WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-lte synthetic spectra

  1. Non-LTE Stellar Population Synthesis of Globular Clusters Using Synthetic Integrated Light Spectra. I. Constructing the IL Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mitchell. E.; Short, C. Ian

    2017-02-01

    We present an investigation of the globular cluster population synthesis method of McWilliam & Bernstein, focusing on the impact of non-LTE (NLTE) modeling effects and color-magnitude diagram (CMD) discretization. Johnson-Cousins-Bessel U - B, B-V, V-I, and J-K colors are produced for 96 synthetic integrated light (IL) spectra with two different discretization prescriptions and three degrees of NLTE treatment. These color values are used to compare NLTE- and LTE-derived population ages. Relative contributions of different spectral types to the IL spectra for different wavebands are measured. IL NLTE spectra are shown to be more luminous in the UV and optical than LTE spectra, but show stronger absorption features in the IR. The main features showing discrepancies between NLTE and LTE IL spectra may be attributed to light metals, primarily Fe I, Ca I, and Ti I, as well as TiO molecular bands. Main-sequence stars are shown to have negligible NLTE effects at IR wavelengths compared to more evolved stars. Photometric color values are shown to vary at the millimagnitude level as a function of CMD discretization. Finer CMD sampling for the upper main sequence and turnoff, base of the red giant branch, and the horizontal branch minimizes this variation. Differences in ages derived from LTE and NLTE IL spectra are found to range from 0.55 to 2.54 Gyr, comparable to the uncertainty in GC ages derived from color indices with observational uncertainties of 0.01 mag, the limiting precision of the Harris catalog.

  2. New solar carbon abundance based on non-LTE CN molecular spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, G.H.; Linsky, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed non-LTE analysis of solar CN spectra strongly suggests a revised carbon abundance for the Sun. A value of log A/subc/=8.35plus-or-minus0.15 which is significantly lower than the presently accepted value of log A/subc/=8.55 is suggested. This revision may have important consequences in astrophysics

  3. Absolute, time-resolved emission of non-LTE L-shell spectra from Ti-doped aerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, C.A.; Feldman, U.; Weaver, J.L.; Seely, J.F.; Constantin, C.; Holland, G.; Lee, R.W.; Chung, H.-K.; Scott, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Outstanding discrepancies between data and calculations of laser-produced plasmas in recombination have been observed since the 1980s. Although improvements in hydrodynamic modeling may reduce the discrepancies, there are indications that non-LTE atomic kinetics may be the dominant cause. Experiments to investigate non-LTE effects were recently performed at the NIKE KrF laser on low-density Ti-doped aerogels. The laser irradiated a 2mm diameter, cylindrical sample of various lengths with a 4-ns square pulse to create a volumetrically heated plasma. Ti L-shell spectra spanning a range of 0.47-3keV were obtained with a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. The diagnostic can be configured to provide 1-dimensional spatial resolution at a single photon energy, or 18 discrete energies with a resolving power, λ/δλ of 3-20. The data are examined and compared to calculations to develop absolute emission measurements that can provide new tests of the non-LTE physics

  4. Absolute, time-resolved emission of non-LTE L-shell spectra from Ti-doped aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, C.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-21, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)]. E-mail: tinaback@llnl.gov; Feldman, U. [Artep Inc. 2922 Excelsior Ct., Ellicott City, MD 21042 (United States); Weaver, J.L. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Drive, SW, Washington DC 20375 (United States); Seely, J.F. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Drive, SW, Washington DC 20375 (United States); Constantin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-21, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Holland, G. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Drive, SW, Washington DC 20375 (United States); Lee, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-21, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Chung, H.-K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-21, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Scott, H.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-21, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Outstanding discrepancies between data and calculations of laser-produced plasmas in recombination have been observed since the 1980s. Although improvements in hydrodynamic modeling may reduce the discrepancies, there are indications that non-LTE atomic kinetics may be the dominant cause. Experiments to investigate non-LTE effects were recently performed at the NIKE KrF laser on low-density Ti-doped aerogels. The laser irradiated a 2mm diameter, cylindrical sample of various lengths with a 4-ns square pulse to create a volumetrically heated plasma. Ti L-shell spectra spanning a range of 0.47-3keV were obtained with a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. The diagnostic can be configured to provide 1-dimensional spatial resolution at a single photon energy, or 18 discrete energies with a resolving power, {lambda}/{delta}{lambda} of 3-20. The data are examined and compared to calculations to develop absolute emission measurements that can provide new tests of the non-LTE physics.

  5. Non-LTE Analysis of Interstellar Line Spectra of SiO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziwei; Stancil, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    SiO emission lines are important probes of chemical processes in diverse astrophysical environments. In circumstellar outflows of AGB stars, the production of silicate grains is preceded by SiO formation, making SiO a useful measure of Si depletion. SiO is also commonly observed in shocks associated with the outflows of young stellar objects, both low- and high-mass. To model SiO emission for non-LTE conditions requires collisional rate coefficients due to H2 impact which are currently unavailable. Unknown collisional rate coefficients are often estimated from known systems. For the case of SiO-H2, rate coefficients have previously been adapted from a different collider, He (Dayau & Balanca 2006), based on a reduced-mass scaling approach. Recently it has been suggested that scaling via the interaction potential well depth and the reduced masses of the collisional systems may be more reliable (Walker et al. 2014). Using the non-LTE spectral modeling package Radex (van der Tak et al. 2007), we construct diagnostic plots of SiO line ratios using SiO-H2 collisional rate coefficients based on (i) reduced-mass scaling from the LAMDA database, (ii) potential well-depth scaling, and (iii) a more comprehensive input with multiple colliders (H2, He and H). Our goal is to give a more rigorous approach to SiO line emission simulations to better understand Si chemistry, dust formation/destruction, and other astrophysical processes.This work was supported by NASA ATP grant NNX15AI61G.

  6. Non-LTE CO, revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas R.; Wiedemann, Gunter R.

    1989-01-01

    A more extensive and detailed non-LTE simulation of the Delta v = 1 bands of CO than attempted previously is reported. The equations of statistical equilibrium are formulated for a model molecule containing 10 bound vibrational levels, each split into 121 rotational substates and connected by more than 1000 radiative transitions. Solutions are obtained for self-consistent populations and radiation fields by iterative application of the 'Lambda-operator' to an initial LTE distribution. The formalism is used to illustrate models of the sun and Arcturus. For the sun, negligible departures from LTE are found in either a theoretical radiative-equilibrium photosphere with outwardly falling temperatures in its highest layers or in a semiempirical hot chromosphere that reproduces the spatially averaged emission cores of Ca II H and K. The simulations demonstrate that the puzzling 'cool cores' of the CO Delta V = 1 bands observed in limb spectra of the sun and in flux spectra of Arcturus cannot be explained simply by non-LTE scattering effects.

  7. Development of a Buried Layer Platform at the OMEGA Laser to Study Open L-Shell Spectra from Coronal (non-LTE) Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Edward; Jarrot, Charlie; Schneider, Marilyn; Kemp, Elijah; Foord, Mark; Heeter, Robert; Liedahl, Duane; Widmann, Klause; Mauche, Christopher; Brown, Greg; Emig, James

    2017-10-01

    A buried layer platform is being developed at the OMEGA laser to study the open L-shell spectra of coronal (non LTE) plasmas (ne few 1021/cm3, Te 0.8-1.2 keV) of mid Z materials. Studies have been done using a 250 μm diameter dot composed of a layer of 1200 Å thick Zn between two 600 Å thick layers of Ti, in the center of a 1000 μm diameter, 13 μm thick beryllium tamper. Lasers heat the target from both sides for up to 3 ns. The size of the microdot vs time was measured with x-ray imaging (face-on and side-on). The radiant x-ray power was measured with a low-resolution absolutely calibrated x-ray spectrometer (DANTE). The temperature was measured from the Ti helium-beta complex. The use of this platform for the verification of atomic models is discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Non-LTE diagnositics of infrared radiation of Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilov, Artem; Rezac, Ladislav; Kutepov, Alexander; Vinatier, Sandrine; Rey, Michael; Nikitin, Andrew; Tyuterev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Yelle (1991) and Garcia-Comas et al, (2011) demonstrated the importance of accounting for the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) breakdown in the middle and upper atmosphere of Titan for the interpretation of infrared radiances measured at these heights. In this work, we make further advance in this field by: • updating the non-LTE model of CH4 emissions in Titan's atmosphere and including a new extended database of CH4 spectroscopic parameters • studying the non-LTE CH4 vibrational level populations and the impact of non-LTE on limb infrared emissions of various CH4 ro-vibrational bands including those at 7.6 and 3.3 µm • implementing our non-LTE model into the LTE-based retrieval algorithm applied by Vinatier et al., (2015) for processing the Cassini/CIRS spectra. We demonstrate that accounting for non-LTE leads to an increase in temperatures retrieved from CIRS 7.6 µm limb emissions spectra (˜10 K at 600 km altitude) and estimate how this affects the trace gas density retrieval. Finally, we discuss the effects of including a large number of weak one-quantum and combinational bands on the calculated daytime limb 3.3 µm emissions and the impact they may have on the CH4 density retrievals from the Cassini VIMS 3.3 µm limb emission observations.

  9. Non-LTE model atmosphere analysis of Nova Cygni 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschildt, P. H.; Starrfield, S.; Austin, S.; Wagner, R. M.; Shore, S. N.; Sonneborn, G.

    1994-01-01

    We use spherically symmetric non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE), line-blanketed, expanding model atmospheres to analyze the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and optical spectra of Nova Cygni 1992 during the early phases of its outburst. We find that the first IUE spectrum obtained just after discovery on 1992 February 20, is best reproduced by a model atmosphere with a steep density gradient and homologous expansion, whereas the IUE and optical spectra obtained on February 24 show an extended, optically thick, wind structure. Therefore, we distinguish two phases of the early evolution of the nova photosphere: the initial, rapid, 'fireball' phase and the subsequent, much longer, optically thick 'wind' phase. The importance of line-blanketing in nova spectra is demonstrated. Our preliminary abundance analysis implies that hydrogen is depeleted in the ejecta, corresponding to abundance enhancements of Fe by a factor of approximately 2 and of CNO by more than a factor of 10 when compared to solar abundances. The synthetic spectra reproduce both the observed pseudo-continua as well as most of the observed features from the UV to the optical spectral range and demonstrate the importance of obtaining nearly simultaneous UV and optical spectra for performing accurate analyses of expanding stellar atmospheres (for both novae and supernovae).

  10. Time-dependent ionization balance model for non-LTE plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.T.; Zimmerman, G.B.; Bailey, D.S.; Dickson, D.; Kim, D.

    1986-01-01

    We have developed a detailed configuration-accounting kinetic model for calculating time-dependent ionization-balance and ion-level populations in non-local thermal-equilibrium (non-LTE) plasmas. We use these population estimates in computing spectral line intensities, line ratios, and synthetic spectra, and in fitting these calculated values to experimental measurements. The model is also used to design laboratory x-ray laser experiments. For this purpose, it is self-consistently coupled to the hydrodynamics code LASNEX. 20 refs., 14 figs

  11. Non-LTE radiation in laser-disk target couply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Peijun; Fei Weibing; Feng Tinggui; Wu Changshu

    2004-11-01

    The coupling of laser-disk target has been studied by Multi-group radiation transfer code RDMGL. The results show that the X-ray spectra are strongly non-LTE and dependent on the atomic model. The plasma states, laser energy absorption and X-ray conversion rates are almost the same as those simulated by three-temperature model code, which fact shows that the three-temperature model is reasonable to describe the exchange of different kinds of energy and the hydrodynamic phenomena of plasmas in laser-target coupling. (authors)

  12. Improved non-LTE simulation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Michel; Klapisch, Marcel; Colombant, Denis; Fyfe, David; Gardner, John

    2008-11-01

    The RAdiation Dependent Ionization Model (RADIOM)- a.k.a Busquet's model-[1] has proven its success in simulating non --LTE effects in laser fusion plasmas [2]. This improved algorithm can take into account Auger effect by a new parameter fitted to SCROLL [3] results. It is independent of the photon binning thanks to a projection on a standard grid. It guarantees smoother convergence to LTE. This algorithm has been implemented in a new way in the hydro-code FASTnD. Hydro simulations on the recent subMJ targets[4], with and without non-LTE corrections will be shown. [1] M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B 5, 4191(1993). [2] D.G. Colombant et al, Phys. Plas. 7,2046 (2000). [3] A. Bar-Shalom, J. Oreg M. Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectr. Rad. Transf. 65 ,43 (2000). [4] S. P. Obenschain, D. G. Colombant, A. J. Schmitt et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 056320 (2006).

  13. Non-LTE effects in Al I lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzhevitski, V. S.; Shimansky, V. V.; Shimanskaya, N. N.

    2012-07-01

    We present the theoretical analysis of the Al I line formation in the spectra of late-type stars ignoring the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The calculations were based on the 39-level aluminum atom model for one-dimensional hydrostatic stellar atmosphere models with the parameters: T eff from 4000 to 9000 K, log g = 0.0-4.5, and metallicity [ A] = 0.0;-1.0;-2.0;-3.0;-4.0. The aluminum atom model and the method of calculations were tested by the study of line profiles in the solar spectrum. We refined the oscillator strengths and Van-der-Vaals broadening constants C 6 of the investigated transitions. We conclude that the Al I atom is in the overionization state: the 3 p level is underpopulated in the line formation region. This leads to the line weakening, as compared with the LTE results. The overionization effect becomes more pronounced with increasing temperature and decreasing metallicity. We show that the use of various atomic data (ionization cross-sections) for the low levels of Al I does not change the behavior of non-LTE deviations, whereas the value of these deviations varies essentially. For nine selected Al I lines we calculated the grids of theoretical non-LTE corrections (Δ X NLTE = log ɛ NLTE - log ɛ LTE) to the Al abundances determinedwith the LTE assumption. The non-LTE corrections are positive and significant for the stars with temperatures T eff > 6000 K. These corrections weakly depend on log g, and increase with declining stellar metallicity.

  14. Evidence of non-LTE Effects in Mesospheric Water Vapor from Spectrally-Resolved Emissions Observed by CIRRIS-1A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D. K.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Zaragoza, G.

    1999-01-01

    Evidence of non-LTE effects in mesospheric water vapor as determined by infrared spectral emission measurements taken from the space shuttle is reported. A cryogenic Michelson interferometer in the CIRRIS-1A shuttle payload yielded high quality, atmospheric infrared spectra. These measurements demonstrate the enhanced daytime emissions of H2O (020-010) which are the result of non-LTE processes and in agreement with non-LTE models. The radiance ratios of H2O (010 to 000) and (020 to 010) Q(1) transitions during daytime are compared with non-LTE model calculations to assess the vibration-to-vibration exchange rate between H2O and O2 in the mesosphere. An exchange rate of 1.2 x 10(exp -12)cc/s is derived.

  15. Non LTE Effects in Laser Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel

    1997-11-01

    Laser produced plasmas are not in Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium(LTE) because of the strong gradients and the escaping radiation. Departure from LTE changes the average charge state Z^*, and through it the electron temperature and other thermodynamical variables. Hydrodynamic simulations using LTE and non LTE modes show that in some cases the temperatures can change by an order of magnitude. Several rad/hydro models have solved the approximate atomic rate equations in-line within the average atom model(W. A. Lokke and W. H. Grasburger, LLNL, Report UCRL-52276 (1977),G. Pollack, LANL, Report LA-UR-90-2423 (1990)), or with global rates(M. Busquet, J. P. Raucourt and J. C. Gauthier, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 54, 81 (1995)). A new technique developed by Busquet, the Radiation Dependent Ionization Model (RADIOM)(M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B, 5, 4191 (1993)) has been implemented in the NRL hydro-code. It uses an ionization temperature Tz to obtain the opacities and EOS in table look-ups. A very elaborate LTE atomic physics such as the STA code( A. Bar-Shalom and J. Oreg, Phys. Rev. E, 54, 1850 (1996), and ref. therein), or OPAL, can then be used off-line for generating the tables. The algorithm for Tz is very simple and quick. RADIOM has recently been benchmarked with a new detailed collisional radiative model SCROLL(A. Bar-Shalom, J. Oreg and M. Klapisch, Phys. Rev. E, to appear in July (1997)) on a range of temperatures, densities and atomic numbers. RADIOM has been surprisingly successful in calculations of non-LTE opacities.

  16. X-ray emission spectroscopy of well-characterised non-LTE plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgaux, A C; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S; Audebert, P; Marquès, J R; Vassura, L; Vinci, T; Jacquemot, S; Dorchies, F; Leguay, P M; Chung, H K; Bowen, C; Dervieux, V; Renaudin, P; Silvert, V

    2016-01-01

    This paper will present an experimental platform developed on LULI2000 to measure x-ray emission of non-LTE plasmas in well-defined hydrodynamic conditions thanks to implementation of a whole set of diagnostics, including time-resolved electronic and ionic Thomson scattering and self-optical pyrometry. K-, L- and M-shell spectra will be presented and the methodology, that has been developed to analyze them, discussed. (paper)

  17. Non-LTE model atmospheres for supersoft X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.

    2010-02-01

    In the last decade, X-ray observations of hot stellar objects became available with unprecedented resolution and S/N ratio. For an adequate interpretation, fully metal-line blanketed Non-LTE model-atmospheres are necessary. The Tübingen Non-LTE Model Atmosphere Package (TMAP) can calculate such model atmospheres at a high level of sophistication. Although TMAP is not especially designed for the calculation of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) at extreme photospheric parameters, it can be employed for the spectral analysis of burst spectra of novae like V4743 Sgr or line identifications in observations of neutron stars with low magnetic fields in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) like EXO 0748-676.

  18. Non-LTE effects in inertial confinement fusion target chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, J.J.; Moses, G.A.; Peterson, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    In previous studies of transport processes in inertial confinement fusion target chambers, the radiative properties of the background plasma were calculated under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). In this paper, the authors present a study of the equation of state and the radiative properties of high temperature, low-to-moderate density ( 21 cm -3 ) plasmas for the determination of the conditions under which non-LTE effects become important and for an assessment of the importance of non-LTE processes in target chambers during high yield inertial fusion target explosions. For this purpose, two-body (radiative and dielectronic) and three-body (collisional) recombination and de-excitation processes are considered in calculating the steady state ionization and excitation populations. The results of this study indicate that non-LTE processes generally become important at temperatures of > or approx. 1, 10 and 100 eV for plasma densities of 10 18 , 10 19 and 10 21 cm -3 , respectively. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations utilizing the equation of state and the opacities for a non-LTE argon plasma were performed to study the response of a background gas to an inertial fusion target explosion. These calculations indicate that non-LTE processes are often the dominant atomic processes in the background plasma and that they can strongly affect the radiative and shock properties as energy is transported away from the point of the target explosion. (author). 22 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  19. Some non-LTE diagnostic methods for hydrogen plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Cho, K.Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper shows that if electric and magnetic fields are not negligible, then the 2-T model assumed by many non-LTE plasma diagnostic techniques may lead to serious errors. Significant difference between T e and T ex have been shown to exist with electric field strengths as low as ∼10 V/cm. Multithermal equilibrium (MTE) calculations show significant deviations in line emission coefficients when T e ≠ T ex compared to equivalent T e ≠ T q . A quasi non-dimentional MTE continuum relation is present to assist in diagnostics. Normalized line emission coefficients verses N e are used to indicate the type and extent of non-LTE. The MTE state diagram for hydrogen is used to show why non-LTE plasmas often appear to be in LTE based on N e determinations

  20. Non-LTE, line-blanketed model atmospheres for late O- and early B-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, James A.; Morrison, Nancy D.; Anderson, Lawrence S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of non-LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres to analyze the spectra of hot stars is reported. The stars analyzed are members of clusters and associations, have spectral types in the range O9-B2 and luminosity classes in the range III-IV, have slow to moderate rotation, and are photometrically constant. Sampled line opacities of iron-group elements were incorporated in the radiative transfer solution; solar abundances were assumed. Good to excellent agreement is obtained between the computed profiles and essentially all the line profiles used to fix the model, and reliable stellar parameters are derived. The synthetic M II 5581 equivalent widths agree well with the observed ones at the low end of the temperature range studied, but, above 25,000 K, the synthetic line is generally stronger than the observed line. The behavior of the observed equivalent widths of N II, N III, C II and C III lines as a function of Teff is studied. Most of the lines show much scatter, with no consistent trend that could indicate abundance differences from star to star.

  1. The ALI-ARMS Code for Modeling Atmospheric non-LTE Molecular Band Emissions: Current Status and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutepov, A. A.; Feofilov, A. G.; Manuilova, R. O.; Yankovsky, V. A.; Rezac, L.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    The Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) technique was developed in stellar astrophysics at the beginning of 1990s for solving the non-LTE radiative transfer problem in atomic lines and multiplets in stellar atmospheres. It was later successfully applied to modeling the non-LTE emissions and radiative cooling/heating in the vibrational-rotational bands of molecules in planetary atmospheres. Similar to the standard lambda iterations ALI operates with the matrices of minimal dimension. However, it provides higher convergence rate and stability due to removing from the iterating process the photons trapped in the optically thick line cores. In the current ALI-ARMS (ALI for Atmospheric Radiation and Molecular Spectra) code version additional acceleration of calculations is provided by utilizing the opacity distribution function (ODF) approach and "decoupling". The former allows replacing the band branches by single lines of special shape, whereas the latter treats non-linearity caused by strong near-resonant vibration-vibrational level coupling without additional linearizing the statistical equilibrium equations. Latest code application for the non-LTE diagnostics of the molecular band emissions of Earth's and Martian atmospheres as well as for the non-LTE IR cooling/heating calculations are discussed.

  2. Non-LTE considerations in spectral diagnostics of thermal transport and implosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, R.; Skupsky, S.; Delettrez, J.; Yaakobi, B.

    1984-01-01

    Recent thermal-transport and target-implosion experiments have used the emission of radiation from highly-ionized ions to signal the advance of laser-driven heat fronts and to mark the trajectories and stagnation points of imploding shells. We examine the results of such experiments with particular attention given to non-LTE effects of non-Maxwellian electrons and of finite ionization times on the populations of signature-emitting atomic species and on the formation of signature spectra and x-ray images in these experiments

  3. Improvements to the RADIOM non-LTE model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, M.; Colombant, D.; Klapisch, M.; Fyfe, D.; Gardner, J.

    2009-12-01

    In 1993, we proposed the RADIOM model [M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids 85 (1993) 4191] where an ionization temperature T z is used to derive non-LTE properties from LTE data. T z is obtained from an "extended Saha equation" where unbalanced transitions, like radiative decay, give the non-LTE behavior. Since then, major improvements have been made. T z has been shown to be more than a heuristic value, but describes the actual distribution of excited and ionized states and can be understood as an "effective temperature". Therefore we complement the extended Saha equation by introducing explicitly the auto-ionization/dielectronic capture. Also we use the SCROLL model to benchmark the computed values of T z.

  4. Hydrogenic ionization model for mixtures in non-LTE plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djaoui, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Hydrogenic Ionization Model for Mixtures (HIMM) is a non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE), time-dependent ionization model for laser-produced plasmas containing mixtures of elements (species). In this version, both collisional and radiative rates are taken into account. An ionization distribution for each species which is consistent with the ambient electron density is obtained by use of an iterative procedure in a single calculation for all species. Energy levels for each shell having a given principal quantum number and for each ion stage of each species in the mixture are calculated using screening constants. Steady-state non-LTE as well as LTE solutions are also provided. The non-LTE rate equations converge to the LTE solution at sufficiently high densities or as the radiation temperature approaches the electron temperature. The model is particularly useful at low temperatures where convergence problems are usually encountered in our previous models. We apply our model to typical situation in x-ray laser research, laser-produced plasmas and inertial confinement fusion. Our results compare well with previously published results for a selenium plasma. (author)

  5. Non-LTE models of Titan's upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelle, Roger V.

    1991-01-01

    Models for the thermal structure of Titan's upper atmosphere, between 0.1 mbar and 0.01 nbar are presented. The calculations include non-LTE heating/cooling in the rotation-vibration bands of CH4, C2H2, and C2H6, absorption of solar IR radiation in the near-IR bands of CH4 and subsequent cascading to the nu-4 band of CH4, absorption of solar EUV and UV radiation, thermal conduction and cooling by HCN rotational lines. Unlike earlier models, the calculated exospheric temperature agrees well with observations, because of the importance of HCN cooling. The calculations predict a well-developed mesopause with a temperature of 135-140 K at an altitude of approximately 600 km and pressure of about 0.1 microbar. The mesopause is at a higher pressure than predicted by earlier calculations because non-LTE radiative transfer in the rotation-vibration bands of CH4, C2H2, and C2H6 is treated in an accurate manner. The accuracy of the LTE approximation for source functions and heating rates is discussed.

  6. Improvements to Busquet's Non LTE algorithm in NRL's Hydro code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, M.; Colombant, D.

    1996-11-01

    Implementation of the Non LTE model RADIOM (M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B, 5, 4191 (1993)) in NRL's RAD2D Hydro code in conservative form was reported previously(M. Klapisch et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., 40, 1806 (1995)).While the results were satisfactory, the algorithm was slow and not always converging. We describe here modifications that address the latter two shortcomings. This method is quicker and more stable than the original. It also gives information about the validity of the fitting. It turns out that the number and distribution of groups in the multigroup diffusion opacity tables - a basis for the computation of radiation effects in the ionization balance in RADIOM- has a large influence on the robustness of the algorithm. These modifications give insight about the algorithm, and allow to check that the obtained average charge state is the true average. In addition, code optimization resulted in greatly reduced computing time: The ratio of Non LTE to LTE computing times being now between 1.5 and 2.

  7. Physics of Solar Prominences: I-Spectral Diagnostics and Non-LTE Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, N.; Heinzel, P.; Vial, J.-C,; Kucera, T.; Parenti, S.; Gunar, S.; Schmieder, B.; Kilper, G.

    2010-01-01

    This review paper outlines background information and covers recent advances made via the analysis of spectra and images of prominence plasma and the increased sophistication of non-LTE (i.e. when there is a departure from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium) radiative transfer models. We first describe the spectral inversion techniques that have been used to infer the plasma parameters important for the general properties of the prominence plasma in both its cool core and the hotter prominence-corona transition region. We also review studies devoted to the observation of bulk motions of the prominence plasma and to the determination of prominence mass. However, a simple inversion of spectroscopic data usually fails when the lines become optically thick at certain wavelengths. Therefore, complex

  8. IUE observations of Si and C lines and comparison with non-LTE models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    Classical model atmosphere techniques are applied to analyze IUE spectra, and to determine abundances, effective temperatures and gravities. Measurements of the equivalent widths and other properties of the line profiles of 24 photospheric lines of Si II, Si III, Si IV, C II, C III and C IV are presented in the range of 1175-1725 A for seven B and two O stars. Observed line profiles are compared with theoretical profiles computed using non-LTE theory and models, and using line-blanketed model atmospheres. Agreement is reasonably good, although strong lines are calculated to be systematically stronger than those observed, while the reverse occurs for weak lines, and empirical profiles have smaller wings than theoretical profiles. It is concluded that the present theory of line formation when used with solar abundances, represents fairly well observed UV photospheric lines of silicon and carbon ions in the atmospheres of main sequence stars of types B5-O9.

  9. Electron temperature determination in LTE and non-LTE plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    This article discusses how most experimental investigations assume a type of ''thermal equilibrium'' in which the excited levels are assumed to be populated according to the electron kinetic temperature, in the determination of electron temperature in LTE and non-LTE plasmas. This is justified on the basis that electron collisions dominate the equilibration of adjacent excited levels as shown by Byron, Stabler and Boartz. The comparison of temperature values calculated by various common methods as a check for local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTDE) or local thermal equilibrium (LTE) of the upper excited levels and the free electrons has been shown to indicate the excitation temperature in all cases utilized. Thomas shows that the source function of the first excited level may be dominated by non-local radiation, which would usually result in a different population than local collisional excitation would provide. Ionization from upper levels is by collisional means. The result may yield different valued excitation and electron temperatures

  10. Non-LTE spectral analyses of the lately discovered DB-gap white dwarfs from the SDSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huegelmeyer, S D; Dreizler, S

    2009-01-01

    For a long time, no hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs have been known that have effective temperature between 30 kK and eff < 45 kK (Eisenstein et al. 2006). It has been shown for DO white dwarfs that the relaxation of LTE is necessary to account for non local effects in the atmosphere caused by the intense radiation field. Therefore, we calculated a non-LTE model grid and re-analysed the aforementioned set of SDSS spectra. Our results confirm the existence of DB-gap white dwarfs.

  11. Generation of synthetic gamma spectra with MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmerio, Julian J.; Coppo, Anibal D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this work is the simulation of gamma spectra using the MATLAB program to generate the calibration curves in efficiency, which will be used to measure radioactive waste in drums. They are necessary for the proper characterization of these drums. A Monte Carlo simulation was basically developed with the random number generator Mersenne Twister and nuclear data obtained from NIST. This paper shows the results obtained and difficulties encountered until today. The physical correction of the simulated spectra has been the only aspect we have been working, up to this moment. Procedures: A simplified representation of the 'Laboratorio de Verificacion y Control de la Calidad' was chosen. Drums with cemented liquid waste are routinely measured in this laboratory. The commercial program MCNP was also used to get a valid reference in the field of simulation of spectra. We analyzed the spectra obtained by MATLAB in the light of classical literature photon detection and the spectrum obtained by MCNP. Conclusions: Currently the program developed seems adequate to simulate a measurement in the 'Laboratorio de Verificacion y Control de la Calidad'. The spectra obtained by MATLAB seem to physically represent what is observed in real spectra. However, it is a slow program. The current development efforts are directed to improve the speed of simulation. An alternative is to use the CUDA language for NVIDIA video cards to parallelized the simulation. An adequate simulation of the electronic measuring chain is also needed to obtain better representations of the shapes of the peaks. (author)

  12. The continuous UV flux of alpha lyrae: NON-LTE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snijders, M.A.J.

    1977-01-01

    Non--LTE calculations for the ultraviolet C I and Si I continuous opacity show that LTE results overestimate the importance of these sources of opacity and underestimate the emergent flux in α Lyr. The largest errors occur between 1100 and 1160 A where the predicted flux in non--LTE is as much as 50 times larger than in LTE, in reasonable accord with Copernicus observations.The discrepancy between LTE models and observations has been interpreted by Praderie et al. to result from the existence of a chromosphere. Until a self--consistent non-LTE model atmosphere becomes available, such an interpretation is premature

  13. The continuous UV flux of Alpha Lyrae - Non-LTE results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, M. A. J.

    1977-01-01

    Non-LTE calculations for the ultraviolet C I and Si I continuous opacity show that LTE results overestimate the importance of these sources of opacity and underestimate the emergent flux in Alpha Lyr. The largest errors occur between 1100 and 1160 A, where the predicted flux in non-LTE is as much as 50 times larger than in LTE, in reasonable accord with Copernicus observations. The discrepancy between LTE models and observations has been interpreted to result from the existence of a chromosphere. Until a self-consistent non-LTE model atmosphere becomes available, such an interpretation is premature.

  14. Recent advances in non-LTE stellar atmosphere models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Andreas A. C.

    2017-11-01

    In the last decades, stellar atmosphere models have become a key tool in understanding massive stars. Applied for spectroscopic analysis, these models provide quantitative information on stellar wind properties as well as fundamental stellar parameters. The intricate non-LTE conditions in stellar winds dictate the development of adequate sophisticated model atmosphere codes. The increase in both, the computational power and our understanding of physical processes in stellar atmospheres, led to an increasing complexity in the models. As a result, codes emerged that can tackle a wide range of stellar and wind parameters. After a brief address of the fundamentals of stellar atmosphere modeling, the current stage of clumped and line-blanketed model atmospheres will be discussed. Finally, the path for the next generation of stellar atmosphere models will be outlined. Apart from discussing multi-dimensional approaches, I will emphasize on the coupling of hydrodynamics with a sophisticated treatment of the radiative transfer. This next generation of models will be able to predict wind parameters from first principles, which could open new doors for our understanding of the various facets of massive star physics, evolution, and death.

  15. A New Non-LTE Model based on Super Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Shalom, A.; Klapisch, M.

    1996-11-01

    Non-LTE effects are vital for the simulation of radiation in hot plasmas involving even medium Z materials. However, the exceedingly large number of atomic energy levels forbids using a detailed collisional radiative model on-line in the hydrodynamic simulations. For this purpose, greatly simplified models are required. We implemented recently Busquet's model(M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B, 5, 4191 (1993)) in NRL's RAD2D Hydro code in conservative form (M. Klapisch et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., 40, 1806 (1995), and poster at this meeting.). This model is quick and the results make sense, but in the absence of precisely defined experiments, it is difficult to asses its accuracy. We present here a new collisional radiative model based on superconfigurations( A. Bar-Shalom, J. Oreg, J. F. Seely, U. Feldman, C. M. Brown, B. A. Hammel, R. W. Lee and C. A. Back, Phys. Rev. E, 52, 6686 (1995).), intended to be a benchmark for approximate models used in hydro-codes. It uses accurate rates from the HULLAC Code. Results for various elements will be presented and compared with RADIOM.

  16. NON-LTE INVERSIONS OF THE Mg ii h and k AND UV TRIPLET LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Cruz Rodríguez, Jaime; Leenaarts, Jorrit [Institute for Solar Physics, Dept. of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm Sweden (Sweden); Ramos, Andrés Asensio [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2016-10-20

    The Mg ii h and k lines are powerful diagnostics for studying the solar chromosphere. They have become particularly popular with the launch of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) satellite, and a number of studies that include these lines have lead to great progress in understanding chromospheric heating, in many cases thanks to the support from 3D MHD simulations. In this study, we utilize another approach to analyze observations: non-LTE inversions of the Mg ii h and k and UV triplet lines including the effects of partial redistribution. Our inversion code attempts to construct a model atmosphere that is compatible with the observed spectra. We have assessed the capabilities and limitations of the inversions using the FALC atmosphere and a snapshot from a 3D radiation-MHD simulation. We find that Mg ii h and k allow reconstructing a model atmosphere from the middle photosphere to the transition region. We have also explored the capabilities of a multi-line/multi-atom setup, including the Mg ii h and k, the Ca ii 854.2 nm, and the Fe i 630.25 lines to recover the full stratification of physical parameters, including the magnetic field vector, from the photosphere to the chromosphere. Finally, we present the first inversions of observed IRIS spectra from quiet-Sun, plage, and sunspot, with very promising results.

  17. The influence of electron collisions on non-LTE Li line formation in stellar atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Yeisson; Barklem, Paul; Lind, Karin; Asplund, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the uncertainties in the rate coefficient data for electron-impact excitation and ionization on non-LTE Li line formation in cool stellar atmospheres is investigated. We examine the electron collision data used in previous non-LTE calculations and compare them to our own calculations using the R-matrix with pseudostates (RMPS) method and to other calculations found in the literature.

  18. NonLTE ANALYSIS OF THE NaI LINES IN THE SOLAR SPECTRUM

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, D. V.; Shimansky, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Solar spectrum of Nal lines by method of the nonLTE analysis is investigated. It shown, that in atmosphere of the Sun the Nal is in moderate ”overrecombination”. The analysis of influence of atomic data, models of atmospheres and damping constants for nonLTE deviation and sodium abundances is made. Observational solar spectrum of strong lines Nal has been synthesized in good approximation. On summary data of 15 lines the sodium abundance is determined:-5.78dex.

  19. Non-LTE line formation of Fe in late-type stars - III. 3D non-LTE analysis of metal-poor stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarsi, A. M.; Lind, K.; Asplund, M.

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most important elements in astronomy, iron abundance determinations need to be as accurate as possible. We investigate the accuracy of spectroscopic iron abundance analyses using archetypal metal-poor stars. We perform detailed 3D non-LTE radiative transfer calculations based on 3D...

  20. INTRIGOSS: A new Library of High Resolution Synthetic Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Mariagrazia; Morossi, Carlo; Di Marcancantonio, Paolo; Chavez, Miguel; GES-Builders

    2018-01-01

    INTRIGOSS (INaf Trieste Grid Of Synthetic Spectra) is a new High Resolution (HiRes) synthetic spectral library designed for studying F, G, and K stars. The library is based on atmosphere models computed with specified individual element abundances via ATLAS12 code. Normalized SPectra (NSP) and surface Flux SPectra (FSP), in the 4800-5400 Å wavelength range, were computed by means of the SPECTRUM code. The synthetic spectra are computed with an atomic and bi-atomic molecular line list including "bona fide" Predicted Lines (PLs) built by tuning loggf to reproduce very high SNR Solar spectrum and the UVES-U580 spectra of five cool giants extracted from the Gaia-ESO survey (GES). The astrophysical gf-values were then assessed by using more than 2000 stars with homogenous and accurate atmosphere parameters and detailed chemical composition from GES. The validity and greater accuracy of INTRIGOSS NSPs and FSPs with respect to other available spectral libraries is discussed. INTRIGOSS will be available on the web and will be a valuable tool for both stellar atmospheric parameters and stellar population studies.

  1. Non-LTE analysis of the Ofpe/WN9 star HDE 269227 (R84)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Werner; Leitherer, Claus; Hubeny, Ivan; Vogel, Manfred; Hamann, Wolf-Rainer

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a spectral analysis of the Ofpe/WN9 star HD 269227 (R84), which assumes a spherically expanding atmosphere to find solutions for equations of radiative transfer. The spectra of hydrogen and helium were predicted with a non-LTE model. Six stellar parameters were determined for R84. The shape of the velocity law is empirically found, since it can be probed from the terminal velocity of the wind. The six stellar parameters are further employed in a hydrodynamic model where stellar wind is assumed to be directed by radiation pressure, duplicating the mass-loss rate and the terminal wind velocity. The velocity laws found by computation and analysis are found to agree, supporting the theory of radiation-driven stellar wind. R84 is surmised to be a post-red supergiant which lost half of its initial mass, possibly during the red-supergiant phase. This mass loss is also suggested by its spectroscopic similarity to S Doradus.

  2. Heating, Hydrodynamics, and Radiation From a Laser Heated Non-LTE High-Z Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, William; Foord, M. E.; Schneider, M. B.; Barrios, M. A.; Brown, G. V.; Heeter, R. F.; Jarrott, L. C.; Liedahl, D. A.; Marley, E. V.; Mauche, C. W.; Widmann, K.

    2016-10-01

    We present 2D R-z simulations that model the hydrodynamics and x-ray output of a laser heated, tamped foil, using the rad-hydro code LASNEX. The foil consists of a thin (2400 A) cylindrical disk of iron/vanadium/gold that is embedded in a thicker Be tamper. The simulations utilize a non-LTE detailed configuration (DCA) model, which generates the emission spectra. Simulated pinhole images are compared with data, finding qualitative agreement with the time-history of the face-on emission profiles, and exhibiting an interesting reduction in emission size over a few ns time period. Furthermore, we find that the simulations recover similar burn through times in both the target and Be tamper as measured by a time-dependent filtered x-ray detector (DANTE). Additional results and characterization of the experimental plasma will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. New computational method for non-LTE, the linear response matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, K.B.; Grasiani, F.R.; Harte, J.A.; Libby, S.B.; More, R.M.; Zimmerman, G.B.

    1998-01-01

    My coauthors have done extensive theoretical and computational calculations that lay the ground work for a linear response matrix method to calculate non-LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) opacities. I will give briefly review some of their work and list references. Then I will describe what has been done to utilize this theory to create a computational package to rapidly calculate mild non-LTE emission and absorption opacities suitable for use in hydrodynamic calculations. The opacities are obtained by performing table look-ups on data that has been generated with a non-LTE package. This scheme is currently under development. We can see that it offers a significant computational speed advantage. It is suitable for mild non-LTE, quasi-steady conditions. And it offers a new insertion path for high-quality non-LTE data. Currently, the linear response matrix data file is created using XSN. These data files could be generated by more detailed and rigorous calculations without changing any part of the implementation in the hydro code. The scheme is running in Lasnex and is being tested and developed

  4. Non-LTE profiles of the Al I autoionization lines. [for solar model atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, G. D.; Jefferies, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    A non-LTE formulation is given for the transfer of radiation in the autoionizing lines of neutral aluminum at 1932 and 1936 A through both the Bilderberg and Harvard-Smithsonian model atmospheres. Numerical solutions for the common source function of these lines and their theoretical line profiles are calculated and compared with the corresponding LTE profiles. The results show that the non-LTE profiles provide a better match with the observations. They also indicate that the continuous opacity of the standard solar models should be increased in this wavelength region if the center-limb variations of observed and theoretical profiles of these lines are to be in reasonable agreement.

  5. Collisional-radiative switching - A powerful technique for converging non-LTE calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, D. G.; Voels, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    A very simple technique has been developed to converge statistical equilibrium and model atmospheric calculations in extreme non-LTE conditions when the usual iterative methods fail to converge from an LTE starting model. The proposed technique is based on a smooth transition from a collision-dominated LTE situation to the desired non-LTE conditions in which radiation dominates, at least in the most important transitions. The proposed approach was used to successfully compute stellar models with He abundances of 0.20, 0.30, and 0.50; Teff = 30,000 K, and log g = 2.9.

  6. A non-local thermodynamic equilibrium, line-blanketed synthetic spectrum of Iota Herculis - C, Al, and Si lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, James A.

    1991-01-01

    A non-LTE line-blanketed model stellar atmosphere is used to compute a model of I Herculis (B3 IV) with a Teff of 17,500 K and a log g of 3.75, following the conclusions of Peters and Polidan (1985). Detailed profiles of a number of lines of C, Al, and Si in the 1200-2000-A region are computed, including the resonance lines of C II, Al II, and Al III. These profiles are compared to observations obtained from the coaddition of eight IUE SWP images, using a technique developed by Leckrone and Adelman (1989). Comparison of carbon lines with a model that is underabundant in carbon by a factor of 2 relative to the sun indicates that the C abundance of Iota Her is at most one-half solar. Non-LTE effects are examined by comparing an LTE model possessing identical atmospheric parameters with the non-LTE model. Substantial differences in the populations of the model atomic states are found, but differences in the temperature structure of the two models often mask the non-LTE effects in the synthetic spectra.

  7. Towards detecting methanol emission in low-mass protoplanetary discs with ALMA: the role of non-LTE excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, S. Yu.; Semenov, D. A.; Sobolev, A. M.; Gray, M. D.

    2016-08-01

    The understanding of organic content of protoplanetary discs is one of the main goals of the planet formation studies. As an attempt to guide the observational searches for weak lines of complex species in discs, we modelled the (sub)millimetre spectrum of gaseous methanol (CH3OH), one of the simplest organic molecules, in the representative T Tauri system. We used 1+1D disc physical model coupled to the gas-grain ALCHEMIC chemical model with and without 2D-turbulent mixing. The computed CH3OH abundances along with the CH3OH scheme of energy levels of ground and excited torsional states were used to produce model spectra obtained with the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) 3D line radiative transfer code LIME. We found that the modelled non-LTE intensities of the CH3OH lines can be lower by factor of >10-100 than those calculated under assumption of LTE. Though population inversion occurs in the model calculations for many (sub)millimetre transitions, it does not lead to the strong maser amplification and noticeably high line intensities. We identify the strongest CH3OH (sub)millimetre lines that could be searched for with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in nearby discs. The two best candidates are the CH3OH 50 - 40A+ (241.791 GHz) and 5-1 - 4-1E (241.767 GHz) lines, which could possibly be detected with the ˜5σ signal-to-noise ratio after ˜3 h of integration with the full ALMA array.

  8. The use of synthetic spectra to test the preparedness to evaluate and analyze complex gamma spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikkinen, M

    2001-10-01

    This is the report of two exercises that were run under the NKS BOK-1.1 sub-project. In these exercises synthetic gamma spectra were developed to exercise the analysis of difficult spectra typically seen after a severe nuclear accident. The spectra were analyzed twice; first, participants were given short time to give results to resemble an actual emergency preparedness situation, then a longer period of time was allowed to tune the laboratory analysis results for quality assurance purposes. The exercise did prove that it is possible to move measurement data from one laboratory to another if second opinion of the analysis is needed. It was also felt that this kind of exercise would enhance the experience the laboratories have in analyzing accident data. Participants expressed the need for additional exercises of this type, this is inexpensive and an easy way to exercise quick emergency response situations not normally seen in daily laboratory routines. (au)

  9. Variability of OH rotational temperatures on time scales from hours to 15 years by kinetic temperature variations, emission layer changes, and non-LTE effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Rotational temperatures derived from hydroxyl (OH) line emission are frequently used to study atmospheric temperatures at altitudes of about 87 km. While the measurement only requires intensities of a few bright lines of an OH band, the interpretation can be complicated. Ground-based temperatures are averages for the entire, typically 8 km wide emission layer. Variations in the rotational temperature are then caused by changes of the kinetic temperature and the OH emission profile. The latter can also be accompanied by differences in the layer-averaged efficiency of the thermalisation of the OH rotational level populations. Since this especially depends on the frequency of collisions with O_2, which is low at high altitudes, the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) contribution to the measured temperatures can be significant and variable. In order to understand the impact of the different sources of OH rotational temperature variations from time scales of hours to a solar cycle, we have studied spectra from the astronomical echelle spectrographs X-shooter and UVES located at Cerro Paranal in Chile. While the X-shooter data spanning 3.5 years allowed us to measure temperatures for 25 OH and two O_2 bands, the UVES spectra cover no more than 10 OH bands simultaneously but a period of about 15 years. These data have been complemented by kinetic temperature and OH and O_2 emission profiles from the multi-channel radiometer SABER on the TIMED satellite. Taking the O_2 and SABER kinetic temperatures as reference and considering the different band-dependent emission profiles, we could evaluate the contribution of non-LTE effects to the measured OH rotational temperatures depending on line set, band, and time. Non-LTE contributions are significant for most bands and can exceed 10 K. The amplitudes of their average nocturnal and seasonal variation are of the order of 1 to 2 K.

  10. Simulation of non LTE opacity with incoming radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

    2009-11-01

    Simulation of radiative properties of hot plasmas is important for ICF, other laboratory plasmas, and astrophysics. When mid-Z or high-Z elements are involved, the spectra are so complex that one commonly uses LTE approximation. This was recently done in interpreting a carefully calibrated experiment on Fe at 160 eV [1]. However some disagreement remains concerning the ion charge distribution. The newest version of HULLAC [2] has the capability to take into account an incoming radiation field in solving the rate equations of the coronal radiative model (CRM). We will show results with different representation of the radiation field.[4pt] [1] J.E. Bailey, G.A. Rochau, C.A. Iglesias, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, (2007) 265002-4.[0pt] [2] M. Klapisch and M. Busquet, High Ener. Dens. Phys. 5, (2009) 105-9.

  11. Non-LTE calculations of Al III line strengths in early-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufton, P.L.; Brown, P.J.F.; Lennon, D.J.; Lynas-Gray, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Non-LTE line formation calculations, based on the 'complete linearization method' are presented for the Al III ion in early-type stars. Equivalent widths, together with the corresponding LTE values, are tabulated for 15 ultraviolet and visible region transitions, for effective temperatures from 20 000 to 35 000 K, logarithmic gravities of 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5, microturbulent velocities of 0 and 5 km s -1 and logarithmic aluminium abundances of 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0. The non-LTE line strengths are significantly larger than the LTE values particularly for the visible region transitions and the implications of this are briefly discussed. (author)

  12. Non-LTE Equation of State for ICF simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel; Bar-Shalom, Avraham; Colombant, Denis

    2002-11-01

    SCROLL is a collisional radiative model able to deal with complex spectra[1]. It is used to generate opacity/emissivity databases [2] compatible with the hydrocode FAST[3] for all elements of interest in the simulation of ICF targets, including high-Z. It is now modified to yield tables of EOS data for FAST, in the whole range of interest (T=1 to 25000eV, rho=10-6 to 100g/cc). SCROLL contributes the electronic -free and bound- part of the EOS, replacing Busquet's model of an ionization temperature. Ionization energies include contributions of all excited states. Energies and Z* go smoothly to the high density regime, where a "jellium" model is assumed. The free electrons are self consistent with the bound electrons. Examples of runs will be shown. Supported by USDOE through a contract with the Naval Research Laboratory. [1] A. Bar-Shalom, J. Oreg, and M. Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 43 (2000). [2] A. Bar-shalom, M. Klapisch, J. Oreg, and D. Colombant, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 46, 295 (2001). [3] J. H. Gardner, A. J. Schmitt, J. P. Dahlburg, et al, Phys. Plasmas 5, 1935 (1998).

  13. A non-LTE retrieval scheme for sounding the upper atmosphere of Mars in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; García-Comas, Maya; Funke, Bernd; Jimenez-Monferrer, Sergio; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Several instruments on board Mars Express have been sounding the upper atmosphere of Mars systematically in a limb geometry in the IR part of the spectrum. Two of them in particular, OMEGA and PFS, performed emission measurements during daytime and detected the strongest IR bands of species like CO2 and CO (Piccialli et al, JGRE, submitted). Similarly on Venus, the instrument VIRTIS carried out observations of CO2 and CO bands at 2.7, 4.3 and 4.7 um at high altitudes (Gilli et al, JGRE, 2009). All these daylight atmospheric emissions respond to fluorescent situations, a case of non-local thermodynamic equilibrum conditions (non-LTE), well understood nowadays using comprehensive non-LTE theoretical models and tools (Lopez-Valverde et al., Planet. Space Sci., 2011). However, extensive exploitation of these emissions has only been done in optically thin conditions to date (Gilli et al, Icarus, 2015) or in a broad range of altitudes if in nadir geometry (Peralta et al, Apj, 2015). Within the H2020 project UPWARDS we aim at performing retrievals under non-LTE conditions including optically thick cases, like those of the CO2 and CO strongest bands during daytime in the upper atmosphere of Mars. Similar effort will also be applied eventually to Venus. We will present the non-LTE scheme used for such retrievals, based on similar efforts performed recently in studies of the Earth's upper atmosphere using data from the MIPAS instrument, on board Envisat (Funke et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2009; Jurado-Navarro, PhD Thesis, Univ. Granada, 2015). Acknowledgemnt: This work is supported by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Programme under grant agreement UPWARDS-633127

  14. Non-LTE treatment of beryllium lines: Misidentification of the solar Be I feature at 2650 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipman, H.L.; Auer, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    We investigated the formation of beryllium lines, with particular reference to the solar Be spectrum, in a non-LTE context with a 25-level model atom in which 15 levels were allowed to depart from LTE. In some transitions, particularly the Be I lambda2650 line, the non-LTE effects can be quite dramatic, changing the deduced abundances by a factor of 4. Based on our non-LTE calculations and Copernicus observations of other stars, we find that a solar spectral feature at 2650 A, previously identified by numerous investigators as a Be I line, cannot be produced by Be I. Non-LTE effects on the Be II lambda3131 A line, used for most Be abundance determinations in the literature, are small by comparison

  15. A non-LTE treatment of beryllium lines - Misidentification of the solar Be I feature at 2650 A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, H. L.; Auer, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of beryllium lines, with particular reference to the solar Be spectrum, is investigated in a non-LTE context with a 25-level model atom in which 15 levels are allowed to depart from LTE. In some transitions, particularly the Be I 2650-A line, the non-LTE effects can be quite dramatic, changing the deduced abundances by a factor of 4. Based on the non-LTE calculations and Copernicus observations of other stars, it is found that a solar spectral feature at 2650 A, previously identified by numerous investigators as a Be I line, cannot be produced by Be I. Non-LTE effects on the Be II 3131-A line, used for most Be abundance determinations in the literature, are small by comparison.

  16. Self-consistent Non-LTE Model of Infrared Molecular Emissions and Oxygen Dayglows in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilov, Artem G.; Yankovsky, Valentine A.; Pesnell, William D.; Kutepov, Alexander A.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Mauilova, Rada O.

    2007-01-01

    We present the new version of the ALI-ARMS (for Accelerated Lambda Iterations for Atmospheric Radiation and Molecular Spectra) model. The model allows simultaneous self-consistent calculating the non-LTE populations of the electronic-vibrational levels of the O3 and O2 photolysis products and vibrational level populations of CO2, N2,O2, O3, H2O, CO and other molecules with detailed accounting for the variety of the electronic-vibrational, vibrational-vibrational and vibrational-translational energy exchange processes. The model was used as the reference one for modeling the O2 dayglows and infrared molecular emissions for self-consistent diagnostics of the multi-channel space observations of MLT in the SABER experiment It also allows reevaluating the thermalization efficiency of the absorbed solar ultraviolet energy and infrared radiative cooling/heating of MLT by detailed accounting of the electronic-vibrational relaxation of excited photolysis products via the complex chain of collisional energy conversion processes down to the vibrational energy of optically active trace gas molecules.

  17. Influence of external radiation on non-LTE opacities of Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

    2010-11-01

    In Laboratory Astrophysics, where astrophysics phenomena are scaled down to the laboratory, Xenon is commonly used. In most cases, astrophysical plasmas are not dense enough to warrant LTE. However, they are surrounded by radiation fields. Extensive detailed level computations of non-LTE Xe around Te = 100eV were performed with HULLAC [1], with different radiation temperatures and/or dilution factors. Generally, the effects are very important, even with small dilution factors. [4pt] [1] M. Klapisch and M. Busquet, High Ener. Dens. Phys.5, (2009) 105-9; Bull. Am. Phys. Soc.54, (2009) 210.

  18. 3D Multi-Level Non-LTE Radiative Transfer for the CO Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkner, A.; Schweitzer, A.; Hauschildt, P. H.

    2015-01-01

    The photospheres of cool stars are both rich in molecules and an environment where the assumption of LTE can not be upheld under all circumstances. Unfortunately, detailed 3D non-LTE calculations involving molecules are hardly feasible with current computers. For this reason, we present our implementation of the super level technique, in which molecular levels are combined into super levels, to reduce the number of unknowns in the rate equations and, thus, the computational effort and memory requirements involved, and show the results of our first tests against the 1D implementation of the same method.

  19. Non-LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres of hot stars. 2: Hot, metal-rich white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, T.; Hubeny, I.

    1995-01-01

    We present several model atmospheres for a typical hot metal-rich DA white dwarf, T(sub eff) = 60,000 K, log g = 7.5. We consider pure hydrogen models, as well as models with various abundances of two typical 'trace' elements-carbon and iron. We calculte a number of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE models, taking into account the effect of numerous lines of these elements on the atmospheric structure. We demostrate that while the non-LTE effects are notvery significant for pure hydrogen models, except for describing correctly the central emission in H-alpha they are essential for predicting correctly the ionization balance of metals, such as carbon and iron. Previously reported discrepancies in LTE abundances determinations using C III and C IV lines are easily explained by non-LTE effects. We show that if the iron abundance is larger than 10(exp -5), the iron line opacity has to be considered not only for the spectrum synthesis, but also in the model construction itself. For such metal abundances, non-LTE metal line-blanketed models are needed for detailed abundance studies of hot, metal-rich white dwarfs. We also discuss the predicted Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) spectrum and show that it is very sensitive to metal abundances, as well as to non-LTE effects.

  20. Non-LTE radiating acoustic shocks and Ca II K2V bright points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Mats; Stein, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    We present, for the first time, a self-consistent solution of the time-dependent 1D equations of non-LTE radiation hydrodynamics in solar chromospheric conditions. The vertical propagation of sinusoidal acoustic waves with periods of 30, 180, and 300 s is calculated. We find that departures from LTE and ionization recombination determine the temperature profiles of the shocks that develop. In LTE almost all the thermal energy goes into ionization, so the temperature rise is very small. In non-LTE, the finite transition rates delay the ionization to behind the shock front. The compression thus goes into thermal energy at the shock front leading to a high temperature amplitude. Further behind the shock front, the delayed ionization removes energy from the thermal pool, which reduces the temperature, producing a temperature spike. The 180 s waves reproduce the observed temporal changes in the calcium K line profiles quite well. The observed wing brightening pattern, the violet/red peak asymmetry and the observed line center behavior are all well reproduced. The short-period waves and the 5 minute period waves fail especially in reproducing the observed behavior of the wings.

  1. Non-LTE effects on the strength of the Lyman edge in quasar accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoerzer, H.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Allard, F.

    1994-01-01

    We have calculated UV/EUV (300 A which is less than or equal to lambda which is less than or equal to 1500 A) continuous energy distributions of accretion disks in the centers of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for disk luminosities in the range 0.1 L(sub Edd) less than or equal to L(sub acc) less than 1.0 L(sub Edd) and central masses ranging from 10(exp 8) solar mass to 10(exp 9) solar mass. The vertical gas pressure structure of the disk and the disk height are obtained analytically; the temperature stratification and the resulting continuum radiation fields are calculated numerically. We have included non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) effects of both the ionization equilibrium and the level populations of hydrogen and helium. We show that these non-LTE effects reduce the strength of the Lyman edge when comapred to the LTE case. In non-LTE we find that the edge can be weakly in emission or absorption for disks seen face-on, depending on the disk parameters.

  2. Target simulations with SCROLL non-LTE opacity/emissivity databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, M.; Colombant, D.; Bar-Shalom, A.

    2001-10-01

    SCROLL[1], a collisional radiative model and code based on superconfigurations, is able to compute high Z non-LTE opacities and emissivities accurately and efficiently. It was used to create opacity/emissivity databases for Pd, Lu, Au on a 50 temperatures/80 densities grid. Incident radiation field was shown to have no effect on opacities in the case of interest, and was not taken into account. These databases were introduced in the hydrocode FAST1D[2]. SCROLL also gives an ionization temperature Tz which is used in FAST1D to obtain non-LTE corrections to the equation of state. Results will be compared to those of a previous version using Busquet’s algorithm[3]. Work supported by USDOE under a contract with NRL. [1] A. Bar-Shalom, J. Oreg and M. Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 65, 43(2000). [2] J. H. Gardner, A. J. Schmitt, J. P. Dahlburg, C. J. Pawley, S. E. Bodner, S. P. Obenschain, V. Serlin and Y. Aglitskiy, Phys. Plasmas, 5, 1935 (1998). [3] M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B, 5, 4191 (1993).

  3. An arc facility for investigating non-LTE thermodynamic and transport phenomena in low and high pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedghinisab, A.; Eddy, T.L.; Murray, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses a high pressure arc facility modified for computerized control and data acquisition to simplify measurements of non-LTE plasmas. The non-LTE methods have shown that numerous spectral lines and continuum must be accurately, precisely and quickly measured.The instrumentation uses a 1-m monochrometer with programmed wavelength slews and scans; oplasma scans; and monitoring of chamber pressure, current, voltages, and location. Multiple flows of various gases can be provided simultaneously. Plasma self absorption is determined via a concave back mirror and shutter with final alignment via computer plots. The raw data is corrected for absorption, zeroed, centered and smoothed. The net line intensity is then determined and Abeled prior to feeding into LTE or non-LTE analysis methods. Sample results are presented at 0.1,1 and 10 atm

  4. Experiments on the Scaling of Ionization Balance vs. Electron and Radiation Temperature in Non-LTE Gold Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeter, R.F.; Hansen, S.B.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Foord, M.E.; Fournier, K.B.; Froula, D.H.; Mackinnon, A.J.; May, M.J.; Schneider, M.B.; Young, B.K.F.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding and predicting the behavior of high-Z non-LTE plasmas is important for developing indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion. Extending earlier work from the Nova laser, we present results from experiments using the Omega laser to study the ionization balance of gold as a function of electron and radiation temperature. In these experiments, gold samples embedded in Be disks expand under direct laser heating to ne ≅ 1021cm-3, with Te varying from 0.8 to 2.5 keV. An additional finite radiation field with effective temperature Tr up to 150 eV is provided by placing the gold Be disks inside truncated 1.2 mm diameter tungsten-coated cylindrical hohlraums with full laser entrance holes. Densities are measured by imaging of plasma expansion. Electron temperatures are diagnosed with either 2ω or 4ω Thomson scattering, and also K-shell spectroscopy of KCl tracers co-mixed with the gold. Hohlraum flux and effective radiation temperature are measured using an absolutely-calibrated multichannel filtered diode array. Spectroscopic measurements of the M-shell gold emission in the 2.9-4 keV spectral range provide ionization balance and charge state distribution information. The spectra show strong variation with Te, strong variation with the applied Tr, at Te below 1.6 keV, and relatively little variation with Tr at higher Te (upwards of 2 keV). We summarize our most recent spectral analyses and discuss emerging and outstanding issues

  5. Detailed non-LTE calculations of the iron emission from NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, David L.; Klein, Richard I.; Castor, John I.; Nash, J. K.

    1989-01-01

    The X-ray iron line emission from NGC 1068 observed by the Ginga satellite is modeled using the new multiline, multilevel, non-LTE radiative transport code ALTAIR and a detailed atomic model for Ne-like through stripped iron. The parameter space of the obscured type 1 Seyfert nucleus model for this object is studied. The equivalent width is greater than previously predicted. It is found that detailed radiative transfer can have a significant effect on the observed line flux both for the K alpha line and for the L-shell emission. The ionization of the iron increases with temperature. Therefore the K alpha equivalent width and energy is a function not only of the ionization parameter, but also of the column depth and temperature. For a likely model of NGC 1068 it is found that the iron abundance is about twice solar, but that modifications of this model may permit a smaller abundance.

  6. Limb-darkening coefficients from line-blanketed non-LTE hot-star model atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, D. C.; Howarth, I. D.

    2016-02-01

    We present grids of limb-darkening coefficients computed from non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE), line-blanketed TLUSTY model atmospheres, covering effective-temperature and surface-gravity ranges of 15-55 kK and 4.75 dex (cgs) down to the effective Eddington limit, at 2×, 1×, 0.5× (Large Magellanic Cloud), 0.2× (Small Magellanic Cloud), and 0.1× solar. Results are given for the Bessell UBVRICJKHL, Sloan ugriz, Strömgren ubvy, WFCAM ZYJHK, Hipparcos, Kepler, and Tycho passbands, in each case characterized by several different limb-darkening `laws'. We examine the sensitivity of limb darkening to temperature, gravity, metallicity, microturbulent velocity, and wavelength, and make a comparison with LTE models. The dependence on metallicity is very weak, but limb darkening is a moderately strong function of log g in this temperature regime.

  7. A conjugate gradient method for solving the non-LTE line radiation transfer problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletou, F.; Anterrieu, E.

    2009-12-01

    This study concerns the fast and accurate solution of the line radiation transfer problem, under non-LTE conditions. We propose and evaluate an alternative iterative scheme to the classical ALI-Jacobi method, and to the more recently proposed Gauss-Seidel and successive over-relaxation (GS/SOR) schemes. Our study is indeed based on applying a preconditioned bi-conjugate gradient method (BiCG-P). Standard tests, in 1D plane parallel geometry and in the frame of the two-level atom model with monochromatic scattering are discussed. Rates of convergence between the previously mentioned iterative schemes are compared, as are their respective timing properties. The smoothing capability of the BiCG-P method is also demonstrated.

  8. Python Radiative Transfer Emission code (PyRaTE): non-LTE spectral lines simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritsis, A.; Yorke, H.; Tassis, K.

    2018-05-01

    We describe PyRaTE, a new, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) line radiative transfer code developed specifically for post-processing astrochemical simulations. Population densities are estimated using the escape probability method. When computing the escape probability, the optical depth is calculated towards all directions with density, molecular abundance, temperature and velocity variations all taken into account. A very easy-to-use interface, capable of importing data from simulations outputs performed with all major astrophysical codes, is also developed. The code is written in PYTHON using an "embarrassingly parallel" strategy and can handle all geometries and projection angles. We benchmark the code by comparing our results with those from RADEX (van der Tak et al. 2007) and against analytical solutions and present case studies using hydrochemical simulations. The code will be released for public use.

  9. EPR spectra of synthetic, and natural Australian opals - A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, D.R.; Troup, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The EPR spectra of some synthetic opals, and of some Australian natural opals of various provenance, have been obtained, with the use of a Varian E-12 EPR spectrometer operating at ∼9.2 Ghz. The synthetic opals, from Swiss Gilson showed here a broad ESR signal in the g =2 region, with little identifiable structure . The natural Australian opals from Coober Pedy, Lightning Ridge, and Mintabie all showed the clear presence of Fe 3+ , Mn 2+ and a free radical like signal, suspected to be localised on an Al atom. Examples of the various spectra will be presented. It is not yet certain how the spectra correlate with provenance, but the synthetic spectra are quite different from the natural ones

  10. Non-LTE spectral analysis and model constraints on SN 1993J

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, E.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Branch, D.; Austin, S.; Garnavich, P.; Ann, Hong Bae; Wagner, R. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Matheson, T.; Liebert, James

    1995-01-01

    We present non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) synthetic spectra for a time series of observations of SN 1993J obtained on 1993 March 30-31, April 7, April 13-15, and June 13 UT. The spectra are dominated by hydrogen Balmer lines; neutral helium lines, which have been nonthermally excited; and Fe II features. The density profile evolves from an extremely steep 'brick wall' structure with an equivalent power-law index of about 50 on March 30 to a more typical SN II profile with a power law index of about 10. The early spectra are well fitted by a solar composition of metals, although an enhanced abundance of helium is required in order to fit the neutral helium lines. By June 13, the photosphere has receded deep into the helium layer, although there appears to be a layer of hydrogen at higher velocity. The distance is estimated for each epoch. While consistent results are found for spectra obtained in the month of April, the spread in distances from March to June is quite large. Our value for April is mu = 28.0 +/- 0.3 mag, consistent with the recent Cepheid distance to the host galaxy M81. We also compare our results to other implementations of the expanding photosphere method.

  11. Neutron spectra and cross sections for ice and clathrate generated from the synthetic spectrum and synthetic model for molecular solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petriw, S; Cantargi, F; Granada, R

    2006-01-01

    We present here a Synthetic Model for Molecular Solids, aimed at the description of the interaction of thermal neutrons with this kind of systems.Simple representations of the molecular dynamical modes are used, in order to produce a fair description of neutron scattering kernels and cross sections with a minimum set of input data. Using those spectra, we have generated thermal libraries for M C N P [es

  12. The validation of synthetic spectra used in the performance evaluation of radionuclide identifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, A.; Boardman, D.; Reinhard, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    This work has evaluated synthetic gamma-ray spectra created by the RASE sampler using experimental data. The RASE sampler resamples experimental data to create large data libraries which are subsequently available for use in evaluation of radionuclide identification algorithms. A statistical evaluation of the synthetic energy bins has shown the variation to follow a Poisson distribution identical to experimental data. The minimum amount of statistics required in each base spectrum to ensure the subsequent use of the base spectrum in the generation of statistically robust synthetic data was determined. A requirement that the simulated acquisition time of the synthetic spectra was not more than 4% of the acquisition time of the base spectrum was also determined. Further validation of RASE was undertaken using two different radionuclide identification algorithms. - Highlights: • A validation of synthetic data created in order to evaluate radionuclide identification systems has been carried out. • Statistical analysis has shown that the data accurately represents experimental data. • A limit to the amount of data which could be created using this method was evaluated. • Analysis of the synthetic gamma spectra show identical results to analysis carried out with experimental data

  13. Non-LTE population probabilities of the excited ionic levels in a steady state plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzmann, D.

    1982-01-01

    A Complete-Staedy-State (CSS) model for the charge state distribution and the ionic levels population probabilities of ions in hot non-LTE plasmas is described. The following properties of this model are described: (i) it is shown that CSS covers LTE and Corona Equilibrium (CE) in the high and low electron density regimes respectively, (ii) an explicit expression is found for the low electron density asymptotic behaviour of the population probabilities, (iii) it is shown that at intermediate density regions the CSS model predicts results similar to that of the Quasi-Steady-State model, (iv) new validity limits are derived for LTE and CE, (v) the population distribution of the excited levels is revised, (vi) an analytical expression is found for the high electron density asymptotic behaviour of the population distribution, (vii) the influence of the radiation reabsorption in a spherically symmetric CSS plasma is briefly described, and (viii) the effect of the inaccuracies in the rate-coefficients on the results of CSS calculations is evaluated. (author)

  14. The Origin of B-type Runaway Stars: Non-LTE Abundances as a Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, Catherine M.; Dufton, Philip L.; Smoker, Jonathan V.; Keenan, Francis P. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Lambert, David L. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Astronomy, RLM 16.316, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Schneider, Fabian R. N. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); De Wit, Willem-Jan [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2017-06-10

    There are two accepted mechanisms to explain the origin of runaway OB-type stars: the binary supernova (SN) scenario and the cluster ejection scenario. In the former, an SN explosion within a close binary ejects the secondary star, while in the latter close multibody interactions in a dense cluster cause one or more of the stars to be ejected from the region at high velocity. Both mechanisms have the potential to affect the surface composition of the runaway star. tlusty non-LTE model atmosphere calculations have been used to determine the atmospheric parameters and the C, N, Mg, and Si abundances for a sample of B-type runaways. These same analytical tools were used by Hunter et al. for their analysis of 50 B-type open-cluster Galactic stars (i.e., nonrunaways). Effective temperatures were deduced using the Si-ionization balance technique, surface gravities from Balmer line profiles, and microturbulent velocities derived using the Si spectrum. The runaways show no obvious abundance anomalies when compared with stars in the open clusters. The runaways do show a spread in composition that almost certainly reflects the Galactic abundance gradient and a range in the birthplaces of the runaways in the Galactic disk. Since the observed Galactic abundance gradients of C, N, Mg, and Si are of a similar magnitude, the abundance ratios (e.g., N/Mg) are as obtained essentially uniform across the sample.

  15. An approximate method to calculate ionization of LTE and non-LTE plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Gu Peijun

    1987-01-01

    When matter, especially high Z element, is heated to high temperature, it will be ionized many times. The degree of ionization has a strong effect on many plasma properties. So an approximate method to calculate the mean ionization degree is needed for solving many practical problems. An analytical expression which is convenient for the approximate numerical calculation is given by fitting it to the scaling law and numerical results of the ionization potential of Thomas-Fermi statistical model. In LTE case, the ionization degree of Au calculated by using the approximate method is in agreement with that of the average ion model. By extending the approximate method to non-LTE case, the ionization degree of Au is similarly calculated according to Corona model and Collision-Radiatoin model(C-R). The results of Corona model agree with the published data quite well, while the results of C-R approach those of Corona model as the density is reduced and approach those of LTE as the density is increased. Finally, all approximately calculated results of ionization degree of Au and the comparision of them are given in figures and tables

  16. Generation of synthetic time histories compatible with multiple-damping design response spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilhanand, K.; Tseng, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    Seismic design of nuclear power plants as currently practiced requires time history analyses be performed to generate floor response spectra for seismic qualification of piping, equipment, and components. Since design response spectra are normally prescribed in the form of smooth spectra, the generation of synthetic time histories whose response spectra closely match the ''target'' design spectra of multiple damping values, is often required for the seismic time history analysis purpose. Various methods of generation of synthetic time histories compatible with target response spectra have been proposed in the literature. Since the mathematical problem of determining a time history from a given set of response spectral values is not unique, an exact solution is not possible, and all the proposed methods resort to some forms of approximate solutions. In this paper, a new iteration scheme, is described which effectively removes the difficulties encountered by the existing methods. This new iteration scheme can not only improve the accuracy of spectrum matching for a single-damping target spectrum, but also automate the spectrum matching for multiple-damping target spectra. The applicability and limitations as well as the method adopted to improve the numerical stability of this new iteration scheme are presented. The effectiveness of this new iteration scheme is illustrated by two example applications

  17. Non-LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres of hot stars. 1: Hybrid complete linearization/accelerated lambda iteration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubeny, I.; Lanz, T.

    1995-01-01

    A new munerical method for computing non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE) model stellar atmospheres is presented. The method, called the hybird complete linearization/accelerated lambda iretation (CL/ALI) method, combines advantages of both its constituents. Its rate of convergence is virtually as high as for the standard CL method, while the computer time per iteration is almost as low as for the standard ALI method. The method is formulated as the standard complete lineariation, the only difference being that the radiation intensity at selected frequency points is not explicity linearized; instead, it is treated by means of the ALI approach. The scheme offers a wide spectrum of options, ranging from the full CL to the full ALI method. We deonstrate that the method works optimally if the majority of frequency points are treated in the ALI mode, while the radiation intensity at a few (typically two to 30) frequency points is explicity linearized. We show how this method can be applied to calculate metal line-blanketed non-LTE model atmospheres, by using the idea of 'superlevels' and 'superlines' introduced originally by Anderson (1989). We calculate several illustrative models taking into accont several tens of thosands of lines of Fe III to Fe IV and show that the hybrid CL/ALI method provides a robust method for calculating non-LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres for a wide range of stellar parameters. The results for individual stellar types will be presented in subsequent papers in this series.

  18. CO2 non-LTE limb emissions in Mars' atmosphere as observed by OMEGA/Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccialli, A.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Määttänen, A.; González-Galindo, F.; Audouard, J.; Altieri, F.; Forget, F.; Drossart, P.; Gondet, B.; Bibring, J. P.

    2016-06-01

    We report on daytime limb observations of Mars upper atmosphere acquired by the OMEGA instrument on board the European spacecraft Mars Express. The strong emission observed at 4.3 μm is interpreted as due to CO2 fluorescence of solar radiation and is detected at a tangent altitude in between 60 and 110 km. The main value of OMEGA observations is that they provide simultaneously spectral information and good spatial sampling of the CO2 emission. In this study we analyzed 98 dayside limb observations spanning over more than 3 Martian years, with a very good latitudinal and longitudinal coverage. Thanks to the precise altitude sounding capabilities of OMEGA, we extracted vertical profiles of the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) emission at each wavelength and we studied their dependence on several geophysical parameters, such as the solar illumination and the tangent altitude. The dependence of the non-LTE emission on solar zenith angle and altitude follows a similar behavior to that predicted by the non-LTE model. According to our non-LTE model, the tangent altitude of the peak of the CO2 emission varies with the thermal structure, but the pressure level where the peak of the emission is found remains constant at ˜0.03 ± 0.01 Pa, . This non-LTE model prediction has been corroborated by comparing SPICAM and OMEGA observations. We have shown that the seasonal variations of the altitude of constant pressure levels in SPICAM stellar occultation retrievals correlate well with the variations of the OMEGA peak emission altitudes, although the exact pressure level cannot be defined with the spectroscopy for the investigation of the characteristics of the atmosphere of Venus (SPICAM) nighttime data. Thus, observed changes in the altitude of the peak emission provide us information on the altitude of the 0.03 Pa pressure level. Since the pressure at a given altitude is dictated by the thermal structure below, the tangent altitude of the peak emission represents

  19. Size-density relations in dark clouds: Non-LTE effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, P.

    1986-01-01

    One of the major goals of molecular astronomy has been to understand the physics and dynamics of dense interstellar clouds. Because the interpretation of observations of giant molecular clouds is complicated by their very complex structure and the dynamical effects of star formation, a number of studies have concentrated on dark clouds. Leung, Kutner and Mead (1982) (hereafter LKM) and Myers (1983), in studies of CO and NH 3 emission, concluded that dark clouds exhibit significant correlations between linewidth and cloud radius of the form delta v varies as R(0.5) and between mean density and radius of the form n varies as R(-1), as originally suggested by Larson (1981). This result suggests that these objects are in virial equilibrium. However, the mean densities inferred from the CO data of LKM are based on an local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of their 13CO data. At the very low mean densities inferred by LKM for the larger clouds in their samples, the assumption of LTE becomes very questionable. As most of the range in R in the density-size correlation comes from the clouds observed in CO, it seems worthwhile to examine how non-LTE effects will influence the derived densities. Microturbulent models of inhomogeneous clouds of varying central concentration with the linewidth-size and mean density-size relations found by Myers show sub-thermal excitation of the 13CO line in the larger clouds, with the result that LTE analysis considerbly underestimates the actual column density. A more general approach which doesn't require detailed modeling of the clouds is to consider whether the observed T/sub R/*(13CO)/T/sub R/*(12CO) ratios in the clouds studied by LKM are in the range where the LTE-derived optical depths be seriously in error due to sub-thermal excitation of the 13CO molecule

  20. Non-LTE analysis of extremely helium-rich stars. The hot sdO stars LSE 153, 259 and 263

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husfeld, D.; Butler, K.; Heber, U.; Drilling, J. S.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a non-LTE fine analysis based mainly on high-resolution CASPEC spectra for three extremely helium-rich sdO stars are discussed in order to explain hydrogen deficiency in single stars. High temperature (Teff = 70,000 to 75,000 K) and a position in the log Teff - log g diagram were found close to the Eddington limit. Various abundance estimates are derived for hydrogen (upper limits only), carbon, nitrogen, and magnesium. Hydrogen is reduced to less than 10 percent by number in LSE 153 and LSE 263, and to less than 5 percent in LSE 259. The hydrogen deficiency is accompanied by nitrogen- and carbon-enrichment in LSE 153 and LSE 259 only. In LSE 263, carbon is depleted by about 1 dex. Stellar masses obtained by assuming that a core mass-luminosity relation holds for these stars, were found to be in the range 0.6-0.9 solar mass, yielding luminosities log L/L:solar = 3.7-4.5. Two of the program stars (LSE 153 and 259) appear to be possible successors of the R CrB and helium B stars, whereas the third star (LSE 263) displays a much lower carbon content in its photosphere making it an exceptional case among the known hydrogen deficient stars.

  1. Non-LTE model calculations for SN 1987A and the extragalactic distance scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, W.; Abbott, D. C.; Russell, R. S.; Hamann, W.-R.; Wessolowski, U.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents model atmospheres for the first week of SN 1987A, based on the luminosity and density/velocity structure from hydrodynamic models of Woosley (1988). The models account for line blanketing, expansion, sphericity, and departures from LTE in hydrogen and helium and differ from previously published efforts because they represent ab initio calculations, i.e., they contain essentially no free parameters. The formation of the UV spectrum is dominated by the effects of line blanketing. In the absorption troughs, the Balmer line profiles were fit well by these models, but the observed emissions are significantly stronger than predicted, perhaps due to clumping. The generally good agreement between the present synthetic spectra and observations provides independent support for the overall accuracy of the hydrodynamic models of Woosley. The question of the accuracy of the Baade-Wesselink method is addressed in a detailed discussion of its approximations. While the application of the standard method produces a distance within an uncertainty of 20 percent in the case of SN 1987A, systematic errors up to a factor of 2 are possible, particularly if the precursor was a red supergiant.

  2. Size-density relations in dark clouds: Non-LTE effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, P.

    1986-01-01

    One of the major goals of molecular astronomy has been to understand the physics and dynamics of dense interstellar clouds. Because the interpretation of observations of giant molecular clouds is complicated by their very complex structure and the dynamical effects of star formation, a number of studies have concentrated on dark clouds. Leung, Kutner and Mead (1982) (hereafter LKM) and Myers (1983), in studies of CO and NH3 emission, concluded that dark clouds exhibit significant correlations between linewidth and cloud radius of the form delta v varies as R(0.5) and between mean density and radius of the form n varies as R(-1), as originally suggested by Larson (1981). This result suggests that these objects are in virial equilibrium. However, the mean densities inferred from the CO data of LKM are based on an local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of their 13CO data. At the very low mean densities inferred by LKM for the larger clouds in their samples, the assumption of LTE becomes very questionable. As most of the range in R in the density-size correlation comes from the clouds observed in CO, it seems worthwhile to examine how non-LTE effects will influence the derived densities. One way to assess the validity of LTE-derived densities is to construct cloud models and then to interpret them in the same way as the observed data. Microturbulent models of inhomogeneous clouds of varying central concentration with the linewidth-size and mean density-size relations found by Myers show sub-thermal excitation of the 13CO line in the larger clouds, with the result that LTE analysis considerbly underestimates the actual column density. A more general approach which doesn't require detailed modeling of the clouds is to consider whether the observed T sub R*(13CO)/T sub R*(12CO) ratios in the clouds studied by LKM are in the range where the LTE-derived optical depths (and hence column densities) can be seriously in error due to sub-thermal excitation of the 13CO

  3. A non-LTE study of neutral calcium in late-type stars with special reference to Pollux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.J.; Texas Univ., Austin, TX

    1991-01-01

    Detailed simultaneous radiative transfer-statistical equilibrium calculations have been undertaken for neutral calcium using model stellar atmospheres corresponding to a variety of late spectral types. The results are used to investigate non-LTE effects and trends with differing stellar parameters, and to estimate the likely influence of departures from LTE on model atmosphere analyses. The behaviour of individual Ca I atomic levels and lines are discussed in connection with calculations carried out for a model atmosphere corresponding to the KO III giant Pollux (β Gem). (author)

  4. New Non-LTE Model of OH and CO2 Emission in the Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere and its Application to Retrieving Nighttime Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panka, Peter A.

    as well as model applications for the retrieval of nighttime O( 3P), OH, and CO2 densities. We first study in detail the impact of the new mechanism on OH( v) vibrational level populations and emissions. We compared our calculations with the SABER/TIMED OH 1.6 and 2.0-micron limb radiances of the MLT and with ground and space observations of OH(v) densities in the nighttime mesosphere. We find that the new mechanism produces OH(v) density distributions which are in good agreement with both SABER limb OH emission observations and ground and space measurements. We then couple our OH non-LTE model with CO2 to study the impact of the new mechanism on CO2(v3) vibrational level populations and emissions. We compare our calculations with the SABER/TIMED 4.3-micron CO2 limb radiances and find that the new mechanism provides a strong enhancement of the 4.3-micron CO2 emissions, agreeing to within a 10-30% range. Further, a two-channel retrieval algorithm is developed to self-consistently invert the SABER measured radiances in the OH 2.0 and 1.6-micron channel to obtain vertical profiles of OH and O(3P) Volume Mixing Ratio (VMR). Studies of the inversion algorithm made with synthetic radiances indicate that a stable solution of the inverse problem can be obtained that is nearly independent of the starting conditions. The results presented from the two-channel algorithm to the SABER v2.0 data include comparisons of retrieved O(3P) with current SABER O(3P), in addition to O(3P) retrievals measured by the SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) instrument, as well as those calculated by the WACCM (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model) model for four different days. The O( 3P) density retrieved between 90-95 km are, on average, lower than current SABER O(3P) by 10-50%. OH retrievals are performed over the same days and are compared with OH WACCM calculations as well as other studies. Finally, a similar self-consistent algorithm used

  5. Influence of condensed species on thermo-physical properties of LTE and non-LTE SF6-Cu mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhexin; Wu, Yi; Yang, Fei; Sun, Hao; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Chunlin

    2017-10-01

    SF6-Cu mixture is frequently formed in high-voltage circuit breakers due to the electrode erosion and metal vapor diffusion. During the interruption process, the multiphase effect and deviation from local thermal equilibrium (non-LTE assumption) can both affect the thermo-physical of the arc plasma and further influence the performance of circuit breaker. In this paper, thermo-physical properties, namely composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are calculated for multiphase SF6-Cu mixture with and without LTE assumption. The composition is confirmed by combining classical two-temperature mass action law with phase equilibrium condition deduced from second law of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are calculated using the multiphase composition result. The influence of condensed species on thermo-physical properties is discussed at different temperature, pressure (0.1-10 atm), non-equilibrium degrees (1-10), and copper molar proportions (0-50%). It is found that the multiphase effect has significant influence on specific enthalpy, specific heat and heavy species thermal conductivity in both LTE and non-LTE SF6-Cu system. This paper provides a more accurate database for computational fluid dynamic calculation.

  6. A NON-LTE STUDY OF SILICON ABUNDANCES IN GIANT STARS FROM THE Si i INFRARED LINES IN THE zJ -BAND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Kefeng; Shi, Jianrong; Zhao, Gang; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Takeda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of Si i infrared (IR) lines as Si abundance indicators for giant stars. We find that Si abundances obtained from the Si i IR lines based on the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis show large line-to-line scatter (mean value of 0.13 dex), and are higher than those from the optical lines. However, when non-LTE effects are taken into account, the line-to-line scatter reduces significantly (mean value of 0.06 dex), and the Si abundances are consistent with those from the optical lines. The typical average non-LTE correction of [Si/Fe] for our sample stars is about −0.35 dex. Our results demonstrate that the Si i IR lines could be reliable abundance indicators, provided that the non-LTE effects are properly taken into account.

  7. FITspec: A New Algorithm for the Automated Fit of Synthetic Stellar Spectra for OB Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Santillán, Celia R.; Zsargó, Janos; Klapp, Jaime; Díaz-Azuara, Santiago A.; Arrieta, Anabel; Arias, Lorena; Sigalotti, Leonardo Di G.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we describe the FITspec code, a data mining tool for the automatic fitting of synthetic stellar spectra. The program uses a database of 27,000 CMFGEN models of stellar atmospheres arranged in a six-dimensional (6D) space, where each dimension corresponds to one model parameter. From these models a library of 2,835,000 synthetic spectra were generated covering the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Using FITspec we adjust the effective temperature and the surface gravity. From the 6D array we also get the luminosity, the metallicity, and three parameters for the stellar wind: the terminal velocity ({v}∞ ), the β exponent of the velocity law, and the clumping filling factor (F cl). Finally, the projected rotational velocity (v\\cdot \\sin i) can be obtained from the library of stellar spectra. Validation of the algorithm was performed by analyzing the spectra of a sample of eight O-type stars taken from the IACOB spectroscopic survey of Northern Galactic OB stars. The spectral lines used for the adjustment of the analyzed stars are reproduced with good accuracy. In particular, the effective temperatures calculated with the FITspec are in good agreement with those derived from spectral type and other calibrations for the same stars. The stellar luminosities and projected rotational velocities are also in good agreement with previous quantitative spectroscopic analyses in the literature. An important advantage of FITspec over traditional codes is that the time required for spectral analyses is reduced from months to a few hours.

  8. A Novel Iterative Scheme for the Very Fast and Accurate Solution of Non-LTE Radiative Transfer Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo Bueno, J.; Fabiani Bendicho, P.

    1995-12-01

    Iterative schemes based on Gauss-Seidel (G-S) and optimal successive over-relaxation (SOR) iteration are shown to provide a dramatic increase in the speed with which non-LTE radiation transfer (RT) problems can be solved. The convergence rates of these new RT methods are identical to those of upper triangular nonlocal approximate operator splitting techniques, but the computing time per iteration and the memory requirements are similar to those of a local operator splitting method. In addition to these properties, both methods are particularly suitable for multidimensional geometry, since they neither require the actual construction of nonlocal approximate operators nor the application of any matrix inversion procedure. Compared with the currently used Jacobi technique, which is based on the optimal local approximate operator (see Olson, Auer, & Buchler 1986), the G-S method presented here is faster by a factor 2. It gives excellent smoothing of the high-frequency error components, which makes it the iterative scheme of choice for multigrid radiative transfer. This G-S method can also be suitably combined with standard acceleration techniques to achieve even higher performance. Although the convergence rate of the optimal SOR scheme developed here for solving non-LTE RT problems is much higher than G-S, the computing time per iteration is also minimal, i.e., virtually identical to that of a local operator splitting method. While the conventional optimal local operator scheme provides the converged solution after a total CPU time (measured in arbitrary units) approximately equal to the number n of points per decade of optical depth, the time needed by this new method based on the optimal SOR iterations is only √n/2√2. This method is competitive with those that result from combining the above-mentioned Jacobi and G-S schemes with the best acceleration techniques. Contrary to what happens with the local operator splitting strategy currently in use, these novel

  9. Trident: A Universal Tool for Generating Synthetic Absorption Spectra from Astrophysical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummels, Cameron B.; Smith, Britton D.; Silvia, Devin W.

    2017-09-01

    Hydrodynamical simulations are increasingly able to accurately model physical systems on stellar, galactic, and cosmological scales; however, the utility of these simulations is often limited by our ability to directly compare them with the data sets produced by observers: spectra, photometry, etc. To address this problem, we have created trident, a Python-based open-source tool for post-processing hydrodynamical simulations to produce synthetic absorption spectra and related data. trident can (I) create absorption-line spectra for any trajectory through a simulated data set mimicking both background quasar and down-the-barrel configurations; (II) reproduce the spectral characteristics of common instruments like the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph; (III) operate across the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared using customizable absorption-line lists; (IV) trace simulated physical structures directly to spectral features; (v) approximate the presence of ion species absent from the simulation outputs; (VI) generate column density maps for any ion; and (vii) provide support for all major astrophysical hydrodynamical codes. trident was originally developed to aid in the interpretation of observations of the circumgalactic medium and intergalactic medium, but it remains a general tool applicable in other contexts.

  10. Trident: A Universal Tool for Generating Synthetic Absorption Spectra from Astrophysical Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummels, Cameron B. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smith, Britton D. [San Diego Supercomputer Center, University of California, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Silvia, Devin W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    Hydrodynamical simulations are increasingly able to accurately model physical systems on stellar, galactic, and cosmological scales; however, the utility of these simulations is often limited by our ability to directly compare them with the data sets produced by observers: spectra, photometry, etc. To address this problem, we have created trident, a Python-based open-source tool for post-processing hydrodynamical simulations to produce synthetic absorption spectra and related data. trident can (i) create absorption-line spectra for any trajectory through a simulated data set mimicking both background quasar and down-the-barrel configurations; (ii) reproduce the spectral characteristics of common instruments like the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph; (iii) operate across the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared using customizable absorption-line lists; (iv) trace simulated physical structures directly to spectral features; (v) approximate the presence of ion species absent from the simulation outputs; (vi) generate column density maps for any ion; and (vii) provide support for all major astrophysical hydrodynamical codes. trident was originally developed to aid in the interpretation of observations of the circumgalactic medium and intergalactic medium, but it remains a general tool applicable in other contexts.

  11. Trident: A Universal Tool for Generating Synthetic Absorption Spectra from Astrophysical Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummels, Cameron B.; Smith, Britton D.; Silvia, Devin W.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrodynamical simulations are increasingly able to accurately model physical systems on stellar, galactic, and cosmological scales; however, the utility of these simulations is often limited by our ability to directly compare them with the data sets produced by observers: spectra, photometry, etc. To address this problem, we have created trident, a Python-based open-source tool for post-processing hydrodynamical simulations to produce synthetic absorption spectra and related data. trident can (i) create absorption-line spectra for any trajectory through a simulated data set mimicking both background quasar and down-the-barrel configurations; (ii) reproduce the spectral characteristics of common instruments like the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph; (iii) operate across the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared using customizable absorption-line lists; (iv) trace simulated physical structures directly to spectral features; (v) approximate the presence of ion species absent from the simulation outputs; (vi) generate column density maps for any ion; and (vii) provide support for all major astrophysical hydrodynamical codes. trident was originally developed to aid in the interpretation of observations of the circumgalactic medium and intergalactic medium, but it remains a general tool applicable in other contexts.

  12. A non-LTE study of silicon line formation in early-type main-sequence atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    We have computed populations of 16 levels of Si III-V and radiation fields in all connecting transitions; in particular the first six Si III triplet levels, including the 4553 line, and the first six Si IV levels including 4089. The computations were done for four non-LTE H-He model atmospheres, provided by Auer and Mihalas. Estimates of corresponding MK types are B1.5 V, B0.5 V, O9 V, and O6. Solutions were obtained by iterating the linearized equations of radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium, except that for less important lines an approximate equivalent two-level atom treatment was used. Continuous opacities of C, N, O, and Ne were included. All abundances were solar values.

  13. Assessing the existence of non-LTE behavior in aluminum K-shell diagnostic lines from dynamic hohlraum driven experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrill, M E

    2015-01-01

    We describe in this work a study designed to obtain insight into the sensitivity of foil targets driven out of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) by an idealized dynamic hohlraum during its brightest phase. This work is motivated by a perceived over-prediction of the plasma temperature by current LTE spectral modeling of opacity experiments performed by Bailey et al at the Sandia Z facility. Although several aspects of this modeling study parallel the SNL/LANL opacity experiments, this work is primarily intended to gain insight into radiatively over-driven systems. The results from this idealized study suggest that a non-LTE population distribution with qualities similar to an LTE distribution at higher material temperatures are possible, and therefore support a further theoretical investigation with experimental parameters. (special issue paper)

  14. Iterative Methods for the Non-LTE Transfer of Polarized Radiation: Resonance Line Polarization in One-dimensional Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Manso Sainz, Rafael

    1999-05-01

    This paper shows how to generalize to non-LTE polarization transfer some operator splitting methods that were originally developed for solving unpolarized transfer problems. These are the Jacobi-based accelerated Λ-iteration (ALI) method of Olson, Auer, & Buchler and the iterative schemes based on Gauss-Seidel and successive overrelaxation (SOR) iteration of Trujillo Bueno and Fabiani Bendicho. The theoretical framework chosen for the formulation of polarization transfer problems is the quantum electrodynamics (QED) theory of Landi Degl'Innocenti, which specifies the excitation state of the atoms in terms of the irreducible tensor components of the atomic density matrix. This first paper establishes the grounds of our numerical approach to non-LTE polarization transfer by concentrating on the standard case of scattering line polarization in a gas of two-level atoms, including the Hanle effect due to a weak microturbulent and isotropic magnetic field. We begin demonstrating that the well-known Λ-iteration method leads to the self-consistent solution of this type of problem if one initializes using the ``exact'' solution corresponding to the unpolarized case. We show then how the above-mentioned splitting methods can be easily derived from this simple Λ-iteration scheme. We show that our SOR method is 10 times faster than the Jacobi-based ALI method, while our implementation of the Gauss-Seidel method is 4 times faster. These iterative schemes lead to the self-consistent solution independently of the chosen initialization. The convergence rate of these iterative methods is very high; they do not require either the construction or the inversion of any matrix, and the computing time per iteration is similar to that of the Λ-iteration method.

  15. High resolution spectroscopy over 8500-8750 Å for GAIA library of synthetic spectra for 7750 <= Teff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, F.; Munari, U.

    2001-02-01

    In this paper we complete the library of synthetic spectra for the range 7650-8750 Å, which includes the 8500-8750 Å interval currently base-lined for the spectroscopic observations by GAIA, candidate ESA Cornerstone 5 mission. As for Paper II, the spectra are based on Kurucz's codes and line data. The explored metallicity, gravity and temperature ranges are -2.5HomePage http://ulisse.pd.astro.it/Astro/Atlases/ The spectra are available in electronic form at the CDS. Figures 5-224 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  16. Evolution of complex organic molecules in hot molecular cores. Synthetic spectra at (sub-)mm wavebands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, R.; Schilke, P.; Stéphan, G.; Bergin, E.; Möller, T.; Schmiedeke, A.; Zernickel, A.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Hot molecular cores (HMCs) are intermediate stages of high-mass star formation and are also known for their rich chemical reservoirs and emission line spectra at (sub-)mm wavebands. Complex organic molecules (COMs) such as methanol (CH3OH), ethanol (C2H5OH), dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3), and methyl formate (HCOOCH3) produce most of these observed lines. The observed spectral feature of HMCs such as total number of emission lines and associated line intensities are also found to vary with evolutionary stages. Aims: We aim to investigate the spectral evolution of these COMs to explore the initial evolutionary stages of high-mass star formation including HMCs. Methods: We developed various 3D models for HMCs guided by the evolutionary scenarios proposed by recent empirical and modeling studies. We then investigated the spatio-temporal variation of temperature and molecular abundances in HMCs by consistently coupling gas-grain chemical evolution with radiative transfer calculations. We explored the effects of varying physical conditions on molecular abundances including density distribution and luminosity evolution of the central protostar(s) among other parameters. Finally, we simulated the synthetic spectra for these models at different evolutionary timescales to compare with observations. Results: Temperature has a profound effect on the formation of COMs through the depletion and diffusion on grain surface to desorption and further gas-phase processing. The time-dependent temperature structure of the hot core models provides a realistic framework for investigating the spatial variation of ice mantle evaporation as a function of evolutionary timescales. We find that a slightly higher value (15 K) than the canonical dark cloud temperature (10 K) provides a more productive environment for COM formation on grain surface. With increasing protostellar luminosity, the water ice evaporation font (~100 K) expands and the spatial distribution of gas phase abundances of

  17. A non-LTE model for the Jovian methane infrared emissions at high spectral resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halthore, Rangasayi N.; Allen, J. E., Jr.; Decola, Philip L.

    1994-01-01

    High resolution spectra of Jupiter in the 3.3 micrometer region have so far failed to reveal either the continuum or the line emissions that can be unambiguously attributed to the nu(sub 3) band of methane (Drossart et al. 1993; Kim et al. 1991). Nu(sub 3) line intensities predicted with the help of two simple non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) models -- a two-level model and a three-level model, using experimentally determined relaxation coefficients, are shown to be one to three orders of magnitude respectively below the 3-sigma noise level of these observations. Predicted nu(sub 4) emission intensities are consistent with observed values. If the methane mixing ratio below the homopause is assumed as 2 x 10(exp -3), a value of about 300 K is derived as an upper limit to the temperature of the high stratosphere at microbar levels.

  18. Kinetic Requirements for the Measurement of Mesospheric Water Vapor at 6.8 (microns) under Non-LTE Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Russell, James M., III

    1999-01-01

    We present accuracy requirements for specific kinetic parameters used to calculate the populations and vibrational temperatures of the H2O(010) and H2O(020) states in the terrestrial mesosphere. The requirements are based on rigorous simulations of the retrieval of mesospheric water vapor profiles from measurements of water vapor infrared emission made by limb scanning instruments on orbiting satellites. Major improvements in the rate constants that describe vibration-to- vibration exchange between the H2O(010) and 02(1) states are required in addition to improved specification of the rate of quenching Of O2(1) by atomic oxygen (0). It is also necessary to more accurately determine the yield of vibrationally excited O2(l) resulting from ozone photolysis. A contemporary measurement of the rate of quenching of H2O(010) by N2 and O2 is also desirable. These rates are either highly uncertain or have never before been measured at atmospheric temperatures. The suggested improvements are necessary for the interpretation of water vapor emission measurements at 6.8 microns to be made from a new spaceflight experiment in less than 2 years. The approach to retrieving water vapor under non-LTE conditions is also presented.

  19. Effects of non-LTE multiplet dynamics on lumped-state modelling in moderate to high atomic number plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, K G; Dasgupta, A; Davis, J; Coverdale, C A

    2007-01-01

    Two atomic models of the population dynamics of substates within the n 4 and n = 3 multiplets of nickel-like tungsten and beryllium-like iron, respectively, are described in this paper. The flexible atomic code (FAC) is used to calculate the collisional and radiative couplings and energy levels of the excited states within these ionization stages. These atomic models are then placed within larger principal-quantum-number-based ionization dynamic models of both tungsten and iron plasmas. Collisional-radiative equilibrium calculations are then carried out using these models that demonstrate how the multiplet substates depart from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) as a function of ion density. The effect of these deviations from LTE on the radiative and collisional deexcitation rates of lumped 3s, 3p, 3d, 4s, 4p, 4d and 4f states is then calculated and least-squares fits to the density dependence of these lumped-state rate coefficients are obtained. The calculations show that, with the use of lumped-state models (which are in common use), one can accurately model the L- and M-shell ionization dynamics occurring in present-day Z-pinch experiments only through the addition of these extra, non-LTE-induced, rate coefficient density dependences. However, the derivation and use of low-order polynomial fits to these density dependences makes lumped-state modelling both viable and of value for post-processing analyses

  20. Non-LTE radiative transfer with lambda-acceleration - Convergence properties using exact full and diagonal lambda-operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the convergence properties of Lambda-acceleration methods for non-LTE radiative transfer problems in planar and spherical geometry. Matrix elements of the 'exact' A-operator are used to accelerate convergence to a solution in which both the radiative transfer and atomic rate equations are simultaneously satisfied. Convergence properties of two-level and multilevel atomic systems are investigated for methods using: (1) the complete Lambda-operator, and (2) the diagonal of the Lambda-operator. We find that the convergence properties for the method utilizing the complete Lambda-operator are significantly better than those of the diagonal Lambda-operator method, often reducing the number of iterations needed for convergence by a factor of between two and seven. However, the overall computational time required for large scale calculations - that is, those with many atomic levels and spatial zones - is typically a factor of a few larger for the complete Lambda-operator method, suggesting that the approach should be best applied to problems in which convergence is especially difficult.

  1. EMERGENCE OF GRANULAR-SIZED MAGNETIC BUBBLES THROUGH THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE. II. NON-LTE CHROMOSPHERIC DIAGNOSTICS AND INVERSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Jaime de la Cruz [Institute for Solar Physics, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Albanova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Hansteen, Viggo; Ortiz, Ada [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Bellot-Rubio, Luis, E-mail: jaime@astro.su.se [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain)

    2015-09-10

    Magnetic flux emergence into the outer layers of the Sun is a fundamental mechanism for releasing energy into the chromosphere and the corona. In this paper, we study the emergence of granular-sized flux concentrations and the structuring of the corresponding physical parameters and atmospheric diagnostics in the upper photosphere and in the chromosphere. We make use of a realistic 3D MHD simulation of the outer layers of the Sun to study the formation of the Ca ii 8542 line. We also derive semi-empirical 3D models from non-LTE inversions of our observations. These models contain information on the line-of-sight stratifications of temperature, velocity, and the magnetic field. Our analysis explains the peculiar Ca ii 8542 Å profiles observed in the flux emerging region. Additionally, we derive detailed temperature and velocity maps describing the ascent of a magnetic bubble from the photosphere to the chromosphere. The inversions suggest that, in active regions, granular-sized bubbles emerge up to the lower chromosphere where the existing large-scale field hinders their ascent. We report hints of heating when the field reaches the chromosphere.

  2. Development of a Buried Layer Platform at the OMEGA laser to Study Coronal (nonLTE) Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M. B.; Marley, E. V.; Brown, G. V.; Heeter, R. F.; Barrios, M. A.; Foord, M. E.; Gray, W. J.; Jarrott, L. C.; Liedahl, D. A.; Mauche, C. W.; Widmann, K.

    2016-10-01

    A buried layer platform is being developed at the OMEGA laser to study the radiative properties of coronal (non-LTE) plasmas (ne few 1021 /cm3 , Te 1 - 2 keV) of mid to high Z materials. In the current study, the target was a 200 μm square with equal atomic mixes of gold/iron/vanadium in the center of a 600 μm diameter, 10 μm thick beryllium tamper. The thickness of the buried layer was either 1200 A or 1800 A. Lasers heat the target from both sides for up to 4 ns. The size of the microdot vs time was measured with x-ray imaging (face-on) and x- ray spectroscopy (side-on). The radiant x-ray power was measured with a low-resolution absolutely calibrated x-ray spectrometer (DANTE). The temperature was measured from the Fe and V helium-beta complexes. The use of these measurements to deduce emissivity of the target in the 2-3 keV x-ray range and improvements for future experiments are discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNS, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. FAST INVERSION OF SOLAR Ca II SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, C.; Choudhary, D. P.; Rezaei, R.; Louis, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a fast (<<1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log τ ∼ –3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log τ = –6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively

  4. Application of approximations for joint cumulative k-distributions for mixtures to FSK radiation heat transfer in multi-component high temperature non-LTE plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurente, André; França, Francis H.R.; Miki, Kenji; Howell, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Approximations for joint cumulative k-distribution for mixtures are efficient for full spectrum k-distribution (FSK) computations. These approximations provide reduction of the database that is necessary to perform FSK computation when compared to the direct approach, which uses cumulative k-distributions computed from the spectrum of the mixture, and also less computational expensive when compared to techniques in which RTE's are required to be solved for each component of the mixture. The aim of the present paper is to extend the approximations for joint cumulative k-distributions for non-LTE media. For doing that, a FSK to non-LTE media formulation well-suited to be applied along with approximations for joint cumulative k-distributions is presented. The application of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by solving the radiation heat transfer in non-LTE high temperature plasmas composed of N, O, N 2 , NO, N 2 + and mixtures of these species. The two more efficient approximations, that is, the superposition and multiplication are employed and analyzed.

  5. UTILIZING SYNTHETIC VISIBLE SPECTRA TO EXPLORE THE PHYSICAL BASIS FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF LAMBDA BOÖTIS STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Johnson, Dustin M.; Tarbell, Erik S.; Romo, Christopher A. [California State University, Fullerton CA (United States); Neff, James E. [College of Charleston, Charleston, SC (United States); Gray, Richard O. [Appalachian State University, Boone, NC (United States); Corbally, Christopher J. [Vatican Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Since the peculiar nature of Lambda Boötis was first noticed in 1943, the Lambda Boo stars have been recognized as a group of peculiar A-type stars. They are Population I dwarfs that show deficiencies of iron-peak elements (up to 2 dex), but have near-solar C, N, O, and S abundances. In a previous paper, we used both observed and synthetic ultraviolet spectra to demonstrate that the C i 1657 Å/Al ii 1671 Å equivalent width ratio can help distinguish between Lambda Boo stars and other metal-weak stars hotter than 8000 K. In this paper, using observed and synthetic visible (4000–6800 Å) spectra, we demonstrate that the C i 5052.17 Å/Mg ii 4481 Å equivalent width ratio can be used as a quantitative diagnostic for cooler Lambda Boo stars.

  6. High resolution spectroscopy over 8500-8750 Å for GAIA library of synthetic spectra for T_eff <= 7500 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, U.; Castelli, F.

    2000-01-01

    We present a library of synthetic spectra characterized by -2.5 7500 K will be given later on in this series. The 254 synthetic spectra presented here are based on Kurucz's codes and line data and have been computed over a more extended wavelength interval (7650-8750 Ä) than that currently baselined for implementation on GAIA, i.e. the 8500-8750 Ä. This last range is dominated by the near-IR Ca II triplet and the head of the Paschen series. The more extended wavelength range allows us to investigate the behaviour of other strong near-IR spectral features (severely contaminated by telluric absorptions in ground-based observed spectra) as the K I doublet (7664, 7699 Ä), the Na I doublet (8183, 8194 Ä) and the lines of Fe I multiplet N.60 at 8327 and 8388 Ä. The synthetic spectra support our previous conclusions about the superior performance of the Paschen/Ca II 8500-8750 Ä region in meeting the GAIA requirements when compared to other near-IR intervals of similar bigtriangleup lambda = 250 Ä. Table 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Figures 5-93 are only available in electronic form at the http://www.edpsciences.org The spectra are also available in electronic form at the CDS or via the personal HomePage http://ulisse.pd.astro.it/Astro/Atlases/

  7. Non-equilibrium ionization by a periodic electron beam. I. Synthetic coronal spectra and implications for interpretation of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzifčáková, E.; Dudík, J.; Mackovjak, Š.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Coronal heating is currently thought to proceed via the mechanism of nanoflares, small-scale and possibly recurring heating events that release magnetic energy. Aims: We investigate the effects of a periodic high-energy electron beam on the synthetic spectra of coronal Fe ions. Methods: Initially, the coronal plasma is assumed to be Maxwellian with a temperature of 1 MK. The high-energy beam, described by a κ-distribution, is then switched on every period P for the duration of P/ 2. The periods are on the order of several tens of seconds, similar to exposure times or cadences of space-borne spectrometers. Ionization, recombination, and excitation rates for the respective distributions are used to calculate the resulting non-equilibrium ionization state of Fe and the instantaneous and period-averaged synthetic spectra. Results: Under the presence of the periodic electron beam, the plasma is out of ionization equilibrium at all times. The resulting spectra averaged over one period are almost always multithermal if interpreted in terms of ionization equilibrium for either a Maxwellian or a κ-distribution. Exceptions occur, however; the EM-loci curves appear to have a nearly isothermal crossing-point for some values of κs. The instantaneous spectra show fast changes in intensities of some lines, especially those formed outside of the peak of the respective EM(T) distributions if the ionization equilibrium is assumed. Movies 1-5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Non-equilibrium ionization by a periodic electron beam. II. Synthetic Si IV and O IV transition region spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzifčáková, Elena; Dudík, Jaroslav

    2018-03-01

    Context. Transition region (TR) spectra typically show the Si IV 1402.8 Å line to be enhanced by a factor of 5 or more compared to the neighboring O IV 1401.2 Å, contrary to predictions of ionization equilibrium models and the Maxwellian distribution of particle energies. Non-equilibrium effects in TR spectra are therefore expected. Aims: To investigate the combination of non-equilibrium ionization and high-energy particles, we apply the model of the periodic electron beam, represented by a κ-distribution that recurs at periods of several seconds, to plasma at chromospheric temperatures of 104 K. This simple model can approximate a burst of energy release involving accelerated particles. Methods: Instantaneous time-dependent charge states of silicon and oxygen were calculated and used to synthesize the instantaneous and period-averaged spectra of Si IV and O IV. Results: The electron beam drives the plasma out of equilibrium. At electron densities of Ne = 1010 cm-3, the plasma is out of ionization equilibrium at all times in all cases we considered, while for a higher density of Ne = 1011 cm-3, ionization equilibrium can be reached toward the end of each period, depending on the conditions. In turn, the character of the period-averaged synthetic spectra also depends on the properties of the beam. While the case of κ = 2 results in spectra with strong or even dominant O IV, higher values of κ can approximate a range of observed TR spectra. Spectra similar to typically observed spectra, with the Si IV 1402.8 Å line about a factor 5 higher than O IV 1401.2 Å, are obtained for κ = 3. An even higher value of κ = 5 results in spectra that are exclusively dominated by Si IV, with negligible O IV emission. This is a possible interpretation of the TR spectra of UV (Ellerman) bursts, although an interpretation that requires a density that is 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than for equilibrium estimates. Movies associated to Fig. A.1 are available at http://https://www.aanda.org

  9. Influence of condensed species on thermo-physical properties of LTE and non-LTE SF6–Cu mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhexin; Wu, Yi; Yang, Fei; Sun, Hao; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Chunlin

    2017-01-01

    SF 6 –Cu mixture is frequently formed in high-voltage circuit breakers due to the electrode erosion and metal vapor diffusion. During the interruption process, the multiphase effect and deviation from local thermal equilibrium (non-LTE assumption) can both affect the thermo-physical of the arc plasma and further influence the performance of circuit breaker. In this paper, thermo-physical properties, namely composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are calculated for multiphase SF 6 –Cu mixture with and without LTE assumption. The composition is confirmed by combining classical two-temperature mass action law with phase equilibrium condition deduced from second law of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are calculated using the multiphase composition result. The influence of condensed species on thermo-physical properties is discussed at different temperature, pressure (0.1–10 atm), non-equilibrium degrees (1–10), and copper molar proportions (0–50%). It is found that the multiphase effect has significant influence on specific enthalpy, specific heat and heavy species thermal conductivity in both LTE and non-LTE SF 6 –Cu system. This paper provides a more accurate database for computational fluid dynamic calculation. (paper)

  10. Synthetic seismograms - II. Synthesis of amplitude spectra and seismograms of P waves from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banghar, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    As a part of programme of seismic detection of underground nuclear explosions, step by step variations in the amplitude spectra and waveforms of P wave signal, as it propagates from source to receiver region, are investigated. Influences on the amplitude spectra and waveforms of teleseismic p waves due to : (1) variation in the shape of reduced displacement potential, (2) variation of mantle Q values, (3) change in depth, (4) various yields, (5) spalling, and (6) variation of crustal structure at source as well as at receiver are studied. The results show that for a yield of 85 kilotons, the time structure of seismograms is nearly same for four types of reduced displacement potentials considered here. The duration of waveforms is affected both by crustal structure at source as well as due to spalling. In general, effect of receiver crust on seismograms is found to be minor. Synthesized and observed P wave seismograms for Longshot, Milrow and Cannikin underground nuclear explosions are computed at various seismometer array stations of the UKAEA. Computed seismograms compare well with the recorded ones. It is seen that: (1) overburden P wave velocity inferred from seismograms is less as compared to its value obtained from on-site measurements, and (2) the source function, the source crust transfer function, the mantle transfer function and the spalling function are the most important factors that influence shaping of spectra and seismograms. (M.G.B.)

  11. Correlation of vapor phase infrared spectra and regioisomeric structure in synthetic cannabinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lewis W.; Thaxton-Weissenfluh, Amber; Abiedalla, Younis; DeRuiter, Jack; Smith, Forrest; Clark, C. Randall

    2018-05-01

    The twelve 1-n-pentyl-2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6- and 7-(1- and 2-naphthoyl)-indoles each have the same substituents attached to the indole ring, identical elemental composition (C24H23NO) yielding identical nominal and accurate masses. These twelve isomers cover all possible positions of carbonyl bridge substitution for both indole (positons 2-7) and naphthalene rings (positions 1 and 2). Regioisomeric compounds can represent significant challenges for mass based analytical methods however, infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the identification of positional isomers in organic compounds. The vapor phase infrared spectra of these twelve uniquely similar compounds were evaluated in GC-IR experiments. These spectra show the bridge position on the indole ring is a dominating influence over the carbonyl absorption frequency observed for these compounds. Substitution on the pyrrole moiety of the indole ring yields the lowest Cdbnd O frequency values for position 2 and 3 giving a narrow range from 1656 to 1654 cm-1. Carbonyl absorption frequencies are higher when the naphthoyl group is attached to the benzene portion of the indole ring yielding absorption values from 1674 to 1671 cm-1. The aliphatic stretching bands in the 2900 cm-1 region yield a consistent triplet pattern because the N-alkyl substituent tail group remains unchanged for all twelve regioisomers. The asymmetric CH2 stretch is the most intense of these three bands. Changes in positional bonding for both the indole and naphthalene ring systems results in unique patterns within the 700 wavenumber out-of-plane region and these absorption bands are different for all 12 regioisomers.

  12. Synthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally materials have been associated with a series of physical properties that can be used as inputs to production and manufacturing. Recently we witnessed an interest in materials considered not only as ‘true matter’, but also as new breeds where geometry, texture, tooling and finish are able to provoke new sensations when they are applied to a substance. These artificial materials can be described as synthetic because they are the outcome of various qualities that are not necessarily true to the original matter, but they are the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of architectural surfaces to produce effects through the invention of new breeds of artificial matter, using micro-scale details derived from Nature as an inspiration.

  13. UTILIZING SYNTHETIC UV SPECTRA TO EXPLORE THE PHYSICAL BASIS FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF LAMBDA BOÖTIS STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Johnson, Dustin M.; Tarbell, Erik S.; Romo, Christopher A.; Prabhaker, Arvind [Cal. State Univ., Fullerton, Fullerton, CA (United States); Neff, James E.; Steele, Patricia A. [College of Charleston, Charleston, SC (United States); Gray, Richard O. [Appalachian State Univ., Boone, NC (United States); Corbally, Christopher J. [Vatican Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Lambda Boo-type stars are a group of late B to early F-type Population I dwarfs that show mild to extreme deficiencies of iron-peak elements (up to 2 dex), but their C, N, O, and S abundances are near solar. This intriguing stellar class has recently regained the spotlight because of the directly imaged planets around a confirmed Lambda Boo star, HR 8799, and a suggested Lambda Boo star, Beta Pictoris. The discovery of a giant asteroid belt around Vega, another possible Lambda Boo star, also suggests hidden planets. The possible link between Lambda Boo stars and planet-bearing stars motivates us to study Lambda Boo stars systematically. Since the peculiar nature of the prototype Lambda Boötis was first noticed in 1943, Lambda Boo candidates published in the literature have been selected using widely different criteria. In order to determine the origin of Lambda Boo stars’ unique abundance pattern and to better discriminate between theories explaining the Lambda Boo phenomenon, a consistent working definition of Lambda Boo stars is needed. We have re-evaluated all published Lambda Boo candidates and their available ultraviolet and visible spectra. In this paper, using observed and synthetic spectra, we explore the physical basis for the classification of Lambda Boo stars, and develop quantitative criteria that discriminate metal-poor stars from bona fide Lambda Boo stars. Based on these stricter Lambda Boo classification criteria, we conclude that neither Beta Pictoris nor Vega should be classified as Lambda Boo stars.

  14. UTILIZING SYNTHETIC UV SPECTRA TO EXPLORE THE PHYSICAL BASIS FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF LAMBDA BOÖTIS STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Johnson, Dustin M.; Tarbell, Erik S.; Romo, Christopher A.; Prabhaker, Arvind; Neff, James E.; Steele, Patricia A.; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Lambda Boo-type stars are a group of late B to early F-type Population I dwarfs that show mild to extreme deficiencies of iron-peak elements (up to 2 dex), but their C, N, O, and S abundances are near solar. This intriguing stellar class has recently regained the spotlight because of the directly imaged planets around a confirmed Lambda Boo star, HR 8799, and a suggested Lambda Boo star, Beta Pictoris. The discovery of a giant asteroid belt around Vega, another possible Lambda Boo star, also suggests hidden planets. The possible link between Lambda Boo stars and planet-bearing stars motivates us to study Lambda Boo stars systematically. Since the peculiar nature of the prototype Lambda Boötis was first noticed in 1943, Lambda Boo candidates published in the literature have been selected using widely different criteria. In order to determine the origin of Lambda Boo stars’ unique abundance pattern and to better discriminate between theories explaining the Lambda Boo phenomenon, a consistent working definition of Lambda Boo stars is needed. We have re-evaluated all published Lambda Boo candidates and their available ultraviolet and visible spectra. In this paper, using observed and synthetic spectra, we explore the physical basis for the classification of Lambda Boo stars, and develop quantitative criteria that discriminate metal-poor stars from bona fide Lambda Boo stars. Based on these stricter Lambda Boo classification criteria, we conclude that neither Beta Pictoris nor Vega should be classified as Lambda Boo stars

  15. LIME - a flexible, non-LTE line excitation and radiation transfer method for millimeter and far-infrared wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Christian; Hogerheijde, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    We present a new code for solving the molecular and atomic excitation and radiation transfer problem in a molecular gas and predicting emergent spectra. This code works in arbitrary three dimensional geometry using unstructured Delaunay latices for the transport of photons. Various physical model...

  16. Simple Analytic Collisional Rates for non-LTE Vibrational Populations in Astrophysical Environments: the Cases of Circumstellar SiO Masers and Shocked H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniek, Ronald

    2008-05-01

    Rates for collisionally induced transitions between molecular vibrational levels are important in modeling a variety of non-LTE processes in astrophysical environments. Two examples are SiO masering in circumstellar envelopes in certain late-type stars [1] and the vibrational populations of molecular hydrogen in shocked interstellar medium [cf 2]. A simple exponential-potential model of molecular collisions leads to a two-parameter analytic expression for state-to-state and thermally averaged rates for collisionally induced vibrational-translational (VT) transitions in diatomic molecules [3,4]. The thermally averaged rates predicted by this formula have been shown to be in excellent numerical agreement with absolute experimental and quantum mechanical rates over large temperature ranges and initial vibrational excitation levels in a variety of species, e.g., OH, O2, N2 [3] and even for the rate of H2(v=1)+H2, which changes by five orders of magnitude in the temperature range 50-2000 K [4]. Analogous analytic rates will be reported for vibrational transitions in SiO due to collisions with H2 and compared to the numerical fit of quantum-mechanical rates calculated by Bieniek and Green [5]. [1] Palov, A.P., Gray, M.D., Field, D., & Balint-Kurti, G.G. 2006, ApJ, 639, 204. [2] Flower, D. 2007, Molecular Collisions in the Interstellar Medium (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press) [3] Bieniek, R.J. & Lipson, S.J. 1996, Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 276. [4] Bieniek, R.J. 2006, Proc. NASA LAW (Lab. Astrophys. Workshop) 2006, 299; http://www.physics.unlv.edu/labastro/nasalaw2006proceedings.pdf. [5] Bieniek, R.J., & Green, S. 1983, ApJ, 265, L29 and 1983, ApJ, 270, L101.

  17. Rapid, nondestructive estimation of surface polymer layer thickness using attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy and synthetic spectra derived from optical principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, B André; Guiney, Linda M; Loose, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    We have developed a rapid, nondestructive analytical method that estimates the thickness of a surface polymer layer with high precision but unknown accuracy using a single attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) measurement. Because the method is rapid, nondestructive, and requires no sample preparation, it is ideal as a process analytical technique. Prior to implementation, the ATR FT-IR spectrum of the substrate layer pure component and the ATR FT-IR and real refractive index spectra of the surface layer pure component must be known. From these three input spectra a synthetic mid-infrared spectral matrix of surface layers 0 nm to 10,000 nm thick on substrate is created de novo. A minimum statistical distance match between a process sample's ATR FT-IR spectrum and the synthetic spectral matrix provides the thickness of that sample. We show that this method can be used to successfully estimate the thickness of polysulfobetaine surface modification, a hydrated polymeric surface layer covalently bonded onto a polyetherurethane substrate. A database of 1850 sample spectra was examined. Spectrochemical matrix-effect unknowns, such as the nonuniform and molecularly novel polysulfobetaine-polyetherurethane interface, were found to be minimal. A partial least squares regression analysis of the database spectra versus their thicknesses as calculated by the method described yielded an estimate of precision of ±52 nm.

  18. Diagnostics of red-shifted H-alpha line emission from a C-class flare with full non-LTE radiative and hydrodynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druett, M. K.; Zharkova, V. V.; Scullion, E.; Zharkov, S.; Matthews, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    We analyse H-alpha line profiles with strong redshifts during the C1.8 flare on 1st July 2012 obtained from the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) closely resembling the previous observations (Wuelser and Marti, 1989). The flare has a magnetic field configuration with two levels of loop structures. The kernels with red shifts are observed in one of the H-alpha ribbons in the south-west location formed after the main impulse recorded in the north-east. The locations of H-alpha kernels with red shifts reveal close temporal and spatial correlation with weaker HXR signatures and coincide with the locations of coronal jets observed with AIA/SDO. For interpretation we apply a revised 1D hydrodynamic and non-LTE (NLTE) radiative model for 5 level plus continuum model hydrogen atom (Druett & Zharkova, 2016) considering radiative, thermal and non-thermal excitation and ionisation by beam electrons with the updated beam densities (Zharkova & Dobranskis, 2016) and analytical excitation/ionisation rates (Zharkova& Kobylinskijj, 1993). We find the simultaneous solutions of steady state and radiative transfer equations in all optically-thick lines and continua. The electron and ion temperatures, ambient density and macrovelocity of the ambient plasma are derived from a 1D hydrodynamic model with initial condition of the pre-flaring photosphere for the two fluid ambient plasma heated by beam electrons (Zharkova & Zharkov, 2007). We simulate distributions over precipitation depth of ionisation and departure coefficients for all the hydrogen atom transitions including the deviation of ionisation from Saha equation affected by non-thermal electron beams. We show that in the very first seconds after the beam onset Balmer line profiles are sensitive to the effect of beam electrons. The combination of the additional ionisation caused by beam electrons leading to a very strong Stark effect in Balmer lines with the hydrodynamic heating and formation of a low temperature shock in the

  19. Optimization and characterization of a Pilot-psi cascaded arc with non-LTE numerical simulation of Ar, H{sub 2} gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Zahoor [National Tokamak Fusion Program, PO Box 3329, PAEC Islamabad (Pakistan); Goedheer, W J [FOM Institute for Plasmaphysics ' Rijnhuizen' , Association EURATOM-FOM, POBox 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2009-02-01

    A numerical simulation code, PLASIMO, is used to model non-LTE plasmas in the cascaded arc for hydrogen and argon. The purpose of these simulations is to optimize the cascaded arc plasma source, which is used to produce a high density plasma column in Pilot-psi, a linear device to study plasma surface interaction processes. Results are compared with the experimental findings to validate the model. The effect of a change in the arc channel geometry on the ionization degree is studied. It is found that for the hydrogen arc an increase in length beyond 30 mm will not increase the ionization degree, in contrast to widening the arc. With an increase in radius from 2 mm to 5 mm for a 30 mm long arc the degree of ionization of hydrogen increases from 5.4 to 38. For the argon arc an increase both in the length and in the width increases the ionization degree. With an increase in length from 30 mm to 40 mm for a 2 mm wide arc the degree of ionization of argon increases from 14.5 to 17.1, whereas with an increase in radius from 2 mm to 5 mm for 30 mm long arc the same increases from 14.5 to 37.5. To simulate the influence of the wall material, the effect of hydrogen wall association on the degree of ionization and dissociation is studied. Wall association in the nozzle section, where heating is absent, significantly reduces the degree of dissociation, in agreement with the experimental data. In Pilot-psi, the arc is operated in a high magnetic field, so the effect of a magnetic field on the yield of Ar{sup +} and H{sup +} ions leaving the arc is also studied. It is found that with a 3 T magnetic field the Ar{sup +} yield increases from 1.6 x 10{sup 20} to 2.1 x 10{sup 20} (25% increase) while the H{sup +} yield increases from 1.4 x 10{sup 20} to 2.9 x 10{sup 20} (100% increase)

  20. The STAGGER-grid: A grid of 3D stellar atmosphere models. V. Synthetic stellar spectra and broad-band photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavassa, A.; Casagrande, L.; Collet, R.; Magic, Z.; Bigot, L.; Thévenin, F.; Asplund, M.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The surface structures and dynamics of cool stars are characterised by the presence of convective motions and turbulent flows which shape the emergent spectrum. Aims: We used realistic three-dimensional (3D) radiative hydrodynamical simulations from the STAGGER-grid to calculate synthetic spectra with the radiative transfer code OPTIM3D for stars with different stellar parameters to predict photometric colours and convective velocity shifts. Methods: We calculated spectra from 1000 to 200 000 Å with a constant resolving power of λ/Δλ = 20 000 and from 8470 and 8710 Å (Gaia Radial Velocity Spectrometer - RVS - spectral range) with a constant resolving power of λ/Δλ = 300 000. Results: We used synthetic spectra to compute theoretical colours in the Johnson-Cousins UBV (RI)C, SDSS, 2MASS, Gaia, SkyMapper, Strömgren systems, and HST-WFC3. Our synthetic magnitudes are compared with those obtained using 1D hydrostatic models. We showed that 1D versus 3D differences are limited to a small percent except for the narrow filters that span the optical and UV region of the spectrum. In addition, we derived the effect of the convective velocity fields on selected Fe I lines. We found the overall convective shift for 3D simulations with respect to the reference 1D hydrostatic models, revealing line shifts of between -0.235 and +0.361 km s-1. We showed a net correlation of the convective shifts with the effective temperature: lower effective temperatures denote redshifts and higher effective temperatures denote blueshifts. We conclude that the extraction of accurate radial velocities from RVS spectra need an appropriate wavelength correction from convection shifts. Conclusions: The use of realistic 3D hydrodynamical stellar atmosphere simulations has a small but significant impact on the predicted photometry compared with classical 1D hydrostatic models for late-type stars. We make all the spectra publicly available for the community through the POLLUX database

  1. On the Use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy and Synthetic Calibration Spectra to Quantify Gas Concentrations in a Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Frank T.; Johnson, Natasha M.; Nuth, Joseph A., III

    2015-01-01

    One possible origin of prebiotic organic material is that these compounds were formed via Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) reactions of carbon monoxide and hydrogen on silicate and oxide grains in the warm, inner-solar nebula. To investigate this possibility, an experimental system has been built in which the catalytic efficiency of different grain-analog materials can be tested. During such runs, the gas phase above these grain analogs is sampled using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. To provide quantitative estimates of the concentration of these gases, a technique in which high-resolution spectra of the gases are calculated using the high-resolution transmission molecular absorption (HITRAN) database is used. Next, these spectra are processed via a method that mimics the processes giving rise to the instrumental line shape of the FT-IR spectrometer, including apodization, self-apodization, and broadening due to the finite resolution. The result is a very close match between the measured and computed spectra. This technique was tested using four major gases found in the FTT reactions: carbon monoxide, methane, carbon dioxide, and water. For the ranges typical of the FTT reactions, the carbon monoxide results were found to be accurate to within 5% and the remaining gases accurate to within 10%. These spectra can then be used to generate synthetic calibration data, allowing the rapid computation of the gas concentrations in the FTT experiments.

  2. The comparison of spectra and dyeing properties of new azonaphthalimide with analogues azobenzene dyes on natural and synthetic polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Hosseinnezhad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to prepare new acid dyes based on naphthalimides. In this respect a series of monoazo acid dyes have been obtained using 4-amino-N-methyl (alternatively N-butyl-1,8-naphthalimide, aniline and p-nitroaniline as diazo components. 2-Naphthol-6-sulfonic acid (Schaeffer’s acid and 1-naphthol-8-amino-3,6-disulfonic acid (H-acid were used as coupling components. The spectrophotometric properties of the synthesized dyes were investigated in various solvents and compared with analogues azobenzene dyes. It is found, when acid dyes are applied in various solvents and different pH, additional bathochromically shifted bands of different intensity appear in the electronic spectra. This effect is caused by the occurrence of the equilibrium of azo and hydrazone forms in the dyes. The synthesized acid dyes were applied on wool fabrics in order to consider their dyeing properties, fastnesses and the obtainable color gamut. The synthesized dyes represented that they have the ability of dyeing wool and polyamide fabrics and give red to violet hues with good wash, medium light, and good milling and perspiration fastnesses.

  3. ExoCross: Spectra from molecular line lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Al-Refaie, Ahmed; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2018-03-01

    ExoCross generates spectra and thermodynamic properties from molecular line lists in ExoMol, HITRAN, or several other formats. The code is parallelized and also shows a high degree of vectorization; it works with line profiles such as Doppler, Lorentzian and Voigt and supports several broadening schemes. ExoCross is also capable of working with the recently proposed method of super-lines. It supports calculations of lifetimes, cooling functions, specific heats and other properties. ExoCross converts between different formats, such as HITRAN, ExoMol and Phoenix, and simulates non-LTE spectra using a simple two-temperature approach. Different electronic, vibronic or vibrational bands can be simulated separately using an efficient filtering scheme based on the quantum numbers.

  4. Ab-initio modeling of an iron laser-induced plasma: Comparison between theoretical and experimental atomic emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, J.; Judge, E.J.; Kilcrease, D.P.; Barefield, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    We report on efforts to model the Fe emission spectrum generated from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements on samples of pure iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ). Our modeling efforts consist of several components. We begin with ab-initio atomic structure calculations performed by solving the Hartree–Fock equations for the neutral and singly ionized stages of Fe. Our energy levels are then adjusted to their experimentally known values. The atomic transition probabilities and atomic collision quantities are also computed in an ab-initio manner. We perform LTE or non-LTE calculations that generate level populations and, subsequently, an emission spectrum for the iron plasma for a range of electron temperatures and electron densities. Such calculations are then compared to the experimental spectrum. We regard our work as a preliminary modeling effort that ultimately strives towards the modeling of emission spectra from even more complex samples where less atomic data are available. - Highlights: • LIBS plasma of iron oxide • Ab-initio theoretical Modeling • Discussion of LTE versus non-LTE criteria and assessment • Boltzmann plots for Fe—determination of when LTE is a valid assumption • Emission spectra for Fe—comparison of theoretical modeling and measurement: good agreement obtained

  5. Thermoluminescence spectra of amethyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q. [Suzhou Railway Teachers College (China). Dept. of Physics; Yang, B. [Beijing Normal University (China). Dept. of Physics; Wood, R.A.; White, D.R.R.; Townsend, P.D.; Luff, B.J. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences

    1994-04-01

    Thermoluminescence and cathodoluminescence data from natural and synthetic amethyst and synthetic quartz samples are compared. The spectra include features from the quartz host lattice and from impurity-generated recombination sites. Emission features exist throughout the wavelength range studied, 250-800 nm. The near infrared emission at 740-750 nm appears to be characteristic of the amethyst and is proposed to be due to Fe ion impurity. (Author).

  6. Pattern recognition in spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebran, M; Paletou, F

    2017-01-01

    We present a new automated procedure that simultaneously derives the effective temperature T eff , surface gravity log g , metallicity [ Fe/H ], and equatorial projected rotational velocity v e sin i for stars. The procedure is inspired by the well-known PCA-based inversion of spectropolarimetric full-Stokes solar data, which was used both for Zeeman and Hanle effects. The efficiency and accuracy of this procedure have been proven for FGK, A, and late type dwarf stars of K and M spectral types. Learning databases are generated from the Elodie stellar spectra library using observed spectra for which fundamental parameters were already evaluated or with synthetic data. The synthetic spectra are calculated using ATLAS9 model atmospheres. This technique helped us to detect many peculiar stars such as Am, Ap, HgMn, SiEuCr and binaries. This fast and efficient technique could be used every time a pattern recognition is needed. One important application is the understanding of the physical properties of planetary surfaces by comparing aboard instrument data to synthetic ones. (paper)

  7. Nearby Supernova Factory Observations of SN 2006D: On SporadicCarbon Signatures in Early Type Ia Supernova Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.C.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey,S.; Baltay, C.; Baron, E.; Bauer, A.; Buton, C.; Bongard, S.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; Gilles, S.; Kessler, R.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Parrent, J.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigaudier, G.; Runge, K.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Wang, L.; Weaver, B.A.

    2006-10-12

    We present four spectra of the Type Ia supernova SN Ia 2006Dextending from -7 to +13 days with respect to B-band maximum. The spectrainclude the strongest signature of unburned material at photosphericvelocities observed in a SN Ia to date. The earliest spectrum exhibits CII absorption features below 14,000 km/s, including a distinctive C IIlambda 6580 absorption feature. The carbon signatures dissipate as the SNapproaches peak brightness. In addition to discussing implications ofphotospheric-velocity carbon for white dwarf explosion models, we outlinesome factors that may influence the frequency of its detection before andaround peak brightness. Two effects are explored in this regard,including depopulation of the C II optical levels by non-LTE effects, andline-of-sight effects resulting from a clumpy distribution of unburnedmaterial with low volume-filling factor.

  8. Synthetic Cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cannabinoids which is a subgroup of cannabinoids are commonly used for recreational drug use throughout the whole world. Although both marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2, studies have shown that synthetic cannabinoids are much more potent than marijuana. The longer use of synthetic cannabinoids can cause severe physical and psychological symptoms that might even result in death, similar to many known illicit drugs. Main treatment options mostly involve symptom management and supportive care. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical and pharmacological properties of the increasingly used synthetic cannabinoids. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 317-328

  9. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1978-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  10. Late time optical spectra from the /sup 56/Ni model for Type I supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelrod, T.S.

    1980-07-01

    The hypothesis that the optical luminosity of Type I supernovae results from the radioactive decay of /sup 56/Ni synthesized and ejected by the explosion has been investigated by numerical simulation of the optical spectrum resulting from a homologously expanding shell composed initially of pure /sup 56/Ni core. This model, which neglects the effects of material external to the /sup 56/Ni core, is expected to provide a reasonable representation of the supernova at late times when the star is nearly transparent to optical photons. The numerical simulation determines the temperature, ionization state, and non-LTE level populations which result from energy deposition by the radioactive decay products of /sup 56/Ni and /sup 56/Co. The optical spectrum includes the effects of both allowed and forbidden lines. The optical spectra resulting from the simulation are found to be sensitive to the mass and ejection velocity of the /sup 56/Ni shell. A range of these parameters has been found which results in good agreement with the observed spectra of SN1972e over a considerable range of time. In particular, evidence for the expected decaying abundance of /sup 56/Co has been found in the spectra of SN1972e. These results are used to assess the validity of the /sup 56/Ni model and set limits on the mass and explosion mechanism of the Type I progenitor. The possibilities for improvement of the numerical model are discussed and future atomic data requirements defined.

  11. Late time optical spectra from the 56Ni model for Type I supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelrod, T.S.

    1980-07-01

    The hypothesis that the optical luminosity of Type I supernovae results from the radioactive decay of 56 Ni synthesized and ejected by the explosion has been investigated by numerical simulation of the optical spectrum resulting from a homologously expanding shell composed initially of pure 56 Ni core. This model, which neglects the effects of material external to the 56 Ni core, is expected to provide a reasonable representation of the supernova at late times when the star is nearly transparent to optical photons. The numerical simulation determines the temperature, ionization state, and non-LTE level populations which result from energy deposition by the radioactive decay products of 56 Ni and 56 Co. The optical spectrum includes the effects of both allowed and forbidden lines. The optical spectra resulting from the simulation are found to be sensitive to the mass and ejection velocity of the 56 Ni shell. A range of these parameters has been found which results in good agreement with the observed spectra of SN1972e over a considerable range of time. In particular, evidence for the expected decaying abundance of 56 Co has been found in the spectra of SN1972e. These results are used to assess the validity of the 56 Ni model and set limits on the mass and explosion mechanism of the Type I progenitor. The possibilities for improvement of the numerical model are discussed and future atomic data requirements defined

  12. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  13. Transition in synthetic jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Kordík, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 187, NOV 2012 (2012), s. 105-117 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA02020795; GA ČR(CZ) GPP101/12/P556; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulence * synthetic jet * transition * velocity spectra Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.841, year: 2012 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0924424712005031

  14. Synthetic Rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burastero, J.

    1975-01-01

    This work is about the laboratory scale investigation of the conditions in the rutile synthetic production from one me nita in Aguas Dulces reservoir. The iron mineral is chlorinated and volatilized selectively leaving a residue enriched in titanium dioxide which can be used as a substitute of rutile mineral

  15. ACCELERATED FITTING OF STELLAR SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Conroy, Charlie [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-20

    Stellar spectra are often modeled and fitted by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars’ labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of labels separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach—Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation (chat)—which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating a sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock data sets demonstrate that chat can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by three orders of magnitude in an eight-dimensional label space. The reduction will be even larger for higher dimensional label spaces. In chat the computational effort increases only linearly with the number of labels that are fit simultaneously. Around each of these grid points in the label space an approximate synthetic spectrum can be generated through linear expansion using a set of “gradient spectra” that represent flux derivatives at every wavelength point with respect to all labels. These techniques provide new opportunities to fit the full stellar spectra from large surveys with 15–30 labels simultaneously.

  16. Non-LTE profiles of strong solar lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, T. J.; Beebe, H. A.

    1976-01-01

    The complete linearization method is applied to the formation of strong lines in the solar atmosphere. Transitions in Na(I), Mg(I), Ca(I), Mg(II), and Ca(II) are computed with a standard atmosphere and microturbulent velocity model. The computed profiles are compared to observations at disk center.

  17. Non-LTE hydrogen-line formation in moving prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, P.; Rompolt, B.

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of hydrogen-line brightness variations, depending on the prominence-velocity changes were investigated. By solving the NON-Local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) problem for hydrogen researchers determine quantitatively the effect of Doppler brightening and/or Doppler dimming (DBE, DDE) in the lines of Lyman and Balmer series. It is demonstrated that in low-density prominence plasmas, DBE in H alpha and H beta lines can reach a factor of three for velocities around 160 km/sec, while the L alpha line exhibits typical DDE. L beta brightness variations follow from a combined DBE in the H alpha and DDE in L alpha and L beta itself, providing that all relevant multilevel interlocking processes are taken into account.

  18. Coloring of synthetic fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsoy, R.

    1980-01-01

    A synthetic fluorite of the Harshaw Chemical Company is analyzed for rare earth elements, yttrium, and sodium. Samples of this fluorite are irradiated with X-rays, γ-rays, neutrons, electrons, protons, and α-particles at different energies, and their absorption spectra are analyzed. Analyzing the thermal bleaching of these radiation-coloured fluorites shows that both, impurities and radiation play a part in the coloration of synthetic fluorite. However, the main contribution comes from the radiation induced lattice defects. In the visible region spectra, the colour centre of the 5800 to 5900 A absorption band is probably mainly related with large aggregates of F-centres. The 5450 and the 5300 A absorption bands are mainly related to monovalent and divalent ion impurities and their association with lattice defects. The 3800 A absorption band seems to be related with F-centre aggregates. However, the contribution from the rare earth elements related complex color centres also plays some part for the production of this absorption band. These results indicate that the color centres of different origin can absorb light at the same wavelength. (author)

  19. EFFECTS OF LOCAL DISSIPATION PROFILES ON MAGNETIZED ACCRETION DISK SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Ted; Blaes, Omer

    2013-01-01

    We present spectral calculations of non-LTE accretion disk models appropriate for high-luminosity stellar mass black hole X-ray binary systems. We first use a dissipation profile based on scaling the results of shearing box simulations of Hirose et al. to a range of annuli parameters. We simultaneously scale the effective temperature, orbital frequency, and surface density with luminosity and radius according to the standard α-model. This naturally brings increased dissipation to the disk surface layers (around the photospheres) at small radii and high luminosities. We find that the local spectrum transitions directly from a modified blackbody to a saturated Compton scattering spectrum as we increase the effective temperature and orbital frequency while decreasing midplane surface density. Next, we construct annuli models based on the parameters of a L/L Edd = 0.8 disk orbiting a 6.62 solar mass black hole using two modified dissipation profiles that explicitly put more dissipation per unit mass near the disk surface. The new dissipation profiles are qualitatively similar to the one found by Hirose et al., but produce strong near power-law spectral tails. Our models also include physically motivated magnetic acceleration support based once again on scaling the Hirose et al. results. We present three full-disk spectra, each based on one of the dissipation prescriptions. Our most aggressive dissipation profile results in a disk spectrum that is in approximate quantitative agreement with certain observations of the steep power-law spectral states from some black hole X-ray binaries.

  20. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  1. Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brooke; Yepes, Andres; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis. This is likely due to SCBs being direct agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, whereas THC is a partial agonist. Furthermore, the different chemical structures of SCBs found in Spice or K2 may interact in unpredictable ways to elicit previously unknown, and the commercial products may have unknown contaminants. The largest group of users is men in their 20s who participate in polydrug use. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use. Treatment mostly involves symptom management and supportive care. More research is needed to identify which contaminants are typically found in synthetic marijuana and to understand the interactions between different SBCs to better predict adverse health outcomes.

  2. Vibrational spectrum of synthetic carnotite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, E J; Botto, I L [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas

    1976-05-01

    The infrared and laser-Raman spectra of synthetic carnotite, K/sub 2/((UO/sub 2/)/sub 2/V/sub 2/O/sub 8/), are reported and discussed. Force constants for the terminal V-O bonds as well as for the UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ ions are evaluated. From the spectroscopic data, a U-O bond length of 1.81 A is estimated for the uranyl ion in this compound.

  3. Synthetic Brainbows

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Brainbow is a genetic engineering technique that randomly colorizes cells. Biological samples processed with this technique and imaged with confocal microscopy have distinctive colors for individual cells. Complex cellular structures can then be easily visualized. However, the complexity of the Brainbow technique limits its applications. In practice, most confocal microscopy scans use different florescence staining with typically at most three distinct cellular structures. These structures are often packed and obscure each other in rendered images making analysis difficult. In this paper, we leverage a process known as GPU framebuffer feedback loops to synthesize Brainbow-like images. In addition, we incorporate ID shuffing and Monte-Carlo sampling into our technique, so that it can be applied to single-channel confocal microscopy data. The synthesized Brainbow images are presented to domain experts with positive feedback. A user survey demonstrates that our synthetic Brainbow technique improves visualizations of volume data with complex structures for biologists.

  4. Synthetic Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian R; Pollak, Bernardo; Purswani, Nuri; Patron, Nicola; Haseloff, Jim

    2017-07-05

    Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales. We highlight new approaches to the DNA-based manipulation of plants and the use of advanced quantitative imaging techniques in simple plant models such as Marchantia polymorpha. These offer the prospects of improved understanding of plant dynamics and new approaches to rational engineering of plant traits. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  5. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2017-01-01

    "Are we alone?" is one of the primary questions of astrobiology, and whose answer defines our significance in the universe. Unfortunately, this quest is hindered by the fact that we have only one confirmed example of life, that of earth. While this is enormously helpful in helping to define the minimum envelope for life, it strains credulity to imagine that life, if it arose multiple times, has not taken other routes. To help fill this gap, our lab has begun using synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - as an enabling technology. One theme, the "Hell Cell" project, focuses on creating artificial extremophiles in order to push the limits for Earth life, and to understand how difficult it is for life to evolve into extreme niches. In another project, we are re-evolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids.

  6. Synthetic biology, inspired by synthetic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, V; Nallani, M; Meier, W P; Sinner, E K

    2012-07-16

    The topic synthetic biology appears still as an 'empty basket to be filled'. However, there is already plenty of claims and visions, as well as convincing research strategies about the theme of synthetic biology. First of all, synthetic biology seems to be about the engineering of biology - about bottom-up and top-down approaches, compromising complexity versus stability of artificial architectures, relevant in biology. Synthetic biology accounts for heterogeneous approaches towards minimal and even artificial life, the engineering of biochemical pathways on the organismic level, the modelling of molecular processes and finally, the combination of synthetic with nature-derived materials and architectural concepts, such as a cellular membrane. Still, synthetic biology is a discipline, which embraces interdisciplinary attempts in order to have a profound, scientific base to enable the re-design of nature and to compose architectures and processes with man-made matter. We like to give an overview about the developments in the field of synthetic biology, regarding polymer-based analogs of cellular membranes and what questions can be answered by applying synthetic polymer science towards the smallest unit in life, namely a cell. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. White Dwarf Model Atmospheres: Synthetic Spectra for Super Soft Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Rauch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The T\\"ubingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP) calculates fully metal-line blanketed white dwarf model atmospheres and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) at a high level of sophistication. Such SEDs are easily accessible via the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO) service TheoSSA. We discuss applications of TMAP models to (pre) white dwarfs during the hottest stages of their stellar evolution, e.g. in the parameter range of novae and super soft sources.

  8. White Dwarf Model Atmospheres: Synthetic Spectra for Supersoft Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Tübingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP) calculates fully metal-line blanketed white dwarf model atmospheres and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) at a high level of sophistication. Such SEDs are easily accessible via the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO) service TheoSSA. We discuss applications of TMAP models to (pre) white dwarfs during the hottest stages of their stellar evolution, e.g. in the parameter range of novae and supersoft sources.

  9. Beta spectra. II-Positron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1981-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 30 positron emitters have been computed, introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. The spectra are ploted vs. energy, once normalised, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (author)

  10. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  12. The far-ultraviolet spectra of two hot PG 1159 stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.

    2016-09-01

    PG 1159 stars are hot, hydrogen-deficient (pre-) white dwarfs with atmospheres mainly composed of helium, carbon, and oxygen. The unusual surface chemistry is the result of a late helium-shell flash. Observed element abundances enable us to test stellar evolution models quantitatively with respect to their nucleosynthesis products formed near the helium-burning shell of the progenitor asymptotic giant branch stars. Because of the high effective temperatures (Teff), abundance determinations require ultraviolet spectroscopy and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmosphere analyses. Up to now, we have presented results for the prototype of this spectral class and two cooler members (Teff in the range 85 000-140 000 K). Here we report on the results for two even hotter stars (PG 1520+525 and PG 1144+005, both with Teff = 150 000 K) which are the only two objects in this temperature-gravity region for which useful far-ultraviolet spectra are available, and revisit the prototype star. Previous results on the abundances of some species are confirmed, while results on others (Si, P, S) are revised. In particular, a solar abundance of sulphur is measured in contrast to earlier claims of a strong S deficiency that contradicted stellar evolution models. For the first time, we assess the abundances of Na, Al, and Cl with newly constructed non-LTE model atoms. Besides the main constituents (He, C, O), we determine the abundances (or upper limits) of N, F, Ne, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, and Fe. Generally, good agreement with stellar models is found.

  13. Good abundances from bad spectra - I. Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. Bryn; Gilmore, Gerard; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1996-01-01

    Stellar spectra derived from multiple-object fibre-fed spectroscopic radial-velocity surveys, of the type feasible with, among other examples, AUTOFIB, 2dF, HYDRA, NESSIE, and the Sloan survey, differ significantly from those traditionally used for determination of stellar abundances. The spectra tend to be of moderate resolution (around 1A) and signal-to-noise ratio (around 10-20 per resolution element), and cannot usually have reliable continuum shapes determined over wavelength ranges in excess of a few tens of Angstroms. None the less, with care and a calibration of stellar effective temperature from photometry, independent of the spectroscopy, reliable iron abundances can be derived. We have developed techniques to extract true iron abundances and surface gravities from low-signal-to-noise ratio, intermediate-resolution spectra of G-type stars in the 4000-5000A wavelength region. Spectroscopic indices sensitive to iron abundance and gravity are defined from a set of narrow (few-several A wide) wavelength intervals. The indices are calibrated theoretically using synthetic spectra. Given adequate data and a photometrically determined effective temperature, one can derive estimates of the stellar iron abundance and surface gravity. We have also defined a single abundance indicator for the analysis of very low-signal-to-noise ratio spectra; with the further assumption of a value for the stellar surface gravity, this is able to provide useful iron abundance information from spectra having signal-to-noise ratios as low as 10 (1-A elements). The theoretical basis and calibration using synthetic spectra are described in this paper. The empirical calibration of these techniques by application to observational data is described in a separate paper (Jones, Wyse & Gilmore). The technique provides precise iron abundances, with zero-point correct to ~0.1 dex, and is reliable, with typical uncertainties being <~0.2 dex. A derivation of the in situ thick disc metallicity

  14. THEORETICAL SPECTRA OF THE AM CANUM VENATICORUM BINARY SYSTEM SDSS J0926+3624: EFFECTS OF IRRADIATION ONTO THE DONOR STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Sujan; Taam, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account a range of parameters determined from evolutionary models and available observational data, the detailed non-LTE spectrum for the primary star and the irradiated donor star in the AM Canum Venaticorum system SDSS J0926+3624 are constructed based on the TLUSTY stellar atmosphere code. The combined spectrum of the primary and the donor stars along with a multicolor blackbody spectrum of the accretion disk that reproduces a detailed numerical model is compared to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical spectrum of the system. The photometric flux of the primary star inferred from eclipse observations is compared with the synthetic spectrum. The model fit of the two independent observations provides an upper limit on the distance of the system for different effective temperatures of the primary. In addition, an upper limit on the combined flux of the disk and the donor in the infrared region wherein the contribution of the primary is negligible is also determined. It is shown that the spectrum of a sufficiently cool donor can exhibit emission lines due to irradiation from a hot primary and the emission features should be detectable in the infrared even though the contribution of the flux from the disk dominates. Thus, it is pointed out that infrared observations of the system would provide important information on the thermal state of the donor as well as useful insight into the thermal properties of the primary star and the accretion disk.

  15. Growth and optical spectroscopy of synthetic diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudryj, A.V.; Larionova, T.P.; Shakin, I.A.; Gysakov, G.A.; Dubrov, G.A.; Tikhonov, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    It is studied the growth and optical properties of synthetic diamonds, which may be used for detection of ionizing radiation, optical windows, heat removal, ultraviolet and thermo sensors, optoelectronic devices. Optical properties of diamonds (grown in different technological conditions) were studied in temperature range 78 - 300 K by means of measuring transmission in spectral band 0.2 - 25 μm, photoluminescence and registration of luminescence excitation spectra in spectral band 0.2 - 2 μm

  16. Generation of Synthetic Turbulence in Arbitrary Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Sørensen, Niels

    2009-01-01

    A new method for generating synthetic turbulence is presented. The method is intended for generating a turbulent velocity field with a fine spatial resolution but only covering a small moving part of the rotor area of a wind turbine. For this application the Mann and Sandia methods cannot be used......-spectra a realization of a velocity field is determined by factorization and Fourier transform as in the Sandia method....

  17. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  18. Raman spectrum of natural and synthetic stishovite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, R.J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Chao, E.C.T.

    1986-01-01

    Raman spectra of natural and synthetic samples of stishovite have been measured with a micro-optical spectrometer system. These spectra have a pattern that is characteristic of rutile-structured oxides. The spectrum of synthetic stishovite is characterized by well-resolved bands at 231, 589, 753, and 967 cm-1, which are assigned as the B1g, Eg, A1g, and B2g fundamentals, respectively, of the first-order Raman spectrum of the ideal, ordered structure. Natural stishovite obtained from Meteor Crater, Arizona has a first-order Raman spectrum that is fully consistent with that of the synthetic material. The observed spectrum of the natural sample, however, is weaker and has bands in addition to those identified as fundamentals in the spectrum of the synthetic material. A broad band at ???475 cm-1 may be indicative of glass or contaminants derived from the extraction procedure. Alternatively, this band may arise from multiphonon scattering that is enhanced by poor crystallinity or structural disorder in the natural shocked sample. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag.

  19. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of X-ray spectra in the Na-like to O-like rubidium ions in the range of 3.8-7.3 Angstroms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis-Petit, D.; Bonnet, T.; Hannachi, F.; Gobet, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Comet, M.; Gosselin, G.; Meot, V.; Morel, P.; Pain, J.Ch.; Gilleron, F.; Frank, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Blazevic, A.; Dorchies, F.; Peyrusse, O.; Cayzac, W.; Roth, M.

    2014-01-01

    The X-rays emitted by a rubidium plasma source created by the PHELIX laser at an intensity of about 6*10"1"4 W/cm"2 were studied. The lines have been measured using Bragg crystals in the wavelength range between 3.8 and 7.3 Angstroms and identified by means of a numerical method developed to describe highly charged rubidium ions in LTE plasma. The experimental plasma temperature, density and charge state distributions have been estimated using non-LTE codes such as CHIVAS and AVERROES. The LTE plasma temperature and density used in the calculations are those allowing to reproduce the calculated NLTE charge state distribution. In order to optimize the use of computational resources, a criterion is established to select the configurations contributing most to the spectra among all those obtained in detailed level accounting based on the MCDF code. Seventy Rb-X-rays have been identified among which forty-nine are reported for the first time. The capabilities of our method are demonstrated by the good agreement of our identifications with previously published data when available. (authors)

  1. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  2. Proposed guidelines for synthetic accelerogram generation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.E.; Rizzo, P.C.; Shukla, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    With the advent of high speed digital computation machines and discrete structural analysis techniques, it has become attractive to use synthetically generated accelerograms as input in the seismic design and analysis of structures. Several procedures are currently available which can generate accelerograms which match a given design response spectra while not paying significant attention to other properties of seismic accelerograms. This paper studies currently available artificial time history generation techniques from the standpoint of various properties of seismic time histories consisting of; 1. Response Spectra; 2. Peak Ground Acceleration; 3. Total Duration; 4. Time dependent enveloping functions defining the rise time to strong motion, duration of significant shaking and decay of the significant shaking portion of the seismic record; 5. Fourier Amplitude and Phase Spectra; 6. Ground Motion Parameters; 7. Apparent Frequency; with the aim of providing guidelines of the time history parameters based on historic strong motion seismic records. (Auth.)

  3. An analysis of the uncertainty in temperature and density estimates from fitting model spectra to data. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Student research reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubmehl, M.

    1999-03-01

    Temperature and density histories of direct-drive laser fusion implosions are important to an understanding of the reaction's progress. Such measurements also document phenomena such as preheating of the core and improper compression that can interfere with the thermonuclear reaction. Model x-ray spectra from the non-LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) radiation transport post-processor for LILAC have recently been fitted to OMEGA data. The spectrum fitting code reads in a grid of model spectra and uses an iterative weighted least-squares algorithm to perform a fit to experimental data, based on user-input parameter estimates. The purpose of this research was to upgrade the fitting code to compute formal uncertainties on fitted quantities, and to provide temperature and density estimates with error bars. A standard error-analysis process was modified to compute these formal uncertainties from information about the random measurement error in the data. Preliminary tests of the code indicate that the variances it returns are both reasonable and useful

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hot subdwarf stars in LAMOST DR1 (Luo+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.-P.; Nemeth, P.; Liu, C.; Deng, L.-C.; Han, Z.-W.

    2018-01-01

    We present a catalog of 166 spectroscopically identified hot subdwarf stars from LAMOST DR1, 44 of which show the characteristics of cool companions in their optical spectra. Atmospheric parameters of 122 subdwarf stars with non-composite spectra were measured by fitting the profiles of hydrogen (H) and helium (He) lines with synthetic spectra from non-LTE model atmospheres. A unique property of our sample is that it covers a large range in apparent magnitude and galactic latitude, therefore it contains a mix of stars from different populations and galactic environments. (3 data files).

  5. Spectra of Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.E.; Haemers, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This book gives an elementary treatment of the basic material about graph spectra, both for ordinary, and Laplace and Seidel spectra. The text progresses systematically, by covering standard topics before presenting some new material on trees, strongly regular graphs, two-graphs, association

  6. Spectra of alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, Budi; Arumbinang, Haryono.

    1981-01-01

    Emission spectra of alkali atoms has been determined by using spectrometer at the ultraviolet to infra red waves range. The spectra emission can be obtained by absorption spectrophotometric analysis. Comparative evaluations between experimental data and data handbook obtained by spark method were also presented. (author tr.)

  7. Lithium in the active sub-giant HD123351. A quantitative analysis with 3D and 1D model atmospheres using different observed spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, A.; Steffen, M.; Caffau, E.; Strassmeier, K. G.

    Current 3D hydrodynamical model atmosphere simulations together with non-LTE spectrum synthesis calculations permit to determine reliable atomic and in particular isotopic chemical abundances. Although this approach is computationally time demanding, it became feasible in studying lithium in stellar spectra. In the literature not much is known about the presence of the more fragile {6Li} isotope in evolved metal-rich objects. In this case the analysis is complicated by the lack of a suitable list of atomic and molecular lines in the spectral region of the lithium resonance line at 670.8 nm. Here we present a spectroscopic comparative analysis of the Li doublet region of HD 123351, an active sub-giant star of solar metallicity. We fit the Li profile in three observed spectra characterized by different qualities: two very-high resolution spectra (Gecko@CFHT, R=120 000, SNR=400 and PEPSI@LBT, R=150 000, SNR=663) and a high-resolution SOPHIE@OHP spectrum (R=40 000, SNR=300). We adopt a set of model atmospheres, both 3D and 1D, having different stellar parameters (T_{eff} and log g). The 3D models are taken from the CIFIST grid of COBOLD model atmospheres and departures from LTE are considered for the lithium components. For the blends other than the lithium in this wavelength region we adopt the linelist of \\citet{melendez12}. We find consistent results for all three observations and an overall good fit with the selected list of atomic and molecular lines, indicating a high {6Li} content. The presence of {6Li} is not expected in cool stellar atmospheres. Its detection is of crucial importance for understanding mixing processes in stars and external lithium production mechanisms, possibly related to stellar activity or planetray accretion of {6Li}-rich material.

  8. Synthetic Defects for Vibrothermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Jeremy; Holland, Stephen D.; Thompson, R. Bruce; Eisenmann, David J.

    2010-02-01

    Synthetic defects are an important tool used for characterizing the performance of nondestructive evaluation techniques. Viscous material-filled synthetic defects were developed for use in vibrothermography (also known as sonic IR) as a tool to improve inspection accuracy and reliability. This paper describes how the heat-generation response of these VMF synthetic defects is similar to the response of real defects. It also shows how VMF defects can be applied to improve inspection accuracy for complex industrial parts and presents a study of their application in an aircraft engine stator vane.

  9. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, Eric; Süel, Gürol M

    2013-01-01

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  10. Synthetic profile analysis of the observed (0,0) Swan band of Comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna swamy, K.S.

    1991-01-01

    The time-dependent rotational population distribution for the (0,0) band of the Swan system was carried out. These population distributions are used to calculate the synthetic spectra over the wavelength region 5165-5132 A for comparing with the excellent spectra of Lambert et al. (1990) for Comet Halley. The synthetic spectra for the rotational population distribution corresponding to a time interval of about 8000 sec gives a good fit to the observed spectra over the whole special region. This seems to indicate that the level population does not appear to have reached the steady state values. 16 refs

  11. Models for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal.

  12. Technical Assessment: Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Pfizer, Bausch & Lomb, Coca - Cola , and other Fortune 500 companies 8 Data estimated by the... financial prize for ideas to drive forward the production of a sensor relying on synthetic organisms that can detect exposure to 500 specific chemicals

  13. INTERACTION OF ALBUMIN AND IMMUNOGLOBULIN G WITH SYNTHETIC HYDROXYAPATITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pylypchuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It was shown by X-ray phase analysis, IR spectra analysis and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry methods that interaction of synthetic hydroxyapatite with a solution of immunoglobulin G leads to its partial dissolution due to leaching from the surface of calcium triphosphate which, in our opinion, forms complexes with immunoglobulin G.

  14. Solar Energetic Particle Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. M.; Boezio, M.; Bravar, U.; Bruno, A.; Christian, E. R.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Martucci, M.; Mergè, M.; Munini, R.; Ricci, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Stochaj, S.

    2017-12-01

    We report updated event-integrated spectra from several SEP events measured with PAMELA. The measurements were made from 2006 to 2014 in the energy range starting at 80 MeV and extending well above the neutron monitor threshold. The PAMELA instrument is in a high inclination, low Earth orbit and has access to SEPs when at high latitudes. Spectra have been assembled from these high-latitude measurements. The field of view of PAMELA is small and during the high-latitude passes it scans a wide range of asymptotic directions as the spacecraft orbits. Correcting for data gaps, solid angle effects and improved background corrections, we have compiled event-integrated intensity spectra for twenty-eight SEP events. Where statistics permit, the spectra exhibit power law shapes in energy with a high-energy exponential roll over. The events analyzed include two genuine ground level enhancements (GLE). In those cases the roll-over energy lies above the neutron monitor threshold ( 1 GV) while the others are lower. We see no qualitative difference between the spectra of GLE vs. non-GLE events, i.e., all roll over in an exponential fashion with rapidly decreasing intensity at high energies.

  15. Nitrogen aggregation in Ib type synthetic diamonds at low pressure and high-temperature annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazyuchits, N.M.; Rusetskij, M.S.; Latushko, Ya.I.; Kazyuchits, V.N.; Zajtsev, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    A new technique for annealing of diamonds at low pressure and high temperature (LPHT) is considered. The absorption spectra of synthetic Ib diamonds are given before and after annealing. This is evident from a comparison of the spectra that nitrogen aggregation process takes place at the LPHT annealing diamond. (authors)

  16. What Are Synthetic Cannabinoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... years, synthetic cannabinoid mixtures have been easy to buy in drug paraphernalia shops, novelty stores, gas stations, and over ... abuse, authorities have made it illegal to sell, buy, or possess some of ... use is that standard drug tests cannot easily detect many of the chemicals ...

  17. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im......A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is to improve and obtain a more range independent lateral resolution compared to conventional dynamic receive focusing (DRF) without compromising frame rate. SASB is a two-stage procedure using two separate beamformers. First a set of Bmode image lines using a single focal point in both transmit and receive...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...

  18. Building synthetic cellular organization

    OpenAIRE

    Polka, Jessica K.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    The elaborate spatial organization of cells enhances, restricts, and regulates protein–protein interactions. However, the biological significance of this organization has been difficult to study without ways of directly perturbing it. We highlight synthetic biology tools for engineering novel cellular organization, describing how they have been, and can be, used to advance cell biology.

  19. Towards a synthetic chloroplast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Agapakis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of eukaryotic cells is widely agreed to have proceeded through a series of endosymbiotic events between larger cells and proteobacteria or cyanobacteria, leading to the formation of mitochondria or chloroplasts, respectively. Engineered endosymbiotic relationships between different species of cells are a valuable tool for synthetic biology, where engineered pathways based on two species could take advantage of the unique abilities of each mutualistic partner.We explored the possibility of using the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 as a platform for studying evolutionary dynamics and for designing two-species synthetic biological systems. We observed that the cyanobacteria were relatively harmless to eukaryotic host cells compared to Escherichia coli when injected into the embryos of zebrafish, Danio rerio, or taken up by mammalian macrophages. In addition, when engineered with invasin from Yersinia pestis and listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes, S. elongatus was able to invade cultured mammalian cells and divide inside macrophages.Our results show that it is possible to engineer photosynthetic bacteria to invade the cytoplasm of mammalian cells for further engineering and applications in synthetic biology. Engineered invasive but non-pathogenic or immunogenic photosynthetic bacteria have great potential as synthetic biological devices.

  20. Synthetic Metabolic Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Synthetic Metabolic Pathways: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study...

  1. Parameterization of rotational spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunmei; Liu Tong

    1992-01-01

    The rotational spectra of the strongly deformed nuclei with low rotational frequencies and weak band mixture are analyzed. The strongly deformed nuclei are commonly encountered in the rare-earth region (e. g., 150 220). A lot of rotational band knowledge are presented

  2. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  3. Vibrational spectra of the hydrated carbonate minerals ikaite, monohydrocalcite, lansfordite and nesquehonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleyshaw, Esther E.; Crump, Gregory; Griffith, William P.

    2003-08-01

    The Raman (200-4000 cm -1) and infrared (600-4000 cm -1) spectra of four rare carbonate hydrate minerals are reported. These are naturally occurring and synthetic ikaite CaCO 3 · 6H 2O, and nesquehonite MgCO 3 · 3H 2O; natural monohydrocalcite CaCO 3 · H 2O, and synthetic lansfordite MgCO 3 · 5H 2O. The spectra of synthetic ikaite partially substituted with 2H 2O and also with 13C were measured, as were those of synthetic deuteriated nesquehonite. Spectra of ikaite and lansfordite, both of which decompose at room temperatures, were measured below 0 °C. Assignments of fundamental modes are proposed.

  4. X-ray absorption spectra and emission spectra of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yonglun; Yang Li; Wang Minsheng; Li Jiaming

    2002-01-01

    The author reports a theoretical method to calculate the resolved absorption spectra and emission spectra (optically thin) of hot dense plasmas. Due to its fully relativistic treatment incorporated with the quantum defect theory, it calculates the absorption spectra and emission spectra for single element or multi-element plasmas with little computational efforts. The calculated absorption spectra of LTE gold plasmas agree well with the experimental ones. It also calculates the optical thin emission spectra of LTE gold plasmas, which is helpful to diagnose the plasmas of relevant ICF plasmas. It can also provide the relevant parameters such as population density of various ionic stages, precise radiative properties for ICF studies

  5. StarNet: An application of deep learning in the analysis of stellar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielty, Collin; Bialek, Spencer; Fabbro, Sebastien; Venn, Kim; O'Briain, Teaghan; Jahandar, Farbod; Monty, Stephanie

    2018-06-01

    In an era when spectroscopic surveys are capable of collecting spectra for hundreds of thousands of stars, fast and efficient analysis methods are required to maximize scientific impact. These surveys provide a homogeneous database of stellar spectra that are ideal for machine learning applications. In this poster, we present StarNet: a convolutional neural network model applied to the analysis of both SDSS-III APOGEE DR13 and synthetic stellar spectra. When trained on synthetic spectra alone, the calculated stellar parameters (temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity) are of excellent precision and accuracy for both APOGEE data and synthetic data, over a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios. While StarNet was developed using the APOGEE observed spectra and corresponding ASSeT synthetic grid, we suggest that this technique is applicable to other spectral resolutions, spectral surveys, and wavelength regimes. As a demonstration of this, we present a StarNet model trained on lower resolution, R=6000, IR synthetic spectra, describing the spectra delivered by Gemini/NIFS and the forthcoming Gemini/GIRMOS instrument (PI Sivanandam, UToronto). Preliminary results suggest that the stellar parameters determined from this low resolution StarNet model are comparable in precision to the high-resolution APOGEE results. The success of StarNet at lower resolution can be attributed to (1) a large training set of synthetic spectra (N ~200,000) with a priori stellar labels, and (2) the use of the entire spectrum in the solution rather than a few weighted windows, which are common methods in other spectral analysis tools (e.g. FERRE or The Cannon). Remaining challenges in our StarNet applications include rectification, continuum normalization, and wavelength coverage. Solutions to these problems could be used to guide decisions made in the development of future spectrographs, spectroscopic surveys, and data reduction pipelines, such as for the future MSE.

  6. Lattice vibration spectra. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, H.D.; Willich, P.

    1977-01-01

    The FIR absorption spectra of pyrite type compounds RuS 2 , RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x), RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , OsSe 2 , and PtP 2 as well as loellingite type phosphides FeP 2 , RuP 2 , and OsP 2 are reported. For RuS 2 , RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , and PtP 2 all of the five infrared allowed modes (k = 0) are observed. As a first result of a numerical normal coordinate treatment vibration forms of pyrite structure are communicated. The spectra show that lattice forces of corresponding sulfides, tellurides, and phosphides are about the same strength, but increase strongly by substitution of iron by ruthenium and especially of ruthenium by osmium. The lattice constants of the RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x) solid solution obey Vegard's rule. (author)

  7. Deconvoluting double Doppler spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, K.F.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.; Chan, K.L.; Tang, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    The successful deconvolution of data from double Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (D-DBAR) spectroscopy is a promising area of endeavour aimed at producing momentum distributions of a quality comparable to those of the angular correlation technique. The deconvolution procedure we test in the present study is the constrained generalized least square method. Trials with computer simulated DDBAR spectra are generated and deconvoluted in order to find the best form of regularizer and the regularization parameter. For these trials the Neumann (reflective) boundary condition is used to give a single matrix operation in Fourier space. Experimental D-DBAR spectra are also subject to the same type of deconvolution after having carried out a background subtraction and using a symmetrize resolution function obtained from an 85 Sr source with wide coincidence windows. (orig.)

  8. Spectra, Winter 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    additional copies or more information, please email spectra@nrl.navy.mil. LEADINGEDGE 1 Contents 30 Navy Launches UAV from Submerged Submarine 31... multitasking have become mainstream concerns. For example, the New York Times in 2005 and Time magazine in 2006 both reported stories about...interruptions and multitasking , and how they affect performance by increasing human er- ror. In 2005, the information technol- ogy research firm Basex

  9. Synthetic Electric Microbial Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-10

    domains and DNA-binding domains into a single protein for deregulation of down stream genes of have been favored [10]. Initially experiments with... Germany DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited.   Talk title: “Synthetic biology based microbial biosensors for the...toolbox” in Heidelberg, Germany Poster title: “Anaerobic whole cell microbial biosensors” Link: http://phdsymposium.embl.org/#home   September, 2014

  10. Auger spectra of alkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rye, R.R.; Jennison, D.R.; Houston, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The gas-phase Auger line shapes of the linear alkanes C 1 through C 6 and of neopentane are presented and analyzed. The general shape of the spectra are characteristic of carbon in a tetrahedral environment with the major feature in all cases occurring at approx.249 eV. The relatively large spectral changes found between methane and ethane results from the direct interaction of the terminal methyl groups in ethane, and the spectra of the higher alkanes are shown to be a composite of contributions from terminal methyl and interior methylene group carbon atoms. Theoretical analysis based on a one-electron approximation is shown to be capable of making a molecular orbital assignment by comparing calculated vertical transitions to features in the Auger spectra of ethane and propane, and, in the case of ethane, of differentiating between the 2 E/sub g/ and 2 A/sub 1g/ assignment of the ground state of (C 2 H 6 ) + . A one-electron based molecular orbital treatment, however, is shown to partially break down in propane and neopentane. Analysis of neopentane and the observed absence of any noticeable major peak energy shift with increasing molecular size (as predicted by the one-electron treatment) suggests that some Auger final states occur in which both valence holes are localized on the same subunit of the molecule

  11. Thermal and structural characterization of synthetic and natural nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronia, Ancuta M; Baies, Radu; Anghel, Elena M; Marinescu, Cornelia A; Tanasescu, Speranta

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal stability on heating and to obtain the processing parameters of synthetic and bone-derived hydroxyapatite over temperatures between room temperature and 1400°C by thermal analysis (thermogravimetry (TG)/differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-mechanical analysis-TMA). Structural and surface modifications related to samples origin and calcination temperature were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and BET method. FTIR spectra indicated that the organic constituents and carbonate are no longer present in the natural sample calcined at 800°C. Raman spectra highlighted the decomposition products of the hydroxyapatite. The calcination treatment modifies the processes kinetics of the synthetic samples, being able to isolate lattice water desorption processes of decarbonization and the dehydroxylation processes. Shrinkage of calcined synthetic sample increases by 10% compared to uncalcined synthetic powder. From the TMA correlated with TG analysis and heat capacity data it can be concluded that sintering temperature of the synthetic samples should be chosen in the temperature range of the onset of dehydroxylation and the temperature at which oxyapatite decomposition begins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal and structural characterization of synthetic and natural nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofronia, Ancuta M.; Baies, Radu; Anghel, Elena M.; Marinescu, Cornelia A.; Tanasescu, Speranta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal stability on heating and to obtain the processing parameters of synthetic and bone-derived hydroxyapatite over temperatures between room temperature and 1400 °C by thermal analysis (thermogravimetry (TG)/differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-mechanical analysis—TMA). Structural and surface modifications related to samples origin and calcination temperature were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and BET method. FTIR spectra indicated that the organic constituents and carbonate are no longer present in the natural sample calcined at 800 °C. Raman spectra highlighted the decomposition products of the hydroxyapatite. The calcination treatment modifies the processes kinetics of the synthetic samples, being able to isolate lattice water desorption processes of decarbonization and the dehydroxylation processes. Shrinkage of calcined synthetic sample increases by 10% compared to uncalcined synthetic powder. From the TMA correlated with TG analysis and heat capacity data it can be concluded that sintering temperature of the synthetic samples should be chosen in the temperature range of the onset of dehydroxylation and the temperature at which oxyapatite decomposition begins. - Highlights: • Specific surface area of HA powder was reduced from 19.2 to 9.5 m 2 /g by calcination. • Raman spectra indicate the presence of B-type CO 3 group in HA synthetic samples. • The onset temperature of HA densification and dehydroxylation processes correspond. • Calcination of HA influences reactions kinetics with consequences on densification. • Shrinkage of calcined HA sample increases by 10% with respect to uncalcined sample

  13. Thermal and structural characterization of synthetic and natural nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofronia, Ancuta M. [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Baies, Radu [National Research Institute for Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, 300224 Timisoara (Romania); Anghel, Elena M. [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Marinescu, Cornelia A., E-mail: alcorina@chimfiz.icf.ro [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Tanasescu, Speranta [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal stability on heating and to obtain the processing parameters of synthetic and bone-derived hydroxyapatite over temperatures between room temperature and 1400 °C by thermal analysis (thermogravimetry (TG)/differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-mechanical analysis—TMA). Structural and surface modifications related to samples origin and calcination temperature were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and BET method. FTIR spectra indicated that the organic constituents and carbonate are no longer present in the natural sample calcined at 800 °C. Raman spectra highlighted the decomposition products of the hydroxyapatite. The calcination treatment modifies the processes kinetics of the synthetic samples, being able to isolate lattice water desorption processes of decarbonization and the dehydroxylation processes. Shrinkage of calcined synthetic sample increases by 10% compared to uncalcined synthetic powder. From the TMA correlated with TG analysis and heat capacity data it can be concluded that sintering temperature of the synthetic samples should be chosen in the temperature range of the onset of dehydroxylation and the temperature at which oxyapatite decomposition begins. - Highlights: • Specific surface area of HA powder was reduced from 19.2 to 9.5 m{sup 2}/g by calcination. • Raman spectra indicate the presence of B-type CO{sub 3} group in HA synthetic samples. • The onset temperature of HA densification and dehydroxylation processes correspond. • Calcination of HA influences reactions kinetics with consequences on densification. • Shrinkage of calcined HA sample increases by 10% with respect to uncalcined sample.

  14. Opportunities in plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charis; Martin, Lisa; Bastow, Ruth

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging field uniting scientists from all disciplines with the aim of designing or re-designing biological processes. Initially, synthetic biology breakthroughs came from microbiology, chemistry, physics, computer science, materials science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. A transition to multicellular systems is the next logical step for synthetic biologists and plants will provide an ideal platform for this new phase of research. This meeting report highlights some of the exciting plant synthetic biology projects, and tools and resources, presented and discussed at the 2013 GARNet workshop on plant synthetic biology.

  15. He-like spectra from laboratory plasmas and solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takako

    1990-01-01

    The X-ray spectra of He-like ions from tokamaks and solar flares have been measured. Several physical parameters of plasma can be derived from the X-ray spectra of He-like ions. The ion temperature can be derived from the doppler width of a resonance line. The electron temperature is obtained from the intensity ratio of dielectronic satellite lines to a resonance line. The energy level for the prominent lines is shown. The line q is produced mainly by the inner-shell excitation of Li-like ions, and line beta is produced by the inner-shell excitation of Be-like ions. The intensity ratios give the ion density ratios. The intensities of the intercombination and the forbidden lines are affected by the recombination from H-like ions. The synthetic spectra including excitation, ionization and recombination processes are fitted to the measurement. In this paper, the He-like X-ray spectra of the titanium ions from TFTR tokamak plasma and of the iron ions from solar flares are discussed, paying attention to the presence of high energy electrons which affect the spectra and ionization balance. Atomic data, the spectra from the TFTR tokamak, the spectra from solar flares and so on are described. (K.I.)

  16. Deconvolution of Positrons' Lifetime spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderin Hidalgo, L.; Ortega Villafuerte, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we explain the iterative method previously develop for the deconvolution of Doppler broadening spectra using the mathematical optimization theory. Also, we start the adaptation and application of this method to the deconvolution of positrons' lifetime annihilation spectra

  17. Optical studies of high quality synthetic diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the study of fundamental and defect induced optical properties of synthetic diamond grown using high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) synthesis or chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The primary technique used for investigation is cathodoluminescence (including imaging and decay-time measurements) in addition to other forms of optical spectroscopy. This thesis is timely in that the crystallinity and purity of synthetic diamond has increased ten fold over the last few years. The diamond exciton emission, which is easily quenched by the presence of defects, is studied in high quality samples in detail. In addition the ability now exists to engineer the isotopic content of synthetic diamond to a high degree of accuracy. The experimental chapters are divided as follows: Chapter 2: High resolution, low temperature spectra reveal a splitting of the free-exciton phonon recombination emission peaks and the bound-exciton zero phonon line. Included are measurements of the variation in intensity and decay-time as a function of temperature. Chapter 3: The shift in energy of the phonon-assisted free-exciton phonon replicas with isotopic content has been measured. The shift is in agreement with the results of interatomic force model for phonon scattering due to isotope disorder. Chapter 4: A study of the shift in energy with isotopic content of the diamond of the GR1 band due to the neutral vacancy has allowed a verification of the theoretical predictions due to the Jahn Teller effect. Chapter 5: The spatial distribution of the free-exciton luminescence is studied in HPHT synthetic and CVD diamond. A variation in intensity with distance from the surface is interpreted as a significant non-radiative loss of excitons to the surface. Chapter 6: The decay-times of all known self-interstitial related centres have been measured in order to calculate the concentration of these centres present in electron irradiated diamond. (author)

  18. Vibrational spectra of aminoacetonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, B.; Hansen, E.L.; Nicolaisen, F.M.; Nielsen, O.F.

    1975-01-01

    The preparation of pure, stable aminoacetonitrile(1-amino, 1'-cyanomethane)CH 2 NH 2 CN (1) is described. The Raman spectrum, now complete, and a novel infrared spectrum extending over the 50-3600 cm -1 region are reported. A tentative normal vibration analysis is presented and supported by Raman and infrared data from the spectra of CH 2 NHDCN (2) and CH 2 ND 2 CN (3). The predominance of the trans rotamer may be attributed to intramolecular hydrogen bonding but this is too unimportant to influence the vibrational frequencies of gaseous 1, 2, and 3. However, large gas/liquid frequency shifts occur. (author)

  19. Synthetic staggered architecture composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Abhishek; Tekalur, Srinivasan Arjun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Composite design inspired by nature. ► Tuning microstructure via changing ceramic content and aspect ratio. ► Experimental display of structure–property correlationship in synthetic composites. - Abstract: Structural biocomposites (for example, nacre in seashells, bone, etc.) are designed according to the functional role they are delegated for. For instance, bone is primarily designed for withstanding time-dependent loading (for example, withstanding stresses while running, jumping, accidental fall) and hence the microstructure is designed primarily from enhanced toughness and moderate stiffness point of view. On the contrary, seashells (which lie in the abyss of oceans) apart from providing defense to the organism (it is hosting) against predatory attacks, are subjected to static loading (for example, enormous hydrostatic pressure). Hence, emphasis on the shell structure evolution is directed primarily towards providing enhanced stiffness. In order to conform between stiffness and toughness, nature precisely employs a staggered arrangement of inorganic bricks in a biopolymer matrix (at its most elementary level of architecture). Aspect ratio and content of ceramic bricks are meticulously used by nature to synthesize composites having varying degrees of stiffness, strength and toughness. Such an amazing capability of structure–property correlationship has rarely been demonstrated in synthetic composites. Therefore, in order to better understand the mechanical behavior of synthetic staggered composites, the problem becomes two-pronged: (a) synthesize composites with varying brick size and contents and (b) experimental investigation of the material response. In this article, an attempt has been made to synthesize and characterize staggered ceramic–polymer composites having varying aspect ratio and ceramic content using freeze-casting technique. This will in-turn help us in custom-design manufacture of hybrid bio-inspired composite materials

  20. Non-LTE modelling of prominence fine structures using hydrogen Lyman-line profiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwartz, Pavol; Gunár, S.; Curdt, W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 577, May (2015), A92/1-A92/10 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0906 Grant - others:SAV(SK) VEGA 2/0108/12 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * filaments * prominences Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  1. Non-LTE H2+ as the source of missing opacity in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, K. S. K.; Stecher, T. P.

    1974-01-01

    The population of the various vibrational levels of the H2+ molecule has been calculated from the consideration of formation and destruction mechanisms. The resulting population is used in calculating the total absorption due to H2+ and is compared with the other known sources of opacity at several optical depths of the solar atmosphere. It is shown that the absorption due to H2+ can probably account for the missing ultraviolet opacity in the solar atmosphere.

  2. X-ray emission from hydrodynamical simulations in non-LTE wind models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krtička, J.; Feldmeier, A.; Oskinova, L.M.; Kubát, Jiří; Hamann, W.-R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 508, č. 2 (2009), s. 841-848 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : stars * winds * outflows Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.179, year: 2009

  3. Non-LTE diagnostics of velocity fields during the gradual phase of a solar flare

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berlicki, A.; Heinzel, Petr; Schmieder, B.; Mein, P.; Mein, N.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 430, č. 2 (2005), s. 679-689 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun * flares * chromosphere – Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.223, year: 2005

  4. ALICE: A non-LTE plasma atomic physics, kinetics and lineshape package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E. G.; Pérez-Callejo, G.; Rose, S. J.

    2018-03-01

    All three parts of an atomic physics, atomic kinetics and lineshape code, ALICE, are described. Examples of the code being used to model the emissivity and opacity of plasmas are discussed and interesting features of the code which build on the existing corpus of models are shown throughout.

  5. Acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. VII - Non-grey, non-LTE H(-) models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, F.; Ulmschneider, P.; Kalkofen, W.

    1985-01-01

    The propagation and shock formation of radiatively damped acoustic waves in the solar chromosphere are studied under the assumption that H(-) is the only absorber; the opacity is non-grey. Deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) are permitted. The results of numerical simulations show the depth dependence of the heating by the acoustic waves to be insensitive to the mean state of the atmosphere. After the waves have developed into shocks, their energy flux decays exponentially with a constant damping length of about 1.4 times the pressure scale height, independent of initial flux and wave period. Departures from LTE have a strong influence on the mean temperature structure in dynamical chromosphere models; this is even more pronounced in models with reduced particle density - simulating conditions in magnetic flux tubes - which show significantly increased temperatures in response to mechanical heating. When the energy dissipation of the waves is sufficiently large to dissociate most of the H(-) ions, a strong temperature rise is found that is reminiscent of the temperature structure in the transition zone between chromosphere and corona; the energy flux remaining in the waves then drives mass motions.

  6. Influence of non-LTE radiation ablation on imploding neutron yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Jiatian; Li Yunsheng; Gao Yaomin; Li Meng; Feng Tinggui; Zhang Lifa; Zeng Xiancai; Mou Wenyong; Feng Jie; Chen Jiabin

    2005-01-01

    The process of radiative ablation and neutron yields of DD-capsule with CH shell implosion driven by Plank spectrum and nonequilibrium spectrum radiation fields was numerically studied using 1-D RDMG code of multigroup-nonequilibrium radiation hydrodynamics. The simulation results were compared with the experimental results. The results of the simulation show that the nonequilibrium of energy spectrum distribution of the hohlraum radiation source, especially the M-band of it, will preheat DD in the capsule obviously, decrease the compressing ratio, electron and ion temperatures of DD gas, and therefore decrease the neutron yields markedly. The simulation results also show that the law of decreasing of neutron yields with increasing of the CH-sell thickness is in agreement with the experiment basically. (authors)

  7. Testing the reliability of non-LTE spectroscopic models for complexions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hansen, s.; Armstrong, G.S.J.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Bowen, C.; Chung, H.-K.; Colgan, J.P.; de Gaufridy de Dortan, Francois; Fontes, C.J.; Gilleron, F.; Marquès, J.-R.; Piron, R.; Peyrusse, O.; Poirier, M.; Ralchenko, Yu.; Sasaki, A.; Stambulchik, E.; Thais, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2013), 523-527 ISSN 1574-1818 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0087 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; OP VK 2 LaserGen(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0087 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : X-ray spectroscopy * atomic kinetics * plasma diagnostics Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2013

  8. Physics of Solar Prominences: I-Spectral Diagnostics and Non-LTE Modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Labrosse, N.; Heinzel, Petr; Vial, J. C.; Kucera, T.; Parenti, S.; Gunár, Stanislav; Schmieder, B.; Kilper, G.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 4 (2010), s. 243-332 ISSN 0038-6308 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1100 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA- PECS project No. 98030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : solar prominences * spectroscopy * radiative transfer Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 4.433, year: 2010

  9. Non-LTE equivalent widths for Si II, III and IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.R.; Butler, K.

    1990-01-01

    Equivalent widths for a set of Si II, III and IV lines reliable for the determination of temperatures in the B star parameter range are given. They are calculated on a fine grid of LTE line blanketed model atmospheres and lie in the wavelength region from 4070 A to 5070 A

  10. Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the use of synthetic aperture (SA) imaging in medical ultrasound. SA imaging is a radical break with today's commercial systems, where the image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time. This puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the possibility of acquiring...... a sufficient amount of data for high precision flow estimation. These constrictions can be lifted by employing SA imaging. Here data is acquired simultaneously from all directions over a number of emissions, and the full image can be reconstructed from this data. The talk will demonstrate the many benefits...

  11. Chemical Abundances of Main-sequence, Turnoff, Subgiant, and Red Giant Stars from APOGEE Spectra. I. Signatures of Diffusion in the Open Cluster M67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Diogo; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Allende Prieto, C.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Pinsonneault, Marc; Holzer, Parker; Frinchaboy, Peter; Holtzman, Jon; Johnson, J. A.; Jönsson, Henrik; Majewski, Steven R.; Shetrone, Matthew; Sobeck, Jennifer; Stringfellow, Guy; Teske, Johanna; Zamora, Olga; Zasowski, Gail; Carrera, Ricardo; Stassun, Keivan; Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.; Villanova, Sandro; Minniti, Dante; Santana, Felipe

    2018-04-01

    Detailed chemical abundance distributions for 14 elements are derived for eight high-probability stellar members of the solar metallicity old open cluster M67 with an age of ∼4 Gyr. The eight stars consist of four pairs, with each pair occupying a distinct phase of stellar evolution: two G dwarfs, two turnoff stars, two G subgiants, and two red clump (RC) K giants. The abundance analysis uses near-IR high-resolution spectra (λ1.5–1.7 μm) from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment survey and derives abundances for C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe. Our derived stellar parameters and metallicity for 2M08510076+1153115 suggest that this star is a solar twin, exhibiting abundance differences relative to the Sun of ≤0.04 dex for all elements. Chemical homogeneity is found within each class of stars (∼0.02 dex), while significant abundance variations (∼0.05–0.20 dex) are found across the different evolutionary phases; the turnoff stars typically have the lowest abundances, while the RCs tend to have the largest. Non-LTE corrections to the LTE-derived abundances are unlikely to explain the differences. A detailed comparison of the derived Fe, Mg, Si, and Ca abundances with recently published surface abundances from stellar models that include chemical diffusion provides a good match between the observed and predicted abundances as a function of stellar mass. Such agreement would indicate the detection of chemical diffusion processes in the stellar members of M67.

  12. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D.; Mathews, Debra J. H.

    2015-01-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with...

  13. Analog synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations.

  14. Synthetic lubricating oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Jurado, J

    1953-01-01

    A yellow solid petroleum paraffin d/sup 60/ 0.808, I number 3.5, average molecular weight 350, chlorinated and condensed with benzene, xylene, or naphthalene by the Friedel and Crafts reaction, in the presence of anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/ or activated Al, gave synthetic lubricating oils. Xylene was the preferred aromatic compound, naphthalene required the use of less completely chlorinated paraffin, benzene produced resins difficult to remove and gave darker oils with excessive green fluorescence. Activated Al rather than anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/ gave darker oils with higher viscosity and Conradson C values. Tar from the low-temperature distillation of lignite, used as a source of a paraffin fraction melting 40/sup 0/ to 48/sup 0/ (chlorinated to 26.5 percent Cl) and an aromatic fraction, 45 percent aromatic compounds by volume (mainly polysubstituted benzenes), I number 10, was converted to a similar synthetic lubricant with the following properties: Kinematic viscosity at 210/sup 0/ F., 50.4 centistokes; viscosity index, 92; Conradson C, 1.5 percent; solidification point, 9/sup 0/; S, 0.41 percent.

  15. A self optimizing synthetic organic reactor system using real-time in-line NMR spectroscopy† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details about the methodology, LabView scripts, experimental set-ups, additional spectra and self-optimization can be found in the SI. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc03075c Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, Victor; Porwol, Luzian; Dragone, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    A configurable platform for synthetic chemistry incorporating an in-line benchtop NMR that is capable of monitoring and controlling organic reactions in real-time is presented. The platform is controlled via a modular LabView software control system for the hardware, NMR, data analysis and feedback optimization. Using this platform we report the real-time advanced structural characterization of reaction mixtures, including 19F, 13C, DEPT, 2D NMR spectroscopy (COSY, HSQC and 19F-COSY) for the first time. Finally, the potential of this technique is demonstrated through the optimization of a catalytic organic reaction in real-time, showing its applicability to self-optimizing systems using criteria such as stereoselectivity, multi-nuclear measurements or 2D correlations. PMID:29560211

  16. Parameterization of MARVELS Spectra Using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilda, Sankalp; Ge, Jian; MARVELS

    2018-01-01

    Like many large-scale surveys, the Multi-Object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) was designed to operate at a moderate spectral resolution ($\\sim$12,000) for efficiency in observing large samples, which makes the stellar parameterization difficult due to the high degree of blending of spectral features. Two extant solutions to deal with this issue are to utilize spectral synthesis, and to utilize spectral indices [Ghezzi et al. 2014]. While the former is a powerful and tested technique, it can often yield strongly coupled atmospheric parameters, and often requires high spectral resolution (Valenti & Piskunov 1996). The latter, though a promising technique utilizing measurements of equivalent widths of spectral indices, has only been employed with respect to FKG dwarfs and sub-giants and not red-giant branch stars, which constitute ~30% of MARVELS targets. In this work, we tackle this problem using a convolution neural network (CNN). In particular, we train a one-dimensional CNN on appropriately processed PHOENIX synthetic spectra using supervised training to automatically distinguish the features relevant for the determination of each of the three atmospheric parameters – T_eff, log(g), [Fe/H] – and use the knowledge thus gained by the network to parameterize 849 MARVELS giants. When tested on the synthetic spectra themselves, our estimates of the parameters were consistent to within 11 K, .02 dex, and .02 dex (in terms of mean absolute errors), respectively. For MARVELS dwarfs, the accuracies are 80K, .16 dex and .10 dex, respectively.

  17. Catalogue of neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxerolle, M.; Massoutie, M.; Kurdjian, J.

    1987-09-01

    Neutron dosimetry problems have arisen as a result of developments in the applications of nuclear energy. The largest number of possible irradiation situations has been collected: they are presented in the form of a compilation of 44 neutron spectra. Diagrams show the variations of energy fluence and energy fluence weighted by the dose equivalent/fluence conversion factor, with the logarithm of the corresponding energy. The equivalent dose distributions are presented as percentages for the following energy bins: 0.01 eV/0.5 eV/50 keV/1 MeV/5 MeV/15 MeV. The dose equivalent, the mean energy and the effective energy for the dose equivalent for 1 neutron cm -2 are also given [fr

  18. Space Synthetic Biology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Roman, Monsi; Mansell, James (Matt)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an effort to make genetic engineering more useful by standardizing sections of genetic code. By standardizing genetic components, biological engineering will become much more similar to traditional fields of engineering, in which well-defined components and subsystems are readily available in markets. Specifications of the behavior of those components and subsystems can be used to model a system which incorporates them. Then, the behavior of the novel system can be simulated and optimized. Finally, the components and subsystems can be purchased and assembled to create the optimized system, which most often will exhibit behavior similar to that indicated by the model. The Space Synthetic Biology project began in 2012 as a multi-Center effort. The purpose of this project was to harness Synthetic Biology principals to enable NASA's missions. A central target for application was to Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS). Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ECLS Systems Development Branch (ES62) were brought into the project to contribute expertise in operational ECLS systems. Project lead scientists chose to pursue the development of bioelectrochemical technologies to spacecraft life support. Therefore, the ECLS element of the project became essentially an effort to develop a bioelectrochemical ECLS subsystem. Bioelectrochemical systems exploit the ability of many microorganisms to drive their metabolisms by direct or indirect utilization of electrical potential gradients. Whereas many microorganisms are capable of deriving the energy required for the processes of interest (such as carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation) from sunlight, it is believed that subsystems utilizing electrotrophs will exhibit smaller mass, volume, and power requirements than those that derive their energy from sunlight. In the first 2 years of the project, MSFC personnel conducted modeling, simulation, and conceptual design efforts to assist the

  19. Current status of synthetic epikeratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K P; Hanna, K; Waring, G O; Gipson, I; Liu, Y; Gailitis, R P; Johnson-Wint, B; Green, K

    1991-01-01

    Many of the deficiencies with human tissue epikeratoplasty might be improved by the use of a suitable synthetic lenticule. Potential biomaterials for epikeratoplasty include collagen (types I, III, or IV), collagen-hydrogel copolymers, bioactive synthetics, and coated hydrogels. The biomaterial must be engineered to achieve strict specifications of optical clarity, support of epithelial migration and adhesion, permeability to solutes, and stability to corneal proteases. Attaching synthetic lenticules to the cornea without cutting Bowman's layer by adhesives, laser welding, or direct adhesion may also improve the efficacy of synthetic epikeratoplasty.

  20. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  1. Finding Hope in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Tuija

    2017-04-01

    For some, synthetic biology represents great hope in offering possible solutions to many of the world's biggest problems, from hunger to sustainable development. Others remain fearful of the harmful uses, such as bioweapons, that synthetic biology can lend itself to, and most hold that issues of biosafety are of utmost importance. In this article, I will evaluate these points of view and conclude that although the biggest promises of synthetic biology are unlikely to become reality, and the probability of accidents is fairly substantial, synthetic biology could still be seen to benefit humanity by enhancing our ethical understanding and by offering a boost to world economy.

  2. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...

  3. Life after the synthetic cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self-replicating ......Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self...

  4. Computational synthetic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bokowski, Jürgen

    1989-01-01

    Computational synthetic geometry deals with methods for realizing abstract geometric objects in concrete vector spaces. This research monograph considers a large class of problems from convexity and discrete geometry including constructing convex polytopes from simplicial complexes, vector geometries from incidence structures and hyperplane arrangements from oriented matroids. It turns out that algorithms for these constructions exist if and only if arbitrary polynomial equations are decidable with respect to the underlying field. Besides such complexity theorems a variety of symbolic algorithms are discussed, and the methods are applied to obtain new mathematical results on convex polytopes, projective configurations and the combinatorics of Grassmann varieties. Finally algebraic varieties characterizing matroids and oriented matroids are introduced providing a new basis for applying computer algebra methods in this field. The necessary background knowledge is reviewed briefly. The text is accessible to stud...

  5. Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk

    and the limiting factor is the amount of memory IO resources available. An equally high demand for memory throughput is found in the computer gaming industry, where a large part of the processing takes place on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Using the GPU, a framework for synthetic aperture imaging......Medical ultrasound imaging is used for many purposes, e.g. for localizing and classifying cysts, lesions, and other processes. Almost any mass is first observed using B-mode imaging and later classified using e.g. color flow, strain, or attenuation imaging. It is therefore important that the B......-mode images have high contrast. Like all imaging modalities, ultrasound is subject to a number of inherent artifacts that compromise image quality. The most prominent artifact is the degradation by coherent wave interference, known as “speckle”, which gives a granular appearance to an otherwise homogeneous...

  6. Transionospheric synthetic aperture imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Gilman, Mikhail; Tsynkov, Semyon

    2017-01-01

    This landmark monograph presents the most recent mathematical developments in the analysis of ionospheric distortions of SAR images and offers innovative new strategies for their mitigation. As a prerequisite to addressing these topics, the book also discusses the radar ambiguity theory as it applies to synthetic aperture imaging and the propagation of radio waves through the ionospheric plasma, including the anisotropic and turbulent cases. In addition, it covers a host of related subjects, such as the mathematical modeling of extended radar targets (as opposed to point-wise targets) and the scattering of radio waves off those targets, as well as the theoretical analysis of the start-stop approximation, which is used routinely in SAR signal processing but often without proper justification. The mathematics in this volume is clean and rigorous – no assumptions are hidden or ambiguously stated. The resulting work is truly interdisciplinary, providing both a comprehensive and thorough exposition of the field,...

  7. Radioimmunoassay of synthetic steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynaud, J -P; Bucourt, R; Salmon, J

    1975-12-01

    The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay depends on the intrinsic association constant of the interaction between ligand and antibody. Its specificity depends on the position of the chain which forms the link with the antigen. Thus, an antibody specific of estradiol has been obtained by coupling estradiol to albumin via a chain at position 7. For synthetic steroids the structure of which is sufficiency different from that of natural hormones, the requirements for a sensitive assay method not involving chromatography are simply maximum affinity and positioning of the couple at a site which does not undergo metabolic attack. These criteria were used to develop assays for R 2858 and R 2453 which obviate the need to administer radioactive product in clinical pharmacology. Cross-reaction with structural analogs may be used to assay competitors. Thus, R 2323 antibody, highly specific for endogenous steroids, may be used to assay other trienes such as R 1697 (trenbolone) and R 2010 (norgestrienone).

  8. Synthetic fuels and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)

    1981-03-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. equal to 40-60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. equal to 50-70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long-term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  9. Synthetic and Virtual Environmental Media (SAVEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, F. H. K.; Decker, K. M.; Bath, R. J.; Bottrell, D. W.; Wright, K. L.

    2002-01-01

    The Synthetic and Virtual Environmental Media (SAVEM) Program, developed at the DOE Environmental Measurements Laboratory, responds directly to issues of improved data quality, increased regulatory confidence, analytical laboratory waste minimization, pollution prevention, worker safety/radiation exposure risk reduction, and environmental stewardship. The SAVEM radiochemistry information analysis system uses digitally generated spectra to accurately model gamma-ray emission characteristics of radiological samples. A digital virtual sample can be specified that has the characteristics of any environmental media such as soil, sediment, or vegetation, and which exhibits the spectral characteristics of more than 2,000 gamma-emitting nuclides. The SAVEM system can duplicate the characteristics of 2,361 individual radionuclides with 47,902 gamma lines

  10. Analysis of the FF Aqr spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanskaya, N. N.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Shimansky, V. V.

    2011-07-01

    We determine the atmospheric parameters of the secondary in the close binary system FF Aqr and analyze its chemical composition. A series of high-resolution spectra are taken at different orbital phases using the coude echelle spectrometer of the 1.5-m Russian-Turkish Telescope (RTT150). We show that the absorption line intensity of heavy elements varies with phase due to the spotty nature of the cool component. We determine the abundances of heavy elements in the star's atmosphere by modelling the synthetic spectra and performing a differential analysis of the chemical composition of FF Aqr relative to the solar composition. Our analysis of the averaged spectrum of FF Aqr yielded 539 abundance estimates for 21 chemical elements. We found the metallicity of the star ([ Fe/H] = -0.11 ± 0.08) to be close solar, in agreement with the hypothesis that FF Aqr should belong to the Galactic disk. The inferred chemical composition of the objects exhibits no anomalous abundances of the α-, r-, and s-process elements like those earlier found in other systems (IN Com, LW Hya, V471 Tau). The lack of such anomalies in FF Aqr must be due to the fact that the elements heavier than 16 O cannot be synthesized in the core of the primary during the last stages of its evolution.

  11. Design energy spectra for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    López Almansa, Francisco; Yazgan, Ahmet Utku; Benavent Climent, Amadeo

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes design energy spectra in terms of velocity, derived through linear dynamic analyses on Turkish registers and intended for regions with design peak acceleration 0.3 g or higher. In the long and mid period ranges the analyses are linear, taking profit of the rather insensitivity of the spectra to the structural parameters other than the fundamental period; in the short period range, the spectra are more sensitive to the structural parameters and nonlinear analyses would be re...

  12. Spectra of chemical trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, K.

    1982-01-01

    A method is developed for obtaining the spectra of trees of NMR and chemical interests. The characteristic polynomials of branched trees can be obtained in terms of the characteristic polynomials of unbranched trees and branches by pruning the tree at the joints. The unbranched trees can also be broken down further until a tree containing just two vertices is obtained. The effectively reduces the order of the secular determinant of the tree used at the beginning to determinants of orders atmost equal to the number of vertices in the branch containing the largest number of vertices. An illustrative example of a NMR graph is given for which the 22 x 22 secular determinant is reduced to determinants of orders atmost 4 x 4 in just the second step of the algorithm. The tree pruning algorithm can be applied even to trees with no symmetry elements and such a factoring can be achieved. Methods developed here can be elegantly used to find if two trees are cospectral and to construct cospectral trees

  13. Sequencing BPS spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gukov, Sergei [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Mathematik,Vivatsgasse 7, D-53111 Bonn (Germany); Nawata, Satoshi [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Centre for Quantum Geometry of Moduli Spaces, University of Aarhus,Nordre Ringgade 1, DK-8000 (Denmark); Saberi, Ingmar [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stošić, Marko [CAMGSD, Departamento de Matemática, Instituto Superior Técnico,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Mathematical Institute SANU,Knez Mihajlova 36, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Sułkowski, Piotr [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-03-02

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincaré polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel “sliding” property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identification of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N=2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. Lastly, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.

  14. Sequencing BPS spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar; Stošić, Marko; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincaré polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel “sliding” property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identification of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N=2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. Lastly, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.

  15. Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Massonnet, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.  

  16. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the

  17. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Zegers (Netty)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps

  18. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2012-11-16

    Metabolic engineering emerged 20 years ago as the discipline occupied with the directed modification of metabolic pathways for the microbial synthesis of various products. As such, it deals with the engineering (design, construction, and optimization) of native as well as non-natural routes of product synthesis, aided in this task by the availability of synthetic DNA, the core enabling technology of synthetic biology. The two fields, however, only partially overlap in their interest in pathway engineering. While fabrication of biobricks, synthetic cells, genetic circuits, and nonlinear cell dynamics, along with pathway engineering, have occupied researchers in the field of synthetic biology, the sum total of these areas does not constitute a coherent definition of synthetic biology with a distinct intellectual foundation and well-defined areas of application. This paper reviews the origins of the two fields and advances two distinct paradigms for each of them: that of unit operations for metabolic engineering and electronic circuits for synthetic biology. In this context, metabolic engineering is about engineering cell factories for the biological manufacturing of chemical and pharmaceutical products, whereas the main focus of synthetic biology is fundamental biological research facilitated by the use of synthetic DNA and genetic circuits.

  19. The Ethics of Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    The dissertation analyses and discusses a number of ethical issues that have been raised in connection with the development of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology is a set of new techniques for DNA-level design and construction of living beings with useful properties. The dissertation especially...

  20. Synthetic biology of polyketide synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Backman, Tyler W.H.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2018-01-01

    ). The modules are composed of enzymatic domains that share sequence and functional similarity across all known PKSs. We have used the nomenclature of synthetic biology to classify the enzymatic domains and modules as parts and devices, respectively, and have generated detailed lists of both. In addition, we...... realize the potential that synthetic biology approaches bring to this class of molecules....

  1. An application of deep learning in the analysis of stellar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, S.; Venn, K. A.; O'Briain, T.; Bialek, S.; Kielty, C. L.; Jahandar, F.; Monty, S.

    2018-04-01

    Spectroscopic surveys require fast and efficient analysis methods to maximize their scientific impact. Here, we apply a deep neural network architecture to analyse both SDSS-III APOGEE DR13 and synthetic stellar spectra. When our convolutional neural network model (StarNet) is trained on APOGEE spectra, we show that the stellar parameters (temperature, gravity, and metallicity) are determined with similar precision and accuracy as the APOGEE pipeline. StarNet can also predict stellar parameters when trained on synthetic data, with excellent precision and accuracy for both APOGEE data and synthetic data, over a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios. In addition, the statistical uncertainties in the stellar parameter determinations are comparable to the differences between the APOGEE pipeline results and those determined independently from optical spectra. We compare StarNet to other data-driven methods; for example, StarNet and the Cannon 2 show similar behaviour when trained with the same data sets; however, StarNet performs poorly on small training sets like those used by the original Cannon. The influence of the spectral features on the stellar parameters is examined via partial derivatives of the StarNet model results with respect to the input spectra. While StarNet was developed using the APOGEE observed spectra and corresponding ASSET synthetic data, we suggest that this technique is applicable to other wavelength ranges and other spectral surveys.

  2. Computing with synthetic protocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbet, Alexis; Molina, Franck; Amar, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    In this article we present a new kind of computing device that uses biochemical reactions networks as building blocks to implement logic gates. The architecture of a computing machine relies on these generic and composable building blocks, computation units, that can be used in multiple instances to perform complex boolean functions. Standard logical operations are implemented by biochemical networks, encapsulated and insulated within synthetic vesicles called protocells. These protocells are capable of exchanging energy and information with each other through transmembrane electron transfer. In the paradigm of computation we propose, protoputing, a machine can solve only one problem and therefore has to be built specifically. Thus, the programming phase in the standard computing paradigm is represented in our approach by the set of assembly instructions (specific attachments) that directs the wiring of the protocells that constitute the machine itself. To demonstrate the computing power of protocellular machines, we apply it to solve a NP-complete problem, known to be very demanding in computing power, the 3-SAT problem. We show how to program the assembly of a machine that can verify the satisfiability of a given boolean formula. Then we show how to use the massive parallelism of these machines to verify in less than 20 min all the valuations of the input variables and output a fluorescent signal when the formula is satisfiable or no signal at all otherwise.

  3. Stellar parametrization from Gaia RVS spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Allende Prieto, C.; Fustes, D.; Manteiga, M.; Arcay, B.; Bijaoui, A.; Dafonte, C.; Ordenovic, C.; Ordoñez Blanco, D.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Among the myriad of data collected by the ESA Gaia satellite, about 150 million spectra will be delivered by the Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) for stars as faint as GRVS~ 16. A specific stellar parametrization will be performed on most of these RVS spectra, I.e. those with enough high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), which should correspond to single stars that have a magnitude in the RVS band brighter than ~14.5. Some individual chemical abundances will also be estimated for the brightest targets. Aims: We describe the different parametrization codes that have been specifically developed or adapted for RVS spectra within the GSP-Spec working group of the analysis consortium. The tested codes are based on optimisation (FERRE and GAUGUIN), projection (MATISSE), or pattern-recognition methods (Artificial Neural Networks). We present and discuss each of their expected performances in the recovered stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity) for B- to K-type stars. The performances for determining of [α/Fe] ratios are also presented for cool stars. Methods: Each code has been homogeneously tested with a large grid of RVS simulated synthetic spectra of BAFGK-spectral types (dwarfs and giants), with metallicities varying from 10-2.5 to 10+ 0.5 the solar metallicity, and taking variations of ±0.4 dex in the composition of the α-elements into consideration. The tests were performed for S/N ranging from ten to 350. Results: For all the stellar types we considered, stars brighter than GRVS~ 12.5 are very efficiently parametrized by the GSP-Spec pipeline, including reliable estimations of [α/Fe]. Typical internal errors for FGK metal-rich and metal-intermediate stars are around 40 K in Teff, 0.10 dex in log(g), 0.04 dex in [M/H], and 0.03 dex in [α/Fe] at GRVS = 10.3. They degrade to 155 K in Teff, 0.15 dex in log(g), 0.10 dex in [M/H], and 0.1 dex in [α/Fe] at GRVS~ 12. Similar accuracies in Teff and [M/H] are

  4. Synthetic Biology and Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology, application of synthetic chemistry to biology, is a broad term that covers the engineering of biological systems with structures and functions not found in nature to process information, manipulate chemicals, produce energy, maintain cell environment and enhance human health. Synthetic biology devices contribute not only to improve our understanding of disease mechanisms, but also provide novel diagnostic tools. Methods based on synthetic biology enable the design of novel strategies for the treatment of cancer, immune diseases metabolic disorders and infectious diseases as well as the production of cheap drugs. The potential of synthetic genome, using an expanded genetic code that is designed for specific drug synthesis as well as delivery and activation of the drug in vivo by a pathological signal, was already pointed out during a lecture delivered at Kuwait University in 2005. Of two approaches to synthetic biology, top-down and bottom-up, the latter is more relevant to the development of personalized medicines as it provides more flexibility in constructing a partially synthetic cell from basic building blocks for a desired task. PMID:22907209

  5. Synthetic Biology: Advancing Biological Frontiers by Building Synthetic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E; Smolke, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  6. Analysis of remotely accrued complex gamma ray spectra - proficiency test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdall, M. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway))

    2009-03-15

    This report presents details pertaining to an exercise conducted as part of the NKS-B programme using synthetic gamma ray spectra to simulate the type of data that may be encountered in the early phase of a nuclear accident. The aim of the exercise was to provide participants with an opportunity to exercise in the type of situation and with the type of data that may result after a nuclear accident. Attempting to conduct such exercise internationally using actual samples presents practical and logistical difficulties and a synthetic spectrum was employed to negate some of these problems. A HPGe spectrum was synthesized containing a range of typical fallout isotopes and distributed, along with calibration information, to the participant laboratories. The participants were required to submit results within three hours of receipt and with the option of submitting further results within one week. The results provided by the laboratories indicate that all laboratories were able to identify and quantify some of the isotopes but only some labs were in a position to identify and quantify virtually all the constituents of the spectrum. Results indicate that there remain some problems with aspects such as true coincidence summation and using file formats with which labs may not be familiar with. The exercise provided a useful opportunity in exploring the possibilities of using synthetic spectra for exercise purposes and offered participants the chance to practice with the sort of scenario that may result after an accident. (au)

  7. Analysis of remotely accrued complex gamma ray spectra - proficiency test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdall, M.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents details pertaining to an exercise conducted as part of the NKS-B programme using synthetic gamma ray spectra to simulate the type of data that may be encountered in the early phase of a nuclear accident. The aim of the exercise was to provide participants with an opportunity to exercise in the type of situation and with the type of data that may result after a nuclear accident. Attempting to conduct such exercise internationally using actual samples presents practical and logistical difficulties and a synthetic spectrum was employed to negate some of these problems. A HPGe spectrum was synthesized containing a range of typical fallout isotopes and distributed, along with calibration information, to the participant laboratories. The participants were required to submit results within three hours of receipt and with the option of submitting further results within one week. The results provided by the laboratories indicate that all laboratories were able to identify and quantify some of the isotopes but only some labs were in a position to identify and quantify virtually all the constituents of the spectrum. Results indicate that there remain some problems with aspects such as true coincidence summation and using file formats with which labs may not be familiar with. The exercise provided a useful opportunity in exploring the possibilities of using synthetic spectra for exercise purposes and offered participants the chance to practice with the sort of scenario that may result after an accident. (au)

  8. Comparative Modelling of the Spectra of Cool Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebzelter, T.; Heiter, U.; Abia, C.; Eriksson, K.; Ireland, M.; Neilson, H.; Nowotny, W; Maldonado, J; Merle, T.; Peterson, R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Our ability to extract information from the spectra of stars depends on reliable models of stellar atmospheres and appropriate techniques for spectral synthesis. Various model codes and strategies for the analysis of stellar spectra are available today. Aims. We aim to compare the results of deriving stellar parameters using different atmosphere models and different analysis strategies. The focus is set on high-resolution spectroscopy of cool giant stars. Methods. Spectra representing four cool giant stars were made available to various groups and individuals working in the area of spectral synthesis, asking them to derive stellar parameters from the data provided. The results were discussed at a workshop in Vienna in 2010. Most of the major codes currently used in the astronomical community for analyses of stellar spectra were included in this experiment. Results. We present the results from the different groups, as well as an additional experiment comparing the synthetic spectra produced by various codes for a given set of stellar parameters. Similarities and differences of the results are discussed. Conclusions. Several valid approaches to analyze a given spectrum of a star result in quite a wide range of solutions. The main causes for the differences in parameters derived by different groups seem to lie in the physical input data and in the details of the analysis method. This clearly shows how far from a definitive abundance analysis we still are.

  9. Accurate First-Principles Spectra Predictions for Planetological and Astrophysical Applications at Various T-Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, M.; Nikitin, A. V.; Tyuterev, V.

    2014-06-01

    convergence. Because high-resolution ab initio spectra predictions for systems with N>4 atoms is a very challenging task, the major issue is to minimize the cost of computations and the loss of accuracy during calculations. To this end, a truncation-reduction technique for the Hamiltonian operator as well as an extraction-compression procedure for the basis set functions will be introduced and discussed in detail. We will give a review on the recent progress in computational methods as well as on existing experimental and theoretical databases 4,5,6,7,8,9. This presentation will be focused on highly symmetric molecules such as methane and phosphine, with the corresponding applications at low-T in relation with Titan's atmosphere and at high-T with the production of theoretical line lists for astrophysical opacity calculations10. The study of isotopic H→D and 12C→13C substitutions will be also addressed and carried out by means of symmetry and coordinate transformations11. Finally we hope this work will help refining studies of currently available analyses which are not yet finalized. The modeling of non-LTE emissions accounting for contribution of many fundamental and hot bands could also be possible. Support from PNP (French CNRS national planetology program) is acknowledged.

  10. Processing of gamma-ray spectra employing a Fourier deconvolver for the analysis of complex spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madan, V.K.; Rattan, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    Processing of a nuclear spectrum e.g. gamma ray spectrum is concerned with the estimation of energies and intensities of radiation. The processing involves filtering, peak detection and its significance, baseline delineation, the qualitative and the quantitative analysis of singlets and multiplets present in the spectrum. The methodology for the analysis of singlets is well established. However, the analysis of multiplets provides a challenge and is a extremely difficult problem. This report incorporates a Fourier deconvolver for the quantitative analysis of doublets separated by more than a full width at half maximum. The method is easy to implement. The report discusses the methodology, mathematical analysis, and the results obtained by analyzing both synthetic and observed spectra. A computer program, developed for the analysis of a nuclear spectrum, was verified by analyzing a 152 Eu gamma ray spectrum. The proposed technique compared favourably with SAMPO and MDFT method. (author). 16 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Approaches to chemical synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Stano, Pasquale; Anella, Fabrizio; Carrara, Paolo; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2012-07-16

    Synthetic biology is first represented in terms of two complementary aspects, the bio-engineering one, based on the genetic manipulation of extant microbial forms in order to obtain forms of life which do not exist in nature; and the chemical synthetic biology, an approach mostly based on chemical manipulation for the laboratory synthesis of biological structures that do not exist in nature. The paper is mostly devoted to shortly review chemical synthetic biology projects currently carried out in our laboratory. In particular, we describe: the minimal cell project, then the "Never Born Proteins" and lastly the Never Born RNAs. We describe and critically analyze the main results, emphasizing the possible relevance of chemical synthetic biology for the progress in basic science and biotechnology. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthetic Biology for Specialty Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Kelly A; Alper, Hal S

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we address recent advances in the field of synthetic biology and describe how those tools have been applied to produce a wide variety of chemicals in microorganisms. Here we classify the expansion of the synthetic biology toolbox into three different categories based on their primary function in strain engineering-for design, for construction, and for optimization. Next, focusing on recent years, we look at how chemicals have been produced using these new synthetic biology tools. Advances in producing fuels are briefly described, followed by a more thorough treatment of commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Throughout this review, an emphasis is placed on how synthetic biology tools are applied to strain engineering. Finally, we discuss organism and host strain diversity and provide a future outlook in the field.

  13. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  14. Adaptive Synthetic Forces: Situation Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Randall

    2001-01-01

    ...: perception, comprehension, and prediction. Building on these ideas, we developed techniques for improving the situation awareness in synthetic helicopter pilots for the ModSAF military simulation by giving them more human-like perception...

  15. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented.

  16. Raman spectra of lithium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Bi, Dongxue; Voinov, Y. P.; Vodchits, A. I.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Yurasov, N. I.; Yurasova, I. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the results of investigating the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra in the lithium compounds crystals in a wide spectral range by the fibre-optic spectroscopy method. We also present the stimulated Raman scattering spectra in the lithium hydroxide and lithium deuteride crystals obtained with the use of powerful laser source. The symmetry properties of the lithium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide monohydrate and lithium deuteride crystals optical modes were analyzed by means of the irreducible representations of the point symmetry groups. We have established the selection rules in the Raman and infrared absorption spectra of LiOH, LiOH·H2O and LiD crystals.

  17. FSFE: Fake Spectra Flux Extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Simeon

    2017-10-01

    The fake spectra flux extractor generates simulated quasar absorption spectra from a particle or adaptive mesh-based hydrodynamic simulation. It is implemented as a python module. It can produce both hydrogen and metal line spectra, if the simulation includes metals. The cloudy table for metal ionization fractions is included. Unlike earlier spectral generation codes, it produces absorption from each particle close to the sight-line individually, rather than first producing an average density in each spectral pixel, thus substantially preserving more of the small-scale velocity structure of the gas. The code supports both Gadget (ascl:0003.001) and AREPO.

  18. Comparison of new and existing algorithms for the analysis of 2D radioxenon beta gamma spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, Nikhil; Prinke, Amanda; Miller, Brian; McIntyre, Justin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare radioxenon beta–gamma analysis algorithms using simulated spectra with experimentally measured background, where the ground truth of the signal is known. We believe that this is among the largest efforts to date in terms of the number of synthetic spectra generated and number of algorithms compared using identical spectra. We generate an estimate for the minimum detectable counts for each isotope using each algorithm. The paper also points out a conceptual model to put the various algorithms into a continuum. Finally, our results show that existing algorithms can be improved and some newer algorithms can be better than the ones currently used.

  19. Comparison of new and existing algorithms for the analysis of 2D radioxenon beta gamma spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, Nikhil; Prinke, Amanda; Miller, Brian; McIntyre, Justin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare radioxenon beta-gamma analysis algorithms using simulated spectra with experimentally measured background, where the ground truth of the signal is known. We believe that this is among the largest efforts to date in terms of the number of synthetic spectra generated and number of algorithms compared using identical spectra. We generate an estimate for the minimum detectable counts for each isotope using each algorithm. The paper also points out a conceptual model to put the various algorithms into a continuum. Our results show that existing algorithms can be improved and some newer algorithms can be better than the ones currently used. (author)

  20. Studies on Fourier amplitude spectra of accelerograms recorded on rock sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Rao, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    Fourier spectra of 54 earthquake accelerograms recorded on rock sites in the U.S.A. have been analysed. These could be used in generation of synthetic accelerogramms for seismic design. (author). 19 figs., 1 tab., 1 appendix, 19 re fs

  1. Infrared spectra of mineral species

    CERN Document Server

    Chukanov, Nikita V

    2014-01-01

    This book details more than 3,000 IR spectra of more than 2,000 mineral species collected during last 30 years. It features full descriptions and analytical data of each sample for which IR spectrum was obtained.

  2. Correlation Functions and Power Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The present lecture note is a supplement to the textbook Digital Signal Processing by J. Proakis and D.G. Manolakis used in the IMM/DTU course 02451 Digital Signal Processing and provides an extended discussion of correlation functions and power spectra. The definitions of correlation functions...... and spectra for discrete-time and continuous-time (analog) signals are pretty similar. Consequently, we confine the discussion mainly to real discrete-time signals. The Appendix contains detailed definitions and properties of correlation functions and spectra for analog as well as discrete-time signals....... It is possible to define correlation functions and associated spectra for aperiodic, periodic and random signals although the interpretation is different. Moreover, we will discuss correlation functions when mixing these basic signal types. In addition, the note include several examples for the purpose...

  3. Multifractal spectra in shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, L. R.; Deane, Anil E.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations of three-dimensional homogeneous shear flow and fully developed channel flow, are used to calculate the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation field. Only weak parameterization of the results with the nondimensional shear is found, and this only if the flow has reached its asymptotic development state. Multifractal spectra of these flows coincide with those from experiments only at the range alpha less than 1.

  4. Sequential Analysis of Gamma Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayez-Hassan, M.; Hella, Kh.M.

    2009-01-01

    This work shows how easy one can deal with a huge number of gamma spectra. The method can be used for radiation monitoring. It is based on the macro feature of the windows XP connected to QBASIC software. The routine was used usefully in generating accurate results free from human errors. One hundred measured gamma spectra were fully analyzed in 10 minutes using our fast and automated method controlling the Genie 2000 gamma acquisition analysis software.

  5. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D; Mathews, Debra J H

    2015-08-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) PROJECT is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with this field of research and operate under a common set of principles. In this commentary, we survey the current ethics and regulatory landscape of synthetic biology and present the Sc2.0 Statement of Ethics and Governance to which all members of the project adhere. This statement focuses on four aspects of the Sc2.0 PROJECT: societal benefit, intellectual property, safety, and self-governance. We propose that such project-level agreements are an important, valuable, and flexible model of self-regulation for similar global, large-scale synthetic biology projects in order to maximize the benefits and minimize potential harms. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Response spectra in alluvial soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharan, A.R.; Paul, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    For aseismic design of structures, the ground motion data is assumed either in the form of ground acceleration as a function of time or indirectly in the form of response spectra. Though the response spectra approach has limitations like not being applicable for nonlinear problems, it is usually used for structures like nuclear power plants. Fifty accelerograms recorded at alluvial sites have been processed. Since different empirical formulas relating acceleration with magnitude and distance give a wide scatter of values, peak ground acceleration alone cannot be the parameter as is assumed by a number of authors. The spectra corresponding to 5% damping have been normalised with respect to three parameters, namely, peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and a nondimensional quantity ad/v 2 . Envelopee of maxima and minima as well as average response spectra has been obtained. A comparison with the USAEC spectra has been made. A relation between ground acceleration, ground velocity and ad/v 2 has been obtained which would nearly give the same magnification of the response. A design response spectra for alluvial soils has been recommended. (author)

  7. BinMag: Widget for comparing stellar observed with theoretical spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochukhov, O.

    2018-05-01

    BinMag examines theoretical stellar spectra computed with Synth/SynthMag/Synmast/Synth3/SME spectrum synthesis codes and compare them to observations. An IDL widget program, BinMag applies radial velocity shift and broadening to the theoretical spectra to account for the effects of stellar rotation, radial-tangential macroturbulence, instrumental smearing. The code can also simulate spectra of spectroscopic binary stars by appropriate coaddition of two synthetic spectra. Additionally, BinMag can be used to measure equivalent width, fit line profile shapes with analytical functions, and to automatically determine radial velocity and broadening parameters. BinMag interfaces with the Synth3 (ascl:1212.010) and SME (ascl:1202.013) codes, allowing the user to determine chemical abundances and stellar atmospheric parameters from the observed spectra.

  8. Meeting Report: Synthetic Biology Jamboree for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology (the name is derived from an analogy to synthetic chemistry) has recognized itself as a "field" only since about 2002. Synthetic biology has gotten some high-profile attention recently, but most people are not aware the field even exists. Synthetic biologists apply engineering principles to genomic circuits to…

  9. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of natural and synthetic indigo samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenabeele, Peter; Moens, Luc

    2003-02-01

    In this work indigo samples from three different sources are studied by using Raman spectroscopy: the synthetic pigment and pigments from the woad (Isatis tinctoria) and the indigo plant (Indigofera tinctoria). 21 samples were obtained from 8 suppliers; for each sample 5 Raman spectra were recorded and used for further chemometrical analysis. Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed as data reduction method before applying hierarchical cluster analysis. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was implemented as a non-hierarchical supervised pattern recognition method to build a classification model. In order to avoid broad-shaped interferences from the fluorescence background, the influence of 1st and 2nd derivatives on the classification was studied by using cross-validation. Although chemically identical, it is shown that Raman spectroscopy in combination with suitable chemometric methods has the potential to discriminate between synthetic and natural indigo samples.

  10. Atomic physics modeling of transmission spectra of Sc-doped aerogel foams to support OMEGA experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, H. M., E-mail: hjohns@lanl.gov; Lanier, N. E.; Kline, J. L.; Fontes, C. J.; Perry, T. S.; Fryer, C. L.; Sherrill, M. E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Brown, C. R. D.; Morton, J. W. [AWE Aldermaston, Berkshire, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Hager, J. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Lockheed-Martin, 497 Electronics Parkway, Syracuse, New York 13221 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We present synthetic transmission spectra generated with PrismSPECT utilizing both the ATBASE model and the Los Alamos opacity library (OPLIB) to evaluate whether an alternative choice in atomic data will impact modeling of experimental data from radiation transport experiments using Sc-doped aerogel foams (ScSi{sub 6}O{sub 12} at 75 mg/cm{sup 3} density). We have determined that in the 50-200 eV T{sub e} range there is a significant difference in the 1s-3p spectra, especially below 100 eV, and for T{sub e} = 200 eV above 5000 eV in photon energy. Examining synthetic spectra generated using OPLIB with 300 resolving power reveals spectral sensitivity to T{sub e} changes of ∼3 eV.

  11. Synthetic biology, metaphors and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2017-08-29

    Metaphors are not just decorative rhetorical devices that make speech pretty. They are fundamental tools for thinking about the world and acting on the world. The language we use to make a better world matters; words matter; metaphors matter. Words have consequences - ethical, social and legal ones, as well as political and economic ones. They need to be used 'responsibly'. They also need to be studied carefully - this is what we want to do through this editorial and the related thematic collection. In the context of synthetic biology, natural and social scientists have become increasingly interested in metaphors, a wave of interest that we want to exploit and amplify. We want to build on emerging articles and books on synthetic biology, metaphors of life and the ethical and moral implications of such metaphors. This editorial provides a brief introduction to synthetic biology and responsible innovation, as well as a comprehensive review of literature on the social, cultural and ethical impacts of metaphor use in genomics and synthetic biology. Our aim is to stimulate an interdisciplinary and international discussion on the impact that metaphors can have on science, policy and publics in the context of synthetic biology.

  12. Content metamorphosis in synthetic holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbiens, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic hologram is an optical system made of hundreds of images amalgamated in a structure of holographic cells. Each of these images represents a point of view on a three-dimensional space which makes us consider synthetic holography as a multiple points of view perspective system. In the composition of a computer graphics scene for a synthetic hologram, the field of view of the holographic image can be divided into several viewing zones. We can attribute these divisions to any object or image feature independently and operate different transformations on image content. In computer generated holography, we tend to consider content variations as a continuous animation much like a short movie. However, by composing sequential variations of image features in relation with spatial divisions, we can build new narrative forms distinct from linear cinematographic narration. When observers move freely and change their viewing positions, they travel from one field of view division to another. In synthetic holography, metamorphoses of image content are within the observer's path. In all imaging Medias, the transformation of image features in synchronisation with the observer's position is a rare occurrence. However, this is a predominant characteristic of synthetic holography. This paper describes some of my experimental works in the development of metamorphic holographic images.

  13. Control theory meets synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Dy, Aaron J; Qian, Yili

    2016-07-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Comparison of Nonlinear Model Results Using Modified Recorded and Synthetic Ground Motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, Robert E.; Wilkins, J. Kevin

    2011-01-01

    A study has been performed that compares results of nonlinear model runs using two sets of earthquake ground motion time histories that have been modified to fit the same design response spectra. The time histories include applicable modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories and synthetic ground motion time histories. The modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories are modified from time history records that are selected based on consistent magnitude and distance. The synthetic ground motion time histories are generated using appropriate Fourier amplitude spectrums, Arias intensity, and drift correction. All of the time history modification is performed using the same algorithm to fit the design response spectra. The study provides data to demonstrate that properly managed synthetic ground motion time histories are reasonable for use in nonlinear seismic analysis.

  15. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of synthetic and biological calcium phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, G R; Zunic, W B; Durig, J R; Wuthier, R E

    1994-05-01

    Fourier-transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the organic and mineral components of biological and synthetic calcium phosphate minerals. Raman spectroscopy provides information on biological minerals that is complimentary to more widely used infrared methodologies as some infrared-inactive vibrational modes are Raman-active. The application of FT-Raman technology has, for the first time, enabled the problems of high sample fluorescence and low signal-to-noise that are inherent in calcified tissues to be overcome. Raman spectra of calcium phosphates are dominated by a very strong band near 960 cm-1 that arises from the symmetric stretching mode (v1) of the phosphate group. Other Raman-active phosphate vibrational bands are seen at approximately 1075 (v3), 590 (v4), and 435 cm-1 (v2). Minerals containing acidic phosphate groups show additional vibrational modes. The different calcium phosphate mineral phases can be distinguished from one another by the relative positions and shapes of these bands in the Raman spectra. FT-Raman spectra of nascent, nonmineralized matrix vesicles (MV) show a distinct absence of the phosphate v1 band even though these structures are rich in calcium and phosphate. Similar results were seen with milk casein and synthetic Ca-phosphatidyl-serine-PO4 complexes. Hence, the phosphate and/or acidic phosphate ions in these noncrystalline biological calcium phosphates is in a molecular environment that differs from that in synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate. In MV, the first distinct mineral phase to form contained acidic phosphate bands similar to those seen in octacalcium phosphate. The mineral phase present in fully mineralized MV was much more apatitic, resembling that found in bones and teeth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Electronic spectra from TDDFT and machine learning in chemical space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; Hartmann, Mia; Tapavicza, Enrico; Lilienfeld, O. Anatole von

    2015-01-01

    Due to its favorable computational efficiency, time-dependent (TD) density functional theory (DFT) enables the prediction of electronic spectra in a high-throughput manner across chemical space. Its predictions, however, can be quite inaccurate. We resolve this issue with machine learning models trained on deviations of reference second-order approximate coupled-cluster (CC2) singles and doubles spectra from TDDFT counterparts, or even from DFT gap. We applied this approach to low-lying singlet-singlet vertical electronic spectra of over 20 000 synthetically feasible small organic molecules with up to eight CONF atoms. The prediction errors decay monotonously as a function of training set size. For a training set of 10 000 molecules, CC2 excitation energies can be reproduced to within ±0.1 eV for the remaining molecules. Analysis of our spectral database via chromophore counting suggests that even higher accuracies can be achieved. Based on the evidence collected, we discuss open challenges associated with data-driven modeling of high-lying spectra and transition intensities

  17. Electronic spectra from TDDFT and machine learning in chemical space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan [Institute of Physical Chemistry and National Center for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials, Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Hartmann, Mia; Tapavicza, Enrico, E-mail: Enrico.Tapavicza@csulb.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University, 1250 Bellflower Boulevard, Long Beach, California 90840 (United States); Lilienfeld, O. Anatole von, E-mail: anatole.vonlilienfeld@unibas.ch [Institute of Physical Chemistry and National Center for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials, Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Due to its favorable computational efficiency, time-dependent (TD) density functional theory (DFT) enables the prediction of electronic spectra in a high-throughput manner across chemical space. Its predictions, however, can be quite inaccurate. We resolve this issue with machine learning models trained on deviations of reference second-order approximate coupled-cluster (CC2) singles and doubles spectra from TDDFT counterparts, or even from DFT gap. We applied this approach to low-lying singlet-singlet vertical electronic spectra of over 20 000 synthetically feasible small organic molecules with up to eight CONF atoms. The prediction errors decay monotonously as a function of training set size. For a training set of 10 000 molecules, CC2 excitation energies can be reproduced to within ±0.1 eV for the remaining molecules. Analysis of our spectral database via chromophore counting suggests that even higher accuracies can be achieved. Based on the evidence collected, we discuss open challenges associated with data-driven modeling of high-lying spectra and transition intensities.

  18. SpectraPLOT, Visualization Package with a User-Friendly Graphical Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebald, James; Macfarlane, Joseph; Golovkin, Igor

    2017-10-01

    SPECT3D is a collisional-radiative spectral analysis package designed to compute detailed emission, absorption, or x-ray scattering spectra, filtered images, XRD signals, and other synthetic diagnostics. The spectra and images are computed for virtual detectors by post-processing the results of hydrodynamics simulations in 1D, 2D, and 3D geometries. SPECT3D can account for a variety of instrumental response effects so that direct comparisons between simulations and experimental measurements can be made. SpectraPLOT is a user-friendly graphical interface for viewing a wide variety of results from SPECT3D simulations, and applying various instrumental effects to the simulated images and spectra. We will present SpectraPLOT's ability to display a variety of data, including spectra, images, light curves, streaked spectra, space-resolved spectra, and drilldown plasma property plots, for an argon-doped capsule implosion experiment example. Future SpectraPLOT features and enhancements will also be discussed.

  19. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kuk Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  20. Synthetic neurosteroids on brain protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids, like allopregnanolone and pregnanolone, are endogenous regulators of neuronal excitability. Inside the brain, they are highly selective and potent modulators of GABA A receptor activity. Their anticonvulsant, anesthetics and anxiolytic properties are useful for the treatments of several neurological and psychiatric disorders via reducing the risks of side effects obtained with the commercial drugs. The principal disadvantages of endogenous neurosteroids administration are their rapid metabolism and their low oral bioavailability. Synthetic steroids analogues with major stability or endogenous neurosteroids stimulation synthesis might constitute promising novel strategies for the treatment of several disorders. Numerous studies indicate that the 3α-hydroxyl configuration is the key for binding and activity, but modifications in the steroid nucleus may emphasize different pharmacophores. So far, several synthetic steroids have been developed with successful neurosteroid-like effects. In this work, we summarize the properties of various synthetic steroids probed in trials throughout the analysis of several neurosteroids-like actions.

  1. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized.

  3. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.

  4. Synthetic biology and its promises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel De Cózar Escalante

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a new science and emerging technology, or rather a technoscience, which converges with others such as nanotechnology, information technology, robotics, artificial intelligence and neuroscience. All have common features that could have highly concerning social and environmental impacts. With its ambitious goals of controlling complexity, redesigning and creating new living entities, synthetic biology perfectly exemplifies the new bioeconomic reality. This requires expanding the focus of the discussion beyond the limited comparative analysis of risks and benefits, to address uncertainties, reassign responsibilities and initiate a thorough social assessment of what is at stake.

  5. Biological Action Spectra (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruijl, F.R. de

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces a wide variety of biological responses: ranging in humans from well-known short-term effects like sunburn to long-term effects like skin cancer. The wavelength dependencies ('action spectra') of the responses can differ significantly, depending on the UV-targeted molecules (their absorption spectra), their localisation (transmission to the target depth) and the photochemical reactions involved (e.g. quantum yields, competing reaction). An action spectrum (e.g. of sunburn) is usually determined in a wavelength by wavelength analysis of the response. This is not always possible (e.g. in case of skin cancer), and an action spectrum may then be extracted mathematically from differences in responses to broadband UV sources of various spectral compositions (yielding 'biological spectral weights'). However, relative spectral weights may shift with exposure levels and contributions from different wavelengths may not always add up. Under these circumstances conventional analyses will yield different action spectra for different experimental conditions. (author)

  6. Double photoionisation spectra of molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Eland, John

    2017-01-01

    This book contains spectra of the doubly charged positive ions (dications) of some 75 molecules, including the major constituents of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres and prototypes of major chemical groups. It is intended to be a new resource for research in all areas of molecular spectroscopy involving high energy environments, both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial. All the spectra have been produced by photoionisation using laboratory lamps or synchrotron radiation and have been measured using the magnetic bottle time-of-flight technique by coincidence detection of correlated electron pairs. Full references to published work on the same species are given, though for several molecules these are the first published spectra. Double ionisation energies are listed and discussed in relation to the molecular electronic structure of the molecules. A full introduction to the field of molecular double ionisation is included and the mechanisms by which double photoionisation can occur are examined in detail. A p...

  7. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  8. The structure of BPS spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Pietro

    In this thesis we develop and apply novel techniques for analyzing BPS spectra of supersymmetric quantum field theories of class S. By a combination of wall-crossing, spectral networks and quiver methods we explore the BPS spectra of higher rank four-dimensional N = 2 super Yang-Mills, uncovering surprising new phenomena. Focusing on the SU(3) case, we prove the existence of wild BPS spectra in field theory, featuring BPS states of higher spin whose degeneracies grow exponentially with the energy. The occurrence of wild BPS states is surprising because it appears to be in tension with physical expectations on the behavior of the entropy as a function of the energy scale. The solution to this puzzle comes from realizing that the size of wild BPS states grows rapidly with their mass, and carefully analyzing the volume-dependence of the entropy of BPS states. We also find some interesting structures underlying wild BPS spectra, such as a Regge-like relation between the maximal spin of a BPS multiplet and the square of its mass, and the existence of a universal asymptotic distribution of spin-j irreps within a multiplet of given charge. We also extend the spectral networks construction by introducing a refinement in the topological classification of 2d-4d BPS states, and identifying their spin with a topological invariant known as the "writhe of soliton paths". A careful analysis of the 2d-4d wall-crossing behavior of this refined data reveals that it is described by motivic Kontsevich-Soibelman transformations, controlled by the Protected Spin Character, a protected deformation of the BPS index encoding the spin of BPS states. Our construction opens the way for the systematic study of refined BPS spectra in class S theories. We apply it to several examples, including ones featuring wild BPS spectra, where we find an interesting relation between spectral networks and certain functional equations. For class S theories of A 1 type, we derive an alternative technique for

  9. Automatic identification of mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabloes, F.

    1992-01-01

    Several approaches to preprocessing and comparison of low resolution mass spectra have been evaluated by various test methods related to library search. It is shown that there is a clear correlation between the nature of any contamination of a spectrum, the basic principle of the transformation or distance measure, and the performance of the identification system. The identification of functionality from low resolution spectra has also been evaluated using several classification methods. It is shown that there is an upper limit to the success of this approach, but also that this can be improved significantly by using a very limited amount of additional information. 10 refs

  10. Investigation of gamma spectra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huailong; Liu Suping; Hao Fanhua; Gong Jian; Liu Xiaoya

    2006-01-01

    In the investigation of radiation fingerprint comparison, it is found out that some of the popular gamma spectra analysis software have shortcomings, which decrease the radiation fingerprint comparison precision. So a new analysis software is developed for solving the problems. In order to display the advantage of developed program, some typical simulative warhead gamma spectra are analyzed respectively by present software and GAMMAVISION and GENNIE2000. Present software can be applied not only in nuclear warheads deep-cuts verification, but also in any radiation measurement field. (authors)

  11. Ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.; Seaton, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Features observed in infrared spectra suggest that certain very low excitation (VLE) nebulae have low C/O abundance ratios (Cohen and Barlow 1980; Aitken and Roche 1982). Fluxes in the multiplets [O II] lambda 2470 and C II] lambda 2326 have been measured for the VLE nebula He He 2-131 = HD 138403 using IUE high-dispersion spectra. An analysis similar to that of Harrington et al. (1980) for IC 418 gives C/O = 0.3 for He 2-131, compared with C/O = 1.3 for IC 418 and 0.6 for the Sun. (author)

  12. Investigation of gamma spectra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huailong; Liu Suping; Hao Fanhua

    2006-12-01

    During the investigation of radiation fingerprint comparison, it is found out that the popular gamma spectra analysis softwares are faultful, which decrease the precision of radiation fingerprint comparison. So a new analysis software is development for solving the problems. In order to display the advantage of new program, some typical simulative gamma spectra of radiation source are analyzed respectively by our software and GAMMAVISION and GENNIE2000. The software can be applied not only in nuclear warheads deep-cuts verification, but also in any radiation measurement field. (authors)

  13. Raman spectra studies of dipeptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, Simone.

    1977-10-01

    This work deals with the homogenous and heterogeneous dipeptides derived from alanine and glycine, in the solid state or in aqueous solutions, in the zwitterions or chlorhydrates form. The Raman spectra comparative study of these various forms of hydrogenated or deuterated compounds allows to specify some of the attributions which are necessary in the conformational study of the like tripeptides. These compounds contain only one peptidic group; therefore there is no possibility of intramolecular hydrogen bond which caracterise vibrations of non bonded peptidic groups and end groups. Infrared spectra of solid dipeptides will be presented and discussed in the near future [fr

  14. Where Synthetic Biology Meets ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  15. Stereoscopy in cinematographic synthetic imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present experiments and results pertaining to the perception of depth in stereoscopic viewing of synthetic imagery. In computer animation, typical synthetic imagery is highly textured and uses stylized illumination of abstracted material models by abstracted light source models. While there have been numerous studies concerning stereoscopic capabilities, conventions for staging and cinematography in stereoscopic movies have not yet been well-established. Our long-term goal is to measure the effectiveness of various cinematography techniques on the human visual system in a theatrical viewing environment. We would like to identify the elements of stereoscopic cinema that are important in terms of enhancing the viewer's understanding of a scene as well as providing guidelines for the cinematographer relating to storytelling. In these experiments we isolated stereoscopic effects by eliminating as many other visual cues as is reasonable. In particular, we aim to empirically determine what types of movement in synthetic imagery affect the perceptual depth sensing capabilities of our viewers. Using synthetic imagery, we created several viewing scenarios in which the viewer is asked to locate a target object's depth in a simple environment. The scenarios were specifically designed to compare the effectiveness of stereo viewing, camera movement, and object motion in aiding depth perception. Data were collected showing the error between the choice of the user and the actual depth value, and patterns were identified that relate the test variables to the viewer's perceptual depth accuracy in our theatrical viewing environment.

  16. Synthetic biology meets tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jamie A; Cachat, Elise

    2016-06-15

    Classical tissue engineering is aimed mainly at producing anatomically and physiologically realistic replacements for normal human tissues. It is done either by encouraging cellular colonization of manufactured matrices or cellular recolonization of decellularized natural extracellular matrices from donor organs, or by allowing cells to self-organize into organs as they do during fetal life. For repair of normal bodies, this will be adequate but there are reasons for making unusual, non-evolved tissues (repair of unusual bodies, interface to electromechanical prostheses, incorporating living cells into life-support machines). Synthetic biology is aimed mainly at engineering cells so that they can perform custom functions: applying synthetic biological approaches to tissue engineering may be one way of engineering custom structures. In this article, we outline the 'embryological cycle' of patterning, differentiation and morphogenesis and review progress that has been made in constructing synthetic biological systems to reproduce these processes in new ways. The state-of-the-art remains a long way from making truly synthetic tissues, but there are now at least foundations for future work. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  17. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H; Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E; Katayama, S; Koyano, M

    2010-01-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO 4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO 2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  18. Assessment of synthetic image fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kevin D.; Moorhead, Ian R.; Gilmore, Marilyn A.; Watson, Graham H.; Thomson, Mitch; Yates, T.; Troscianko, Tomasz; Tolhurst, David J.

    2000-07-01

    Computer generated imagery is increasingly used for a wide variety of purposes ranging from computer games to flight simulators to camouflage and sensor assessment. The fidelity required for this imagery is dependent on the anticipated use - for example when used for camouflage design it must be physically correct spectrally and spatially. The rendering techniques used will also depend upon the waveband being simulated, spatial resolution of the sensor and the required frame rate. Rendering of natural outdoor scenes is particularly demanding, because of the statistical variation in materials and illumination, atmospheric effects and the complex geometric structures of objects such as trees. The accuracy of the simulated imagery has tended to be assessed subjectively in the past. First and second order statistics do not capture many of the essential characteristics of natural scenes. Direct pixel comparison would impose an unachievable demand on the synthetic imagery. For many applications, such as camouflage design, it is important that nay metrics used will work in both visible and infrared wavebands. We are investigating a variety of different methods of comparing real and synthetic imagery and comparing synthetic imagery rendered to different levels of fidelity. These techniques will include neural networks (ICA), higher order statistics and models of human contrast perception. This paper will present an overview of the analyses we have carried out and some initial results along with some preliminary conclusions regarding the fidelity of synthetic imagery.

  19. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, A.; Okuno, M.; Okudera, H.; Mashimo, T.; Omurzak, E.; Katayama, S.; Koyano, M.

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  20. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H [Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Katayama, S; Koyano, M, E-mail: okuno@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.j [JAIST, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1297 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO{sub 2} glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  1. Methods for preparing synthetic freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E J; Davison, W; Hamilton-Taylor, J

    2002-03-01

    Synthetic solutions that emulate the major ion compositions of natural waters are useful in experiments aimed at understanding biogeochemical processes. Standard recipes exist for preparing synthetic analogues of seawater, with its relatively constant composition, but, due to the diversity of freshwaters, a range of compositions and recipes is required. Generic protocols are developed for preparing synthetic freshwaters of any desired composition. The major problems encountered in preparing hard and soft waters include dissolving sparingly soluble calcium carbonate, ensuring that the ionic components of each concentrated stock solution cannot form an insoluble salt and dealing with the supersaturation of calcium carbonate in many hard waters. For acidic waters the poor solubility of aluminium salts requires attention. These problems are overcome by preparing concentrated stock solutions according to carefully designed reaction paths that were tested using a combination of experiment and equilibrium modeling. These stock solutions must then be added in a prescribed order to prepare a final solution that is brought into equilibrium with the atmosphere. The example calculations for preparing hard, soft and acidic freshwater surrogates with major ion compositions the same as published analyses, are presented in a generalized fashion that should allow preparation of any synthetic freshwater according to its known analysis.

  2. Protease-sensitive synthetic prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Colby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prions arise when the cellular prion protein (PrP(C undergoes a self-propagating conformational change; the resulting infectious conformer is designated PrP(Sc. Frequently, PrP(Sc is protease-resistant but protease-sensitive (s prions have been isolated in humans and other animals. We report here that protease-sensitive, synthetic prions were generated in vitro during polymerization of recombinant (rec PrP into amyloid fibers. In 22 independent experiments, recPrP amyloid preparations, but not recPrP monomers or oligomers, transmitted disease to transgenic mice (n = 164, denoted Tg9949 mice, that overexpress N-terminally truncated PrP. Tg9949 control mice (n = 174 did not spontaneously generate prions although they were prone to late-onset spontaneous neurological dysfunction. When synthetic prion isolates from infected Tg9949 mice were serially transmitted in the same line of mice, they exhibited sPrP(Sc and caused neurodegeneration. Interestingly, these protease-sensitive prions did not shorten the life span of Tg9949 mice despite causing extensive neurodegeneration. We inoculated three synthetic prion isolates into Tg4053 mice that overexpress full-length PrP; Tg4053 mice are not prone to developing spontaneous neurological dysfunction. The synthetic prion isolates caused disease in 600-750 days in Tg4053 mice, which exhibited sPrP(Sc. These novel synthetic prions demonstrate that conformational changes in wild-type PrP can produce mouse prions composed exclusively of sPrP(Sc.

  3. Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.

    1996-01-01

    A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but non-perturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.

  4. Vibrational spectra of ordered perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corsmit, A.F.; Hoefdraad, H.E.; Blasse, G.

    1972-01-01

    The vibrational spectra of the molecular M6+O6 (M = Mo, Te, W) group in ordered perovskites of the type Ba2M2+M6+O6 are reported. These groups have symmetry Oh, whereas their site symmetry is also Oh. An assignment of the internal vibrations is presented.

  5. Raman spectra of graphene ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, R; Furukawa, M; Dresselhaus, G; Dresselhaus, M S

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectra of graphene nanoribbons with zigzag and armchair edges are calculated within non-resonant Raman theory. Depending on the edge structure and polarization direction of the incident and scattered photon beam relative to the edge direction, a symmetry selection rule for the phonon type appears. These Raman selection rules will be useful for the identification of the edge structure of graphene nanoribbons.

  6. Explanation of earthquake response spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, John

    2017-01-01

    This is a set of five slides explaining how earthquake response spectra are derived from strong-motion records and simple models of structures and their purpose within seismic design and assessment. It dates from about 2002 and I have used it in various introductory lectures on engineering seismology.

  7. Skyshine spectra of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarup, Janardan

    1980-01-01

    A study of the spectra of gamma photons back-scattered in vertical direction by infinite air above ground (skyshine) is presented. The source for these measurements is a 650 Ci Cobalt-60 point-source and the skyshine spectra are reported for distances from 150 m to 325 m from the source, measured with a 5 cm x 5 cm NaI(Tl) detector collimated with collimators of 12 mm and 20 mm diameter and 5 cm length. These continuous spectra are unfolded with Gold's iterative technique. The photon-spectra so obtained have a distinct line at 72 keV due to multiply-scattered photons. This is an energy where photoelectric and Compton cross-sections for multiply-scattered photons balance each other. The intensity of the line(I) decreases exponentially with distance (d) from the source obeying a relation of the type I = Isub(o)esup(-μd) where μ is called as ''Multiply-Scatter Coefficient'', a constant of the medium which is air in these measurements. This relationship is explained in terms of a halo around the source comprising of multiply-scattered gamma photons, Isub(0) being the intensity of these scattered photons at the location of cobalt-source. A fraction called as ''Back-scattered Fraction'', the ratio of Isub(0) to the number of original photons from the cobalt-source entering the infinite air, is also calculated. It is shown that with a properly calibrated detector system, this fraction can be used to determine the strength of a large gamma source, viz. a nuclear explosion in air, and for mineral prospecting. These conclusions are general and can be applied to any other infinite medium. Some forward-scatter (transmission) spectra of cobalt-60 source through 10 cm of Pb and 2.5 cm of Al are also reported. (auth.)

  8. SYNTHETIC HYDROGEN SPECTRA OF OSCILLATING PROMINENCE SLABS IMMERSED IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapiór, M.; Heinzel, P.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the behavior of H α and H β spectral lines and their spectral indicators in an oscillating solar prominence slab surrounded by the solar corona, using an MHD model combined with a 1D radiative transfer code taken in the line of sight perpendicular to the slab. We calculate the time variation of the Doppler shift, half-width, and maximum intensity of the H α and H β spectral lines for different modes of oscillation. We find a non-sinusoidal time dependence of some spectral parameters with time. Because H α and H β spectral indicators have different behavior for different modes, caused by differing optical depths of formation and different plasma parameter variations in time and along the slab, they may be used for prominence seismology, especially to derive the internal velocity field in prominences.

  9. Synthetic Hydrogen Spectra of Oscillating Prominence Slabs Immersed in the Solar Corona

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapiór, Maciej; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J.L.; Heinzel, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 827, č. 2 (2016), 131/1-131/7 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-18495S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * filaments * prominences Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  10. Rotational and vibrational synthetic spectra of linear parent molecules in comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovisier, J.

    1987-01-01

    We evaluate and model the excitation conditions of linear parent molecules in cometary atmospheres. The model is valid for most linear molecules without electronic angular momentum. It takes into account collisions and infrared excitation. The molecule rotational population distribution is computed as a function of distance to nucleus. The line intensities of the strongest parallel and perpendicular fundamental vibrational bands, as well as the pure rotational lines, can then be evaluated. This model is applied to several candidate parent molecules, for observing conditions corresponding to available or planned instruments, either ground-based or aboard aircrafts, satellites or space probes

  11. SYNTHETIC HYDROGEN SPECTRA OF OSCILLATING PROMINENCE SLABS IMMERSED IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapiór, M.; Heinzel, P. [Astronomical Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, 25165 Ondřejov, The Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L. [Universitat de les Illes Balears. Cra. de Valldemossa, km 7.5. Palma (Illes Balears), E-07122 (Spain)

    2016-08-20

    We study the behavior of H α and H β spectral lines and their spectral indicators in an oscillating solar prominence slab surrounded by the solar corona, using an MHD model combined with a 1D radiative transfer code taken in the line of sight perpendicular to the slab. We calculate the time variation of the Doppler shift, half-width, and maximum intensity of the H α and H β spectral lines for different modes of oscillation. We find a non-sinusoidal time dependence of some spectral parameters with time. Because H α and H β spectral indicators have different behavior for different modes, caused by differing optical depths of formation and different plasma parameter variations in time and along the slab, they may be used for prominence seismology, especially to derive the internal velocity field in prominences.

  12. Synthetic IRIS spectra of the solar transition region: Effect of high-energy tails

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dzifčáková, Elena; Vocks, C.; Dudík, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 603, July (2017), A14/1-A14/7 E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-18495S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-16447S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * transition region * UV radiation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  13. Determination of synthetic colorants and natural carmine in wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Virtanen

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods were developed for the determination of synthetic colorants and natural carmine (E120 in wines. The synthetic colorants studied were tartrazine (E102, quinoline yellow (E104, sunset yellow (E110, azo ruby (E122, amaranth (E123, ponceau 4R (E124, and erythrosine (E127. The colorants were extracted using solid-phase extraction (SPE with NH2 cartridges. The extracted colorants were then analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The compounds were identified by comparing the spectrum of extract with spectra in a UV-vis spectral library of known food colorants. The detection limits in red wine ranged from 0.1 mg/l to 0.2 mg/l. Diode array detection and library search makes the method very effective in identifying forbidden colorants in wines. SPE is sufficiently effective in separating and concentrating colorants from wine. The effect of added colorants, e.g. azo ruby (E122, amaranth (E123 and tartrazine (E102 on the UV-vis spectra of red and white wines were studied. The added colorants could be identified in this way but not as accurately as by the HPLC method.

  14. Analysis of 62 synthetic cannabinoids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Mamoru; Sugie, Ken-Ichi; Saito, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in electron ionization (EI) mode is one of the most commonly used techniques for analysis of synthetic cannabinoids, because the GC-EI-MS spectra contain characteristic fragment ions for identification of a compound; however, the information on its molecular ions is frequently lacking. To obtain such molecular ion information, GC-MS in chemical ionization (CI) mode is frequently used. However, GC-CI-MS requires a relatively tedious process using reagent gas such as methane or isobutane. In this study, we show that GC-MS in photoionization (PI) mode provided molecular ions in all spectra of 62 synthetic cannabinoids, and 35 of the 62 compounds showed only the molecular radical cations. Except for the 35 compounds, the PI spectra showed very simple patterns with the molecular peak plus only a few fragment peak(s). An advantage is that the ion source for GC-PI-MS can easily be used for GC-EI-MS as well. Therefore, GC-EI/PI-MS will be a useful tool for the identification of synthetic cannabinoids contained in a dubious product. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to use GC-PI-MS for analysis of synthetic cannabinoids.

  15. The chromospheric structure of cool carbon stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luttermoser, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The temperature-density structure of the outer atmospheres of the N-type carbon stars are investigated through computer generated synthetic spectra from model atmospheres. The synthetic spectra are compared to spectra obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spacecraft and ground-based photometry. The nature of the severe violet flux falloff seen in cool carbon stars is investigated through photospheric synthetic flux calculations with the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). A new candidate for the unknown opacity source that causes this flux falloff is proposed-a preponderance of neutral metal bound-bound and bound-free transitions from low energy states. The chromospheric structure of these stars is also investigated through a semi-empirical modeling technique. Such a technique involves attaching a chromospheric temperature rise to a radiative equilibrium model photosphere and generating a synthetic spectrum of chromospheric spectral lines using non-LTE radiative transfer. The chromospheric temperature-density structure is then altered until the synthetic spectrum matches the IUE observations of the singly ionized magnesium resonance lines and the intercombination lines of singly ionized carbon. Through the above mentioned non-LTE analysis of the atmospheric structure of these stars, the excitation and ionization equilibria are investigated. The excited levels of H I, C I, Na I, Mg I, and Ca I are over-populated with respect to LTE in the middle and upper photosphere of these stars, and all are over-ionized with respect to LTE. Photons from the chromosphere greatly influence the excitation and ionization of H I, C I, and Mg I

  16. Catalysts for synthetic liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, L.A.; Turney, T.W.

    1987-12-01

    Fischer-Tropsch catalysts have been designed, characterized and tested for the selective production of hydrocarbons suitable as synthetic liquid transport fuels from synthesis gas (i.e., by the reduction of carbon monoxide with hydrogen). It was found that hydrocarbons in the middle distillate range, or suitable for conversion to that range, could be produced over several of the new catalyst systems. The various catalysts examined included: (1) synthetic cobalt clays, mainly cobalt chlorites; (2) cobalt hydrotalcites; (3) ruthenium metal supported on rare earth oxides of high surface area; and (4) a novel promoted cobalt catalyst. Active and selective catalysts have been obtained, in each category. With the exception of the clays, reproducibility of catalyst performance has been good. Catalysts in groups 2 and 4 have exhibited very high activity, with long lifetimes and easy regeneration.

  17. Design Automation in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Evan; Madsen, Curtis; Roehner, Nicholas; Densmore, Douglas

    2017-04-03

    Design automation refers to a category of software tools for designing systems that work together in a workflow for designing, building, testing, and analyzing systems with a target behavior. In synthetic biology, these tools are called bio-design automation (BDA) tools. In this review, we discuss the BDA tools areas-specify, design, build, test, and learn-and introduce the existing software tools designed to solve problems in these areas. We then detail the functionality of some of these tools and show how they can be used together to create the desired behavior of two types of modern synthetic genetic regulatory networks. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  18. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  19. Synthetic greenhouse gases under control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horisberger, B.; Karlaganis, G.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses new Swiss regulations on the use of synthetic materials that posses a considerable greenhouse-warming potential. Synthetic materials such as hydro-chlorofluorocarbons HCFCs, perfluoride-hydrocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride have, in recent years, replaced chlorofluorocarbons CFCs, which were banned on account of their ozone depletion characteristics. The use of these persistent substances is now being limited to applications where more environment-friendly alternatives are not available. The measures decreed in the legislation, which include a general ban on HCFCs as of 2004 and a ban on the export of installations and equipment that use ozone-depleting refrigerants are described. Details on the legislation's effects on the Swiss refrigeration industry are listed and discussed

  20. Synthetic LDL as targeted drug delivery vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Trudy M [Berkeley, CA; Nikanjam, Mina [Richmond, CA

    2012-08-28

    The present invention provides a synthetic LDL nanoparticle comprising a lipid moiety and a synthetic chimeric peptide so as to be capable of binding the LDL receptor. The synthetic LDL nanoparticle of the present invention is capable of incorporating and targeting therapeutics to cells expressing the LDL receptor for diseases associated with the expression of the LDL receptor such as central nervous system diseases. The invention further provides methods of using such synthetic LDL nanoparticles.

  1. Designer Drugs: A Synthetic Catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Fratantonio, James; Andrade, Lawrence; Febo, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic stimulants can cause hallucinations, aggressive behaviors, death and are sometimes legal. These substances are sold as plant food and bath salts that are "Not for Human Consumption", therefore skirting the 1986 Federal Analogue Act and giving a false pretense of safety. Studies have proved that these substances are toxic, have a high abuse potential, and are becoming extremely prevalent in the United States. This creates a dilemma for law enforcement agents, hospitals, and substance...

  2. Optical spectroscopy and high pressure on emeralds: synthetic and natural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Alejo, M. A.; Hernández-Alcántara, J. M.; Flores Jiménez, C.; Calderón, T.; Murrieta S., H.; Camarillo García, E.

    2011-09-01

    Emerald, natural and synthetic, are the subject of study by means of optical spectroscopy techniques. Particularly, natural emeralds have been considered as a gemstone in jewelry not being so the synthetic ones. But, in general, the properties of these are very good for applications, for instance as a laser system, due to the impurities control. In this work a comparison between natural and synthetic emeralds is done. Chromium ions are the main responsible of the characteristic fascinating green color of these gemstones, entering in the crystals in octahedral sites. Absorption at room temperature show up two broad bands in the visible region and two narrow bands called the R-lines. That spectrum corresponds to trivalent chromium ions in an octahedral site, as it happens in ruby and alexandrite. On other hand, photoemission arises in the range 640-850 nm. at room temperature . It is shown that the luminescence spectra changes as the temperature is lowered. The effect on the main peak of luminescence when high pressure is applied on small samples of emerald shows as a linear function.

  3. Hydrogen speciation in synthetic quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, R.D.; Kirby, S.H.; Rossman, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The dominant hydrogen impurity in synthetic quartz is molecular H2O. H-OH groups also occur, but there is no direct evidence for the hydrolysis of Si-O-Si bonds to yield Si-OH HO-Si groups. Molecular H2O concentrations in the synthetic quartz crystals studied range from less than 10 to 3,300 ppm (H/Si), and decrease smoothly by up to an order of magnitude with distance away from the seed. OH- concentrations range from 96 to 715 ppm, and rise smoothly with distance away from the seed by up to a factor of three. The observed OH- is probably all associated with cationic impurities, as in natural quartz. Molecular H2O is the dominant initial hydrogen impurity in weak quartz. The hydrolytic weakening of quartz may be caused by the transformation H2O + Si-O-Si ??? 2SiOH, but this may be a transitory change with the SiOH groups recombining to form H2O, and the average SiOH concentration remaining very low. Synthetic quartz is strengthened when the H2O is accumulated into fluid inclusions and cannot react with the quartz framework. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Characterization of synthetic peptides by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhala, Bala Krishna; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is well suited for analysis of the identity and purity of synthetic peptides. The sequence of a synthetic peptide is most often known, so the analysis is mainly used to confirm the identity and purity of the peptide. Here, simple procedures are described for MALDI......-TOF-MS and LC-MS of synthetic peptides....

  5. Reconstruction of neutron spectra through neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Hernandez D, V.M.; Manzanares A, E.

    2003-01-01

    A neural network has been used to reconstruct the neutron spectra starting from the counting rates of the detectors of the Bonner sphere spectrophotometric system. A group of 56 neutron spectra was selected to calculate the counting rates that would produce in a Bonner sphere system, with these data and the spectra it was trained the neural network. To prove the performance of the net, 12 spectra were used, 6 were taken of the group used for the training, 3 were obtained of mathematical functions and those other 3 correspond to real spectra. When comparing the original spectra of those reconstructed by the net we find that our net has a poor performance when reconstructing monoenergetic spectra, this attributes it to those characteristic of the spectra used for the training of the neural network, however for the other groups of spectra the results of the net are appropriate with the prospective ones. (Author)

  6. Biological Action Spectra (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruijl, F.R. de

    2000-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces a wide variety of biological responses: ranging in humans from well-known short-term effects like sunburn to long-term effects like skin cancer. The wavelength dependencies ('action spectra') of the responses can differ significantly, depending on the UV-targeted molecules (their absorption spectra), their localisation (transmission to the target depth) and the photochemical reactions involved (e.g. quantum yields, competing reaction). An action spectrum (e.g. of sunburn) is usually determined in a wavelength by wavelength analysis of the response. This is not always possible (e.g. in case of skin cancer), and an action spectrum may then be extracted mathematically from differences in responses to broadband UV sources of various spectral compositions (yielding 'biological spectral weights'). However, relative spectral weights may shift with exposure levels and contributions from different wavelengths may not always add up. Under these circumstances conventional analyses will yield different action spectra for different experimental conditions. (author)

  7. A Canadian refiner's perspective of synthetic crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, T.L.; McIntosh, A.P.; Rasmussen

    1997-01-01

    Some of the factors affecting a refiner's choice of crude oil include refinery hardware, particularly gas oil crackers, products slate and product specifications, crude availability, relative crude price and crude quality. An overview of synthetic crude, the use of synthetic crude combined with other crudes and a comparison of synthetic crude with conventional crude oil was given. The two main users of synthetic crude are basically two groups of refiners, those large groups who use synthetic crude combined with other crudes, and a smaller group who run synthetic crude on specially designed units as a sole feed. The effects of changes in fuel legislation were reviewed. It was predicted that the changes will have a mixed impact on the value of synthetic crude, but low sulphur diesel regulations and gasoline sulphur regulations will make current synthetic crudes attractive. The big future change with a negative impact will be diesel cetane increases to reduce engine emissions. This will reduce synthetic crude attractiveness due to distillate yields and quality and high gas oil yields. Similarly, any legislation limiting aromatics in diesel fuel will also make synthetic crudes less attractive. Problems experienced by refiners with hardware dedicated to synthetic crude (salt, naphthenic acid, fouling, quality variations) were also reviewed. 3 tabs

  8. Synthetic biology: Emerging bioengineering in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhandono, Sony

    2017-05-01

    The development of synthetic biology will shape the new era of science and technology. It is an emerging bioengineering technique involving genetic engineering which can alter the phenotype and behavior of the cell or the new product. Synthetic biology may produce biomaterials, drugs, vaccines, biosensors, and even a recombinant secondary metabolite used in herbal and complementary medicine, such as artemisinin, a malaria drug which is usually extracted from the plant Artemisia annua. The power of synthetic biology has encouraged scientists in Indonesia, and is still in early development. This paper also covers some research from an Indonesian research institute in synthetic biology such as observing the production of bio surfactants and the enhanced production of artemisinin using a transient expression system. Synthetic biology development in Indonesia may also be related to the iGEM competition, a large synthetic biology research competition which was attended by several universities in Indonesia. The application of synthetic biology for drug discovery will be discussed.

  9. Printability of Synthetic Papers by Electrophotography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozália Szentgyörgyvölgyi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the printability of synthetic papers by the electrophotography technique. Prints of cmyk colour fields from 20% to 100% raster tone values were printed on three types of synthetic papers (one film synthetic paper and two fiber synthetic papers. The investigation of the appearance included densitometric measurement of the cmyk prints. The results have shown differences in the optical density and optical tone value between cmyk prints made on various synthetic papers. The highest optical density and the increase of the optical tone value were observed on the film synthetic paper, where cmyk prints were more saturated. The highest abrasion resistance of cmyk prints was obtained from the fibre synthetic paper.

  10. Raman Spectra of Methane, Ethylene, Ethane, Dimethyl ether, Formaldehyde and Propane for Combustion Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Magnotti, G.

    2015-05-09

    Spontaneous Raman scattering measurements of temperature and major species concentration in hydrocarbon-air flames require detailed knowledge of the Raman spectra of the hydrocarbons present when fuels more complex than methane are used. Although hydrocarbon spectra have been extensively studied at room temperature, there are no data available at higher temperatures. Quantum mechanical calculations, when available are not sufficiently accurate for combustion applications. This work presents experimental measurements of spontaneous Stokes-Raman scattering spectra of methane, ethylene, ethane, dimethyl ether, formaldehyde and propane in the temperature range 300-860 K. Raman spectra from heated hydrocarbons jets have been collected with a higher resolution than is generally employed for Raman measurements in combustion applications. A set of synthetic spectra have been generated for each hydrocarbon, providing the basis for extrapolation to higher temperatures. The spectra provided here will enable simultaneous measurements of multiple hydrocarbons in flames. This capability will greatly extend the range of applicability of Raman measurements in combustion applications. In addition, the experimental spectra provide a validation dataset for quantum mechanical models.

  11. Raman Spectra of Methane, Ethylene, Ethane, Dimethyl ether, Formaldehyde and Propane for Combustion Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Magnotti, G.; KC, Utsav; Varghese, P.L.; Barlow, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous Raman scattering measurements of temperature and major species concentration in hydrocarbon-air flames require detailed knowledge of the Raman spectra of the hydrocarbons present when fuels more complex than methane are used. Although hydrocarbon spectra have been extensively studied at room temperature, there are no data available at higher temperatures. Quantum mechanical calculations, when available are not sufficiently accurate for combustion applications. This work presents experimental measurements of spontaneous Stokes-Raman scattering spectra of methane, ethylene, ethane, dimethyl ether, formaldehyde and propane in the temperature range 300-860 K. Raman spectra from heated hydrocarbons jets have been collected with a higher resolution than is generally employed for Raman measurements in combustion applications. A set of synthetic spectra have been generated for each hydrocarbon, providing the basis for extrapolation to higher temperatures. The spectra provided here will enable simultaneous measurements of multiple hydrocarbons in flames. This capability will greatly extend the range of applicability of Raman measurements in combustion applications. In addition, the experimental spectra provide a validation dataset for quantum mechanical models.

  12. Design spectra development considering short time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, E.O.

    1983-01-01

    The need for generation of seismic acceleration histories to prescribed response spectra arises several ways in structural dynamics. For example, one way of obtaining floor spectra is to generate a history from a foundation spectra and then solve for the floor motion from which a floor spectrum can be obtained. Two separate programs, MODQKE and MDOF, were written to provide a capability of obtaining equipment spectra from design spectra. MODQKE generates or modifies acceleration histories to conform with design spectra pertaining to, say, a foundation. MDOF is a simple linear modal superposition program that solves for equipment support histories using the design spectra conforming histories as input. Equipment spectra, then, are obtained from the support histories using MODQKE

  13. Gamma-ray burst spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    A review of recent results in gamma-ray burst spectroscopy is given. Particular attention is paid to the recent discovery of emission and absorption features in the burst spectra. These lines represent the strongest evidence to date that gamma-ray bursts originate on or near neutron stars. Line parameters give information on the temperature, magnetic field and possibly the gravitational potential of the neutron star. The behavior of the continuum spectrum is also discussed. A remarkably good fit to nearly all bursts is obtained with a thermal-bremsstrahlung-like continuum. Significant evolution is observed of both the continuum and line features within most events

  14. Wavelet spectra of JACEE events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Naomichi; Biyajima, Minoru; Ohsawa, Akinori.

    1995-01-01

    Pseudo-rapidity distributions of two high multiplicity events Ca-C and Si-AgBr observed by the JACEE are analyzed by a wavelet transform. Wavelet spectra of those events are calculated and compared with the simulation calculations. The wavelet spectrum of the Ca-C event somewhat resembles that simulated with the uniform random numbers. That of Si-AgBr event, however, is not reproduced by simulation calculations with Poisson random numbers, uniform random numbers, or a p-model. (author)

  15. Uranium spectra in the ICP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, A.A.; Qamar, S.; Atta, M.A. (Khan (A.Q.) Research Labs., Rawalpindi (Pakistan))

    1994-05-01

    Uranium spectra have been studied by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In total, 8361 uranium lines were observed in the wavelength range of 235-500 nm. This article is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta Part B (SAB). The hard copy text is accompanied by a disk with data files and test files for an IBM-compatible computer. The main article discusses the scientific aspects of the subject and explains the purpose of the data files. (Author).

  16. Identified hadron spectra from PHOBOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Gábor I.; the PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-08-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of pions, kaons and protons, as well as antiparticle to particle ratios near mid-rapidity from d+Au collisions at \\sqrt{sNN} = 200 GeV have been measured by the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC. The transverse momentum range of particle identification was extended to beyond 3 GeV/c using the TOF detector and a new trigger system. The pseudorapidity dependence of the nuclear modification factor for charged hadrons in d+Au collisions is presented.

  17. Uranium spectra in the ICP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazi, A.A.; Qamar, S.; Atta, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium spectra have been studied by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In total, 8361 uranium lines were observed in the wavelength range of 235-500 nm. This article is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta Part B (SAB). The hard copy text is accompanied by a disk with data files and test files for an IBM-compatible computer. The main article discusses the scientific aspects of the subject and explains the purpose of the data files. (Author)

  18. Operator functions and localization of spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Gil’, Michael I

    2003-01-01

    "Operator Functions and Localization of Spectra" is the first book that presents a systematic exposition of bounds for the spectra of various linear nonself-adjoint operators in a Hilbert space, having discrete and continuous spectra. In particular bounds for the spectra of integral, differential and integro-differential operators, as well as finite and infinite matrices are established. The volume also presents a systematic exposition of estimates for norms of operator-valued functions and their applications.

  19. Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    The main objective of this project was to continue the development of a synthetic aperture vector flow estimator. This type of estimator is capable of overcoming two of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems: 1) the inability to scan large region of interest with high temporal......, this thesis showed that novel information can be obtained with vector velocity methods providing quantitative estimates of blood flow and insight into the complexity of the hemodynamics dynamics. This could give the clinician a new tool in assessment and treatment of a broad range of diseases....

  20. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Connor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges.

  1. Raman spectra of SDW superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, G.C. [Condensed Matter Physics Group, Department of Physics, Government Science College, Chatrapur, Orissa 761 020 (India)]. E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.in; Bishoyi, K.C. [P.G. Department of Physics, F.M. College (Autonomous), Balasore, Orissa 756 001 (India); Behera, S.N. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India)

    2005-03-15

    We report the calculation of the phonon response of the coexistent spin density wave (SDW) and superconducting (SC) state and predict the observation of SC gap in the Raman spectra of rare-earth nickel borocarbide superconductors. The SDW state normally does not couple to the lattice and hence, the phonons in the system are not expected to be affected by the SDW state. But there is a possibility of observing SC gap mode in the Raman spectra of a SDW superconductor due to the coupling of the SC gap excitation to the Raman active phonons in the system via the electron-phonon (e-p) interaction. A theoretical model is used for the coexistent phase and electron-phonon interaction. Phonon Green's function is calculated by Zubarev's technique and the phonon self-energy due to e-p interaction which is given by electron density response function in the coexistent state corresponding to the SDW wave vector q = Q is evaluated. The results so obtained exhibit agreement with the experimental observations.

  2. Raman spectra of SDW superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, G.C.; Bishoyi, K.C.; Behera, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    We report the calculation of the phonon response of the coexistent spin density wave (SDW) and superconducting (SC) state and predict the observation of SC gap in the Raman spectra of rare-earth nickel borocarbide superconductors. The SDW state normally does not couple to the lattice and hence, the phonons in the system are not expected to be affected by the SDW state. But there is a possibility of observing SC gap mode in the Raman spectra of a SDW superconductor due to the coupling of the SC gap excitation to the Raman active phonons in the system via the electron-phonon (e-p) interaction. A theoretical model is used for the coexistent phase and electron-phonon interaction. Phonon Green's function is calculated by Zubarev's technique and the phonon self-energy due to e-p interaction which is given by electron density response function in the coexistent state corresponding to the SDW wave vector q = Q is evaluated. The results so obtained exhibit agreement with the experimental observations

  3. Tracking the emergence of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Philip; Kwon, Seokbeom; Youtie, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging domain that combines biological and engineering concepts and which has seen rapid growth in research, innovation, and policy interest in recent years. This paper contributes to efforts to delineate this emerging domain by presenting a newly constructed bibliometric definition of synthetic biology. Our approach is dimensioned from a core set of papers in synthetic biology, using procedures to obtain benchmark synthetic biology publication records, extract keywords from these benchmark records, and refine the keywords, supplemented with articles published in dedicated synthetic biology journals. We compare our search strategy with other recent bibliometric approaches to define synthetic biology, using a common source of publication data for the period from 2000 to 2015. The paper details the rapid growth and international spread of research in synthetic biology in recent years, demonstrates that diverse research disciplines are contributing to the multidisciplinary development of synthetic biology research, and visualizes this by profiling synthetic biology research on the map of science. We further show the roles of a relatively concentrated set of research sponsors in funding the growth and trajectories of synthetic biology. In addition to discussing these analyses, the paper notes limitations and suggests lines for further work.

  4. DNA recognition by synthetic constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Elena; Mosquera, Jesús; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L

    2011-09-05

    The interaction of transcription factors with specific DNA sites is key for the regulation of gene expression. Despite the availability of a large body of structural data on protein-DNA complexes, we are still far from fully understanding the molecular and biophysical bases underlying such interactions. Therefore, the development of non-natural agents that can reproduce the DNA-recognition properties of natural transcription factors remains a major and challenging goal in chemical biology. In this review we summarize the basics of double-stranded DNA recognition by transcription factors, and describe recent developments in the design and preparation of synthetic DNA binders. We mainly focus on synthetic peptides that have been designed by following the DNA interaction of natural proteins, and we discuss how the tools of organic synthesis can be used to make artificial constructs equipped with functionalities that introduce additional properties to the recognition process, such as sensing and controllability. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Synthetic Biology of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, De-Chuan; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a family of biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters which have been extensively studied using synthetic biology and metabolic engineering methods for improving production and for widening its diversity. Synthetic biology has allowed PHA to become composition controllable random copolymers, homopolymers, and block copolymers. Recent developments showed that it is possible to establish a microbial platform for producing not only random copolymers with controllable monomers and their ratios but also structurally defined homopolymers and block copolymers. This was achieved by engineering the genome of Pseudomonas putida or Pseudomonas entomophiles to weaken the β-oxidation and in situ fatty acid synthesis pathways, so that a fatty acid fed to the bacteria maintains its original chain length and structures when incorporated into the PHA chains. The engineered bacterium allows functional groups in a fatty acid to be introduced into PHA, forming functional PHA, which, upon grafting, generates endless PHA variety. Recombinant Escherichia coli also succeeded in producing efficiently poly(3-hydroxypropionate) or P3HP, the strongest member of PHA. Synthesis pathways of P3HP and its copolymer P3HB3HP of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxypropionate were assembled respectively to allow their synthesis from glucose. CRISPRi was also successfully used to manipulate simultaneously multiple genes and control metabolic flux in E. coli to obtain a series of copolymer P3HB4HB of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB). The bacterial shapes were successfully engineered for enhanced PHA accumulation.

  6. Vectoring of parallel synthetic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Tim; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Gomit, Guillaume

    2015-11-01

    A pair of parallel synthetic jets can be vectored by applying a phase difference between the two driving signals. The resulting jet can be merged or bifurcated and either vectored towards the actuator leading in phase or the actuator lagging in phase. In the present study, the influence of phase difference and Strouhal number on the vectoring behaviour is examined experimentally. Phase-locked vorticity fields, measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), are used to track vortex pairs. The physical mechanisms that explain the diversity in vectoring behaviour are observed based on the vortex trajectories. For a fixed phase difference, the vectoring behaviour is shown to be primarily influenced by pinch-off time of vortex rings generated by the synthetic jets. Beyond a certain formation number, the pinch-off timescale becomes invariant. In this region, the vectoring behaviour is determined by the distance between subsequent vortex rings. We acknowledge the financial support from the European Research Council (ERC grant agreement no. 277472).

  7. Synthetic membrane-targeted antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vooturi, S K; Firestine, S M

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance continues to evolve and presents serious challenges in the therapy of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The rise of resistant strains like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) suggests that antimicrobial resistance is an inevitable evolutionary response to antimicrobial use. This highlights the tremendous need for antibiotics against new bacterial targets. Agents that target the integrity of bacterial membrane are relatively novel in the clinical armamentarium. Daptomycin, a lipopeptide is a classical example of membrane-bound antibiotic. Nature has also utilized this tactic. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are found in all kingdoms, function primarily by permeabilizing the bacterial membrane. AMPs have several advantages over existing antibiotics including a broad spectrum of activity, rapid bactericidal activity, no cross-resistance with the existing antibiotics and a low probability for developing resistance. Currently, a small number of peptides have been developed for clinical use but therapeutic applications are limited because of poor bioavailability and high manufacturing cost. However, their broad specificity, potent activity and lower probability for resistance have spurred the search for synthetic mimetics of antimicrobial peptides as membrane-active antibiotics. In this review, we will discuss the different classes of synthetic membrane-bound antibiotics published since 2004.

  8. Synthetic vision display evaluation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, David M.; Whittington, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to help us understand the display requirements for a synthetic vision system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different levels of perceptual cue complexity in displays used by pilots in a flare and landing task. Increased levels of texture mapping of terrain and runway produced mixed results, including harder but shorter landings and a lower flare initiation altitude. Under higher workload conditions, increased texture resulted in an improvement in performance. An increase in familiar size cues did not result in improved performance. Only a small difference was found between displays using two patterns of high resolution texture mapping. The effects of increased perceptual cue complexity on performance was not as strong as would be predicted from the pilot's subjective reports or from related literature. A description of the role of a synthetic vision system in the High Speed Civil Transport is provide along with a literature review covering applied research related to perceptual cue usage in aircraft displays.

  9. Multiscale climate emulator of multimodal wave spectra: MUSCLE-spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Ana; Hegermiller, Christie A.; Antolinez, Jose A. A.; Camus, Paula; Vitousek, Sean; Ruggiero, Peter; Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Tomás, Antonio; Mendez, Fernando J.

    2017-02-01

    Characterization of multimodal directional wave spectra is important for many offshore and coastal applications, such as marine forecasting, coastal hazard assessment, and design of offshore wave energy farms and coastal structures. However, the multivariate and multiscale nature of wave climate variability makes this complex problem tractable using computationally expensive numerical models. So far, the skill of statistical-downscaling model-based parametric (unimodal) wave conditions is limited in large ocean basins such as the Pacific. The recent availability of long-term directional spectral data from buoys and wave hindcast models allows for development of stochastic models that include multimodal sea-state parameters. This work introduces a statistical downscaling framework based on weather types to predict multimodal wave spectra (e.g., significant wave height, mean wave period, and mean wave direction from different storm systems, including sea and swells) from large-scale atmospheric pressure fields. For each weather type, variables of interest are modeled using the categorical distribution for the sea-state type, the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution for wave height and wave period, a multivariate Gaussian copula for the interdependence between variables, and a Markov chain model for the chronology of daily weather types. We apply the model to the southern California coast, where local seas and swells from both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres contribute to the multimodal wave spectrum. This work allows attribution of particular extreme multimodal wave events to specific atmospheric conditions, expanding knowledge of time-dependent, climate-driven offshore and coastal sea-state conditions that have a significant influence on local nearshore processes, coastal morphology, and flood hazards.

  10. Scikit-spectra: Explorative Spectroscopy in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hughes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scikit-spectra is an intuitive framework for explorative spectroscopy in Python. Scikit-spectra leverages the Pandas library for powerful data processing to provide datastructures and an API designed for spectroscopy. Utilizing the new IPython Notebook widget system, scikit-spectra is headed towards a GUI when you want it, API when you need it approach to spectral analysis. As an application, analysis is presented of the surface-plasmon resonance shift in a solution of gold nanoparticles induced by proteins binding to the gold’s surface. Please refer to the scikit-spectra website for full documentation and support: http://hugadams.github.io/scikit-spectra/

  11. An RGB approach to extraordinary spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusche, Sascha; Theilmann, Florian

    2015-09-01

    After Newton had explained a series of ordinary spectra and Goethe had pointed out its complementary counterpart, Nussbaumer discovered a series of extraordinary spectra which are geometrically identical and colourwise analogous to Newton’s and Goethe’s spectra. To understand the geometry and colours of extraordinary spectra, the wavelength composition is explored with filters and spectroscopic setups. Visualized in a dispersion diagram, the wavelength composition is interpreted in terms of additive colour mixing. Finally, all spectra are simulated as the superposition of red, green, and blue images that are shifted apart. This RGB approach makes it easy to understand the complex relationship between wavelengths and colours.

  12. Learning the Relationship between Galaxy Spectra and Star Formation Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Christopher; Acquaviva, Viviana; Iyer, Kartheik; Gawiser, Eric

    2018-01-01

    We explore novel approaches to the problem of predicting a galaxy’s star formation history (SFH) from its Spectral Energy Distribution (SED). Traditional approaches to SED template fitting use constant or exponentially declining SFHs, and are known to incur significant bias in the inferred SFHs, which are typically skewed toward younger stellar populations. Machine learning approaches, including tree ensemble methods and convolutional neural networks, would not be affected by the same bias, and may work well in recovering unbiased and multi-episodic star formation histories. We use a supervised approach whereby models are trained using synthetic spectra, generated from three state of the art hydrodynamical simulations, including nebular emission. We explore how SED feature maps can be used to highlight areas of the spectrum with the highest predictive power and discuss the limitations of the approach when applied to real data.

  13. Different spectra with the same neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.; Ortiz R, J. M.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Martinez B, M. R.; Hernandez A, B.; Ortiz H, A. A.; Mercado, G. A.

    2010-01-01

    Using as source term the spectrum of a 239 Pu-Be source several neutron spectra have been calculated using Monte Carlo methods. The source term was located in the centre of spherical moderators made of light water, heavy water and polyethylene of different diameters. Also a 239 Pu-Be source was used to measure its neutron spectrum, bare and moderated by water. The neutron spectra were measured at 100 cm with a Bonner spheres spectrometer. Monte Carlo calculations were used to calculate the neutron spectra of bare and water-moderated spectra that were compared with those measured with the spectrometer. Resulting spectra are similar to those found in power plants with PWR, BWR and Candu nuclear reactors. Beside the spectra the dosimetric features were determined. Using moderators and a single neutron source can be produced neutron spectra alike those found in workplaces, this neutron fields can be utilized to calibrate neutron dosimeters and area monitors. (Author)

  14. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonidandel Scott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008. Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  15. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  16. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  17. Non-LTE calculation of HCL earthlimb emission and implication for detection of HCl in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumer, J. B.; James, T. C.

    1982-01-01

    Calculation results are presented for the contribution of the non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium process of resonant scattering of sunlight in the 1-0 band of HCl to the earthlimb radiance, for the case of tangent altitudes from 20 to 90 km. It is established that the mechanism in question is a significant contributor to radiance at altitudes as low as 20 km, and that it becomes greater than the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium contribution above 40 km. Attention is given to the prospects for detection of HCl at altitudes approaching 80 km, by means of the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer scheduled for deployment by the NASA Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite.

  18. Dynamics of quiescent prominence fine structures analyzed by 2D non-LTE modelling of the Hα line

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gunár, Stanislav; Mein, P.; Schmieder, B.; Heinzel, Petr; Mein, N.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 543, July (2012), A93/1-A93/15 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/09/P554; GA ČR GAP209/12/0906 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * filaments * prominences Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.084, year: 2012

  19. Circumnuclear Multi-phase Gas in the Circinus Galaxy. I. Non-LTE Calculations of CO Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keiichi; Fukushige, Ryosuke; Izumi, Takuma; Tomisaka, Kohji

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the line emissions from cold molecular gas based on our previous “radiation-driven fountain model,” which reliably explains the spectral energy distribution of the nearest type 2 Seyfert galaxy, the Circinus galaxy. Using a snapshot of the best-fit radiation-hydrodynamic model for the central r≤slant 16 pc, in which non-equilibrium X-ray-dominated region chemistry is solved, we conduct post-processed non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiation transfer simulations for the CO lines. We obtain a spectral line energy distribution with a peak around J≃ 6, and its distribution suggests that the lines are not thermalized. However, for a given line of sight, the optical depth distribution is highly non-uniform between {τ }ν \\ll 1 and {τ }ν \\gg 1. The CO-to-H2 conversion factor ({X}{CO}), which can be directly obtained from the results and is not a constant, depends strongly on the integrated intensity and differs from the fiducial value for local objects. {X}{CO} exhibits a large dispersion of more than one order of magnitude, reflecting the non-uniform internal structure of a “torus.” In addition, we found that the physical conditions differ between grid cells on a scale of a few parsecs along the observed lines of sight; therefore, a specific observed line ratio does not necessarily represent a single physical state of the interstellar medium.

  20. Non-LTE modeling of the radiative properties of high-Z plasma using linear response methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foord, Mark; Harte, Judy; Scott, Howard

    2017-10-01

    Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) atomic processes play a key role in the radiation flow and energetics in highly ionized high temperature plasma encountered in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and astrophysical applications. Modeling complex high-Z atomic systems, such as gold used in ICF hohlraums, is particularly challenging given the complexity and intractable number of atomic states involved. Practical considerations, i.e. speed and memory, in large radiation-hydrodynamic simulations further limit model complexity. We present here a methodology for utilizing tabulated NLTE radiative and EOS properties for use in our radiation-hydrodynamic codes. This approach uses tabulated data, previously calculated with complex atomic models, modified to include a general non-Planckian radiation field using a linear response methodology. This approach extends near-LTE response method to conditions far from LTE. Comparisons of this tabular method with in-line NLTE simulations of a laser heated 1-D hohlraum will be presented, which show good agreement in the time-evolution of the plasma conditions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Non-LTE Calculations of the Fe I 6173 Å Line in a Flaring Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie; Ding, M. D.; Li, Ying; Carlsson, Mats

    2018-04-01

    The Fe I 6173 Å line is widely used in the measurements of vector magnetic fields by instruments including the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). We perform non-local thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of this line based on radiative hydrodynamic simulations in a flaring atmosphere. We employ both a quiet-Sun atmosphere and a penumbral atmosphere as the initial one in our simulations. We find that, in the quiet-Sun atmosphere, the line center is obviously enhanced during an intermediate flare. The enhanced emission is contributed from both radiative backwarming in the photosphere and particle beam heating in the lower chromosphere. A blue asymmetry of the line profile also appears due to an upward mass motion in the lower chromosphere. If we take a penumbral atmosphere as the initial atmosphere, the line has a more significant response to the flare heating, showing a central emission and an obvious asymmetry. The low spectral resolution of HMI would indicate some loss of information, but the enhancement and line asymmetry are still kept. By calculating polarized line profiles, we find that the Stokes I and V profiles can be altered as a result of flare heating. Thus the distortion of this line has a crucial influence on the magnetic field measured from this line, and one should be cautious in interpreting the magnetic transients observed frequently in solar flares.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF NONUNIFORM CLOUD COVER ON TRANSIT TRANSMISSION SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Line, Michael R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA 94035 (United States); Parmentier, Vivien, E-mail: mrline@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California–Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    We model the impact of nonuniform cloud cover on transit transmission spectra. Patchy clouds exist in nearly every solar system atmosphere, brown dwarfs, and transiting exoplanets. Our major findings suggest that fractional cloud coverage can exactly mimic high mean molecular weight atmospheres and vice versa over certain wavelength regions, in particular, over the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) bandpass (1.1–1.7 μm). We also find that patchy cloud coverage exhibits a signature that is different from uniform global clouds. Furthermore, we explain analytically why the “patchy cloud-high mean molecular weight” degeneracy exists. We also explore the degeneracy of nonuniform cloud coverage in atmospheric retrievals on both synthetic and real planets. We find from retrievals on a synthetic solar composition hot Jupiter with patchy clouds and a cloud-free high mean molecular weight warm Neptune that both cloud-free high mean molecular weight atmospheres and partially cloudy atmospheres can explain the data equally well. Another key finding is that the HST WFC3 transit transmission spectra of two well-observed objects, the hot Jupiter HD 189733b and the warm Neptune HAT-P-11b, can be explained well by solar composition atmospheres with patchy clouds without the need to invoke high mean molecular weight or global clouds. The degeneracy between high molecular weight and solar composition partially cloudy atmospheres can be broken by observing the molecular Rayleigh scattering differences between the two. Furthermore, the signature of partially cloudy limbs also appears as a ∼100 ppm residual in the ingress and egress of the transit light curves, provided that the transit timing is known to seconds.

  3. Library Design-Facilitated High-Throughput Sequencing of Synthetic Peptide Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Alexander A; Gates, Zachary P; Zhang, Chi; Quartararo, Anthony J; Halloran, Kathryn H; Pentelute, Bradley L

    2017-11-13

    A methodology to achieve high-throughput de novo sequencing of synthetic peptide mixtures is reported. The approach leverages shotgun nanoliquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry-based de novo sequencing of library mixtures (up to 2000 peptides) as well as automated data analysis protocols to filter away incorrect assignments, noise, and synthetic side-products. For increasing the confidence in the sequencing results, mass spectrometry-friendly library designs were developed that enabled unambiguous decoding of up to 600 peptide sequences per hour while maintaining greater than 85% sequence identification rates in most cases. The reliability of the reported decoding strategy was additionally confirmed by matching fragmentation spectra for select authentic peptides identified from library sequencing samples. The methods reported here are directly applicable to screening techniques that yield mixtures of active compounds, including particle sorting of one-bead one-compound libraries and affinity enrichment of synthetic library mixtures performed in solution.

  4. Synthetic approaches to uniform polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Monzur; Brocchini, Steve

    2006-12-30

    Uniform polymers are characterised by a narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD). Uniformity is also defined by chemical structure in respect of (1) monomer orientation, sequence and stereo-regularity, (2) polymer shape and morphology and (3) chemical functionality. The function of natural polymers such as polypeptides and polynucleotides is related to their conformational structure (e.g. folded tertiary structure). This is only possible because of their high degree of uniformity. While completely uniform synthetic polymers are rare, polymers with broad structure and MWD are widely used in medicine and the biomedical sciences. They are integral components in final dosage forms, drug delivery systems (DDS) and in implantable devices. Increasingly uniform polymers are being used to develop more complex medicines (e.g. delivery of biopharmaceuticals, enhanced formulations or DDS's for existing actives). In addition to the function imparted by any new polymer it will be required to meet stringent specifications in terms of cost containment, scalability, biocompatibility and performance. Synthetic polymers with therapeutic activity are also being developed to exploit their polyvalent properties, which is not possible with low molecular weight molecules. There is need to utilise uniform polymers for applications where the polymer may interact with the systemic circulation, tissues or cellular environment. There are also potential applications (e.g. stimuli responsive coatings) where uniform polymers may be used for their more defined property profile. While it is not yet practical to prepare synthetic polymers to the same high degree of uniformity as proteins, nature also effectively utilises many polymers with lower degrees of uniformity (e.g. polysaccharides, poly(amino acids), polyhydroxyalkanoates). In recent years it has become possible to prepare with practical experimental protocols sufficient quantities of polymers that display many aspects of uniformity. This

  5. Schottky spectra and crystalline beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestrikov, D.V.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we revise the current dependence of the Schottky noise power of a cooled proton beam previously measured at NAP-M. More careful study of experimental data indicates a linear decrease in the inverse Schottky noise power with an increase in the beam intensity (N). The root of this function determines a threshold current which occurs at N = N th ≅1.2 x 10 8 particles. The inspection of measured Schottky spectra shows that this threshold does not correspond to some collective instability of the measured harmonic of the linear beam density. The found value of N th does not depend on the longitudinal beam temperature. For the case of NAP-M lattice, the study of the spectral properties of the Schottky noise in the crystalline string predicts the current dependence of the equilibrium momentum spread of the beam, which qualitatively agrees with that, recalculated from the NAP-M data. (orig.)

  6. Fractal analysis of power spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, S.

    1982-01-01

    A general argument is presented concerning the Hausdorff dimension D of the power spectrum curve for a system of N weakly-coupled oscillators. Explicit upper and lower bounds for D are derived in terms of the number N of interacting modes. The mathematical reasoning relies upon the celebrated KAM theorem concerning the perturbation of Hamiltonian systems and the finite measure of the set of destroyed tori in phase space; this set can be related to Hausdorff dimension by certain mathematical theorems. An important consequence of these results is a simple empirical test for the applicability of Hamiltonian perturbation theory in the analysis of an experimentally observed spectrum. As an illustration, the theory is applied to the interpretation of a recent numerical analysis of both the power spectrum of the Sun and certain laboratory spectra of hydrodynamic turbulence. (Auth.)

  7. Spectra processing with computer graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, H.

    1979-01-01

    A program of processng gamma-ray spectra in rock analysis is described. The peak search was performed by applying a cross-correlation function. The experimental data were approximated by an analytical function represented by the sum of a polynomial and a multiple peak function. The latter is Gaussian, joined with the low-energy side by an exponential. A modified Gauss-Newton algorithm is applied for the purpose of fitting the data to the function. The processing of the values derived from a lunar sample demonstrates the effect of different choices of polynomial orders for approximating the background for various fitting intervals. Observations on applications of interactive graphics are presented. 3 figures, 1 table

  8. Synthetic Lipoproteins as Carriers for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hualiang

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic lipoprotein is an effective carrier of targeted delivery for drugs. It has the very small size, good biocompatibility, suitable half-life, and specific lipoprotein receptorbinding capacity. Compared with the traditional natural lipoprotein, synthetic lipoprotein not only retains the original biological characteristics and functions, but also exhibits the excellent characteristics in drug delivery. Herein, the advantages, development, applications, and prospect of synthetic lipoproteins as drug carriers were summarized.

  9. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornberg, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  10. Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...

  11. Synthetic biology assemblies for sustainable space exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The work utilized synthetic biology to create sustainable food production processes by developing technology to efficiently convert inedible crop waste to...

  12. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore, used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery. PMID:23654251

  13. Preparation of synthetic standard minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrick, C.C.; Bustamante, S.J.; Charls, R.W.; Cowan, R.E.; Hakkila, E.A.; Hull, D.E.; Olinger, B.W.; Roof, R.B.; Sheinberg, H.; Herrick, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    A number of techniques for synthetic mineral preparations have been examined. These techniques include hot-pressing in graphite dies at moderate pressures, high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis in a piston and cylinder apparatus, isostatic pressing under helium gas pressures, hydrous mineral preparations using water as the pressure medium, explosion-generated shock waves, and radiofrequency heating. Minerals suitable for equation-of-state studies (three-inch, high-density discs), for thermodynamic property determinations (low-density powders) and for microprobe standards (fusion-cast microbeads) have been prepared. Mechanical stress-strain calculations in the piston-cylinder apparatus have been initiated and their integration with thermal stress calculations is currently under investigation

  14. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K

    2013-07-19

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug-resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery.

  15. Synthetic biology: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I examine the positive and negative features of synthetic biology ('SynBio') from a utilitarian ethical perspective. The potential beneficial outcomes from SynBio in the context of medicine are substantial; however it is not presently possible to predict precise outcomes due to the nascent state of the field. Potential negative outcomes from SynBio also exist, including iatrogenesis and bioterrorism; however it is not yet possible to quantify these risks. I argue that the application of a 'precautionary' approach to SynBio is ethically fraught, as is the notion that SynBio-associated knowledge ought to be restricted. I conclude that utilitarians ought to support a broadly laissez-faire stance in respect of SynBio. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Synthetic biology: engineering molecular computers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Complicated systems cannot survive the rigors of a chaotic environment, without balancing mechanisms that sense, decide upon and counteract the exerted disturbances. Especially so with living organisms, forced by competition to incredible complexities, escalating also their self-controlling plight. Therefore, they compute. Can we harness biological mechanisms to create artificial computing systems? Biology offers several levels of design abstraction: molecular machines, cells, organisms... ranging from the more easily-defined to the more inherently complex. At the bottom of this stack we find the nucleic acids, RNA and DNA, with their digital structure and relatively precise interactions. They are central enablers of designing artificial biological systems, in the confluence of engineering and biology, that we call Synthetic biology. In the first part, let us follow their trail towards an overview of building computing machines with molecules -- and in the second part, take the case study of iGEM Greece 201...

  17. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  18. Synthesis and study of the synthetic hydroxyapatite doped with aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, M.; Smirnov, V.; Antonova, O.; Konovalov, A.; Fomina, A.; Komlev, V. S.; Barinov, S.; Rodionov, A.; Gafurov, M.; Orlinskii, S.

    2018-05-01

    Powders of synthetic hydroxyapatite doped with aluminium (Al) ions in concentrations 0 and 20 mol. % were synthesized by the precipitation method from the nitrate solutions and investigated by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (AES-ICP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas absorption and conventional electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). It is shown that for the chosen synthesis route an introduction of Al provokes formation of highly anisotropic phase, leads to the decrease in the crystallinity while no significant changes in the EPR spectra of the radiation-induced defects is observed. The results could be used for understanding the structural transformations with Al doping of the mineralized materials for geological and biomedical applications.

  19. Jupiter's auroral-related stratospheric heating and chemistry II: Analysis of IRTF-TEXES spectra measured in December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, J. A.; Orton, G. S.; Greathouse, T. K.; Fletcher, L. N.; Moses, J. I.; Hue, V.; Irwin, P. G. J.

    2018-01-01

    W and at 0.01 mbar, over the same longitude range at 70°N, C2H4 increases from 0.669 ± 0.129 ppmv to 6.509 ± 0.811 ppmv. However, we note that non-LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) emission may affect the cores of the strongest C2H2 and C2H4 lines on the northern auroral region, which may be a possible source of error in our derived concentrations. We retrieved concentrations of C2H6 at 1 mbar of 9.03 ± 0.98 ppmv at 70°N, 60°W and 7.66 ± 0.70 ppmv at 70°N, 180°W. Thus, C2H6's concentration appears constant (within uncertainty) as a function of longitude at 70°N.

  20. Assessment of modern spectral analysis methods to improve wavenumber resolution of F-K spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, T.E.; Laster, S.J.; Meek, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The improvement in wavenumber spectra obtained by using high resolution spectral estimators is examined. Three modern spectral estimators were tested, namely the Autoregressive/Maximum Entropy (AR/ME) method, the Extended Prony method, and an eigenstructure method. They were combined with the conventional Fourier method by first transforming each trace with a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). A high resolution spectral estimator was applied to the resulting complex spatial sequence for each frequency. The collection of wavenumber spectra thus computed comprises a hybrid f-k spectrum with high wavenumber resolution and less spectral ringing. Synthetic and real data records containing 25 traces were analyzed by using the hybrid f-k method. The results show an FFT-AR/ME f-k spectrum has noticeably better wavenumber resolution and more spectral dynamic range than conventional spectra when the number of channels is small. The observed improvement suggests the hybrid technique is potentially valuable in seismic data analysis

  1. A new hybrid double divisor ratio spectra method for the analysis of ternary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Rasha M.; Maher, Hadir M.

    2008-10-01

    A new spectrophotometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ternary mixtures, without prior separation steps. This method is based on convolution of the double divisor ratio spectra, obtained by dividing the absorption spectrum of the ternary mixture by a standard spectrum of two of the three compounds in the mixture, using combined trigonometric Fourier functions. The magnitude of the Fourier function coefficients, at either maximum or minimum points, is related to the concentration of each drug in the mixture. The mathematical explanation of the procedure is illustrated. The method was applied for the assay of a model mixture consisting of isoniazid (ISN), rifampicin (RIF) and pyrazinamide (PYZ) in synthetic mixtures, commercial tablets and human urine samples. The developed method was compared with the double divisor ratio spectra derivative method (DDRD) and derivative ratio spectra-zero-crossing method (DRSZ). Linearity, validation, accuracy, precision, limits of detection, limits of quantitation, and other aspects of analytical validation are included in the text.

  2. Three different spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra for determination of binary mixture of Amlodipine and Atorvastatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Hany W.; Hassan, Said A.; Salem, Maissa Y.; El-Zeiny, Badr A.

    2011-12-01

    Three simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods manipulating ratio spectra are developed for the simultaneous determination of Amlodipine besylate (AM) and Atorvastatin calcium (AT) in tablet dosage forms. The first method is first derivative of the ratio spectra ( 1DD), the second is ratio subtraction and the third is the method of mean centering of ratio spectra. The calibration curve is linear over the concentration range of 3-40 and 8-32 μg/ml for AM and AT, respectively. These methods are tested by analyzing synthetic mixtures of the above drugs and they are applied to commercial pharmaceutical preparation of the subjected drugs. Standard deviation is <1.5 in the assay of raw materials and tablets. Methods are validated as per ICH guidelines and accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness are found to be within the acceptable limit.

  3. Luminosity effects in the ultraviolet spectrum of B5-B6 stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, A.B.; Silversmith, E.

    1976-01-01

    Copernicus U2 spectral tracings of the ultraviolet spectra of eta CMa (B5 Ia) and zeta Dra (B6 III) have been compared, and four regions: 1330 to 1340 A, 1340 to 1350 A, 1390 to 1396 A, and 1398 to 1405 A: are found to contain differences due to luminosity effects. The observed profiles are interpreted using synthetic spectra predicted with LTE theory. These effects are found: (1) the C ii 1335 blend is shortward-displaced in eta CMa, (2) the P iii and Si iv resonance lines strengthen significantly in the supergiant, and (3) lines of multiplet UV7 of Si ii are strengthened by non-LTE effects in the supergiant

  4. Analysis of spectra of V471 Tau and HD 115404

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimansky, V. V.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Shimanskaya, N. N.

    2011-10-01

    We analyze the chemical composition of the atmospheres of a single K-type star HD 115404 and the secondary component of the V471 Tau variable. We use the technique of modeling of synthetic spectra to analyze the high-resolution spectra of these stars, taken with the RTT 150 Russian-Turkish telescope and find the abundances of 23 and 17 elements in the atmospheres of HD 115404 and V471 Tau, respectively. We demonstrate the lack of composition anomalies in the HD 115404 and show it to be consistent with the published data, inferred from equivalent widths of spectral lines. We find the abundances of 15 elements from Na to Ba to be consistent with the metallicity of the atmosphere of V471 Tau ([Fe/H] = -0.22 ± 0.12dex), which differs significantly from the average metallicity of the Hyades cluster. We show the existence of strong carbon and oxygen overabundances (by more than 1dex) due to the enrichment of the secondary by the nucleosynthesis products during the common-envelope stage of the system. On the whole, we demonstrate that V471 Tau and the other precataclysmic variables share similar composition anomalies.

  5. Determination of the optical absorption spectra of thin layers from their photoacoustic spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychto, Leszek; Maliński, Mirosław; Patryn, Aleksy; Tivanov, Mikhail; Gremenok, Valery

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for computations of the optical absorption coefficient spectra from the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra of thin semiconductor samples deposited on the optically transparent and thermally thick substrates. This method was tested on CuIn(Te0.7Se0.3)2 thin films. From the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed with the new formula as also with the numerical iterative method. From these spectra, the value of the energy gap of the thin film material and the type of the optical transitions were determined. From the experimental optical transmission spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed too, and compared with the optical absorption coefficient spectra obtained from photoacoustic spectra.

  6. Ab initio molecular crystal structures, spectra, and phase diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, So; Gilliard, Kandis; He, Xiao; Li, Jinjin; Sode, Olaseni

    2014-09-16

    Conspectus Molecular crystals are chemists' solids in the sense that their structures and properties can be understood in terms of those of the constituent molecules merely perturbed by a crystalline environment. They form a large and important class of solids including ices of atmospheric species, drugs, explosives, and even some organic optoelectronic materials and supramolecular assemblies. Recently, surprisingly simple yet extremely efficient, versatile, easily implemented, and systematically accurate electronic structure methods for molecular crystals have been developed. The methods, collectively referred to as the embedded-fragment scheme, divide a crystal into monomers and overlapping dimers and apply modern molecular electronic structure methods and software to these fragments of the crystal that are embedded in a self-consistently determined crystalline electrostatic field. They enable facile applications of accurate but otherwise prohibitively expensive ab initio molecular orbital theories such as Møller-Plesset perturbation and coupled-cluster theories to a broad range of properties of solids such as internal energies, enthalpies, structures, equation of state, phonon dispersion curves and density of states, infrared and Raman spectra (including band intensities and sometimes anharmonic effects), inelastic neutron scattering spectra, heat capacities, Gibbs energies, and phase diagrams, while accounting for many-body electrostatic (namely, induction or polarization) effects as well as two-body exchange and dispersion interactions from first principles. They can fundamentally alter the role of computing in the studies of molecular crystals in the same way ab initio molecular orbital theories have transformed research practices in gas-phase physical chemistry and synthetic chemistry in the last half century. In this Account, after a brief summary of formalisms and algorithms, we discuss applications of these methods performed in our group as compelling

  7. Synthetic seismic acceleration time-histories and their acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hong

    1996-01-01

    In seismic dynamic response analysis of structures and equipment, time-history analysis is now widely used. The 3-D seismic acceleration time-histories or 3-D seismic displacement time-histories are required in the 3-D seismic dynamic response analysis as the seismic excitation input data. Because of the lack of actual acceleration time-histories for the field where the structures or equipment are installed, the general practice is to use the synthetic seismic acceleration time-histories, which are derived from the design seismic response spectra of the field, as the seismic excitation input data. However, from one specified design response spectrum indefinite solutions of acceleration time-histories can be derived depending on the values of the input parameters. Not all the derived synthetic time-histories can be used as seismic excitation input data. Only those which meet the acceptance criteria can be used. The factors (input parameters), which will affect the time-history solution from a specified seismic response spectrum, and the acceptance criteria are discussed

  8. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  9. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications.

  10. Study of seed for synthetical quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, C.K.; Torikai, D.

    1988-01-01

    Natural quartz blocks for seed (synthetic quartz technology) were studied by using various characterization techniques, such as X-ray topography, optical micrography, inspectoscopy, polariscopy and conoscopy, and etching. One of the most commonly found defect is the electrical or Dauphine twin. In The present research, we have developed a methodology to obtain a highly perfect seed for the synthetic quartz industries. (author) [pt

  11. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry.

  12. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications. PMID:25022769

  13. Metal immobilization in soils using synthetic zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osté, L.A.; Lexmond, T.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2002-01-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils is a technique to improve soil quality. Synthetic zeolites are potentially useful additives to bind heavy metals. This study selected the most effective zeolite in cadmium and zinc binding out of six synthetic zeolites (mordenite-type,

  14. Synthetic and Empirical Capsicum Annuum Image Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, R.

    2016-01-01

    This dataset consists of per-pixel annotated synthetic (10500) and empirical images (50) of Capsicum annuum, also known as sweet or bell pepper, situated in a commercial greenhouse. Furthermore, the source models to generate the synthetic images are included. The aim of the datasets are to

  15. Synthetic aperture radar: principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Yahya, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an introduction to synthetic aperture radar is presented. Synthetic aperture radar is a relatively new remote sensing platform and the technology has matured a lot in the last two decades. This paper introduces the concepts behind SAR principles as well as the major areas where this new technology has shown additional information. (author)

  16. Opportunities for microfluidic technologies in synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Shelly; Rouilly, Vincent; Niu, Xize; Chappell, James; Kitney, Richard I.; Edel, Joshua B.; Freemont, Paul S.; deMello, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce microfluidics technologies as a key foundational technology for synthetic biology experimentation. Recent advances in the field of microfluidics are reviewed and the potential of such a technological platform to support the rapid development of synthetic biology solutions is discussed.

  17. Steel desulphurization with synthetic slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heput, T.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, sulphur is considered a harmful element for steel quality, reason why all the technological steps are being taken in order to eliminate it from the metal bath. This paper deals with the influence of the chemical composition, on the slag quantity and of the bath stirring condition upon the desulphurization process in the casting ladle by treatment with synthetic slag. The experiments were made at an open-hearth plant with the steel tapping in two ladles (the desulphurization was made with synthetic slag at one ladle while the other one was considered standard and at the electric steel plant and for the synthetic slag formation a mix was used, made, according to several receipts, of: lime (50-75%, fluorine (0-17%, bauxite (0-32% and aluminous slag (8-22%. The data were processed in the calculation programs EXCEL and MATLAB, which resulted in a series of correlations between the desulphurization degree and the chemical composition of the slag, respectively the slag quantity both for the charges bubbled with Argon and the unbubbled ones.

    En general, el azufre es considerado un elemento nocivo para la calidad del acero y, por eso, en la práctica, se toman todas las medidas de orden tecnológico para su eliminación del baño metálico. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la composición química, de la cantidad de escoria y del estado de agitación del baño sobre el proceso de desulfuración en la cuchara para fundir por tratamiento con escoria sintética. Los experimentos se han realizado en una acería evacuando el acero en dos ollas (en una cuchara se efectuó la desulfuración con escoria sintética y a la otra se consideró como patrón y en un acería eléctrica y para la formación de la escoria sintética se utilizó una mezcla producida según muchas recetas, formada por: cal (50-75%, fluorina (0-17%, bauxita (0-32% y escoria aluminosa (8-22%. Los datos han sido procesados en los programas de c

  18. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzold, D.E.; Goward, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the mid latitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 μm, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future. (author)

  19. Energy spectra of quantum rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, A; Lüscher, S; Ihn, T; Heinzel, T; Ensslin, K; Wegscheider, W; Bichler, M

    2001-10-25

    Quantum mechanical experiments in ring geometries have long fascinated physicists. Open rings connected to leads, for example, allow the observation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, one of the best examples of quantum mechanical phase coherence. The phase coherence of electrons travelling through a quantum dot embedded in one arm of an open ring has also been demonstrated. The energy spectra of closed rings have only recently been studied by optical spectroscopy. The prediction that they allow persistent current has been explored in various experiments. Here we report magnetotransport experiments on closed rings in the Coulomb blockade regime. Our experiments show that a microscopic understanding of energy levels, so far limited to few-electron quantum dots, can be extended to a many-electron system. A semiclassical interpretation of our results indicates that electron motion in the rings is governed by regular rather than chaotic motion, an unexplored regime in many-electron quantum dots. This opens a way to experiments where even more complex structures can be investigated at a quantum mechanical level.

  20. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  1. Ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, J.P.; Seaton, M.J.; Adams, S.; Lutz, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study of NGC 7662 is based on UV results obtained from 15 IUE spectra and on observations of other workers at optical, IR and radio wavelengths. Improved techniques are used to extract IUE data for an extended source. Relative fluxes in the different apertures which have been used are obtained using the brightness contours of Coleman, Reay and Worswick. There is close agreement between the reddening deduced from the ratios He II (lambda 1640)/(lambda 4686) and (radio)/(Hβ) and the nebular continuum emission observed with the IUE large slots agrees closely with that predicted using absolute radio and Hβ fluxes. The fluxes in nebular emission lines observed with the small slots are smaller than expected from brightness distributions; it is concluded that, for an extended source, the small slots have aperture transmission factors of 0.85 for SWP and 0.46 for LWR. The central star is fainter than has been previously supposed (by more than two magnitudes). The blackbody He II Zanstra temperature of 113 000 K is consistent with the UV colour temperature. Previous work on colour temperatures of central stars is discussed critically. Two models are discussed. (author)

  2. Methodology for analyzing weak spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankovich, T.L.; Swainson, I.P.

    2000-02-01

    There is considerable interest in quantifying radionuclide transfer between environmental compartments. However, in many cases, it can be a challenge to detect concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides due to their low levels in environmental samples. As a result, it is valuable to develop analytical protocols to ensure consistent analysis of the areas under weak peaks. The current study has focused on testing how reproducibly peak areas and baselines can be determined using two analytical approaches. The first approach, which can be carried out using Maestro software, involves extracting net counts under a curve without fitting a functional form to the peak, whereas the second approach, which is used by most other peak fitting programs, determines net counts from spectra by fitting a Gaussian form to the data. It was found that the second approach produces more consistent peak area and baseline measurements, with the ability to de-convolute multiple, overlapping peaks. In addition, programs, such as Peak Fit, which can be used to fit a form to spectral data, often provide goodness of fit analyses, since the Gaussian form can be described using a characteristic equation against which peak data can be tested for their statistical significance. (author)

  3. Neutron and photon spectra in LINACs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega-Carrillo, H.R.; Martínez-Ovalle, S.A.; Lallena, A.M.; Mercado, G.A.; Benites-Rengifo, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10 –6 and 1 MeV. Neutron and the Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. - Highlights: ► With MCNPX code realistic models of two LINACs were built. ► Photon and neutron spectra below the flattening filter and at the isocenter were calculated. ► Neutron spectrum at the flattening filter was compared against the Tosi et al. source-term model. ► Tosi et al. model underestimates the neutron contribution below 1 MeV. ► Photon spectra look alike to those published in literature.

  4. Optical absorption spectra of Ag-11 isomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground-stale confi......The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground...

  5. Synthetic biology: an emerging engineering discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Allen A; Lu, Timothy K

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, synthetic biology has emerged as an engineering discipline for biological systems. Compared with other substrates, biology poses a unique set of engineering challenges resulting from an incomplete understanding of natural biological systems and tools for manipulating them. To address these challenges, synthetic biology is advancing from developing proof-of-concept designs to focusing on core platforms for rational and high-throughput biological engineering. These platforms span the entire biological design cycle, including DNA construction, parts libraries, computational design tools, and interfaces for manipulating and probing synthetic circuits. The development of these enabling technologies requires an engineering mindset to be applied to biology, with an emphasis on generalizable techniques in addition to application-specific designs. This review aims to discuss the progress and challenges in synthetic biology and to illustrate areas where synthetic biology may impact biomedical engineering and human health.

  6. Mammalian synthetic biology: emerging medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Zoltán; Pereira, Hugo Sant'Ana; Homma, Takayuki; Pedrigi, Ryan M; Krams, Rob

    2015-05-06

    In this review, we discuss new emerging medical applications of the rapidly evolving field of mammalian synthetic biology. We start with simple mammalian synthetic biological components and move towards more complex and therapy-oriented gene circuits. A comprehensive list of ON-OFF switches, categorized into transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational, is presented in the first sections. Subsequently, Boolean logic gates, synthetic mammalian oscillators and toggle switches will be described. Several synthetic gene networks are further reviewed in the medical applications section, including cancer therapy gene circuits, immuno-regulatory networks, among others. The final sections focus on the applicability of synthetic gene networks to drug discovery, drug delivery, receptor-activating gene circuits and mammalian biomanufacturing processes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Synthetic Organic Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Naeko; Takahashi, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Katsumi; Tanaka, Nobuko; Okubo, Ichiro; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2018-04-18

    Though synthetic organic colorants are used in various applications nowadays, there is the concern that impurities by-produced during the manufacturing and degradation products in some of these colorants are persistent organic pollutants and carcinogens. Thus, it is important to identify the synthetic organic colorants in various products, such as commercial paints, ink, cosmetics, food, textile, and plastics. Dyes, which are soluble in water and other solvents, could be analyzed by chromatographic methods. In contrast, it is difficult to analyze synthetic organic pigments by these methods because of their insolubility. This review is an overview of mass spectrometric analysis of synthetic organic pigments by various ionization methods. We highlight a recent study of textile samples by atmospheric pressure solid analysis probe MS. Furthermore, the mass spectral features of synthetic organic pigments and their separation from other components such as paint media and plasticizers are discussed.

  8. Effect of annealing on parameters of synthetic opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajiev, G M; Kurdyukov, D A; Travnikov, V V

    2006-01-01

    We report on the effect of high temperature annealing on the reflection spectra of synthetic opals. The analysis of conditions for simultaneous diffraction on the (111) planes parallel and inclined to the sample surface has shown that both annealed and unannealed opals are compressed along the growth [111] axis and the shape of the SiO 2 balls forming the opals' close packed structure can be described as spheroidal. The structure parameters were evaluated from the analysis of the angular dependences of the peak positions in the Bragg reflection spectra of unfilled and glycerol-filled samples. The major effect of annealing is due to the sintering (interpenetration) of the structural elements of opals. The maximum temperature of 1050 deg. C leads to a 10-fold increase in the degree of spheroid sintering. As a result, the interspheroid spacing decreases by over 10%, while the filling factor increases from 0.75 to 0.96 together with the effective dielectric constant of the opal as a whole (from 1.74 to 2.08). Sintering takes place not only between spheroids, but also inside spheroids between the α-SiO 2 nanoparticles constituting them. This results in a noticeable (by ∼7%) increase in the dielectric constant of opal spheroids

  9. INTERPRETATION OF INFRARED VIBRATION-ROTATION SPECTRA OF INTERSTELLAR AND CIRCUMSTELLAR MOLECULES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared vibration-rotation lines can be valuable probes of interstellar and circumstellar molecules, especially symmetric molecules, which have no pure rotational transitions. But most such observations have been interpreted with an isothermal absorbing slab model, which leaves out important radiative transfer and molecular excitation effects. A more realistic non-LTE and non-isothermal radiative transfer model has been constructed. The results of this model are in much better agreement with the observations, including cases where lines in one branch of a vibration-rotation band are in absorption and another in emission. In general, conclusions based on the isothermal absorbing slab model can be very misleading, but the assumption of LTE may not lead to such large errors, particularly if the radiation field temperature is close to the gas temperature.

  10. Science with Synthetic Stellar Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Robyn Ellyn

    2018-04-01

    A new generation of observational projects is poised to revolutionize our understanding of the resolved stellar populations of Milky-Way-like galaxies at an unprecedented level of detail, ushering in an era of precision studies of galaxy formation. In the Milky Way itself, astrometric, spectroscopic and photometric surveys will measure three-dimensional positions and velocities and numerous chemical abundances for stars from the disk to the halo, as well as for many satellite dwarf galaxies. In the Local Group and beyond, HST, JWST and eventually WFIRST will deliver pristine views of resolved stars. The groundbreaking scale and dimensionality of this new view of resolved stellar populations in galaxies challenge us to develop new theoretical tools to robustly compare these surveys to simulated galaxies, in order to take full advantage of our new ability to make detailed predictions for stellar populations within a cosmological context. I will describe a framework for generating realistic synthetic star catalogs and mock surveys from state-of-the-art cosmological-hydrodynamical simulations, and present several early scientific results from, and predictions for, resolved stellar surveys of our Galaxy and its neighbors.

  11. Synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Abhigyan; Vemparala, Satyavani; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Tew, Gregory N

    2008-01-01

    Infectious diseases and antibiotic resistance are now considered the most imperative global healthcare problem. In the search for new treatments, host defense, or antimicrobial, peptides have attracted considerable attention due to their various unique properties; however, attempts to develop in vivo therapies have been severely limited. Efforts to develop synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs) have increased significantly in the last decade, and this review will focus primarily on the structural evolution of SMAMPs and their membrane activity. This review will attempt to make a bridge between the design of SMAMPs and the fundamentals of SMAMP-membrane interactions. In discussions regarding the membrane interaction of SMAMPs, close attention will be paid to the lipid composition of the bilayer. Despite many years of study, the exact conformational aspects responsible for the high selectivity of these AMPs and SMAMPs toward bacterial cells over mammalian cells are still not fully understood. The ability to design SMAMPs that are potently antimicrobial, yet nontoxic to mammalian cells has been demonstrated with a variety of molecular scaffolds. Initial animal studies show very good tissue distribution along with more than a 4-log reduction in bacterial counts. The results on SMAMPs are not only extremely promising for novel antibiotics, but also provide an optimistic picture for the greater challenge of general proteomimetics.

  12. Synthetic sustained gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy today is hampered by the need of a safe and efficient gene delivery system that can provide a sustained therapeutic effect without cytotoxicity or unwanted immune responses. Bolus gene delivery in solution results in the loss of delivered factors via lymphatic system and may cause undesired effects by the escape of bioactive molecules to distant sites. Controlled gene delivery systems, acting as localized depot of genes, provide an extended sustained release of genes, giving prolonged maintenance of the therapeutic level of encoded proteins. They also limit the DNA degradation in the nuclease rich extra-cellular environment. While attempts have been made to adapt existing controlled drug delivery technologies, more novel approaches are being investigated for controlled gene delivery. DNA encapsulated in nano/micro spheres of polymers have been administered systemically/orally to be taken up by the targeted tissues and provide sustained release once internalized. Alternatively, DNA entrapped in hydrogels or scaffolds have been injected/implanted in tissues/cavities as platforms for gene delivery. The present review examines these different modalities for sustained delivery of viral and non-viral gene-delivery vectors. Design parameters and release mechanisms of different systems made with synthetic or natural polymers are presented along with their prospective applications and opportunities for continuous development.

  13. Online professionalism: A synthetic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, Katherine C; Tuck, Matthew G

    2015-04-01

    The rise of social media has increased connectivity and blurred personal and professional boundaries, bringing new challenges for medical professionalism. Whether traditional professionalism principles apply to the online social media space remains unknown. The purpose of this synthetic literature review was to characterize the original peer-reviewed research studies published between 1 January 2000-1 November 2014 on online professionalism, to assess methodologies and approaches used, and to provide insights to guide future studies in this area. The investigators searched three databases and performed manual searches of bibliographies to identify the 32 studies included. Most studies originated in the USA. Cross-sectional surveys and analyses of publicly available online content were the most common methodologies employed. Studies covered the general areas of use and privacy, assessment of unprofessional online behaviours, consensus-gathering of what constitutes unprofessional or inappropriate online behaviours, and education and policies. Studies were of variable quality; only around half of survey studies had response rates of 50% or greater. Medical trainees were the most common population studied. Future directions for research include public perspectives of online professionalism, impact on patient trust, and how to use social media productively as medical professionals.

  14. Fluctuation analysis of rotational spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doessing, T.; Bracco, A.; Broglia, R.A.; Matsuo, M.

    1996-01-01

    The compound state rotational degree of freedom is ''damped'' in the sense that the electric quadrupole decay of a single quantum state with angular momentum I exhibits a spectrum of final states all having spin I-2. In actual experiments, the cascade of γ-rays associated with each of the members of the ensemble of compound nuclei uses each of the ''discrete'' transitions many more times than the ''continuum'' transitions. Relatively large and small fluctuations in the recorded coincidence spectrum ensue, respectively. The analysis of the fluctuations will be shown to be instrumental to gain insight into the phenomenon of rotational damping. For this purpose, two- and higher-fold coincidence spectra emitted from rotating nuclei are analyzed with respect to the count fluctuations. The coincidences from consecutive γ-rays emitted from discrete rotational bands generate ridges in the E γ1 .E γ2 spectrum, and the fluctuation analysis of the ridges is based upon the ansatz of a random selection of transition energies from band to band. This ansatz is supported by a cranked mean-field calculation for the nucleus 168 Yb, as well as by analyzing resolved bands in 168 Yb and its neighbors. The fluctuation analysis of the central valley (E γ1 =E γ2 ) is based upon the ansatz of fluctuations in the intensity of the transitions of Porter-Thomas type superposed on a smooth spectrum of transition energies. This ansatz is again supported by a mixed-band calculation. The mathematical treatment of count fluctuations is formulated in general (orig.)

  15. Area spectra of near extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Deyou; Yang, Haitang; Zu, Xiaotao

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by Maggiore's new interpretation of quasinormal modes, we investigate area spectra of a near extremal Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole and a higher-dimensional near extremal Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter black hole. The result shows that the area spectra are equally spaced and irrelevant to the parameters of the black holes. (orig.)

  16. Composite Spectra Paper 1: HR 6902

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    spectra; in many cases we have used the maximum width permitted by the optics of ... 10 mЕ, corresponding to 1 µm the plate, are the norm. ..... an inequality ..... on the spectra of HR 6902, we have thought it appropriate to weight the four ...

  17. Thermoluminescence spectra measured with a Michelson interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschberger, P.

    1991-01-01

    A Michelson interferometer was redesigned to prove its capabilities in the measurement of short-lived, low-intensity thermoluminescence spectra. Interferograms are collected during heating up the thermoluminescent probe in a heater plate. A personal computer controls the data acquisition and processes the Fourier transform. As the results show, even a comparatively simple and limited setup leads to relevant and reproducible spectra. (author)

  18. Near IR spectra of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrillat, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The author reports on recent observations from the near IR spectra of symbiotic stars. The helium and oxygen lines useful for the construction of theoretical models are identified. Observations for cool stars and novae (nebular phase) are outlined and the spectra of specific symbiotic stars between lambdalambda 8000-11000 are presented and discussed. (Auth./C.F.)

  19. Aircraft Measurements of Atmospheric Kinetic Energy Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Lilly, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    Wind velocity data obtained from a jet airliner are used to construct kinetic energy spectra over the range of wavelengths from 2.5 to 2500 km. The spectra exhibit an approximate -5/3 slope for wavelengths of less than about 150 km, steepening to about -2.2 at larger scales. These results support...

  20. Synthetic Biology: Mapping the Scientific Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Burton, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    This article uses data from Thomson Reuters Web of Science to map and analyse the scientific landscape for synthetic biology. The article draws on recent advances in data visualisation and analytics with the aim of informing upcoming international policy debates on the governance of synthetic biology by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. We use mapping techniques to identify how synthetic biology can best be understood and the range of institutions, researchers and funding agencies involved. Debates under the Convention are likely to focus on a possible moratorium on the field release of synthetic organisms, cells or genomes. Based on the empirical evidence we propose that guidance could be provided to funding agencies to respect the letter and spirit of the Convention on Biological Diversity in making research investments. Building on the recommendations of the United States Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues we demonstrate that it is possible to promote independent and transparent monitoring of developments in synthetic biology using modern information tools. In particular, public and policy understanding and engagement with synthetic biology can be enhanced through the use of online interactive tools. As a step forward in this process we make existing data on the scientific literature on synthetic biology available in an online interactive workbook so that researchers, policy makers and civil society can explore the data and draw conclusions for themselves. PMID:22539946

  1. PCA: Principal Component Analysis for spectra modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Peter D.; Oliver, Seb; Farrah, Duncan; Wang, Lingyu; Efstathiou, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The mid-infrared spectra of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) contain a variety of spectral features that can be used as diagnostics to characterize the spectra. However, such diagnostics are biased by our prior prejudices on the origin of the features. Moreover, by using only part of the spectrum they do not utilize the full information content of the spectra. Blind statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) consider the whole spectrum, find correlated features and separate them out into distinct components. This code, written in IDL, classifies principal components of IRS spectra to define a new classification scheme using 5D Gaussian mixtures modelling. The five PCs and average spectra for the four classifications to classify objects are made available with the code.

  2. General Notes on Processes and Their Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Cepciansky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency spectrum performs one of the main characteristics of a process. The aim of the paper is to show the coherence between the process and its own spectrum and how the behaviour and properties of a process itself can be deduced from its spectrum. Processes are categorized and general principles of their spectra calculation and recognition are given. The main stress is put on power spectra of electric and optic signals, as they also perform a kind of processes. These spectra can be directly measured, observed and examined by means of spectral analyzers and they are very important characteristics which can not be omitted at transmission techniques in telecommunication technologies. Further, the paper also deals with non electric processes, mainly with processes and spectra at mass servicing and how these spectra can be utilised in praxis.

  3. Design spectra development considering short time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, E.O.

    1983-01-01

    Two separate programs, MODQKE and MDOF, were written to provide a capability of obtaining equipment spectra from design spectra. MODQKE generates or modifies acceleration histories to conform with design spectra pertaining to, say, a foundation. MDOF is a simple linear modal superposition program that solves for equipment support histories using the design spectra conforming histories as input. Equipment spectra, then, are obtained from the support histories using MODQKE. MODQKE was written to modify or provide new histories with special attention paid to short seismic records. A technique from the open literature was borrowed to generate an initial history that approximates a given response spectrum. Further refinement is done with smoothing cycles in which several correction signals are added to the history in a way that produces a least squares fit between actual and prescribed spectra. Provision is made for history shaping, a baseline correction, and final scaling. MODQKE performance has been demonstrated with seven examples having zero to ten percent damping ratios, and 2.5 seconds to 20 seconds durations and a variety of target spectra. The examples show the program is inexpensive to use. MDOF is a simple modal superposition program. It has no eigensolver, and the user supplies mode shapes, frequencies, and participation factors as input. Floor spectra can be generated from design spectra by using a history from MODQKE that conforms to the design spectrum as input to MDOF. Floor motions from MDOF can be fed back to MODQKE without modification to obtain the floor spectra. A simple example is given to show how equipment mass effects can be incorporated into the MDOF solution. Any transient solution capability can be used to replace MDOF. For example, a direct transient approach may be desirable if both the equipment and floor structures are to be included in the model with different damping fractions. (orig./HP)

  4. Synthetic Biology: game changer in intelectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Landeweerd

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology can be considered a game changer that plays an important role in the current NBIC, or BINC convergence of nano-, bio-, info and cognitive sciences. Although most synthetic biology experts are unaware of it, the field appeals to the imagination in its adherence to targets that were usually associated with premodern alchemist science. This paper elaborates several aspects of synthetic biology as well as its consequences for long held notions of intellectual property and the ontological categories of scientific discovery on the one hand and engineering on the other, the distinction between natural and artificial, the grown and the made.

  5. Defining the Synthetic Biology Supply Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen E.; Bonheyo, George T.; Diggans, James; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Gehrig, Lindsey; Greaves, Mark

    2017-08-01

    In this article, a team of experts in synthetic biology, data analytics, and national security describe the overall supply chain surrounding synthetic biology. The team analyzes selected interactions within that network to better understand the risks raised by synthetic biology and identifies opportunities for risk mitigation. To introduce the concept, the article will briefly describe how an understanding of supply chains has been important in promoting nuclear nonproliferation objectives. The article concludes by assessing the structure and networks identified in the supply chains to reveal potential opportunities for future biodefense research and development; options for additional information exchange; and means to interdict, detect, or deter suspicious activity.

  6. [Smart therapeutics based on synthetic gene circuits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shuguang; Xie, Zhen

    2017-03-25

    Synthetic biology has an important impact on biology research since its birth. Applying the thought and methods that reference from electrical engineering, synthetic biology uncovers many regulatory mechanisms of life systems, transforms and expands a series of biological components. Therefore, it brings a wide range of biomedical applications, including providing new ideas for disease diagnosis and treatment. This review describes the latest advances in the field of disease diagnosis and therapy based on mammalian cell or bacterial synthetic gene circuits, and provides new ideas for future smart therapy design.

  7. A living foundry for Synthetic Biological Materials: A synthetic biology roadmap to new advanced materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A. Le Feuvre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials, where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres. This article, which developed from an international workshop held in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2017 [1], sets out to identify opportunities in the new materials from biology era. It considers requirements, early understanding and foresight of the challenges faced in delivering a Discovery to Manufacturing Pipeline for synthetic biological materials using synthetic biology approaches. This challenge spans the complete production cycle from intelligent and predictive design, fabrication, evaluation and production of synthetic biological materials to new ways of bringing these products to market. Pathway opportunities are identified that will help foster expertise sharing and infrastructure development to accelerate the delivery of a new generation of synthetic biological materials and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology and advanced materials research to achieve this goal. Keywords: Synthetic biology, Materials, Biological materials, Biomaterials, Advanced materials

  8. Using Separable Nonnegative Matrix Factorization Techniques for the Analysis of Time-Resolved Raman Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, R.; Hildebrandt, P.; Kuhlmann, U.; Liesen, J.

    2016-09-01

    The key challenge of time-resolved Raman spectroscopy is the identification of the constituent species and the analysis of the kinetics of the underlying reaction network. In this work we present an integral approach that allows for determining both the component spectra and the rate constants simultaneously from a series of vibrational spectra. It is based on an algorithm for non-negative matrix factorization which is applied to the experimental data set following a few pre-processing steps. As a prerequisite for physically unambiguous solutions, each component spectrum must include one vibrational band that does not significantly interfere with vibrational bands of other species. The approach is applied to synthetic "experimental" spectra derived from model systems comprising a set of species with component spectra differing with respect to their degree of spectral interferences and signal-to-noise ratios. In each case, the species involved are connected via monomolecular reaction pathways. The potential and limitations of the approach for recovering the respective rate constants and component spectra are discussed.

  9. Optimization of deconvolution software used in the study of spectra of soil samples from Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANDRIAMADY NARIMANANA, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to perform the deconvolution of gamma spectra by using the deconvolution peak program. Synthetic spectra, reference materials and ten soil samples with various U-238 activities from three regions of Madagascar were used. This work concerns : soil sample spectra with low activities of about (47±2) Bq.kg -1 from Ankatso, soil sample spectra with average activities of about (125±2)Bq.kg -1 from Antsirabe and soil sample spectra with high activities of about (21100± 120) Bq.kg -1 from Vinaninkarena. Singlet and multiplet peaks with various intensities were found in each soil spectrum. Interactive Peak Fit (IPF) program in Genie-PC from Canberra Industries allows to deconvoluate many multiplet regions : quartet within 235 keV-242 keV, Pb-214 and Pb-212 within 294 keV -301 keV; Th-232 daughters within 582 keV - 584 keV; Ac-228 within 904 keV -911 keV and within 964 keV-970 keV and Bi-214 within 1401 keV - 1408 keV. Those peaks were used to quantify considered radionuclides. However, IPF cannot resolve Ra-226 peak at 186,1 keV. [fr

  10. [Progress in synthetic biology of "973 Funding Program" in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Ying

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews progresses made in China from 2011 in areas of "Synthetic Biology" supported by State Basic Research 973 Program. Till the end of 2014, 9 "synthetic biology" projects have been initiated with emphasis on "microbial manufactures" with the 973 Funding Program. Combined with the very recent launch of one project on "mammalian cell synthetic biology" and another on "plant synthetic biology", Chinese "synthetic biology" research reflects its focus on "manufactures" while not giving up efforts on "synthetic biology" of complex systems.

  11. CRISPR and the Rebirth of Synthetic Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidari, Raheleh; Shaw, David Martin; Elger, Bernice Simone

    Emergence of novel genome engineering technologies such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) has refocused attention on unresolved ethical complications of synthetic biology. Biosecurity concerns, deontological issues and human right aspects of genome editing have

  12. Thermodynamic Analysis of Ionic Compounds: Synthetic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Claude H.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how thermodynamic cycles can be used to understand trends in heats of formation and aqueous solubilities and, most importantly, how they may be used to choose synthetic routes to new ionic compounds. (JN)

  13. Synthetic biology platform technologies for antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, Dana; Shis, David; Collins, James J

    2016-10-01

    The growing prevalence of antibiotic resistance calls for new approaches in the development of antimicrobial therapeutics. Likewise, improved diagnostic measures are essential in guiding the application of targeted therapies and preventing the evolution of therapeutic resistance. Discovery platforms are also needed to form new treatment strategies and identify novel antimicrobial agents. By applying engineering principles to molecular biology, synthetic biologists have developed platforms that improve upon, supplement, and will perhaps supplant traditional broad-spectrum antibiotics. Efforts in engineering bacteriophages and synthetic probiotics demonstrate targeted antimicrobial approaches that can be fine-tuned using synthetic biology-derived principles. Further, the development of paper-based, cell-free expression systems holds promise in promoting the clinical translation of molecular biology tools for diagnostic purposes. In this review, we highlight emerging synthetic biology platform technologies that are geared toward the generation of new antimicrobial therapies, diagnostics, and discovery channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthetic Sediments and Stochastic Groundwater Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    For over twenty years the groundwater community has pursued the somewhat elusive goal of describing the effects of aquifer heterogeneity on subsurface flow and chemical transport. While small perturbation stochastic moment methods have significantly advanced theoretical understanding, why is it that stochastic applications use instead simulations of flow and transport through multiple realizations of synthetic geology? Allan Gutjahr was a principle proponent of the Fast Fourier Transform method for the synthetic generation of aquifer properties and recently explored new, more geologically sound, synthetic methods based on multi-scale Markov random fields. Focusing on sedimentary aquifers, how has the state-of-the-art of synthetic generation changed and what new developments can be expected, for example, to deal with issues like conceptual model uncertainty, the differences between measurement and modeling scales, and subgrid scale variability? What will it take to get stochastic methods, whether based on moments, multiple realizations, or some other approach, into widespread application?

  15. Philosophy of Systems and Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This entry aims to clarify how systems and synthetic biology contribute to and extend discussions within philosophy of science. Unlike fields such as developmental biology or molecular biology, systems and synthetic biology are not easily demarcated by a focus on a specific subject area or level...... of organization. Rather, they are characterized by the development and application of mathematical, computational, and synthetic modeling strategies in response to complex problems and challenges within the life sciences. Proponents of systems and synthetic biology often stress the necessity of a perspective...... that goes beyond the scope of molecular biology and genetic engineering, respectively. With the emphasis on systems and interaction networks, the approaches explicitly engage in one of the oldest philosophical discussions on the relationship between parts and wholes, or between reductionism and holism...

  16. Defining the Synthetic Biology Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazar, Sarah L; Hund, Gretchen E; Bonheyo, George T; Diggans, James; Bartholomew, Rachel A; Gehrig, Lindsey; Greaves, Mark

    Several recent articles have described risks posed by synthetic biology and spurred vigorous discussion in the scientific, commercial, and government communities about how to best detect, prevent, regulate, and respond to these risks. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) deep experience working with dual-use technologies for the nuclear industry has shown that analysis of supply chains can reveal security vulnerabilities and ways to mitigate security risk without hindering beneficial research and commerce. In this article, a team of experts in synthetic biology, data analytics, and national security describe the overall supply chain surrounding synthetic biology to illustrate new insights about the effectiveness of current regulations, the possible need for different screening approaches, and new technical solutions that could help identify or mitigate risks in the synthetic biology supply chain.

  17. Spectra of conformal sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlapak, Vaclav

    2015-04-01

    In this thesis the spectra of conformal sigma models defined on (generalized) symmetric spaces are analysed. The spaces where sigma models are conformal without the addition of a Wess-Zumino term are supermanifolds, in other words spaces that include fermionic directions. After a brief review of the general construction of vertex operators and the background field expansion, we compute the diagonal terms of the one-loop anomalous dimensions of sigma models on semi-symmetric spaces. We find that the results are formally identical to the symmetric case. However, unlike for sigma models on symmetric spaces, off diagonal terms that lead to operator mixing are also present. These are not computed here. We then present a detailed analysis of the one-loop spectrum of the supersphere S 3 vertical stroke 2 sigma model as one of the simplest examples. The analysis illustrates the power and simplicity of the construction. We use this data to revisit a duality with the OSP(4 vertical stroke 2) Gross-Neveu model that was proposed by Candu and Saleur. With the help of a recent all-loop result for the anomalous dimension of (1)/(2)BPS operators of Gross-Neveu models, we are able to recover the entire zero-mode spectrum of the supersphere model. We also argue that the sigma model constraints and its equations of motion are implemented correctly in the Gross-Neveu model, including the one-loop data. The duality is further supported by a new all-loop result for the anomalous dimension of the ground states of the sigma model. However, higher-gradient operators cannot be completely recovered. It is possible that this discrepancy is related to a known instability of the sigma model. The instability of sigma models is due to symmetry preserving high-gradient operators that become relevant at arbitrarily small values of the coupling. This feature has been observed long ago in one-loop calculations of the O(N)-vector model and soon been realized to be a generic property of sigma models

  18. Synthetic Sling Failure - Evaluations and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Mackey, Thomas C. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-10-26

    The information and evaluations provided in this report were compiled to address the recurring problem of synthetic sling failure. As safety is the number one priority in all work aspects, a solution must be devised to prevent accidents from occurring. A total of thirteen cases regarding synthetic sling failure were evaluated in order to determine their causes, effects, and preventative measures. From the collected data, it was found that all cases in which the synthetic sling contacted the edge of its load resulted in sling failure. It is required that adequate synthetic sling protection devices be used to protect slings in any lift where the sling comes in direct contact with the edge or corner of its load. However, there are no consensus codes or standards stating the type, material, or purpose of the type of protective device used to protect the sling from being cut. Numerous industry standards and codes provide vague descriptions on how to protect synthetic slings. Without a clear, concise statement of how to protect synthetic slings, it is common for inadequate materials and sling protection devices to be used in an attempt to meet the intent of these requirements. The use of an inadequate sling protection device is the main cause of synthetic sling failure in all researched cases. Commercial sling protection devices come in many shapes and sizes, and have a variety of names, as well as advertised uses. 'Abrasion pads' and 'wear protectors' are two different names for products with the same intended purpose. There is no distinguishable way to determine the extent of sling protection which these devices will provide, or what specific scenarios they are made for. This creates room for error in a field where error is unacceptable. This report provides a recommended action for hoisting and rigging activities which require synthetic slings to contact a load, as well as recommended changes to industry standards which will benefit overall

  19. Statistical properties of Fermi GBM GRBs' spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, István I.; Balázs, Lajos G.; Horvath, Istvan; Tóth, L. Viktor; Bagoly, Zsolt

    2018-03-01

    Statistical studies of gamma-ray burst (GRB) spectra may result in important information on the physics of GRBs. The Fermi GBM catalogue contains GRB parameters (peak energy, spectral indices, and intensity) estimated fitting the gamma-ray spectral energy distribution of the total emission (fluence, flnc), and during the time of the peak flux (pflx). Using contingency tables, we studied the relationship of the models best-fitting pflx and flnc time intervals. Our analysis revealed an ordering of the spectra into a power law - Comptonized - smoothly broken power law - Band series. This result was further supported by a correspondence analysis of the pflx and flnc spectra categorical variables. We performed a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to find a relationship between categorical (spectral) and model independent physical data. LDA resulted in highly significant physical differences among the spectral types, that is more pronounced in the case of the pflx spectra, than for the flnc spectra. We interpreted this difference as caused by the temporal variation of the spectrum during the outburst. This spectral variability is confirmed by the differences in the low-energy spectral index and peak energy, between the pflx and flnc spectra. We found that the synchrotron radiation is significant in GBM spectra. The mean low-energy spectral index is close to the canonical value of α = -2/3 during the peak flux. However, α is ˜ -0.9 for the spectra of the fluences. We interpret this difference as showing that the effect of cooling is important only for the fluence spectra.

  20. THE LICK/SDSS LIBRARY. I. SYNTHETIC INDEX DEFINITION AND CALIBRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchini, M.; Morossi, C.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Malagnini, M. L.; Chavez, M.

    2010-01-01

    A new synthetic library of spectral feature indices, Lick/Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), for stellar population studies is presented. Lick/SDSS is computed from synthetic spectra with resolving power R = 1800 to fully exploit the content of the spectroscopic SDSS-DR7 stellar database. The Lick/SDSS system is based on the Lick/IDS one complemented with a UV index in the wavelength region of Ca II H and K lines. The system is well suited to study α-element abundances in F, G, and K stars. The reliability of synthetic indices in reproducing the behaviors of observational ones with effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity, and α-element abundances is tested by using empirical stellar libraries (ELODIE, INDO-U.S., and MILES) and the SDSS-DR7 spectroscopic database. The importance of using the same temperature scale in comparing theoretical and observational indices is discussed. The full consistency between Lick/SDSS and observational indices derived from the above mentioned stellar libraries is assessed. The comparison with indices computed from SDSS-DR7 spectra evidences good consistency for 'dwarf' stars and significant disagreement for 'giant' stars due to systematic overestimation of the stellar T eff by the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline.

  1. The SELGIFS data challenge: generating synthetic observations of CALIFA galaxies from hydrodynamical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, G.; Casado, J.; Ascasibar, Y.; García-Benito, R.; Galbany, L.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Sánchez, S. F.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Scannapieco, C.

    2018-06-01

    In this work we present a set of synthetic observations that mimic the properties of the Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) survey CALIFA, generated using radiative transfer techniques applied to hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies in a cosmological context. The simulated spatially-resolved spectra include stellar and nebular emission, kinematic broadening of the lines, and dust extinction and scattering. The results of the radiative transfer simulations have been post-processed to reproduce the main properties of the CALIFA V500 and V1200 observational setups. The data has been further formatted to mimic the CALIFA survey in terms of field of view size, spectral range and sampling. We have included the effect of the spatial and spectral Point Spread Functions affecting CALIFA observations, and added detector noise after characterizing it on a sample of 367 galaxies. The simulated datacubes are suited to be analysed by the same algorithms used on real IFS data. In order to provide a benchmark to compare the results obtained applying IFS observational techniques to our synthetic datacubes, and test the calibration and accuracy of the analysis tools, we have computed the spatially-resolved properties of the simulations. Hence, we provide maps derived directly from the hydrodynamical snapshots or the noiseless spectra, in a way that is consistent with the values recovered by the observational analysis algorithms. Both the synthetic observations and the product datacubes are public and can be found in the collaboration website http://astro.ft.uam.es/selgifs/data_challenge/.

  2. Investigation of the resistance of some naturally occurring and synthetic inorganic ion exchangers against gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilchi, A.; Khanchi, A.; Ghanadi Maragheh, M.; Bagheri, A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of various doses of gamma radiation on the ion-exchange capacity, distribution coefficient values, elution behaviour, physical effect, pH titration and infrared spectra of some synthetic inorganic ion exchangers, namely the cerium substituted phosphates; and naturally occurring inorganic ion exchangers, zeolites from different parts of Iran, have been studied systematically. No significant change has been observed in the ion-exchange capacity (with the exception of CeP(Na), CeP(Di·Na) and zeolite 5 (deposits of arababad talas)), elution behaviour, physical effect, chemical stability and the infrared spectra of the synthetic ion exchangers irradiated up to a total dose of 200 kGy, while a change has been observed in the pH-titration and distribution behaviour. The increase in pH is sharper for irradiated samples with divalent cations than for the normal samples. Furthermore, the K d values, and hence the selectivity towards certain cations increase with the total dose absorbed, reaching its optimum selectivity with the dose of 50-100 kGy. The natural zeolites chosen for these studies, show, similar pattern to those of synthetic ion exchangers, and in some cases an extremely high selectivity toward certain cations, like Be II . These make, zeolites, which are naturally occurring ion exchangers more viable economically, and extremely useful alternative in this industry

  3. The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) provides a community standard for communicating designs in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Clancy, Kevin P; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline Y; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Roehner, Nicholas; Wilson, Mandy L; Adam, Laura; Anderson, J Christopher; Bartley, Bryan A; Beal, Jacob; Chandran, Deepak; Chen, Joanna; Densmore, Douglas; Endy, Drew; Grünberg, Raik; Hallinan, Jennifer; Hillson, Nathan J; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Kuchinsky, Allan; Lux, Matthew; Misirli, Goksel; Peccoud, Jean; Plahar, Hector A; Sirin, Evren; Stan, Guy-Bart; Villalobos, Alan; Wipat, Anil; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris J; Sauro, Herbert M

    2014-06-01

    The re-use of previously validated designs is critical to the evolution of synthetic biology from a research discipline to an engineering practice. Here we describe the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a proposed data standard for exchanging designs within the synthetic biology community. SBOL represents synthetic biology designs in a community-driven, formalized format for exchange between software tools, research groups and commercial service providers. The SBOL Developers Group has implemented SBOL as an XML/RDF serialization and provides software libraries and specification documentation to help developers implement SBOL in their own software. We describe early successes, including a demonstration of the utility of SBOL for information exchange between several different software tools and repositories from both academic and industrial partners. As a community-driven standard, SBOL will be updated as synthetic biology evolves to provide specific capabilities for different aspects of the synthetic biology workflow.

  4. Scaling properties of the transverse mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffner-Bielich, J.

    2002-01-01

    Motivated from the formation of an initial state of gluon-saturated matter, we discuss scaling relations for the transverse mass spectra at BNL's relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC). We show on linear plots, that the transverse mass spectra for various hadrons can be described by an universal function in m t . The transverse mass spectra for different centralities can be rescaled into each other. Finally, we demonstrate that m t -scaling is also present in proton-antiproton collider data and compare it to m t -scaling at RHIC. (orig.)

  5. IRAS low-resolution spectra of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Volk, K.

    1989-01-01

    The spectra of external galaxies are selected and extracted from the IRAS LRS database. Twenty-one objects present viable spectra. One is a peculiar star-forming E-S0 galaxy. The remainder are all starburst or H II region galaxies. Their average spectrum demonstrates the importance of the PAH emission bands in the 8-23-micron region and reinforces the conclusion reached from ground-based spectra, that there is a strong correlation between the PAH bands and the starburst or H II region character of a galaxy. 32 refs

  6. Parametrization relating the fermionic mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppe, A.

    1993-01-01

    When parametrizing the fermionic mass spectra in terms of the unit matrix and a recursive matrix scrR 0 , which corresponds to an underlying scaling pattern in the mass spectra, each fermionic sector is characterized by three parameters: k, α, and R. Using the set of relations displayed by the parameters of the different sectors, it is possible to formulate a ''family Lagrangian'' which for each sector encompasses all the families. Relations between quark masses are furthermore deduced from these ''family Lagrangians.'' Using the relations between the parameters of the different charge sectors, it is also possible to ''derive'' the quark mass spectra from the (charged) leptonic mass spectrum

  7. Synthetic Biology and the Translational Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari Feidt, Raheleh; Ienca, Marcello; Elger, Bernice Simone; Folcher, Marc

    2017-12-18

    Advances at the interface between the biological sciences and engineering are giving rise to emerging research fields such as synthetic biology. Harnessing the potential of synthetic biology requires timely and adequate translation into clinical practice. However, the translational research enterprise is currently facing fundamental obstacles that slow down the transition of scientific discoveries from the laboratory to the patient bedside. These obstacles including scarce financial resources and deficiency of organizational and logistic settings are widely discussed as primary impediments to translational research. In addition, a number of socio-ethical considerations inherent in translational research need to be addressed. As the translational capacity of synthetic biology is tightly linked to its social acceptance and ethical approval, ethical limitations may-together with financial and organizational problems-be co-determinants of suboptimal translation. Therefore, an early assessment of such limitations will contribute to proactively favor successful translation and prevent the promising potential of synthetic biology from remaining under-expressed. Through the discussion of two case-specific inventions in synthetic biology and their associated ethical implications, we illustrate the socio-ethical challenges ahead in the process of implementing synthetic biology into clinical practice. Since reducing the translational lag is essential for delivering the benefits of basic biomedical research to society at large and promoting global health, we advocate a moral obligation to accelerating translational research: the "translational imperative."

  8. Synthetic biology era: Improving antibiotic's world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Trampe, Silvia; Ceapa, Corina D; Manzo-Ruiz, Monserrat; Sánchez, Sergio

    2017-06-15

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogen microorganisms is problematic in the context of the current spectrum of available medication. The poor specificity and the high toxicity of some available molecules have made imperative the search for new strategies to improve the specificity and to pursue the discovery of novel compounds with increased bioactivity. Using living cells as platforms, synthetic biology has counteracted this problem by offering novel pathways to create synthetic systems with improved and desired functions. Among many other biotechnological approaches, the advances in synthetic biology have made it possible to design and construct novel biological systems in order to look for new drugs with increased bioactivity. Advancements have also been made in the redesigning of RNA and DNA molecules in order to engineer antibiotic clusters for antibiotic overexpression. As for the production of these antibacterial compounds, yeasts and filamentous fungi as well as gene therapy are utilized to enhance protein solubility. Specific delivery is achieved by creating chimeras using plant genes into bacterial hosts. Some of these synthetic systems are currently in clinical trials, proving the proficiency of synthetic biology in terms of both pharmacological activities as well as an increase in the biosafety of treatments. It is possible that we may just be seeing the tip of the iceberg, and synthetic biology applications will overpass expectations beyond our present knowledge. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Synthetic cannabis and acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernson-Leung, Miya E; Leung, Lester Y; Kumar, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    An association between marijuana use and stroke has been previously reported. However, the health risks of newer synthetic cannabinoid compounds are less well known. We describe 2 cases that introduce a previously unreported association between synthetic cannabis use and ischemic stroke in young adults. A 22-year-old woman presented with dysarthria, left hemiplegia, and left hemianesthesia within hours of first use of synthetic cannabis. She was healthy and without identified stroke risk factors other than oral contraceptive use and a patent foramen ovale without venous thromboses. A 26-year-old woman presented with nonfluent aphasia, left facial droop, and left hemianesthesia approximately 12 hours after first use of synthetic cannabis. Her other stroke risk factors included migraine with aura, oral contraceptive use, smoking, and a family history of superficial thrombophlebitis. Both women were found to have acute, large-territory infarctions of the right middle cerebral artery. Our 2 cases had risk factors for ischemic stroke but were otherwise young and healthy and the onset of their deficits occurred within hours after first-time exposure to synthetic cannabis. Synthetic cannabis use is an important consideration in the investigation of stroke in young adults. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A living foundry for Synthetic Biological Materials: A synthetic biology roadmap to new advanced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Feuvre, Rosalind A; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2018-06-01

    Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials , where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres. This article, which developed from an international workshop held in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2017 [1], sets out to identify opportunities in the new materials from biology era. It considers requirements, early understanding and foresight of the challenges faced in delivering a Discovery to Manufacturing Pipeline for synthetic biological materials using synthetic biology approaches. This challenge spans the complete production cycle from intelligent and predictive design, fabrication, evaluation and production of synthetic biological materials to new ways of bringing these products to market. Pathway opportunities are identified that will help foster expertise sharing and infrastructure development to accelerate the delivery of a new generation of synthetic biological materials and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology and advanced materials research to achieve this goal.

  11. Power spectra of currents off Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Current measurements were carried out using a recording current meter across the continental shelf off Bombay, Maharashtra, India at 4 stations from an anchored ship. Power spectra were computed for selected lengths of records. Spectral energy...

  12. Contribution to the study of turbulence spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, R.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus suitable for turbulence measurement between ranges of 1 to 5000 cps and from 6 to 16,000 cps was developed and is described. Turbulence spectra downstream of the grills were examined with reference to their general characteristics, their LF qualities, and the effects of periodic turbulence. Medium and HF are discussed. Turbulence spectra in the boundary layers are similarly examined, with reference to their fluctuations at right angles to the wall, and to lateral fluctuations. Turbulence spectra in a boundary layer with suction to the wall is discussed. Induced turbulence, and turbulence spectra at high Reynolds numbers. Calculations are presented relating to the effect of filtering on the value of the correlations in time and space.

  13. Experimental phase diagram for random laser spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dardiry, Ramy G S; Mooiweer, Ronald; Lagendijk, Ad

    2012-01-01

    We systematically study the presence of narrow spectral features in a wide variety of random laser samples. Less gain or stronger scattering are shown to lead to a crossover from spiky to smooth spectra. A decomposition of random laser spectra into a set of Lorentzians provides unprecedented detail in the analysis of random laser spectra. We suggest an interpretation in terms of mode competition that enables an understanding of the observed experimental trends. In this interpretation, smooth random laser spectra are a consequence of competing modes for which the loss and gain are proportional. Spectral spikes are associated with modes that are uncoupled from the mode competition in the bulk of the sample. (paper)

  14. On two-spectra inverse problems

    OpenAIRE

    Guliyev, Namig J.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a two-spectra inverse problem for the one-dimensional Schr\\"{o}dinger equation with boundary conditions containing rational Herglotz--Nevanlinna functions of the eigenvalue parameter and provide a complete solution of this problem.

  15. Angular Spectra of Polarized Galactic Foregrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jung; Lazarian, A.

    2003-01-01

    It is believed that magnetic field lines are twisted and bend by turbulent motions in the Galaxy. Therefore, both Galactic synchrotron emission and thermal emission from dust reflects statistics of Galactic turbulence. Our simple model of Galactic turbulence, motivated by results of our simulations, predicts that Galactic disk and halo exhibit different angular power spectra. We show that observed angular spectra of synchrotron emission are compatible with our model. We also show that our mod...

  16. Identifying Broadband Rotational Spectra with Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Prozument, Kirill

    2017-06-01

    A typical broadband rotational spectrum may contain several thousand observable transitions, spanning many species. Identifying the individual spectra, particularly when the dynamic range reaches 1,000:1 or even 10,000:1, can be challenging. One approach is to apply automated fitting routines. In this approach, combinations of 3 transitions can be created to form a "triple", which allows fitting of the A, B, and C rotational constants in a Watson-type Hamiltonian. On a standard desktop computer, with a target molecule of interest, a typical AUTOFIT routine takes 2-12 hours depending on the spectral density. A new approach is to utilize machine learning to train a computer to recognize the patterns (frequency spacing and relative intensities) inherit in rotational spectra and to identify the individual spectra in a raw broadband rotational spectrum. Here, recurrent neural networks have been trained to identify different types of rotational spectra and classify them accordingly. Furthermore, early results in applying convolutional neural networks for spectral object recognition in broadband rotational spectra appear promising. Perez et al. "Broadband Fourier transform rotational spectroscopy for structure determination: The water heptamer." Chem. Phys. Lett., 2013, 571, 1-15. Seifert et al. "AUTOFIT, an Automated Fitting Tool for Broadband Rotational Spectra, and Applications to 1-Hexanal." J. Mol. Spectrosc., 2015, 312, 13-21. Bishop. "Neural networks for pattern recognition." Oxford university press, 1995.

  17. Synthetic bedding and wheeze in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dwyer, Terence; Kemp, Andrew; Cochrane, Jennifer; Couper, David; Carmichael, Allan

    2003-01-01

    The reasons for the increase in childhood asthma over time are unclear. The indoor environment is of particular concern. An adverse role for synthetic bedding on asthma development in childhood has been suggested by cross-sectional studies that have found an association between synthetic pillow use and childhood wheeze. Prospective data on infant bedding have not been available. Bedding data at 1 month of age were available from an infant survey for children who were participating in a 1995 follow-up study (N = 863; 78% traced). The 1995 follow-up was embedded in a larger cross-sectional survey involving 6,378 seven year olds in Tasmania (N = 92% of eligible). Outcome measures included respiratory symptoms as defined in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol. Frequent wheeze was defined as more than 12 wheeze episodes over the past year compared with no wheeze. Synthetic pillow use at 1 month of age was associated with frequent wheeze at age 7 (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-5.5) independent of childhood exposure. Current synthetic pillow and quilt use was strongly associated with frequent wheeze (aRR = 5.2; CI = 1.3-20.6). Substantial trends were evident for an association of increasing number of synthetic bedding items with frequent wheeze and with increasing wheeze frequency. Among children with asthma, the age of onset of asthma occurred earlier if synthetic bedding was used in infancy. In this cohort, synthetic bedding was strongly and consistently associated with frequent childhood wheeze. The association did not appear to be attributable to bedding choice as part of an asthma management strategy.

  18. Understanding reliability and some limitations of the images and spectra reconstructed from a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Mayes, D.; Tommasini, R.; Florido, R.

    2015-11-01

    Temperature and density asymmetry diagnosis is critical to advance inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. A multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI) is an attractive diagnostic for this purpose. The MMI records the spectral signature from an ICF implosion core with time resolution, 2-D space resolution, and spectral resolution. While narrow-band images and 2-D space-resolved spectra from the MMI data constrain temperature and density spatial structure of the core, the accuracy of the images and spectra depends not only on the quality of the MMI data but also on the reliability of the post-processing tools. Here, we synthetically quantify the accuracy of images and spectra reconstructed from MMI data. Errors in the reconstructed images are less than a few percent when the space-resolution effect is applied to the modeled images. The errors in the reconstructed 2-D space-resolved spectra are also less than a few percent except those for the peripheral regions. Spectra reconstructed for the peripheral regions have slightly but systematically lower intensities by ˜6% due to the instrumental spatial-resolution effects. However, this does not alter the relative line ratios and widths and thus does not affect the temperature and density diagnostics. We also investigate the impact of the pinhole size variation on the extracted images and spectra. A 10% pinhole size variation could introduce spatial bias to the images and spectra of ˜10%. A correction algorithm is developed, and it successfully reduces the errors to a few percent. It is desirable to perform similar synthetic investigations to fully understand the reliability and limitations of each MMI application.

  19. Understanding reliability and some limitations of the images and spectra reconstructed from a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Mayes, D.; Tommasini, R.; Florido, R.

    2015-01-01

    Temperature and density asymmetry diagnosis is critical to advance inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. A multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI) is an attractive diagnostic for this purpose. The MMI records the spectral signature from an ICF implosion core with time resolution, 2-D space resolution, and spectral resolution. While narrow-band images and 2-D space-resolved spectra from the MMI data constrain temperature and density spatial structure of the core, the accuracy of the images and spectra depends not only on the quality of the MMI data but also on the reliability of the post-processing tools. Here, we synthetically quantify the accuracy of images and spectra reconstructed from MMI data. Errors in the reconstructed images are less than a few percent when the space-resolution effect is applied to the modeled images. The errors in the reconstructed 2-D space-resolved spectra are also less than a few percent except those for the peripheral regions. Spectra reconstructed for the peripheral regions have slightly but systematically lower intensities by ∼6% due to the instrumental spatial-resolution effects. However, this does not alter the relative line ratios and widths and thus does not affect the temperature and density diagnostics. We also investigate the impact of the pinhole size variation on the extracted images and spectra. A 10% pinhole size variation could introduce spatial bias to the images and spectra of ∼10%. A correction algorithm is developed, and it successfully reduces the errors to a few percent. It is desirable to perform similar synthetic investigations to fully understand the reliability and limitations of each MMI application

  20. Understanding reliability and some limitations of the images and spectra reconstructed from a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, T; Mancini, R C; Mayes, D; Tommasini, R; Florido, R

    2015-11-01

    Temperature and density asymmetry diagnosis is critical to advance inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. A multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI) is an attractive diagnostic for this purpose. The MMI records the spectral signature from an ICF implosion core with time resolution, 2-D space resolution, and spectral resolution. While narrow-band images and 2-D space-resolved spectra from the MMI data constrain temperature and density spatial structure of the core, the accuracy of the images and spectra depends not only on the quality of the MMI data but also on the reliability of the post-processing tools. Here, we synthetically quantify the accuracy of images and spectra reconstructed from MMI data. Errors in the reconstructed images are less than a few percent when the space-resolution effect is applied to the modeled images. The errors in the reconstructed 2-D space-resolved spectra are also less than a few percent except those for the peripheral regions. Spectra reconstructed for the peripheral regions have slightly but systematically lower intensities by ∼6% due to the instrumental spatial-resolution effects. However, this does not alter the relative line ratios and widths and thus does not affect the temperature and density diagnostics. We also investigate the impact of the pinhole size variation on the extracted images and spectra. A 10% pinhole size variation could introduce spatial bias to the images and spectra of ∼10%. A correction algorithm is developed, and it successfully reduces the errors to a few percent. It is desirable to perform similar synthetic investigations to fully understand the reliability and limitations of each MMI application.

  1. Signatures of the non-Maxwellian κ-distributions in optically thin line spectra I. Theory and synthetic Fe IX–XIII spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudík, J.; Del Zanna, G.; Mason, H. E.; Dzifčáková, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 570, October (2014), A124/1-A124/23 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/1652 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun: UV radiation * X- rays * gamma rays Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  2. 21 CFR 73.1200 - Synthetic iron oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Synthetic iron oxide. 73.1200 Section 73.1200 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1200 Synthetic iron oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive synthetic iron oxide consists of any one or any combination of synthetically prepared...

  3. 21 CFR 73.200 - Synthetic iron oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Synthetic iron oxide. 73.200 Section 73.200 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.200 Synthetic iron oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive synthetic iron oxide consists of any one or any combination of synthetically prepared...

  4. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a...

  5. Secondary Emission From Synthetic Opal Infiltrated by Colloidal Gold and Glycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovbeshko, G.I.; Fesenko, O.M.; Boyko, V.V.; Romanyuk, V.R.; Gorelik, V.S.; Moiseyenko, V.N.; Sobolev, V.B.; Shvalagin, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of the secondary emission (photoluminescence) and Bragg reflection spectra of photonic crystals (PC), namely, synthetic opals, opals infiltrated by colloidal gold, glycine, and a complex of colloidal gold with glycine is performed. The infiltration of colloidal gold and a complex of colloidal gold with glycine into the pores of PC causes a short-wavelength shift (about 5-15 nm) of the Bragg reflection and increases the intensity of this band by 1.5-3 times. In photoluminescence, the infiltration of PC by colloidal gold and colloidal gold with glycine suppresses the PC emission band near 375-450 nm and enhances the shoulder of the stop-zone band of PC in the region of 470-510 nm. The shape of the observed PC emission band connected with defects in synthetic opal is determined by the type of infiltrates and the excitation wavelength. Possible mechanisms of the effects are discussed.

  6. Techniques for Handling Channeling in High Resolution Fourier Transform Spectra Recorded with Synchrotron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Amr; PredoiCross, Adriana; Teillet, P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Seven different techniques in dealing the problem of channel spectra in Fourier transform Spectroscopy utilizing synchrotron source were examined and compared. Five of these techniques deal with the artifacts (spikes) in the recorded interferogram which in turn result in channel spectra within the spectral domain. Such interferogram editing method include replacing these spikes with zeros, straight line, fitted polynomial curve, rescaled spike and spike reduced with Gauss Function. Another two techniques try to target this issue in the spectral domain instead by either generating a synthetic background simulating the channels or measuring the channels parameters (amplitude, spacing and phase) to use in the spectral fitting program. Results showed spectral domain techniques produces higher quality results in terms of signal to noise and fitting residual. The effect of each method on the line parameters such as position, intensity are air broadening are also measured and discussed.

  7. Time-resolved soft x-ray spectra from laser-produced Cu plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cone, K.V.; Dunn, J.; Baldis, H.A.; May, M.J.; Purvis, M.A.; Scott, H.A.; Schneider, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    The volumetric heating of a thin copper target has been studied with time resolved x-ray spectroscopy. The copper target was heated from a plasma produced using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) laser. A variable spaced grating spectrometer coupled to an x-ray streak camera measured soft x-ray emission (800-1550 eV) from the back of the copper target to characterize the bulk heating of the target. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations were modeled in 2-dimensions using the HYDRA code. The target conditions calculated by HYDRA were post-processed with the atomic kinetics code CRETIN to generate synthetic emission spectra. A comparison between the experimental and simulated spectra indicates the presence of specific ionization states of copper and the corresponding electron temperatures and ion densities throughout the laser-heated copper target.

  8. An ESR study of the spectra of paint pigments in 'drying' linseed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slogett, R.; Troup, G.; Hutton, D.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Since previous ESR work on the identification of RAW paint pigments, mainly mineral, looked promising, we decided to examine the spectra when the pigments were applied, in oil, to a non-reactive, microwave transparent polymer. The polymer used shows no significant ESR signals in the range 2000-4000 gauss at ∼9.1 GHz and room temperature. The oil used is Winsor and Newton Drying Linseed Oil, and contains 'manganese driers'. The spectrum of the pure liquid oil is shown, as well as that of the dried oil on the substrate. Many of the pigment spectra shown are so strong that not a trace of the oil Mn(2+) can be seen at the pigment concentrations used. The effect of the linseed oil on modern synthetic indigo, an organic pigment still available made from plants, is also shown. ESR still looks to be a useful supplementary technique for paint pigment identification

  9. Synthetic biology and the technicity of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Adrian

    2013-06-01

    The principal existing real-world application of synthetic biology is biofuels. Several 'next generation biofuel' companies-Synthetic Genomics, Amyris and Joule Unlimited Technologies-claim to be using synthetic biology to make biofuels. The irony of this is that highly advanced science and engineering serves the very mundane and familiar realm of transport. Despite their rather prosaic nature, biofuels could offer an interesting way to highlight the novelty of synthetic biology from several angles at once. Drawing on the French philosopher of technology and biology Gilbert Simondon, we can understand biofuels as technical objects whose genesis involves processes of concretisation that negotiate between heterogeneous geographical, biological, technical, scientific and commercial realities. Simondon's notion of technicity, the degree of concretisation of a technical object, usefully conceptualises this relationality. Viewed in terms of technicity, we might understand better how technical entities, elements, and ensembles are coming into being in the name of synthetic biology. The broader argument here is that when we seek to identify the newness of disciplines, their newness might be less epistemic and more logistic. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. WISB: Warwick Integrative Synthetic Biology Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John

    2016-06-15

    Synthetic biology promises to create high-impact solutions to challenges in the areas of biotechnology, human/animal health, the environment, energy, materials and food security. Equally, synthetic biologists create tools and strategies that have the potential to help us answer important fundamental questions in biology. Warwick Integrative Synthetic Biology (WISB) pursues both of these mutually complementary 'build to apply' and 'build to understand' approaches. This is reflected in our research structure, in which a core theme on predictive biosystems engineering develops underpinning understanding as well as next-generation experimental/theoretical tools, and these are then incorporated into three applied themes in which we engineer biosynthetic pathways, microbial communities and microbial effector systems in plants. WISB takes a comprehensive approach to training, education and outreach. For example, WISB is a partner in the EPSRC/BBSRC-funded U.K. Doctoral Training Centre in synthetic biology, we have developed a new undergraduate module in the subject, and we have established five WISB Research Career Development Fellowships to support young group leaders. Research in Ethical, Legal and Societal Aspects (ELSA) of synthetic biology is embedded in our centre activities. WISB has been highly proactive in building an international research and training network that includes partners in Barcelona, Boston, Copenhagen, Madrid, Marburg, São Paulo, Tartu and Valencia. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Cfd modeling of a synthetic jet actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dghim, Marouane; Ben Chiekh, Maher; Ben Nasrallah, Sassi

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic jet actuators show good promise as an enabling technology for innovative boundary layer flow control applied to external surfaces, like airplane wings, and to internal flows, like those occurring in a curved engine inlet. The appealing characteristics of a synthetic jet are zero-net-mass flux operation and an efficient control effect that takes advantages of unsteady fluid phenomena. The formation of a synthetic jet in a quiescent external air flow is only beginning to be understood and a rational understanding of these devices is necessary before they can be applied to the control of flows outside of the laboratory. The synthetic jet flow generated by a planar orifice is investigated here using computational approach. Computations of the 2D synthetic jet are performed with unsteady RANS modeled with the Realizable κ - ε turbulence model available in FLUENT environment. In this present work, the ability of the first order turbulence model, employed in our computations, to model the formation of the counter-rotating-vortex pair (CVP) that appears in the flow-field was investigated. Computational results were in good agreement with experimental measurements. The effectiveness of such control actuator was tested on separated boundary layer. Preliminary investigation were presented and discussed

  12. Synthetic cathinones: a new public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Megarbane, Bruno; Cottencin, Olivier; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2015-01-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) have completely modified the drug scene and the current landscape of addiction. Synthetic substances, such as substituted or synthetic cathinones, also known as « legal highs », are often produced and used to mimic the effects of controlled drugs such as cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), and methamphetamine. The overwhelming majority of synthetic cathinones are produced in China and South East Asian countries. The Internet has emerged as the new marketplace for NPS, playing a major role in providing information on acquisition, synthesis, extraction, identification, and substance use. All these compounds are intentionally mislabeled and sold on-line under slang terms such as bath salts, plant food, plant feeders and research chemicals. They are sometimes labeled « not for human use » or « not tested for hazards or toxicity ». The rapid spread of NPS forces member countries of the European Union to adapt their response to the potential new dangers that may cause. To date, not only health actors but also the general public need to be clearly informed and aware of dangers resulting from NPS spread and use. Here, we review the major clinical effects of synthetic cathinones to highlight their impact on public health. A literature search was conducted from 2009 to 2014 based on PubMed, Google Scholar, Erowid, and governmental websites, using the following keywords alone or in combination: "new psychoactive substances", "synthetic cathinones", "substituted cathinones", "mephedrone", "methylone", "MDPV", "4-MEC", "addiction", and "substance use disorder".

  13. Rheological characteristics of synthetic road binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon D. Airey; Musarrat H. Mohammed; Caroline Fichter [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    This paper deals with the synthesis of polymer binders from monomers that could in future be derived from renewable resources. These binders consist of polyethyl acrylate (PEA) of different molecular weight, polymethyl acrylate (PMA) and polybutyl acrylate (PBA), which were synthesised from ethyl acrylate, methyl acrylate and butyl acrylate, respectively, by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The fundamental rheological properties of these binders were determined by means of a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) using a combination of temperature and frequency sweeps. The results indicate that PEA has rheological properties similar to that of 100/150 penetration grade bitumen, PMA similar rheological properties to that of 10/20 penetration grade bitumen, while PBA, due to its highly viscous nature and low complex modulus, cannot be used on its own as an asphalt binder. The synthetic binders were also combined with conventional penetration grade bitumen to produce a range of bitumen-synthetic polymer binder blends. These blends were batched by mass in the ratio of 1:1 or 3:1 and subjected to the same DSR rheological testing as the synthetic binders. The blends consisting of a softer bitumen (70/100 pen or 100/150 pen) with a hard synthetic binder (PMA) tended to be more compatible and therefore stable and produced rheological properties that combined the properties of the two components. The synthetic binders and particularly the extended bitumen samples (blends) produced rheological properties that showed similar characteristics to elastomeric SBS PMBs. 30 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. [Treatment approaches for synthetic drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ohji

    2015-09-01

    In Japan, synthetic drugs have emerged since late 2000s, and cases of emergency visits and fatal traffic accidents due to acute intoxication have rapidly increased. The synthetic drugs gained popularity mainly because they were cheap and thought to be "legal". The Japanese government restricted not only production and distribution, but also its possession and use in April 2014. As the synthetic drug dependent patients have better social profiles compared to methamphetamine abusers, this legal sanction may have triggered the decrease in the number of synthetic drug dependent patient visits observed at Kanagawa Psychiatric Center since July 2014. Treatment of the synthetic drug dependent patients should begin with empathic inquiry into the motives and positive psychological effects of the drug use. In the maintenance phase, training patients to trust others and express their hidden negative emotions through verbal communications is essential. The recovery is a process of understanding the relationship between psychological isolation and drug abuse, and gaining trust in others to cope with negative emotions that the patients inevitably would face in their subsequent lives.

  15. Role of Synthetic and Dimensional Synthetic Organic Chemistry in Block Copolymer Micelle Nanosensor Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Pramod Kumar

    This thesis investigated the role of amphiphilic triblock copolymer micelle nanomaterials in nanosensors, with emphasis on the synthesis of micelle particle sensors. The thesis is focused on the role of synthetic and dimensional synthetic organic chemistry in amphiphilic triblock core-shellcorona...

  16. Spectroscopic study of synthetic hydrothermal Fe3+-bearing beryl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, Michail N.; Dyar, M. Darby; Khomenko, Vladimir M.

    2018-05-01

    A synthetic hydrothermal beryl Fe-4-51, investigated previously by Taran and Rossman (Am Miner 86:973-980, 2001), was additionally studied by microprobe, Mössbauer, optical absorption, Raman and IR spectroscopy. For comparison, polarized spectra of natural blue aquamarine and Cr3+, Fe3+-bearing alexandrite, both from Brazil, are also presented. Fe-4-51 is a nearly pure Fe3+-bearing beryl, with a homogeneous composition as shown by electron microprobe. Averaging over 22 points gives a formula of Be3.07(Al1.94,{Fe}_{{{0.07}}}^{{{3}+}})Σ=2.01Si5.95O18, with Fe3+ replacing Al3+ in the octahedral site of the structure. The Mössbauer spectrum is dominated by a broad disordered pattern with beryl-suitable parameters; for Fe2+, IS = 1.21 mm/s, QS = 2.71 mm/s, area ≈ 5% and for Fe3+, IS = 0.34 mm/s, QS = 0.71 mm/s, and area ≈ 67%—are distinguished overlying a broad disordered continuum. The optical absorption spectrum is typical of octahedral Fe3+. From it, the crystal field strength Dq is derived as 1520 cm-1 and the values of Racah parameters of interelectronic repulsion B and C are found to be 665 and 3415 cm-1, respectively. This rather low B value, compared with that of a free Fe3+ ion, 814 cm-1, suggests a comparatively high degree of covalency in the octahedral Fe3+-O bond. Infrared spectra show the presence of channel H2O of both I and II structural type in comparable quantities, about 0.5 and 1 mass%, respectively. Raman data show the expected five bands in the energy range from 300 to 1200 cm-1.

  17. Radioluminescence of synthetic quartz related to alkali ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, M., E-mail: m.martini@unimib.it [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Fasoli, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Galli, A. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fotonica e Nanostrutture, IFN-CNR (Italy); Villa, I. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Guibert, P. [IRAMAT-CRP2A (Institut de recherche sur les Archeomateriaux), UMR no. 5060, CNRS-Universite Bordeaux III, F-33607 Pessac (France)

    2012-04-15

    The radioluminescence (RL) of synthetic quartzes (GEMMA Quartz and Crystal Company) has been measured at room temperature. Some samples were treated by electrodiffusion ('sweeping') in order to change the concentrations of alkali ions, mainly Li{sup +} and Na{sup +}, which in quartz are known to be linked to Al ions, substitutional for Si ions. The RL emission spectra show evidence of a role of alkali ions in affecting some specific emissions. All the spectra could be analysed as composed of four bands in the blue and UV region. Specifically, the well known blue emission at around 470 nm was seen to be composed by two bands at 430 nm (2.86 eV) and at 485 nm (2.53 eV). Effects of irradiation, during the RL measurements, were clearly seen only in the 'Li swept in' sample, namely an increase in the 485 nm band intensity and a decrease in the 430 nm band one. The previously reported UV emission was detected at 355 nm (3.44 eV) in all the samples, being the most intense band in the 'swept out' sample. A further UV emission was detected at 315 nm (3.94 eV), more intense in untreated samples. Possible assignments of the detected emission bands are discussed in relation to the defects of quartz, specifically focusing on the Al centres that are most affected by sweeping procedures. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contribution to the understanding of relationships between defects in quartz and luminescence emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of charge compensators at substitutional Al sites in the optical properties of quartz. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence of the double nature of the 'blue emission' (around 470 nm).

  18. [Applications of synthetic biology in materials science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianxin; Zhong, Chao

    2017-03-25

    Materials are the basis for human being survival and social development. To keep abreast with the increasing needs from all aspects of human society, there are huge needs in the development of advanced materials as well as high-efficiency but low-cost manufacturing strategies that are both sustainable and tunable. Synthetic biology, a new engineering principle taking gene regulation and engineering design as the core, greatly promotes the development of life sciences. This discipline has also contributed to the development of material sciences and will continuously bring new ideas to future new material design. In this paper, we review recent advances in applications of synthetic biology in material sciences, with the focus on how synthetic biology could enable synthesis of new polymeric biomaterials and inorganic materials, phage display and directed evolution of proteins relevant to materials development, living functional materials, engineered bacteria-regulated artificial photosynthesis system as well as applications of gene circuits for material sciences.

  19. Tunable promoters in synthetic and systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehli, Tore; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2012-01-01

    in synthetic biology. A number of tools exist to manipulate the steps in between gene sequence and functional protein in living cells, but out of these the most straight-forward approach is to alter the gene expression level by manipulating the promoter sequence. Some of the promoter tuning tools available......Synthetic and systems biologists need standardized, modular and orthogonal tools yielding predictable functions in vivo. In systems biology such tools are needed to quantitatively analyze the behavior of biological systems while the efficient engineering of artificial gene networks is central...... for accomplishing such altered gene expression levels are discussed here along with examples of their use, and ideas for new tools are described. The road ahead looks very promising for synthetic and systems biologists as tools to achieve just about anything in terms of tuning and timing multiple gene expression...

  20. Mammalian synthetic biology for studying the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Melina; Xiang, Joy S; Smolke, Christina D

    2017-01-02

    Synthetic biology is advancing the design of genetic devices that enable the study of cellular and molecular biology in mammalian cells. These genetic devices use diverse regulatory mechanisms to both examine cellular processes and achieve precise and dynamic control of cellular phenotype. Synthetic biology tools provide novel functionality to complement the examination of natural cell systems, including engineered molecules with specific activities and model systems that mimic complex regulatory processes. Continued development of quantitative standards and computational tools will expand capacities to probe cellular mechanisms with genetic devices to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the cell. In this study, we review synthetic biology tools that are being applied to effectively investigate diverse cellular processes, regulatory networks, and multicellular interactions. We also discuss current challenges and future developments in the field that may transform the types of investigation possible in cell biology. © 2017 Mathur et al.

  1. CSBB: synthetic biology research at Newcastle University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi-Moreno, Angel; Wipat, Anil; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2017-06-15

    The Centre for Synthetic Biology and the Bioeconomy (CSBB) brings together a far-reaching multidisciplinary community across all Newcastle University's faculties - Medical Sciences, Science, Agriculture and Engineering, and Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences. The CSBB focuses on many different areas of Synthetic Biology, including bioprocessing, computational design and in vivo computation, as well as improving understanding of basic molecular machinery. Such breadth is supported by major national and international research funding, a range of industrial partners in the North East of England and beyond, as well as a large number of doctoral and post-doctoral researchers. The CSBB trains the next generation of scientists through a 1-year MSc in Synthetic Biology. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Is It Time for Synthetic Biodiversity Conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggio, Antoinette J; Segelbacher, Gernot; Seddon, Philip J; Alphey, Luke; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Carlson, Robert H; Friedman, Robert M; Kanavy, Dona; Phelan, Ryan; Redford, Kent H; Rosales, Marina; Slobodian, Lydia; Wheeler, Keith

    2017-02-01

    Evidence indicates that, despite some critical successes, current conservation approaches are not slowing the overall rate of biodiversity loss. The field of synthetic biology, which is capable of altering natural genomes with extremely precise editing, might offer the potential to resolve some intractable conservation problems (e.g., invasive species or pathogens). However, it is our opinion that there has been insufficient engagement by the conservation community with practitioners of synthetic biology. We contend that rapid, large-scale engagement of these two communities is urgently needed to avoid unintended and deleterious ecological consequences. To this point we describe case studies where synthetic biology is currently being applied to conservation, and we highlight the benefits to conservation biologists from engaging with this emerging technology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Bioinspired Chemical Communication between Synthetic Nanomotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuanrui; Chang, Xiaocong; Teymourian, Hazhir; Ramírez-Herrera, Doris E; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Lu, Xiaolong; Li, Jinxing; He, Sha; Fang, Chengcheng; Liang, Yuyan; Mou, Fangzhi; Guan, Jianguo; Wang, Joseph

    2018-01-02

    While chemical communication plays a key role in diverse natural processes, the intelligent chemical communication between synthetic nanomotors remains unexplored. The design and operation of bioinspired synthetic nanomotors is presented. Chemical communication between nanomotors is possible and has an influence on propulsion behavior. A chemical "message" is sent from a moving activator motor to a nearby activated (receiver) motor by release of Ag + ions from a Janus polystyrene/Ni/Au/Ag activator motor to the activated Janus SiO 2 /Pt nanomotor. The transmitted silver signal is translated rapidly into a dramatic speed change associated with the enhanced catalytic activity of activated motors. Selective and successive activation of multiple nanomotors is achieved by sequential localized chemical communications. The concept of establishing chemical communication between different synthetic nanomotors paves the way to intelligent nanoscale robotic systems that are capable of cooperating with each other. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Synthetic aperture tissue and flow ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav

    imaging applied to medical ultrasound. It is divided into two major parts: tissue and blood flow imaging. Tissue imaging using synthetic aperture algorithms has been investigated for about two decades, but has not been implemented in medical scanners yet. Among the other reasons, the conventional scanning...... and beamformation methods are adequate for the imaging modalities in clinical use - the B-mode imaging of tissue structures, and the color mapping of blood flow. The acquisition time, however, is too long, and these methods fail to perform real-time three-dimensional scans. The synthetic transmit aperture......, on the other hand, can create a Bmode image with as little as 2 emissions, thus significantly speeding-up the scan procedure. The first part of the dissertation describes the synthetic aperture tissue imaging. It starts with an overview of the efforts previously made by other research groups. A classification...

  5. Engineering emergent multicellular behavior through synthetic adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, David; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar

    In over a decade, synthetic biology has developed increasingly robust gene networks within single cells, but constructed very few systems that demonstrate multicellular spatio-temporal dynamics. We are filling this gap in synthetic biology's toolbox by developing an E. coli self-assembly platform based on modular cell-cell adhesion. We developed a system in which adhesive selectivity is provided by a library of outer membrane-displayed peptides with intra-library specificities, while affinity is provided by consistent expression across the entire library. We further provide a biophysical model to help understand the parameter regimes in which this tool can be used to self-assemble into cellular clusters, filaments, or meshes. The combined platform will enable future development of synthetic multicellular systems for use in consortia-based metabolic engineering, in living materials, and in controlled study of minimal multicellular systems. Stanford Bio-X Bowes Fellowship.

  6. Green synthesis, structure and fluorescence spectra of new azacyanine dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enchev, Venelin; Gadjev, Nikolai; Angelov, Ivan; Minkovska, Stela; Kurutos, Atanas; Markova, Nadezhda; Deligeorgiev, Todor

    2017-11-01

    A series of symmetric and unsymmetric monomethine azacyanine dyes (monomethine azacyanine and merocyanine sulfobetaines) were synthesized with moderate to high yields via a novel method using microwave irradiation. The compounds are derived from a condensation reaction between 2-thiomethylbenzotiazolium salts and 2-imino-3-methylbenzothiazolines proceeded under microwave irradiation. The synthetic approach involves the use of green solvent and absence of basic reagent. TD-DFT calculations were performed to simulate absorption and fluorescent spectra of synthesized dyes. Absorption maxima, λmax, of the studied dyes were found in the range 364-394 nm. Molar absorbtivities were evaluated in between 40300 and 59200 mol-1 dm3 cm-1. Fluorescence maxima, λfl, were registered around 418-448 nm upon excitation at 350 nm. A slight displacements of theoretically estimated absorption maxima according to experimental ones is observed. The differences are most probably due to the fact that the DFT calculations were carried out without taking into account the solvent effect. In addition, the merocyanine sulfobetaines also fluorescence in blue optical range (420-480 nm) at excitation in red range (630-650 nm).

  7. INFORMATION CONTENT OF EXOPLANETARY TRANSIT SPECTRA: AN INITIAL LOOK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Line, Michael R.; Zhang Xi; Yung, Yuk L.; Vasisht, Gautam; Natraj, Vijay; Chen Pin

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that spectroscopy of transiting extrasolar planets can potentially provide a wealth of information about their atmospheres. Herein, we set up the inverse problem in spectroscopic retrieval. We use nonlinear optimal estimation to retrieve the atmospheric state (pioneered for Earth sounding by Rodgers). The formulation quantifies the degrees of freedom and information content of the spectrum with respect to geophysical parameters; herein, we focus specifically on temperature and composition. First, we apply the technique to synthetic near-infrared spectra and explore the influence of spectral signal-to-noise ratio and resolution (the two important parameters when designing a future instrument) on the information content of the data. As expected, we find that the number of retrievable parameters increases with increasing signal-to-noise ratio and resolution, although the gains quickly level off for large values. Second, we apply the methods to the previously studied dayside near-infrared emission spectrum of HD 189733b and compare the results of our retrieval with those obtained by others.

  8. Generation of floor response spectra for mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, D.F.; Murray, R.C.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    Floor or amplified response spectra are generally used as input motion for seismic analysis of critical equipment and piping in nuclear power plants and related facilities. The floor spectra are normally the result of a time-history calculation of building response to ground shaking. However, alternate approximate methods have been suggested by both Kapur and Biggs. As part of a study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission horizontal floor response spectra were generated and compared by all three methods. The dynamic analyses were performed on a model of the Westinghouse Recycle Fuels Plant Manufacturing Building (MOFFP). Input to the time-history calculations was a synthesized accelerogram whose response spectrum is similar to that in Regulatory Guide 1.60. The response spectrum of the synthetic ground motion was used as input to the Kapur and Biggs methods. Calculations were performed for both hard (3500 fps) and soft (1500 fps) foundation soils. Results of comparison of the three methods indicate that although the approximate methods could easily be made acceptable from a safety standpoint, they would be overly conservative. The time-history method will yield floor spectra which are less uncertain and less conservative for a relatively modest additional effort. (auth)

  9. The influence of magnetic field geometry on magnetars X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viganò, D; Pons, J A; Miralles, J A; Parkins, N; Zane, S; Turolla, R

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the analysis of the X-ray spectra of magnetically powered neutron stars or magnetars is one of the most valuable tools to gain insight into the physical processes occurring in their interiors and magnetospheres. In particular, the magnetospheric plasma leaves a strong imprint on the observed X-ray spectrum by means of Compton up-scattering of the thermal radiation coming from the star surface. Motivated by the increased quality of the observational data, much theoretical work has been devoted to develop Monte Carlo (MC) codes that incorporate the effects of resonant Compton scattering (RCS) in the modeling of radiative transfer of photons through the magnetosphere. The two key ingredients in this simulations are the kinetic plasma properties and the magnetic field (MF) configuration. The MF geometry is expected to be complex, but up to now only mathematically simple solutions (self-similar solutions) have been employed. In this work, we discuss the effects of new, more realistic, MF geometries on synthetic spectra. We use new force-free solutions [14] in a previously developed MC code [9] to assess the influence of MF geometry on the emerging spectra. Our main result is that the shape of the final spectrum is mostly sensitive to uncertain parameters of the magnetospheric plasma, but the MF geometry plays an important role on the angle-dependence of the spectra.

  10. Turbulence in the solar wind: spectra from Voyager 2 data at 5 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraternale, F; Gallana, L; Iovieno, M; Tordella, D; Opher, M; Richardson, J D

    2016-01-01

    Fluctuations in the flow velocity and magnetic fields are ubiquitous in the Solar System. These fluctuations are turbulent, in the sense that they are disordered and span a broad range of scales in both space and time. The study of solar wind turbulence is motivated by a number of factors all keys to the understanding of the Solar Wind origin and thermodynamics. The solar wind spectral properties are far from uniformity and evolve with the increasing distance from the sun. Most of the available spectra of solar wind turbulence were computed at 1 astronomical unit, while accurate spectra on wide frequency ranges at larger distances are still few. In this paper we consider solar wind spectra derived from the data recorded by the Voyager 2 mission during 1979 at about 5 AU from the sun. Voyager 2 data are an incomplete time series with a voids/signal ratio that typically increases as the spacecraft moves away from the sun (45% missing data in 1979), making the analysis challenging. In order to estimate the uncertainty of the spectral slopes, different methods are tested on synthetic turbulence signals with the same gap distribution as V2 data. Spectra of all variables show a power law scaling with exponents between −2.1 and −1.1, depending on frequency subranges. Probability density functions (PDFs) and correlations indicate that the flow has a significant intermittency. (invited comment)

  11. Anisotropic evaluation of synthetic surgical meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberski, E R; Orenstein, S B; Novitsky, Y W

    2011-02-01

    The material properties of meshes used in hernia repair contribute to the overall mechanical behavior of the repair. The anisotropic potential of synthetic meshes, representing a difference in material properties (e.g., elasticity) in different material axes, is not well defined to date. Haphazard orientation of anisotropic mesh material can contribute to inconsistent surgical outcomes. We aimed to characterize and compare anisotropic properties of commonly used synthetic meshes. Six different polypropylene (Trelex(®), ProLite™, Ultrapro™), polyester (Parietex™), and PTFE-based (Dualmesh(®), Infinit) synthetic meshes were selected. Longitudinal and transverse axes were defined for each mesh, and samples were cut in each axis orientation. Samples underwent uniaxial tensile testing, from which the elastic modulus (E) in each axis was determined. The degree of anisotropy (λ) was calculated as a logarithmic expression of the ratio between the elastic modulus in each axis. Five of six meshes displayed significant anisotropic behavior. Ultrapro™ and Infinit exhibited approximately 12- and 20-fold differences between perpendicular axes, respectively. Trelex(®), ProLite™, and Parietex™ were 2.3-2.4 times. Dualmesh(®) was the least anisotropic mesh, without marked difference between the axes. Anisotropy of synthetic meshes has been underappreciated. In this study, we found striking differences between elastic properties of perpendicular axes for most commonly used synthetic meshes. Indiscriminate orientation of anisotropic mesh may adversely affect hernia repairs. Proper labeling of all implants by manufacturers should be mandatory. Understanding the specific anisotropic behavior of synthetic meshes should allow surgeons to employ rational implant orientation to maximize outcomes of hernia repair.

  12. Differential dpa calculations with SPECTRA-PKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M. R.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    2018-06-01

    The processing code SPECTRA-PKA produces energy spectra of primary atomic recoil events (or primary knock-on atoms, PKAs) for any material composition exposed to an irradiation spectrum. Such evaluations are vital inputs for simulations aimed at understanding the evolution of damage in irradiated material, which is generated in cascade displacement events initiated by PKAs. These PKA spectra present the full complexity of the input (to SPECTRA-PKA) nuclear data-library evaluations of recoil events. However, the commonly used displacements per atom (dpa) measure, which is an integral measure over all possible recoil events of the displacement damage dose, is still widely used and has many useful applications - as both a comparative and correlative quantity. This paper describes the methodology employed that allows the SPECTRA-PKA code to evaluate dpa rates using the energy-dependent recoil (PKA) cross section data used for the PKA distributions. This avoids the need for integral displacement kerma cross sections and also provides new insight into the relative importance of different reaction channels (and associated different daughter residual and emitted particles) to the total integrated dpa damage dose. Results are presented for Fe, Ni, W, and SS316. Fusion dpa rates are compared to those in fission, highlighting the increased contribution to damage creation in the former from high-energy threshold reactions.

  13. Climatology of tropospheric vertical velocity spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, W. L.; Gage, K. S.; Balsley, B. B.; Carter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Vertical velocity power spectra obtained from Poker Flat, Alaska; Platteville, Colorado; Rhone Delta, France; and Ponape, East Caroline Islands using 50-MHz clear-air radars with vertical beams are given. The spectra were obtained by analyzing the quietest periods from the one-minute-resolution time series for each site. The lengths of available vertical records ranged from as long as 6 months at Poker Flat to about 1 month at Platteville. The quiet-time vertical velocity spectra are shown. Spectral period ranging from 2 minutes to 4 hours is shown on the abscissa and power spectral density is given on the ordinate. The Brunt-Vaisala (B-V) periods (determined from nearby sounding balloons) are indicated. All spectra (except the one from Platteville) exhibit a peak at periods slightly longer than the B-V period, are flat at longer periods, and fall rapidly at periods less than the B-V period. This behavior is expected for a spectrum of internal waves and is very similar to what is observed in the ocean (Eriksen, 1978). The spectral amplitudes vary by only a factor of 2 or 3 about the mean, and show that under quiet conditions vertical velocity spectra from the troposphere are very similar at widely different locations.

  14. Artificial intelligence analysis of paraspinal power spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, C W; Atsma, W J

    1996-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: As an aid to discrimination of sufferers with back pain an artificial intelligence neural network was constructed to differentiate paraspinal power spectra. DESIGN: Clinical investigation using surface electromyography. METHOD: The surface electromyogram power spectra from 60 subjects, 33 non-back-pain sufferers and 27 chronic back pain sufferers were used to construct a back propagation neural network that was then tested. Subjects were placed on a test frame in 30 degrees of lumbar forward flexion. An isometric load of two-thirds maximum voluntary contraction was held constant for 30 s whilst surface electromyograms were recorded at the level of the L(4-5). Paraspinal power spectra were calculated and loaded into the input layer of a three-layer back propagation network. The neural network classified the spectra into normal or back pain type. RESULTS: The back propagation neural was shown to have satisfactory convergence with a specificity of 79% and a sensitivity of 80%. CONCLUSIONS: Artificial intelligence neural networks appear to be a useful method of differentiating paraspinal power spectra in back-pain sufferers.

  15. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.

    1996-08-01

    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  16. Seismic spectra of events at regional distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, D.L.; Denny, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    About 40 underground nuclear explosions detonated at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were chosen for analysis of their spectra and any relationships they might have to source parameters such as yield, depth of burial, etc. The sample covered a large yield range (less than 20 kt to greater than 1 Mt). Broadband (0.05 to 20 Hz) data recorded by the four-station seismic network operated by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory were analyzed in a search for unusual explosion signatures in their spectra. Long time windows (total wave train) as well as shorter windows (for instance, P/sub n/) were used as input to calculate the spectra. Much variation in the spectra of the long windows is typical although some gross features are similar, such as a dominant peak in the microseismic window. The variation is such that selection of corner frequencies is impractical and yield scaling could not be determined. Spectra for one NTS earthquake showed more energy in the short periods (less than 1 sec) as well as in the long periods (greater than 8 sec) compared to those for NTS explosions

  17. Synthetic biology approaches to engineer T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yung; Rupp, Levi J; Roybal, Kole T; Lim, Wendell A

    2015-08-01

    There is rapidly growing interest in learning how to engineer immune cells, such as T lymphocytes, because of the potential of these engineered cells to be used for therapeutic applications such as the recognition and killing of cancer cells. At the same time, our knowhow and capability to logically engineer cellular behavior is growing rapidly with the development of synthetic biology. Here we describe how synthetic biology approaches are being used to rationally alter the behavior of T cells to optimize them for therapeutic functions. We also describe future developments that will be important in order to construct safe and precise T cell therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthetic mullite fabrication from smectite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, L.N. de; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The technological importance of mullite is mostly due to its refractory properties. Mullite in native form is very rare, and therefore it may be necessary to produced it by synthetic means. Brazil has a large reserve of smectite clays. In this work the process to produce synthetic mullite from these clays by treatment with aluminum sulphate was studied. X-ray analyses has shown the presence of mullite crystals in treated smectite clays of several colours, sinterized at 1100 0 C. By sintering at 1300 0 C, pure mullite was obtained in some colours. (author) [pt

  19. Functional mining of transporters using synthetic selections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genee, Hans Jasper; Bali, Anne Pihl; Petersen, Søren Dalsgård

    2016-01-01

    transporters, PnuT, which is widely distributed across multiple bacterial phyla. We demonstrate that with modular replacement of the biosensor, we could expand our method to xanthine and identify xanthine permeases from gut and soil metagenomes. Our results demonstrate how synthetic-biology approaches can......-responsive biosensor systems that enable selective growth of cells only if they encode a ligand-specific importer. We developed such a synthetic selection system for thiamine pyrophosphate and mined soil and gut metagenomes for thiamine-uptake functions. We identified several members of a novel class of thiamine...

  20. New Synthetic Methods for Hypericum Natural Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Insik [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Organic chemistry has served as a solid foundation for interdisciplinary research areas, such as molecular biology and medicinal chemistry. An understanding of the biological activities and structural elucidations of natural products can lead to the development of clinically valuable therapeutic options. The advancements of modern synthetic methodologies allow for more elaborate and concise natural product syntheses. The theme of this study centers on the synthesis of natural products with particularly challenging structures and interesting biological activities. The synthetic expertise developed here will be applicable to analog syntheses and to other research problems.