between comparisons due to sharing control data. We demonstrate that this correlation in fact leads to a reduction in the FWER, therefore FWER adjustment is not recommended solely due to sharing control data. In contrast, the correlation increases the probability of multiple false positive outcomes across the hypotheses, although standard FWER adjustment methods do not control for this. A stringent critical value adjustment is proposed to maintain equivalent evidence of superiority in two correlated comparisons to that obtained within independent trials. FWER adjustment is only required if there is an increased chance of making a single claim of effectiveness by testing multiple hypotheses, not due to sharing control data. For competing experimental therapies, the correlation between comparisons can be advantageous as it eliminates bias due to the experimental therapies being compared to different control populations.

  19. Self-control of feedback during motor learning: accounting for the absolute amount of feedback using a yoked group with self-control over feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Steve; Pfeiffer, Jacob; Patterson, Jae Todd

    2011-01-01

    A traditional control group yoked to a group that self-controls their reception of feedback receives feedback in the same relative and absolute manner. This traditional control group typically does not learn the task as well as the self-control group. Although the groups are matched for the amount of feedback they receive, the information is provided on trials in which the individual may not request feedback if he or she were provided the opportunity. Similarly, individuals may not receive feedback on trials for which it would be a beneficial learning experience. Subsequently, the mismatch between the provision of feedback and the potential learning opportunity leads to a decrement in retention. The present study was designed to examine motor learning for a yoked group with the same absolute amount of feedback, but who could self-control when they received feedback. Increased mental processing of error detection and correction was expected for the participants in the yoked self-control group because of their choice to employ a limited resource in the form of a decreasing amount of feedback opportunities. Participants in the yoked with self-control group committed fewer errors than the self-control group in retention and the traditional yoked group in both the retention and time transfer blocks. The results suggest that the yoked with self-control group was able to produce efficient learning effects and can be a viable control group for further motor learning studies.

  20. Is There a Relation between ABO Blood Groups and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Pemphigoid? A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Bakhtiari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Relationship between blood groups and dermatologic diseases remains controversial and was not yet fully elucidated nor explained clearly. The aim of this study was to examine if any relation exists between different types of pemphigoid diseases and ABO blood group. Methods. In this case-control study, 159 pemphigoid patients and 152 healthy matched-controls were evaluated. All blood group (including Rh status data for the study was obtained from the hospital medical records. Statistical comparisons were completed with chi-square test and logistic regression. Results. Blood group “O” was found in 32.9% of patients and 38.2% of control group. Blood group “A” was found among 30.8% of patients and 34.2% of control group, while group “B” was reported in 27.4% of cases and 21.1% of controls and “AB” was identified among 8.9% of patients and 6.6% of control group. 84.9% of patients were Rh positive, while in the control group 86.2% of patients were Rh positive. No significant differences were found regarding ABO blood groups (P=0.46 or Rh (P=0.76 between pemphigoid patients and control group. Also, older females had the higher risk of developing bullous pemphigoid. Conclusion. We found no relationship between ABO blood groups and pemphigoid disease.

  1. Aggression and 5HTT polymorphism in females: study of synchronized swimming and control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoeva, Olga V; Maluchenko, Natalia V; Timofeeva, Marina A; Portnova, Galina V; Kulikova, Maria A; Tonevitsky, Alexandr G; Ivanitsky, Alexey M

    2009-05-01

    Aggression is a heterogeneous heritable psychological trait, also influenced by environmental factors. Previous studies, mostly conducted on male population, have found some associations of the aggression with the polymorphisms of genes, regulating the activity of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain. However, psychological as well as biochemical manifestations of the aggression are different in males and females. Our study aimed to investigate the association of 5-HTT gene polymorphism with different facets of aggression (BDHI) in females. Two groups: the synchronized swimming and non-athlete control, - were examined to study the possible modulation effect of sport on the association between 5-HTT gene polymorphism and aggression. It was found that in both groups the low-active 5-HTT polymorphism (SS) was associated with increased scores on Indirect Hostility scale and decreased scores on Negativism scale, compared to LL genotype. No interaction effect between sport and 5-HTT polymorphism was found. The higher percentage of LL-carriers and lower of LS-carriers in the synchronized swimming group compared to the control one was observed. This may be the sign of the importance of LL polymorphism of 5-HTT gene, previously associated with higher resistance to stress factors, for being an athlete, although this result has to be taken cautiously keeping in mind the stratification problem. Synchronized swimmers had lower scores on Assault, Negativism, Irritability and Verbal Hostility compared to age-matched control girls (in general and for each 5-HTT genotype separately), suggesting that they may have more matured emotional system (older control group has also lower scores on these scales).

  2. Screening for autoantibodies in patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome and a matched control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Høyer-Madsen, M; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1990-01-01

    % had anti-striated muscle antibodies. None of the control subjects had any muscle antibodies. There was no significant difference in frequency of the remaining autoantibodies between the groups investigated. The present study indicates autoimmune responses in PFS against antigens of the diseased tissue...... itself, a finding which may be secondary to the disease or have relevance to the still obscure pathogenesis of the syndrome....

  3. Vibrotactile sense in patients with different upper limb disorders compared with a control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lise Hedegaard; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Upper limb disorders (ULDs) are common, and so are the difficulties with regard to their specific diagnoses. According to diagnostic consensus criteria, specific diagnoses include neuropathy and muscular- and connective-tissue disorders (MCDs). There is a need for valid objective...... diagnostic tools to reveal underlying mechanisms for specific diagnoses. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible differences in vibration perception threshold (VPT) and tolerance to suprathreshold stimulation (STS) between controls and specific diagnostic ULD patient groups with uni- and bilateral neuropathy...

  4. A Simple Approach for Synthesis of TAPO-11 Molecular Sieve with Controllable Space Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Ming LIU; Huan Yan ZHANG; Hai Jiao ZHANG; Hai Hong WU; Peng WU; Ming Yuan HE

    2006-01-01

    A TAPO-11 molecular sieve with the space group Icm2 was synthesized successfully.The samples with different space group were controlled simply only by adjusting the crystallization temperature (CT) in the hydrothermal system. In the system of gel with a molar composition of 0.7R: xTiO2: P2O5: Al2O3: 30H2O, where x is 0.01-0.10 and the R is a mixture of di-n-propylamine and diisopropylamine as templates. When CT was between 150-160℃, the calcined sample showed the space group of Icm2, while it showed Pna21 at CTlarger than 190℃.The characterizations of UV-Vis and FT-IR confirmed that Ti was incorporated into the AEL framework successfully.

  5. Tunneling induced transparency and controllable group velocity in triple and multiple quantum-dot molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Si-Cong; Wan, Ren-Gang; Ning, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Li-Jun

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the interaction of a triple quantum dot molecules controlled by the tunneling coupling instead of coupling laser. A general analytic expression for the steady-state linear susceptibility for a probe-laser field is obtained and we show that the system can exhibit two transparency windows. The group velocity of the probe-laser pulse is also analyzed. By changing the tunneling couplings, two laser pulses with different central frequency can propagate with the same group velocity. And the group velocity can be as low as 300 m/s in our system. We extend our analysis to the case of multiple quantum dot molecules (the number of the quantum dots is N) and show that the system can exhibit at most N-1 transparency windows. And at most N-1 laser pulses with different central frequencies can be slowed down.

  6. Comparison of serum levels of copper and zinc among multiple sclerosis patients and control group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Sedighi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been several studies done on the role of metals in the occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS disease, but their roles have not been confirmed yet. Because of the lack of information on this issue, this study compared the serum level of copper and zinc in MS patients with their levels in a control group.This was an analytical, cross-sectional study conducted in Kerman (a medium size city, Iran. We assessed the serum level of copper and zinc in 58 MS patients and 39 healthy individuals, who were selected from the relatives of cases and matched for age and sex.The average serum level of Copper in cases and controls were 93.7 and 88.9 ml/dl, respectively. The corresponding numbers for Zinc were 36.7 and 40.9 ml/dl, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (copper: P = 0.459; zinc: P = 0.249.The groups were matched for age, sex, and family. However, we did not find a considerable difference between the level of these metals in MS patients and controls.

  7. Analysis of KIR gene frequencies and HLA class I genotypes in prostate cancer and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, P; Jobim, L F; Salim, P H; Koff, W J; Wilson, T J; Jobim, M R; Schwartsmann, G; Roesler, R; Jobim, M

    2012-10-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men, with a significant increase in incidence and mortality in men over 50 years of age. Natural killer cells (NK) are part of the innate immune system recognizing class I HLA molecules on target cells through their membrane receptors, called killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). The aim of our study is to evaluate the association between the KIR genes and HLA alleles in patients with prostate cancer and healthy controls. Two hundred patients with prostate cancer and 185 healthy controls were typed for HLA class I and KIR genes by PCR-SSP. When both groups were compared, no significant differences were found for HLA-C group 1 and group 2, HLA-Bw4, HLA-A3 and A11. No difference was seen either in KIR frequency between patients with prostate cancer and controls. In conclusion, our data suggest no potential role for the KIR gene system in prostate cancer.

  8. DIVERSIFICATION AND FAMILY CONTROL AS DETERMINANTS OF PERFORMANCE: A STUDY OF LISTED BUSINESS GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Trasobares, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses the individual and joint impact of family control and diversification on the perfor-mance of major Spanish corporations, considering the nature of the ltimate owner of non-family groups.The study uses a sample of ninety-nine Spanish corporations, each comprising a parent company listed onthe stock exchange and a set of subsidiaries. Heckman’s two-step correction is used to eliminate selectionbias and the endogeneity of family ownership. Different models are contemplated in which we alysethe impact of both diversification and the family nature of a business on performance, established asTobin’s q-value. The results show how family control has a egative impact on Tobin’s q-value, and thatdifferences are greater between family groups and non-family groups controlled by banks and/or foreignagents. They also show ow diversification does not affect the creation of value either individually orconsidering the possible moderating effect of family ownership.

  9. Sedimentological and Stratigraphic Controls on Natural Fracture Distribution in Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Hariri, Mustafa; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed; Korvin, Gabor

    2016-04-01

    The Cambro-Permian Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia, is the main groundwater aquifer in Wadi Al-Dawasir and Najran areas. In addition, it has a reservoir potentiality for oil and natural gas in Rub' Al-Khali Basin. Wajid Group divided into four formations, ascending Dibsiyah, Sanamah, Khussyayan and Juwayl. They are mainly sandstone and exposed in an area extend from Wadi Al-Dawasir southward to Najran city and deposited within fluvial, shallow marine and glacial environments. This study aims to investigate the sedimentological and stratigraphic controls on the distribution of natural fractures within Wajid Group outcrops. A scanline sampling method was used to study the natural fracture network within Wajid Group outcrops, where the natural fractures were measured and characterized in 12 locations. Four regional natural fracture sets were observed with mean strikes of 050o, 075o, 345o, and 320o. Seven lithofacies characterized the Wajid Group at these locations and include fine-grained sandstone, coarse to pebbly sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone, massive sandstone, bioturbated sandstone, conglomerate sandstone, and conglomerate lithofacies. We found that the fine-grained and small scale cross-bedded sandstones lithofacies are characterized by high fracture intensity. In contrast, the coarse-grained sandstone and conglomerate lithofacies have low fracture intensity. Therefore, the relative fracture intensity and spacing of natural fractures within Wajid Group in the subsurface can be predicted by using the lithofacies and their depositional environments. In terms of stratigraphy, we found that the bed thickness and the stratigraphic architecture are the main controls on fractures intensity. The outcomes of this study can help to understand and predict the natural fracture distribution within the subsurface fractured sandstone hosting groundwater and hydrocarbon in Wajid and Rub' Al-Khali Basins. Hence, the finding of this study might help to explore and develop the

  10. Terminal groups control self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelakowski, M.; Kita-Tokarczyk, K.

    2016-03-01

    The terminal groups of amphiphilic block copolymers are shown to control macromolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions, in the micellar/lamellar region of the phase diagram. At the same concentration and using the same self-assembly conditions, dramatic differences are observed in polymer hydration and the resulting nano-/microstructure for two series of polymers with identical block chemistry and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). This suggests a strong contribution from end groups to the hydration as the initial step of the self-assembly process, and could be conveniently used to guide the particle morphology and size. Additionally, for polymers with those head groups which drive vesicular structures, differences in membrane organization affect their physical properties, such as permeability.The terminal groups of amphiphilic block copolymers are shown to control macromolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions, in the micellar/lamellar region of the phase diagram. At the same concentration and using the same self-assembly conditions, dramatic differences are observed in polymer hydration and the resulting nano-/microstructure for two series of polymers with identical block chemistry and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). This suggests a strong contribution from end groups to the hydration as the initial step of the self-assembly process, and could be conveniently used to guide the particle morphology and size. Additionally, for polymers with those head groups which drive vesicular structures, differences in membrane organization affect their physical properties, such as permeability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1: Particle diameters for hydrated NH2-ABA-NH2 polymers with different degrees of functionalization; Fig. S2: TEM characterization of compound micelles from BA-OH polymer after extrusion; Fig. S3: Cryo-TEM and stopped flow characterization of lipid vesicles; Fig. S4 and S5: NMR spectra for ABA and BA polymers

  11. Quantitative electroencephalography in Alzheimer's disease: comparison with a control group, population norms and mental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, V; Mohr, E; Mahoney, C; Ilivitsky, V

    2001-03-01

    Given that quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) has repeatedly shown excessive slow wave activity in dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) that increases with disease progression, we assessed the clinical utility of this tool by comparing various approaches used to assess slowing. Cross-sectional study comparing quantitative EEG data from patients with DAT with normative data from an elderly control group and from EEG norms derived from a large population. 35 subjects diagnosed with probable DAT and 30 elderly controls. EEG recorded from 21 scalp sites of each patient and elderly control during vigilance-controlled, eyes-closed, resting conditions was spectrally analyzed to yield measures of absolute and relative power in delta, theta, alpha and beta bands and indices of mean alpha band and total band frequency. Group comparisons of raw or age-regressed z-score population normative values yielded different profiles with respect to direction of frequency band changes, regional topography and clinical rating correlations, but both procedures evidenced overall patterns of EEG slowing in DAT. However, both methodologies yielded only modest (75%) classification rates. Quantitative EEG remains a valuable research tool but, as yet, an unproven diagnostic tool, for DAT.

  12. Self-concept and self-esteem after acquired brain injury: a control group comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie; Kelly, Amber; Couchman, Grace

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the multidimensional self-concept, global self-esteem and psychological adjustment of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as compared with healthy controls. Group comparison on self-report questionnaires. Forty-one individuals who had sustained a TBI were compared with an age- and gender-matched sample of 41 trauma-free control participants on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (second edition) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS). Participants with TBI rated significantly lower mean levels of global self-esteem and self-concept on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and Tennessee Self Concept Scale than the control group. Survivors of TBI rated themselves more poorly on a range of self-dimensions, including social, family, academic/work and personal self-concept compared to controls. They also reported higher mean levels of depression and anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Overall self-concept was most strongly associated with depressive symptoms and anxiety. Self-concept may be lowered following TBI and is associated with negative emotional consequences. Clinicians may improve the emotional adjustment of survivors of TBI by considering particular dimensions of self-concept for intervention focus.

  13. The Interaction Between Control Rods as Estimated by Second-Order One-Group Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Rolf

    1966-10-15

    The interaction effect between control rods is an important problem for the reactivity control of a reactor. The approach of second order one-group perturbation theory is shown to be attractive due to its simplicity. Formulas are derived for the fully inserted control rods in a bare reactor. For a single rod we introduce a correction parameter b, which with good approximation is proportional to the strength of the absorber. For two and more rods we introduce an interaction function g(r{sub ij}), which is assumed to depend only on the distance r{sub ij} between the rods. The theoretical expressions are correlated with the results of several experiments in R0, ZEBRA and the Aagesta reactor, as well as with more sophisticated calculations. The approximate formulas are found to give quite good agreement with exact values, but in the case of about 8 or more rods higher-order effects are likely to be important.

  14. Cooperative enclosing control for multiple moving targets by a group of agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y. J.; Li, R.; Teo, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the enclosing control problem of second-order multi-agent systems is considered, where the targets can be either stationary or moving. The objective is to achieve an equidistant circular formation for a group of agents to enclose a team of targets. In order to do so, we first introduce a formal definition explaining certain basic properties of the exploring relation between the agents and the targets. We then construct the estimator of the centre of the targets, which is used to build the control protocol to achieve equidistant circular enclosing. Using a Lyapunov function and Lasalle's Invariance Principle, the convergency of the estimator and control protocol are, respectively, established. We then construct a smooth function to approximate the discontinuous term in the estimator. Finally, the simulations for stationary targets and moving targets are given to verify the validity of the results obtained.

  15. Evaluation of periodontal condition of menopause women with osteoporosis and osteopenia and comparison with control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorsand A.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Several risk factors directly affect the development of periodontal diseases. Also some systemic diseases act indirectly as predisposing and aggrevating factors. Osteoporosis is one of these factors and one of its main causes is lack of physical activity in postmenopause period. The incidence of osteoporosis is increasing in our country. The goal of this study was to evaluate the periodontal condition of women with osteoporosis and osteopenia referred to bone densitometric division of Loghman hospital in 2003 and compare to control group. Materials and Methods: In this case control study based on BMD (Bone Mineral Density measurement of back and thigh using DEXA method, 60 patients referred to bone densitometric division of Loghman hospital, were randomly selected. Cases were divided into three groups, 20 with osteoporosis, 20 with osteopenia and 20 normal cases. Periodontal indices consisting of plaque index (PI, tooth loss (TL, gingival recession (GR, probing pocket depth (PPD and papilla bleeding index (PBI were evaluated by clinical and radiographic examination. Data were analyzed by Kruskall Wallis and Dunn tests with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: PBI, PI and TL were significantly higher in osteoporotic group than osteopenic and normal group. PPD was not different in the three groups. Due to the low prevalence of recession in our study, this parameter was not included in the statistical analysis. Conclusion: It seems that osteoporosis does not increase the incidence of periodontal diseases because it affects bone quality rather than quantity. In osteoporosis calcium deficiency and increasing age lead to decreased physical activity and ultimately affect the patient's oral hygiene performance. Thus, periodontal manifestations are presented as gingival bleeding and gingivitis.

  16. Design of IP Camera Access Control Protocol by Utilizing Hierarchical Group Key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Unlike CCTV, security video surveillance devices, which we have generally known about, IP cameras which are connected to a network either with or without wire, provide monitoring services through a built-in web-server. Due to the fact that IP cameras can use a network such as the Internet, multiple IP cameras can be installed at a long distance and each IP camera can utilize the function of a web server individually. Even though IP cameras have this kind of advantage, it has difficulties in access control management and weakness in user certification, too. Particularly, because the market of IP cameras did not begin to be realized a long while ago, systems which are systematized from the perspective of security have not been built up yet. Additionally, it contains severe weaknesses in terms of access authority to the IP camera web server, certification of users, and certification of IP cameras which are newly installed within a network, etc. This research grouped IP cameras hierarchically to manage them systematically, and provided access control and data confidentiality between groups by utilizing group keys. In addition, IP cameras and users are certified by using PKI-based certification, and weak points of security such as confidentiality and integrity, etc., are improved by encrypting passwords. Thus, this research presents specific protocols of the entire process and proved through experiments that this method can be actually applied.

  17. Group critical incident stress debriefing with emergency services personnel: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckey, Michelle R; Scott, Jill E

    2014-01-01

    Although single-session individual debriefing is contraindicated, the efficacy of group psychological debriefing remains unresolved. We conducted the first randomized controlled trial of critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) with emergency workers (67 volunteer fire-fighters) following shared exposure to an occupational potentially traumatic event (PTE). The goals of group CISD are to prevent post-traumatic stress and promote return to normal functioning following a PTE. To assess both goals we measured four outcomes, before and after the intervention: post-traumatic stress, psychological distress, quality of life, and alcohol use. Fire brigades were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: (1) CISD, (2) Screening (i.e., no-treatment), or (3) stress management Education. Controlling for pre-intervention scores, CISD was associated with significantly less alcohol use post-intervention relative to Screening, and significantly greater post-intervention quality of life relative to Education. There were no significant effects on post-traumatic stress or psychological distress. Overall, CISD may benefit broader functioning following exposure to work-related PTEs. Future research should focus on individual, group, and organizational factors and processes that can promote recovery from operational stressors. Ultimately, an occupational health (rather than victim-based) approach will provide the best framework for understanding and combating potential threats to the health and well-being of workers at high risk for PTE exposure.

  18. From "we" to "me": Group identification enhances perceived personal control with consequences for health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Haslam, S Alexander; Cruwys, Tegan; Branscombe, Nyla R; Ysseldyk, Renate; Heldreth, Courtney

    2015-07-01

    There is growing recognition that identification with social groups can protect and enhance health and well-being, thereby constituting a kind of "social cure." The present research explores the role of control as a novel mediator of the relationship between shared group identity and well-being. Five studies provide evidence for this process. Group identification predicted significantly greater perceived personal control across 47 countries (Study 1), and in groups that had experienced success and failure (Study 2). The relationship was observed longitudinally (Study 3) and experimentally (Study 4). Manipulated group identification also buffered a loss of personal control (Study 5). Across the studies, perceived personal control mediated social cure effects in political, academic, community, and national groups. The findings reveal that the personal benefits of social groups come not only from their ability to make people feel good, but also from their ability to make people feel capable and in control of their lives.

  19. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case–control study on genetic and environmental risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomp, E.R.; Stralen, van K.J.; Cessie, le S.; Vandenbroucke, J.P.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Doggen, C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case–control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present

  20. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case-control study on genetic and environmental risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Pomp; K.J. van Stralen; S. le Cessie; J.P. Vandenbroucke; F.R. Rosendaal; C.J.M. Doggen

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case-control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present

  1. Air Traffic Controllers’ Long-Term Speech-in-Noise Training Effects: A Control Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaballos, María T.P.; Plasencia, Daniel P.; González, María L.Z.; de Miguel, Angel R.; Macías, Ángel R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Speech perception in noise relies on the capacity of the auditory system to process complex sounds using sensory and cognitive skills. The possibility that these can be trained during adulthood is of special interest in auditory disorders, where speech in noise perception becomes compromised. Air traffic controllers (ATC) are constantly exposed to radio communication, a situation that seems to produce auditory learning. The objective of this study has been to quantify this effect. Subjects and Methods: 19 ATC and 19 normal hearing individuals underwent a speech in noise test with three signal to noise ratios: 5, 0 and −5 dB. Noise and speech were presented through two different loudspeakers in azimuth position. Speech tokes were presented at 65 dB SPL, while white noise files were at 60, 65 and 70 dB respectively. Results: Air traffic controllers outperform the control group in all conditions [Pcontrol group in all conditions. Thus, this study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions. PMID:27991470

  2. DSM-5 personality traits discriminate between posttraumatic stress disorder and control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lisa M; Anders, Samantha L; Peterson, Carly K; Engdahl, Brian E; Krueger, Robert F; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2015-07-01

    The relevance of personality traits to the study of psychopathology has long been recognized, particularly in terms of understanding patterns of comorbidity. In fact, a multidimensional personality trait model reflecting five higher-order personality dimensions-negative affect, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism-is included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and represented in the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). However, evaluation of these dimensions and underlying personality facets within clinical samples has been limited. In the present study, we utilized the PID-5 to evaluate the personality profile elevation and composition of 150 control veterans and 35 veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results indicated that veterans with PTSD endorsed significantly more personality pathology than control veterans, with scores on detachment and psychoticism domains most clearly discriminating between the two groups. When personality domain scores were considered as parts of each subject's personality profile, a slightly different picture emerged. Specifically, the PTSD composition was primarily characterized by detachment and negative affect, followed by disinhibition, psychoticism, and antagonism in that order of relative importance. The profile of the control group was significantly different, mostly accounted for differences in antagonism and psychoticism. Using these complementary analytic strategies, the findings demonstrate the relevance of personality pathology to PTSD, highlight internalizing features of PTSD, and pave the way for future research aimed at evaluating the role of shared maladaptive personality traits in underlying the comorbidity of PTSD and related disorders.

  3. Psychological well-being in a sample of obese patients compared with a control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Magallares

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The literature has found that obese patients usually report more depression and anxiety than normal weight individuals. However, not many investigations have studied the relationship between obesity and quality of life from a Positive Psychology approach. Objective: In this study it is analyzed if obese patients have less psychological well-being than a control group (normal weight participants. Method: A total of 221 participants (111 obese individuals and 110 controls were selected to conduct the study. To measure psychological well-being, the Spanish version of the Ryff's Scales was used. To measure mental health, the Spanish version of the mental health component of the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36 was used. Results: It was found that obese participants reported less psychological well-being than normal weight individuals, but that there were not statistically significant differences in the case of mental health measured with the SF-36. Discussion: According to the results, it can be concluded that reports of psychological well-being problems were much more common in participants with weight problems than in the control group.

  4. Neurodynamic responses in children with migraine or cervicogenic headache versus a control group. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Piekartz, Harry J M; Schouten, Sara; Aufdemkampe, Geert

    2007-05-01

    Headache in children with unknown aetiology is an increasing phenomenon in industrial countries, especially during growth spurts. During this growth phase, the Long Sitting Slump (LSS) can be a useful tool for measurement of neurodynamics and management. This study investigated the difference in cervical flexion and sensory responses (intensity and location) during the LSS tests in children (n=123) aged 6-12 years, between a migraine (primary headache group=PG), cervicogenic headache (secondary headache group=SG) and control group (CG). The results indicated that the intensities of the sensory response rate were highest in the PG and SG when compared to CG. The responses in the legs were predominantly found in the PG (81.9%) and responses in the spine in the SG (80%). The sacrum position varied significantly between both headache groups (PG and SG) and the CG (p0.05). No significant difference in the neck flexion range was measured in LSS, nor in standardized knee flexion between the PG and CG (p>0.05). The cervical flexion ranges differed significantly (p<0.0001) between the SG on the one hand and the PG and CG on the other. The biggest difference in neck flexion during knee extension was between the SG and CG.

  5. A Multistage Control Mechanism for Group-Based Machine-Type Communications in an LTE System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chien Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When machine-type communication (MTC devices perform the long-term evolution (LTE attach procedure without bit rate limitations, they may produce congestion in the core network. To prevent this congestion, the LTE standard suggests using group-based policing to regulate the maximum bit rate of all traffic generated by a group of MTC devices. However, previous studies on the access point name-aggregate maximum bit rate based on group-based policing are relatively limited. This study proposes a multistage control (MSC mechanism to process the operations of maximum bit rate allocation based on resource-use information. For performance evaluation, this study uses a Markov chain with to analyze MTC application in a 3GPP network. Traffic flow simulations in an LTE system indicate that the MSC mechanism is an effective bandwidth allocation method in an LTE system with MTC devices. Experimental results show that the MSC mechanism achieves a throughput 22.5% higher than that of the LTE standard model using the group-based policing, and it achieves a lower delay time and greater long-term fairness as well.

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mindfulness and Acceptance Group Therapy for Residential Substance Use Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Gawrysiak, Michael J; Strauss, Catherine; Haynes, Ellen; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2017-09-19

    Substance use disorders are understood as a chronically relapsing condition that is difficult to treat. However, in recent years there have been promising developments in the treatment of substance use disorders, specifically with interventions based on mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy. Little research has examined whether these types of interventions may positively impact residential substance use treatment outcomes. Thus, in the current study we developed and examined, in a randomized controlled trial, a 4-week, eight-session, adjunctive mindfulness and acceptance group therapy for patients in residential substance use treatment. Our primary outcomes were substance use cravings, psychological flexibility, and dispositional mindfulness at treatment discharge. Patients (N = 117) from a private residential substance use facility were randomized to receive the adjunctive mindfulness and acceptance group or treatment-as-usual. Patients were assessed at treatment intake and at discharge from a 28-30-day residential program. Although treatment groups did not statistically differ at discharge on any primary outcome, small effect sizes favored the mindfulness and acceptance group on cravings and psychological flexibility. Conclusions/Importance: Continued research is needed to determine whether the addition of mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions improve outcomes long term following residential substance use treatment.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA control region analysis of three ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander W.; Bodner, Martin; Jakovski, Zlatko; Janeska, Biljana; Duma, Aleksej; Parson, Walther

    2014-01-01

    A total of 444 individuals representing three ethnic groups (Albanians, Turks and Romanies) in the Republic of Macedonia were sequenced in the mitochondrial control region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition differed between the three groups. Our results showed relatively high frequencies of haplogroup H12 in Albanians (8.8%) and less in Turks (3.3%), while haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively) but rare in the former two. This highlights the importance of regional sampling for forensic mtDNA databasing purposes. These population data will be available on EMPOP under accession numbers EMP00644 (Albanians), EMP00645 (Romanies) and EMP00646 (Turks). PMID:25051224

  8. Mitochondrial DNA control region analysis of three ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander W; Bodner, Martin; Jakovski, Zlatko; Janeska, Biljana; Duma, Aleksej; Parson, Walther

    2014-11-01

    A total of 444 individuals representing three ethnic groups (Albanians, Turks and Romanies) in the Republic of Macedonia were sequenced in the mitochondrial control region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition differed between the three groups. Our results showed relatively high frequencies of haplogroup H12 in Albanians (8.8%) and less in Turks (3.3%), while haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively) but rare in the former two. This highlights the importance of regional sampling for forensic mtDNA databasing purposes. These population data will be available on EMPOP under accession numbers EMP00644 (Albanians), EMP00645 (Romanies) and EMP00646 (Turks).

  9. Group visits in the management of diabetes and hypertension: effect on glycemic and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney-Hutchinson, Lisel M; Provilus, Alfrede D; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Zizi, Ferdinand; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; McFarlane, Samy I

    2009-06-01

    Diabetes is a major public health problem that is reaching epidemic proportions in the United States and worldwide. Over 22 million Americans currently have diabetes and it is forecast that over 350 million people worldwide will be affected by 2030. Furthermore, the economic cost of diabetes care is enormous. Despite current efforts on the part of health care providers and their patients, outcomes of care remain largely suboptimal, with only 3% to 7% of the entire diabetes population meeting recommended treatment goals for glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control. Therefore, alternative approaches to diabetes care are desperately needed. Group visits may provide a viable option for patients and health care providers, with the potential to improve outcomes and cost effectiveness. In this review, we highlight the magnitude of the diabetes epidemic, the barriers to optimal diabetes care, and the utility of the concept of group visits as a chronic disease management strategy for diabetes care.

  10. Group behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa.

  11. Electromagnetically induced transparency and controllable group velocity in a five-level atomic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihui Jin; Shangqing Gong; Yueping Niu; Shiqi Jin

    2006-01-01

    @@ The optical properties of a five-level atomic system composed of a A-type four-level atomic and a tripod four-level atomic systems are investigated. It is found that the behaviors of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and group velocity can be controlled by choosing appropriate parameters with the interacting dark resonances. In particular, when all the fields are on resonance, the slow light at the symmetric transparency windows with a much broader EIT width is obtained by tuning the intensity of the coupling field in comparison with its sub-system, which provides potential applications in quantum storage and retrieval of light.

  12. Effectiveness of group body psychotherapy for negative symptoms of schizophrenia: multicentre randomised controlled trial †

    OpenAIRE

    Priebe, S.; Savill, M.; Wykes, T.; Bentall, R P; Reininghaus, U; Lauber, C; Bremner, S; Eldridge, S; Röhricht, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background\\ud Negative symptoms of schizophrenia have a severe impact\\ud on functional outcomes and treatment options are limited.\\ud Arts therapies are currently recommended but more\\ud evidence is required.\\ud \\ud Aims\\ud To assess body psychotherapy as a treatment for negative\\ud symptoms compared with an active control (trial registration:ISRCTN84216587).\\ud \\ud Method\\ud Schizophrenia out-patients were randomised into a\\ud 20-session body psychotherapy or Pilates group. The primary\\ud ou...

  13. Transcription-independent function of Polycomb group protein PSC in cell cycle control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Sarip, Adone; Lagarou, Anna; Doyen, Cecile M; van der Knaap, Jan A; Aslan, Ülkü; Bezstarosti, Karel; Yassin, Yasmin; Brock, Hugh W; Demmers, Jeroen A A; Verrijzer, C Peter

    2012-05-11

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins control development and cell proliferation through chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression. We describe a transcription-independent function for PcG protein Posterior sex combs (PSC) in regulating the destruction of cyclin B (CYC-B). A substantial portion of PSC was found outside canonical PcG complexes, instead associated with CYC-B and the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). Cell-based experiments and reconstituted reactions established that PSC and Lemming (LMG, also called APC11) associate and ubiquitylate CYC-B cooperatively, marking it for proteosomal degradation. Thus, PSC appears to mediate both developmental gene silencing and posttranslational control of mitosis. Direct regulation of cell cycle progression might be a crucial part of the PcG system's function in development and cancer.

  14. Critical Point Facility (CPE) Group in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPE) group in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  15. Smallholder group certification in Uganda – Analysis of internal control systems in two organic export companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Reckling

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The organic agricultural sector of Uganda is among the most developed in Africa in terms of its professional institutional network and high growth rates of number of certified farmers and land area. Smallholder farmers are certified organic through contract production for export companies using a group certification scheme (internal control system - ICS. The ICS is a viable and well-accepted tool to certify small-scale producers in developing countries all over the world. Difficulties in certification are still stated to be among the main constraints for Uganda’s organic sector development. Therefore, this paper reports a qualitative case study comprising 34 expert interviews in two organic fresh-produce export companies in central Uganda, aiming to explore the challenges which underlie organic certification with ICS. The study shows that farmers cannot be labelled as ‘organic by default’ but deliberately engage in organic production as a marketing strategy. The small quantities purchased by the organic companies lead to a difficult marketing situation for the farmers, causing production and infiltration risks on the farm level. These risks require increased control that challenges the companies organizationally. The risks and control needs are a reason to involve farmers in ICS procedures and innovatively adapt the ICS by means of a bypass around formal perspective restrictions. The paper discusses different perspectives on risks, risk control and certification.

  16. Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Coping Strategies in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis and Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The present study aimed to investigate personality traits and coping strategies in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS who were admitted to Sina hospital compared with healthy individuals. Objectives The aim of the present study was to compare personality characteristics and coping strategies between patients with MS and healthy controls. Materials and Methods The study sample included 55 patients with MS and 57 matched healthy control individuals. The data were gathered via a demographic form, the ways of coping questionnaire, and the NEO five-factor inventory. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and logistic regression. Results No significant differences in personality characteristics were observed between patients and healthy controls (all P > 0.05. Only the coping strategy subscale of Distancing was significant between patients and healthy controls (P 0.05. Only the Neuroticism personality trait and the Distancing coping strategy were predictive of group membership (i.e., healthy or patient. Conclusions Our study suggests that the personality traits of patients with MS and healthy individuals are not significantly different. Patients with MS are likely to use the same coping strategies as healthy individuals, except in the subscale of Distancing.

  17. Group sequential control of overall toxicity incidents in clinical trials - non-Bayesian and Bayesian approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jihnhee; Hutson, Alan D; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Kedron, Mary A

    2016-02-01

    In some small clinical trials, toxicity is not a primary endpoint; however, it often has dire effects on patients' quality of life and is even life-threatening. For such clinical trials, rigorous control of the overall incidence of adverse events is desirable, while simultaneously collecting safety information. In this article, we propose group sequential toxicity monitoring strategies to control overall toxicity incidents below a certain level as opposed to performing hypothesis testing, which can be incorporated into an existing study design based on the primary endpoint. We consider two sequential methods: a non-Bayesian approach in which stopping rules are obtained based on the 'future' probability of an excessive toxicity rate; and a Bayesian adaptation modifying the proposed non-Bayesian approach, which can use the information obtained at interim analyses. Through an extensive Monte Carlo study, we show that the Bayesian approach often provides better control of the overall toxicity rate than the non-Bayesian approach. We also investigate adequate toxicity estimation after the studies. We demonstrate the applicability of our proposed methods in controlling the symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rate for treating acute ischemic stroke patients.

  18. Differentiation of African components of ancestry to stratify groups in a case-control study of a Brazilian urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbiger, Vivian N; Hirata, Mario H; Luchessi, Andre D; Genvigir, Fabiana D V; Cerda, Alvaro; Rodrigues, Alice C; Willrich, Maria A V; Arazi, Simone S; Dorea, Egidio L; Bernik, Marcia M S; Faludi, Andre A; Bertolami, Marcelo C; Santos, Carla; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio; Freire, Ana; Lareu, Maria Victoria; Phillips, Christopher; Porras-Hurtado, Liliana; Fondevila, Manuel; Hirata, Rosario D C

    2012-06-01

    Balancing the subject composition of case and control groups to create homogenous ancestries between each group is essential for medical association studies. We explored the applicability of single-tube 34-plex ancestry informative markers (AIM) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the African Component of Ancestry (ACA) to design a future case-control association study of a Brazilian urban sample. One hundred eighty individuals (107 case group; 73 control group) self-described as white, brown-intermediate or black were selected. The proportions of the relative contribution of a variable number of ancestral population components were similar between case and control groups. Moreover, the case and control groups demonstrated similar distributions for ACA 0.50 categories. Notably a high number of outlier values (23 samples) were observed among individuals with ACA population. This can be achieved using a straight forward multiplexed AIM-SNPs assay of highly discriminatory ancestry markers.

  19. Benefits of exercise training in the treatment of heart failure: study with a control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Mário Sérgio Vaz da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Exercise training programs have been proposed as adjuncts to treatment of heart failure. The effects of a 3-month-exercise-training-program with 3 exercise sessions per week were assessed in patients with stable systolic chronic heart failure. METHODS: We studied 24 patients with final left ventricle diastolic diameter of 70±10mm and left ventricular ejection fraction of 37±4%. Mean age was 52±16 years. Twelve patients were assigned to an exercise training group (G1, and 12 patients were assigned to a control group (G2. Patients underwent treadmill testing, before and after exercise training, to assess distance walked, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and double product. RESULTS: In G2 group, before and after 3 months, we observed, respectively distance walked, 623±553 and 561± 460m (ns; peak heart rate, 142±23 and 146± 33b/min (ns; systolic blood pressure, 154±36 and 164±26 mmHg (ns; and double product, 22211± 6454 and 24293±7373 (ns. In G1 group, before and after exercise, we observed: distance walked, 615±394 and 970± 537m (p<0.003 peak heart rate, 143±24 and 143±29b/min (ns; systolic blood pressure, 136±33 and 133±24 mmHg (ns; and double product, 19907± 7323 and 19115±5776, respectively. Comparing the groups, a significant difference existed regarding the variation in the double product, and in distance walked. CONCLUSION: Exercise training programs in patients with heart failure can bring about an improvement in physical capacity.

  20. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Anxiety, Depression and Glycemic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Ahmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing anxiety and depression and glycemic control in children with type I diabetes. Methods and Matherials: The study was quasi- experimental with a pre-test, post-test design with control group. For this purpose, 30 children with diabetes were selected from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad. The children were randomly assigned into two experimental group (15 and control group (15. The experimental group was undergone eight 2-hour sessions of cognitive-behavioral training. Before and after the intervention, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, which included four components of social anxiety, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, and separation anxiety, and Children Depression Inventory was administrated in both groups. Results: The findings from the covariance analysis test revealed that depression and anxiety and glycemic control in experimental group was controlled at post-test and depression score in experimental group compared to the control group at post-test was decreased. The findings from the multivariate covariance analysis test between components of, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, separation anxiety, and social anxiety revealed meaningful differences between the two groups in social anxiety post-test score. Conclusions: According to the article, cognitive behavior therapy can be effective for depression, anxiety, and blood sugar control in children.

  1. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Bbehavioral Therapy on Anxiety, Depression and Glycemic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ahmadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing anxiety and depression and glycemic control in children with type I diabetes. The study was quasi- experimental with a pre-test, post-test design with control group. For this purpose, 30 children with diabetes were selected from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad. The children were randomly assigned into two experimental group (15 and control group (15. The experimental group was undergone eight 2-hour sessions of cognitive-behavioral training. Before and after the intervention, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, which included four components of social anxiety, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, and separation anxiety, and Children Depression Inventory was administrated in both groups. The findings from the covariance analysis test revealed that depression and anxiety and glycemic control in experimental group was controlled at post-test and depression score in experimental group compared to the control group at post-test was decreased. The findings from the multivariate covariance analysis test between components of, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, separation anxiety, and social anxiety revealed meaningful differences between the two groups in social anxiety post-test score. Thus, cognitive behavior therapy can be effective for depression, anxiety, and blood sugar control in children.

  2. Doing Anger Differently: two controlled trials of percussion group psychotherapy for adolescent reactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of 'Doing Anger Differently' (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1, but also followed up controls at 6 months. In study 1 (N = 54) the treatment resulted in lowered trait anger (Cohen's d = -1.3), aggression-reports (d = -1.0) and depression (d = -0.6), and increased self-esteem (d = 0.6), all maintained at six months. In study 2 (N = 65), aggression-reports fell to one fifth of pre-treatment levels at nine months follow-up (d = -1.2), with lowered trait anger (d = -0.4) and anger expression (d = -0.3) post-treatment.

  3. Pathological gamblers and a non-psychiatric control group taking gender differences into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeburúa, Enrique; González-Ortega, Itxaso; de Corral, Paz; Polo-López, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify personality traits, emotional states and adjustment variables in a sample of pathological gamblers as compared to a non-gambling control group taking gender differences into account. The sample for this study consisted of 206 subjects (103 pathological gamblers and 103 non-psychiatric subjects from the general population matched for age and gender). Pathological gamblers had a lower educational level and a family history of alcohol abuse higher than non-gamblers. In turn, female gamblers were affected by unemployment and a lower socioeconomic status more often than female non-gamblers. Pathological gamblers were more anxious and impulsive and suffered from a poorer self-esteem than non-gamblers. Likewise, pathological gamblers had a greater history of other Axis I psychiatric disorders and were more often affected by anxiety and depression symptoms and showed a more problematic adjustment to everyday life than non-gamblers. Alcohol abuse was not higher in pathological gamblers than in non-gamblers, but, when gender was taken into account, male gamblers were more affected by alcohol abuse than male non-gamblers. Importantly 68.6% of female gamblers versus 9.8% of control group women reported being victims of intimate partner violence. These findings can be used to specifically inform prevention and intervention efforts.

  4. Comparison of Plasma Copper Concentrations in Patients with Brucellosis and Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Mobaien

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : There are some reports about influence of the rare nutrients such as copper and zinc on immune system. Serum concentrations of copper alter in patients with brucellosis. Brucellosis is a common and endemic disease and a health problem in Iran. We compared serum concentrations of copper in patients with brucellosis and healthy individuals.Materials & Methods: In a cross sectional study, serum concentrations of copper was measured in patients with brucellosis and control group. Eighty six subjects were enrolled in the study, including 43 patients with brucellosis (34 men and 9 women and 43 healthy individuals. Serum concentrations of copper was measured by automatic absorptive spectrophotometer in patients with brucellosis and compared with control group. We employed a non parametrical test, kolmogrov – smirnov, to determine if data distribution was normal or not. Results: Mean age of patients with brucellosis was 40.1415.10 years with the range of 14-60 years. The most frequent symptoms were arthralgia (86%. Serum concentrations of copper in patients with brucellosis were significantly higher than healthy subjects (160.8454.61, 101.7427.37 g/dl respectively, p<0.001.Conclusion: Serum concentrations of copper in patients with brucellosis showed significant alterations in comparison with healthy subjects. So, we recommend using serum copper concentrations in patients with brucellosis as a marker in brucellosis diagnosis. Also we recommend another study for detection of serum copper concentrations before and during treatment.

  5. Group therapy for adolescents with repeated self harm: randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J M; Wood, A J; Kerfoot, M J; Trainor, G; Roberts, C; Rothwell, J; Woodham, A; Ayodeji, E; Barrett, B; Byford, S; Harrington, R

    2011-04-01

    To examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of group therapy for self harm in young people. Two arm, single (assessor) blinded parallel randomised allocation trial of a group therapy intervention in addition to routine care, compared with routine care alone. Randomisation was by minimisation controlling for baseline frequency of self harm, presence of conduct disorder, depressive disorder, and severity of psychosocial stress. Adolescents aged 12-17 years with at least two past episodes of self harm within the previous 12 months. Exclusion criteria were: not speaking English, low weight anorexia nervosa, acute psychosis, substantial learning difficulties (defined by need for specialist school), current containment in secure care. Setting Eight child and adolescent mental health services in the northwest UK. Manual based developmental group therapy programme specifically designed for adolescents who harm themselves, with an acute phase over six weekly sessions followed by a booster phase of weekly groups as long as needed. Details of routine care were gathered from participating centres. Primary outcome was frequency of subsequent repeated episodes of self harm. Secondary outcomes were severity of subsequent self harm, mood disorder, suicidal ideation, and global functioning. Total costs of health, social care, education, and criminal justice sector services, plus family related costs and productivity losses, were recorded. 183 adolescents were allocated to each arm (total n = 366). Loss to follow-up was low (self harm, proportional odds ratio of group therapy versus routine care adjusting for relevant baseline variables was 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 1.44, P = 0.95) at 6 months and 0.88 (0.59 to 1.33, P = 0.52) at 1 year. For severity of subsequent self harm the equivalent odds ratios were 0.81 (0.54 to 1.20, P = 0.29) at 6 months and 0.94 (0.63 to 1.40, P = 0.75) at 1 year. Total 1 year costs were higher in the group therapy arm (£21,781) than

  6. Parental interaction patterns in children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder and control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Karahmadi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Parental communication patterns influence children's personality. This study investigated effects of parental interaction patterns on children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD.
    METHODS: There were 50 male children, 7-12 years old, selected in two groups. The first group included students with ADHD referred to psychiatry clinics in Isfahan-based on diagnostic scale of DSM-IV (25 subjects. The second group involved healthy boys selected by random cluster multistage sampling from primary schools in five districts of Isfahan (25 subjects from September 2005 to March 2005. Schaffer and Edgerton parental interaction questionnaire was filled for them.
    RESULTS: Mean scores of parental interaction patterns in healthy children were all higher than those in ADHD children except for “aggression control” and “lack of aggressive attachment”.
    CONCLUSIONS: The severity of ADHD signs has negative relationship with parental "admission" and parental "control" patterns. It also has positive relationship with “lack of aggressive/attachment” and “aggressive/control” patterns.
    KEY WORDS: Parental interaction patterns, ADHD.

  7. A randomized controlled trial of a brief versus standard group parenting program for toddler aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Lucy A; Hunt, Caroline

    2016-11-17

    Physical aggression (PA) in the toddler years is common and developmentally normal, however, longitudinal research shows that frequent PA is highly stable and associated with long-term negative outcomes. Significant research has demonstrated the efficacy of parenting interventions for reducing externalizing behavior in children yet their typical length may overburden families, leading to low participation rates and high attrition rates. To increase the reach of parenting interventions and impact on the prevalence of externalizing behavior problems, brief interventions are needed. This RCT compared a standard (8 session) group Triple P to a brief (3 session) discussion group and a waitlist control for reducing toddler PA, dysfunctional parenting and related aspects of parent functioning. Sixty-nine self-referred families of toddlers with PA were randomized to the respective conditions. At post-assessment, families in the standard intervention had significantly lower levels of observed child aversive behavior, mother reports of PA and dysfunctional parenting, and higher levels of mother- and partner-rated behavioral self-efficacy than the waitlist control. Families in the standard intervention also had significantly lower levels mother-rated dysfunctional parenting than the brief intervention, and the brief intervention had significantly lower levels of mother-rated dysfunctional parenting than waitlist. There were no significant group differences at post-assessment for measures of parental negative affect or satisfaction with the partner relationship. By 6 month follow-up, families in the brief and standard intervention did not differ significantly on any measure. The implications of the findings to delivery of brief parenting interventions are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 9999:1-13, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mindfulness Training Improves Attentional Task Performance in Incarcerated Youth: A Group Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle R Leonard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16 to 18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147 or an active control intervention (youth n = 117. Both arms received approximately 750 minutes of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3-5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. Keywords: adolescent development, incarcerated adolescents, detained adolescents, stress, attention, mindfulness meditation.

  9. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case–control study on genetic and environmental risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomp, E. R.; Van Stralen, K. J.; Le Cessie, S.; Vandenbroucke, J. P.; Doggen, C. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case–control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present body mass index (BMI). Both control groups had lower BMIs than the patients. The distribution in the partner controls was closer to that of the patients, likely due to similar lifestyles. A statistical approach was used to pool the results of both analyses, wherein partners were analyzed with a matched analysis, while RDDs were analyzed without matching. Even with a matched analysis, the odds ratio with partner controls remained closer to unity than with RDD controls, which is probably due to unmeasured confounders in the comparison with the random controls as well as intermediary factors. However, when studying injuries as a risk factor, the odds ratio remained higher with partner control subjects than with RRD control subjects, even after taking the matching into account. Finally we used factor V Leiden as an example of a genetic risk factor. The frequencies of factor V Leiden were identical in both control groups, indicating that for the analyses of this genetic risk factor the two control groups could be combined in a single unmatched analysis. In conclusion, the effect measures with the two control groups were in the same direction, and of the same order of magnitude. Moreover, it was not always the same control group that produced the higher or lower estimates, and a matched analysis did not remedy the differences. Our experience with the intricacies of dealing with two control groups may be useful to others when thinking about an optimal research design or the best statistical approach. PMID:20549310

  10. Weight change in control group participants in behavioural weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Lauren

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  11. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  12. Elevator Group Supervisory Control System Using Genetic Network Programming with Macro Nodes and Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Yu, Lu; Mabu, Shingo; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu; Markon, Sandor

    Elevator Group Supervisory Control System (EGSCS) is a very large scale stochastic dynamic optimization problem. Due to its vast state space, significant uncertainty and numerous resource constraints such as finite car capacities and registered hall/car calls, it is hard to manage EGSCS using conventional control methods. Recently, many solutions for EGSCS using Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies have been reported. Genetic Network Programming (GNP), which is proposed as a new evolutionary computation method several years ago, is also proved to be efficient when applied to EGSCS problem. In this paper, we propose an extended algorithm for EGSCS by introducing Reinforcement Learning (RL) into GNP framework, and an improvement of the EGSCS' performances is expected since the efficiency of GNP with RL has been clarified in some other studies like tile-world problem. Simulation tests using traffic flows in a typical office building have been made, and the results show an actual improvement of the EGSCS' performances comparing to the algorithms using original GNP and conventional control methods. Furthermore, as a further study, an importance weight optimization algorithm is employed based on GNP with RL and its efficiency is also verified with the better performances.

  13. Analysis of KIR gene frequencies and HLA class I genotypes in breast cancer and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobim, Maria Regina; Jobim, Mariana; Salim, Patrícia H; Portela, Pâmela; Jobim, Luiz Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Bittelbrunn, Ana Cristina; Menke, Carlos Henrique; Biazús, Jorge Villanova; Roesler, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto

    2013-09-01

    Breast cancer is the main cause of cancer-related death among women, with a 0.5% increase in incidence per year. Natural killer cells (NK) are part of the innate immune system recognizing class I HLA molecules on target cells through their membrane receptors, called killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between the KIR genes and HLA alleles in patients with breast cancer and healthy controls. Two hundred thirty patients with breast cancer and 272 healthy controls were typed for HLA class I and KIR genes by PCR-SSO. When both groups were compared, the presence of inhibitory KIR2DL2 receptors was significantly higher in breast cancer patients than in healthy controls. No significant differences were found for HLA-C2 and HLA-Bw4. However, a higher frequency of HLA-C1 in breast cancer patients was observed. These findings suggest a potential role for the KIR gene system in breast cancer. Further studies to confirm this observation are warranted.

  14. A randomised controlled trial of caseload midwifery care: M@NGO (Midwives @ New Group practice Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Sally K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia has an enviable record of safety for women in childbirth. There is nevertheless growing concern at the increasing level of intervention and consequent morbidity amongst childbearing women. Not only do interventions impact on the cost of services, they carry with them the potential for serious morbidities for mother and infant. Models of midwifery have proliferated in an attempt to offer women less fragmented hospital care. One of these models that is gaining widespread consumer, disciplinary and political support is caseload midwifery care. Caseload midwives manage the care of approximately 35-40 a year within a small Midwifery Group Practice (usually 4-6 midwives who plan their on call and leave within the Group Practice. We propose to compare the outcomes and costs of caseload midwifery care compared to standard or routine hospital care through a randomised controlled trial. Methods/design A two-arm RCT design will be used. Women will be recruited from tertiary women's hospitals in Sydney and Brisbane, Australia. Women allocated to the caseload intervention will receive care from a named caseload midwife within a Midwifery Group Practice. Control women will be allocated to standard or routine hospital care. Women allocated to standard care will receive their care from hospital rostered midwives, public hospital obstetric care and community based general medical practitioner care. All midwives will collaborate with obstetricians and other health professionals as necessary according to the woman's needs. Discussion Data will be collected at recruitment, 36 weeks antenatally, six weeks and six months postpartum by web based or postal survey. With 750 women or more in each of the intervention and control arms the study is powered (based on 80% power; alpha 0.05 to detect a difference in caesarean section rates of 29.4 to 22.9%; instrumental birth rates from 11.0% to 6.8%; and rates of admission to neonatal intensive

  15. A randomised controlled trial of caseload midwifery care: M@NGO (Midwives @ New Group practice Options)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Australia has an enviable record of safety for women in childbirth. There is nevertheless growing concern at the increasing level of intervention and consequent morbidity amongst childbearing women. Not only do interventions impact on the cost of services, they carry with them the potential for serious morbidities for mother and infant. Models of midwifery have proliferated in an attempt to offer women less fragmented hospital care. One of these models that is gaining widespread consumer, disciplinary and political support is caseload midwifery care. Caseload midwives manage the care of approximately 35-40 a year within a small Midwifery Group Practice (usually 4-6 midwives who plan their on call and leave within the Group Practice.) We propose to compare the outcomes and costs of caseload midwifery care compared to standard or routine hospital care through a randomised controlled trial. Methods/design A two-arm RCT design will be used. Women will be recruited from tertiary women's hospitals in Sydney and Brisbane, Australia. Women allocated to the caseload intervention will receive care from a named caseload midwife within a Midwifery Group Practice. Control women will be allocated to standard or routine hospital care. Women allocated to standard care will receive their care from hospital rostered midwives, public hospital obstetric care and community based general medical practitioner care. All midwives will collaborate with obstetricians and other health professionals as necessary according to the woman's needs. Discussion Data will be collected at recruitment, 36 weeks antenatally, six weeks and six months postpartum by web based or postal survey. With 750 women or more in each of the intervention and control arms the study is powered (based on 80% power; alpha 0.05) to detect a difference in caesarean section rates of 29.4 to 22.9%; instrumental birth rates from 11.0% to 6.8%; and rates of admission to neonatal intensive care of all neonates from 9

  16. Electronic Nature of Ketone Directing Group as a Key To Control C-2 vs C-4 Alkenylation of Indoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanke, Veeranjaneyulu; Bettadapur, Kiran R; Prabhu, Kandikere Ramaiah

    2016-11-04

    A novel mode of achieving site selectivity between C-2 and C-4 positions in the indole framework by altering the property of the ketone directing group is disclosed. Methyl ketone, as directing group, furnishes exclusively C-2 alkenylated product, whereas trifluoromethyl ketone changes the selectivity to C-4, indicating that the electronic nature of the directing group controls the unusual choice between a 5-membered and a 6-membered metallacycle. The screening of other carbonyl-derived directing groups reveals that strong and weak directing groups exhibit opposite selectivity. Experimental controls and deuteration experiments lend support to the proposed mechanism.

  17. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy and 1 year after delivery in primiparous women compared with a control group of nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bent Brandt; Svare, Jens; Viktrup, Lars

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the impact of the first pregnancy and delivery on the prevalence and types of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and 1 year after delivery. METHODS: The study was a prospective cohort study with a control group. Primiparous women, who delivered in our department from June......, the prevalence of any type of urinary incontinence in the primiparous group was 32.1%, compared to 13.8% in the control group. Adjusted OR¿=¿3.3 (95%CI¿=¿2.4-4.4). One year after delivery, the prevalence in the primiparous group was 29.3%, compared to 16.6% in the control group. Adjusted OR¿=¿2.5 (95%CI¿=¿1...... in the primiparous group. The symptoms and impact on quality of life seemed to be mild to moderate in both groups. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  18. Does chess instruction improve mathematical problem-solving ability? Two experimental studies with an active control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Giovanni; Gobet, Fernand

    2017-06-23

    It has been proposed that playing chess enables children to improve their ability in mathematics. These claims have been recently evaluated in a meta-analysis (Sala & Gobet, 2016, Educational Research Review, 18, 46-57), which indicated a significant effect in favor of the groups playing chess. However, the meta-analysis also showed that most of the reviewed studies used a poor experimental design (in particular, they lacked an active control group). We ran two experiments that used a three-group design including both an active and a passive control group, with a focus on mathematical ability. In the first experiment (N = 233), a group of third and fourth graders was taught chess for 25 hours and tested on mathematical problem-solving tasks. Participants also filled in a questionnaire assessing their meta-cognitive ability for mathematics problems. The group playing chess was compared to an active control group (playing checkers) and a passive control group. The three groups showed no statistically significant difference in mathematical problem-solving or metacognitive abilities in the posttest. The second experiment (N = 52) broadly used the same design, but the Oriental game of Go replaced checkers in the active control group. While the chess-treated group and the passive control group slightly outperformed the active control group with mathematical problem solving, the differences were not statistically significant. No differences were found with respect to metacognitive ability. These results suggest that the effects (if any) of chess instruction, when rigorously tested, are modest and that such interventions should not replace the traditional curriculum in mathematics.

  19. [Comparative study of some clinical and laboratory indicators in a group of patients using wells as source of drinking water and a control group using safe water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, L; Ciochină, D A

    2011-01-01

    In time, well water, as a source of drinking and coking water, with physical-chemical, bacteriological, and biological indicators suggestive of alteration in water potability, determines complex, sometimes irreversible, metabolic disorders. Sixty individuals residing in a rural community were divided into 2 groups: study group -30 subjects using well water, and control group--30 subjects using safe water. For the study group the selection criteria were: age, sex, use of well water as drinking and cooking water, history suggestive of chronic poisoning (pregnancy course, birth weight, susceptibility to infectious agents, and current chronic diseases). In the study group, gestosis, prematurity, and altered body mass index are more frequent as compared to the subjects in the control group. The identified laboratory changes indicate moderate anemia, hepatic cytolysis, dyslipidemia, presence of nitrites in urine, and positive urine cultures. Long-term use of water with mineral constituents in excess, absent, or inadequate, the direct biological and chemical water pollution, or most frequently the indirect pollution through the soil determine, in time, complex, sometimes irreversible, metabolic disorders.

  20. Food groups and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from a Jordanian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Mweis, Suhad S; Tayyem, Reema F; Shehadah, Ihab; Bawadi, Hiba A; Agraib, Lana M; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed

    2015-07-01

    The role of diet in colorectal cancer (CRC) in Jordan has not been studied previously. This study aimed at examining the association between food groups (including grains, fruits, vegetables, milk, and meat and legumes) and CRC risk in Jordan. We compared intakes of the different food groups among CRC patients (n=167) and matched controls (n=240) by age, sex, occupation, and marital status. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of quartiles of intakes of the different food groups with CRC risk. In addition, the association of selected food items with CRC risk was examined. Odds ratios (ORs) for the fourth versus the first quartile of intake were 2.92 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-6.08] for grains, 1.66 (95% CI: 0.81-3.40) for vegetables, 0.55 (95% CI: 0.26-1.16) for fruits, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.46-1.97) for milk, and 1.43 (95% CI: 0.68-2.98) for meat and legumes. In a comparison of the highest with the lowest weekly frequency of consumption, there was a direct association between the risk of CRC and the frequency of consumption of chicken (OR=2.52, 95% CI: 1.33-4.77). An increase in risk was observed with increased consumption of white bread (OR=3.13, 95% CI: 1.18-9.25), whereas consumption of whole bread was associated with a decreased risk for CRC (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.84). Our results support a role of diet in CRC. Direct associations were found for grains, white bread, and chicken, whereas an inverse relation was reported for whole bread.

  1. Control technology and coordination deformation mechanism of rise entry group with high ground stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qingfeng; Zhu Quanqu

    2012-01-01

    Based on engineering practices of Wuyang Coal Mine,we carried out X-ray diffract researches on No.3 coal; and the rocks of its roof and floor by XRD meter,and simulated the interactive effect of the surrounding rock deformation by FLAC2D5.0 numerical simulation software under the condition of different tunneling method of multimine roadway in parallel.The internal structures of the surrounding rocks of 76 belt roadway were monitored by borehole observation instruments; and then,we analyzed the reason of failure and deformation of surrounding rocks of several rise entry,and proposed the technical measures for controlling interactive effect of several rise entry surrounding rock deformation at last.For the thickness seam rise roadway,two conclusions were drawn:one is that the co-deformation among roadway groups mainly reflecton that both shear failure and deformation in coal pillar among roadways have decreased the width of pillar core region and clamping action of coal pillar to roof strata,increased the actual span of roof strata,intensified the flexural failure of roof strata and prized the bed separation of roof deep rock strata.The other conclusion is that the factors controlling the interactive deformation among roadways is obvious when appropriate re-adjustment in construction sequence of the tunneling of multimine parallel roadways because the construction sequence among roadways also has great effects on deformation of the surrounding rock in roadway.

  2. Schistosomiasis Sustained Control Program in Ethnic Groups Around Ninefescha (Eastern Senegal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Diaye, Monique; Dioukhane, Elhadji M; Ndao, Babacar; Diedhiou, Kemo; Diawara, Lamine; Talla, Idrissa; Vernet, Charlotte; Bessin, François; Barbier, Dominique; Dewavrin, Patrick; Klotz, Francis; Georges, Pierre

    2016-09-07

    Schistosomiasis is the second most significant parasitic disease in children in several African countries. For this purpose, the "Programme National de Lutte contre les Bilharzioses" (PNLB) was developed in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO) to control this disease in Senegal. However, geographic isolation of Bedik ethnic groups challenged implementation of the key elements of the schistosomiasis program in eastern Senegal, and therefore, a hospital was established in Ninefescha to improve access to health care as well as laboratory support for this population. The program we have implemented from 2008 in partnership with the PNLB/WHO involved campaigns to 1) evaluate schistosomiasis prevalence in children of 53 villages around Ninefescha hospital, 2) perform a mass drug administration following the protocol established by the PNLB in school-aged children, 3) monitor annual prevalence, 4) implement health education campaigns, and 5) oversee the building of latrines. This campaign led to a drop in schistosomiasis prevalence but highlighted that sustainable schistosomiasis control by praziquantel treatment, awareness of the use of latrines, and inhabitants' voluntary commitment to the program are crucial to improve Schistosoma elimination. Moreover, this study revealed that preschool-aged children, for whom praziquantel was not recommended until 2014 in Senegal, constituted a significant reservoir for the parasite.

  3. Epigenome changes in active and inactive Polycomb-group-controlled regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiling, Achim; O'Neill, Laura P; D'Eliseo, Donatella; Turner, Bryan M; Orlando, Valerio

    2004-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins conveys epigenetic inheritance of repressed transcriptional states. In Drosophila, the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) maintains the silent state by inhibiting the transcription machinery and chromatin remodelling at core promoters. Using immunoprecipitation of in vivo formaldehyde-fixed chromatin in phenotypically diverse cultured cell lines, we have mapped PRC1 components, the histone methyl transferase (HMT) Enhancer of zeste (E(z)) and histone H3 modifications in active and inactive PcG-controlled regions. We show that PRC1 components are present in both cases, but at different levels. In particular, active target promoters are nearly devoid of E(z) and Polycomb. Moreover, repressed regions are trimethylated at lysines 9 and 27, suggesting that these histone modifications represent a mark for inactive PcG-controlled regions. These PcG-specific repressive marks are maintained by the action of the E(z) HMT, an enzyme that has an important role not only in establishing but also in maintaining PcG repression. PMID:15448640

  4. 企业集团财务控制问题探讨%Analysis of Enterprise Group Financial Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟群英

    2011-01-01

    企业集团的财务控制是集团控制的重要手段,财务控制在集团的管理中占重要地位,加强对企业集团财务控制的研究,是提高企业集团管理效率的重要课题。%Enterprise group of financial control is an important means of control group,financial control in the management of the group,which occupies an important position to strengthen financial control of enterprise group,is to improve the efficiency of management of enterprise group as an important issue.

  5. Psychological Aspects in Young Adults with Beta-Thalassemia Major, control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Hosseini, M.D.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Beta-thalassemia major (TM, a chronic, genetically determined hematological disorder, has received little investigation on the psychological aspects of the disease and the psychosocial adjustment of patients with this anemia. In the present study, the aim was to explore the nature of psychopathology according to age, sex, school performance, severity and complications of the disease in TM patients compared with demographically matched healthy persons.Materials and Methods: A controlled anterograde cohort study was conducted at the Thalassemia Unit of Boo-Ali Hospital from June 2003 to November 2005 in Sari, Iran. Psychological aspects were evaluated by the Persian version of symptoms checklist-90-revised questionnaire. Information on relevant demographic characteristics, school performance, severity and complications of the disease was collected by one of the investigators who had created the questionnaire.Results: 125 persons with TM completed the questionnaires and were compared with 125 controls and 250 totally. The mean age of the participants was 18.51± 2.0 years and with a range of 15-25 years. 132 (52.8% were female with equal family status, social and economic status. Patients group reported a significantly lower level of marital status (P<0.01, education level (P<0.0001, school performance (P<0.0001. TM patients were found to have significantly more psychiatric disorders than the control subjects with GSI: 1.16 ± 0.47 vs. 1.01 ± 0.6; (P<0.03, PSD: 54.99 ± 12.59 vs. 46.42 ± 18.76 (P<0.0001, and PSDI 2.02±1.02 vs 2.45 ± 2.22 (P<0.05. We recorded significant changes in the mean scores of somatization (P<0.0001, interpersonal sensitivity (P<0.0001, depression (P<0.003, anxiety (P<0.05 and psychoticism (P<0.03 in the TM patients as compared to the control subjects.Conclusion: These findings show that beta-thalassemia major patients are at risk for psychiatric symptomatology and need appropriate psychiatric

  6. Group versus individual sessions delivered by a physiotherapist for female urinary incontinence: an interview study with women attending group sessions nested within a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to explore the concerns and expectations of women invited to attend group physiotherapy sessions for the management of female urinary incontinence and whether the experience changed their views; and to gather recommendations from women attending group sessions on the design and delivery of these sessions Methods An interview study nested within a randomised controlled trial in five British NHS physiotherapy departments, including 22 women who had expressed a preference for an individual physiotherapy session but were randomised to, and attended, group sessions. Results Embarrassment was woven throughout women's accounts of experiencing urinary incontinence and seeking health care. Uncertainty about the nature of group sessions was a source of concern. Attending the first session was seen as a big hurdle by many women. However, a sense of relief was common once the session started, with most women describing some benefit from attendance. Recommendations for design and delivery of the sessions from women focused on reducing embarrassment and uncertainty prior to attendance. Conclusion Taking account of women's embarrassment and providing detailed information about the content of group sessions will enable women to benefit from group physiotherapy sessions for the management of female urinary incontinence. Trial Registration Trial registration number: ISRCTN 16772662

  7. Effectiveness of group reminiscence for improving wellbeing of institutionalized elderly adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Scaratti, Chiara; Morganti, Luca; Stramba-Badiale, Marco; Agostoni, Monica; Spatola, Chiara A M; Molinari, Enrico; Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-10-25

    Group reminiscence therapy is a brief and structured intervention in which participants share personal past events with peers. This approach has been shown to be promising for improving wellbeing and reducing depressive symptoms among institutionalized older adults. However, despite the considerable interest in reminiscence group therapy, controlled studies to determine its specific benefits as compared to generic social interactions with peers (group conversations about everyday subjects) are still lacking. We have designed a randomized controlled trial aimed at comparing the effects of group reminiscence therapy with those of group recreational activity on the psychological wellbeing of an institutionalized sample of older adults. The study includes two groups of 20 hospitalized elderly participants: the experimental group and the control group. Participants included in the experimental group will receive six sessions of group reminiscence therapy, while the control group will participate in a recreational group discussion. A repeated-measures design will be used post-intervention and three months post-intervention to evaluate changes in self-reported outcome measures of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and quality of life from baseline. The protocol of a study aimed at examining the specific effects of group reminiscence therapy on psychological wellbeing, depression, and quality of life among institutionalized elderly people is described. It is expected that the outcomes of this trial will contribute to our knowledge about the process of group reminiscence, evaluate its effectiveness in improving psychological wellbeing of institutionalized individuals, and identify the best conditions for optimizing this approach. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (registration number: NCT02077153) on 31 January 2014.

  8. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-Esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Na Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents, Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control.

  9. The Daily Lives of People With HIV Infection: A Qualitative Study of the Control Group in an Expressive Writing Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaweh, Maria; Ironson, Gail; Barroso, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Emotional disclosure is an expressive writing technique used in psychotherapy to process traumatic and stressful life experiences. While emotional disclosure interventions frequently use control groups, there are few qualitative analyses of these control groups. Our study's purpose was to analyze the control essays written by HIV-infected informants about their daily activities in an augmented written emotional disclosure intervention. Latent and manifest qualitative content analyses revealed prevalent contextual themes within the data. The emergent themes were socioeconomic status (SES), self-care, religiosity/spirituality, and social support. Emotional disclosure control subjects contributed substantial findings in terms of SES, self-care, resiliency, religiosity/spirituality, and social support and altruism.

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DERMATOGLYPHICS (FINGER TIP PATTERN IN PATIENTS WITH MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION AND CONTROL GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of epider mal ridges and their configurations on the palmar region of hand and fingers and planta r region of foot and toes. The myocardial infarction is almost always caused by coronary arte ry disease. Against the genetic background of dermatoglyphic patterns and coronary artery disease , the study was undertaken to determine the correlation between them. AIMS To do a comparative study of the dermatoglyphics (finger tip pattern in patients with myocardial infarction and control group and to assess the usefulness of finger tip pattern in serving as a predictor for my ocardial infarction. SETTING AND DESIGN: The study was done in 200 persons of age between 40 to 75 years . Out of them,100 were confirmed cases of CAD and 100 were normal healthy controls. METHODS AND MATERIAL: The finger and palmar prints of both hands were taken on white pap er by Ink method and kores duplicating ink was used for taking the prints . STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: In statistical analysis SPSS software was used and Z test was used. The p value less than .0 01 and .05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: It was found that the total number of whorls are s ignificantly higher in patients with myocardial infarction and t otal number of loops are significantly lower in patients with CAD. Such difference was significant only in right thumb, left thumb, right ring fing er and left little finger. Similarly, loops were signi ficantly less in right thumb, right index finger, r ight and left little finger. With regard to high inciden ce of MI, it can be concluded that the knowledge of dermatoglyphics in patients with MI can be utilize d to find out genetic correlation. The existence of such relation might be important in the screenin g program for prevention of MI

  11. The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G): A new research tool for controlled simultaneous social stress exposure in a group format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dawans, Bernadette; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Heinrichs, Markus

    2011-05-01

    Psychological stress is an ubiquitous challenge across human cultures affecting mental and physical health. Recent evidence indicates that performance tasks combining elements of socio-evaluative threat and uncontrollability elicit reliable stress responses. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is the most frequently used psychological protocol in stress research; however, to date it has only been available in a single-subject version. In particular, there is an increasing need in several emerging research fields such as stress research or social neurosciences for a standardized research tool to expose relatively large groups of subjects to controlled simultaneous stress. In search of a laboratory stressor that allows simultaneous stress exposure in a group format, we exposed a total of 25 healthy male participants to the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G; public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks in front of a panel of two evaluators in groups of six participants) and a specific control condition. Results showed that the TSST-G induced significant increases in cortisol, heart rate, and psychological stress responses. The TSST-G provides a novel, effective, and economical protocol for experimental paradigms requiring simultaneous stress induction in multiple participants.

  12. Evaluation of strategies for the control of canola and lupin seedling diseases caused by Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia diseases of canola and lupin including several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia plant resistance, fungicide seed treatment and biological control using binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AGs) were evalua...

  13. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A Kyle; Heintz, Philip; Geiser, William; Goldman, Lee; Jerjian, Khachig; Martin, Melissa; Peck, Donald; Pfeiffer, Douglas; Ranger, Nicole; Yorkston, John

    2015-11-01

    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography.

  14. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. Kyle, E-mail: kyle.jones@mdanderson.org; Geiser, William [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Heintz, Philip [Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87104 (United States); Goldman, Lee [Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut 06102 (United States); Jerjian, Khachig [Hoag Memorial Hospital, Newport Beach, California 92658 (United States); Martin, Melissa [Therapy Physics, Inc., Gardena, California 90248 (United States); Peck, Donald [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Pfeiffer, Douglas [Boulder Community Foothills Hospital, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Ranger, Nicole [Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, Illinois 60425 (United States); Yorkston, John [Carestream Health, Inc., Rochester, New York 14615 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography.

  15. Comparison of Masking Level Difference in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghrat Faghihzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder that involves central nervous system. Studies have showed that multiple sclerosis affects behavioral central auditory tests, such as masking release or masking level difference (MLD. The purpose of this study is to compare the masking level difference between multiple sclerosis patients and normal subjects.Methods: This cross sectional and non-interventional study was conducted on 32 multiple sclerosis patients aged between 20-50 years and 32 controls matched for age and gender in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. masking level difference test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean masking level difference in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.01 however, gender did not prove to play a role in this difference.Conclusion: As part of the multiple sclerosis diagnosis panel, masking level difference test is an efficient modality for evaluation of hearing impairment and monitoring of rehabilitation progress.

  16. [Superficial mycoses: comparative study between type 2 diabetic patients and a non-diabetic control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Humbría, Leila; Richard-Yegres, Nicole; Pérez-Blanco, Maigualida; Yegres, Francisco; Mendoza, Mireya; Acosta, Arnaldo; Hernández, Rosaura; Zárraga, Eluz

    2005-03-01

    Superficial mycoses are considered to affect more frequently patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2), specially onychomycosis and Tinea pedis. The purpose of this study was to compare the dermatophytoses, candidiasis and Pitiriasis versicolor frequency between 40 patients with DM-2 and 40 healthy persons of either sex, 40 years old or more. Clinical, metabolic, mycologic and inmunologic studies against Candida albicans, were carried out. Both diabetics 75% (30/40) and controls 65% (26/40) presented a high frequency of superficial mycoses (no significant difference p = 0.329). Pitiriasis versicolor was not detected in diabetic patients. They presented Tinea unguium, concomitant with Tinea pedis, with a higher frequency. The predominant dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum 18/23 (78%) in diabetics and 8/16 (50%) in non diabetics. Candida was isolated as commensal from oral mucous: 23/40 (58%) in diabetics and 21/40 (52%) in non diabetics (serotipo A was the more frequent), and from onychomycosis: 11/40 (28%) in diabetics and 12/40 (30%) in non diabetics. The immunological response was the same in both groups: celular 100%, humoral 20%. No statistical correlation among superficial mycoses, blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin values or the time suffering the disease was observed. The high susceptibility to dermatophytes and Candida sp. infection showed to be associated with age and no with the diabetic type 2 condition in those patients.

  17. Non-controlling interests, financial performance and the equity of groups. An empirical study of groups listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Ignatowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to (a analyze IFRS requirements for the recognition and presentation of non-controlling (minority interests in consolidated financial statements in relation to theoretical concepts of consolidation of financial statements, and (b assess the share and importance of non-controlling inter-ests in financial performance and the equity of the groups of companies in practice.For the purpose of the article, selected scientific methods have been used, including: descriptive and analytical ones (for analyzing the theoretical concepts and IFRS requirements, critical analysis, especial-ly used for the literature review, and for the assessment of practice: primary empirical research methods, and quantitative methods, including descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and correlation analysis. The empirical material collected was used to verify several hypotheses related to non-controlling interests of the groups whose parents are registered in Poland and whose securities are traded on a regulated, Polish capital market (Warsaw Stock Exchange. The empirical evidence is that non-controlling interests represent a very small part of group’s equity (taking the mean of about 3.5%, but the median below 1% and obviously, they are significantly lower than the share of majority interests. Their deviation among the different classes of companies (big, small and banks is negligible. Slightly higher is the share of minority interests in the group’s net profit and total comprehensive income. However, no significant difference is to be found between the shares of non-controlling interests in the group’s equity, net profit and total comprehensive income. Overall, shares of majority (minority interests in a group’s income are in line with their shares in the group’s equity. The hypothesis on comparable returns on non-controlling and majority interests (in terms of ROE cannot be rejected if both net profit and losses are considered

  18. Non-controlling interests, financial performance and the equity of groups. An empirical study of groups listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Ignatowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to (a analyze IFRS requirements for the recognition and presentation of non-controlling (minority interests in consolidated financial statements in relation to theoretical concepts of consolidation of financial statements, and (b assess the share and importance of non-controlling inter-ests in financial performance and the equity of the groups of companies in practice. For the purpose of the article, selected scientific methods have been used, including: descriptive and analytical ones (for analyzing the theoretical concepts and IFRS requirements, critical analysis, especial-ly used for the literature review, and for the assessment of practice: primary empirical research methods, and quantitative methods, including descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and correlation analysis. The empirical material collected was used to verify several hypotheses related to non-controlling interests of the groups whose parents are registered in Poland and whose securities are traded on a regulated, Polish capital market (Warsaw Stock Exchange. The empirical evidence is that non-controlling interests represent a very small part of group’s equity (taking the mean of about 3.5%, but the median below 1% and obviously, they are significantly lower than the share of majority interests. Their deviation among the different classes of companies (big, small and banks is negligible. Slightly higher is the share of minority interests in the group’s net profit and total comprehensive income. However, no significant difference is to be found between the shares of non-controlling interests in the group’s equity, net profit and total comprehensive income. Overall, shares of majority (minority interests in a group’s income are in line with their shares in the group’s equity. The hypothesis on comparable returns on non-controlling and majority interests (in terms of ROE cannot be rejected if both net profit and losses are considered

  19. Induced abortion on demand and birth rate in Sami-speaking municipalities and a control group in Finnmark, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Norum

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this study was to analyze the birth and induced abortion on demand (IAD rate among women in Sami-speaking communities and a control group in Finnmark County, Norway. Methods. The 6 northern municipalities included in the administration area of the Sami language law (study group were matched with a control group of 9 municipalities. Population data (numbers, sex and age were accessed from Statistics Norway. Data on birth rate and IAD during the time period 1999–2009 were derived from the Medical Birth Registry (MBR of Norway. Data on number of women in fertile age (15–44 years were obtained from Statistics Norway. Between 2001 and 2008, this age group was reduced by 12% (Sami and 23% (controls, respectively. Results. Finnmark County has a high IAD rate and 1 in 4 pregnancies (spontaneous abortions excluded ended in IAD in the study and control groups. The total fertility rate per woman was 1.94 and 1.87 births, respectively. There was no difference between groups with regard to the IAD/birth ratio (P=0.94 or general fertility rate GFR (P=0.82. Conclusions. Women in the Sami-majority area and a control group in Finnmark County experienced a similar frequency of IAD and fertility rate.

  20. Randomized controlled trial of group cognitive behavioral therapy compared to a discussion group for co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthrich, V M; Rapee, R M; Kangas, M; Perini, S

    2016-03-01

    Co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults is associated with worse physical and mental health outcomes and poorer response to psychological and pharmacological treatments in older adults. However, there is a paucity of research focused on testing the efficacy of the co-morbid treatment of anxiety and depression in older adults using psychological interventions. Accordingly, the primary objective of the current study was to test the effects of a group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) program in treating co-morbid anxiety and depression in a sample of older age adults. A total of 133 community-dwelling participants aged ⩾60 years (mean age = 67.35, s.d. = 5.44, male = 59) with both an anxiety disorder and unipolar mood disorder, as assessed on the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule (ADIS), were randomly allocated to an 11-week CBT group or discussion group. Participants with Mini-Mental State Examination scores group × time interaction effects emerged at post-treatment only for diagnostic severity of the primary disorder, mean severity of all anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and all disorders, and recovery rates on primary disorder. Group CBT produced faster and sustained improvements in anxiety and depression on diagnostic severity and recovery rates compared to an active control in older adults.

  1. 75 FR 3901 - Announcement of IS-GPS-200E Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Teleconference Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Announcement of IS-GPS-200E Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Teleconference... Working Group (ICWG) teleconference meeting for the document IS-GPS-200E (NAVSTAR GPS Space...

  2. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as Treatments for Academic Procrastination: A Randomized Controlled Group Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Ya; Yu, Shi; Ran, Li-Wen; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Yu-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), compared with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), in alleviating academic procrastination. Method: A total of 60 (53.3% male) undergraduates suffering from academic procrastination were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (ACT and CBT) and a control group.…

  3. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as Treatments for Academic Procrastination: A Randomized Controlled Group Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Ya; Yu, Shi; Ran, Li-Wen; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Yu-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), compared with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), in alleviating academic procrastination. Method: A total of 60 (53.3% male) undergraduates suffering from academic procrastination were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (ACT and CBT) and a control group.…

  4. A randomized clinical trial comparing general exercise, McKenzie treatment and a control group in patients with neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellman, Görel; Oberg, Birgitta

    2002-07-01

    Seventy-seven patients with neck pain in the primary health care were included in a prospective, randomized clinical trial and randomly assigned to general exercise, McKenzie treatment, or a control group. Seventy patients completed the treatment; response rate 93% at 12-month follow-up. All three groups showed significant improvement regarding the main outcomes, pain intensity and Neck Disability Index, even at 12-month follow-up, but there was no significant difference between the groups. In all, 79% reported that they were better or completely restored after treatment, although 51% reported constant/daily pain. In the McKenzie group compared with the control group, a tendency toward greater improvement was noted for pain intensity at 3 weeks and at 6-month follow-up, and for post-treatment Neck Disability Index. Significant improvement in Distress and Risk Assessment Method scores was shown in the McKenzie group only. The three groups had similar recurrence rates, although after 12 months the McKenzie group showed a tendency toward fewer visits for additional health care. The study did not provide a definite evidence of treatment efficacy in patients with neck pain, however, there was a tendency toward a better outcome with the two active alternatives compared with the control group.

  5. A randomised controlled trial of carer-focussed multi-family group psychoeducation in bipolar disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madigan, K

    2012-05-01

    In a RCT of family psychoeducation, 47 carers of 34 patients were allocated to one of three groups; Multifamily Group Psychoeducation, Solution Focussed Group Therapy or Treatment as Usual. Carers in both the MFGP intervention and the SFGP arm demonstrated greater knowledge and reduction in burden than those in the TAU arm.

  6. Reducing Aggressive Behavior in Boys With a Social Cognitive Group Treatment: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.G. van Manen; P.J.M. Prins; P.M.G. Emmelkamp

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a social cognitive intervention program for Dutch aggressive boys and to compare it with a social skills training and a waitlist control group. Method: A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study with 97 aggressive boys (aged 9-13 years) was presented

  7. Reducing Aggressive Behavior in Boys With a Social Cognitive Group Treatment: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, T.G.; Prins, P.J.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a social cognitive intervention program for Dutch aggressive boys and to compare it with a social skills training and a waitlist control group. Method: A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study with 97 aggressive boys (aged 9-13 years) was

  8. Headache : The placebo effects in the control groups in randomized clinical trials; An analysis of systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Femke M.; Voogt-Bode, Annieke; Passchier, Jan; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Koes, Bart W.; Verhagen, Arianne P.

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the effects in the placebo and "no treatment" arms in trials with headache patients. Method: This is a secondary analysis of randomized controlled trials from 8 systematic reviews and selected trials with a "no treatment" or placebo control group.

  9. Two group A streptococcal peptide pheromones act through opposing Rgg regulators to control biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jennifer C; LaSarre, Breah; Jimenez, Juan C; Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Federle, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) is an important human commensal that occasionally causes localized infections and less frequently causes severe invasive disease with high mortality rates. How GAS regulates expression of factors used to colonize the host and avoid immune responses remains poorly understood. Intercellular communication is an important means by which bacteria coordinate gene expression to defend against host assaults and competing bacteria, yet no conserved cell-to-cell signaling system has been elucidated in GAS. Encoded within the GAS genome are four rgg-like genes, two of which (rgg2 and rgg3) have no previously described function. We tested the hypothesis that rgg2 or rgg3 rely on extracellular peptides to control target-gene regulation. We found that Rgg2 and Rgg3 together tightly regulate two linked genes encoding new peptide pheromones. Rgg2 activates transcription of and is required for full induction of the pheromone genes, while Rgg3 plays an antagonistic role and represses pheromone expression. The active pheromone signals, termed SHP2 and SHP3, are short and hydrophobic (DI[I/L]IIVGG), and, though highly similar in sequence, their ability to disrupt Rgg3-DNA complexes were observed to be different, indicating that specificity and differential activation of promoters are characteristics of the Rgg2/3 regulatory circuit. SHP-pheromone signaling requires an intact oligopeptide permease (opp) and a metalloprotease (eep), supporting the model that pro-peptides are secreted, processed to the mature form, and subsequently imported to the cytoplasm to interact directly with the Rgg receptors. At least one consequence of pheromone stimulation of the Rgg2/3 pathway is increased biogenesis of biofilms, which counteracts negative regulation of biofilms by RopB (Rgg1). These data provide the first demonstration that Rgg-dependent quorum sensing functions in GAS and substantiate the role that Rggs play as peptide receptors across the

  10. Meningococcal meningitis group A: a successful control of an outbreak by mass vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushra, H E; Mawlawi, M Y; Fontaine, R E; Afif, H

    1995-11-01

    Jeddah is the main point of entry to the holy places in Saudi Arabia. An outbreak of meningococcal disease (MCD) occurred during the fasting lunar month for Muslims, Ramadan (March-April) of 1992. To assess the threat of local spread of MCD within Jeddah, the effects of previous and a mass vaccination programme against MCD during the outbreak, we reviewed the medical records of confirmed cases (CC) of MCD (defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case or a case diagnosed by latex test) and their vaccination status in the last five years before the outbreak. There were 41 CC of meningitis due to Neisseria meningitidis (group A). The ratio of males to females was 4.1:1. Thirty two percent of the cases were religious visitors. About one fourth (22%) of the cases were Pakistani. More than half (57%) of the cases, who were residents of Jeddah, lived in the north-eastern part of the city, as did half of the Pakistani cases. The case-fatality rate among CC was 19.5%. Persons who visited the Makkah (Mecca) during Ramadan were more likely to get the disease than those who did not (odds ratio [OR] = 6.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-40.7). Unvaccinated persons were more likely to get the disease than those who were vaccinated against MCD (OR = 13.9; 95% CI 1.8-296). Meningococcal vaccine (MCV) against MCD was effective in preventing the disease. However, MCV was of no protective value if it had been administered more than five years before the outbreak. The reason mentioned most frequently for not being vaccinated by both cases (84%) and controls (57%) was lack of knowledge about the disease. Health education programmes should be strengthened and promoted. A good collaborative surveillance system between Jeddah and other holy cities, especially Makkah, is needed to abort outbreaks among religious visitors and to prevent the spread of MCD outbreaks.

  11. Two group A streptococcal peptide pheromones act through opposing Rgg regulators to control biofilm development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Chang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS is an important human commensal that occasionally causes localized infections and less frequently causes severe invasive disease with high mortality rates. How GAS regulates expression of factors used to colonize the host and avoid immune responses remains poorly understood. Intercellular communication is an important means by which bacteria coordinate gene expression to defend against host assaults and competing bacteria, yet no conserved cell-to-cell signaling system has been elucidated in GAS. Encoded within the GAS genome are four rgg-like genes, two of which (rgg2 and rgg3 have no previously described function. We tested the hypothesis that rgg2 or rgg3 rely on extracellular peptides to control target-gene regulation. We found that Rgg2 and Rgg3 together tightly regulate two linked genes encoding new peptide pheromones. Rgg2 activates transcription of and is required for full induction of the pheromone genes, while Rgg3 plays an antagonistic role and represses pheromone expression. The active pheromone signals, termed SHP2 and SHP3, are short and hydrophobic (DI[I/L]IIVGG, and, though highly similar in sequence, their ability to disrupt Rgg3-DNA complexes were observed to be different, indicating that specificity and differential activation of promoters are characteristics of the Rgg2/3 regulatory circuit. SHP-pheromone signaling requires an intact oligopeptide permease (opp and a metalloprotease (eep, supporting the model that pro-peptides are secreted, processed to the mature form, and subsequently imported to the cytoplasm to interact directly with the Rgg receptors. At least one consequence of pheromone stimulation of the Rgg2/3 pathway is increased biogenesis of biofilms, which counteracts negative regulation of biofilms by RopB (Rgg1. These data provide the first demonstration that Rgg-dependent quorum sensing functions in GAS and substantiate the role that Rggs play as peptide

  12. 集团公司财务控制分析%Financial Control Analysis of Group Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩阳

    2011-01-01

    集团公司的财务控制是集团控制的基本手段,有效的财务控制是保证集团公司财务信息质量,提高整个集团经营决策的正确性最直接、最有效的方式之一.本文分析了集团公司财务控制存在的问题和成因,并提出加强集团公司财务控制的对策.%Financial control is an important means for group to control its members. Efficient financial control is the best means to insure the quality of group information, to improve the correctness of group decision-making, and it is also a necessary tool for group keeping financial risk away. This paper analysis the problem in group financial control and why these problems exist, and how to strengthen group financial control.

  13. Association between group A beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruins, M J; Damoiseaux, R A M J; Ruijs, G J H M

    2009-08-01

    Guidelines for the management of vaginal discharge mention Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae as causes and do not recommend full microbiological culture. The role of non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci in vaginal cultures is unclear, except for group A streptococci that are known to cause vulvovaginitis in children. In a case-control study, we investigated the association between non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women. Cases were women with recurrent vaginal discharge from whom a sample was cultured. Controls were asymptomatic women who consented to submitting a vaginal swab. Group A streptococci were isolated from 49 (4.9%) of 1,010 cases and not from the 206 controls (P < 0.01). Isolation rates of group C, F and G streptococci were low and did not differ statistically between cases and controls. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci are associated with vaginal discharge in adult women. The other non-group B streptococci require more study. For the adequate management of vaginal discharge, culturing is necessary if initial treatment fails. Guidelines should be amended according to these results.

  14. WMS-III Logical Memory performance after a two-week delay in temporal lobe epilepsy and control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brian D

    2006-11-01

    Conventional memory assessment may fail to identify memory dysfunction that is characterized by intact recall for a relatively brief period but rapid forgetting thereafter. This study assessed immediate memory and retention after 30-minute and two-week delays in a control group (n = 25) and a group of individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, n = 25). For raw free recall, thematic unit, and recognition memory scores from the Wechsler Memory Scale-3rd ed. (WMS-III) Logical Memory (LM) subtest, there were no group x trial interactions and the TLE group performed significantly worse than the controls on all trials. At the individual level, none of the patients (0%) demonstrated isolated free recall impairment at the two-week delay when raw scores were analyzed, and one patient (4%) but also five controls (20%) did so when percent retention scores were examined. In summary, TLE patients did not demonstrate disproportionate forgetting over two weeks on a widely used story memory test.

  15. Group cognitive remediation therapy for chronic schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuping; Zou, Yizhuang; Wykes, Til; Reeder, Clare; Zhu, Xiaolin; Yang, Fude; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Yunlong; Fan, Fengmei; Zhou, Dongfeng

    2016-07-28

    Individual-level cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has been shown to be effective for cognitive improvement and social function amelioration. Here, we aimed to test the efficacy of group-based CRT in Chinese subjects with schizophrenia. One-hundred and four inpatients were randomly assigned to either 40 sessions of small-group CRT therapy or therapeutic contact-matched Musical and Dancing Therapy (MDT). Cognitive and social functioning, as well as clinical symptoms, were evaluated over the course of treatment. Specifically, cognitive function was evaluated using a battery of cognitive measurements, clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and social function was evaluated using the Nurse's Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation-30. All patients were evaluated pre- and post-treatment. Forty-four individuals in the CRT group and 46 in the MDT group completed all of the planned treatments and analyses. Cognitive functions, especially cognitive flexibility and memory, showed significant improvement in the CRT group over the course of the study. The MDT group also showed improvement in several cognitive flexibility assessments, but the degree of improvement was significantly greater in the CRT group. Several social-function factors exhibited a significant improvement in the CRT group, but not in the MDT group. Cognitive function improvement correlated positively with social function without predicting social function change. We conclude that group-based CRT is an effective and promising therapy.

  16. Evaluating a community-based early childhood education and development program in Indonesia: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial with supplementary matched control group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pradhan; S.A. Brinkman; A. Beatty; A. Maika; E. Satriawan; J. de Ree; A. Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a supplementary matched control group. The aim of the trial is to evaluate a community-based early education and development program launched by the Government of Indonesia. The program w

  17. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in postwar Kosovar adolescents using mind-body skills groups: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, James S; Staples, Julie K; Blyta, Afrim; Bytyqi, Murat; Wilson, Amy T

    2008-09-01

    To determine whether participation in a mind-body skills group program based on psychological self-care, mind-body techniques, and self-expression decreases symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Eighty-two adolescents meeting criteria for PTSD according to the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (which corresponds with 16 of the 17 diagnostic criteria for PTSD in DSM-IV) were randomly assigned to a 12-session mind-body group program or a wait-list control group. The program was conducted by high school teachers in consultation with psychiatrists and psychologists and included meditation, guided imagery, and breathing techniques; self-expression through words, drawings, and movement; autogenic training and biofeedback; and genograms. Changes in PTSD symptoms were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. The study was conducted from September 2004 to May 2005 by The Center for Mind-Body Medicine at a high school in the Suhareka region of Kosovo. Students in the immediate intervention group had significantly lower PTSD symptom scores following the intervention than those in the wait-list control group (F = 29.8, df = 1,76; p < .001). Preintervention and postintervention scores (mean [SD]) for the intervention group were 2.5 (0.3) and 2.0 (0.3), respectively, and for the control group, 2.5 (0.3) and 2.4 (0.4), respectively. The decreased PTSD symptom scores were maintained in the initial intervention group at 3-month follow-up. After the wait-list control group received the intervention, there was a significant decrease (p < .001) in PTSD symptom scores compared to the preintervention scores. Mind-body skills groups can reduce PTSD symptoms in war-traumatized high school students and can be effectively led by trained and supervised schoolteachers. Copyright 2008 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  18. Mechanisms Controlling Carbon Turnover from Diverse Microbial Groups in Temperate and Tropical Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, H.; Dane, L.; Bird, J. A.; Firestone, M. K.; Horwath, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    Microorganisms represent an important intermediate along the pathway of plant litter decomposition to the formation of soil organic matter (SOM); yet little is known of the fate and stability of microbial C in soils and the importance of microbial biochemistry as a factor influencing SOM dynamics. This research investigates mechanisms controlling microbial C stabilization in a temperate forest in the Sierra Nevada of California (CA) and a tropical forest in Puerto Rico (PR). Biochemically diverse microbial groups (fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria gram (+), and bacteria gram (-)) were isolated from both sites, grown in the laboratory with C13 media, killed, and nonliving residues were added back to soils as a reciprocal transplant of microbial groups. The native microbial community in CA is dominated by fungi and in PR is dominated by bacteria, which provides an opportunity to asses the metabolic response of distinct microbial communities to the diverse microbial additions. CA and PR soils were sampled five times over a 3 and 2 year period, respectively. In CA there was no significant difference in the mean residence time (MRT) of diverse C13 microbial treatments; whereas in PR there were significant differences, whereby temperate fungi, temperate Gram (+) bacteria, and tropical actinomycetes exhibited a significantly longer MRT as compared with tropical fungi and temperate Gram (-). These results suggest that a bacterial dominated microbial community discriminates more amongst diverse substrates than a fungal-dominated community. MRT for labeled-C in CA was 5.21 ± 1.11 years, and in PR was 2.22 ± 0.45. Despite substantial differences in MRT between sites, physical fractionation of soils into light (LF), aggregated-occluded (OF), and mineral-associated (MF) fractions provided evidence that accelerated decomposition in PR (presumably due to climate) operated primarily on labeled-C unassociated with the mineral matrix (LF); labeled-C occluded within aggregates (OF) or

  19. Moderating Effect of Negative Peer Group Climate on the Relation Between Men's Locus of Control and Aggression Toward Intimate Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Megan R; Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra T

    2016-03-01

    The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of an external locus of control and interaction in a negative peer group climate on men's perpetration of physical aggression and infliction of injury toward their female intimate partners. Participants were 206 heterosexual males recruited from the metro-Atlanta community who completed self-report measures of external locus of control, involvement in a negative peer group climate, and physical aggression and infliction of injury against intimate partners during the past 12 months. Negative peer group climate was conceptualized as a peer group that displays behavior which may instigate aggressive norms, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that men with an external locus of control were more likely to perpetrate physical aggression toward and inflict injury on their intimate partners if they reported high, but not low, involvement in a negative peer group climate. These results extend current research suggesting external locus of control as a risk factor for intimate partner aggression by highlighting the impact of negative peer groups. Implications and future intervention research are discussed.

  20. Intake of food groups and idiopathic asthenozoospermia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Ghazaleh; Amirjannati, Naser; Rashidkhani, Bahram; Sadeghi, Mohammad-Reza; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2012-11-01

    Is there any association between the intake of different food groups and the risk of idiopathic asthenozoospermia? A high intake of processed meat and sweets was positively associated with a higher risk of asthenozoospermia, whereas a high intake of fruits, vegetables, poultry, skim milk and sea foods was associated with a lower risk. A high intake of lipophilic foods like meat products or milk may be negatively associated with semen quality in humans, whereas some fruits or vegetables may maintain or improve semen quality. A case-control study including 72 asthenozoospermic men and 169 normozoospermic men all from infertile couples who underwent face-to-face private interviews, from January 2011 to December 2011. Semen was assessed by volume, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and evaluation of trends were calculated using logistic regression. The first tertile served as the reference category for regression analyses. After adjusting for potential confounders, the risk of asthenozoospermia was significantly higher in the highest tertiles of processed meat (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.70-2.44) and sweets intake (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.09-2.26). Conversely, being in the highest tertile of total fruits and vegetables, the intake of dark green vegetables, skim milk, poultry and sea food intake was associated with a lower risk of asthenozoospermia (P for trend = 0.04, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Recall bias, selection bias and measurement bias are inevitable in this kind of study and residual confounding due to omission or imprecise measurement of important covariates remains possible. Patients with asthenozoospermia should be advised to adhere to a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, poultry, skim milk and sea foods while low in processed meat and sweets. This study was financially supported by the National Nutrition

  1. The Effect of Group Psychoeducation Program on Medication Adherence in Patients with Bipolar Mood Disorders: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Rahmani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medication nonadherence is highly prevalent in patients with bipolar disorders and often results in worsening disease prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of group psychoeducation on medication adherence in female patients with bipolar mood disorder type I. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 76 patients with bipolar mood disorder admitted in female psychiatric wards of Razi teaching hospital, Tabriz, Iran. The participants were selected by convenience sampling method and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Patients in experimental group received 10 continuous 90 minutes sessions of psychoeducation, two times a week. Medication adherence was measured using the medicine check list and medication adherence rating scale (MARS before and after intervention. Data analysis was performed with SPSS ver.13. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding medication adherence before the intervention. After the study intervention, the mean scores of medication adherence check list and medication adherence rating scale in the experimental group were significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion: Since group psychoeducation was effective in improving patients' medication adherence, it could be recommended for psychiatric nurses to apply this intervention in the clinical setting.

  2. Glioma cell line proliferation controlled by different chemical functional groups in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Ju XU; Fu-Zhai CUI; Xiao-Long YU; Xiang-Dong KONG

    2013-01-01

    Glioma cell line C6 cultured on silicon surfaces modified by different chemical functional groups, including mercapto (-SH), carboxyl (-COOH), amino (-NH2), hydroxyl (-OH) and methyl (-CH3) groups, was studied here to investigate the influence of surface chemistry on the cell proliferation, adhesion and apoptosis. AFM confirmed the similar characteristic of different functional groups occupation. The adhering C6 exhibited morphological changes in response to different chemical functional groups. The C6 adhered to -COOH, -NH2, -OH and -CH3 surfaces and flattened morphology, while those on -SH surface exhibited the smallest contact area with mostly rounded morphology, which led to the death of cancer cells. The results of MTT assay showed that the -COOH and -NH2 groups promoted ceil proliferation, while the -SH significantly inhibited the proliferation. Compared with other chemical functional groups, the -SH group exhibited its unique effect on the fate of cancer cells, which might provide means for the design of biomaterials to prevent and treat glioma.

  3. Comparing Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy and 12-Steps Narcotics Anonymous in Addict's Rehabilitation Process: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkhosh, Manoochehr; Farhoudianm, Ali; Saadati, Hemn; Shoaee, Fateme; Lashani, Leila

    2016-10-01

    Objective: Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran. Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz. Sixty individuals were evaluated according to inclusion/ exclusion criteria and were divided into three equal groups randomly (20 participants per group). One group received acceptance and commitment group therapy (Twelve 90-minute sessions) and the other group was provided with the 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous program and the control group received the usual methadone maintenance treatment. During the treatment process, seven participants dropped out. Data were collected using the psychological well-being questionnaire and AAQ questionnaire in the three groups at pre-test, post-test and follow-up visits. Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance revealed that the mean difference between the three groups was significant (Pacceptance and commitment therapy group showed improvement relative to the NA and control groups on psychological well-being and psychological flexibility. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that acceptance and commitment therapy can be helpful in enhancing positive emotions and increasing psychological well-being of addicts who seek treatment.

  4. Self-assembled molecular platforms for bacteria/material biointerface studies: importance to control functional group accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmler, Judith; Ponche, Arnaud; Anselme, Karine; Ploux, Lydie

    2013-11-13

    Highly controlled mixed molecular layers are crucial to study the role of material surface chemistry in biointerfaces, such as bacteria and subsequent biofilms interacting with biomaterials. Silanes with non-nucleophilic functional groups are promising to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) due to their low sensitivity to side-reactions. Nevertheless, the real control of surface chemistry, layer structure, and organization has not been determined. Here, we report a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of undecyltrichlorosilane- and 11-bromoundecyltrichlorosilane-based mixed SAMs on silicon substrates. The impact of the experimental conditions on the control of surface chemistry, layer structure, and organization was investigated by combining survey and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, wettability measurements, and ellipsometry. The most appropriate conditions were first determined for elaborating highly reproducible, but easily made, pure 11-bromoundecyltrichlorosilane SAMs. We have demonstrated that the control is maintained on more complex surfaces, i.e., surfaces revealing various chemical densities, which were obtained with different ratios of undecyltrichlorosilane and 11-bromoundecyltrichlorosilane. The control is also maintained after bromine to amine group conversion via SN2 bromine-to-azide reactions. The appropriateness of such highly controlled amino- and methyl-group revealing platforms (NH2-X%/CH3) for biointerface studies was shown by the higher reproducibility of bacterial adhesion on NH2-100%/CH3 SAMs compared to bacterial adhesion on molecular layers of overall similar surface chemistry but less control at the molecular scale.

  5. Metacognitive group training for schizophrenia spectrum patients with delusions : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, B.; Krabbendam, L.; de Boer, K.; Ferwerda, J.; van der Helm, M.; Stant, A. D.; van der Gaag, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Metacognitive training (MCT) for patients with psychosis is a psychological group intervention that aims to educate patients about common cognitive biases underlying delusion formation and maintenance, and to highlight their negative consequences in daily functioning. Method. In this ran

  6. Testing postural control among various osteoporotic patient groups : A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Maartje H.; van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C.; van Campen, Jos P. C. M.; Lems, Willem F.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Osteoporosis can cause vertebral fractures, which might lead to a flexed posture, impaired postural control and consequently increased fall risk. Therefore, the aim of the present review was to examine whether postural control of patients with osteoporosis, vertebral fractures, thoracic kyphosi

  7. Anger-Control Group Counseling for Women Recovering from Alcohol or Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Two experimental conditions, a manualized cognitive-behavioral anger-control treatment incorporating empowerment strategies and a relapse-prevention treatment without the anger-control component, were compared to assess their impact on levels of trait anger and attributional styles of women recovering from alcohol and drug addiction. Participants…

  8. Efficacy of group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkowski, Sarah; Schwartze, Dominique; Strauss, Bernhard; Burlingame, Gary M; Barth, Jürgen; Rosendahl, Jenny

    2016-04-01

    Group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) is an established treatment supported by findings from primary studies and earlier meta-analyses. However, a comprehensive summary of the recent evidence is still pending. This meta-analysis investigates the efficacy of group psychotherapy for adult patients with SAD. A literature search identified 36 randomized-controlled trials examining 2171 patients. Available studies used mainly cognitive-behavioral group therapies (CBGT); therefore, quantitative analyses were done for CBGT. Medium to large positive effects emerged for wait list-controlled trials for specific symptomatology: g=0.84, 95% CI [0.72; 0.97] and general psychopathology: g=0.62, 95% CI [0.36; 0.89]. Group psychotherapy was also superior to common factor control conditions in alleviating symptoms of SAD, but not in improving general psychopathology. No differences appeared for direct comparisons of group psychotherapy and individual psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. Hence, group psychotherapy for SAD is an efficacious treatment, equivalent to other treatment formats.

  9. Perceived Family Climate and Self-Esteem in Adolescents With ADHD: A Study With a Control Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Halit Necmi; Eray, Şafak; Vural, Ayşe Pınar; Kocael, Ömer

    2017-04-01

    In this study, our objective is to assess the perception of family environments by adolescents with ADHD based on perceived expressed emotion (EE) and the self-esteem of the adolescents. Uludag University Medical Faculty Hospital completed this study with 41 adolescents with ADHD and 35 control group participants who were matched based on age and gender. The total scores of perceived EE, described as a lack of emotional support, irritability, and intrusiveness, were significantly higher in ADHD group than in the control group. The group with ADHD also showed significantly lower self-esteem. There was a negative correlation between self-esteem scores and total perceived EE scores in the ADHD group and the control group. This study showed that the adolescents with ADHD perceive less emotional support and higher levels of intrusiveness, with patients also describing their families as more irritating. Other results in this study show that adolescents with less emotional support possess lower self-esteem, as do adolescents with more irritable parents.

  10. Group Control System by PC and PLC%PC-PLC组成的电梯群控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐勇奇; 赵葵银

    2001-01-01

    介绍一种由PC与PLC组成的电梯群控系统,讲述了系统的软件设计方法和PLC与PC之间的通讯方案。%This paper introduced the group control system of an elevator control system with PC and PLC and also described the design of its software and the communication method between PLC and PC.

  11. Control of oxo-group functionalization and reduction of the uranyl ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Polly L; Pécharman, Anne-Frédérique; Lord, Rianne M; Jones, Guy M; Hollis, Emmalina; Nichol, Gary S; Maron, Laurent; Fang, Jian; Davin, Thomas; Love, Jason B

    2015-04-01

    Uranyl complexes of a large, compartmental N8-macrocycle adopt a rigid, "Pacman" geometry that stabilizes the U(V) oxidation state and promotes chemistry at a single uranyl oxo-group. We present here new and straightforward routes to singly reduced and oxo-silylated uranyl Pacman complexes and propose mechanisms that account for the product formation, and the byproduct distributions that are formed using alternative reagents. Uranyl(VI) Pacman complexes in which one oxo-group is functionalized by a single metal cation are activated toward single-electron reduction. As such, the addition of a second equivalent of a Lewis acidic metal complex such as MgN″2 (N″ = N(SiMe3)2) forms a uranyl(V) complex in which both oxo-groups are Mg functionalized as a result of Mg-N bond homolysis. In contrast, reactions with the less Lewis acidic complex [Zn(N″)Cl] favor the formation of weaker U-O-Zn dative interactions, leading to reductive silylation of the uranyl oxo-group in preference to metalation. Spectroscopic, crystallographic, and computational analysis of these reactions and of oxo-metalated products isolated by other routes have allowed us to propose mechanisms that account for pathways to metalation or silylation of the exo-oxo-group.

  12. Comparison of pain control medication in three age groups of elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honari, S; Patterson, D R; Gibbons, J; Martin-Herz, S P; Mann, R; Gibran, N S; Heimbach, D M

    1997-01-01

    There are no published reports of burn pain management in the elderly population. To assess the range of requirement and use of opioids among elderly patients with burns of different age categories, a retrospective review of 89 consecutive admissions of patients over 55 years of age (January 1995 through July 1996) was conducted. Complete data were available on 44 patients with a burn mean total body surface area of 17.2%. Patient ages ranged from 55 to 92 years. Individuals were divided into three age categories: Group I (55 to 65) n = 20; Group II (66 to 75) n = 14; and Group III (76 to 92) n = 10. Use of commonly prescribed opioids for procedural pain and breakthrough pain were evaluated. We compared the opioid equivalents of medications prescribed versus the actual amount administered. Paired t tests comparing minimum amount of medication ordered with that given revealed Group I patients received significantly more procedural medication than the minimum prescribed (t = 3.88, p = 0.001), and that Group III patients were given significantly less as needed medication than the minimum prescribed (t = 2.58, p < 0.05).

  13. Group cognitive behavioural treatment for insomnia in primary care: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cape, J; Leibowitz, J; Whittington, C; Espie, C A; Pilling, S

    2016-04-01

    Insomnia disorder is common and often co-morbid with mental health conditions. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for insomnia is effective, but is rarely implemented as a discrete treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of brief CBT groups for insomnia compared to treatment as usual (TAU) for insomnia delivered by mental health practitioners in a primary-care mental health service. A total of 239 participants were randomized to either a five-session CBT group or to TAU. Assessments of sleep and of symptoms of depression and anxiety were carried out at baseline, post-treatment and at 20 weeks. Primary outcome was sleep efficiency post-treatment. Group CBT participants had better sleep outcomes post-treatment than those receiving TAU [sleep efficiency standardized mean difference 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34-0.92]. The effect at 20 weeks was smaller with a wide confidence interval (0.27, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.56). There were no important differences between groups at either follow-up period in symptoms of anxiety or depression. Dedicated CBT group treatment for insomnia improves sleep more than treating sleep as an adjunct to other mental health treatment.

  14. DVD training for depression identification and treatment in older adults: a two-group, randomized, wait-list control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysack, Cathy; Leach, Carrie; Russo, Theresa; Paulson, Daniel; Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To test the effectiveness of an educational intervention aimed at improving mental health knowledge and skills in occupational therapists working with older rehabilitation patients. METHOD. The DVD-format educational intervention was evaluated using a two-group randomized wait-list control design. Occupational therapists (n = 75) completed a 32-item knowledge questionnaire at three time points. Patient charts were reviewed (n = 960) at 3 months before and 3 and 6 months after DVD training to evaluate clinical practice change. RESULTS. A two-way analysis of variance showed knowledge scores increased significantly for both groups after DVD training. A significant Group × Time interaction and significant main effects for time and group were found. Chart review data also showed significant increases in desired clinical behaviors in both groups after training. The greatest single item of clinical practice change was use of a standardized depression screen. CONCLUSION. DVD-based training can significantly improve mental health practice.

  15. The role of control groups in mutagenicity studies: matching biological and statistical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschke, Dieter; Hothorn, Torsten; Schäfer, Juliane

    2003-06-01

    The statistical test of the conventional hypothesis of "no treatment effect" is commonly used in the evaluation of mutagenicity experiments. Failing to reject the hypothesis often leads to the conclusion in favour of safety. The major drawback of this indirect approach is that what is controlled by a prespecified level alpha is the probability of erroneously concluding hazard (producer risk). However, the primary concern of safety assessment is the control of the consumer risk, i.e. limiting the probability of erroneously concluding that a product is safe. In order to restrict this risk, safety has to be formulated as the alternative, and hazard, i.e. the opposite, has to be formulated as the hypothesis. The direct safety approach is examined for the case when the corresponding threshold value is expressed either as a fraction of the population mean for the negative control, or as a fraction of the difference between the positive and negative controls.

  16. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria eRuffini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT on ANS activity through changes of High Frequency, a heart rate variability index indicating the parasympathetic activity, in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group.Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults, both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in 3 groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920.Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 minutes.Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency rate (p<0.001, and decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency rate (p<0.01; results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p<0.001 and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p<0.05. Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing parasympathetic function and decreasing sympathetic activity, compared to sham therapy and control group.

  17. Personalised normative feedback for preventing alcohol misuse in university students: Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T Moreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Young people tend to over-estimate peer group drinking levels. Personalised normative feedback (PNF aims to correct this misperception by providing information about personal drinking levels and patterns compared with norms in similar aged peer groups. PNF is intended to raise motivation for behaviour change and has been highlighted for alcohol misuse prevention by the British Government Behavioural Insight Team. The objective of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of PNF with college students for the prevention of alcohol misuse. METHODOLOGY: Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial. 1751 students, from 22 British Universities, allocated to a PNF group, a normal control group, or a delayed measurement control group to allow assessment of any measurement effects. PNF was provided by email. Participants completed online questionnaires at baseline, 6- and 12-months (only 12-months for the delayed measurement controls. Drinking behaviour measures were (i alcohol disorders; (ii frequency; (iii typical quantity, (iv weekly consumption; (v alcohol-related problems; (vi perceived drinking norms; and (vii positive alcohol expectancies. Analyses focused on high-risk drinkers, as well as all students, because of research evidence for the prevention paradox in student drinkers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Follow-up rates were low, with only 50% and 40% responding at 6- and 12-months, respectively, though comparable to similar European studies. We found no evidence for any systematic attrition bias. Overall, statistical analyses with the high risk sub-sample, and for all students, showed no significant effects of the intervention, at either time-point, in a completed case analysis and a multiple imputation analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence for the effectiveness of PNF for the prevention of alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems in a UK student population. REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN30784467.

  18. Lasing oscillation condition and group delay control in gain-assisted plasmon-induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zi-Lan; Wang, He-Zhou; Cheng, S H; Li, Jensen

    2012-01-01

    A gain-assisted plasmonic waveguide with two detuned resonators is investigated in the plasmon-induced transparency window. Phase map is employed to study power transmittance and group delay for varying gain coefficients and frequency detunings of the two resonators. The gain coefficient for lasing oscillation condition is analytically shown to vary quadratically with the frequency detuning. In the amplification regime below the lasing threshold, the spectrum implies not only large group delay, but also high transmittance and narrow linewidth. This is in contrast to those in the loss-compensation regime and the passive case in which there always exists a trade-off between the linewidth and the peak transmittance.

  19. Group schema therapy versus group cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder with comorbid avoidant personality disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljé, Astrid; Greeven, Anja; van Giezen, Anne; Korrelboom, Kees; Arntz, Arnoud; Spinhoven, Philip

    2016-10-08

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) with comorbid avoidant personality disorder (APD) has a high prevalence and is associated with serious psychosocial problems and high societal costs. When patients suffer from both SAD and APD, the Dutch multidisciplinary guidelines for personality disorders advise offering prolonged cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Recently there is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of schema therapy (ST) for personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder and cluster C personality disorders. Since ST addresses underlying personality characteristics and maladaptive coping strategies developed in childhood, this treatment might be particularly effective for patients with SAD and comorbid APD. To our knowledge, there are no studies comparing CBT with ST in this particular group of patients. This superiority trial aims at comparing the effectiveness of these treatments. As an additional goal, predictors and underlying mechanisms of change will be explored. The design of the study is a multicentre two-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which the treatment effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) will be compared to that of group schema therapy (GST) in a semi-open group format. A total of 128 patients aged 18-65 years old will be enrolled. Patients will receive 30 sessions of GCBT or GST during a period of approximately 9 months. Primary outcome measures are the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Self-Report (LSAS-SR) for social anxiety disorder and the newly developed Avoidant Personality Disorder Severity Index (AVPDSI) for avoidant personality disorder. Secondary outcome measures are the MINI section SAD, the SCID-II section APD, the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI-2), the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (IDS-SR), the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Acceptance and Action

  20. Reducing sore throat following laryngeal mask airway insertion: comparing lidocaine gel, saline, and washing mouth with the control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehryar Taghavi Gilani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Laryngeal mask airway is still accompanied by complications such as sore throat. In this study, effects of three methods of reducing postoperative sore throat were compared with the control group. METHODS: 240 patients with ASA I, II candidates for cataract surgery were randomly divided into four same groups. No supplementary method was used in the control group. In the second, third and fourth groups, lidocaine gel, washing cuff before insertion, and washing mouth before removing laryngeal mask airway were applied, respectively. Anesthesia induction was done with fentanyl, atracurium, and propofol and maintained with propofol infusion. The incidence of sore throat was evaluated during the recovery, 3-4 h later and after 24 h using verbal analog scale. The data were analyzed by t-test, analysis of variance and chi-square using SPSS V11.5. RESULTS: Age, gender, duration of surgery and cuff pressure were the same in all the four groups. Incidence of sore throat at recovery room was highest in the control group (43.3% and lowest in the washing mouth group (25%. However, no significant statistical difference was observed between these four groups (recovery, p = 0.30; discharge, p = 0.31; examination, p = 0.52. In this study, increased duration of operation had a significant relationship with the incidence of sore throat (p = 0.041. CONCLUSION: Sore throat is a common postoperative problem, but no special method has been found completely efficient yet. In this study, cuff washing, lidocaine gel, and mouth washing before removing laryngeal mask airway were not helpful for sore throat.

  1. [Reducing sore throat following laryngeal mask airway insertion: comparing lidocaine gel, saline, and washing mouth with the control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar; Miri Soleimani, Iman; Razavi, Majid; Salehi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal mask airway is still accompanied by complications such as sore throat. In this study, effects of three methods of reducing postoperative sore throat were compared with the control group. 240 patients with ASA I, II candidates for cataract surgery were randomly divided into four same groups. No supplementary method was used in the control group. In the second, third and fourth groups, lidocaine gel, washing cuff before insertion, and washing mouth before removing laryngeal mask airway were applied, respectively. Anesthesia induction was done with fentanyl, atracurium, and propofol and maintained with propofol infusion. The incidence of sore throat was evaluated during the recovery, 3-4h later and after 24h using verbal analog scale. The data were analyzed by t-test, analysis of variance and chi-square using SPSS V11.5. Age, gender, duration of surgery and cuff pressure were the same in all the four groups. Incidence of sore throat at recovery room was highest in the control group (43.3%) and lowest in the washing mouth group (25%). However, no significant statistical difference was observed between these four groups (recovery, p=0.30; discharge, p=0.31; examination, p=0.52). In this study, increased duration of operation had a significant relationship with the incidence of sore throat (p=0.041). Sore throat is a common postoperative problem, but no special method has been found completely efficient yet. In this study, cuff washing, lidocaine gel, and mouth washing before removing laryngeal mask airway were not helpful for sore throat. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Reducing sore throat following laryngeal mask airway insertion: comparing lidocaine gel, saline, and washing mouth with the control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar; Miri Soleimani, Iman; Razavi, Majid; Salehi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal mask airway is still accompanied by complications such as sore throat. In this study, effects of three methods of reducing postoperative sore throat were compared with the control group. 240 patients with ASA I, II candidates for cataract surgery were randomly divided into four same groups. No supplementary method was used in the control group. In the second, third and fourth groups, lidocaine gel, washing cuff before insertion, and washing mouth before removing laryngeal mask airway were applied, respectively. Anesthesia induction was done with fentanyl, atracurium, and propofol and maintained with propofol infusion. The incidence of sore throat was evaluated during the recovery, 3-4h later and after 24h using verbal analog scale. The data were analyzed by t-test, analysis of variance and chi-square using SPSS V11.5. Age, gender, duration of surgery and cuff pressure were the same in all the four groups. Incidence of sore throat at recovery room was highest in the control group (43.3%) and lowest in the washing mouth group (25%). However, no significant statistical difference was observed between these four groups (recovery, p=0.30; discharge, p=0.31; examination, p=0.52). In this study, increased duration of operation had a significant relationship with the incidence of sore throat (p=0.041). Sore throat is a common postoperative problem, but no special method has been found completely efficient yet. In this study, cuff washing, lidocaine gel, and mouth washing before removing laryngeal mask airway were not helpful for sore throat. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Can sharing experiences in groups reduce the burden of living with diabetes, regardless of glycaemic control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Christensen, Mette; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Hommel, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Aims To test whether patients with Type 1 diabetes would join support groups and benefit by improving psychosocial functioning, regardless of their HbA1c levels. Methods A pre-post test with follow-up after 6 and 12 months was conducted as a concurrent mixed-method study. The convenience sample...

  4. Locus of Control and Other Psycho-Social Parameters in Successful American Age-Group Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund J., Jr.; Straub, William F.

    Psycho-social factors in successful age-group swimmers were explored in this study. The subjects were 50 female and 39 male participants in the 1975 Amateur Athletic Union National Junior Olympics who were asked to answer a set of questions from an open-ended questionnaire. The results support a picture of young persons who invest a great deal of…

  5. Control of olefin geometry in macrocyclic ring-closing metathesis using a removable silyl group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yikai; Jimenez, Miguel; Hansen, Anders S; Raiber, Eun-Ang; Schreiber, Stuart L; Young, Damian W

    2011-06-22

    Introducing a silyl group at one of the internal olefin positions in diolefinic substrates results in E-selective olefin formation in macrocyclic ring-forming metathesis. The application of this method to a range of macrocyclic (E)-alkenylsiloxanes is described. Protodesilylation of alkenylsiloxane products yields novel Z-configured macrocycles.

  6. The effectiveness of peer support groups in psychosis : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelein, S.; Bruggeman, R.; van Busschbach, J. T.; van der Gaag, M.; Stant, A. D.; Knegtering, H.; Wiersma, D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a (minimally) guided peer support group (GPSG) for people with psychosis on social network, social support, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and quality of life, and to evaluate the intervention and its economic consequences. Method: In a multi-center randomized co

  7. Resources Sharing and Access Control in Group-oriented Networks: Fednet and Related Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrohimovna, K.M.; Heemstra de Groot, S.

    2009-01-01

    A Personal Network (PN) is a network composed of devices of a person that can communicate with each other independently from their geographical location. Extra functionality in PNs enables the cooperation amongst different persons forming a group-oriented network called a Federation of Personal Netw

  8. Controlling the emission wavelength in group III-V semiconductor laser diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-12-29

    Methods are provided for modifying the emission wavelength of a semiconductor quantum well laser diode, e.g. by blue shifting the emission wavelength. The methods can be applied to a variety of semiconductor quantum well laser diodes, e.g. group III-V semiconductor quantum wells. The group III-V semiconductor can include AlSb, AlAs, Aln, AlP, BN, GaSb, GaAs, GaN, GaP, InSb, InAs, InN, and InP, and group III-V ternary semiconductors alloys such as AlxGai.xAs. The methods can results in a blue shifting of about 20 meV to 350 meV, which can be used for example to make group III-V semiconductor quantum well laser diodes with an emission that is orange or yellow. Methods of making semiconductor quantum well laser diodes and semiconductor quantum well laser diodes made therefrom are also provided.

  9. Light-Triggered Control of Plasmonic Refraction and Group Delay by Photochromic Molecular Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Großmann, Malte; Klick, Alwin; Lemke, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    An interface supporting plasmonic switching is prepared from a gold substrate coated with a polymerfilm doped with photochromic molecular switches. A reversible light-induced change in the surface plasmon polariton dispersion curve of the interface is experimentally demonstrated, evidencing rever...... complex functionalities based on surface plasmon refraction and group delay....

  10. Influence of controlled and uncontrolled interventions on Twitter in different target groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Aarts, O.; Boertjes, E.; Wijn, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in a) number of participants, b) size of the audience, c) amount of activity, and d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: a) politicians, b) journalists, c) employees and d) the gen

  11. Control of Surface Functional Groups on Pertechntate Sorption on Activated Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Wang; H. Gao; R. Yeredla; H. Xu; M. Abrecht; G.D. Stasio

    2006-07-05

    {sup 99}Tc is highly soluble and poorly adsorbed by natural materials under oxidizing conditions, thus being of particular concern for radioactive waste disposal. Activated carbon can potentially be used as an adsorbent for removing Tc from aqueous solutions. We have tested six commercial activated carbon materials for their capabilities for sorption of pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The tested materials can be grouped into two distinct types: Type I materials have high sorption capabilities with the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) varying from 9.5 x 10{sup 5} to 3.2 x 10{sup 3} mL/g as the pH changes from 4.5 to 9.5, whereas type II materials have relatively low sorption capabilities with K{sub d} remaining more or less constant (1.1 x 10{sup 3} - 1.8 x 10{sup 3} mL/g) over a similar pH range. The difference in sorption behavior between the two types of materials is attributed to the distribution of surface functional groups. The predominant surface groups are identified to be carboxylic and phenolic groups. The carboxylic group can be further divided into three subgroups A, B, and C in the order of increasing acidity. The high sorption capabilities of type I materials are found to be caused by the presence of a large fraction of carboxylic subgroups A and B, while the low sorption capabilities of type II materials are due to the exclusive presence of phenolic and carboxylic subgroup C. Therefore, the performance of activated carbon for removing TcO{sub 4}{sup -} can be improved by enhancing the formation of carboxylic subgroups A and B during material processing.

  12. Identity Development as a Buffer of Adolescent Risk Behaviors in the Context of Peer Group Pressure and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Tara M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n = 1070; M[subscript age] = 15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of "identity exploration", the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs…

  13. 75 FR 68401 - Duncan Smith and Gerald Altizer-Continuance in Control Exemption-Eighteen Thirty Group, LLC and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board Duncan Smith and Gerald Altizer--Continuance in Control Exemption--Eighteen Thirty Group, LLC and Georges Creek Railway, LLC Duncan Smith and Gerald Altizer (collectively applicants... Georges Creek becoming Class III rail carriers. Mr. Smith owns 80% of Eighteen Thirty and 75% of...

  14. Central model predictive control of a group of domestic heat pumps, case study for a small district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van R.P.; Fink, J.; Smit, G.J.M.; Helfert, Markus; Krempels, Karl-Heinz; Donnellan, Brian; Klein, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate optimal control of a group of heat pumps. Each heat pump provides space heating and domestic hot water to a single household. Besides a heat pump, each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. The paper describes models and

  15. Predicting Participation in Group Parenting Education in an Australian Sample: The Role of Attitudes, Norms, and Control Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M.; Wellington, Larne

    2009-01-01

    We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence…

  16. Qualitative Inquiry into Church-Based Assets for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control: A Forum Focus Group Discussion Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aja, Godwin N.; Modeste, Naomi N.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Assets church members believed they needed to engage in effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities. We used the three-step forum focus group discussion (FFGD) methodology to elicit responses from 32 church leaders and lay members, representing five denominations in Aba, Nigeria. Concrete resources, health expertise, finances,…

  17. Central model predictive control of a group of domestic heat pumps, case study for a small district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Helfert, Markus; Krempels, Karl-Heinz; Donnellan, Brian; Klein, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate optimal control of a group of heat pumps. Each heat pump provides space heating and domestic hot water to a single household. Besides a heat pump, each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. The paper describes models and

  18. Identity Development as a Buffer of Adolescent Risk Behaviors in the Context of Peer Group Pressure and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Tara M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n = 1070; M[subscript age] = 15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of "identity exploration", the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs…

  19. Understanding the Association between Maltreatment History and Adolescent Risk Behavior by Examining Popularity Motivations and Peer Group Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how peer group processes of pressure and control and individual motivations for popularity would add to, and moderate the relationship between, childhood maltreatment and risky behavior in adolescence. A total of 1558 youth (804 girls) from three high schools in Ontario, Canada (M age = 15.02 years,…

  20. Regression Artifacts in Nonequivalent Control Group Designs: An Empirical Investigation of Bias in ANCOVA and Matching Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermillion, James E.

    The presence of artifactual bias in analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and in matching nonequivalent control group (NECG) designs was empirically investigated. The data set was obtained from a study of the effects of a television program on children from three day care centers in Mexico in which the subjects had been randomly selected within centers.…

  1. Disappointment and drop-out rate after being allocated to control group in a smoking cessation trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, D; Sundberg-Petersson, I; Adami, J

    2010-01-01

    If a patient agrees to take part in a randomised trial it is reasonable to presume that the patient would prefer to be allocated into the intervention. This study's aim was to investigate how patients react after they have been randomised into control group....

  2. Factors associated with hypertension awareness, treatment and control among ethnic groups in Amsterdam, The Netherlands: The SUNSET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Agyemang; I. van Valkengoed; R. Koopmans; K. Stronks

    2006-01-01

    We sought to determine factors associated with hypertension awareness, pharmacological treatment and control among ethnic groups in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. We analysed data on hypertensive subjects ( Dutch n = 130, Hindustani n = 115 and African Surinamese n 225). After adjustments for important

  3. Optimal Control of a Wind Farm Group Using the WindEx System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kacejko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present achievements obtained in implementing the framework project N R01 0021 06 in the Power System Department of Lublin University of Technology. The result of the work was “A system of optimal wind farm power control in the conditions of limited transmission capabilities of power networks”, which one of two main modules is a state estimator. The featured wind farm control system was integrated with a SCADA dispatcher system WindEx using the WebSVC service.

  4. The luminescent carbon nanoparticles with controllable oxygen-related functional groups prepared by pulsed laser ablation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Gan, Zhixing; Hu, Guang; Tang, Yalu; Zhou, Lei; Jiang, Qingsong; Cui, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) are obtained via pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of a carbon target immersed in deionized water. By tuning the laser power for PLA, the density of oxygen-related functional groups at the surfaces is controllable. While the crystallinities, sizes, morphologies and defects are nearly retained, the prepared CNPs show blue fluorescence under UV exposure and the photoluminescence (PL) intensities of the C-dots are dependent on the oxygen contents. Accordingly, the PL is attributed to the transition of electronic states caused by oxygen-related functional groups. This work sheds new light on the PL mechanism of CNPs and proposes an efficient way to prepare CNPs with controllable oxygen-related functional groups.

  5. The Effects of Peer-Controlled or Moderated Online Collaboration on Group Problem Solving and Related Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study investigated the relative benefits of peer-controlled and moderated online collaboration during group problem solving. Thirty-five self-selected groups of four or five students were randomly assigned to the two conditions, which used the same online collaborative tool to solve twelve problem scenarios in an undergraduate statistics course. A score for the correctness of the solutions and a reasoning score were analyzed. A survey was administered to reveal differences in students' related attitudes. Three conclusions were reached: 1. Groups assigned to moderated forums displayed significantly higher reasoning scores than those in the peer-controlled condition, but the moderation did not affect correctness of solutions. 2. Students in the moderated forums reported being more likely to choose to use an optional online forum for future collaborations. 3. Students who reported having no difficulty during collaboration reported being more likely to choose to use an optional online forum in the future.

  6. Out of the group, out of control? The brain responds to social exclusion with changes in cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Marte; Jonas, Kai J

    2013-10-01

    The effects of social exclusion are far-reaching, both on an emotional and behavioral level. The present study investigates whether social exclusion also directly influences basic cognitive functions, specifically the ability to exert cognitive control. Participants were either excluded or included while playing an online game. To test whether exclusion altered cognitive control, we measured the electrophysiological responses to a Go/No Go task. In this task participants had to withhold a response (No Go) on a small number of trials while the predominant tendency was to make an overt (Go) response. Compared to Go trials the event-related potential evoked by No Go trials elicited an increased N2, reflecting the detection of the response conflict, followed by an increased P3, reflecting the inhibition of the predominant response. The N2 effect was larger for participants who had experienced exclusion, while the P3 effect was smaller. This indicates that exclusion leads to an increased ability to detect response conflicts, while at the same time exclusion decreases the neural processes that underlie the inhibition of unwanted behavior.

  7. Distributed Model Predictive Control over Multiple Groups of Vehicles in Highway Intelligent Space for Large Scale System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the three time warning distances for solving the large scale system of multiple groups of vehicles safety driving characteristics towards highway tunnel environment based on distributed model prediction control approach. Generally speaking, the system includes two parts. First, multiple vehicles are divided into multiple groups. Meanwhile, the distributed model predictive control approach is proposed to calculate the information framework of each group. Each group of optimization performance considers the local optimization and the neighboring subgroup of optimization characteristics, which could ensure the global optimization performance. Second, the three time warning distances are studied based on the basic principles used for highway intelligent space (HIS and the information framework concept is proposed according to the multiple groups of vehicles. The math model is built to avoid the chain avoidance of vehicles. The results demonstrate that the proposed highway intelligent space method could effectively ensure driving safety of multiple groups of vehicles under the environment of fog, rain, or snow.

  8. Disappointment and adherence among parents of newborns allocated to the control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinich Petersen, Sandra; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    of getting the vaccine elsewhere, and one had actually had their child vaccinated. All parents involved in the focus group and the telephone interviews wanted to participate in the follow-ups planned for the Calmette study. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified an almost universal experience of disappointment......BACKGROUND: When a child participates in a clinical trial, informed consent has to be given by the parents. Parental motives for participation are complex, but the hope of getting a new and better treatment for the child is important. We wondered how parents react when their child is allocated...... the non-specific effects of early BCG-vaccine to healthy neonates. Randomization is performed immediately after birth and parents are not blinded to the allocation. We set up a semi-structured focus group with six parents from four families. Afterwards we telephone-interviewed another 19 mothers...

  9. Accounting for Teamwork: A Critical Study of Group-Based Systems of Organizational Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzamel, Mahmoud; Willmott, Hugh

    1998-01-01

    Examines the role of accounting calculations in reorganizing manufacturing capabilities of a vertically integrated global retailing company. Introducing teamwork to replace line work extended traditional, hierarchical management control systems. Teamwork's self-managing demands contravened workers' established sense of self-identity as…

  10. Quality of life, treatment adherence, and locus of control: multiple family groups for chronic medical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Larrosa, Silvia

    2013-12-01

    The Multiple Family Groups (MFGs) approach for patients with a chronic medical illness and their families is a structured psychoeducational program that unfolds in six weekly 90-minute sessions. In the MFGs, patients and family members explore new ways to balance illness and nonillness priorities in family life (Steinglass, 1998; Steinglass, 2000 Cuadernos de Terapia Familiar, 44-45, 11; Steinglass, Ostroff, & Steinglass, 2011 Family Process, 50, 393). © FPI, Inc.

  11. Evaluation of a positive psychotherapy group intervention for people with psychosis: pilot randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Third-wave psychological interventions have gained relevance in mental health service provision but their application to people with psychosis is in its infancy and interventions targeting wellbeing in psychosis are scarce. This study tested the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of positive psychotherapy adapted for people with psychosis (WELLFOCUS PPT) to improve wellbeing. Methods. WELLFOCUS PPT was tested as an 11-week group intervention in a convenience sample of people w...

  12. Acceptance and commitment group therapy (ACT-G) for health anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilenberg, T; Fink, P; Jensen, J S; Rief, W; Frostholm, L

    2016-01-01

    Severe health anxiety is frequent and costly, yet rarely diagnosed or treated. Earlier treatment studies show problems with recruitment, dropout and recovery. In the current study, the authors aimed to test the effect of acceptance and commitment group therapy (ACT-G) compared to waitlist in patients with severe health anxiety. During March 2010 to April 2012, 126 consecutively referred patients meeting research criteria for severe health anxiety were block-randomized (1:1) to ACT-G or a 10 months' waitlist (Clinicaltrials.gov, no. NCT01158430). Patients allocated to ACT-G were treated in seven groups of nine patients between December 2010 and October 2012 and received nine weekly 3-h group sessions and a booster session consisting of ACT techniques. The primary outcome was decided a priori as the mean change in self-reported illness worry on the Whiteley-7 Index (WI) from baseline to 10 months' follow-up. Secondary outcomes were improvement in emotional distress and health-related quality of life at 10 months' follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis showed a statistically significant mean difference of 20.5 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.7-29.4, p accepted by the patients. ACT-G seems feasible, acceptable and effective in treating severe health anxiety.

  13. Multicomponent interdisciplinary group intervention for self-management of fibromyalgia: a mixed-methods randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bourgault

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of the PASSAGE Program, a structured multicomponent interdisciplinary group intervention for the self-management of FMS.A mixed-methods randomized controlled trial (intervention (INT vs. waitlist (WL was conducted with patients suffering from FMS. Data were collected at baseline (T0, at the end of the intervention (T1, and 3 months later (T2. The primary outcome was change in pain intensity (0-10. Secondary outcomes were fibromyalgia severity, pain interference, sleep quality, pain coping strategies, depression, health-related quality of life, patient global impression of change (PGIC, and perceived pain relief. Qualitative group interviews with a subset of patients were also conducted. Complete data from T0 to T2 were available for 43 patients.The intervention had a statistically significant impact on the three PGIC measures. At the end of the PASSAGE Program, the percentages of patients who perceived overall improvement in their pain levels, functioning and quality of life were significantly higher in the INT Group (73%, 55%, 77% respectively than in the WL Group (8%, 12%, 20%. The same differences were observed 3 months post-intervention (Intervention group: 62%, 43%, 38% vs Waitlist Group: 13%, 13%, 9%. The proportion of patients who reported ≥ 50% pain relief was also significantly higher in the INT Group at the end of the intervention (36% vs 12% and 3 months post-intervention (33% vs 4%. Results of the qualitative analysis were in line with the quantitative findings regarding the efficacy of the intervention. The improvement, however, was not reflected in the primary outcome and other secondary outcome measures.The PASSAGE Program was effective in helping FMS patients gain a sense of control over their symptoms. We suggest including PGIC in future clinical trials on FMS as they appear to capture important aspects of the patients' experience.International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number

  14. The outcome of control groups in clinical trials of conservative treatments for chronic mechanical neck pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagino Carol

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic neck pain is highly prevalent in Western societies, with about 15% of females and 10% of males suffering with it at any time. The course of untreated chronic neck pain patients in clinical trials has not been well-defined and the placebo effect has not been clarified. Methods A systematic review of RCT's of conservative treatments for chronic mechanical neck pain was conducted. Studies were excluded if they did not include a control group, if they involved subjects with whiplash injuries, a predominance of headache or arm pain associated with chronic neck pain and if only one treatment was reported. Only studies scoring 3–5 out of 5 on the Jadad Scale for quality were included in the final analysis. Data on change in pain scores of subjects in both placebo (PL as well as no-treatment (NT control groups were analyzed. Mean changes in pain scores as well as effect sizes were calculated, summarized and compared between these groups. Results Twenty (20 studies, 5 in the NT group and 15 in the PL group, with outcome intervals ranging from 1–52 weeks were included in the final analysis. The mean [95% CI] effect size of change in pain ratings in the no-treatment control studies at outcome points up to 10 weeks was 0.18 [-0.05, 0.41] and for outcomes from 12–52 weeks it was 0.4 [0.12, 0.68]. In the placebo control groups it was 0.50 [0.10, 0.90] at up to 10 weeks and 0.33. [-1.97, 2.66] at 12–24 weeks. None of the comparisons between the no-treatment and placebo groups were statistically significant. Conclusion It appears that the changes in pain scores in subjects with chronic neck pain not due to whiplash who are enrolled in no-treatment and placebo control groups were similarly small and not significantly different. As well, they do not appear to increase over longer-term follow-up.

  15. Mission Operations and Information Management Area Spacecraft Monitoring and Control Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokerson, Donald C. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Working group goals for this year are: Goal 1. Due to many review comments the green books will be updated and available for re-review by CCSDS. Submission of green books to CCSDS for approval. Goal 2.Initial set of 4 new drafts of the red books as following: SM&C protocol: update with received comments. SM&C common services: update with received comments and expand the service specification. SM&C core services: update with received comments and expand the service the information model. SM&C time services: (target objective): produce initial draft following template of core services.

  16. Thiol groups controls on arsenite binding by organic matter: new experimental and modeling evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catrouillet, Charlotte; Davranche, Mélanie; Dia, Aline; Bouhnik-Le Coz, Martine; Pédrot, Mathieu; Marsac, Rémi; Gruau, Gérard

    2015-12-15

    Although it has been suggested that several mechanisms can describe the direct binding of As(III) to organic matter (OM), more recently, the thiol functional group of humic acid (HA) was shown to be an important potential binding site for As(III). Isotherm experiments on As(III) sorption to HAs, that have either been grafted with thiol or not, were thus conducted to investigate the preferential As(III) binding sites. There was a low level of binding of As(III) to HA, which was strongly dependent on the abundance of the thiols. Experimental datasets were used to develop a new model (the modified PHREEQC-Model VI), which defines HA as a group of discrete carboxylic, phenolic and thiol sites. Protonation/deprotonation constants were determined for each group of sites (pKA=4.28±0.03; ΔpKA=2.13±0.10; pKB=7.11±0.26; ΔpKB=3.52±0.49; pKS=5.82±0.052; ΔpKS=6.12±0.12 for the carboxylic, phenolic and thiols sites, respectively) from HAs that were either grafted with thiol or not. The pKS value corresponds to that of single thiol-containing organic ligands. Two binding models were tested: the Mono model, which considered that As(III) is bound to the HA thiol site as monodentate complexes, and the Tri model, which considered that As(III) is bound as tridentate complexes. A simulation of the available literature datasets was used to validate the Mono model, with logKMS=2.91±0.04, i.e. the monodentate hypothesis. This study highlighted the importance of thiol groups in OM reactivity and, notably, determined the As(III) concentration bound to OM (considering that Fe is lacking or at least negligible) and was used to develop a model that is able to determine the As(III) concentrations bound to OM.

  17. Controlled Synthesis of Polyions of Heavy Main-Group Elements in Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias F. Groh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs have been proven to be valuable reaction media for the synthesis of inorganic materials among an abundance of other applications in different fields of chemistry. Up to now, the syntheses have remained mostly “black boxes”; and researchers have to resort to trial-and-error in order to establish a new synthetic route to a specific compound. This review comprises decisive reaction parameters and techniques for the directed synthesis of polyions of heavy main-group elements (fourth period and beyond in ILs. Several families of compounds are presented ranging from polyhalides over carbonyl complexes and selenidostannates to homo and heteropolycations.

  18. Habit reversal training and educational group treatments for children with tourette syndrome: A preliminary randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Rachel; Edwards, Katie; King, John; Luzon, Olga; Evangeli, Michael; Stark, Daniel; McFarlane, Fiona; Heyman, Isobel; İnce, Başak; Kodric, Jana; Murphy, Tara

    2016-05-01

    Quality of life of children with Tourette Syndrome (TS) is impacted greatly by its symptoms and their social consequences. Habit Reversal Training (HRT) is effective but has not, until now, been empirically evaluated in groups. This randomised controlled trial evaluated feasibility and preliminary efficacy of eight HRT group sessions compared to eight Education group sessions. Thirty-three children aged 9-13 years with TS or Chronic Tic Disorder took part. Outcomes evaluated were tic severity and quality of life (QoL). Tic severity improvements were found in both groups. Motor tic severity (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale) showed greatest improvements in the HRT group. Both groups showed a strong tendency toward improvements in patient reported QoL. In conclusion, group-based treatments for TS are feasible and exposure to other children with tics did not increase tic expression. HRT led to greater reductions in tic severity than Education. Implications, such as cost-effectiveness of treatment delivery, are discussed.

  19. Effectiveness of interactive discussion group in suicide risk assessment among general nurses in Taiwan: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yi; Lin, Yi-Yin; Yeh, Mei Chang; Huang, Lian-Hua; Chen, Shaw-Ji; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Been

    2014-11-01

    The evidence of suicide prevention training for nurses is scarce. Strategies to enhance general nurses' ability in suicide risk assessment are critical to develop effective training programs in general medical settings. This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of an interactive discussion group in a suicide prevention training program for general nurses. In this randomized study with two groups of pre-post study design, the sample was recruited from the Medical, Surgical, and Emergency/Intensive Care Sectors of a 2000-bed general hospital via stratified randomization. Among the 111 nurses, 57 participants randomly assigned to the control group received a two-hour baseline suicide gatekeeper lecture, and 54 participants assigning to the experimental group received an additional five-hour group discussion about suicide risk assessment skills. Using a case vignette, the nurses discussed and assessed suicide risk factors specified in a 10-item Chinese SAD PERSONS Scale during a group discussion intervention. The findings revealed that the nurses achieved significant and consistent improvements of risk identification and assessment after the intervention without influencing their mental health status for assessing suicide risks. The result suggested an effective approach of interactive group discussion for facilitating critical thinking and learning suicide risk assessment skills among general nurses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative effectiveness of Pilates and yoga group exercise interventions for chronic mechanical neck pain: quasi-randomised parallel controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, K; Kava, K; Goldberg, A; Malek, M H; Talley, S A; Tutag-Lehr, V; Hildreth, J

    2016-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of Pilates and yoga group exercise interventions for individuals with chronic neck pain (CNP). Quasi-randomised parallel controlled study. Community, university and private practice settings in four locations. Fifty-six individuals with CNP scoring ≥3/10 on the numeric pain rating scale for >3 months (controls n=17, Pilates n=20, yoga n=19). Exercise participants completed 12 small-group sessions with modifications and progressions supervised by a physiotherapist. The primary outcome measure was the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Secondary outcomes were pain ratings, range of movement and postural measurements collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Follow-up was performed 6 weeks after completion of the exercise classes (Week 18). NDI decreased significantly in the Pilates {baseline: 11.1 [standard deviation (SD) 4.3] vs Week 12: 6.8 (SD 4.3); mean difference -4.3 (95% confidence interval -1.64 to -6.7); PPilates and yoga group exercise interventions with appropriate modifications and supervision were safe and equally effective for decreasing disability and pain compared with the control group for individuals with mild-to-moderate CNP. Physiotherapists may consider including these approaches in a plan of care. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01999283. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Whooping cough in Spain. Current epidemiology, prevention and control strategies. Recommendations by the Pertussis Working Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campins, Magda; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gil-de Miguel, Angel; González-Romo, Fernando; Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Arístegui-Fernández, Javier; Goncé-Mellgren, Anna; Bayas, José M; Salleras-Sanmartí, Lluís

    2013-04-01

    A large increase of pertussis incidence has been observed in recent years in countries with high vaccination coverage. Outbreaks of pertussis are increasingly being reported. The age presentation has a bipolar distribution: infants younger 6months that have not initiated or completed a vaccination schedule, and adolescents and adults, due to the lost of natural or vaccine immunity over time. These epidemiological changes justify the need to adopt new vaccination strategies in order to protect young infants and to reduce pertussis incidence in all age groups. Adolescents and adults immunization must be a priority. In the first group, strategy is easy to implement, and with a very low additional cost (to replace dT vaccine by dTap one). Adult vaccination may be more difficult to implement; dT vaccine decennial booster should be replaced by dTap. The immunization of household contacts of newborn infants (cocooning) is the strategy that has a most important impact on infant pertussis. Recently, pregnant women vaccination (after 20weeks of gestation) has been recommended in some countries as the most effective way to protect the newborn.

  2. Wormlike micelles in poly(oxyethylene) surfactant solution: Growth control through hydrophilic-group size variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Toufiq; Aramaki, Kenji

    2008-11-01

    Viscoelastic micellar solutions are formed in poly(oxyethylene) cholesteryl ether (ChEO(m), m=15, 30) aqueous solutions on addition of tri(ethyleneglycol) mono n-dodecyl ether (C(12)EO(3)). The steady-shear and dynamic rheological behavior of the systems is characteristic of wormlike micellar solution. In either system, the plateau modulus (G(0)) and relaxation time (tau) are found to increase with increasing cosurfactant mixing fractions. The plateau modulus of the ChEO(30)-C(12)EO(3) system at the maximum viscosity region is found to be higher than that in the ChEO(15)-C(12)EO(3) system at the maximum viscosity region, whereas for the relaxation time the opposite relation is found. The maximum viscosities obtained in the two systems are of the same order of magnitude. In the ChEO(30)-C(12)EO(3) system, the maximum viscosity is obtained at a higher cosurfactant mixing fraction than that in the ChEO(15)-C(12)EO(3) system. It is concluded that decreasing the head-group size of the hydrophilic surfactant favors micellar growth. Monolaurin, another hydrophobic surfactant known to induce growth in some systems, is found to cause phase separation before significant micellar growth occurs in ChEO(m) solutions, although the effect of head-group size of ChEO(m) is found to be similar to the ChEO(m)-C(12)EO(3) systems.

  3. Under-represented students' engagement in secondary science learning: A non-equivalent control group design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann-Hamilton, Joy J.

    conducted. The reliability results prompted exploratory factory analyses, which resulted in two of the three subscale factors, cognitive and behavioral, being retained. One-within one-between subjects ANOVAs, independent samples t-test, and multiple linear regressions were also used to examine the impact of a multicultural science education, multimedia, and individual characteristics on students' engagement in science learning. Results. There were main effects found within subjects on posttest scores for the cognitive and behavioral subscales of student engagement. Both groups, using their respective versions of the multimedia science curriculum, reported increased engagement in science learning. There was also a statistical difference found for the experimental group at posttest on the measure of "online science was more interesting than school science." All five items unique to the posttest related to the multimedia variable were found to be significant predictors of cognitive and/or behavioral engagement. Conclusions. Engagement in science learning increased for both groups of participants; this finding is aligned with other significant research findings that more embracive and relevant pedagogies can potentially benefit all students. The significant difference found for the experimental group in relation to the multimedia usage was moderate and also may have reflected positive responses to other questions about the use of technology in science learning. As all five measures of multimedia usage were found to be significant predictors of student engagement in science learning, the indications were that: (a) technical difficulties did not impede engagement; (b) participants were better able to understand and visualize the physics concepts as they were presented in a variety of ways; (c) participants' abilities to use computers supported engagement; (d) participants in both groups found the online science curriculum more interesting compared to school science learning; and

  4. Efficacy of simple integrated group rehabilitation program for patients with knee osteoarthritis: Single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Flávio S; de Melo, Flávio E S; do Amaral, Marcelo M G; Caldas, Vinícius V A; Pinheiro, Íria Lúcia D; Abreu, Bento J; Vieira, Wouber H

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of an evidence-based integrated group rehabilitation program on the treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). This was a two-group, randomized controlled, 8 wk trial with 41 patients with moderate to very severe KOA. Patients were assigned to an intervention group (IG) or control group (CG). After both groups had received a self-management education program, IG participants underwent a rehabilitation program, including educational aspects about KOA followed by exercises. CG participants received only general health orientation about KOA during this period. The outcome measures were the Lequesne algofunctional index; 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36); and chair-stand, sit-and-reach, timed up-and-go, and 6-minute walk tests. Analysis of covariance revealed significant postintervention improvements of IG participants compared with CG participants (p program reduced pain and improved quality of life and function in patients with KOA. ClinicalTrials.gov; Progressive Collective-exercise Program on the Knee Osteoarthritis; NCT01850862; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01850862?term=NCT01850862&rank=1.

  5. Honey prevents oral mocositis in children undergoing chemotherapy: A quasi-experimental study with a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobya Bulut, Hacer; Güdücü Tüfekci, Fatma

    2016-12-01

    There are numerous pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options available in the treatment of oral mucositis. However, in spite of so many methods and products, medical professionals have not come to a consensus as to which of these offer the best results. This study was conducted to assess the effect of oral care with honey on children undergoing chemotherapy for the prevention and healing of oral mucositis. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on children undergoing chemotherapy. The study group consisted of 83 children who attended clinics and polyclinics for chemotherapy. All the children were included in the study period. The study was completed with a total of 76 children except for seven patients who were excluded from the study. The data were collected using a form and the World Health Organization Mucositis Assessment Index. The data were analyzed using percentage distributions, means, a chi-square test, a t-test, a variance analysis, and a Friedman test. Ethics approval of the study was obtained from the Institution Ethics Committee. It was found that the severity of oral mucositis in the children in the experimental group was significantly less than the control group. The mucositis recovery period in the experimental group was significantly shorter than the control group. Regular oral care with honey for children undergoing chemotherapy for hematological cancers prevents mucositis and also accelerates recovery of it when started after mucositis onset. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Distribution automation and control support; Analysis and interpretation of DAC working group results for use in project planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klock, P.; Evans, D.

    1979-01-01

    The Executive Summary and Proceedings of the Working Group Meeting was analyzed to identify specific projects appropriate for Distribution Automation and Control DAC RD&D. Specific projects that should be undertaken in the DAC RD&D program were recommended. The projects are presented under broad categories of work selected based on ESC's interpretation of the results of the Working Group Meeting. Some of the projects are noted as utility industry projects. The ESC recommendations regarding program management are presented. Utility versus Government management responsibilities are noted.

  7. Interleukin-5-producing group 2 innate lymphoid cells control eosinophilia induced by interleukin-2 therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gool, Frédéric; Molofsky, Ari B; Morar, Malika M; Rosenzwajg, Michelle; Liang, Hong-Erh; Klatzmann, David; Locksley, Richard M; Bluestone, Jeffrey A

    2014-12-04

    Interleukin (IL)-2 promotes regulatory T-cell development and function, and treatment with IL-2 is being tested as therapy for some autoimmune diseases. However, patients receiving IL-2 treatment also experience eosinophilia due to an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that patients receiving low-dose IL-2 have elevated levels of serum IL-5, and this correlates with their degree of eosinophilia. In mice, low-dose IL-2-anti-IL-2 antibody complexes drove group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) to produce IL-5 and proliferate. Using genetic approaches in mice, we demonstrate that activation of ILC2 was responsible for the eosinophilia observed with IL-2 therapy. These observations reveal a novel cellular network that is activated during IL-2 treatment. A better understanding of the cross talk between these cell populations may lead to more effective targeting of IL-2 to treat autoimmune disease. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Team-Based Learning Versus Lectures with Break-Out Groups on Knowledge Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrall, Grace C; Coverdale, John H; Benjamin, Sophiya; Wiggins, Anna; Lane, Christianne Joy; Pato, Michele T

    2016-10-01

    This goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of team-based learning (TBL) on knowledge retention compared to traditional lectures with small break-out group discussion (teaching as usual (TAU)) using a randomized controlled trial. This randomized controlled trial was conducted during a daylong conference for psychiatric educators on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and the research literacy topic of efficacy versus effectiveness trials. Learners (n = 115) were randomized with concealed allocation to either TBL or TAU. Knowledge was measured prior to the intervention, immediately afterward, and 2 months later via multiple-choice tests. Participants were necessarily unblinded. Data enterers, data analysts, and investigators were blinded to group assignment in data analysis. Per-protocol analyses of test scores were performed using change in knowledge from baseline. The primary endpoint was test scores at 2 months. At baseline, there were no statistically significant differences between groups in pre-test knowledge. At immediate post-test, both TBL and TAU groups showed improved knowledge scores compared with their baseline scores. The TBL group performed better statistically on the immediate post-test than the TAU group (Cohen's d = 0.73; p < 0.001), although the differences in knowledge scores were not educationally meaningful, averaging just one additional test question correct (out of 15). On the 2-month remote post-test, there were no group differences in knowledge retention among the 42 % of participants who returned the 2-month test. Both TBL and TAU learners acquired new knowledge at the end of the intervention and retained knowledge over 2 months. At the end of the intervention day and after 2 months, knowledge test scores were not meaningfully different between TBL and TAU completers. In conclusion, this study failed to demonstrate the superiority of TBL over TAU on the primary outcome of knowledge retention at 2 months post-intervention.

  9. Association between ABO and Rh Blood Groups and Risk of Preeclampsia: A Case-Control Study from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghasadeghi, Firoozeh; Saadat, Mostafa

    2017-04-15

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is a genetic component in the development of PE with estimated heritability around 0.47. Several studies have investigated the association between maternal ABO blood groups (OMIM 110300) and risk of PE, with contradictory results have emerged. Considering that there is no study in this filed from Iranian population, the present case-control study was carried out at Shiraz (south-west Iran). In this study 331 women; 121 pregnant with PE and 210 normotensive pregnant women were included. Using blood group O (for ABO blood groups) or Rh+ (for Rh blood groups) as a reference, odds ratios (ORs) and its 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of PE risk were estimated from logistic regression analysis. Although the A (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.39-1.17, P = 0.165), B (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.48-1.53, P = 0.615) and AB (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.37-3.45, P = 0.812) phenotypes showed lower risks compared with the O blood group, statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant association between ABO phenotypes and risk of PE. The frequency of Rh- phenotype was higher among PE patients compared with the control group. However, the association was not significant (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 0.69-4.65, P = 0.229). Adjusted ORs for age of participants and parity did not change the above-mentioned associations. Our present findings indicate that there is no association between ABO and Rh blood groups and risk of PE in Iranian population.

  10. Primary metabolism and its control in streptomycetes: a most unusual group of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, D A

    2000-01-01

    Streptomycetes are Gram-positive bacteria with a unique capacity for the production of a multitude of varied and complex secondary metabolites. They also have a complex life cycle including differentiation into at least three distinct cell types. Whilst much attention has been paid to the pathways and regulation of secondary metabolism, less has been paid to the pathways and the regulation of primary metabolism, which supplies the precursors. With the imminent completion of the total genome sequence of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), we need to understand the pathways of primary metabolism if we are to understand the role of newly discovered genes. This review is written as a contribution to supplying these wants. Streptomycetes inhabit soil, which, because of the high numbers of microbial competitors, is an oligotrophic environment. Soil nutrient levels reflect the fact that plant-derived material is the main nutrient input; i.e. it is carbon-rich and nitrogen- and phosphate-poor. Control of streptomycete primary metabolism reflects the nutrient availability. The variety and multiplicity of carbohydrate catabolic pathways reflects the variety and multiplicity of carbohydrates in the soil. This multiplicity of pathways has led to investment by streptomycetes in pathway-specific and global regulatory networks such as glucose repression. The mechanism of glucose repression is clearly different from that in other bacteria. Streptomycetes feed by secreting complexes of extracellular enzymes that break down plant cell walls to release nutrients. The induction of these enzyme complexes is often coordinated by inducers that bear no structural relation to the substrate or product of any particular enzyme in the complex; e.g. a product of xylan breakdown may induce cellulase production. Control of amino acid catabolism reflects the relative absence of nitrogen catabolites in soil. The cognate amino acid induces about half of the catabolic pathways and half are constitutive

  11. Psychoeducative groups help control type 2 diabetes in a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes Cuesta, Miguel Ángel; García-Talavera Espín, Noelia Victoria; Brotons Román, Josefa; Núñez Sánchez, M Ángeles; Brocal Ibáñez, Pedro; Villalba Martín, Pilar; Saura García, Carmen; Sánchez Esteban, Tomasa; Romero López-Reinoso, Helena; Delgado Aroca, Ma José; Sánchez Gil, Dolores; Meoro Avilés, Amparo; Soriano Palao, José

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los cambios en el estilo de vida mejoran el control de los diabéticos tipo 2, pero no sabemos cuales son las estrategias más eficientes para conseguir estos cambios. Hemos medido el impacto de una intervención psicoeducativa grupal en diabetes mediante hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1c), índice de masa corporal (IMC) y factores de riesgo cardiovascular (FRCV). Métodos: Se trata de un ensayo clínico controlado, randomizado y multicéntrico, de 72 pacientes diabéticos tipo 2, edad media 63,08 AÑOs, 50% mujeres, HbA1c media 6.98% e IMC medio 30,48 kg/m2. Se comparó el efecto terapéutico de una intervención psicoeducativa grupal(GSE) con una educación diabetológica convencional (GC). Resultados: El GSE presentó una mayor reducción media de HbA1c, -0,51 ± 1,07 vs -0,06 ± 0,53% (p 0,003), un mayor grado de cumplimiento de los objetivos de control óptimo de HbA1c, 80% vs 48% (p 0,005) y una mayor reducción media de peso, -1,93 ± 3,57 vs 0,52 ± 1,73 kg (p 0,002), que el GC. También se objetivó una mejoría significativa de colesterol total, colesterol LDL, triglicéridos, tensión arterial sistólica y diastólica en GSE (todas las p < 0,05). Conclusiones: Los GSE de diabéticos tipo 2 consiguieron una mejoría significativa de HbA1c, IMC y FRCV, y superaron a la educación diabetológica convencional en el grado de cumplimiento de los objetivos de control óptimo de la diabetes. Debemos plantearnos cambios estructurales en nuestros programas asistenciales para introducir estos avances más eficientes en educación terapeútica de diabetes en atención primaria.

  12. A Comparative study of dermatoglyphic patterns in patients with primary glaucoma and control group

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    Sharmila Pal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dermatoglyphics are the dermal ridge configurations on the digits, palms and soles. They are permanent and inherited. A comparative study of the Dermatoglyphic patterns of patients with primary glaucoma and general healthy population was made to ascertain the value of Dermatoglyphics as a diagnostic tool for primary glaucoma. Fifty-seven primary glaucoma patients (24 males, 33 females and fifty normal healthy persons (25 males, 25 females participated in this study. In the present study primary glaucoma subjects were examined in terms of dermatoglyphic characteristics and compared with that of controls. Frequency of loops was decreased in primary glaucoma but in case of whorls and arch increased numbers.Deviation is also observed in a-b ridge count and atd angle. In general tfrc and afrc also increased. These can be considered as useful as a supportive investigation and to some extent knowing the prediction for primary glaucoma

  13. Reducing Delusional Conviction Through a Cognitive-Based Group Training Game: A Multicentre Randomised Controlled Trial

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    Yasser eKhazaal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: Michael’s Game is a card game targeting the ability to generate alternative hypotheses to explain a given experience. The main objective was to evaluate the effect of MG on delusional conviction as measured by the primary study outcome: the change in scores on the conviction subscale of the Peters Delusions Inventory (PDI-21. Other variables of interest were the change in scores on the distress and preoccupation subscales of the PDI-21, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, and belief flexibility assessed with the Maudsley Assessment of Delusions Schedule. Methods: We performed a parallel, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled superiority trial comparing treatment as usual plus participation in Michael’s Game (MG with treatment as usual plus being on a waiting list (TAU in a sample of adult outpatients with psychotic disorders and persistent positive psychotic symptoms at inclusion. Results: The 172 participants were randomised, with 86 included in each study arm. Assessments were performed at inclusion (T1: baseline, at 3 months (T2: post-treatment, and at 6 months after the second assessment (T3: follow-up. At T2, a positive treatment effect was observed on the primary outcome, the PDI-21 conviction subscale (p=0.005. At T3, a sustained effect was observed for the conviction subscale (p=0.002. Further effects were also observed at T3 on the PDI-21 distress (p=0.002 and preoccupation subscales (p=0.001, as well as on one of the MADS measures of belief flexibility (anything against the belief (p=0.001. Conclusions: The study demonstrated some significant beneficial effect of MG. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN37178153/Funding: Swiss National Science Foundation Grant 32003B-121038

  14. Doping Level of Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes Controls the Grafting Density of Functional Groups for DNA Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švorc, Ĺubomír; Jambrec, Daliborka; Vojs, Marian; Barwe, Stefan; Clausmeyer, Jan; Michniak, Pavol; Marton, Marián; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2015-09-02

    The impact of different doping levels of boron-doped diamond on the surface functionalization was investigated by means of electrochemical reduction of aryldiazonium salts. The grafting efficiency of 4-nitrophenyl groups increased with the boron levels (B/C ratio from 0 to 20,000 ppm). Controlled grafting of nitrophenyldiazonium was used to adjust the amount of immobilized single-stranded DNA strands at the surface and further on the hybridization yield in dependence on the boron doping level. The grafted nitro functions were electrochemically reduced to the amine moieties. Subsequent functionalization with a succinic acid introduced carboxyl groups for subsequent binding of an amino-terminated DNA probe. DNA hybridization significantly depends on the probe density which is in turn dependent on the boron doping level. The proposed approach opens new insights for the design and control of doped diamond surface functionalization for the construction of DNA hybridization assays.

  15. Complex Dynamical Behaviors in a Predator-Prey System with Generalized Group Defense and Impulsive Control Strategy

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    Shunyi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A predator-prey system with generalized group defense and impulsive control strategy is investigated. By using Floquet theorem and small amplitude perturbation skills, a local asymptotically stable prey-eradication periodic solution is obtained when the impulsive period is less than some critical value. Otherwise, the system is permanent if the impulsive period is larger than the critical value. By using bifurcation theory, we show the existence and stability of positive periodic solution when the pest eradication lost its stability. Numerical examples show that the system considered has more complicated dynamics, including (1 high-order quasiperiodic and periodic oscillation, (2 period-doubling and halving bifurcation, (3 nonunique dynamics (meaning that several attractors coexist, and (4 chaos and attractor crisis. Further, the importance of the impulsive period, the released amount of mature predators and the degree of group defense effect are discussed. Finally, the biological implications of the results and the impulsive control strategy are discussed.

  16. One-Year Follow-Up of the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Patients’ Depression: A Randomized, Single-Blinded, Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kai-Jo Chiang; Tsai-Hui Chen; Hsiu-Tsu Hsieh; Jui-Chen Tsai; Keng-Liang Ou; Kuei-Ru Chou

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term (one year) effectiveness of a 12-session weekly cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT) on patients with depression. This was a single-blind randomized controlled study with a 2-arm parallel group design. Eighty-one subjects were randomly assigned to 12 sessions intervention group (CBGT) or control group (usual outpatient psychiatric care group) and 62 completed the study. The primary outcome was depression measured with Beck Depression In...

  17. Group Dynamic Assessment (G-DA: The Case for the Development of Control over the Past Tense

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    Ehsan Mehri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of dynamic assessment within sociocultural theory opened a new door toward looking at the relationship between the teaching and assessment. The dialectic relationship between the two processes provides previously unfound information regarding the assessment and the development of the learners. However, the implementation of the interactionist dynamic assessment has carried some difficulties in class in general and the groups in particular. The current study tries to address the effect of group dynamic assessment on the development of the control over the past tense; therefore, it is two-folded in the aim. Not only does it work as a practical sample of group dynamic assessment in class, but also it seeks to analyze its effect on the development of control over the past tense. To this end, three learners at the levels of elementary, low-intermediate, and intermediate general proficiency were asked to read a novel and retell the story. The dynamic intervention provided by the teacher during the story retelling was later evaluated in the transcendence tasks of writing. The Friedman test indicated that the three learners had significant development in their control over the past tense in their writing. Moreover, the qualitative analysis of the interactions suggests that the learners changed their role from the mere receivers of the teacher's mediator into the active providers of mediation to other group members. Also, they developed their understanding of the concept of the past tense through implementing it in transcendence tasks of writing. Keywords: Sociocultural theory; dynamic assessment; group dynamic assessment; zone of proximal development; interaction

  18. TEACCH-based group social skills training for children with high-functioning autism: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Kayoko; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ando, Masahiko; Anme, Tokie; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Yamaguchi, Hinako; Nakayama, Takeo

    2013-10-01

    Although social skills training programs for people with high-functioning autism (HFA) are widely practiced, the standardization of curricula, the examination of clinical effectiveness, and the evaluation of the feasibility of future trials have yet to be done in Asian countries. To compensate for this problem, a Japanese pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH)-based group social skills training for children with HFA and their mothers was conducted. Eleven children with HFA, aged 5-6 years, and their mothers were randomly assigned to the TEACCH program (n=5) or a waiting-list control group (n=6). The program involved comprehensive group intervention and featured weekly 2-hour sessions, totaling 20 sessions over six months. The adaptive behaviors and social reciprocity of the children, parenting stress, and parent-child interactions were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Beck depression inventory-II (BDI-II), and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS). Through this pilot trial, the intervention and evaluation of the program has been shaped. There were no dropouts from the program and the mothers' satisfaction was high. The outcome measurements improved more in the program group than in the control group, with moderate effect sizes (SDQ, 0.71; PSI, 0.58; BDI-II, 0.40; and IRS, 0.69). This pilot trial also implied that this program is more beneficial for high IQ children and mothers with low stress than for those who are not. We have standardized the TEACCH program, confirmed the feasibility of a future trial, and successfully estimated the positive effect size. These findings will contribute to a larger trial in the future and to forthcoming systematic reviews with meta-analyses. UMIN000004560.

  19. A cognitive behavioral based group intervention for children with a chronic illness and their parents: a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuengel Carlo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coping with a chronic illness (CI challenges children's psychosocial functioning and wellbeing. Cognitive-behavioral intervention programs that focus on teaching the active use of coping strategies may prevent children with CI from developing psychosocial problems. Involvement of parents in the intervention program may enhance the use of learned coping strategies in daily life, especially on the long-term. The primary aim of the present study is to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral based group intervention (called 'Op Koers' 1 for children with CI and of a parallel intervention for their parents. A secondary objective is to investigate why and for whom this intervention works, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms of the intervention effect. Methods/design This study is a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Participants are children (8 to 18 years of age with a chronic illness, and their parents, recruited from seven participating hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants are randomly allocated to two intervention groups (the child intervention group and the child intervention combined with a parent program and a wait-list control group. Primary outcomes are child psychosocial functioning, wellbeing and child disease related coping skills. Secondary outcomes are child quality of life, child general coping skills, child self-perception, parental stress, quality of parent-child interaction, and parental perceived vulnerability. Outcomes are evaluated at baseline, after 6 weeks of treatment, and at a 6 and 12-month follow-up period. The analyses will be performed on the basis of an intention-to-treat population. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a group intervention improving psychosocial functioning in children with CI and their parents. If proven effective, the intervention will be implemented in clinical practice. Strengths and limitations of the study design are discussed

  20. Comparison of Right and Left Side Heart Functions in Patients with Thalassemia Major, Patients with Thalassemia Intermedia, and Control Group

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    Noormohammad Noori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart disease is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with beta thalassemia, rendering its early diagnosis vital. We studied and compared echocardiographic findings in patients with beta thalassemia major, patients with beta thalassemia intermedia, and a control group.Methods: Eighty asymptomatic patients with thalassemia major and 22 asymptomatic cases with thalassemia intermedia (8-25 years old were selected from those referred to Ali Asghar Hospital (Zahedan-Iran between June 2008 and June 2009. Additionally, 80 healthy individuals within the same age and sex groups were used as controls. All the individuals underwent echocardiography, the data of which were analyzed with the Student t-test.Results: The mean value of the pre-ejection period/ejection time ratio of the left ventricle during systole, the diameter of the posterior wall of the left ventricle during diastole, the left and right isovolumic relaxation times, and the right myocardial performance index in the patients with beta thalassemia major and intermedia increased significantly compared to those of the controls, but the other parameters were similar between the two patient groups. The mean values of the left and right pre- ejection periods, left ventricular end systolic dimension, and left isovolumic contraction time in the patients with thalassemia intermedia increased significantly compared to those of the controls. In the left side, myocardial performance index, left ventricular mass index, isovolumic contraction time, and deceleration time exhibited significant changes between the patients with thalassemia major and those with thalassemia intermedia, whereas all the echocardiographic parameters of the right side were similar between these two groups.Conclusion: The results showed that the systolic and diastolic functions of the right and left sides of the heart would be impaired in patients with thalassemia major and thalassemia intermedia

  1. A randomized, controlled, pilot study of dialectical behavior therapy skills in a psychoeducational group for individuals with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Sheri; Jeffrey, Janet; Katz, Mark R

    2013-03-05

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic and disabling psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of mania/hypomania and depression. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) techniques have been shown to effectively treat borderline personality disorder, a condition also marked by prominent affective disturbances. The utility of DBT techniques in treating BD has been largely unexplored. The purpose of this research was to conduct a pilot study of a DBT-based psychoeducational group (BDG) in treating euthymic, depressed, or hypomanic Bipolar I or II patients. In this experiment, 26 adults with bipolar I or II were randomized to intervention or wait-list control groups and completed the Beck depression inventory II, mindfulness-based self-efficacy scale, and affective control scale at baseline and 12 weeks. The BDG intervention consisted of 12 weekly 90-min sessions which taught DBT skills, mindfulness techniques, and general BD psychoeducation. Using RM-ANOVA, subjects in BDG demonstrated a trend toward reduced depressive symptoms, and significant improvement in several MSES subscales indicating greater mindful awareness, and less fear toward and more control of emotional states (ACS). These findings were supported with a larger sample of patients who completed the BDG. Furthermore, group attendees had reduced emergency room visits and mental health related admissions in the six months following BDG. The small sample size in RCT affects power to detect between group differences. How well improvements after the12-week BDG were maintained is unknown. There is preliminary evidence that DBT skills reduce depressive symptoms, improve affective control, and improve mindfulness self-efficacy in BD. Its application warrants further evaluation in larger studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Distributed Stable-Group Differentiated Admission Control Algorithm in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUEGuangtao; SHIHua; YOUJinyuan; YAOWensheng

    2003-01-01

    Mobile peer-to-peer media streaming systems are expected to become as popular as the peer-to-peer file sharing systems. In this paper, we study two key problems arising from mobile peer-to-peer media streaming: the stability of interconnection between supplying peers and requesting peers in mobile peer-to-peer streaming system; and fast capacity amplification of the entire mobile peer-to-peer streaming system. We use the Stable group algorithm to characterize user mobility in mobile ad hoc networks. Based on the stable group, we then propose a distributed Stable-group differentiated admission control algorithm (SGDACp2p), which leads to fast amplifying the system's total streaming capacity using its self-growing. At last, the extensive simulation results are presented to compare between the SGDACp2p and traditional methods to prove the superiority of the algorithm.

  3. Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation: Post Trial Follow-Up of Randomized Groups.

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    Tazeen H Jafar

    Full Text Available Evidence on long term effectiveness of public health strategies for lowering blood pressure (BP is scarce. In the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA Trial, a 2 x 2 factorial, cluster randomized controlled trial, the combined home health education (HHE and trained general practitioner (GP intervention delivered over 2 years was more effective than no intervention (usual care in lowering systolic BP among adults with hypertension in urban Pakistan. However, it was not clear whether the effect would be sustained after the cessation of intervention. We conducted 7 years follow-up inclusive of 5 years of post intervention period of COBRA trial participants to assess the effectiveness of the interventions on BP during extended follow-up.A total of 1341 individuals 40 years or older with hypertension (systolic BP 140 mm Hg or greater, diastolic BP 90 mm Hg or greater, or already receiving treatment were followed by trained research staff masked to randomization status. BP was measured thrice with a calibrated automated device (Omron HEM-737 IntelliSense in the sitting position after 5 minutes of rest. BP measurements were repeated after two weeks. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used to analyze the primary outcome of change in systolic BP from baseline to 7- year follow-up. The multivariable model was adjusted for clustering, age at baseline, sex, baseline systolic and diastolic BP, and presence of diabetes.After 7 years of follow-up, systolic BP levels among those randomised to combined HHE plus trained GP intervention were significantly lower (2.1 [4.1-0.1] mm Hg compared to those randomised to usual care, (P = 0.04. Participants receiving the combined intervention compared to usual care had a greater reduction in LDL-cholesterol (2.7 [4.8 to 0.6] mg/dl.The benefit in systolic BP reduction observed in the original cohort assigned to the combined intervention was attenuated but still evident at 7- year follow-up. These

  4. The Historical Origins of Control over Deviant Groups in Malaysia: Official Fatwá and Regulation of Interpretation

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    Yuki Shiozaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, official fatwá issued in each state played a crucial role in the regulation of ajaran sesat, or ‘deviant’ groups, such as Darul Arqam, Ahmadiyah, Taslim, Shi’a and many Sufi orders. The regulation of groups through official fatwá can be traced back to the 1930s. The development of control over them was deeply concerned with the upheavals in the Islamic world in the 1920s and the rise of the Salafi stream. The muftī in the Malay sultanates took the initiative in the regulation of ‘deviant’ groups. Among them was Sayyid Alawi Tahir al-Haddad, a muftī from Johor, who denounced the Salafism, or Kaum Muda, in Southeast Asia and other new streams through his fatwá. Sayyid Alawi was from Hadhramaut in Yemen, the stronghold of the Shafi‘i school. His attempt to strengthen the Shafi‘i school and regulate the new streams of Islamic thought was, in Malaysia, one of the origins of the efforts to gain control over ‘deviant’ groups through official fatwá.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v22i2.1917

  5. Hassle Free Mealtimes Triple P: a randomised controlled trial of a brief parenting group for childhood mealtime difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; Adamson, Michelle; Hinchliffe, Kaitlin; Adams, Tracey

    2014-02-01

    Mealtime difficulties are common in typically developing young children. Easily accessible, wide-reaching, early intervention is needed to meet demand for assistance, and prevent the development of more serious feeding and psychosocial problems. Behavioural parent training is an efficacious intervention for childhood mealtime problems, however, existing programmes are long, intensive, and costly. The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a brief parenting discussion group for young children's mealtime difficulties. Eighty-six parents of 2- to 5-year-old children with mealtime difficulties participated in a randomised controlled trial of Hassle Free Mealtimes Triple P (HFMTP; Morawska & Sanders, 2012), a 2-h discussion group on positive parenting strategies specific to the mealtime context. Results of parent-report measures showed that after intervention, there were significant improvements with large effect sizes in children's mealtime behaviour, parents' mealtime practices and cognitions, and both mealtime and general parenting confidence, compared to a waitlist control group. Parents also reported high satisfaction with the programme and effects were maintained at 6-month follow-up. These results support the efficacy of a brief parenting discussion group for childhood mealtime difficulties. This low intensity format of intervention has the potential to meet the high demand for assistance with young children's mealtime difficulties.

  6. Transdiagnostic group behavioral activation and exposure therapy for youth anxiety and depression: Initial randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Brian C; Crocco, Sofia T; Esseling, Petra; Areizaga, Margaret J; Lindner, Alison M; Skriner, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are debilitating and commonly co-occurring in young adolescents, yet few interventions are designed to treat both disorder classes together. Initial efficacy is presented of a school-based transdiagnostic group behavioral activation therapy (GBAT) that emphasizes anti-avoidance in vivo exposure. Youth (N = 35; ages 12-14; 50.9% male) were randomly assigned to either GBAT (n = 21) or WL (n = 14) after completing a double-gated screening process. Multi-reporter, multi-domain outcomes were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and four-month follow-up (FU). GBAT was associated with greater posttreatment remission rates than WL in principal diagnosis (57.1% vs. 28.6%; X1(2) = 2.76, p = .09) and secondary diagnosis (70.6% vs. 10%; X1(2) = 9.26, p = .003), and greater improvement in Clinical Global Impairment - Severity ratings, B = -1.10 (0.42), p = .01. Symptom outcomes were not significantly different at posttreatment. GBAT produced greater posttreatment behavioral activation (large effect size) and fewer negative thoughts (medium effect), two transdiagnostic processes, both at the trend level. Most outcomes showed linear improvement from pretreatment to FU that did not differ depending on initial condition assignment. Sample size was small, but GBAT is a promising transdiagnostic intervention for youth anxiety and unipolar mood disorders that can feasibly and acceptably be applied in school settings.

  7. Multi-objective optimal design of online PID controllers using model predictive control based on the group method of data handling-type neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdabadi-Farahani, V.; Hanif, M.; Gholaminezhad, I.; Jamali, A.; Nariman-Zadeh, N.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) is used for optimal selection of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller gains. In conventional tuning methods a history of response error of the system under control in the passed time is measured and used to adjust PID parameters in order to improve the performance of the system in proceeding time. But MPC obviates this characteristic of classic PID. In fact MPC tries to tune the controller by predicting the system's behaviour some time steps ahead. In this way, PID parameters are adjusted before any real error occurs in the system's response. For this purpose, polynomial meta-models based on the evolved group method of data handling neural networks are obtained to simply simulate the time response of the dynamic system. Moreover, a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm has been used in a multi-objective Pareto optimisation to select the parameters of the MPC which are prediction horizon, control horizon and relation of weight of Δ u and error, to minimise simultaneously two objective functions that are control effort and integral time absolute error of the system response. The results mentioned at the end obviously declare that the proposed method surpasses conventional tuning methods for PID controllers, and Pareto optimal selection of predictive parameters also improves the performance of the introduced method.

  8. [Level at which control objectives are reached in patients in different population groups with type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, A; Pinillos, J; Sabio, P; Martín, J L; Garzón, G; Gil, Á

    2016-11-23

    There is evidence of increased macro- and micro-vascular risk in diabetic patients. The objective of this study was to determine the level of control in patients in different population groups with type 2 diabetes. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Primary care. Madrid Health Service. Year: 2014. Patients over 14 years with type 2 diabetes. Number of patientes: n=6674. Variables on the degree of control (HbA1c, systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], LDL-c) and variables on patient characteristics (demographic, other cardiovascular risk factors, complications). The mean age of patients with controlled HbA1c was 67.8 years vs. 62.9 years in the uncontrolled (P 140mmHg or DBP> 90mmHg. Over 25% of patients with hypertension or DL and uncontrolled levels were not receiving drug treatment. Control was improved in all groups, especially in younger patients, with particularly high cardiovascular risk by the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors or macroangiopathy. A significant percentage of patients with uncontrolled BP and cLDL were not diagnosed or receiving drug treatment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effectiveness of a Group Triple P with Chinese Parents Who Have a Child with Developmental Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Fan, Angel; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of Group Triple P, a Level 4 variant of the Triple P multilevel system of parenting support, with Chinese parents who had a preschool aged child with a developmental disability, using randomized controlled trial design. Participants (Intervention group: 42; Waitlist Control group: 39) completed measures on…

  10. The Effectiveness of a Group Triple P with Chinese Parents Who Have a Child with Developmental Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Fan, Angel; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of Group Triple P, a Level 4 variant of the Triple P multilevel system of parenting support, with Chinese parents who had a preschool aged child with a developmental disability, using randomized controlled trial design. Participants (Intervention group: 42; Waitlist Control group: 39) completed measures on…

  11. Study of On-Ramp PI Controller Based on Dural Group QPSO with Different Well Centers Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO algorithm, dual-group QPSO with different well centers (DWC-QPSO algorithm, is proposed by constructing the master-slave subswarms. The new algorithm was applied in the parameter optimization of on-ramp traffic PI controller combining with nonlinear feedback theory. With the critical information contained in the searching space and results of the basic QPSO algorithm, this algorithm avoids the rapid disappearance of swarm diversity and enhances the global searching ability through collaboration between subswarms. Experiment results on an on-ramp traffic control simulation show that DWC-QPSO can be well applied in the study of on-ramp traffic PI controller and the comparison results illustrate that DWC-QPSO outperforms other evolutionary algorithms with enhancement in both adaptability and stability.

  12. Optimal Dispatch Control Simulation of Elevator Group Control System%电梯群控系统的最优调度仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付丽君; 周崇

    2012-01-01

    Elevator group control is a multi - objective optimization problem in an open, complicated and dynamical system. But most present elevator group control systems ( EGCS) make use of the principle of the least waiting time to dispatch the elevators without the energy consumption of the comprehensive factors, which reduces the elevator group control system scheduling performance. And the traditional scheduling method is failed in global convergence to get good content. An elevator group control system proposed based on ant colony algorithm was proposed for optimal dispatching elevator scheduling. This algorithm uses the passengers waiting time, the consuming power and elevator crowd of variable data as the variables. Then the controller of the multi - objective evaluation function was setup with its ACA model, The simulation on MATLAB shows the favorable effect of the Ant Colony Algorithm and the improvement in the performance of elevator group control in the dispatching elevator.%在电梯群控节能优化问题的研究中,电梯群控调度是一个开放、动态、复杂系统的多目标优化问题.但是目前大多数群控系统都采用了乘客最少候梯时间的原则来派梯,并没有从电梯的能源消耗等综合因素来调度电梯,从而降低了电梯群控系统的调度性能.并且传统的调度方法在全局收敛性上不能得到很好的满足.为此提出一种蚁群算法的电梯群控系统来进行最佳电梯调度,利用乘客的候梯时间、电梯耗能和电梯拥挤度作为算法的变量数据,并且建立多目标评价函数的蚁群优化模型的控制器,通过蚁群算法进行仿真,验证了蚁群算法对电梯群控得到良好效果,并解决了电梯群控制器对电梯调度单一和全局快速收敛性的问题,为提高电梯群控调度性能提供了参考.

  13. Active placebo control groups of pharmacological interventions were rarely used but merited serious consideration: a methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob Solgaard; Bielefeldt, Andreas Ørsted; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2017-07-01

    Active placebos are control interventions that mimic the side effects of the experimental interventions in randomized trials and are sometimes used to reduce the risk of unblinding. We wanted to assess how often randomized clinical drug trials use active placebo control groups; to provide a catalog, and a characterization, of such trials; and to analyze methodological arguments for and against the use of active placebo. An overview consisting of three thematically linked substudies. In an observational substudy, we assessed the prevalence of active placebo groups based on a random sample of 200 PubMed indexed placebo-controlled randomized drug trials published in October 2013. In a systematic review, we identified and characterized trials with active placebo control groups irrespective of publication time. In a third substudy, we reviewed publications with substantial methodological comments on active placebo groups (searches in PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and HighWirePress). The prevalence of trials with active placebo groups published in 2013 was 1 out of 200 (95% confidence interval: 0-2), 0.5% (0-1%). We identified and characterized 89 randomized trials (published 1961-2014) using active placebos, for example, antihistamines, anticholinergic drugs, and sedatives. Such trials typically involved a crossover design, the experimental intervention had noticeable side effects, and the outcomes were patient-reported. The use of active placebos was clustered in specific research settings and did not appear to reflect consistently the side effect profile of the experimental intervention, for example, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were compared with active placebos in pain trials but not in depression trials. We identified and analyzed 25 methods publications with substantial comments. The main argument for active placebo was to reduce risk of unblinding; the main argument against was the risk of unintended therapeutic effect. Pharmacological

  14. Targets and self-management for the control of blood pressure in stroke and at risk groups (TASMIN-SR): protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Claire; Bray, Emma P; Bryan, Stirling; Greenfield, Sheila M; Haque, M Sayeed; Hobbs, F D Richard; Jones, Miren I; Jowett, Sue; Kaambwa, Billingsley; Little, Paul; Mant, Jonathan; Penaloza, Cristina; Schwartz, Claire; Shackleford, Helen; Varghese, Jinu; Williams, Bryan; McManus, Richard J

    2013-03-23

    Self-monitoring of hypertension with self-titration of antihypertensives (self-management) results in lower systolic blood pressure for at least one year. However, few people in high risk groups have been evaluated to date and previous work suggests a smaller effect size in these groups. This trial therefore aims to assess the added value of self-management in high risk groups over and above usual care. The targets and self-management for the control of blood pressure in stroke and at risk groups (TASMIN-SR) trial will be a pragmatic primary care based, unblinded, randomised controlled trial of self-management of blood pressure (BP) compared to usual care. Eligible patients will have a history of stroke, coronary heart disease, diabetes or chronic kidney disease and will be recruited from primary care. Participants will be individually randomised to either usual care or self-management. The primary outcome of the trial will be difference in office SBP between intervention and control groups at 12 months adjusted for baseline SBP and covariates. 540 patients will be sufficient to detect a difference in SBP between self-management and usual care of 5 mmHg with 90% power. Secondary outcomes will include self-efficacy, lifestyle behaviours, health-related quality of life and adverse events. An economic analysis will consider both within trial costs and a model extrapolating the results thereafter. A qualitative analysis will gain insights into patients' views, experiences and decision making processes. The results of the trial will be directly applicable to primary care in the UK. If successful, self-management of blood pressure in people with stroke and other high risk conditions would be applicable to many hundreds of thousands of individuals in the UK and beyond. ISRCTN87171227.

  15. Efficacy of simple integrated group rehabilitation program for patients with knee osteoarthritis: Single-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio S. da Silva, MS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of an evidence-based integrated group rehabilitation program on the treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA. This was a two-group, randomized controlled, 8 wk trial with 41 patients with moderate to very severe KOA. Patients were assigned to an intervention group (IG or control group (CG. After both groups had received a self-management education program, IG participants underwent a rehabilitation program, including educational aspects about KOA followed by exercises. CG participants received only general health orientation about KOA during this period. The outcome measures were the Lequesne algofunctional index; 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36; and chair-stand, sit-and-reach, timed up-and-go, and 6-minute walk tests. Analysis of covariance revealed significant postintervention improvements of IG participants compared with CG participants (p < 0.05 on Lequesne total score and pain and function subdomains; SF-36 physical function, role physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, and role emotional subdomains; and performance assessed by chair-stand, timed up-and-go, and 6-minute walk tests. Focusing on the primary outcome (Lequesne total score, the mean +/– standard deviation after 8 wk was 5.50 +/– 2.98 for the IG and 7.87 +/– 3.48 for the CG (p = 0.009. The corresponding effect size (partial eta squared with 90% confidence interval was 0.23 (0.04–0.42, indicating a large effect. The presented rehabilitation program reduced pain and improved quality of life and function in patients with KOA.

  16. A controlled trial of the SibworkS group program for siblings of children with special needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M; Ejova, Anastasia; Giallo, Rebecca; Strohm, Kate; Lillie, Meredith; Fuss, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Siblings of children with a disability are an at risk group for emotional and behavioral problems. This study evaluated an intervention to promote the emotional and behavioral functioning of siblings of children with disabilities and chronic health conditions. SibworkS is a six-week manual-based, cognitive-behavioral group support program focussed on strengthening siblings' perceived social support, self-esteem, problem-solving skills, adaptive coping behaviors and positive sibling relationships. Fifty-six children aged 7-12 were allocated to either the SibworkS program (n=30) or waitlist control (n=26) in alternating sequence. The primary outcome was siblings' emotional and behavioral functioning. Additional outcomes were self-esteem, perceived social support, the sibling relationship and coping behaviors. Siblings were followed-up immediately after the intervention and at 3-months. Siblings participating in the SibworkS intervention were reported to have fewer emotional and behavioral difficulties than siblings in the control group immediately following the intervention and at the 3-month follow-up. Participation in SibworkS was associated with fewer emotional and behavioral difficulties for siblings. Implications for practice and future research include recommendations for improving program participation.

  17. Control-group feature normalization for multivariate pattern analysis of structural MRI data using the support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Kristin A; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Doshi, Jimit; Davatzikos, Christos; Shinohara, Russell T

    2016-05-15

    Normalization of feature vector values is a common practice in machine learning. Generally, each feature value is standardized to the unit hypercube or by normalizing to zero mean and unit variance. Classification decisions based on support vector machines (SVMs) or by other methods are sensitive to the specific normalization used on the features. In the context of multivariate pattern analysis using neuroimaging data, standardization effectively up- and down-weights features based on their individual variability. Since the standard approach uses the entire data set to guide the normalization, it utilizes the total variability of these features. This total variation is inevitably dependent on the amount of marginal separation between groups. Thus, such a normalization may attenuate the separability of the data in high dimensional space. In this work we propose an alternate approach that uses an estimate of the control-group standard deviation to normalize features before training. We study our proposed approach in the context of group classification using structural MRI data. We show that control-based normalization leads to better reproducibility of estimated multivariate disease patterns and improves the classifier performance in many cases.

  18. Economic consequences of improved temperature forecasts: An experiment with the Florida citrus growers (control group results). [weather forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A demonstration experiment is being planned to show that frost and freeze prediction improvements are possible utilizing timely Synchronous Meteorological Satellite temperature measurements and that this information can affect Florida citrus grower operations and decisions. An economic experiment was carried out which will monitor citrus growers' decisions, actions, costs and losses, and meteorological forecasts and actual weather events and will establish the economic benefits of improved temperature forecasts. A summary is given of the economic experiment, the results obtained to date, and the work which still remains to be done. Specifically, the experiment design is described in detail as are the developed data collection methodology and procedures, sampling plan, data reduction techniques, cost and loss models, establishment of frost severity measures, data obtained from citrus growers, National Weather Service, and Federal Crop Insurance Corp., resulting protection costs and crop losses for the control group sample, extrapolation of results of control group to the Florida citrus industry and the method for normalization of these results to a normal or average frost season so that results may be compared with anticipated similar results from test group measurements.

  19. Effectiveness of group versus individual cognitive-behavioral therapy in patients with abridged somatization disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sergio; Gili, Margalida; Magallón, Rosa; Bauzá, Natalia; Roca, Miquel; Del Hoyo, Yolanda Lopez; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of a cognitive-behavioral program for patients in primary care units who were diagnosed as having abridged somatization disorder. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial was designed. One hundred sixty-eight patients were recruited from 29 primary care units and randomly assigned to one of three arms: treatment as usual (TAU), individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and group CBT. Somatic symptoms were measured using the Screening for Somatoform Disorders and the Severity of Somatic Symptoms scale. The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used to assess the severity of anxiety and depression. Individual CBT achieves greater changes in the Screening for Somatoform Disorders posttreatment compared with group CBT (mean [95% confidence interval], 14.17 [11.9-16.3] versus 11.63 [9.4-13.7], p anxiety scores compared with group CBT and TAU (7.33 [5.4-9.2] versus 11.47 [9.4-13.9] versus 13.07 [10.9-15.2], p disorder compared with TAU. Individual CBT results in greater posttreatment improvements at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. current controlled trials identifier ISRCTN69944771.

  20. Cerebellar Neural Circuits Involving Executive Control Network Predict Response to Group Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MinlanYuan; Meng, Yajing; Zhang, Yan; Nie, Xiaojing; Ren, Zhengjia; Zhu, Hongru; Li, Yuchen; Lui, Su; Gong, Qiyong; Qiu, Changjian; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-02

    Some intrinsic connectivity networks including the default mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN) may underlie social anxiety disorder (SAD). Although the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of SAD and several networks relevant to higher-order cognition, it remains unknown whether cerebellar areas involved in DMN and ECN exhibit altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with cortical networks in SAD. Forty-six patients with SAD and 64 healthy controls (HC) were included and submitted to the baseline resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Seventeen SAD patients who completed post-treatment clinical assessments were included after group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). RsFC of three cerebellar subregions in both groups was assessed respectively in a voxel-wise way, and these rsFC maps were compared by two-sample t tests between groups. Whole-brain voxel-wise regression was performed to examine whether cerebellar connectivity networks can predict response to CBT. Lower rsFC circuits of cerebellar subregions compared with HC at baseline (p circuits involving DMN and ECN are possible neuropathologic mechanisms of SAD. Stronger pretreatment cerebellar rsFC circuits involving ECN suggest potential neural markers to predict CBT response.

  1. From protection of privacy to control of data streams: a focus group study on biobanks in the information society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, K; Starkbaum, J; Lauß, G; Vermeer, A; Helén, I

    2012-01-01

    Most people in Europe do not know what biobanks are. In this study, public perceptions of biobanks and collection of genetic and health data were analyzed in relation to other technologies and digital networks where personal information is compiled and distributed. In this setting, people contextualized biobanks in line with their daily experiences with other technologies and data streams. The analysis was based on 18 focus group discussions conducted in Austria, Finland and Germany. We examined the ways in which people frame and talk about problems and benefits of information distribution in digital networks and biobanks. People identify many challenges associated with collection of personal data in the information society. The study showed that instead of privacy - which has been the key term of bioethical debates on biobanks - the notions of control and controllability are most essential for people. From the viewpoint of biobanks, issues of controllability pose challenges. In the information society, people have become accustomed to controlling personal data, which is particularly difficult in relation to biobanks. They expressed strong concerns over the controllability of the goals and benefits of biobanks.

  2. Cognitive cooperation groups mediated by computers and internet present significant improvement of cognitive status in older adults with memory complaints: a controlled prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo de Rosso Krug; Anna Quialheiro Abreu da Silva; Ione Jayce Ceola Schneider; Luiz Roberto Ramos; Eleonora d’Orsi; André Junqueira Xavier

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the effect of participating in cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) percent variation of outpatients with memory complaints attending two memory clinics. Methods A prospective controlled intervention study carried out from 2006 to 2013 with 293 elders. The intervention group (n = 160) attended a cognitive cooperation group (20 sessions of 1.5 hours each). The control group (n = 133)...

  3. Insulin resistance and occurrence and prognosis of ischemic stroke A non-randomized concurrent control and intra-group comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong Zhao; Shaojun Jiang; Yue Tan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical evidence has demonstrated that insulin resistance might be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, which has not been recognized. At present, insulin resistance has been proven to be an independent risk factor for coronary arteriosclerotic heart disease. However, the relationship between the onset and prognosis of ischemic stroke remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to analyze the relationship between insulin resistance and ischemic stroke and the correlation between insulin resistance and stroke risk factor, and to investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and ischemic stroke prognosis as well as whether insulin resistance is an independent prognostic factor. DESIGN: A non-randomized concurrent control experiment. SETTING: Department of Geriatric Disease, Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical College. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 106 inpatients with ischemic stroke of the cervical internal carotid artery, who had suffered from the disease within the previous 72 hours, were admitted to the Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical College from March to December in 2005 and, recruited for the present study. All 106 inpatients corresponded to the diagnostic criteria of ischemic stroke, formulated at the Fourth National Cerebrovascular Disease Conference in 1995, and were confirmed as having had an ischemic stroke by CT/MRI examinations. The patient group consisted of 54 males and 52 females. An additional 50 healthy individuals, who received health examinations simultaneously, were included as controls. Among the control subjects, there were 26 males and 24 females. Informed consent for laboratory measurements was obtained from all subjects; this study was approved by the Hospital Ethics Committee.METHODS: Following admission, all subjects were inquired of age, gender, previous history, blood pressure, body temperature, admission time, and smoking habits. Meanwhile, they were

  4. Mindfulness-and body-psychotherapy-based group treatment of chronic tinnitus: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreuzer Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus, the perception of sound in absence of an external acoustic source, impairs the quality of life in 2% of the population. Since in most cases causal treatment is not possible, the majority of therapeutic attempts aim at developing and strengthening individual coping and habituation strategies. Therapeutic interventions that incorporate training in mindfulness meditation have become increasingly popular in the treatment of stress-related disorders. Here we conducted a randomized, controlled clinical study to investigate the efficacy of a specific mindfulness- and body-psychotherapy based program in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. Methods Thirty-six patients were enrolled in this pilot study. The treatment was specifically developed for tinnitus patients and is based on mindfulness and body psychotherapy. Treatment was performed as group therapy at two training weekends that were separated by an interval of 7 weeks (eleven hours/weekend and in four further two-hour sessions (week 2, 9, 18 and 22. Patients were randomized to receive treatment either immediately or after waiting time, which served as a control condition. The primary study outcome was the change in tinnitus complaints as measured by the German Version of the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ. Results ANOVA testing for the primary outcome showed a significant interaction effect time by group (F = 7.4; df = 1,33; p = 0.010. Post hoc t-tests indicated an amelioration of TQ scores from baseline to week 9 in both groups (intervention group: t = 6.2; df = 17; p  Conclusions Our results suggest that this mindfulness- and body-psychotherapy-based approach is feasible in the treatment of tinnitus and merits further evaluation in clinical studies with larger sample sizes. The study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01540357.

  5. Internet based self-help therapy versus waitlist control group for persons with anxiety disorders: A randomised feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Morten Munthe; Lindschou, Jane; Gluud, Christian

    ) FearFighter or B) waitlist control group. Participants are persons with a diagnosis of social phobia, agora phobia, phobia or panic disorder. The intervention with FearFighter is a nine step cognitive behavioural self-help therapy program delivered over the internet over nine weeks. Participants...... mental disorders, national authorities call for more evidence based on randomised clinical trials. Objective: To investigate if persons with an anxiety disorder treated in the IBT program FearFighter will improve and recover. Method: A randomised feasibility study with 64 participants allocated to A...

  6. The Take Control Course: Conceptual rationale for the development of a transdiagnostic group for common mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia eMorris

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasingly, research supports the utility of a transdiagnostic understanding of psychopathology. However, there is no consensus regarding the theoretical approach that best explains this. Transdiagnostic interventions can offer service delivery advantages; this is explored in the current review, focusing on group modalities and primary care settings. Objective: This review seeks to explore whether a Perceptual Control Theory (PCT explanation of psychopathology across disorders is a valid one. Further, this review illustrates the process of developing a novel transdiagnostic intervention (Take Control Course; TCC from a PCT theory of functioning.Method: Narrative review.Results and Conclusions: Considerable evidence supports key tenets of PCT. Further, PCT offers a novel perspective regarding the mechanisms by which a number of familiar techniques, such as exposure and awareness, are effective. However, additional research is required to directly test the relative contribution of some PCT mechanisms predicted to underlie psychopathology. Directions for future research are considered.

  7. Adaptive actuator failure compensation control based on MMST grouping for a class of MIMO nonlinear systems with guaranteed transient performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Jie; Qiu, Xiang-Wei; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Chun-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a new adaptive compensation control approach for a class of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear systems with actuator failures. In order to enlarge the set of compensable actuator failures, an actuators grouping scheme based on multiple model switching and tuning (MMST) is proposed for the nonlinear MIMO minimum-phase systems with multiple actuator failures. Then, an adaptive compensation scheme based on prescribed performance bound (PPB) which characterises the convergence rate and maximum overshoot of the tracking error is designed for the systems to ensure closed-loop signal boundedness and asymptotic output tracking despite unknown actuator failures. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the control design.

  8. SERUM PROLACTIN LEVEL IN ACNE PATIENTS VERSUS CONTROL GROUP: STUDY ON 14 TO 35 YEARS OLD WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G FAGHIHI

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Androgens have a main role in acne pathogenesis. The interaction between prolactin and androgens generate the hypothesis of prolactin role in acne pathogenesis. Methods. In a case - control study, 71 women with modearte to severe acne were compaired with 71 healthy women about their serum prolactin levels. Results. Mean of serum prolactin level was 533 632 miu/lit in cases. Mean of serum prolactin level was 365 363 in control group (P > 0.05. There was a significant correlation between serum prolactin level and severity of acne. Discussion. Despite the non significant difference between serum prolactin level in acne patients and healthy women, thare was a significant relationship between serum prolactin level and severity of acne. It may be due to our small sample size. However, the more powerful studies is needed.

  9. Partially redundant functions of two SET-domain polycomb-group proteins in controlling initiation of seed development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongfang; Tyson, Mark D; Jackson, Shawn S; Yadegari, Ramin

    2006-08-29

    In Arabidopsis, a complex of Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins functions in the female gametophyte to control the initiation of seed development. Mutations in the PcG genes, including MEDEA (MEA) and FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT SEED 2 (FIS2), produce autonomous seeds where endosperm proliferation occurs in the absence of fertilization. By using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified MEA and a related protein, SWINGER (SWN), as SET-domain partners of FIS2. Localization data indicated that all three proteins are present in the female gametophyte. Although single-mutant swn plants did not show any defects, swn mutations enhanced the mea mutant phenotype in producing autonomous seeds. Thus, MEA and SWN perform partially redundant functions in controlling the initiation of endosperm development before fertilization in Arabidopsis.

  10. Group medical visits in the follow-up of women with a BRCA mutation: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoogerbrugge Nicoline

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRCA mutation carriers have a 40-80% life-time risk of developing breast cancer. They may opt for yearly breast cancer surveillance or for prophylactic mastectomy. Both options show increased survival rates. It is a complex choice to be made between these two options. As a result most women experience high levels of distress and high needs for information. To fulfill the needs for psychosocial support and information we have introduced group medical consultations (GMCs. A GMC provides individual medical visits conducted within a group. This 90 minute group-visit with 8-12 patients gives patients the opportunity to spend more time with their clinician and a behavioral health professional and learn from other patients experiencing similar topics. However, it should be noted that group sessions may increase fear in some patients or influence their decision making. Methods/design In this randomized controlled trial, 160 BRCA mutation carriers diagnosed maximally 2 years ago are recruited from the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. Participants are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either the GMC intervention group (onetime participation in a GMC instead of a standard individual visit or to a usual care control group. Primary outcome measures are empowerment and psychological distress (SCL 90. Secondary outcome measures are fear of cancer, information needs before the consultation and the received information, self-examination of the breasts, patient satisfaction, quality of life and cost-effectiveness. Data are collected via self-reported questionnaires 1 week before the visit, and at 1 week and at 3 months follow-up. A pilot study was conducted to test all procedures and questionnaires. Discussion The possibility for interaction with other BRCA mutation carriers within a medical visit is unique. This study will assess the effectiveness of GMCs for BRCA mutation carriers to improve empowerment and decrease distress compared

  11. The Effects of Waiting for Treatment: A Meta-Analysis of Waitlist Control Groups in Randomized Controlled Trials for Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Christiane; Stadter, Katja; Stark, Rudolf; Leichsenring, Falk

    2016-07-22

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent mental disorder. However, little is known about how SAD changes in subjects who do not receive treatment. Waitlist control groups (WLCGs) are frequently included in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the treatment of mental disorders. Data from WLCGs are of value as they provide information on the untreated short-term course of a disorder and may serve as disorder-specific norms of change (benchmarks) against which treatment outcomes of SAD can be compared. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis focusing on the effects occurring in WLCGs of RCTs for SAD. Our study was conducted along the PRISMA guidelines. Thirty RCTs (total n = 2460) comprising 30 WLCGs and 47 treatment groups were included. Mean waiting time was 10.6 weeks. The pooled effect of waiting on SAD measures was g = 0.128 (95% CI: 0.057-0.199). Effects regarding other forms of anxiety, depression and functioning were of similarly small size. In contrast, change in the treatment groups was large, both within (g = 0.887) and between groups (g = 0.860). Our results show that for SAD, changes occurring in WLCGs of RCTs are small. The findings may serve as benchmarks in pilot studies of a new treatment or as an additional comparison in studies comparing two active treatments. For psychotherapy research in general, the small effect sizes found in WLCGs confirm that testing a treatment against a waiting list is not a very strict test. Further research on WLCGs in specific mental disorders is required, for example examining the expectancies of patients randomized to waiting. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message In clinical practice, patients suffering from a mental disorder often have to wait for treatment. By analyzing data from waitlist control groups we can gain estimates of symptom change that occur during waiting. It could be seen that waiting for treatment only results in a negligible effect. Thus, in the

  12. Economic consequences of improved temperature forecasts: An experiment with the Florida citrus growers (control group results). Executive summary. [weather forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A demonstration experiment is being planned to show that frost and freeze prediction improvements are possible utilizing timely Synchronous Meteorological Satellite temperature measurements and that this information can affect Florida citrus grower operations and decisions so as to significantly reduce the cost for frost and freeze protection and crop losses. The design and implementation of the first phase of an economic experiment which will monitor citrus growers decisions, actions, costs and losses, and meteorological forecasts and actual weather events was carried out. The economic experiment was designed to measure the change in annual protection costs and crop losses which are the direct result of improved temperature forecasts. To estimate the benefits that may result from improved temperature forecasting capability, control and test groups were established with effective separation being accomplished temporally. The control group, utilizing current forecasting capability, was observed during the 1976-77 frost season and the results are reported. A brief overview is given of the economic experiment, the results obtained to date, and the work which still remains to be done.

  13. Effects of knowledge and internal locus of control in groups of health care workers judging likelihood of pathogen transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Anne Collins; Walsh, Fran; Bryant, Michelle

    2013-08-01

    A study was conducted to measure the effects of attitudes and beliefs on the risk judgments of health care workers. Lack of hand hygiene compliance is a worldwide issue in health care, contributing to infections, fatalities, and increased health care costs. Human factors methods are a promising solution to the problem of compliance, although thus far, the concentration has been on process and engineering methods, such as the design of no-touch sinks. Factors internal to the health care worker, such as their attitudes and beliefs about hand hygiene, have received less attention. For this study, three groups of health care workers completed measures of attitudes, control beliefs, and hand hygiene knowledge. They then provided risk judgments of touching various surfaces via a factorial survey. Attitudes, knowledge, control beliefs, and surface type all predicted the risk judgments of the sample of health care workers, with differences between professional groups. Health care workers perceive less risk when touching surfaces,which may explain historically low rates of hand hygiene compliance after surface contact. Although more research is needed to directly connect risk judgments to failures of hand hygiene, the current results can inform interventions targeting the internal attitudes and beliefs of health care workers.

  14. Controls of functional group chemistry on calcium carbonate nucleation: Insights into systematics of biomolecular innovations for skeletal mineralization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, P. M.; Hamm, L. M.; Giuffre, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Living organisms produce skeletal structures within a complex matrix of organic macromolecules that guide the nucleation and growth of crystalline structures into the organic-inorganic composites we know as biominerals. This type of biomolecule-directed mineralization is an ancient process as evidenced by structures in the fossil record that date to the Ediacaran (ca. 549 Ma). Our understanding of template-directed biomineralization, however, is largely based upon assumptions from studies that: 1) qualitatively demonstrate some chemical functionalities influence the nucleating mineral phase and morphology; 2) propose proteins are the primary driver to template-directed mineralization and 3) propose the ubiquitous polysaccharides are inert components. Thus, a mechanistic basis for how the underlying chemistry of macromolecules controls nucleation kinetics and thermodynamics in template-directed nucleation is not well established. Moreover, there is not yet a good appreciation for how patterns of skeletal mineralization evolved with biochemical innovations in response to environmental changes over geologic timescales. In small steps toward understanding biochemical controls on biomineralization, we test the hypothesis that the kinetics and thermodynamics of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) formation is regulated by a systematic relationship to the functional group chemistry of macromolecules. A long-term goal is to establish the energetic basis for biochemical motifs that are seen (and not seen) at sites of calcification across the phylogenetic tree. Two types of studies were conducted. The first measured nucleation rates on model biomolecular substrates with termini that are found in proteins associated with sites of calcification (-COOH, -PO4, and -SH) and two alkanethiol chain lengths (16-C and 11-C) at a variety of chemical driving forces. The measurements show functional group chemistry and molecule conformation regulate rates by a predictable relation to interfacial

  15. Group versus Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for procrastination: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rozental

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Procrastination is defined as a voluntarily delay of an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse-off for the delay, and is considered a persistent behavior pattern that can result in major psychological suffering. About one-fifth of the adult population and half of the student population are presumed having substantial difficulties due to recurrent procrastination in their everyday lives. However, chronic and severe procrastinators seldom receive adequate care due to preconceptions and the lack of understanding regarding procrastination and the treatment interventions that are assumed beneficial. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is often deemed a treatment of choice, although the evidence supporting its use is scarce, and only one randomized controlled trial has been performed. The primary aim of the proposed study is therefore to test the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy delivered as either a group intervention or via the Internet. Participants will consist of students recruited through the Student Health Centre at Karolinska Institutet. A randomized controlled trial with a sample size of 100 participants divided into blocks of thirty will be used, comparing an eight-week Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention, and an eight-week group cognitive-behavioral therapy based intervention. It is believed that the proposed study will result in two important findings. First, different treatment interventions in cognitive-behavioral therapy are assumed to be helpful for people suffering from problems caused by procrastination. Second, both an Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention and a group intervention are presumed suitable for administering treatment for procrastination, which is considered important as the availability of adequate care is limited, particularly among students. The proposed study will increase the knowledge regarding the efficacy of different treatments of procrastination, as well

  16. Group-based cognitive-behavioural anger management for people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Paul; Rose, John; Jahoda, Andrew; Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Felce, David; Cohen, David; Macmahon, Pamela; Stimpson, Aimee; Rose, Nicola; Gillespie, David; Shead, Jennifer; Lammie, Claire; Woodgate, Christopher; Townson, Julia; Nuttall, Jacqueline; Hood, Kerenza

    2013-09-01

    Many people with intellectual disabilities find it hard to control their anger and this often leads to aggression which can have serious consequences, such as exclusion from mainstream services and the need for potentially more expensive emergency placements. To evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention for anger management in people with intellectual disabilities. A cluster-randomised trial of group-based 12-week CBT, which took place in day services for people with intellectual disabilities and was delivered by care staff using a treatment manual. Participants were 179 service users identified as having problems with anger control randomly assigned to either anger management or treatment as usual. Assessments were conducted before the intervention, and at 16 weeks and 10 months after randomisation (trial registration: ISRCTN37509773). The intervention had only a small, and non-significant, effect on participants' reports of anger on the Provocation Index, the primary outcome measure (mean difference 2.8, 95% CI -1.7 to 7.4 at 10 months). However, keyworker Provocation Index ratings were significantly lower in both follow-up assessments, as were service-user ratings on another self-report anger measure based on personally salient triggers. Both service users and their keyworkers reported greater usage of anger coping skills at both follow-up assessments and keyworkers and home carers reported lower levels of challenging behaviour. The intervention was effective in improving anger control by people with intellectual disabilities. It provides evidence of the effectiveness of a CBT intervention for this client group and demonstrates that the staff who work with them can be trained and supervised to deliver such an intervention with reasonable fidelity.

  17. Arthroscopically assisted combined anterior and posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with autologous hamstring grafts-isokinetic assessment with control group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Piontek

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to: 1 evaluate the differences in pre-post operative knee functioning, mechanical stability, isokinetic knee muscle strength in simultaneous arthroscopic patients after having undergone an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL with hamstring tendons reconstruction, 2 compare the results of ACL/PCL patients with the control group. DESIGN: Controlled Laboratory Study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Results of 11 ACL/PCL patients had been matched with 22 uninjured control participants (CP. Prior to surgery, and minimum 2 years after it, functional assessment (Lysholm and IKDC 2000, mechanical knee joint stability evaluation (Lachman and "drawer" test and isokinetic tests (bilateral knee muscle examination had been performed. Different rehabilitation exercises had been used: isometric, passive exercises, exercises increasing the range of motion and proprioception, strength exercises and specific functional exercises. RESULTS: After arthroscopy no significant differences had been found between the injured and uninjured leg in all isokinetic parameters in ACL/PCL patients. However, ACL/PCL patients had still shown significantly lower values of strength in relative isokinetic knee flexors (p = 0.0065 and extensors (p = 0.0171 compared to the CP. There were no differences between groups regarding absolute isokinetic strength and flexors/extensors ratio. There was statistically significant progress in IKDC 2000 (p = 0.0044 and Lysholm (p = 0.0044 scales prior to (44 and 60 points respectively and after the reconstruction (61 for IKDC 2000 and 94 points for Lysholm. CONCLUSIONS: Although harvesting tendons of semitendinosus and/or gracilis from the healthy extremity diminishes muscle strength of knee flexors in comparison to the CP, flexor strength had improved. Statistically significant improvement of the knee extensor function may indicate that the recreation of joint mechanical stability is

  18. The Effects of Group Relaxation Training/Large Muscle Exercise, and Parental Involvement on Attention to Task, Impulsivity, and Locus of Control among Hyperactive Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sally S.; Omizo, Michael M.

    1984-01-01

    The study examined the effects of group relaxation training/large muscle exercise and parental involvement on attention to task, impulsivity, and locus of control among 34 hyperactive boys. Following treatment both experimental groups recorded significantly higher attention to task, lower impulsivity, and lower locus of control scores. (Author/CL)

  19. 75 FR 8928 - Announcement of IS-GPS-200, IS-GPS-705, IS-GPS-800 Interface Control Working Group (ICWG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Department of the Air Force Announcement of IS-GPS-200, IS-GPS-705, IS-GPS-800Interface Control Working Group... an Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) teleconference meeting for document/s IS-GPS-200E (NAVSTAR GPS Space Segment/Navigation User Interfaces), IS-GPS-705A (NAVSTAR GPS Space Segment/User Segment...

  20. Assessing treatment-as-usual provided to control groups in adherence trials: Exploring the use of an open-ended questionnaire for identifying behaviour change techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberjé, E.J.M.; Dima, A.L.; Pijnappel, F.J.; Prins, J.M.; Bruin, M. de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reporting guidelines call for descriptions of control group support in equal detail as for interventions. However, how to assess the active content (behaviour change techniques (BCTs)) of treatment-as-usual (TAU) delivered to control groups in trials remains unclear. The objective of this

  1. Group Patient Education: Effectiveness of a Brief Intervention in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Health Care in Greece: A Clinically Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merakou, K.; Knithaki, A.; Karageorgos, G.; Theodoridis, D.; Barbouni, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of a brief patient group education intervention in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The sample, 193 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were patients at the diabetic clinic of a primary health care setting in Attica, was assigned to two groups, intervention (138 individuals) and control group (55…

  2. A multilevel analysis of the demands-control model: Is stress at work determined by factors at the group level or the individual level?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Snijders, T.A.B.

    2000-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which negative health-related outcomes are associated with differences between work groups and with differences between individuals within work groups using R. A. Karasek's (1979) demands-control model. The sample consisted of 260 employees in 31 working groups of a

  3. How Does Group Affiliation Affect The Diversification Performance Of Family-Controlled Firms In Malaysia? – A Governance Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ng Sin Huei

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the roles of business group affiliations and whether the size and ownership structure of business groups influence the performance outcomes of diversification among family-controlled firms in Malaysia. It presents evidence that agency-driven and thus performance-diminishing firm diversification is more likely to take place in firms affiliated with a family-controlled business group than in independent firms. The findings support the hypothesis that if the benefits of diver...

  4. How Does Group Affiliation Affect The Diversification Performance Of Family-Controlled Firms In Malaysia? – A Governance Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ng Sin Huei

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the roles of business group affiliations and whether the size and ownership structure of business groups influence the performance outcomes of diversification among family-controlled firms in Malaysia. It presents evidence that agency-driven and thus performance-diminishing firm diversification is more likely to take place in firms affiliated with a family-controlled business group than in independent firms. The findings support the hypothesis that if the benefits of diver...

  5. Control of abdominal and expiratory intercostal muscle activity during vomiting - Role of ventral respiratory group expiratory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan D.; Tan, L. K.; Suzuki, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The role of ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons in the control of abdominal and internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting was investigated in cats. Two series of experiments were performed: in one, the activity of VRG E neurons was recorded during fictive vomiting in cats that were decerebrated, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated; in the second, the abdominal muscle activity during vomiting was compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons in decerebrate spontaneously breathing cats. The results show that about two-thirds of VRG E neurons that project at least as far caudally as the lower thoracic cord contribute to internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting. The remaining VRG E neurons contribute to abdominal muscle activation. As shown by severing the axons of the VRG E neurons, other, as yet unidenified, inputs (either descending from the brain stem or arising from spinal reflexes) can also produce abdominal muscle activation.

  6. Maternal and neonatal risk factors for early-onset group B streptococcal disease: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Kadri HM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Samira S Bamuhair,2 Sameera M Al Johani,3 Namsha A Al-Buriki,1 Hani M Tamim4 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Basic Medical Sciences, 3Microbiology Division, 4Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objectives: To identify the prominent maternal and neonatal risk factors associated with early-onset group B streptococcus (EOGBS disease in neonates and to determine their importance by comparing them with a control group. Setting: Neonatal unit at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients: Cases were infants <7 days of age with invasive group B streptococcus (GBS disease diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009. Controls were healthy infants born in the same hospital during the same period having the same birth weight and gestational age category. Main outcome measures: Maternal risk factors for developing EOGBS disease, feto–maternal and neonatal clinical data, their morbidities, mortalities, and length of hospital stay. Results: A total of 99 cases and 200 controls were included. The majority of cases presented in the first 72 hours of life (62/99 [63.9%], of which 87/99 (89.7% had at least one clinical risk factor for the development of EOGBS disease. Mothers of neonates with EOGBS disease were more likely to have GBS bacteriuria (odds ratio [OR] 10.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24–93.42, infection in the peripartum period (OR 8.92, CI 2.87–27.68, and temperature ≥38°C (OR 7.10, CI 2.50–20.17. GBS disease was associated with premature rupture of membranes and fetal tachycardia (P<0.01 for both. Neonates with EOGBS disease were more likely to have respiratory distress disease and convulsions, require tube feeding, and have longer hospital stays compared with the controls (P<0.01 for all. Stepwise multiple logistic

  7. Control of abdominal and expiratory intercostal muscle activity during vomiting - Role of ventral respiratory group expiratory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan D.; Tan, L. K.; Suzuki, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The role of ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons in the control of abdominal and internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting was investigated in cats. Two series of experiments were performed: in one, the activity of VRG E neurons was recorded during fictive vomiting in cats that were decerebrated, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated; in the second, the abdominal muscle activity during vomiting was compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons in decerebrate spontaneously breathing cats. The results show that about two-thirds of VRG E neurons that project at least as far caudally as the lower thoracic cord contribute to internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting. The remaining VRG E neurons contribute to abdominal muscle activation. As shown by severing the axons of the VRG E neurons, other, as yet unidenified, inputs (either descending from the brain stem or arising from spinal reflexes) can also produce abdominal muscle activation.

  8. Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Prenatal Care: Perinatal Outcomes Among Adolescents in New York City Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Magriples, Urania; Stasko, Emily; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Cassells, Andrea; Cunningham, Shayna; Bernstein, Peter; Tobin, Jonathan N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We compared an evidence-based model of group prenatal care to traditional individual prenatal care on birth, neonatal, and reproductive health outcomes. Methods. We performed a multisite cluster randomized controlled trial in 14 health centers in New York City (2008–2012). We analyzed 1148 pregnant women aged 14 to 21 years, at less than 24 weeks of gestation, and not at high obstetrical risk. We assessed outcomes via medical records and surveys. Results. In intention-to-treat analyses, women at intervention sites were significantly less likely to have infants small for gestational age (prenatal care resulted in more favorable birth, neonatal, and reproductive outcomes. Successful translation of clinical innovations to enhance care, improve outcomes, and reduce cost requires strategies that facilitate patient adherence and support organizational change. PMID:26691105

  9. Trunk motion and gait characteristics of pregnant women when walking: report of a longitudinal study with a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleard, Wendy L

    2013-03-20

    A longitudinal repeated measures design over pregnancy and post-birth, with a control group would provide insight into the mechanical adaptations of the body under conditions of changing load during a common female human lifespan condition, while minimizing the influences of inter human differences. The objective was to investigate systematic changes in the range of motion for the pelvic and thoracic segments of the spine, the motion between these segments (thoracolumbar spine) and temporospatial characteristics of step width, stride length and velocity during walking as pregnancy progresses and post-birth. Nine pregnant women were investigated when walking along a walkway at a self-selected velocity using an 8 camera motion analysis system on four occasions throughout pregnancy and once post birth. A control group of twelve non-pregnant nulliparous women were tested on three occasions over the same time period. The existence of linear trends for change was investigated. As pregnancy progresses there was a significant linear trend for increase in step width (p = 0.05) and a significant linear trend for decrease in stride length (p = 0.05). Concurrently there was a significant linear trend for decrease in the range of motion of the pelvic segment (p = 0.03) and thoracolumbar spine (p = 0.01) about a vertical axis (side to side rotation), and the pelvic segment (p = 0.04) range of motion around an anterio-posterior axis (side tilt). Post-birth, step width readapted whereas pelvic (p = 0.02) and thoracic (p changes was greater than that accounted for with natural variability with re testing. As pregnancy progressed and post-birth there were significant linear trends seen in biomechanical changes when walking at a self-determined natural speed that were greater than that accounted for by natural variability with repeated testing. Not all adaptations were resolved by eight weeks post birth.

  10. Comparison of seropositivity of HCV between oral lichen planus and healthy control group in Hamedan province (west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Mobaien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus is an idiopathic inflammatory disease of the skin, nail, hair and mucous membranes. Oral lichen planus (LP is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the oral mucous membranes with a variety of clinical presentations. Various etiologies include HCV suggested for LP, and the aim of this study was comparison of seropositivity of HCV in LP patients and control group. Methods: All oral LP patients that were referred to dermatology clinic of farshchian hospitalwere entered in the study. Five cc of clot blood was taken from each patient and tested for anti-HCVand when anti-HCV tested positive another 2cc clot bloodwas taken for HCV-Rt-PCR test. The results were analyzed with SPSS 16. Results: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 oral lichen planus patients [males 13(43.3% females 17(56.7%] with mean ages of 46±13.7years and 60 healthy individual [males 26(43.3% females 34(56.7%]. There was no oral lichen planus patients who had anti-HCV positive whiles 2 males(3.3% of healthy group had anti-HCV positive which was confirmed by HCV-Rt-PCR. Conclusions: This study showed that there is no correlation between seropositivity of HCV and oral lichen planus in our patients in the west of Iran.

  11. Control of the intermolecular photodimerization of anthracene derivatives by hydrogen bonding of urea groups in dilute solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hisato; Nishimura, Yoshinobu; Arai, Tatsuo

    2016-08-04

    The photodimerization reaction of anthracene derivatives was performed by capitalizing on intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Anthracene derivatives that can control the dimerization reaction depending on the substitution site were designed by using two anthryl moieties and one urea group, referred to as N,N'-dianthracen-n-ylurea, nDAU (n = 1, 2 and 9), which are symmetrically substituted by 1-anthryl, 2-anthryl and 9-anthryl groups, respectively. We investigated the excimer emission and photodimerization reaction of these anthracene-urea derivatives using absorption, emission, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy along with fluorescence decay measurements. All derivatives showed a concentration dependence of their fluorescence spectra and multiple fluorescence lifetime components even at 10(-6) M. Significantly, 9DAU resulted in an intermolecular photodimerization reaction. These differences in photoreactivity of nDAU may depend on variations in the overlap of the intermolecularly associated anthracene rings of nDAU by hydrogen bonding between intermolecular urea moieties. Furthermore, the dimerization quantum yield of 9DAU was reduced by the addition of tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAAc). Consequently, we revealed that the substitution site and the addition of TBAAc affected the dimerization reaction of anthracene-urea derivatives.

  12. Outer membrane β-barrel protein folding is physically controlled by periplasmic lipid head groups and BamA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessmann, Dennis; Chung, Yong Hee; Danoff, Emily J; Plummer, Ashlee M; Sandlin, Clifford W; Zaccai, Nathan R; Fleming, Karen G

    2014-04-22

    Outer membrane β-barrel proteins (OMPs) are crucial for numerous cellular processes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Despite extensive studies on OMP biogenesis, it is unclear why OMPs require assembly machineries to fold into their native outer membranes, as they are capable of folding quickly and efficiently through an intrinsic folding pathway in vitro. By investigating the folding of several bacterial OMPs using membranes with naturally occurring Escherichia coli lipids, we show that phosphoethanolamine and phosphoglycerol head groups impose a kinetic barrier to OMP folding. The kinetic retardation of OMP folding places a strong negative pressure against spontaneous incorporation of OMPs into inner bacterial membranes, which would dissipate the proton motive force and undoubtedly kill bacteria. We further show that prefolded β-barrel assembly machinery subunit A (BamA), the evolutionarily conserved, central subunit of the BAM complex, accelerates OMP folding by lowering the kinetic barrier imposed by phosphoethanolamine head groups. Our results suggest that OMP assembly machineries are required in vivo to enable physical control over the spontaneously occurring OMP folding reaction in the periplasm. Mechanistic studies further allowed us to derive a model for BamA function, which explains how OMP assembly can be conserved between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

  13. Controlled Modulation of Serum Protein Binding and Biodistribution of Asymmetric Cyanine Dyes by Variation of the Number of Sulfonate Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska M. Hamann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the suitability of asymmetric cyanine dyes for in vivo fluoro-optical molecular imaging, a comprehensive study on the influence of the number of negatively charged sulfonate groups governing the hydrophilicity of the DY-67x family of asymmetric cyanines was performed. Special attention was devoted to the plasma protein binding capacity and related pharmacokinetic properties. Four members of the DY-67x cyanine family composed of the same main chromophore, but substituted with a sequentially increasing number of sulfonate groups (n = 1−4; DY-675, DY-676, DY-677, DY-678, respectively, were incubated with plasma proteins dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline. Protein binding was assessed by absorption spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, ultrafiltration, and dialysis. Distribution of dye in organs was studied by intraveneous injection of 62 nmol dye/kg body weight into mice (n = 12; up to 180 minutes postinjection using whole-body near-infrared fluorescence imaging. Spectroscopic studies, gel electrophoresis, and dialysis demonstrated reduced protein binding with increasing number of sulfonate groups. The bovine serum albumin binding constant of the most hydrophobic dye, DY-675, is 18 times higher than that of the most hydrophilic fluorophore, DY-678. In vivo biodistribution analysis underlined a considerable influence of dye hydrophilicity on biodistribution and excretion pathways, with the more hydrophobic dyes, DY-675 and DY-676, accumulating in the liver, followed by strong fluorescence signals in bile and gut owing to accumulation in feces and comparatively hydrophilic DY-678-COOH accumulating in the bladder. Our results demonstrate the possibility of selectively controlling dye-protein interactions and, thus, biodistribution and excretion pathways via proper choice of the fluorophore's substitution pattern. This underlines the importance of structure-property relationships for fluorescent labels. Moreover, our data could provide the

  14. Intervention leads to improvements in the nutrient profile of snacks served in afterschool programs: a group randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Turner-McGrievy, Brie; Weaver, R Glenn; Huberty, Jennifer; Moore, Justin B; Ward, Dianne S; Freedman, Darcy A

    2016-09-01

    Widely adopted nutrition policies for afterschool programs (ASPs) focus on serving a fruit/vegetable daily and eliminating sugar-sweetened foods/beverages. The impact of these policies on the nutrient profile of snacks served is unclear. Evaluate changes in macro/micronutrient content of snacks served in ASPs. A 1-year group randomized controlled trial was conducted in 20 ASPs serving over 1700 elementary-age children. Intervention ASPs received a multistep adaptive framework intervention. Direct observation of snack served was collected and nutrient information determined using the USDA Nutrient Database, standardized to nutrients/100 kcal. By post-assessment, intervention ASPs reduced total kcal/snack served by 66 kcal (95CI -114 to -19 kcal) compared to control ASPs. Total fiber (+1.7 g/100 kcal), protein (+1.4 g/100 kcal), polyunsaturated fat (+1.2 g/100 kcal), phosphorous (+49.0 mg/100 kcal), potassium (+201.8 mg/100 kcal), and vitamin K (+21.5 μg/100 kcal) increased in intervention ASPs, while added sugars decreased (-5.0 g/100 kcal). Nutrition policies can lead to modest daily caloric reductions and improve select macro/micronutrients in snacks served. Long-term, these nutritional changes may contribute to healthy dietary habits.

  15. Elevated levels of whole blood nickel in a group of Sri Lankan women with endometriosis: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Nalinda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometriosis is characterized by the persistence of endometrial tissue in ectopic sites outside the uterine cavity. Presence of nickel, cadmium and lead in ectopic endometrial tissue has been reported previously. While any association between blood levels of nickel and endometriosis is yet to be described in literature, conflicting reports are available with regards to cadmium and lead levels in blood and urine. Findings In fifty patients with endometriosis and fifty age-matched controls confirmed by laparoscopy or laparotomy, whole blood samples were collected and digested using supra pure 65% HNO3. Whole blood levels of nickel and lead were measured using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF while cadmium levels were evaluated using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFASS. Women with endometriosis had significantly higher (P=0.016 geometric mean (95% CI whole blood nickel levels [2.6(1.9-3.3 μg/L] as compared to women without endometriosis [0.8 (0.7-0.9 μg/L]. Whole blood levels of cadmium and lead were similar between the two groups. Conclusions Although women with endometriosis in this study population had higher levels of nickel in whole blood compared to controls, whether nickel could be considered as an aetiological factor in endometriosis remains inconclusive in view of the smaller sample that was evaluated.

  16. Cognitive Vision and Perceptual Grouping by Production Systems with Blackboard Control - An Example for High-Resolution SAR-Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, Eckart; Middelmann, Wolfgang; Sörgel, Uwe

    The laws of gestalt-perception play an important role in human vision. Psychological studies identified similarity, good continuation, proximity and symmetry as important inter-object relations that distinguish perceptive gestalts from arbitrary sets of clutter objects. Particularly, symmetry and continuation possess a high potential in detection, identification, and reconstruction of man-made objects. This contribution focuses on coding this principle in an automatic production system. Such systems capture declarative knowledge. Procedural details are defined as control strategy for an interpreter. Often an exact solution is not feasible while approximately correct interpretations of the data with the production system are sufficient. Given input data and a production system the control acts accumulatively instead of reducing. The approach is assessment driven features any-time capability and fits well into the recently discussed paradigms of cognitive vision. An example from automatic extraction of groupings and symmetry in man-made structure from high resolution SAR-image data is given. The contribution also discusses the relations of such approach to the "mid-level" of what is today proposed as "cognitive vision".

  17. A study on associations of Korean sample group for colors applied to the nuclear power plant control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, In Seok; Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea); Lee, Dhong Ha [Suwon University, Whasung (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    Colors are widely used to warn risk levels and to attract attention of the public. Korea Standard Nuclear Reactor Control Room (KSNRCR) also uses several colors to differentiate warnings, priorities, status, borders, and messages based on the HF010 guideline. However the previous studies showed that the general public not engaged in a specific job domain had different associations of colors as regulated in the standards or the guidelines. It is also expected that the general public not engaged in nuclear power plant industry will have different color association system from the color coding system applied to the KSNRCR. So, this study was performed to show whether there is any difference between color association of a sample Korean group and the color meanings specified in the HF010 guideline. The general public not engaged in the nuclear power plant industry have no idea of the color usage in the nuclear control room. So we converted the specific color usage situation into similar but general situations. In questionnaire, we gave subjects the general situation where color coding is appled and alternative colors which were applied to the HF010 guidelines. And we asked the subjects to choose the colors proper to the situation and to rank the colors according to the degree of suitability. A hundred college students participated in the experiment. 10 refs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  18. Food groups and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefani, E; Deneo-Pellegrini, H; Ronco, A L; Boffetta, P; Brennan, P; Muñoz, N; Castellsagué, X; Correa, P; Mendilaharsu, M

    2003-10-06

    In the time period January 1998-December 2000, a case-control study on squamous cell cancer of the oesophagus was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay. The main objective of the study was to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) associated with main food groups. For this purpose, 166 patients afflicted with squamous cell oesophageal cancer and 664 hospitalised controls were frequency matched on age and sex. Both series of patients were administered with a structured questionnaire. Aside from queries related with tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and maté drinking, patients were interviewed with a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) on 64 items, representative of the usual Uruguayan diet. Red meat, salted meat and boiled meat displayed strong direct associations (OR for red meat 2.4, 95% CI 1.4-4.2). On the other hand, fish and total white meat showed moderate protective effect (OR for total white meat 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9). Total fruit intake displayed a strong inverse association (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.4), whereas total vegetable consumption presented a weak inverse association (OR for total vegetable intake 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.2). These results suggest that vegetables, mainly cooked vegetables, are rich in thermolabile protective substances. On the other hand, boiled (stewed) meat, which is ingested at high temperature could be, like maté, a risk factor for squamous cell cancer of the oesophagus.

  19. Optimizing the Power of Genome-Wide Association Studies by Using Publicly Available Reference Samples to Expand the Control Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Joanna J; Zondervan, Krina; Nyberg, Fredrik; Harbron, Chris; Jawaid, Ansar; Cardon, Lon R; Barratt, Bryan J; Morris, Andrew P

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have proved extremely successful in identifying novel genetic loci contributing effects to complex human diseases. In doing so, they have highlighted the fact that many potential loci of modest effect remain undetected, partly due to the need for samples consisting of many thousands of individuals. Large-scale international initiatives, such as the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, the Genetic Association Information Network, and the database of genetic and phenotypic information, aim to facilitate discovery of modest-effect genes by making genome-wide data publicly available, allowing information to be combined for the purpose of pooled analysis. In principle, disease or control samples from these studies could be used to increase the power of any GWA study via judicious use as “genetically matched controls” for other traits. Here, we present the biological motivation for the problem and the theoretical potential for expanding the control group with publicly available disease or reference samples. We demonstrate that a naïve application of this strategy can greatly inflate the false-positive error rate in the presence of population structure. As a remedy, we make use of genome-wide data and model selection techniques to identify “axes” of genetic variation which are associated with disease. These axes are then included as covariates in association analysis to correct for population structure, which can result in increases in power over standard analysis of genetic information from the samples in the original GWA study. Genet. Epidemiol. 34: 319–326, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20088020

  20. Associations of colorectal cancer incidence with nutrient and food group intakes in korean adults: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Yu Jeong; Sohn, Seung-Kook; Song, Hye Kyung; Lee, Song Mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Seungmin; Park, Hyojin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between intakes of various nutrients and food groups and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study among Koreans aged 20 to 80 years. A total of 150 new cases and 116 controls were recruited with subjects' informed consent. Dietary data were collected using the food frequency questionnaire developed and validated by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer incidence. High intakes of total lipid (ORT3 vs T1 = 4.15, 95% CI: 1.33-12.96, p for trend = 0.034), saturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.24-7.04, p for trend = 0.016) and monounsaturated fatty acid (ORT3 vs T1 = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.23-7.54, p for trend = 0.018) were significantly associated with increased incidence of colorectal cancer. High dietary fiber (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.56, p for trend = 0.002) and vitamin C (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-1.05, p for trend = 0.021) intakes were significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence. From the food group analysis, bread (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.26, 95% CI: 0.96-5.33, p for trend = 0.031), red meat (ORT3 vs T1 = 7.33, 95% CI: 2.98-18.06, p for trend < 0.001), milk·dairy product (ORT3 vs T1 = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.10-5.31, p for trend = 0.071) and beverage (ORT3 vs T1 = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.35-7.48, p for trend = 0.002) intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. On the other hand, high intake of traditional rice cake (ORT3 vs T1 = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.14-0.86, p for trend = 0.024) was linked with lower colorectal cancer incidence. In conclusion, eating a diet high in total lipid, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids is associated with higher incidence of colorectal cancer, whereas a diet high in dietary fiber and vitamin C was found to lower the incidence in Korean adults. Interestingly high

  1. A multilevel analysis of the demands--control model: is stress at work determined by factors at the group level or the individual level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Yperen, N W; Snijders, T A

    2000-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which negative health-related outcomes are associated with differences between work groups and with differences between individuals within work groups using R.A. Karasek's (1979) demands-control model. The sample consisted of 260 employees in 31 working groups of a national bank in the Netherlands. Results suggest that job demands and job control should be conceptualized as having both group- and individual-level foundations. Support for Karasek's demands-control model was found only when these variables were split into the 2 parts, reflecting shared perceptions and employees' subjective assessment, respectively. One of the most appealing practical implications is that absence rates among homogeneous work groups can be reduced by enhancing actual control on the job.

  2. A randomized, controlled trial of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and sertraline versus a waitlist control group for anxiety disorders in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans, Josien; Comijs, Hannie; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Gundy, Chad M M; Weijnen, Ingrid; van den Hout, Marcel; van Dyck, Richard

    2006-03-01

    This study is the first to investigate the relative effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) compared with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI; sertraline) in a randomized, controlled trial on the treatment of anxiety disorders in older adults. Eighty-four patients 60 years of age and over with a principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, or social phobia were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 15 sessions of CBT, pharmacologic treatment with an SSRI (sertraline; maximum dosage 150 mg), or a waitlist control group. Participants completed measures of primary outcome (anxiety) and coexistent worry and depressive symptoms at baseline, posttreatment, and at three-month follow up. Attrition rates were high in both treatment groups. Consequently, findings are based on a relatively small sample of completers (N = 52). Although both CBT and sertraline led to significant improvement in anxiety, worry, and depressive symptoms both at posttreatment and at three-month follow up, sertraline showed superior results on worry symptoms. Effect size estimates for CBT were in the small to medium range both at posttreatment (mean d = 0.42) and at three-month follow up (mean d = 0.35), whereas effect sizes for sertraline fell into the large range (posttreatment mean d = 0.94 and three-month follow up mean d = 1.02). The waitlist condition showed virtually no effects (posttreatment mean d = .03). Our findings strongly suggest that the pharmacologic treatment of late-life anxiety with SSRIs has not been given the proper attention in research to date.

  3. Is there a difference between Parkinson disease patients and a control group in terms of urinary symptoms and quality of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benli, Erdal; Özer, Fahriye Feriha; Kaya, Yasemin; Özcan, Tuba Şaziye; Ayyıldız, Ali

    2016-12-20

    The aim of this study is to research whether urinary symptoms and disruption of quality of life observed in Parkinson disease patients are different than those of their healthy peers. Additionally, whether these complaints were affected by characteristics such as age at onset of Parkinson disease, sex, disease duration, and severity was investigated. This study comprised a total of 79 individuals, 39 Parkinson patients and a control group of 40 individuals. Parkinson diagnosis was provided by a neurology expert according to the UK Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank Criteria. All patients were evaluated by a urologist with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and an overactive bladder (OAB) questionnaire. Compared with the control group, the Parkinson patient group had statistically significantly higher rates of urological complaints (P Parkinson patient group compared to the control group. Another important result of this study is that in the Parkinson patient group there was no difference found between urologic complaints in terms of sex.

  4. Effects of learning content in context on knowledge acquisition and recall: a pretest-posttest control group design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Esther M; de Bruin, Anique B H; Vorstenbosch, Marc A T M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Puts, Ghita C W M; Leppink, Jimmie; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2015-08-15

    It is generally assumed that learning in context increases performance. This study investigates the relationship between the characteristics of a paper-patient context (relevance and familiarity), the mechanisms through which the cognitive dimension of context could improve learning (activation of prior knowledge, elaboration and increasing retrieval cues), and test performance. A total of 145 medical students completed a pretest of 40 questions, of which half were with a patient vignette. One week later, they studied musculoskeletal anatomy in the dissection room without a paper-patient context (control group) or with (ir)relevant-(un)familiar context (experimental groups), and completed a cognitive load scale. Following a short delay, the students completed a posttest. Surprisingly, our results show that students who studied in context did not perform better than students who studied without context. This finding may be explained by an interaction of the participants' expertise level, the nature of anatomical knowledge and students' approaches to learning. A relevant-familiar context only reduced the negative effect of learning the content in context. Our results suggest discouraging the introduction of an uncommon disease to illustrate a basic science concept. Higher self-perceived learning scores predict higher performance. Interestingly, students performed significantly better on the questions with context in both tests, possibly due to a 'framing effect'. Since studies focusing on the physical and affective dimensions of context have also failed to find a positive influence of learning in a clinically relevant context, further research seems necessary to refine our theories around the role of context in learning.

  5. The Juscelino Kubitschek government and the Brazilian Malaria Control and Eradication Working Group: collaboration and conflicts in Brazilian and international health agenda, 1958-1961

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, a disease which was under control in the beginning of Juscelino Kubitschek government, became the most important endemic disease in 1958, when Brazil made a commitment with the World Health Organization to convert its control programs into eradication programs. For this purpose a Malaria Control and Eradication Group was set up under the leadership of the malaria specialist Mário Pinotti. Malaria would become an important bargaining chip in the context of the development policies of Kubitschek. This article focuses on path of the Malaria Control and Eradication Working Group in Brazil, in its varying relationships with the arguments and guidelines established at international level

  6. Effect of baby oil on pruritus, sleep quality, and quality of life in hemodialysis patients: pretest-post-test model with control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Ezgi; Kilic, Serap Parlar; Karatay, Gülnaz; Metin, Ozgur

    2014-07-01

    To assess the effect of baby oil on pruritus, sleep quality, and quality of life in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This pretest-post-test model with control groups study was conducted in HD units in two different provinces in eastern Turkey. The study group consisted of a total of 70 patients receiving HD treatment who met the inclusion criteria, 35 being in the intervention group and 35 in the control group. After the patients in both groups were informed about the study, they were administered a questionnaire, the Severity Scale, Visual Analog Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 Quality of Life Scale. Following the administration of baby oil to the patients in the intervention group three times a week for a period of 1 month, the same scales were repeated to explore their pruritic status, sleep quality, and quality of life. The same scales were repeated also for the patients in the control group 1 month later but without administering any baby oil. When the Itch Severity Scale, Visual Analog Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and SF-36 Quality of Life Physical and Mental Component scores of the patients in the control and intervention groups before and after the intervention were compared, the differences in the change were found to be statistically significant in favor of the intervention group (P quality of life, and sleep quality in HD patients who had itching complaints. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  7. Characteristics of Corneal Astigmatism of Anterior and Posterior Surface in a Normal Control Group and Patients With Keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajari, Mehdi; Friderich, Stefan; Pour Sadeghian, Miad; Schmack, Ingo; Kohnen, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate and compare power and axis orientation of anterior and posterior astigmatism in eyes with keratoconus with healthy eyes. In this retrospective cohort study, we examined 861 eyes of 494 patients diagnosed with keratoconus at the Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Frankfurt, and 256 eyes of 256 healthy individuals. Using a Scheimpflug device (Pentacam HR), we measured the magnitude and axis orientation of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism, corneal thickness, and conus location. The results were compared between different stages of the disease according to the Amsler-Krumeich classification and the control group. Magnitude of corneal astigmatism was 3.47 ± 2.10 diopters (D) on the anterior surface and 0.69  ± 0.40 D on the posterior surface in eyes across all keratoconus stages. We found a significant increase of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism with progression of disease (P keratoconus a match between anterior and posterior alignment when alignment was vertical in 97% of eyes, 46% when oblique and 61% when horizontal (Cohen kappa coefficient κ = 0.55, P keratoconus, posterior axis alignment of corneal astigmatism is in line with alignment of the anterior surface in the majority of cases. Posterior astigmatism axis alignment could potentially be used in algorithms to support diagnosis and staging of keratoconus.

  8. Improving Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies in Afterschool Programs: Results from a Group-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L.; Giles, Catherine M.; deBlois, Madeleine E.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Chinfatt, Sherene; Cradock, Angie L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Afterschool programs can be health-promoting environments for children. Written policies positively influence nutrition and physical activity (PA) environments, but effective strategies for building staff capacity to write such policies have not been evaluated. This study measures the comprehensiveness of written nutrition, PA, and screen time policies in afterschool programs and assesses impact of the Out of School Nutrition and Physical Activity (OSNAP) intervention on key policies. METHODS Twenty afterschool programs in Boston, MA participated in a group-randomized, controlled trial from September 2010 to June 2011. Intervention program staff attended learning collaboratives focused on practice and policy change. The Out-of-School Time (OST) Policy Assessment Index evaluated written policies. Inter-rater reliability and construct validity of the measure and impact of the intervention on written policies were assessed. RESULTS The measure demonstrated moderate to excellent inter-rater reliability (Spearman’s r=0.53 to 0.97) and construct validity. OSNAP was associated with significant increases in standards-based policy statements surrounding snacks (+2.6, p=0.003), beverages (+2.3, p=0.008), screen time (+0.8, p=0.046), family communication (+2.2, p=0.002), and a summary index of OSNAP goals (+3.3, p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS OSNAP demonstrated success in building staff capacity to write health-promoting policy statements. Future research should focus on determining policy change impact on practices. PMID:24941286

  9. The Polycomb-group protein MEDEA regulates seed development by controlling expression of the MADS-box gene PHERES1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Claudia; Hennig, Lars; Spillane, Charles; Pien, Stephane; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2003-06-15

    The Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins MEDEA, FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM, and FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED2 regulate seed development in Arabidopsis by controlling embryo and endosperm proliferation. All three of these FIS-class proteins are likely subunits of a multiprotein PcG complex, which epigenetically regulates downstream target genes that were previously unknown. Here we show that the MADS-box gene PHERES1 (PHE1) is commonly deregulated in the fis-class mutants. PHE1 belongs to the evolutionarily ancient type I class of MADS-box proteins that have not yet been assigned any function in plants. Both MEDEA and FIE directly associate with the promoter region of PHE1, suggesting that PHE1 expression is epigenetically regulated by PcG proteins. PHE1 is expressed transiently after fertilization in both the embryo and the endosperm; however, it remains up-regulated in the fis mutants, consistent with the proposed function of the FIS genes as transcriptional repressors. Reduced expression levels of PHE1 in medea mutant seeds can suppress medea seed abortion, indicating a key role of PHE1 repression in seed development. PHE1 expression in a hypomethylated medea mutant background resembles the wild-type expression pattern and is associated with rescue of the medea seed-abortion phenotype. In summary, our results demonstrate that seed abortion in the medea mutant is largely mediated by deregulated expression of the type I MADS-box gene PHE1.

  10. [The model of Human Caring: results of a pre- and post-intervention study with a control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Piercarlo; Pellegrini, Walter; Masera, Giuliana; Berchialla, Paola; Dal Molin, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The "Human Caring" model is a philosophy of care based on individual centrality and which, although developed within nursing discipline, could be used by all professionals who take care of individuals. Nurses who work within the field of Mental Health, is subjected to a considerable emotional burden and it is believed that the introduction of this model can have a positive impact. To evaluate the effects of the introduction of the model Human Caring in the Department of Mental Health Asl Cuneo 1, in order to improve health care professionals' well-being and patients' perception with respect to care and assistance. A pre and post intervention design approach with control group where variables were measured before (T0) and after (T1) the implementation of the model of care Human Caring. 80 health care professionals and 125 clients were observed. Results show a non statistically significant difference between the pre and post test both for health care professionals and clients. Human Caring model does not seem to have a positive impact in the short term. However, it is arguably a protective action for health care professionals that further studies should deeply explore with longer period of follow-up.

  11. Evaluating Blood Parameters, P53, and IL6 in Personnel of Copper Complex: A Comparison with Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Ahmadiraad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Industrial pollution including trace elements is the ability to exert many biological effects such as cancer and inflammatory diseases on humans. Therefore, in this study, some of the inflammation and cancer awareness factors such as P53 and IL6 and some blood indices are examined along with trace elements to which people are normally exposed. Materials & Methods: The population includes 45 workers subjected to trace elements who are studied in comparison with the control group with some biochemical parameters such as WBC, RBC, and CRP. In addition, gene expressions of p53 and IL6 are measured by Real time PCR technique. Results: The results show that the gene expressions of IL6 and P53 increases significantly (P –Value p53=0.00, IL6=0.0037. Furthermore, the number of red and white blood cells demonstrate a substantial upsurge. The level of liver enzymes of ALT and AST grows. Additionally, ALP reduces and CRP is negative in all the subjects. (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The results confirm that industrial pollution is able to induce some changes in gene expressions of P53, IL6, and some blood parameters. It may create serious risks for people who will be exposed to pollution in the future.

  12. Comparison of gait of persons with partial foot amputation wearing prosthesis to matched control group: observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael P; Barker, Timothy M

    2008-01-01

    Our understanding of the gait mechanics of persons with partial foot amputation and the influence of prosthetic intervention has been limited by the reporting of isolated gait parameters in specific amputation levels and limited interpretation and discussion of results. This observational study aimed to more completely describe the gait patterns of persons with partial foot amputation wearing their existing prosthesis and footwear in comparison with a nonamputee control group. Major adaptations occurred once the metatarsal heads were compromised. Persons with transmetatarsal and Lisfranc amputation who were wearing insoles and slipper sockets maintained the center of pressure behind the end of the residuum until after contralateral heel contact. This gait pattern may be a useful adaptation to protect the residuum, moderate the requirement of the calf musculature, or compensate for the compliance of the forefoot. Power generation across the affected ankle was virtually negligible, necessitating increased power generation across the hip joints. The clamshell devices fitted to the persons with Chopart amputation restored their effective foot length and normalized many aspects of gait. These persons' ability to adopt this gait pattern may be the result of the broad anterior shell of the socket, a relatively stiff forefoot, and immobilization of the ankle. The hip joints still contributed significantly to the power generation required to walk.

  13. The Cost-Effectiveness of Two Forms of Case Management Compared to a Control Group for Persons with Dementia and Their Informal Caregivers from a Societal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eekhout, Iris; Joling, Karlijn J.; van Mierlo, Lisa D.; Meiland, Franka J. M.; van Hout, Hein P. J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this article was to compare the costs and cost-effectiveness of the two most prominent types of case management in the Netherlands (intensive case management and linkage models) against no access to case management (control group) for people with already diagnosed dementia and their informal caregivers. Methods The economic evaluation was conducted from a societal perspective embedded within a two year prospective, observational, controlled, cohort study with 521 informal caregivers and community-dwelling persons with dementia. Case management provided within one care organization (intensive case management model, ICMM), case management where care was provided by different care organizations within one region (Linkage model, LM), and a group with no access to case management (control) were compared. The economic evaluation related incremental costs to incremental effects regarding neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPI), psychological health of the informal caregiver (GHQ-12), and quality adjusted life years (QALY) of the person with dementia and informal caregiver. Results Inverse-propensity-score-weighted models showed no significant differences in clinical or total cost outcomes between the three groups. Informal care costs were significantly lower in the ICMM group compared to both other groups. Day center costs were significantly lower in the ICMM group compared to the control group. For all outcomes, the probability that the ICMM was cost-effective in comparison with LM and the control group was larger than 0.97 at a threshold ratio of 0 €/incremental unit of effect. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence that the ICMM is cost-effective compared to the control group and the LM. However, the findings should be interpreted with caution since this study was not a randomized controlled trial. PMID:27655234

  14. Evaluating the impact of a disease management program for chronic complex conditions at two large northeast health plans using a control group methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerner, Henry; Mellody, Timothy; Goldstein, Allan B; Wansink, Daryl; Sullivan, Virginia; Yelenik, Stephan N; Charlton, Warwick; Lloyd, Kelley; Courtemanche, Ted

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to observe trends in payer expenditures for plan members with one of 14 chronic, complex conditions comparing one group with a disease management program specific to their condition (the intervention group) and the other with no specific disease management program (the control group) for these conditions. The authors used payer claims and membership data to identify members eligible for the program in a 12-month baseline year (October 2001 to September 2002) and a subsequent 12-month program year (October 2002 to September 2003). Two payers were analyzed: one health plan with members primarily in New Jersey (AmeriHealth New Jersey [AHNJ]), where the disease management program was offered, and one affiliated large plan with members primarily in the metro Philadelphia area, where the program was not offered. The claims payment policy for both plans is identical. Intervention and control groups were analyzed for equivalence. The analysis was conducted in both groups over identical time periods. The intervention group showed statistically significant (p control group. Intervention group members showed a reduction in expenditures of -8%, while control group members showed an increase of +10% over identical time periods. Subsequent analyses controlling for outliers and product lines served to confirm the overall results. The disease management program is likely responsible for the observed difference between the intervention and control group results. A well-designed, targeted disease management program offered by a motivated, supportive health plan can play an important role in cost improvement strategies for members with complex, chronic conditions.

  15. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study – a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Lisa; Pisinger Charlotta; Lau Cathrine; Ovesen Lars; Ladelund Steen; Kristoffersen Lis; Toft Ulla; Borch-Johnsen Knut; Jørgensen Torben

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits. Methods The study was a randomized controlled intervention study. From a general Danish population, aged 30 to 60 years (n = 61,301), two random sample were drawn (group A, n = 11,708; grou...

  16. Towards an optimal design of target for tsetse control: comparisons of novel targets for the control of Palpalis group tsetse in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste Rayaisse

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies of the Palpalis group are the main vectors of sleeping sickness in Africa. Insecticide impregnated targets are one of the most effective tools for control. However, the cost of these devices still represents a constraint to their wider use. The objective was therefore to improve the cost effectiveness of currently used devices. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiments were performed on three tsetse species, namely Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides in Burkina Faso and G. p. palpalis in Côte d'Ivoire. The 1 × 1 m(2 black blue black target commonly used in W. Africa was used as the standard, and effects of changes in target size, shape, and the use of netting instead of black cloth were measured. Regarding overall target shape, we observed that horizontal targets (i.e. wider than they were high killed 1.6-5x more G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides than vertical ones (i.e. higher than they were wide (P < 0.001. For the three tsetse species including G. p. palpalis, catches were highly correlated with the size of the target. However, beyond the size of 0.75 m, there was no increase in catches. Replacing the black cloth of the target by netting was the most cost efficient for all three species. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Reducing the size of the current 1*1 m black-blue-black target to horizontal designs of around 50 cm and replacing black cloth by netting will improve cost effectiveness six-fold for both G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides. Studying the visual responses of tsetse to different designs of target has allowed us to design more cost-effective devices for the effective control of sleeping sickness and animal trypanosomiasis in Africa.

  17. 77 FR 37740 - Stagecoach Group plc and Coach USA, Inc., et al.-Acquisition of Control of Assets-American Coach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARMENT OF TRANSPORATION Surface Transportation Board Stagecoach Group plc and Coach USA, Inc., et al.--Acquisition of Control of..., DOT. ACTION: Notice of Finance Application. SUMMARY: On May 25, 2012, Stagecoach Group plc...

  18. The Impact of Group Motivational Enhancement Therapy on Motivation to Change among Adolescent Male Substance Abusing Clients in a Controlled Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo Hamza, Eid Galal

    2011-01-01

    The study's purpose is to examine the effectiveness of Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET) on motivation to change as measured by the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA; McConnaughy, Prochaska & Velicer, 1983). Participants were drawn from a convenience sample of 22 adolescent males (treatment group n = 11; control group n =…

  19. Experimental demonstration of two methods for controlling the group delay in a system with photonic-crystal resonators coupled to a waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yijie; Sandhu, Sunil; Pan, Jun; Stuhrmann, Norbert; Povinelli, Michelle L; Kahn, Joseph M; Harris, James S; Fejer, Martin M; Fan, Shanhui

    2011-04-15

    We measure the group delay in an on-chip photonic-crystal device with two resonators side coupled to a waveguide. We demonstrate that such a group delay can be controlled by tuning either the propagation phase of the waveguide or the frequency of the resonators.

  20. MUYANG GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ With its headquarters in the historic city of Yangzhou,Jiangsu Muyang Group Co.,Ltd has since its founding in 1967 grown into a well-known group corporation whose activities cover research&development.project design,manufacturing,installation and services in a multitude of industries including feed machinery and engineering,storage engineering,grain machinery and engineering,environmental protection,conveying equipment and automatic control systems.

  1. Comparison of Serum Zinc Levels among Children with Simple Febrile Seizure and Control Group: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi NASEHI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Nasehi MM, Sakhaei R, Moosazadeh M, Aliramzany M. Comparison of Serum Zinc Levels among Children with Simple Febrile Seizure and Control Group: A Systematic Review. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1:17-24 .AbstractObjectiveSeveral factors are involved in the etiology of febrile seizure (FS, among themis zinc (Zn, which has been discussed in various studies. The present systematic review compares Zn levels in children with FS and a control group.Materials & MethodsWe searched keywords of febrile seizure, febrile convulsion, children, childhood,fever, trace elements, risk factor, predisposing, zinc, Zn, and epilepsy in thefollowing databases: SCOPUS, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The quality ofresearch papers was assessed using a checklist. Data was extracted from primarystudies based on demographic variables and amounts of Zn in case and controlgroups.ResultsTwenty primary studies were entered in the present study. Of which, eighteenstudies, reported that Zn serum levels were significantly lower in the case group(patients with FS than the control group.ConclusionThe present systematic review indicated that Zn is one factor for predicting FS.A low level of this element among children can be regarded as a contributingfactor for FS, a conclusion with a high consensus among different studies carriedout in different parts of the world. ReferencesHeydarian F, Ashrafzadeh F, Ghasemian A. Serum ZINC level in Patients with simple febrile seizure. Iran J Child Neurology 2010; 14(2:41-44.Mahyar A, Pahlavan AA, Varasteh-Nejad A. Serum zinc level in children with febrile seizure. Acta Medica Iranica 2008; 46(6: 477-80.Kunda GK, Rabin F, Nandi ER, Sheikh N, Akhter S. Etiology and Risk Factors of Febrile Seizure – An Update. Bangladesh J Child Health 2010; 34 (3:103-112.Abbaskhaniyan A, Shokrzadeh M, Rafati MR, Mashhadiakabr M, Arab A, Yazdani J. Survey and Relation of Serum Magnesium Level in Children with Seizure. J Mazand Univ

  2. Spiritual Healing in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Exploratory Single Centre, Parallel-Group, Double-Blind, Three-Arm, Randomised, Sham-Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, H.; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard; Hojgaard, L.

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the efficacy of "energy/spiritual healing" in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Eligible patients were women with RA on stable medication. The design was a randomised, blinded, sham-controlled trial; the third group included an external unblinded control of the natural c...

  3. Dual-site phosphorylation of the control of virulence regulator impacts group a streptococcal global gene expression and pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Horstmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation relays are a major mechanism by which bacteria alter transcription in response to environmental signals, but understanding of the functional consequences of bacterial response regulator phosphorylation is limited. We sought to characterize how phosphorylation of the control of virulence regulator (CovR protein from the major human pathogen group A Streptococcus (GAS influences GAS global gene expression and pathogenesis. CovR mainly serves to repress GAS virulence factor-encoding genes and has been shown to homodimerize following phosphorylation on aspartate-53 (D53 in vitro. We discovered that CovR is phosphorylated in vivo and that such phosphorylation is partially heat-stable, suggesting additional phosphorylation at non-aspartate residues. Using mass spectroscopy along with targeted mutagenesis, we identified threonine-65 (T65 as an additional CovR phosphorylation site under control of the serine/threonine kinase (Stk. Phosphorylation on T65, as mimicked by the recombinant CovR T65E variant, abolished in vitro CovR D53 phosphorylation. Similarly, isoallelic GAS strains that were either unable to be phosphorylated at D53 (CovR-D53A or had functional constitutive phosphorylation at T65 (CovR-T65E had essentially an identical gene repression profile to each other and to a CovR-inactivated strain. However, the CovR-D53A and CovR-T65E isoallelic strains retained the ability to positively influence gene expression that was abolished in the CovR-inactivated strain. Consistent with these observations, the CovR-D53A and CovR-T65E strains were hypervirulent compared to the CovR-inactivated strain in a mouse model of invasive GAS disease. Surprisingly, an isoalleic strain unable to be phosphorylated at CovR T65 (CovR-T65A was hypervirulent compared to the wild-type strain, as auto-regulation of covR gene expression resulted in lower covR gene transcript and CovR protein levels in the CovR-T65A strain. Taken together, these data

  4. The effects of a group based stress treatment program (the Kalmia concept) targeting stress reduction and return to work. A randomized, wait-list controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Friebel, Lene; Ladegaard, Yun Katrine

    2012-01-01

    of an integrative approach of group psychotherapy for 2.5 hours per week and Basic Body Awareness Therapy (BBAT) with mindfulness meditation for 1.5 hours per week, which runs in a parallel process supplemented with workplace dialogue; the treatment-as-usual control group (TAUCG, 71 participants), who received 12...... consultations with a psychologist; and the wait-listed control group (WLCG, 58 participants). Treatment in the IG and the TAUCG lasted 10 and 12 weeks, respectively. Results Reductions in symptom levels (as measured by scores on the SCL92) were significantly larger in the IG (Cohen�s d= 0.73) and TAUCG compared...

  5. The incidence of disability pensions and mortality among semi-skilled construction workers in Copenhagen. A retrospective cohort study with two control groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damlund, M; Gøth, S; Hasle, P

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to discover whether the incidence of disability pensions and mortality was higher amongst semi-skilled construction workers (SCW) in Copenhagen than in two control groups from the same geographic area. The population investigated consisted of a fixed cohort of 3537...... SCW from Copenhagen as per 1/5/1975. The two control groups comprised 3818 Copenhagen members of the Warehouse Workers' union and a group of Copenhagen members of the Semi-skilled Worker's Union age-matched to the SCW cohort, both as per 1/5/75. Up to 31/12/79, a total of 102 SCW were granted...

  6. Weight Loss Maintenance for 2 Years after a 6-Month Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing Education-Only and Group-Based Support in Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Nakata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our previous study, a 6-month randomised controlled trial, demonstrated that a group-based support promoted weight loss as compared to an education-only intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine weight loss maintenance for 2 years. Methods: Originally, 188 overweight Japanese adults, aged 40-65 years, were randomly assigned to 3 groups: control, education-only or group-based support. After the 6-month intervention, 125 participants in the education-only and the group-based support groups were followed up for 2 years. The primary outcome was the amount of weight lost. The participants were retrospectively grouped into quartiles of percent weight loss for secondary analyses. Results: At the end of follow-up, the amount of weight lost in the education-only and the group-based support groups was the same (3.3 kg. Secondary analyses using data of those who completed the study (n = 100 revealed that the participants in the highest quartile of percent weight loss significantly increased their step counts and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity compared with the lowest quartile. No significant differences were observed in the energy intake among the four groups. Conclusion: The effects of group-based support disappear within 2 years. Increasing physical activity may be a crucial factor for successful maintenance of weight loss.

  7. Cognitive cooperation groups mediated by computers and internet present significant improvement of cognitive status in older adults with memory complaints: a controlled prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Rosso Krug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the effect of participating in cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE percent variation of outpatients with memory complaints attending two memory clinics. Methods A prospective controlled intervention study carried out from 2006 to 2013 with 293 elders. The intervention group (n = 160 attended a cognitive cooperation group (20 sessions of 1.5 hours each. The control group (n = 133 received routine medical care. Outcome was the percent variation in the MMSE. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, schooling, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypothyroidism, depression, vascular diseases, polymedication, use of benzodiazepines, exposure to tobacco, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and functional capacity. The final model was obtained by multivariate linear regression. Results The intervention group obtained an independent positive variation of 24.39% (CI 95% = 14.86/33.91 in the MMSE compared to the control group. Conclusion The results suggested that cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, are associated with cognitive status improvement of older adults in memory clinics.

  8. Control Grouped Pedagogical Experiment to Test the Performance of Second-generation Web Maps and the Traditional Maps at the University of Debrecen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Balla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost every component of the information society is influenced by elements built on communication technology. Learning also tends to be related to the dynamic usage of computers. Nowadays, a number of applications (online or offline are also available that engage large groups of potential users and simultaneously provide a virtual environment to facilitate learning. This study introduces the self-developed interactive blind map teaching-examining e-learning system of the University of Debrecen. Results of testing the system with a control group are also presented.Both experimental and control groups of students were required to sita test of topographic knowledge following a semester of study. The pass mark for the test was 80%. The experimental group used the new digital environment to study, while the control group prepared for their exam using paper maps in the traditional way. The key research questions addressed by the study were to determine whether exam results obtained by the group using the ‘digital’ method better than those of the control's; and if there were a difference between the exam performances of the two groups, was this statistically significant and, therefore, likely to occur in other similar scenarios?

  9. Cognitive cooperation groups mediated by computers and internet present significant improvement of cognitive status in older adults with memory complaints: a controlled prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Rodrigo de Rosso; Silva, Anna Quialheiro Abreu da; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Xavier, André Junqueira

    2017-04-01

    To estimate the effect of participating in cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) percent variation of outpatients with memory complaints attending two memory clinics. A prospective controlled intervention study carried out from 2006 to 2013 with 293 elders. The intervention group (n = 160) attended a cognitive cooperation group (20 sessions of 1.5 hours each). The control group (n = 133) received routine medical care. Outcome was the percent variation in the MMSE. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, schooling, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypothyroidism, depression, vascular diseases, polymedication, use of benzodiazepines, exposure to tobacco, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and functional capacity. The final model was obtained by multivariate linear regression. The intervention group obtained an independent positive variation of 24.39% (CI 95% = 14.86/33.91) in the MMSE compared to the control group. The results suggested that cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, are associated with cognitive status improvement of older adults in memory clinics.

  10. The effect of peer-group size on the delivery of feedback in basic life support refresher training: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngsuk; Je, Sangmo; Yoon, Yoo Sang; Roh, Hye Rin; Chang, Chulho; Kang, Hyunggoo; Lim, Taeho

    2016-07-04

    Students are largely providing feedback to one another when instructor facilitates peer feedback rather than teaching in group training. The number of students in a group affect the learning of students in the group training. We aimed to investigate whether a larger group size increases students' test scores on a post-training test with peer feedback facilitated by instructor after video-guided basic life support (BLS) refresher training. Students' one-rescuer adult BLS skills were assessed by a 2-min checklist-based test 1 year after the initial training. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of student number in a group on BLS refresher training. Participants included 115 final-year medical students undergoing their emergency medicine clerkship. The median number of students was 8 in the large groups and 4 in the standard group. The primary outcome was to examine group differences in post-training test scores after video-guided BLS training. Secondary outcomes included the feedback time, number of feedback topics, and results of end-of-training evaluation questionnaires. Scores on the post-training test increased over three consecutive tests with instructor-led peer feedback, but not differ between large and standard groups. The feedback time was longer and number of feedback topics generated by students were higher in standard groups compared to large groups on the first and second tests. The end-of-training questionnaire revealed that the students in large groups preferred the smaller group size compared to their actual group size. In this BLS refresher training, the instructor-led group feedback increased the test score after tutorial video-guided BLS learning, irrespective of the group size. A smaller group size allowed more participations in peer feedback.

  11. 基于PLC和触摸屏的电梯群控系统设计%Design of elevator group control system based on PLC and touch screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梅; 何福贵; 张力展

    2013-01-01

    In allusion to two four-story group control elevators,the implementation procedure of elevator group control based on PLC and touch screen is presented in this paper. The control for single elevator is described,mainly including elevator leveling processing,touch screen control and display. On the basis of single elevator control,the structure for the elevator group control system with PLC,touch screen,frequency converter is offered;the communication setting between PLCs,elevator level-ing processing and scheduling algorithm of group control elevator.%针对具体的二座四层群控电梯,描述了基于PLC和触摸屏的电梯群控的实现过程。针对单梯控制,主要叙述了电梯平层的处理,触摸屏控制和显示的结构和工程设计。在此基础上,给出了基于触摸屏、PLC、变频器的电梯群控的系统结构,叙述了群控电梯PLC组之间的通信设定、群控电梯平层的处理、电梯群控调度算法,并进行了不断优化。

  12. Do educational meetings and group detailing change adherence to drug formularies in hospitals? A cluster randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plet, Hanne T.; Kjeldsen, Lene J.; Christensen, René Depont;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether educational meetings and group detailing could increase the use of drugs from the ward lists or the drug formulary in hospitals.......The aim of this study was to examine whether educational meetings and group detailing could increase the use of drugs from the ward lists or the drug formulary in hospitals....

  13. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study – a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Lisa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits. Methods The study was a randomized controlled intervention study. From a general Danish population, aged 30 to 60 years (n = 61,301, two random sample were drawn (group A, n = 11,708; group B, n = 1,308. Subjects were invited for a health screening program. Participation rate was 52.5%. All participants received individual life-style counselling. Individuals at high risk of ischemic heart disease in group A were furthermore offered group-based life-style counselling. The intervention was repeated for high-risk individuals after one and three years. At five-year follow-up all participants were invited for a health examination. High risk individuals were included in this study (n = 2 356 and changes in dietary intake were analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses. Results At one-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio compared to group B and in men a significantly greater decrease in saturated fat intake was found in group A compared to group B (net change: -1.13 E%; P = 0.003. No differences were found between group A and B at three-year follow-up. At five-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio (net change: 0.09; P = 0.01 and the fish intake compared to group B (net change: 5.4 g/day; P = 0.05. Further, in men a non-significant tendency of a greater decrease was found at five year follow-up in group A compared to group B (net change: -0.68 E%; P = 0.10. The intake of fibre and vegetables increased in both groups, however, no significant difference was found between the groups. No differences between groups were found for saturated fat

  14. Comparing Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy and 12-Steps Narcotics Anonymous in Addict’s Rehabilitation Process: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Azkhosh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran.Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz. Sixty individuals were evaluated according to inclusion/ exclusion criteria and were divided into three equal groups randomly (20 participants per group. One group received acceptance and commitment group therapy (Twelve 90-minute sessions and the other group was provided with the 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous program and the control group received the usual methadone maintenance treatment. During the treatment process, seven participants dropped out. Data were collected using the psychological well-being questionnaire and AAQ questionnaire in the three groups at pre-test, post-test and follow-up visits. Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance.Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance revealed that the mean difference between the three groups was significant (P<0.05 and that acceptance and commitment therapy group showed improvement relative to the NA and control groups on psychological well-being and psychological flexibility.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that acceptance and commitment therapy can be helpful in enhancing positive emotions and increasing psychological well-being of addicts who seek treatment.

  15. Comparing Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy and 12-Steps Narcotics Anonymous in Addict’s Rehabilitation Process: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkhosh, Manoochehr; Farhoudianm, Ali; Saadati, Hemn; Shoaee, Fateme; Lashani, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran. Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz. Sixty individuals were evaluated according to inclusion/ exclusion criteria and were divided into three equal groups randomly (20 participants per group). One group received acceptance and commitment group therapy (Twelve 90-minute sessions) and the other group was provided with the 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous program and the control group received the usual methadone maintenance treatment. During the treatment process, seven participants dropped out. Data were collected using the psychological well-being questionnaire and AAQ questionnaire in the three groups at pre-test, post-test and follow-up visits. Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance revealed that the mean difference between the three groups was significant (Pacceptance and commitment therapy group showed improvement relative to the NA and control groups on psychological well-being and psychological flexibility. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that acceptance and commitment therapy can be helpful in enhancing positive emotions and increasing psychological well-being of addicts who seek treatment. PMID:28050185

  16. Effect of aerobic exercise on peripheral nerve functions of population with diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes: a single blind, parallel group randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Snehil; Maiya, Arun G; Shastry, B A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of moderate intensity aerobic exercise (40%-60% of Heart Rate Reserve (HRR)) on diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A parallel-group, randomized controlled trial was carried out in a tertiary health care setting, India. The study comprised of experimental (moderate intensity aerobic exercise and standard care) and control groups (standard care). Population with type 2 diabetes with clinical neuropathy, defined as a minimum score of seven on the Michigan Diabetic Neuropathy Score (MDNS), was randomly assigned to experimental and control groups by computer generated random number tables. RANOVA was used for data analysis (pexercises can play a valuable role to disrupt the normal progression of DPN in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A randomized, controlled clinical trial of standard, group and brief cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder with agoraphobia: a two-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, André; Roberge, Pasquale; Primiano, Sandra; Germain, Vanessa

    2009-12-01

    A randomized controlled clinical trial with a wait-list control group was conducted to examine the effectiveness of three modalities (brief, group, and standard) of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for panic disorder with agoraphobia. A total of 100 participants meeting DSM-IV criteria were randomly assigned to each treatment condition: a 14-session standard CBT (n=33), a 14-session group CBT (n=35) and a 7-session brief CBT (n=32). Participants received a self-study manual and were assigned weekly readings and exercises. The results indicate that regardless of the treatment condition, CBT for moderate to severe PDA is beneficial in medium and long term. To this effect, all three-treatment conditions significantly reduced the intensity of symptoms, increased participants' quality of life, offered high effect sizes, superior maintenance of gains over time, and lower rates of relapse, compared to the wait-list control.

  18. Economic Evaluation of a Multifaceted Implementation Strategy for the Prevention of Hand Eczema Among Healthcare Workers in Comparison with a Control Group: The Hands4U Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Esther W C; van Dongen, Johanna M; Boot, Cécile R L; van der Gulden, Joost W J; Bosmans, Judith E; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy for the prevention of hand eczema in comparison with a control group among healthcare workers. A total of 48 departments (n=1,649) were randomly allocated to the implementation strategy or the control group. Data on hand eczema and costs were collected at baseline and every 3 months. Cost-effectiveness analyses were performed using linear multilevel analyses. The probability of the implementation strategy being cost-effective gradually increased with an increasing willingness-to-pay, to 0.84 at a ceiling ratio of €590,000 per person with hand eczema prevented (societal perspective). The implementation strategy appeared to be not cost-effective in comparison with the control group (societal perspective), nor was it cost-beneficial to the employer. However, this study had some methodological problems which should be taken into account when interpreting the results.

  19. Effects of a Topical Saffron (Crocus sativus L) Gel on Erectile Dysfunction in Diabetics: A Randomized, Parallel-Group, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh-Moghadam, Hossein; Nazari, Seyed Mohammad; Shamsa, Ali; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Esmaeeli, Habibollah; Asadpour, Amir Abbas; Khajavi, Abdoljavad

    2015-10-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a man's persistent or recurrent inability to achieve and maintain erection for a satisfactory sexual relationship. As diabetes is a major risk factor for erectile dysfunction, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction among diabetic men has been reported as 35% to 90%. This randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effects of a topical saffron (Crocus sativus L) gel on erectile dysfunction in diabetic men. Patients were randomly allocated to 2 equal groups (with 25 patients each). The intervention group was treated with topical saffron, and the control received a similar treatment with placebo. The 2 groups were assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire before the intervention and 1 month after the intervention. Compared to placebo, the prepared saffron gel could significantly improve erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients (P saffron can be considered as a treatment option for diabetic men with erectile dysfunction.

  20. Comparison of mental distress in patients with low back pain and a population-based control group measured by Symptoms Check List

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan; Fisker, Annette; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to compare mental symptoms and distress as measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 in sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed patients with low back pain with a population-based control group. METHODS: Mental distress was compared in a group of patients with low back pain (n......=770) and a randomly selected population-based reference group (n=909). Established Danish cut-off values for mental distress were used to evaluate the mental distress status in the low back pain and control group and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the Global Severity Index......PURPOSE: Mental distress is common in persons experiencing low back pain and who are sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed. It is, however, not known how mental distress measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 differs between patients with low back pain and the general population...

  1. The controllability of the pure states for the Morse potential with a dynamical group SU(1,1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Shihai; Lara-Rosano, F.; Sun Guohua

    2004-05-17

    The controllability of a quantum system for the Morse potential with the discrete bound states is investigated. The transition operators are constructed by factorization method and associated to an su(1,1) algebra. We demonstrate that this quantum system with the discrete bound states can be strongly completely controlled.

  2. Peer-Based Control in Self-Managing Teams: Linking Rational and Normative Influence with Individual and Group Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Greg L.; Courtright, Stephen H.; Barrick, Murray R.

    2012-01-01

    The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how "peer-based rational control", which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and interacts with…

  3. Peer-Based Control in Self-Managing Teams: Linking Rational and Normative Influence with Individual and Group Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Greg L.; Courtright, Stephen H.; Barrick, Murray R.

    2012-01-01

    The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how "peer-based rational control", which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and…

  4. Peer-Based Control in Self-Managing Teams: Linking Rational and Normative Influence with Individual and Group Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Greg L.; Courtright, Stephen H.; Barrick, Murray R.

    2012-01-01

    The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how "peer-based rational control", which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and…

  5. What Makes Group MET Work? A Randomized Controlled Trial of College Student Drinkers in Mandated Alcohol Diversion

    OpenAIRE

    LaChance, Heather; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Angela D. Bryan; Kent E. Hutchison

    2009-01-01

    Nationally, college drinkers exhibit the highest rates of alcohol consumption and represent the largest percentage of problem drinkers. Group motivational enhancement therapy (GMET) has been found to catalyze problem drinking reductions among college student samples. While research supporting the use of single-session GMET in college samples (general and mandated) is emergent, no studies have evaluated a comprehensive model of the potential active ingredients of this group intervention. Colle...

  6. Cochlear and brainstem audiologic findings in normal hearing tinnitus subjects in comparison with non-tinnitus control group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadman Nemati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While most tinnitus cases have some degree of hearing impairment, a small percent of the patients admitted to Ear, Nose and Throat Clinics or Hearing Evaluation Centers are those who complain of tinnitus despite having normal hearing thresholds. Present study was performed in order to better understanding of the probable causes of tinnitus and to investigate possible changes in the cochlear and auditory brainstem function in normal hearing patients with chronic tinnitus. Altogether, 63 ears (31 ears with tinnitus and 32 ears without tinnitus were examined. The prevalence of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and characteristics of the auditory brainstem response components including wave latencies and wave amplitudes was determined in the two groups and analyzed with appropriate statistical methods. There was no difference between the prevalence of transient evoked emissions in the two groups. The mean difference between absolute latencies of waves I, III and V was less than 0.1 ms between the two groups that were not statistically significant. Also, the interpeak latency values of I-III, III-V and I-V in both groups had no significant difference. Only the V/I amplitude ratio in the tinnitus group was significantly larger than the other group (p =0.04. The changes observed in amplitude of waves, especially in the later ones, can be considered as an Audiologic finding in normal hearing tinnitus subjects and its possible role in generation of tinnitus in these patients must be investigated.

  7. Cochlear and brainstem audiologic findings in normal hearing tinnitus subjects in comparison with non-tinnitus control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Shadman; Faghih Habibi, Ali; Panahi, Rasool; Pastadast, Masoomeh

    2014-01-01

    While most tinnitus cases have some degree of hearing impairment, a small percent of the patients admitted to Ear, Nose and Throat Clinics or Hearing Evaluation Centers are those who complain of tinnitus despite having normal hearing thresholds. Present study was performed in order to better understanding of the probable causes of tinnitus and to investigate possible changes in the cochlear and auditory brainstem function in normal hearing patients with chronic tinnitus. Altogether, 63 ears (31 ears with tinnitus and 32 ears without tinnitus) were examined. The prevalence of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and characteristics of the auditory brainstem response components including wave latencies and wave amplitudes was determined in the two groups and analyzed with appropriate statistical methods. There was no difference between the prevalence of transient evoked emissions in the two groups. The mean difference between absolute latencies of waves I, III and V was less than 0.1 ms between the two groups that were not statistically significant. Also, the interpeak latency values of I-III, III-V and I-V in both groups had no significant difference. Only the V/I amplitude ratio in the tinnitus group was significantly larger than the other group (p =0.04). The changes observed in amplitude of waves, especially in the later ones, can be considered as an Audiologic finding in normal hearing tinnitus subjects and its possible role in generation of tinnitus in these patients must be investigated.

  8. The effect of group training on pregnancy-induced lumbopelvic pain: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Since there is lack of up to date consensus exists as to whether group training is effective in improving lumbopelvic pain (LPP) after pregnancy, a review of the recent evidences is needed. To determine the effect of group exercise training for the management of LPP among pregnant women compared with usual antenatal care. An electronic database search for relevant randomized control trials published in English from 2006 to 2015 was conducted. Articles with outcome measures of self-reported LP...

  9. Effectiveness of TB sensitization initiatives in improving the involvement of self help group members in rural TB control in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Beena; Priscilla Rebecca, B; Dhanalakshmi, A; Rani, S; Deepa Lakshmi, A; Watson, Basilea; Vijayalakshmi, R; Muniyandi, M; Karikalan, N

    2016-12-01

    The 'End TB strategy' has highlighted the importance of inter-sectoral collaboration and community mobilization for achieving zero TB deaths by 2020. The aim of the study was to develop and test a model TB sensitization programme involving self help groups (SHGs). This experimental study was conducted in two blocks (intervention and control), in Tiruvallur district. The intervention content included short-lecture, musical story telling activity, role play, short film on TB. The impact was compared at baseline, third and sixth months in terms of SHGs' awareness, promotion of awareness, identification and referral of presumptive TB cases and provision of TB treatment. A total of 764 vs 796 SHGs were enrolled in control and intervention groups, respectively. The knowledge attitude, and practice score (lower score indicated a better attitude and practice), from baseline to 6 months was significantly reduced (29 to 24) in the intervention group. Similarly, a significant difference was observed in identification and referral of chest symptomatics in the intervention group at 3 and 6 months. During the 3 month follow-up a significantly higher proportion of SHG members were involved in TB awareness activities in the intervention (623/748 [83.3%]) vs control group (471/728 [64.7%]; pTB sensitization program for strengthening TB prevention and control activities.

  10. Effect of cognitive behavioral group therapy for recovery of self-esteem on community-living individuals with mental illness: Non-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunikata, Hiroko; Yoshinaga, Naoki; Nakajima, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine over a 12-month post-intervention period whether the participation of community-living individuals with mental illness in cognitive behavioral group therapy for recovery of self-esteem (CBGTRS) resulted in improved outcomes. This was a non-randomized controlled trial. The participants were persons with mental illness who resided in communities in the Chugoku region of Japan. In total, 41 were assigned to an experimental group (CBGTRS intervention, 12 group sessions), and 21 to a control group. Outcome indices (self-esteem, moods, cognition, subjective well-being, psychiatric symptoms) were measured for the experimental group prior to intervention (T0), immediately post-intervention (T1), and at 3 (T2) and 12 (T3) months post-intervention. The control group was measured at the same intervals. For the experimental group, self-esteem scores at T1, T2, and T3 were significantly higher than at T0. Moods and cognition scores remained significantly low until T2. Scores for Inadequate Mental Mastery in the subjective well-being index had not decreased by T3. Confidence in Coping remained significantly high until T2. Psychiatric symptoms scores at T0, T1, T2, and T3 were significantly lower than at T0. The means and standard errors for self-esteem and Inadequate Mental Mastery increased until T3, and those for Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, and Confusion decreased until T2. From within-group trends and between-group differences in self-esteem, we conclude that CBGTRS may have a relatively long-term effect on self-esteem recovery. T2 is the turning point for moods and cognition; thus, follow-up is needed 3 months following the initial program. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. Group Anonymity

    CERN Document Server

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  12. Small Cause, Great Impact: Modification of the Guanidine Group in the RGD Motif Controls Integrin Subtype Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Tobias G; Fottner, Maximilian; Maltsev, Oleg V; Kessler, Horst

    2016-01-22

    Due to its unique role as a hydrogen-bond donor and its positive charge, the guanidine group is an important pharmacophoric group and often used in synthetic ligands. The chemical modification of the guanidine group is often considered to destroy its function. Herein, we show that the N-methylation, N-alkylation, or N-acylation of the guanidine group can be used to modify the receptor subtype specificity of the integrin ligand cilengitide. Using the αvβ6/α5β1-biselective ligand c(isoDGRkphg) and the αvβ6-specific ligand c(FRGDLAFp(NMe)K(Ac) as examples, we show that the binding affinities of the ligands can be fine-tuned by this method to enhance the selectivity for αvβ6. Furthermore, we describe a new strategy for the functionalization of integrin ligands. By introducing longer N-alkylguanidine and N-acylguanidine groups, we are able to simultaneously identify a hitherto unknown anchoring point and enhance the subtype selectivity of the ligand.

  13. Test materials for discipline «Psychology of management». Section 3. Working group as an object of control

    OpenAIRE

    Doroshina I. G.

    2011-01-01

    The author has developed tests to test knowledge of students for the subject «Psychology of Management». Tests can be used as an intermediate or final control, as well as for students' independent work.

  14. 谈集团公司财务控制%Discussion on Financial Control in Group Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    居菁

    2011-01-01

    Financial control is an important part of financial management, this paper analyzes the meaning and objectives of financial control,financial control necessary for the implementation of the basic conditions and other aspects, combined with my the actual situation in financial management company, the financial control is elaborated briefly.%财务控制是企业财务管理的重要内容,本文从分析财务控制的含义及目标、实施财务控制所需具备的基本条件等方面入手,结合本人所在集团公司财务管理工作的实际情况,对财务控制加以简单阐述.

  15. One-Year Follow-Up of the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Patients’ Depression: A Randomized, Single-Blinded, Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jo Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term (one year effectiveness of a 12-session weekly cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT on patients with depression. This was a single-blind randomized controlled study with a 2-arm parallel group design. Eighty-one subjects were randomly assigned to 12 sessions intervention group (CBGT or control group (usual outpatient psychiatric care group and 62 completed the study. The primary outcome was depression measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD. The secondary outcomes were automatic thoughts measured by automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ. Both groups were evaluated at the pretest (before 2 weeks, posttest (after 12 therapy sessions, and short- (3 months, medium- (6 months, and long-term (12 months follow-up. After receiving CBGT, the experimental group had a statistically significant reduction in the BDI-II from 40.30 at baseline to 17.82 points at session eight and to 10.17 points at postintervention (P<0.001. Similar effects were seen on the HRSD. ATQ significantly decreased at the 12th session, 6 months after sessions, and 1 year after the sessions ended (P<0.001. We concluded that CBGT is effective for reducing depression and continued to be effective at 1 year of follow-up.

  16. One-Year Follow-Up of the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Patients' Depression: A Randomized, Single-Blinded, Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kai-Jo; Chen, Tsai-Hui; Hsieh, Hsiu-Tsu; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term (one year) effectiveness of a 12-session weekly cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT) on patients with depression. This was a single-blind randomized controlled study with a 2-arm parallel group design. Eighty-one subjects were randomly assigned to 12 sessions intervention group (CBGT) or control group (usual outpatient psychiatric care group) and 62 completed the study. The primary outcome was depression measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD). The secondary outcomes were automatic thoughts measured by automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ). Both groups were evaluated at the pretest (before 2 weeks), posttest (after 12 therapy sessions), and short- (3 months), medium- (6 months), and long-term (12 months) follow-up. After receiving CBGT, the experimental group had a statistically significant reduction in the BDI-II from 40.30 at baseline to 17.82 points at session eight and to 10.17 points at postintervention (P session, 6 months after sessions, and 1 year after the sessions ended (P < 0.001). We concluded that CBGT is effective for reducing depression and continued to be effective at 1 year of follow-up.

  17. Reducing menopausal symptoms for women during the menopause transition using group education in a primary health care setting-a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindner, Lena; Strömme, Gunilla; Nordeman, Lena; Hange, Dominique; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Rembeck, Gun

    2017-04-01

    Women's physical and mental ill-health shows a marked increase during menopause, which usually occurs between 45 and 55 years of age. Mental illness and somatic symptoms are common causes of long-term sick leave. Women suffer from a lack of knowledge about the menopause transition and its associated symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate whether group education for women in primary health care (PHC) about the menopause transition can improve their physical and mental ill-health. This randomized controlled study was conducted in PHC and aimed to evaluate a group education programme for women aged 45-55 years, around the menopause transition. A total of 131 women were randomized to group education or no intervention. The group intervention included two education sessions with topics related to menopause. They answered two questionnaires at baseline and at four-month follow-up: the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Change in MRS and MADRS scores over the four months. The intervention group experienced a slight reduction in symptoms while the control group mostly experienced the opposite. This study showed that it was feasible to implement group education on menopause for women aged 45-55 years. NTC02852811. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of a Community-Based Intervention Program to Reduce Hypertension Prevalence Among Adults: Results of a Quasiexperimental Study With Control Group in the Region of Sousse, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Jihene; Maatoug, Jihene; Harrabi, Imed; Ben Fredj, Sihem; Dendana, Emna; Ghannem, Hassen

    2016-03-01

    High blood pressure is preventable and is directly related to lifestyle habits such as an unbalanced diet, low levels of physical activity, and tobacco use. This quasiexperimental study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a 3-year community intervention targeting healthy lifestyle promotion in reducing hypertension prevalence among adults. A quasiexperimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a 3-year intervention for healthy lifestyle that was implemented between 2010 and 2013 in a community of adults in the region of Sousse in Tunisia. The population study was randomly selected in both intervention and control groups at pre-assessment and post-assessment. After considering a type 1 error α of 5%, a type 2 error β of 20%, and a change in the prevalence of various risk factors of 6% between pre-intervention and post-intervention, the sample size was fixed to 2,000 adults in intervention and control areas. The intervention group was composed of 940 and 1,001 adults, and the control group was composed of 940 and 976, respectively, at pre-assessment and post-assessment. The prevalence of hypertension decreased in the intervention group globally from 37.3% to 33.7% but not significantly (p = 0.1). In the control group, this proportion increased from 31.1% to 33.4% without significant difference (p = 0.28). In the intervention group, after stratification for age, a significant decrease (p = 0.007) in the prevalence of hypertension was observed for participants younger than 40 years old: it decreased from 22.8% to 16.2%. In the control group, it increased from 14% to 15.4% (p = 0.52). In intervention group, a significant decrease of the hypertension from 31.4% to 26% (p = 0.03) was observed among nonobese participants after stratification for weight status. No significant change was observed in the control group. This study showed the feasibility and effectiveness of a community-based intervention to reduce the prevalence of hypertension in the context

  19. Reducing substance involvement in college students: a three-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial of a computer-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoff, Adriana de Oliveira; Boerngen-Lacerda, Roseli

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of alcohol and other drug use is high among college students. Reducing their consumption will likely be beneficial for society as a whole. Computer and web-based interventions are promising for providing behaviorally based information. The present study compared the efficacy of three interventions (computerized screening and motivational intervention [ASSIST/MBIc], non-computerized screening and motivational intervention [ASSIST/MBIi], and screening only [control]) in college students in Curitiba, Brazil. A convenience sample of 458 students scored moderate and high risk on the ASSIST. They were then randomized into the three arms of the randomized controlled trial (ASSIST/MBIc, ASSIST/MBIi [interview], and assessment-only [control]) and assessed at baseline and 3 months later. The ASSIST involvement scores decreased at follow-up compared with baseline in the three groups, suggesting that any intervention is better than no intervention. For alcohol, the specific involvement scores decreased to a low level of risk in the three groups and the MBIc group showed a positive outcome compared with control, and the scores for each question were reduced in the two intervention groups compared to baseline. For tobacco, involvement scores decreased in the three groups, but they maintained moderate risk. For marijuana, a small positive effect was observed in the ASSIST/MBIi and control groups. The ASSIST/MBIc may be a good alternative to interview interventions because it is easy to administer, students frequently use such computer-based technologies, and individually tailored content can be delivered in the absence of a counselor.

  20. Effects of resource-building group intervention on career management and mental health in work organizations: randomized controlled field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Jukka; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla; Mutanen, Pertti

    2012-03-01

    A resource-building group intervention was developed to enhance career management, mental health, and job retention in work organizations. The in-company training program provided employees with better preparedness to manage their own careers. The program activities were universally implemented using an organization-level, 2-trainer model with trainers from the human resources management and occupational health services. The study was a within-organizations, randomly assigned field experimental study; it investigated the impacts of the intervention on immediate career management preparedness and later mental health and intentions to retire early. A total of 718 eligible individuals returned a questionnaire in 17 organizations and became voluntary participants. The respondents were randomly assigned to either an intervention (N = 369) or a comparison group (N = 349). Those in the intervention group were invited to group intervention workshops, whereas those in the comparison group received printed information about career and health-related issues. The 7-month follow-up results showed that the program significantly decreased depressive symptoms and intentions to retire early and increased mental resources among the group participants compared to the others. The mediation analyses demonstrated that the increase in career management preparedness as a proximal impact of the intervention mediated the longer term mental health effects. Those who benefited most from the intervention as regards their mental health were employees with elevated levels of depression or exhaustion and younger employees, implying additional benefits of a more targeted use of the intervention. The results demonstrated the benefits of the enhancement of individual-level career management and resilience resources as career and health promotion practice in work organizations.

  1. Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

  2. A New Scheduling Strategy of Elevator Group Control Based on Pdf Control%一种新的基于PDF控制的电梯群控调度策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴贵芳; 吴胜

    2012-01-01

    For the nondeterminacy of transportation characteristics in the elevator group control scheduling process, a elevator group control system model is established including the shortest waiting time, the shortest syndrome ladder by ladder time and at least energy consumption, and a scheduling strategy of elevator group control based on PDF control is presented which can content the requirement of a adapt elevator group control performance. The algorithm was improved to achieve better dispatching result, and simulation experiment finally. The simulation results show that this method compared with other algorithms in elevator group control scheduling performance and traffic model's adaptability has greatly improved.%针对电梯群控调度过程中交通特性的不确定性,建立了包括最短候梯时间,最短乘梯时间和最少能耗的电梯群控系统的模型,提出了一种适应电梯群控性能需求的伪微分反馈控制算法,并对算法进行改进来达到更好的调度效果,最后进行仿真实验.仿真结果表明该方法与其他算法相比在电梯群控调度性能和交通模式的适应性方面有较大的改善.

  3. 26 CFR 1.1563-1 - Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manner specified by another shareholder in the corporation, the voting rights possessed by the stock... 100 (ii) Any group of five of the shareholders will own more than 50 percent of the stock in each...; 10% value. (ii) No other shareholder of X owns (or is considered to own) any stock in Y. X and Y...

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Group and Internet Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Adolescents : Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.J.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Meijer, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate cost-effectiveness of adolescent cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) in group- and Internet-delivered formats, from a societal perspective with a time horizon of 1 y Methods: Costs and effects data up to 1-y follow-up were obtained from a randomized cont

  5. Metoprolol in acute myocardial infarction (MIAMI). A randomised placebo-controlled international trial. The MIAMI Trial Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    The effect of metoprolol on mortality and morbidity after 15 days, was compared with that of placebo in a double-blind randomised international trial (the MIAMI trial) in patients with definite or suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Treatment with intravenous metoprolol (15 mg) or placebo was started shortly after the patient's arrival in hospital within 24 h of the onset of symptoms, and then oral treatment (200 mg daily) was continued for the study period (15 days). Of the 5778 patients included, 2901 were allocated to placebo and 2877 to metoprolol. Definite AMI was confirmed in 4127 patients. There were 142 deaths in the placebo group (4.9%) and 123 deaths in the metoprolol group (4.3%), a difference of 13 per cent with 95 per cent confidence limits of -8 to +33 per cent, not statistically significant (P = 0.29). Previously recorded risk indicators of mortality were analysed in retrospect. These indicated that there was a category which showed higher risk which contained approximately 30% of all randomized patients. In these, the mortality rate in the metoprolol treated group was 29% less than in the placebo group. In the remaining lower risk categories there was no difference between the treatment groups. This subset analysis must be interpreted with caution in view of the findings from other similar studies. Positive effects were observed on the incidence of definite AMI and on serum enzyme activity in patients treated early (less than 7 h). There was no significant effect on ventricular fibrillation but the number of episodes tended to be lower in the metoprolol treated patients during the later phase (6-15 days; 24 vs 54 episodes). The incidence of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, the use of cardiac glycosides and other antiarrhythmics, and the need for pain-relieving treatment were significantly diminished by metoprolol amongst all randomised patients. Adverse events associated with metoprolol were infrequent, expected, and relatively mild.

  6. Short-term intensive psychodynamic group therapy versus cognitive-behavioral group therapy in day treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive or personality disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszek, Hubert; Holas, Paweł; Wyrzykowski, Tomasz; Lorentzen, Steinar; Kokoszka, Andrzej

    2015-07-29

    Psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral group therapies are frequently applied in day hospitals for the treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive or personality disorders in Poland and other Eastern European countries. Yet there is not enough evidence as to their effectiveness in this environment; this study addresses this gap. The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of these two kinds of day treatment care consisting of intensive, short-term group psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy, for patients with anxiety disorders and/or comorbid depressive or personality disorders. Our objectives are to: 1) show the effectiveness of each treatment in a day-care setting relative to the wait-list control group; 2) demonstrate the relative short- and long-term effectiveness of the two active treatments; 3) carry out a preliminary examination of the predictors and moderators of treatment response; 4) carry out a preliminary examination of the mediators of therapeutic change; and 5) compare the impact of both methods of treatment on the outcome of the measures used in this study. In this randomized controlled trial, a total of 199 patients with anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive and/or personality disorders will be assigned to one of three conditions: 1) psychodynamic group therapy; 2) cognitive-behavioral group therapy; or 3) wait-list control group. The therapy will last 12 weeks. Both treatments will be manualized (the manuals will address comorbidity). Primary outcome measures will include self-reported symptoms of anxiety, observer-rated symptoms of anxiety, global improvement, and recovery rate. Secondary outcome measures will include the number of pathological personality traits, depression, self-esteem, defense mechanisms, beliefs about self and others, interpersonal problems, object relations, parental bonding, meta-cognition, and quality of life. Measures will be taken at baseline, post-treatment, and at six months following

  7. Japanese Wolves are Genetically Divided into Two Groups Based on an 8-Nucleotide Insertion/Deletion within the mtDNA Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Naotaka; Inoshima, Yasuo; Yanai, Tokuma; Sasaki, Motoki; Matsui, Akira; Kikuchi, Hiroki; Maruyama, Masashi; Hongo, Hitomi; Vostretsov, Yuri E; Gasilin, Viatcheslav; Kosintsev, Pavel A; Quanjia, Chen; Chunxue, Wang

    2016-02-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (198- to 598-bp) of four ancient Canis specimens (two Canis mandibles, a cranium, and a first phalanx) was examined, and each specimen was genetically identified as Japanese wolf. Two unique nucleotide substitutions, the 78-C insertion and the 482-G deletion, both of which are specific for Japanese wolf, were observed in each sample. Based on the mtDNA sequences analyzed, these four specimens and 10 additional Japanese wolf samples could be classified into two groups- Group A (10 samples) and Group B (4 samples)-which contain or lack an 8-bp insertion/deletion (indel), respectively. Interestingly, three dogs (Akita-b, Kishu 25, and S-husky 102) that each contained Japanese wolf-specific features were also classified into Group A or B based on the 8-bp indel. To determine the origin or ancestor of the Japanese wolf, mtDNA control regions of ancient continental Canis specimens were examined; 84 specimens were from Russia, and 29 were from China. However, none of these 113 specimens contained Japanese wolf-specific sequences. Moreover, none of 426 Japanese modern hunting dogs examined contained these Japanese wolf-specific mtDNA sequences. The mtDNA control region sequences of Groups A and B appeared to be unique to grey wolf and dog populations.

  8. Salivary gland carcinoma : Independent prognostic factors for locoregional control, distant metastases, and overall survival: Results of the Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terhaard, CHJ; Lubsen, H; Van der Tweel, [No Value; Hilgers, FJM; Eijkenboom, WMH; Marres, HAM; Tjho-Heslinga, RE; de Jong, JMA; Roodenburg, JLN

    2004-01-01

    Background. We analyzed the records of patients with malignant salivary gland tumors, as diagnosed in centers of the Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group, in search of independent prognostic factors for locoregional control, distant metastases, and overall survival. Methods. In 565 patient

  9. Competency-Based Training and Worker Turnover in Community Supports for People with IDD: Results from a Group Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschutz, Matthew; Nord, Derek; Hewitt, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Turnover among direct support professionals (DSPs) in community support settings for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) has been regarded as a challenge since tracking of this workforce began in the 1980s. This study utilized a group randomized controlled design to test the effects of a competency-based training…

  10. Associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and glycemic control in a large cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes : the Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aman, J.; Skinner, T. C.; de Beaufort, C. E.; Swift, P. G. F.; Aanstoot, H-J; Cameron, F.

    2009-01-01

    angstrom man J, Skinner TC, de Beaufort CE, Swift PGF, Aanstoot H-J, Cameron F, for and on behalf of the Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes. Associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and glycemic control in a large cohort of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: the Hvidoere St

  11. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 76 - Procedures and Methods for Estimating Costs of Nitrogen Oxides Controls Applied to Group 1, Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures and Methods for Estimating Costs of Nitrogen Oxides Controls Applied to Group 1, Boilers B Appendix B to Part 76 Protection of... EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM Pt. 76, App. B Appendix B to Part 76—Procedures and Methods for Estimating Costs...

  12. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study--a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Kristoffersen, Lis; Ladelund, Steen;

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits....

  13. A Randomised Group Comparison Controlled Trial of "Preschoolers with Autism": A Parent Education and Skills Training Intervention for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; Mackinnon, Andrew; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder. Method: A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent…

  14. 光伏并网逆变器的群控技术%Group control technology of PV grid-connected inverters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春; 王丽萍; 江燕兴

    2012-01-01

    The grid-connected inverter is a chief device in the PV generation system, and it has significant effect on the operation efficiency of the generation system. Group control strategy can improve the PV system efficiency prominently. This paper introduces the concept of the group control strategy in detail first. After that a comparison experiment is carried out between a PV generation system constructed of ordinary grid-connected inverters and a system constructed of group control grid-connected inverters. The actual output data of the two systems are recorded and analyzed. The experiment proves that the group control strategy can improve the system efficiency.%并网逆变器作为光伏发电系统的核心装置,对系统的运行效率有重要影响.群控技术是一种有效提高系统运行效率的手段.文章首先对群控技术进行了详细的描述,随后对采用具有群控功能的逆变器构成的发电系统与采用常规逆变器构成的发电系统的实际发电量进行了统计与分析.实际运行结果表明,群控技术可以在一定程度上提高系统发电量.

  15. Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for insomnia in adolescents: A randomized controlled trial with internet therapy, group therapy and a waiting list condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.J.; Bögels, S.M.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) in adolescents. Design: A randomized controlled trial of CBTI in group therapy (GT), guided internet therapy (IT), and a waiting list (WL), with assessments at baseline, directly after treatment (post-t

  16. Exploring the Effects of a Universal Classroom Management Training Programme on Teacher and Child Behaviour: A Group Randomised Controlled Trial and Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Grainne; McGilloway, Sinead; Hyland, Lynda; Leckey, Yvonne; Kelly, Paul; Bywater, Tracey; Comiskey, Catherine; Lodge, Anne; Donnelly, Michael; O'Neill, Donal

    2017-01-01

    Teachers frequently struggle to cope with conduct problems in the classroom. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training Programme for improving teacher competencies and child adjustment. The study involved a group randomised controlled trial which included 22 teachers and 217…

  17. On the controllability of a quantum system for the Morse potential with a compact group SU(2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Shihai; Tang Yu; Sun Guohua

    2003-12-29

    The controllability of a quantum system for the Morse potential with the bound states are investigated. The ladder operators are constructed directly from the wave functions with the factorization method and associated to an su(2) algebra. This quantum system with the discrete bound states can be strongly completely controlled, i.e., the eigenstates can be guided by the external field to approach arbitrarily close to a selected target state at any chosen time, which can be theoretically realized by the actions of the ladder operators on the ground state.

  18. Presynaptic control of group Ia afferents in relation to acquisition of a visuo-motor skill in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Monica A.; Lungholt, Bjarke K.S.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2005-01-01

    , a novel visuo-motor task involving the ankle muscles, and a control task involving simple voluntary ankle movements, would induce changes in the size of the soleus H-reflex. The slope of the H-reflex recruitment curve and the H-max/M-max ratio were depressed after repetition of the visuo-motor skill task...... and returned to baseline after 10 min. No changes were observed after the control task. To elucidate the mechanisms contributing to the H-reflex depression, we measured the size of the long-latency depression of the soleus H-reflex evoked by peroneal nerve stimulation (D1 inhibition) and the size...

  19. Dynamics of the health status of children in an area with atmospheric pollution, as compared with a control group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, A.; Coasan, A.; Vicas, T.; Balasoiu, I.; Horvath, V.; Sabau, S.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of air pollution on children was studied in two areas of Romania. Development, psychometric aspects, and morphological aspects were studied. Vital capacity, maximum expiratory volume, and muscular strength were examined. Adaptability and learning performance were studied in children from 7 to 14 years old. In polluted areas containing high concentrations of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, lead, and carbon black, the health of the children was impaired. Respiratory diseases were frequent, and pleurobronchopulmonary diseases, anemia, and rachitis also occurred. Scholarly performance was poorer in polluted areas than in control areas. Children in polluted areas were also shorted than in control areas.

  20. The comparison of Updating function of Working Memory in Three Groups of Substance Abusers (Heroin, Opium, Those Treated with Methadone and normal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamrezayee S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic use of opiates is associated with a wide range of neuropsychological deficits. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate one of the neuropsychological functions, updating function of working memory, in three groups, including substance abusers (heroin and opium, those under treatment with methadone, and normal controls. Methods:The method of this study was causal-comparative. Ninty individuals in three groups, including substance abusers (n = 30, those under treatment with methadone (n = 30, and normal controls (n = 30 were selected from people referred to the addiction treatment Clinics in Shiraz (2015 with the purposeful sampling method. All subjects were evaluated regarding working memory updating and self-reported mental effort scale and the results were analyzed by Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA test and Tukey post hoc test with SPSS software (version 23. Results:The results showed a significant difference between the three groups in the updating function of working memory; so that effectiveness and efficiency of processing in the normal group was better than the other two groups and the performance effectiveness and efficiency of processing in the group under methadone treatment was better than substance abusers group. conclusions:substance abuse has a negative effect on neurological function. Given that the group of methadone treatment had better performance in the updating function of working memory than the group of substance abusers, these results provide hope that the effects of examined drugs on working memory is not permanent and we can look for psychological interventions to treat these patients and prevent problems recurrence.

  1. Access to a simulator is not enough: the benefits of virtual reality training based on peer-group-derived benchmarks--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Websky, Martin W; Raptis, Dimitri A; Vitz, Martina; Rosenthal, Rachel; Clavien, P A; Hahnloser, Dieter

    2013-11-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators are widely used to familiarize surgical novices with laparoscopy, but VR training methods differ in efficacy. In the present trial, self-controlled basic VR training (SC-training) was tested against training based on peer-group-derived benchmarks (PGD-training). First, novice laparoscopic residents were randomized into a SC group (n = 34), and a group using PGD-benchmarks (n = 34) for basic laparoscopic training. After completing basic training, both groups performed 60 VR laparoscopic cholecystectomies for performance analysis. Primary endpoints were simulator metrics; secondary endpoints were program adherence, trainee motivation, and training efficacy. Altogether, 66 residents completed basic training, and 3,837 of 3,960 (96.8 %) cholecystectomies were available for analysis. Course adherence was good, with only two dropouts, both in the SC-group. The PGD-group spent more time and repetitions in basic training until the benchmarks were reached and subsequently showed better performance in the readout cholecystectomies: Median time (gallbladder extraction) showed significant differences of 520 s (IQR 354-738 s) in SC-training versus 390 s (IQR 278-536 s) in the PGD-group (p training group being more efficient. Basic VR laparoscopic training based on PGD benchmarks with external assessment is superior to SC training, resulting in higher trainee motivation and better performance in simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomies. We recommend such a basic course based on PGD benchmarks before advancing to more elaborate VR training.

  2. The Effects of Forest Therapy on Coping with Chronic Widespread Pain: Physiological and Psychological Differences between Participants in a Forest Therapy Program and a Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Woo Han

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a two-day forest therapy program on individuals with chronic widespread pain. Sixty one employees of a public organization providing building and facilities management services within the Seoul Metropolitan area participated in the study. Participants were assigned to an experimental group (n = 33 who participated in a forest therapy program or a control group (n = 28 on a non-random basis. Pre- and post-measures of heart rate variability (HRV, Natural Killer cell (NK cell activity, self-reported pain using the visual analog scale (VAS, depression level using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and health-related quality of life measures using the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS were collected in both groups. The results showed that participants in the forest therapy group, as compared to the control group, showed physiological improvement as indicated by a significant increase in some measures of HRV and an increase in immune competence as indicated by NK cell activity. Participants in the forest therapy group also reported significant decreases in pain and depression, and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life. These results support the hypothesis that forest therapy is an effective intervention to relieve pain and associated psychological and physiological symptoms in individuals with chronic widespread pain.

  3. Oral fibrinogen-depleting agent lumbrokinase for secondary ischemic stroke prevention: results from a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group and controlled clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yong-jun; ZHANG Xia; WANG Wan-hua; ZHAI Wan-qing; QIAN Ju-fen; WANG Jian-sheng; CHEN Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated fibrinogen (Fg) level is a known risk factor for ischemic stroke.There are few clinical trials on oral fibrinogen-depleting therapies for secondary ischemic stroke prevention.We aimed to assess the effects of one-year therapy with oral lumbrokinase enteric-coated capsules on secondary ischemic stroke prevention.Methods This is a multicenter,randomized,parallel group and controlled study that began treatment in hospitalized patients with ischemic stroke and continued for 12 months.Patients were randomized to either the control group that received the standard stroke treatment or the fibrinogen-depleting group that received the standard stroke treatment plus enteric-coated lumbrokinase capsules.The NIH Stroke Scale scores (NIHSSs) and plasma Fg level were recorded.The carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and status of plaques were examined through carotid ultrasound examination.Primary outcomes included all-cause mortality,any event of recurrent ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA),hemorrhagic stroke,myocardial infarction and angina,and other noncerebral ischemia or hemorrhage.Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Long-rank test were used to compare total vascular end point incidence between the two groups.Comparison of median values between two groups was done by the Student t test,one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA),or non-parametric rank sum test.Results A total of 310 patients were enrolled,192 patients in the treatment group and 118 patients in the control group.Compared to the control group,the treatment group showed favorable outcomes in the Fg level,carotid IMT,the detection rate of vulnerable plaques,the volume of carotid plaques,NIHSS scores,and incidence of total vascular (6.78% and 2.08%,respectively) and cerebral vascular events (5.93% and 1.04%,respectively) (P <0.05).In the treatment group,the volume of carotid plaques was significantly related to the carotid IMT,the plaque diameter,width and number (P

  4. The effectiveness of a stratified group intervention using the STarTBack screening tool in patients with LBP--a non randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Susan E; Blake, Catherine; Power, Camillus K; Fullen, Brona M

    2013-12-05

    Low back pain (LBP) is costly to society and improving patient outcomes is a priority. Stratifying LBP patients into more homogenous groups is advocated to improve patient outcome. The STarT Back tool, a prognostic screening tool has demonstrated efficacy and greater cost effectiveness in physiotherapy settings. The management of LBP patients in groups is common but to date the utility of the STarT Back tool in group settings has not been explored. The aim of this study is to determine if the implementation of 'stratified care' when delivered in a group setting will lead to significantly better physical and psychological outcomes and greater cost effectiveness in LBP patients compared to a bestcare historical control group. This study is a non randomised controlled trial. Low back pain patients recruited from the Waterford Primary Care area (population = 47,000) will be stratified into low, medium or high risk of persisting symptoms using the STarT Back Tool. Low risk patients will be offered a single one off education/exercise class offering positive messages on LBP management in line with recommended guidelines. Medium risk patients will be offered a 12 week group exercise/education intervention addressing their dominant physical obstacles to recovery. A 12 week group cognitive behavioural approach will be delivered to the high risk patients, characterised by the presence of high levels of psychosocial prognostic factors. These patients will be compared with a historical control group where therapists were blinded as to the risk stratification of patients and a generic group intervention was delivered to all patients, irrespective of their initial risk stratification. The primary outcome measure will be disability (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire). Secondary outcomes will include back pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale), distress (Distress and Risk Assessment Method), back beliefs (Back Beliefs Questionnaire), health status (Euroqol), global benefit (7

  5. Elevator Group Control System Based on Multi-Objective Planning Algorithm%基于多目标规划算法的电梯群控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞雯

    2011-01-01

    以提高电梯群的运行效率和服务质量为出发点,提出一种基于多目标规划调度算法的电梯群控系统.主要研究内容包括电梯群控系统的特点及要求、电梯群控系统的多目标规划算法建模过程以及电梯群控仿真系统的设计等几个方面.在电梯群控仿真系统当中,同时嵌入最小等待时间算法和多目标规划算法,进行2种算法的仿真比较,从仿真结果得出基于多目标规划调度算法的电梯群控系统具有一定的实际应用价值.图5参10%In order to improve the elevator's operating efficiency and service quality, this paper proposed an elevator group control system based on the multi-objective planning algorithm. The main research contents were listed as follows: the characters and requirements of elevator group control system, established an evaluate function for elevator group control system based on multi-objective planning algorithm, designed the simulating system of elevator group control system, and so on. The least waiting time and multi-objective planning algorithm were both embedded in the simulating system in order to make compare through simulation. The simulation results show that elevator group control system based on the multi-objective planning algorithm has a certain practical applied value.

  6. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL GROUP-CONTAINING ORGANICS ON MORPHOLOGY-CONTROLLED SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.L. Wang; H.B. Yin; M. Ren; X.N. Cheng; Q.F. Zhou; X.F. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles with average particles sizes ranging from 2 to 131nm were manipulatively synthesized starting from silver nitrate using different functional group-containing organic modifiers at room temperature. The effects of the organic modifiers on the morphology of the resulting silver nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the intrinsic properties of the functional groups and the reducibility of the reductant. Numerous ether bonds (-O-) present in polyethylene glycol and Tween-80 were beneficial to the formation of silver nanoparticles with particle sizes of several nanometers in a narrow size distribution in both weak and strong reducing environments.Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide induced the formation of nanosized silver triangle plates in a weak reducing environment. The crystal growth of the silver nanoparticles with particle sizes of more than 10nm was postulated through an adhesion process of small-sized particles followed by a subsequent coalescence process under the present reaction conditions.

  7. [Living conditions and life experiences of working-class groups in Rio de Janeiro: rethinking dengue control and popular mobilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, R M; Valla, V V

    2001-01-01

    Using narratives of an experience with popular mobilization during the 1986-91 dengue epidemic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the authors discuss the scientific research and technical counseling involving basic sanitation conditions for vulnerable social groups. They present research results on water distribution in the slums from the Leopoldina area of the city. The research stemmed from demands by community leaders at local forums discussing health conditions. Gathering, systematizing, and analyzing the data were based on what they call "shared knowledge construction", resulting by crossing accumulated scientific knowledge with popular knowledge produced as a result of living conditions and life experiences among working-class groups. Finally, the authors comment on the need for local health professionals to be aware of relationships between epidemic and endemic processes and protection of life.

  8. Controlling of group velocity via terahertz signal radiation in a defect medium doped by four-level InGaN/GaN quantum dot nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Hossein; Sangachin, Elnaz Ahmadi; Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for controlling the group velocity of transmitted and reflected pulse from defect medium doped with four-level InGaN/GaN quantum dot nanostructure. Quantum dot nanostructure is designed numerically by Schrödinger and Poisson equations which solve self consistently. By size control of quantum dot and external voltage, one can design a four-level quantum dot with appropriate energy levels which can be suitable for controlling the group velocity of pulse transmission and reflection from defect slab with terahertz signal field. It is found that in the presence and absence of terahertz signal field the behaviors of transmission and reflection pulses are completely different. Moreover, it is shown that for strong terahertz signal field, by changing the thickness of the slab, simultaneous peak and dip for transmission and reflection pulse are obtained.

  9. Individual and Group Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Work-Related Stress Complaints and Sickness Absence: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente, W.de; Kamphuis, J.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Work-related stress is widespread and can lead to long-term absenteeism and work disability. Cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) has demonstrated effectiveness in treating psychopathology but has only rarely been tested in clinical samples with work-related stress. A randomized controlled trial was

  10. Individual and Group Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Work-Related Stress Complaints and Sickness Absence: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente, W.de; Kamphuis, J.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Work-related stress is widespread and can lead to long-term absenteeism and work disability. Cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) has demonstrated effectiveness in treating psychopathology but has only rarely been tested in clinical samples with work-related stress. A randomized controlled trial was

  11. Maternal age and Alzheimer's disease: a collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies. EURODEM Risk Factors Research Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Rocca; C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractTo investigate the possible association between Alzheimer's disease and late maternal age at index birth, we conducted a collaborative re-analysis of existing case-control data sets. Of the 11 studies participating in the EURODEM project, four were included in the analyses regarding mate

  12. Enhancing the early home learning environment through a brief group parenting intervention: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background The quality of the home learning environment has a significant influence on children’s language and communication skills during the early years with children from disadvantaged families disproportionately affected. This paper describes the protocol and participant baseline characteristics of a community-based effectiveness study. It evaluates the effects of ‘smalltalk’, a brief group parenting intervention (with or without home coaching) on the quality of the early childhood home l...

  13. Cardiopulmonary function of Young bronchitics (mostly mineworkers) before and after respiratory physiotherapy and physical training. Comparison with a control group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcq, M.; Minette, A.

    1981-01-01

    This article covers the effects of 4 weeks' treatment consisting of respiratory physiotherapy associated with physical training on cardiopulmonary function. It involved 12 patients (updated group) suffering from chronic bronchitis, still at an early stage in clinical terms. All patients showed signs of early broncho-destructive problems. This research was carried out with financial aid from the EEC (Agreement No. 7246-30-2-001). (32 refs.)

  14. The effect of participatory women's groups on infant feeding and child health knowledge, behaviour and outcomes in rural Bangladesh: a controlled before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Leila; Houweling, Tanja A J; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Shaha, Sanjit; Haq, Bedowra; Nahar, Tasmin; Hossen, Munir; Beard, James; Copas, Andrew; Prost, Audrey; Costello, Anthony; Fottrell, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Despite efforts to reduce under-5 mortality rates worldwide, an estimated 6.6 million under-5 children die every year. Community mobilisation through participatory women's groups has been shown to improve maternal and newborn health in rural settings, but little is known about the potential of this approach to improve care and health in children after the newborn period. Following on from a cluster-randomised controlled trial to assess the effect of participatory women's groups on maternal and neonatal health outcomes in rural Bangladesh, 162 women's groups continued to meet between April 2010 and December 2011 to identify, prioritise and address issues that affect the health of children under 5 years. A controlled before-and-after study design and difference-in-difference analysis was used to assess morbidity outcomes and changes in knowledge and practices related to child feeding, hygiene and care-seeking behaviour. Significant improvements were measured in mothers' knowledge of disease prevention and management, danger signs and hand washing at critical times. Significant increases were seen in exclusive breast feeding for at least 6 months (15.3% (4.2% to 26.5%)), and mean duration of breast feeding (37.9 days (17.4 to 58.3)). Maternal reports of under-5 morbidities fell in intervention compared with control areas, including reports of fever (-10.5% (-15.1% to -6.0%)) and acute respiratory infections (-12.2% (-15.6% to -8.8%)). No differences were observed in dietary diversity scores or immunisation uptake. Community mobilisation through participatory women's groups can be successfully adapted to address health knowledge and practice in relation to child's health, leading to improvements in a number of child health indicators and behaviours. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. A randomized controlled trial of a senior centre group programme for increasing social support and preventing depression in elderly people living at home in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bøen Hege

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late-life depression is a common condition and a challenging public health problem. A lack of social support is strongly associated with psychological distress. Senior centres seem to be suitable arenas for community-based health promotion interventions, although few studies have addressed this subject. The objectives were to examine the effect of a preventive senior centre group programme consisting of weekly meetings, on social support, depression and quality of life. Methods A questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 4,000 persons over 65 in Oslo, and a total of 2,387 completed questionnaires were obtained. These subjects served as a basis for recruitment of participants for a trial, with scores on HSCL-10 being used as a main inclusion criterion. A total of 138 persons were randomized into an intervention group (N = 77 and control group (N = 61. Final analyses included 92 persons. Social support (OSS-3, depression (BDI, life satisfaction and health were measured in interviews at baseline and after 12 months (at the end of the intervention programme. Perceptions of benefits from the intervention were also measured. Mean scores, SD, SE and CI were used to describe the changes in outcomes. Effect sizes were calculated based on the original scales and as Cohen’s d. Paired sample tests and ANOVA were used to test group differences. Results There was an increase in social support in both groups, but greatest in the intervention group. The level of depression increased for both groups, but more so in the control than the intervention group. There was a decrease in life satisfaction, although the decrease was largest among controls. There were almost no differences in reported health between groups. However, effect sizes were small and differences were not statistically significant. In contrast, most of the participants said the intervention meant much to them and led to increased use of the centre. Conclusions In

  16. Diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis by simultaneous detection of Adenovirus group F, Astrovirus, Rotavirus group A, Norovirus genogroups I and II, and Sapovirus in two internally controlled multiplex real-time PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maarseveen, Noortje M; Wessels, Els; de Brouwer, Caroline S; Vossen, Ann C T M; Claas, Eric C J

    2010-11-01

    Norovirus, Rotavirus group A, Astrovirus, Sapovirus and Adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41, are common causes of gastroenteritis. Conventional diagnosis of these causative agents is based on antigen detection and electron microscopy. To improve the diagnostic possibilities for viral gastroenteritis, two internally controlled multiplex real-time PCRs have been developed. Individual real-time PCRs were developed and optimized for the specific detection of Norovirus genogroup I, Norovirus genogroup II, Rotavirus group A, Astrovirus, Adenovirus group F and Sapovirus. Subsequently, the PCRs were combined to two multiplex PCR reactions. The multiplex assays were clinically evaluated using 239 fecal samples submitted to our laboratory over a 1-year period for the routine detection of Rotavirus and/or Adenovirus antigens using the Vikia(®) Rota/Adeno test (bioMérieux, Boxtel, The Netherlands). In general, the multiplex real-time PCR assays showed comparable sensitivity and specificity to the individual assays. A retrospective clinical evaluation showed increased pathogen detection in samples from 14% using conventional methods to 45% using PCR. Subsequently, the assay was implemented as a routine diagnostic tool. From September 2007 up to December 2009, 486 positive results were obtained in 1570 samples (31%) analyzed. Norovirus genogroup II was found the most frequently (61.1%), followed by Adenovirus (9.9%), Rotavirus (9.3%), Astrovirus (6.0%), Norovirus genogroup I (3.3%) and Sapovirus (0.4%). Two internally controlled multiplex real-time PCR assays for the simultaneous detection of Astrovirus, Adenovirus group F, Rotavirus, Norovirus genogroups I and II and Sapovirus have shown significant improvement in the diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Silicon-based bulky group-induced remote control and conformational preference in the synthesis and application of isolable atropisomeric amides with secondary alcohol or amine moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xing-Feng; Deng, Wen-Hui; Xu, Zheng; Li, Fu-Wei; Deng, Yuan; Xia, Chun-Gu; Xu, Li-Wen

    2014-04-01

    Remote stereocontrol through conformational transmission along a carbon chain is highly important in synthetic systems and molecular architectures. In this work, the interactional reactivity between a remote silicon-based bulky group and an O-/N-containing functional group has been revealed and determined by lateral lithiation-substitution, desilylation, as well as desilylation-olefination with benzaldehyde. The results suggest considerable information transmission and steric hindrance that can be exploited for the controllable synthesis of atropisomeric molecules. Based on the remote steric effect of a functional group across the aromatic ring of an amide, the construction of isolable atropisomeric amides with functional groups, such as alcohol, amine, and olefin was successfully achieved. All these new atropisomers were obtained in reasonable yield in pure diastereomeric form, and the specific configuration of representative products was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Evaluation of six different groups of insecticides for the control of citrus psylla Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmin Gul

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the efficacy of different insecticides against citrus psylla, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae were carried out at Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan. Six insecticides viz. Actara 25 WG, (thiamethoxam Cascade 10 DC (Flufenoxuron, Match 050 EC (lufenuron, Thiodan 35 EC (endosulfan, Karate 2.5 EC (α-cyhalothrin, and Supracide 40 EC (methidathion, were tested for their effectiveness against D. citri. After first spray overall mean population of D. citri was 3.63, 4.75, 5.59, 6.66, 7.47, 8.11 per six inches tender shoot on Actara 25 WG, Cascade 10 DC, Match 050 EC, Thiodan 35 EC, Karate 2.5 EC and Supracide 40 EC treated plants respectively, while on control plants the population was 12.39. Similarly, after the second spray of each of the same insecticides the population of D. citri was 2.65, 4.23, 5.61, 6.41, 7.35 and 8.73 respectively. Where in controls there were 15.18 psyllids. Percent decrease of D. citri population in comparison to control after the first spray was highest in Actara 25 WG (72.20 followed by Cascade 10 DC (62.91, Match 050 EC (54.07, Thiodan 35 EC (47.61, Karate 2.5 EC (38.94 and Supracide 40 EC (35.74. After the second spray percent decrease over control recorded was highest in Actara 25 WG (83.54, followed by Cascade 10 DC (71.08, Match 050 EC (63.94, Thiodan 35 EC (60.79, Karate 2.5 EC (52.52 and Supracide 40 EC (45.62.

  19. Validation Methods Research for Fault-Tolerant Avionics and Control Systems Sub-Working Group Meeting. CARE 3 peer review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, K. S. (Editor); Clary, J. B. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    A computer aided reliability estimation procedure (CARE 3), developed to model the behavior of ultrareliable systems required by flight-critical avionics and control systems, is evaluated. The mathematical models, numerical method, and fault-tolerant architecture modeling requirements are examined, and the testing and characterization procedures are discussed. Recommendations aimed at enhancing CARE 3 are presented; in particular, the need for a better exposition of the method and the user interface is emphasized.

  20. Fatty acid dietary intake and the risk of ischaemic stroke: a multicentre case-control study. UFA Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, S; Celani, M G; Righetti, E; Caruso, A; De Medio, G; Trovarelli, G; Romoli, S; Stragliotto, E; Spizzichino, L

    1997-06-01

    A low dietary intake of unsaturated fatty acids has been found in male patients with stroke as compared with controls in Italy, and a high consumption of meat has been associated with an increased risk of stroke in Australia. We present a case-control study, comparing the unsaturated and saturated fatty acids content of red cell membranes (which reflects the dietary intake of saturated and unsaturated fats) in 89 patients with ischaemic stroke and 89 controls matched for age and sex. In univariate analysis, besides hypertension, atrial fibrillation, ischaemic changes in ECG and hypercholesterolaemia, stroke patients showed a lower level of oleic acid (P = 0.000), but a higher level of eicosatrienoic acid (P = 0.009). Conditional logistic regression (dependent variable; being a case) showed that the best model included atrial fibrillation, hypertension, oleic acid and eicosatrienoic acids. These results confirm a possible protective role of unsaturated fatty acids against vascular diseases; however, we did not find any difference in the content of omega3 acids, which have been considered in the past to protect against coronary heart disease. We conclude that the preceding diet of patients with ischaemic stroke may be poor in unsaturated fatty acids (namely, oleic acid), and this defect is independent of other vascular risk factors. Only further studies will show whether changes in diet and/or supplement of unsaturated fatty acids might reduce the incidence of ischaemic stroke.

  1. Efficacy of finger toothbrush in plaque removal in a group of preschool children: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of plaque removal by using finger toothbrush among a group of preschool children by their mother/caretaker. Materials and methods: Thirty healthy preschool children were enrolled in the study, their mother/caretaker were provided finger and manual toothbrushes and were asked to use these brushes on alternative days for 3 weeks in order to achieve optimum dexterity with both the brushes. The subjects were recalled with their mother/caretaker, after having abstained from all oral hygiene practices for 48 hours and they were divided into two groups. A single calibrated examiner assessed all the study subjects to measure amount of plaque using Silness and Loe plaque index, before and after the tooth brushing with allotted toothbrush. The mothers/caretakers were also questioned about the comfort and convenience in using the brushes provided in the study. Results: Only 27 study subjects had returned along with their mother/caretaker for intervention Finger toothbrush and manual toothbrush groups, consisted of total 10 males and four female subjects, and eight males and five female subjects respectively. The mean plaque scores before tooth brushing for finger toothbrush and manual toothbrush were 1.43 and 1.29 respectively, and after tooth brushing 0.22 and 0.16 for the finger toothbrush and manual toothbrush respectively. Higher mean plaque index score was recorded for finger toothbrush compared to manual toothbrush but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Finger toothbrush was able to remove plaque as efficacious as manual toothbrush in preschool children of 3 to 6 years of age.

  2. A single tyrosine hydroxyl group almost entirely controls the NADPH specificity of Plasmodium falciparum ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Sara; Pandini, Vittorio; Vanoni, Maria Antonietta; Aliverti, Alessandro

    2012-05-08

    Plasmodium falciparum ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (FNR) is a FAD-containing enzyme that, in addition to be a promising target of novel antimalarial drugs, represents an excellent model of plant-type FNRs. The cofactor specificity of FNRs depends on differences in both k(cat) and K(m) values for NADPH and NADH. Here, we report that deletion of the hydroxyl group of the conserved Y258 of P. falciparum FNR, which interacts with the 2'-phosphate group of NADPH, selectively decreased the k(cat) of the NADPH-dependent reaction by a factor of 2 to match that of the NADH-dependent one. Rapid-reaction kinetics, active-site titrations with NADP(+), and anaerobic photoreduction experiments indicated that this effect may be the consequence of destabilization of the catalytically competent conformation of bound NADPH. Moreover, because the Y258F replacement increased the K(m) for NADPH 4-fold and decreased that for NADH 3-fold, it led to a drop in the ability of the enzyme to discriminate between the coenzymes from 70- to just 1.5-fold. The impact of the Y258F change was not affected by the presence of the H286Q mutation, which is known to enhance the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Our data highlight the major role played by the Y258 hydroxyl group in determining the coenzyme specificity of P. falciparum FNR. From the general standpoint of engineering the kinetic properties of plant-type FNRs, although P. falciparum FNR is less strictly NADPH-dependent than its homologues, the almost complete abolishment of coenzyme selectivity reported here has never been accomplished before through a single mutation.

  3. Mandibular advancement appliance for obstructive sleep apnoea: results of a randomised placebo controlled trial using parallel group design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, N.; Svanholt, P.; Solow, B.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a mandibular advancement appliance (MAA) for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Ninety-three patients with OSA and a mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 34.7 were centrally randomised into three, parallel groups: (a) MAA; (b) mandibular non......-advancement appliance (MNA); and (c) no intervention. The appliances were custom made, in one piece. The MAAs had a mean protrusion of the mandible of 74% (range 64-85%). Outcome measures, assessed after continuous use for 4 weeks, were AHI (polysomnography), daytime sleepiness (Epworth) and quality of life (SF-36...

  4. A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and sertraline versus a wait-list control group for anxiety disorders in older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, J.; Comijs, H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.; Gundy, C.M.; Weijnen, I.J.C.; Hout, van M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study is the first to investigate the relative effectiveness of cognitive? behavioral therapy (CBT) compared with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI; sertraline) in a randomized, controlled trial on the treatment of anxiety disorders in older adults. Method: Eighty-four p

  5. A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and sertraline versus a wait-list control group for anxiety disorders in older adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, J.; Comijs, H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.; Gundy, C.M.; Weijnen, I.J.C.; Hout, van M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study is the first to investigate the relative effectiveness of cognitive? behavioral therapy (CBT) compared with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI; sertraline) in a randomized, controlled trial on the treatment of anxiety disorders in older adults. Method: Eighty-four p

  6. Is the Belief in Meritocracy Palliative for Members of Low Status Groups? Evidence for a Benefit for Self-Esteem and Physical Health via Perceived Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Shannon K.; Wellman, Joseph D.; Cosley, Brandon; Saslow, Laura; Epel, Elissa

    2013-01-01

    Consensually held ideologies may serve as the cultural “glue” that justifies hierarchical status differences in society (e.g. Augustinos, 1998). Yet to be effective these beliefs need to be embraced by low-status groups. Why would members of low-status groups endorse beliefs that justify their relative disadvantage? We propose that members of low-status groups in the United States may benefit from some system-justifying beliefs (such as the belief in meritocracy) to the extent that these beliefs emphasize the perception of control over future outcomes. In 2 studies, among women, lower-SES women, and women of color, we found a positive relationship between the belief in meritocracy and well-being (self-esteem and physical health) that was mediated by perceived control. Members of low-status groups may benefit from some system-justifying beliefs to the extent that these beliefs, like the belief in meritocracy, emphasize the perception of control over future outcomes. PMID:24039310

  7. Comparison of mental distress in patients with low back pain and a population-based control group measured by Symptoms Check List--A case-referent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jan; Fisker, Annette; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Olsen, Lis Raabæk; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Langberg, Henning

    2015-08-01

    Mental distress is common in persons experiencing low back pain and who are sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed. It is, however, not known how mental distress measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 differs between patients with low back pain and the general population. The objective of this study was to compare mental symptoms and distress as measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 in sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed patients with low back pain with a population-based control group. Mental distress was compared in a group of patients with low back pain (n=770) and a randomly selected population-based reference group (n=909). Established Danish cut-off values for mental distress were used to evaluate the mental distress status in the low back pain and control group and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the Global Severity Index and the symptom scales of the Symptoms Check List-90 while controlling for baseline demographic differences between the groups. Group mean scores showed that all symptom scales and the Global Severity Index for both sexes were statistically elevated in the low back pain group, except for interpersonal sensitivity in women. When the scores were dichotomized to cases and non-cases of mental distress, a significantly higher prevalence of cases was observed in the low back pain group compared to the reference group on all symptom check list scales, except for paranoid ideation for both sexes and interpersonal sensitivity for women. The biggest between-group difference was observed for the somatization symptom scale. Low back pain patients who are sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed, are more mentally distressed compared to a randomly selected sample of the general Danish population. Self-reported symptoms of somatization, anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, depression and hostility are all more common among patients with low back pain compared to the general population. © 2015 the

  8. Use of Oligonucleotides Carrying Photolabile Groups for the Control of the Deposition of Nanoparticles in Surfaces and Nanoparticle Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Manning

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An oligodeoxynucleotide hairpin containing a photolabile 2-nitrobenzyl group in the loop and terminated with a thiol function was prepared. The photocleavage of such a hairpin on gold yields a surface activated with a single stranded oligonucleotide which can be utilised to direct the assembly of nanoparticles conjugated with a complementary strand. Analysis of photocleaved surfaces gives nanoparticle coverage one order of magnitude higher than nonphotocleaved surfaces. This illustrates the ability of photocleavable hairpins to direct the assembly of nanomaterials on conducting materials. The conjugation of the photocleavable hairpin to a gold nanoparticle allows the observation of intermolecular interactions between hairpins linked in different nanoparticles, by comparing the thermal dissociations of a hairpin-nanoparticle conjugates at 260 nm and 520 nm. We have also shown that it is possible to permanently alter the physiochemical properties of DNA-nanoparticles by the introduction of a photocleavable group. Indeed for the first time it has been shown that by exposure to UV light the disassembly of nanoparticle aggregates can be induced.

  9. Immunity-Based Optimal Estimation Approach for a New Real Time Group Elevator Dynamic Control Application for Energy and Time Saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Baygin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the increasing use of group elevator control systems owing to increasing building heights makes the development of high-performance algorithms necessary in terms of time and energy saving. Although there are many studies in the literature about this topic, they are still not effective enough because they are not able to evaluate all features of system. In this paper, a new approach of immune system-based optimal estimate is studied for dynamic control of group elevator systems. The method is mainly based on estimation of optimal way by optimizing all calls with genetic, immune system and DNA computing algorithms, and it is evaluated with a fuzzy system. The system has a dynamic feature in terms of the situation of calls and the option of the most appropriate algorithm, and it also adaptively works in terms of parameters such as the number of floors and cabins. This new approach which provides both time and energy saving was carried out in real time. The experimental results comparatively demonstrate the effects of method. With dynamic and adaptive control approach in this study carried out, a significant progress on group elevator control systems has been achieved in terms of time and energy efficiency according to traditional methods.

  10. Immunity-based optimal estimation approach for a new real time group elevator dynamic control application for energy and time saving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baygin, Mehmet; Karakose, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing use of group elevator control systems owing to increasing building heights makes the development of high-performance algorithms necessary in terms of time and energy saving. Although there are many studies in the literature about this topic, they are still not effective enough because they are not able to evaluate all features of system. In this paper, a new approach of immune system-based optimal estimate is studied for dynamic control of group elevator systems. The method is mainly based on estimation of optimal way by optimizing all calls with genetic, immune system and DNA computing algorithms, and it is evaluated with a fuzzy system. The system has a dynamic feature in terms of the situation of calls and the option of the most appropriate algorithm, and it also adaptively works in terms of parameters such as the number of floors and cabins. This new approach which provides both time and energy saving was carried out in real time. The experimental results comparatively demonstrate the effects of method. With dynamic and adaptive control approach in this study carried out, a significant progress on group elevator control systems has been achieved in terms of time and energy efficiency according to traditional methods.

  11. Sexual risk attitudes and intentions of youth aged 12-14 years: survey comparisons of parent-teen prevention and control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Regina P; Chan, Wenyaw; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared differences in sexual risk attitudes and intentions for three groups of youth (experimental program, n = 90; attention control, n = 80; and nonparticipant control, n = 634) aged 12-14 years. Two student groups participated with their parents in programs focused on strengthening family interaction and prevention of sexual risks, HIV, and adolescent pregnancy. Surveys assessed students' attitudes and intentions regarding early sexual and other health-risk behaviors, family interactions, and perceived parental disapproval of risk behaviors. The authors used general linear modeling to compare results. The experimental prevention program differentiated the total scores of the 3 groups (p < .05). A similar result was obtained for student intentions to avoid sex (p < .01). Pairwise comparisons showed the experimental program group scored higher than the nonparticipant group on total scores (p < .01) and on students' intention to avoid sex (p < .01). The results suggest this novel educational program involving both parents and students offers a promising approach to HIV and teen pregnancy prevention.

  12. Local Control With Reduced-Dose Radiotherapy for Low-Risk Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group D9602 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breneman, John, E-mail: john.breneman@uchealth.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cincinnati and Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Meza, Jane [Department of Biostatistics, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Public Health, Omaha, NE (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Raney, R. Beverly [Children' s Cancer Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Children' s Ambulatory Blood and Cancer Center, Dell Children' s Medical Center of Central Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wolden, Suzanne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Laurie, Fran [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, RI (United States); Rodeberg, David A. [Department of Surgery, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Meyer, William [Section of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Walterhouse, David [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children' s Memorial Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Hawkins, Douglas S. [Department of Pediatrics, Seattle Children' s Hospital, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of reduced-dose radiotherapy on local control in children with low-risk rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) treated in the Children's Oncology Group D9602 study. Methods and Materials: Patients with low-risk RMS were nonrandomly assigned to receive radiotherapy doses dependent on the completeness of surgical resection of the primary tumor (clinical group) and the presence of involved regional lymph nodes. After resection, most patients with microscopic residual and uninvolved nodes received 36 Gy, those with involved nodes received 41.4 to 50.4 Gy, and those with orbital primary tumors received 45 Gy. All patients received vincristine and dactinomycin, with cyclophosphamide added for patient subsets with a higher risk of relapse in Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group III and IV studies. Results: Three hundred forty-two patients were eligible for analysis; 172 received radiotherapy as part of their treatment. The cumulative incidence of local/regional failure was 15% in patients with microscopic involved margins when cyclophosphamide was not part of the treatment regimen and 0% when cyclophosphamide was included. The cumulative incidence of local/regional failure was 14% in patients with orbital tumors. Protocol-specified omission of radiotherapy in girls with Group IIA vaginal tumors (n = 5) resulted in three failures for this group. Conclusions: In comparison with Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group III and IV results, reduced-dose radiotherapy does not compromise local control for patients with microscopic tumor after surgical resection or with orbital primary tumors when cyclophosphamide is added to the treatment program. Girls with unresected nonbladder genitourinary tumors require radiotherapy for postsurgical residual tumor for optimal local control to be achieved.

  13. Long-term effects of new progressive group balance training for elderly people with increased risk of falling - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvarsson, Alexandra; Franzén, Erika; Farén, Elin; Olsson, Elisabeth; Oddsson, Lars; Ståhle, Agneta

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of a progressive and specific balance group-based program in healthy elderly individuals with increased risk of falling. Follow-up of a randomized controlled trial at nine and 15 months on a population that has previously been described at three months. The study was conducted in Stockholm, Sweden. 59 community-dwelling elderly (age 67-93 years), recruited by advertisement, were randomly allocated to training or to serve as controls. Group balance training three times per week during 12 weeks with a 15 month follow-up time. Participants were assessed at baseline, three, nine, and 15 months thereafter for gait function (preferred and fast walking), rapid step execution (single and dual task), fear of falling, and likelihood of depression. Fast gait speed (p = 0.004), dual task step execution (p = 0.006) and fear of falling (p = 0.001) were still improved in the training group at nine months follow-up. Only self-perceived fear of falling remained significantly improved (p = 0.012) at 15 months follow-up. Although fast gait speed had decreased to baseline level in the training group (1.49 m/s) it remained significantly higher than in the control group (1.37 m/s) at the end of the study, a difference between the groups that was not seen at baseline. This training program provided important positive short and long-term benefits to gait, balance function, and fear of falling.

  14. Adjusting the surface areal density of click-reactive azide groups by kinetic control of the azide substitution reaction on bromine-functional SAMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Maidenberg, Yanir; Luo, Kai; Koberstein, Jeffrey T

    2014-06-03

    Azide-alkyne click chemistry has emerged as an important and versatile means for tethering a wide variety of guest molecules to virtually any substrate. In many of these applications, it is important to exercise control over the areal density of surface functional groups to achieve a desired areal density of the tethered guest molecule of interest. We demonstrate herein that the areal density of surface azide groups on flat germanium surfaces and nanoparticle substrates (silica and iron oxide) can be controlled kinetically by appropriately timed quenching of the S(N)2 substitution reaction of bromo-alkane-silane monolayers induced by the addition of sodium azide. The kinetics of the azide substitution reaction on monolayers formed on flat Ge substrates, determined by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), are found to be identical to those for monolayers formed on both silica and iron oxide nanoparticles, the latter determined by transmission infrared spectroscopy. To validate the method, the percentages of surface bromine groups converted to azide groups after various reaction times were measured by quenching the S(N)2 reaction followed by analysis with ATR-IR (for Ge) and thermogravimetric analysis (after a subsequent click reaction with an alkyne-terminal polymer) for the nanoparticle substrates. The conversions found after quenching agree well with those expected from the standard kinetic curves. The latter result suggests that the kinetic method for the control of azide group areal density is a versatile means for functionalizing substrates with a prescribed areal density of azide groups for subsequent click reactions, and that the method is universal for any substrate, flat or nanoparticle, that can be modified with bromo-alkane-silane monolayers. Regardless of the surface geometry, we find that the azide substitution reaction is complete within 2-3 h, in sharp contrast to previous reports that indicate times of 48-60 h required for

  15. Polymethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid coatings with controllable concentration of surface carboxyl groups: A novel approach in fabrication of polymeric platforms for potential bio-diagnostic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, Samira; Ibrahim, Fatimah [Center for Innovation in Medical Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Djordjevic, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.djordjevic@um.edu.my [Center for Innovation in Medical Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Koole, Leo H. [Center for Innovation in Medical Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Health. Medicine and Life Science, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, NL 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis and processing of PMMA-co-MAA spin-coatings on silicon wafers. • Surface chemistry and morphology as a function of tailored co-polymer structure. • Polymer coatings with controlled number of surface carboxyl groups. - Abstract: The generally accepted strategy in development of bio-diagnostic devices is to immobilize proteins on polymeric surfaces as a part of detection process for diseases and viruses through antibody/antigen coupling. In that perspective, polymer surface properties such as concentration of functional groups must be closely controlled in order to preserve the protein activity. In order to improve the surface characteristics of transparent polymethacrylate plastics that are used for diagnostic devices, we have developed an effective fabrication procedure of polymethylmetacrylate-co-metacrylic acid (PMMA-co-MAA) coatings with controlled number of surface carboxyl groups. The polymers were processed effectively with the spin-coating technique and the detailed control over surface properties is here by demonstrated through the variation of a single synthesis reaction parameter. The chemical structure of synthesized and processed co-polymers has been investigated with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS). The surface morphology of polymer coatings have been analyzed with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We demonstrate that the surface morphology and the concentration of surface –COOH groups (determined with UV–vis surface titration) on the processed PMMA-co-MAA coatings can be precisely controlled by variation of initial molar ratio of reactants in the free-radical polymerization reaction. The wettability of developed polymer surfaces also varies with macromolecular structure.

  16. Hox paralog group 2 genes control the migration of mouse pontine neurons through slit-robo signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J Geisen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The pontine neurons (PN represent a major source of mossy fiber projections to the cerebellum. During mouse hindbrain development, PN migrate tangentially and sequentially along both the anteroposterior (AP and dorsoventral (DV axes. Unlike DV migration, which is controlled by the Netrin-1/Dcc attractive pathway, little is known about the molecular mechanisms guiding PN migration along the AP axis. Here, we show that Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 are required both intrinsically and extrinsically to maintain normal AP migration of subsets of PN, by preventing their premature ventral attraction towards the midline. Moreover, the migration defects observed in Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 mutant mice were phenocopied in compound Robo1;Robo2, Slit1;Slit2, and Robo2;Slit2 knockout animals, indicating that these guidance molecules act downstream of Hox genes to control PN migration. Indeed, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we further demonstrated that Robo2 is a direct target of Hoxa2 in vivo and that maintenance of high Robo and Slit expression levels was impaired in Hoxa2 mutant mice. Lastly, the analysis of Phox2b-deficient mice indicated that the facial motor nucleus is a major Slit signaling source required to prevent premature ventral migration of PN. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular control of neuronal migration from transcription factor to regulation of guidance receptor and ligand expression. Specifically, they address the question of how exposure to multiple guidance cues along the AP and DV axes is regulated at the transcriptional level and in turn translated into stereotyped migratory responses during tangential migration of neurons in the developing mammalian brain.

  17. A Phylogenetically Conserved Group of Nuclear Factor-Y Transcription Factors Interact to Control Nodulation in Legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, Maël; Laloum, Tom; Lepage, Agnès; Rípodas, Carolina; Ariel, Federico; Frances, Lisa; Crespi, Martin; Gamas, Pascal; Blanco, Flavio Antonio; Zanetti, Maria Eugenia; de Carvalho-Niebel, Fernanda; Niebel, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The endosymbiotic association between legumes and soil bacteria called rhizobia leads to the formation of a new root-derived organ called the nodule in which differentiated bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be assimilated by the host plant. Successful root infection by rhizobia and nodule organogenesis require the activation of symbiotic genes that are controlled by a set of transcription factors (TFs). We recently identified Medicago truncatula nuclear factor-YA1 (MtNF-YA1) and MtNF-YA2 as two M. truncatula TFs playing a central role during key steps of the Sinorhizobium meliloti-M. truncatula symbiotic interaction. NF-YA TFs interact with NF-YB and NF-YC subunits to regulate target genes containing the CCAAT box consensus sequence. In this study, using a yeast two-hybrid screen approach, we identified the NF-YB and NF-YC subunits able to interact with MtNF-YA1 and MtNF-YA2. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in planta, we further demonstrated by both coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation that these NF-YA, -B, and -C subunits interact and form a stable NF-Y heterotrimeric complex. Reverse genetic and chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR approaches revealed the importance of these newly identified NF-YB and NF-YC subunits for rhizobial symbiosis and binding to the promoter of MtERN1 (for Ethylene Responsive factor required for Nodulation), a direct target gene of MtNF-YA1 and MtNF-YA2. Finally, we verified that a similar trimer is formed in planta by the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) NF-Y subunits, revealing the existence of evolutionary conserved NF-Y protein complexes to control nodulation in leguminous plants. This sheds light on the process whereby an ancient heterotrimeric TF mainly controlling cell division in animals has acquired specialized functions in plants.

  18. A comparison of bibliotherapy and face-to-face group therapy for children with anxiety disorders: Results of a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Kristian Bech; Thastum, Mikael

    (James, James, Cowdrey, Soler & Choke, 2015), more studies of less intensive treatment formats are still warranted. Bibliotherapy is a low cost therapy with minimal therapist assistance, which in a few studies have been shown to result in favorable outcomes compared to waitlist and outcomes comparable...... to face-to-face treatment (e.g. Lyneham & Rapee, 2006, Cobham, 2012). The aim of the current study was to examine the efficacy of therapist supported group bibliotherapy compared to face-to-face group treatment using a randomized controlled design....

  19. Effectiveness of group acceptance and commitment therapy for fibromyalgia: a 6-month randomized controlled trial (EFFIGACT study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Juan V; Guallar, José A; Aguado, Jaume; López-Del-Hoyo, Yolanda; Olivan, Bárbara; Magallón, Rosa; Alda, Marta; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Gili, Margalida; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2014-04-01

    In the last decade, there has been burgeoning interest in the effectiveness of third-generation psychological therapies for managing fibromyalgia (FM) symptoms. The present study examined the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on functional status as well as the role of pain acceptance as a mediator of treatment outcomes in FM patients. A total of 156 patients with FM were enrolled at primary health care centers in Zaragoza, Spain. The pat