Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.
2003-01-01
Weather derivatives enable policy-holders to safeguard themselves against extreme weather conditions. The effectiveness and the efficiency of the risk transfer is determined by the spatial risk basis, which is the stochastic dependency of the local weather outcome being insured and the outcome of
Superposed epoch analysis of physiological fluctuations: possible space weather connections.
Wanliss, James; Cornélissen, Germaine; Halberg, Franz; Brown, Denzel; Washington, Brien
2018-03-01
There is a strong connection between space weather and fluctuations in technological systems. Some studies also suggest a statistical connection between space weather and subsequent fluctuations in the physiology of living creatures. This connection, however, has remained controversial and difficult to demonstrate. Here we present support for a response of human physiology to forcing from the explosive onset of the largest of space weather events-space storms. We consider a case study with over 16 years of high temporal resolution measurements of human blood pressure (systolic, diastolic) and heart rate variability to search for associations with space weather. We find no statistically significant change in human blood pressure but a statistically significant drop in heart rate during the main phase of space storms. Our empirical findings shed light on how human physiology may respond to exogenous space weather forcing.
Superposed epoch analysis of physiological fluctuations: possible space weather connections
Wanliss, James; Cornélissen, Germaine; Halberg, Franz; Brown, Denzel; Washington, Brien
2018-03-01
There is a strong connection between space weather and fluctuations in technological systems. Some studies also suggest a statistical connection between space weather and subsequent fluctuations in the physiology of living creatures. This connection, however, has remained controversial and difficult to demonstrate. Here we present support for a response of human physiology to forcing from the explosive onset of the largest of space weather events—space storms. We consider a case study with over 16 years of high temporal resolution measurements of human blood pressure (systolic, diastolic) and heart rate variability to search for associations with space weather. We find no statistically significant change in human blood pressure but a statistically significant drop in heart rate during the main phase of space storms. Our empirical findings shed light on how human physiology may respond to exogenous space weather forcing.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trombe, Pierre-Julien; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik
2011-01-01
The substantial impact of wind power fluctuations at large offshore wind farms calls for the development of dedicated monitoring and prediction approaches. Based on recent findings, a Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) was installed at Horns Rev with the aim of improving predictability, controlability...... and potentially maintenance planning. Additional images are available from a Doppler radar covering the same area. The parallel analysis of rain events detection and of regime sequences in wind (and power) fluctuations demonstrates the interest of employing weather radars for a better operation and management...... of offshore wind farms....
Demographic responses to weather fluctuations are context dependent in a long-lived amphibian.
Cayuela, Hugo; Arsovski, Dragan; Thirion, Jean-Marc; Bonnaire, Eric; Pichenot, Julian; Boitaud, Sylvain; Miaud, Claude; Joly, Pierre; Besnard, Aurélien
2016-08-01
Weather fluctuations have been demonstrated to affect demographic traits in many species. In long-lived organisms, their impact on adult survival might be buffered by the evolution of traits that reduce variation in interannual adult survival. For example, skipping breeding is an effective behavioral mechanism that may limit yearly variation in adult survival when harsh weather conditions occur; however, this in turn would likely lead to strong variation in recruitment. Yet, only a few studies to date have examined the impact of weather variation on survival, recruitment and breeding probability simultaneously in different populations of the same species. To fill this gap, we studied the impact of spring temperatures and spring rainfall on survival, on reproductive skipping behavior and on recruitment in five populations of a long-lived amphibian, the yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata). Based on capture-recapture data, our findings demonstrate that survival depends on interactions between age, population and weather variation. Varying weather conditions in the spring result in strong variation in the survival of immature toads, whereas they have little effect on adult toads. Breeding probability depends on both the individual's previous reproductive status and on the weather conditions during the current breeding season, leading to high interannual variation in recruitment. Crucially, we found that the impact of weather variation on demographic traits is largely context dependent and may thus differ sharply between populations. Our results suggest that studies predicting the impact of climate change on population dynamics should be taken with caution when the relationship between climate and demographic traits is established using only one population or few populations. We therefore highly recommend further research that includes surveys replicated in a substantial number of populations to account for context-dependent variation in demographic processes.
Das, S.
2012-12-01
It is well known that the southerly shift of the Gulf Stream is associated with major storms, heavy rains and mudslide in the adjoining northern part of the globe. Phytoplanktons particularly their silicon utilizing members like diatoms were found to play a major part in this phenomenon. A decrease in silicon utilizing phytoplanktons and chlorophyll-a , which sometimes occurs even more than 10 fold was found associated with a parallel significant decrease of zooplanktons as reflected in the CPR survey, leads to fall of sea temperature causing a shift of the Gulf Stream. This sea temperature changes is also associated with cooling of the adjoining atmosphere in a remarkable way which leads to weather changes. The association of silicon utilizing diatoms and the ocean currents guides the future trends in the climatic swing known as NAO, one of the great fluctuations that occur in the global climate, the largest of which is the ENSO phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean, which cause destruction all around the tropics. When total density and biovolume of phytoplanktons were studied it was found that the changes of pennate diatoms was unique and occurred in an opposite way in comparison to green algae, blue green algae, chrysophyte, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates and green flagellates.
Non-Local Effects in Kaonic Atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lutz, M.; Florkowski, W.
2000-01-01
Optical potentials with non-local (gradient) terms are used to describe the spectra of kaonic atoms. The strength of the non-local terms is determined from a many-body calculation of the kaon self energy in nuclear matter. We find that the non-local terms are quantitatively important and the results depend strongly on the way the gradient terms are arranged. Phenomenologically successful description is obtained for p-wave like optical potentials. It is suggested that the microscopic form of the non-local interaction terms is obtained systematically by means of a semi-classical expansion of the nucleus structure. (author)
Non-local effects in kaonic atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lutz, M.; Florkowski, W.
2000-04-01
Optical potentials with non-local (gradient) terms are used to describe the spectra of kaonic atoms. The strength of the non-local terms is determined from a many-body calculation of the kaon self-energy in nuclear matter. The optical potentials show strong non-linearities in the nucleon density and sizeable non-local terms. We find that the non-local terms are quantitatively important and the results depend strongly on the way the gradient terms are arranged. Phenomenologically successful fits are obtained for p-wave like optical potentials. It is suggested that the microscopic form of the non-local interaction terms is obtained systematically by means of a semi-classical expansion of the nucleus structure. We conclude that a microscopic description of kaonic atom data requires further detailed studies of the microscopic K - nuclear dynamics. (orig.)
Can EPR non-locality be geometrical?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ne'eman, Y.
1995-01-01
The presence in Quantum Mechanics of non-local correlations is one of the two fundamentally non-intuitive features of that theory. The non-local correlations themselves fall into two classes: EPR and Geometrical. The non-local characteristics of the geometrical type are well-understood and are not suspected of possibly generating acausal features, such as faster-than-light propagation of information. This has especially become true since the emergence of a geometrical treatment for the relevant gauge theories, i.e. Fiber Bundle geometry, in which the quantum non-localities are seen to correspond to pure homotopy considerations. This aspect is reviewed in section 2. Contrary-wise, from its very conception, the EPR situation was felt to be paradoxical. It has been suggested that the non-local features of EPR might also derive from geometrical considerations, like all other non-local characteristics of QM. In[7], one of the authors was able to point out several plausibility arguments for this thesis, emphasizing in particular similarities between the non-local correlations provided by any gauge field theory and those required by the preservation of the quantum numbers of the original EPR state-vector, throughout its spatially-extended mode. The derivation was, however, somewhat incomplete, especially because of the apparent difference between, on the one hand, the closed spatial loops arising in the analysis of the geometrical non-localities, from Aharonov-Bohm and Berry phases to magnetic monopoles and instantons, and on the other hand, in the EPR case, the open line drawn by the positions of the two moving decay products of the disintegrating particle. In what follows, the authors endeavor to remove this obstacle and show that as in all other QM non-localities, EPR is somehow related to closed loops, almost involving homotopy considerations. They develop this view in section 3
Macroscopic quantum waves in non local theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ventura, I.
1979-01-01
By means of an expansion in the density, it is shown that Macroscopic Quantum Waves also apear in non local theories. This result reinforces the conjecture that these waves should exist in liquid 4 He. (Author) [pt
Macroscopic quantum waves in non local theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ventura, I.
1979-01-01
By means of an expansion in the density, it is shown that Macroscopic Quantum Waves also appear in non local theories. This result reinforces the conjecture that these waves should exist in liquid 4 He [pt
Employee Travel Data (Non-Local)
Montgomery County of Maryland — ‘This dataset provides information regarding the total approved actual expenses incurred by Montgomery County government employees traveling non-locally (over 75...
Gauging Non-local Quark Models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broniowski, W.
1999-09-01
The gauge effective quark model with non-local interactions is considered. It is shown how this approach regularize the theory in such a way that the anomalies are preserved and charges are properly quantized. With non-local interactions the effective action is finite to all orders in the loop expansion and there is no need to introduce the quark momentum cut-off parameter
Robust non-local median filter
Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji
2017-04-01
This paper describes a novel image filter with superior performance on detail-preserving removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on natural gray-scale images. The non-local means filter is in the limelight as a way of Gaussian noise removal with superior performance on detail preservation. By referring the fundamental concept of the non-local means, we had proposed a non-local median filter as a specialized way for random-valued impulse noise removal so far. In the non-local processing, the output of a filter is calculated from pixels in blocks which are similar to the block centered at a pixel of interest. As a result, aggressive noise removal is conducted without destroying the detailed structures in an original image. However, the performance of non-local processing decreases enormously in the case of high noise occurrence probability. A cause of this problem is that the superimposed noise disturbs accurate calculation of the similarity between the blocks. To cope with this problem, we propose an improved non-local median filter which is robust to the high level of corruption by introducing a new similarity measure considering possibility of being the original signal. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural gray-scale images.
Analysis of Non Local Image Denoising Methods
Pardo, Álvaro
Image denoising is probably one of the most studied problems in the image processing community. Recently a new paradigm on non local denoising was introduced. The Non Local Means method proposed by Buades, Morel and Coll attracted the attention of other researches who proposed improvements and modifications to their proposal. In this work we analyze those methods trying to understand their properties while connecting them to segmentation based on spectral graph properties. We also propose some improvements to automatically estimate the parameters used on these methods.
Switching non-local vector median filter
Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji
2016-04-01
This paper describes a novel image filtering method that removes random-valued impulse noise superimposed on a natural color image. In impulse noise removal, it is essential to employ a switching-type filtering method, as used in the well-known switching median filter, to preserve the detail of an original image with good quality. In color image filtering, it is generally preferable to deal with the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) components of each pixel of a color image as elements of a vectorized signal, as in the well-known vector median filter, rather than as component-wise signals to prevent a color shift after filtering. By taking these fundamentals into consideration, we propose a switching-type vector median filter with non-local processing that mainly consists of a noise detector and a noise removal filter. Concretely, we propose a noise detector that proactively detects noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the isolation tendencies of pixels of interest not in an input image but in difference images between RGB components. Furthermore, as the noise removal filter, we propose an extended version of the non-local median filter, we proposed previously for grayscale image processing, named the non-local vector median filter, which is designed for color image processing. The proposed method realizes a superior balance between the preservation of detail and impulse noise removal by proactive noise detection and non-local switching vector median filtering, respectively. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural color images.
Inflationary magnetogenesis and non-local actions: the conformal anomaly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal, E-mail: bmahmoud@physics.umass.edu [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)
2016-02-01
We discuss the possibility of successful magnetogenesis during inflation by employing the one-loop effective action of massless QED. The action is strictly non-local and results from the long distance fluctuations of massless charged particles present at the inflationary scale. Most importantly, it encodes the conformal anomaly of QED which is crucial to avoid the vacuum preservation in classical electromagnetism. In particular, we find a blue spectrum for the magnetic field with spectral index n{sub B} ≅ 2 − α{sub e} where α{sub e} depends on both the number of e-folds during inflation as well as the coefficient of the one-loop beta function. In particular, the sign of the beta function has important bearing on the final result. A low reheating temperature is required for the present day magnetic field to be consistent with the lower bound inferred on the field in the intergalactic medium.
Non-local modeling of materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian Frithiof
2002-01-01
Numerical studies of non-local plasticity effects on different materials and problems are carried out. Two different theories are used. One is of lower order in that it retains the structure of a conventional plasticity boundary value problem, while the other is of higher order and employs higher...... order stresses as work conjugates to higher order strains and uses higher order boundary conditions. The influence of internal material length parameters is studied, and the effects of higher order boundary conditions are analyzed. The focus of the thesis is on metal-matrix composites, and non...
Switching non-local median filter
Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji
2015-06-01
This paper describes a novel image filtering method for removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on grayscale images. Generally, it is well known that switching-type median filters are effective for impulse noise removal. In this paper, we propose a more sophisticated switching-type impulse noise removal method in terms of detail-preserving performance. Specifically, the noise detector of the proposed method finds out noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the difference between the value of a pixel of interest (POI) and the median of its neighboring pixel values, and on the POI's isolation tendency from the surrounding pixels. Furthermore, the removal of the detected noise is performed by the newly proposed median filter based on non-local processing, which has superior detail-preservation capability compared to the conventional median filter. The effectiveness and the validity of the proposed method are verified by some experiments using natural grayscale images.
Constraining generalized non-local cosmology from Noether symmetries.
Bahamonde, Sebastian; Capozziello, Salvatore; Dialektopoulos, Konstantinos F
2017-01-01
We study a generalized non-local theory of gravity which, in specific limits, can become either the curvature non-local or teleparallel non-local theory. Using the Noether symmetry approach, we find that the coupling functions coming from the non-local terms are constrained to be either exponential or linear in form. It is well known that in some non-local theories, a certain kind of exponential non-local couplings is needed in order to achieve a renormalizable theory. In this paper, we explicitly show that this kind of coupling does not need to be introduced by hand, instead, it appears naturally from the symmetries of the Lagrangian in flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. Finally, we find de Sitter and power-law cosmological solutions for different non-local theories. The symmetries for the generalized non-local theory are also found and some cosmological solutions are also achieved using the full theory.
Constraining generalized non-local cosmology from Noether symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Complesso di Monte Sant' Angelo, Naples (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Dialektopoulos, Konstantinos F. [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Complesso di Monte Sant' Angelo, Naples (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy)
2017-11-15
We study a generalized non-local theory of gravity which, in specific limits, can become either the curvature non-local or teleparallel non-local theory. Using the Noether symmetry approach, we find that the coupling functions coming from the non-local terms are constrained to be either exponential or linear in form. It is well known that in some non-local theories, a certain kind of exponential non-local couplings is needed in order to achieve a renormalizable theory. In this paper, we explicitly show that this kind of coupling does not need to be introduced by hand, instead, it appears naturally from the symmetries of the Lagrangian in flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. Finally, we find de Sitter and power-law cosmological solutions for different non-local theories. The symmetries for the generalized non-local theory are also found and some cosmological solutions are also achieved using the full theory. (orig.)
Non-local correlations within dynamical mean field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Gang
2009-03-15
The contributions from the non-local fluctuations to the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) were studied using the recently proposed dual fermion approach. Straight forward cluster extensions of DMFT need the solution of a small cluster, where all the short-range correlations are fully taken into account. All the correlations beyond the cluster scope are treated in the mean-field level. In the dual fermion method, only a single impurity problem needs to be solved. Both the short and long-range correlations could be considered on equal footing in this method. The weak-coupling nature of the dual fermion ensures the validity of the finite order diagram expansion. The one and two particle Green's functions calculated from the dual fermion approach agree well with the Quantum Monte Carlo solutions, and the computation time is considerably less than with the latter method. The access of the long-range order allows us to investigate the collective behavior of the electron system, e.g. spin wave excitations. (orig.)
Non-local correlations within dynamical mean field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Gang
2009-03-01
The contributions from the non-local fluctuations to the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) were studied using the recently proposed dual fermion approach. Straight forward cluster extensions of DMFT need the solution of a small cluster, where all the short-range correlations are fully taken into account. All the correlations beyond the cluster scope are treated in the mean-field level. In the dual fermion method, only a single impurity problem needs to be solved. Both the short and long-range correlations could be considered on equal footing in this method. The weak-coupling nature of the dual fermion ensures the validity of the finite order diagram expansion. The one and two particle Green's functions calculated from the dual fermion approach agree well with the Quantum Monte Carlo solutions, and the computation time is considerably less than with the latter method. The access of the long-range order allows us to investigate the collective behavior of the electron system, e.g. spin wave excitations. (orig.)
Osone, Yoko; Kawarasaki, Satoko; Ishida, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Shimizu, Akari; Yazaki, Kenichi; Aikawa, Shin-Ichi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Izuta, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Genki I
2014-10-01
The frequency of extreme weather has been rising in recent years. A 3-year study of street trees was undertaken in Tokyo to determine whether: (i) street trees suffer from severe water stress in unusually hot summer; (ii) species respond differently to such climatic fluctuations; and (iii) street trees are also affected by nitrogen (N) deficiency, photoinhibition and aerosol pollution. During the study period (2010-12), midsummers of 2010 and 2012 were unusually hot (2.4-2.8 °C higher maximum temperature than the long-term mean) and dry (6-56% precipitation of the mean). In all species, street trees exhibited substantially decreased photosynthetic rate in the extremely hot summer in 2012 compared with the average summer in 2011. However, because of a more conservative stomatal regulation (stomatal closure at higher leaf water potential) in the hot summer, apparent symptoms of hydraulic failure were not observed in street trees even in 2012. Compared with Prunus × yedoensis and Zelkova serrata, Ginkgo biloba, a gymnosperm, was high in stomatal conductance and midday leaf water potential even under street conditions in the unusually hot summer, suggesting that the species had higher drought resistance than the other species and was less susceptible to urban street conditions. This lower susceptibility might be ascribed to the combination of higher soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance and more conservative water use. Aside from meteorological conditions, N deficiency affected street trees significantly, whereas photoinhibition and aerosol pollution had little effect. The internal CO2 and δ(13)C suggested that both water and N limited the net photosynthetic rate of street trees simultaneously, but water was more limiting. From these results, we concluded that the potential risk of hydraulic failure caused by climatic extremes could be low in urban street trees in temperate regions. However, the size of the safety margin might be different between species. © The
Mermin Non-Locality in Abstract Process Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Gogioso
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The study of non-locality is fundamental to the understanding of quantum mechanics. The past 50 years have seen a number of non-locality proofs, but its fundamental building blocks, and the exact role it plays in quantum protocols, has remained elusive. In this paper, we focus on a particular flavour of non-locality, generalising Mermin's argument on the GHZ state. Using strongly complementary observables, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for Mermin non-locality in abstract process theories. We show that the existence of more phases than classical points (aka eigenstates is not sufficient, and that the key to Mermin non-locality lies in the presence of certain algebraically non-trivial phases. This allows us to show that fRel, a favourite toy model for categorical quantum mechanics, is Mermin local. We show Mermin non-locality to be the key resource ensuring the device-independent security of the HBB CQ (N,N family of Quantum Secret Sharing protocols. Finally, we challenge the unspoken assumption that the measurements involved in Mermin-type scenarios should be complementary (like the pair X,Y, opening the doors to a much wider class of potential experimental setups than currently employed. In short, we give conditions for Mermin non-locality tests on any number of systems, where each party has an arbitrary number of measurement choices, where each measurement has an arbitrary number of outcomes and further, that works in any abstract process theory.
Non-local means filter for trim statics
Huang, Yunsong; Wang, Xin; Schuster, Gerard T.
2014-01-01
this problem, we propose a trim statics inspired by the non-local means algorithm originally developed for image denoising. This method differs from the conventional one in two fundamental respects. First, the trim statics are computed by comparing image
Evidence of Non-local Chemical, Thermal and Gravitational Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hu H.
2007-04-01
Full Text Available Quantum entanglement is ubiquitous in the microscopic world and manifests itself macroscopically under some circumstances. But common belief is that it alone cannot be used to transmit information nor could it be used to produce macroscopic non- local effects. Yet we have recently found evidence of non-local effects of chemical substances on the brain produced through it. While our reported results are under independent verifications by other groups, we report here our experimental findings of non-local chemical, thermal and gravitational effects in simple physical systems such as reservoirs of water quantum-entangled with water being manipulated in a remote reservoir. With the aids of high-precision instruments, we have found that the pH value, temperature and gravity of water in the detecting reservoirs can be non-locally affected through manipulating water in the remote reservoir. In particular, the pH value changes in the same direction as that being manipulated; the temperature can change against that of local environment; and the gravity apparently can also change against local gravity. These non-local effects are all reproducible and can be used for non-local signalling and many other purposes. We suggest that they are mediated by quantum entanglement between nuclear and/or electron spins in treated water and discuss the implications of these results.
A Systems-Theoretical Generalization of Non-Local Correlations
von Stillfried, Nikolaus
Non-local correlations between quantum events are not due to a causal interaction in the sense of one being the cause for the other. In principle, the correlated events can thus occur simultaneously. Generalized Quantum Theory (GQT) formalizes the idea that non-local phenomena are not exclusive to quantum mechanics, e.g. due to some specific properties of (sub)atomic particles, but that they instead arise as a consequence of the way such particles are arranged into systems. Non-local phenomena should hence occur in any system which fulfils the necessary systems-theoretical parameters. The two most important parameters with respect to non-local correlations seem to be a conserved global property of the system as a whole and sufficient degrees of freedom of the corresponding property of its subsystems. Both factors place severe limitations on experimental observability of the phenomena, especially in terms of replicability. It has been suggested that reported phenomena of a so-called synchronistic, parapsychological or paranormal kind could be understood as instances of systems-inherent non-local correlations. From a systems-theoretical perspective, their phenomenology (including the favorable conditions for their occurrence and their lack of replicability) displays substantial similarities to non-local correlations in quantum systems and matches well with systems-theoretical parameters, thus providing circumstantial evidence for this hypothesis.
Role of Winter Weather Conditions and Slipperiness on Tourists’ Accidents in Finland
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Élise Lépy
2016-08-01
Full Text Available (1 Background: In Finland, slippery snowy or icy ground surface conditions can be quite hazardous to human health during wintertime. We focused on the impacts of the variability in weather conditions on tourists’ health via documented accidents during the winter season in the Sotkamo area. We attempted to estimate the slipping hazard in a specific context of space and time focusing on the weather and other possible parameters, responsible for fluctuations in the numbers of injuries/accidents; (2 Methods: We used statistical distributions with graphical illustrations to examine the distribution of visits to Kainuu Hospital by non-local patients and their characteristics/causes; graphs to illustrate the distribution of the different characteristics of weather conditions; questionnaires and interviews conducted among health care and safety personnel in Sotkamo and Kuusamo; (3 Results: There was a clear seasonal distribution in the numbers and types of extremity injuries of non-local patients. While the risk of slipping is emphasized, other factors leading to injuries are evaluated; and (4 Conclusions: The study highlighted the clear role of wintery weather conditions as a cause of extremity injuries even though other aspects must also be considered. Future scenarios, challenges and adaptive strategies are also discussed from the viewpoint of climate change.
On a non-local gas dynamics like integrable hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunelli, Jose Carlos; Das, Ashok
2004-01-01
We study a new hierarchy of equations derived from the system of isentropic gas dynamics equations where the pressure is a non-local function of the density. We show that the hierarchy of equations is integrable. We construct the two compatible Hamiltonian structures and show that the first structure has three distinct Casimirs while the second has one. The existence of Casimirs allows us to extend the flows to local ones. We construct an infinite series of commuting local Hamiltonians as well as three infinite series (related to the three Casimirs) of non-local charges. We discuss the zero curvature formulation of the system where we obtain a simple expression for the non-local conserved charges, which also clarifies the existence of the three series from a Lie algebraic point of view. We point out that the non-local hierarchy of Hunter-Zheng equations can be obtained from our non-local flows when the dynamical variables are properly constrained. (author)
Non-local magnetoresistance in YIG/Pt nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B., E-mail: goennenwein@wmi.badw.de; Pernpeintner, Matthias; Gross, Rudolf; Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Str. 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstraße 4, 80799 München (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schlitz, Richard; Ganzhorn, Kathrin [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Str. 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Althammer, Matthias [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Str. 8, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2015-10-26
We study the local and non-local magnetoresistance of thin Pt strips deposited onto yttrium iron garnet. The local magnetoresistive response, inferred from the voltage drop measured along one given Pt strip upon current-biasing it, shows the characteristic magnetization orientation dependence of the spin Hall magnetoresistance. We simultaneously also record the non-local voltage appearing along a second, electrically isolated, Pt strip, separated from the current carrying one by a gap of a few 100 nm. The corresponding non-local magnetoresistance exhibits the symmetry expected for a magnon spin accumulation-driven process, confirming the results recently put forward by Cornelissen et al. [“Long-distance transport of magnon spin information in a magnetic insulator at room temperature,” Nat. Phys. (published online 14 September 2015)]. Our magnetotransport data, taken at a series of different temperatures as a function of magnetic field orientation, rotating the externally applied field in three mutually orthogonal planes, show that the mechanisms behind the spin Hall and the non-local magnetoresistance are qualitatively different. In particular, the non-local magnetoresistance vanishes at liquid Helium temperatures, while the spin Hall magnetoresistance prevails.
Non-local charges in local quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchholz, D.; Lopuszanski, J.T.; Rabsztyn, S.
1985-05-01
Non-local charges are studied in the general setting of local quantum field theory. It is shown, that these charges can be represented as polynomials in the incoming respectively outgoing fields with coefficients (kernels) which are subject to specific constraints. For the restricted class of models of a scalar, massive, self interacting particle in four dimensions, a more detailed analysis shows that all non-local charges of the generic type (genus 2) are products of generators of the Poincare group. This analysis, which is based on the macroscopic causality properties of the S-matrix, seems to indicate that less trivial examples of non-local charges can only exist in two dimensions. (orig.)
A non-local variable for general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozameh, C.N.; Newman, E.T.
1983-01-01
The usual description of differential geometry and general relativity is in terms of local fields, e.g. the metric, the curvature tensor, etc, which satisfy local differential equations. The authors introduce a new non-local field (Z) from which the local fields can be derived. Basically Z, though it is non-local, should be thought of as a function on the bundle of null directions on a space-time. The program can be divided into two parts; first the authors want to show the geometric meaning of and the relationship between Z and the local field. Then they want to provide field equations (non-local) for Z which will be equivalent to the vacuum Einstein equations for the local field. (Auth.)
Non-local quantal Noether identities and their applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Ziping
2002-01-01
Based on the phase-space generating functional for a system with a singular high-order Lagrangian, the quantal canonical Noether identities under the local and non-local transformation in phase space for such system have been derived. For a gauge-invariant system with a higher-order Lagrangian, the quantal Noether identities under the local and non-local transformation in configuration space have also been derived. it has been pointed out that in certain cases the quantal Noether identities may be converted to the conservation laws at the quantum level. This algorithm to derive the quantal conservation laws is significantly different from the first quantal Noether theorem. The applications to the non-Abelian CS theories with higher-order derivatives are given. The conserved quantities at the quantum level for some local and non-local transformation are found respectively
Non-locality of non-Abelian anyons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brennen, G K; Iblisdir, S; Pachos, J K; Slingerland, J K
2009-01-01
Entangled states of quantum systems can give rise to measurement correlations of separated observers that cannot be described by local hidden variable theories. Usually, it is assumed that entanglement between particles is generated due to some distance-dependent interaction. Yet anyonic particles in two dimensions have a nontrivial interaction that is purely topological in nature. In other words, it does not depend on the distance between two particles, but rather on their exchange history. The information encoded in anyons is inherently non-local even in the single subsystem level making the treatment of anyons non-conventional. We describe a protocol to reveal the non-locality of anyons in terms of correlations in the outcomes of measurements in two separated regions. This gives a clear operational measure of non-locality for anyonic states and it opens up the possibility to test Bell inequalities in quantum Hall liquids or spin lattices.
Non-locality of non-Abelian anyons
Brennen, G. K.; Iblisdir, S.; Pachos, J. K.; Slingerland, J. K.
2009-10-01
Entangled states of quantum systems can give rise to measurement correlations of separated observers that cannot be described by local hidden variable theories. Usually, it is assumed that entanglement between particles is generated due to some distance-dependent interaction. Yet anyonic particles in two dimensions have a nontrivial interaction that is purely topological in nature. In other words, it does not depend on the distance between two particles, but rather on their exchange history. The information encoded in anyons is inherently non-local even in the single subsystem level making the treatment of anyons non-conventional. We describe a protocol to reveal the non-locality of anyons in terms of correlations in the outcomes of measurements in two separated regions. This gives a clear operational measure of non-locality for anyonic states and it opens up the possibility to test Bell inequalities in quantum Hall liquids or spin lattices.
Guided SAR image despeckling with probabilistic non local weights
Gokul, Jithin; Nair, Madhu S.; Rajan, Jeny
2017-12-01
SAR images are generally corrupted by granular disturbances called speckle, which makes visual analysis and detail extraction a difficult task. Non Local despeckling techniques with probabilistic similarity has been a recent trend in SAR despeckling. To achieve effective speckle suppression without compromising detail preservation, we propose an improvement for the existing Generalized Guided Filter with Bayesian Non-Local Means (GGF-BNLM) method. The proposed method (Guided SAR Image Despeckling with Probabilistic Non Local Weights) replaces parametric constants based on heuristics in GGF-BNLM method with dynamically derived values based on the image statistics for weight computation. Proposed changes make GGF-BNLM method adaptive and as a result, significant improvement is achieved in terms of performance. Experimental analysis on SAR images shows excellent speckle reduction without compromising feature preservation when compared to GGF-BNLM method. Results are also compared with other state-of-the-art and classic SAR depseckling techniques to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
To the non-local theory of cold nuclear fusion.
Alexeev, Boris V
2014-10-01
In this paper, we revisit the cold fusion (CF) phenomenon using the generalized Bolzmann kinetics theory which can represent the non-local physics of this CF phenomenon. This approach can identify the conditions when the CF can take place as the soliton creation under the influence of the intensive sound waves. The vast mathematical modelling leads to affirmation that all parts of soliton move with the same velocity and with the small internal change of the pressure. The zone of the high density is shaped on the soliton's front. It means that the regime of the 'acoustic CF' could be realized from the position of the non-local hydrodynamics.
Non-local model analysis of heat pulse propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwasaki, Takuya; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi
1998-01-01
A new theoretical model equation which includes the non-local effect in the heat flux is proposed to study the transient transport phenomena. A non-local heat flux, which is expressed in terms of the integral equation, is superimposed on the conventional form of the heat flux. This model is applied to describe the experimental results from the power switching [Stroth U, et al 1996 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 38 1087] and the power modulation experiments [Giannone L, et al 1992 Nucl. Fusion 32 1985] in the W7-AS stellarator. A small fraction of non-local component in the heat flux is found to be very effective in modifying the response against an external modulation. The transient feature of the transport property, which are observed in the response of heat pulse propagation, are qualitatively reproduced by the transport simulations based on this model. A possibility is discussed to determine the correlation length of the non-local effect experimentally by use of the results of transport simulations. (author)
Stability issues of black hole in non-local gravity
Myung, Yun Soo; Park, Young-Jai
2018-04-01
We discuss stability issues of Schwarzschild black hole in non-local gravity. It is shown that the stability analysis of black hole for the unitary and renormalizable non-local gravity with γ2 = - 2γ0 cannot be performed in the Lichnerowicz operator approach. On the other hand, for the unitary and non-renormalizable case with γ2 = 0, the black hole is stable against the metric perturbations. For non-unitary and renormalizable local gravity with γ2 = - 2γ0 = const (fourth-order gravity), the small black holes are unstable against the metric perturbations. This implies that what makes the problem difficult in stability analysis of black hole is the simultaneous requirement of unitarity and renormalizability around the Minkowski spacetime.
Generalized ward identities for non-local transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Ziping; Li Ruijie
2002-01-01
Based on the phase-space generating functional of Green function for a system with a singular higher-order Lagrangian, the generalized canonical Ward identities under the local and non-local transformation in phase space for such a system have been derived. Starting from the configuration-space generating functional for a gauge-invariant system, the generalized Ward identities were deduced under the local, non-local and global transformation, respectively. The applications to the non-Abelian Chern-Simons theories with higher derivatives were given. Some relationships among the proper vertices have been deduced, in which one does not need to carry out the integration over canonical momenta in phase-space generating functional. The Ward-Takahashi identities for BRS transformation are also obtained
On non local elasticity and its relation with lattice dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idiodi, J.O.A.
1984-11-01
In this paper we have modelled a three-dimensional discrete lattice by a nonlocal continuum which possesses dispersive phonons. Previous efforts in the development of non-local theories appear not to have paid much attention to establishing actual contact with the nontrivial models frequently employed in lattice dynamics. As a first attempt in this direction, we present in this paper explicit results for the form of a non-local stress-tensor that describes exactly the lattice dynamical model of Gazis, Herman and Wallis. This model takes into account angular stiffness forces involving consecutive nearest neighbours forming a right angle at equilibrium. In addition, a general result for the surface eigenmodes of a semi-finite isotropic medium is derived. One of the justifications for this kind of study is the simpler approach it offers to the problems of interest in lattice dynamics. (author)
Cosmological perturbations in non-local higher-derivative gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Craps, Ben; Jonckheere, Tim De; Koshelev, Alexey S.
2014-01-01
We study cosmological perturbations in a non-local higher-derivative model of gravity introduced by Biswas, Mazumdar and Siegel. We extend previous work, which had focused on classical scalar perturbations around a cosine hyperbolic bounce solution, in three ways. First, we point out the existence of a Starobinsky solution in this model, which is more attractive from a phenomenological point of view (even though it has no bounce). Second, we study classical vector and tensor pertuxsxrbations. Third, we show how to quantize scalar and tensor perturbations in a de Sitter phase (for choices of parameters such that the model is ghost-free). Our results show that the model is well-behaved at this level, and are very similar to corresponding results in local f(R) models. In particular, for the Starobinsky solution of non-local higher-derivative gravity, we find the same tensor-to-scalar ratio as for the conventional Starobinsky model
Multiple-Trace Operators and Non-Local String Theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silverstein, Eva M.
2001-01-01
We propose that a novel deformation of string perturbation theory, involving non-local interactions between strings, is required to describe the gravity duals of field theories deformed by multiple-trace operators. The new perturbative expansion involves a new parameter, which is neither the string coupling nor the coefficient of a vertex operator on the worldsheet. We explore some of the properties of this deformation, focusing on a special case where the deformation in the field theory is exactly marginal
Ground state solutions for non-local fractional Schrodinger equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Pu
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In this article, we study a time-independent fractional Schrodinger equation with non-local (regional diffusion $$ (-\\Delta^{\\alpha}_{\\rho}u + V(xu = f(x,u \\quad \\text{in }\\mathbb{R}^{N}, $$ where $\\alpha \\in (0,1$, $N > 2\\alpha$. We establish the existence of a non-negative ground state solution by variational methods.
Non-local deformation of a supersymmetric field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Qin [National University of Singapore, Department of Physics, Singapore (Singapore); Faizal, Mir [University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge (Canada); University of British Columbia - Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Shah, Mushtaq B.; Ganai, Prince A. [National Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Srinagar, Kashmir (India); Bhat, Anha [National Institute of Technology, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Srinagar (India); Zaz, Zaid [University of Kashmir, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Srinagar, Kashmir (India); Masood, Syed; Raza, Jamil; Irfan, Raja Muhammad [International Islamic University, Department of Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2017-09-15
In this paper, we will analyze a supersymmetric field theory deformed by generalized uncertainty principle and Lifshitz scaling. It will be observed that this deformed supersymmetric field theory contains non-local fractional derivative terms. In order to construct such a deformed N = 1 supersymmetric theory, a harmonic extension of functions will be used. However, the supersymmetry will only be preserved for a free theory and will be broken by the inclusion of interaction terms. (orig.)
Non-local gravity with a Weyl-square term
Cusin, Giulia; Maggiore, Michele; Mancarella, Michele
2016-01-01
Recent work has shown that modifications of General Relativity based on the addition of a non-local term $R\\,\\Box^{-2}R$ produce a dynamical model of dark energy, which is cosmologically viable both at the background level and at the level of cosmological perturbations. We explore a more general class of models based on the addition of terms proportional to $R_{\\mu\
Critical thresholds in flocking hydrodynamics with non-local alignment.
Tadmor, Eitan; Tan, Changhui
2014-11-13
We study the large-time behaviour of Eulerian systems augmented with non-local alignment. Such systems arise as hydrodynamic descriptions of agent-based models for self-organized dynamics, e.g. Cucker & Smale (2007 IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 52, 852-862. (doi:10.1109/TAC.2007.895842)) and Motsch & Tadmor (2011 J. Stat. Phys. 144, 923-947. (doi:10.1007/s10955-011-0285-9)) models. We prove that, in analogy with the agent-based models, the presence of non-local alignment enforces strong solutions to self-organize into a macroscopic flock. This then raises the question of existence of such strong solutions. We address this question in one- and two-dimensional set-ups, proving global regularity for subcritical initial data. Indeed, we show that there exist critical thresholds in the phase space of the initial configuration which dictate the global regularity versus a finite-time blow-up. In particular, we explore the regularity of non-local alignment in the presence of vacuum. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
A space-jump derivation for non-local models of cell-cell adhesion and non-local chemotaxis.
Buttenschön, Andreas; Hillen, Thomas; Gerisch, Alf; Painter, Kevin J
2018-01-01
Cellular adhesion provides one of the fundamental forms of biological interaction between cells and their surroundings, yet the continuum modelling of cellular adhesion has remained mathematically challenging. In 2006, Armstrong et al. proposed a mathematical model in the form of an integro-partial differential equation. Although successful in applications, a derivation from an underlying stochastic random walk has remained elusive. In this work we develop a framework by which non-local models can be derived from a space-jump process. We show how the notions of motility and a cell polarization vector can be naturally included. With this derivation we are able to include microscopic biological properties into the model. We show that particular choices yield the original Armstrong model, while others lead to more general models, including a doubly non-local adhesion model and non-local chemotaxis models. Finally, we use random walk simulations to confirm that the corresponding continuum model represents the mean field behaviour of the stochastic random walk.
Towards a test of non-locality without 'supplementary assumptions'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbieri, M.; De Martini, F.; Di Nepi, G.; Mataloni, P.
2005-01-01
We have experimentally tested the non-local properties of the two-photon states generated by a high brilliance source of entanglement which virtually allows the direct measurement of the full set of photon pairs created by the basic QED process implied by the parametric quantum scattering. Standard Bell measurements and Bell's inequality violation test have been realized over the entire cone of emission of the degenerate pairs. By the same source we have verified Hardy's ladder theory up to the 20th step and the contradiction between the standard quantum theory and the local realism has been tested for 41% of entangled pairs
Non-local quasi-linear parabolic equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amann, H
2005-01-01
This is a survey of the most common approaches to quasi-linear parabolic evolution equations, a discussion of their advantages and drawbacks, and a presentation of an entirely new approach based on maximal L p regularity. The general results here apply, above all, to parabolic initial-boundary value problems that are non-local in time. This is illustrated by indicating their relevance for quasi-linear parabolic equations with memory and, in particular, for time-regularized versions of the Perona-Malik equation of image processing
A non-local computational boundary condition for duct acoustics
Zorumski, William E.; Watson, Willie R.; Hodge, Steve L.
1994-01-01
A non-local boundary condition is formulated for acoustic waves in ducts without flow. The ducts are two dimensional with constant area, but with variable impedance wall lining. Extension of the formulation to three dimensional and variable area ducts is straightforward in principle, but requires significantly more computation. The boundary condition simulates a nonreflecting wave field in an infinite duct. It is implemented by a constant matrix operator which is applied at the boundary of the computational domain. An efficient computational solution scheme is developed which allows calculations for high frequencies and long duct lengths. This computational solution utilizes the boundary condition to limit the computational space while preserving the radiation boundary condition. The boundary condition is tested for several sources. It is demonstrated that the boundary condition can be applied close to the sound sources, rendering the computational domain small. Computational solutions with the new non-local boundary condition are shown to be consistent with the known solutions for nonreflecting wavefields in an infinite uniform duct.
Gauge unification, non-local breaking, open strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trapletti, M.
2005-01-01
The issue of non-local GUT symmetry breaking is addressed in the context of open string model building. We study Z N xZ M ' orbifolds with all the GUT-breaking orbifold elements acting freely, as rotations accompanied by translations in the internal space. We consider open strings quantized on these backgrounds, distinguishing whether the translational action is parallel or perpendicular to the D-branes. GUT breaking is impossible in the purely perpendicular case, non-local GUT breaking is instead allowed in the purely parallel case. In the latter, the scale of breaking is set by the compactification moduli, and there are no fixed points with reduced gauge symmetry, where dangerous explicit GUT-breaking terms could be located. We investigate the mixed parallel+perpendicular case in a Z 2 xZ 2 ' example, having also a simplified field theory realization. It is a new S 1 /Z 2 xZ 2 ' orbifold-GUT model, with bulk gauge symmetry SU(5)xSU(5) broken locally to the Standard Model gauge group. In spite of the locality of the GUT symmetry breaking, there is no localized contribution to the running of the coupling constants, and the unification scale is completely set by the length of S 1
STABLE STATIONARY STATES OF NON-LOCAL INTERACTION EQUATIONS
FELLNER, KLEMENS
2010-12-01
In this paper, we are interested in the large-time behaviour of a solution to a non-local interaction equation, where a density of particles/individuals evolves subject to an interaction potential and an external potential. It is known that for regular interaction potentials, stable stationary states of these equations are generically finite sums of Dirac masses. For a finite sum of Dirac masses, we give (i) a condition to be a stationary state, (ii) two necessary conditions of linear stability w.r.t. shifts and reallocations of individual Dirac masses, and (iii) show that these linear stability conditions imply local non-linear stability. Finally, we show that for regular repulsive interaction potential Wε converging to a singular repulsive interaction potential W, the Dirac-type stationary states ρ̄ ε approximate weakly a unique stationary state ρ̄ ∈ L∞. We illustrate our results with numerical examples. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Sign-changing solutions for non-local elliptic equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huxiao Luo
2017-07-01
Full Text Available This article concerns the existence of sign-changing solutions for equations driven by a non-local integrodifferential operator with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions, $$\\displaylines{ -\\mathcal{L}_Ku=f(x,u,\\quad x\\in \\Omega, \\cr u=0,\\quad x\\in \\mathbb{R}^n\\setminus\\Omega, }$$ where $\\Omega\\subset\\mathbb{R}^n\\; (n\\geq2$ is a bounded, smooth domain and the nonlinear term f satisfies suitable growth assumptions. By using Brouwer's degree theory and Deformation Lemma and arguing as in [2], we prove that there exists a least energy sign-changing solution. Our results generalize and improve some results obtained in [27
Bound and scattering states with non-local potentials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Viviani, M; Girlanda, L; Kievsky, A; Marcucci, L E; Rosati, S; Schiavilla, R
2007-06-01
The application of the hyperspherical harmonics method to the case of non-local potentials is described. Given the properties of the hyperspherical harmonic functions, there are no difficulties in considering the approach in both coordinate and momentum space. The results for the 3H and 4He binding energies and n - 3H scattering lengths are found to be in good agreement with those obtained with other different techniques. A study of the 4He form factor is also reported, with a careful investigation of the contribution from isospin symmetry violation. Its effect on parity violating elastic scattering of polarized electrons from 4He is investigated. In particular, a simple analysis of the recently measured left-right asymmetry at low Q2 shows that the contribution of these isospin admixture are found of comparable magnitude to that associated with strangeness components in the nucleon electric form factor.
Quantum gravitational collapse: non-singularity and non-locality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenwood, Eric; Stojkovic, Dejan
2008-01-01
We investigate gravitational collapse in the context of quantum mechanics. We take primary interest in the behavior of the collapse near the horizon and near the origin (classical singularity) from the point of view of an infalling observer. In the absence of radiation, quantum effects near the horizon do not change the classical conclusions for an infalling observer, meaning the horizon is not an obstacle for him. However, quantum effects are able to remove the classical singularity at the origin, since the wave function is non-singular at the origin. Also, near the classical singularity, some non-local effects become important. In the Schrodinger equation describing behavior near the origin, derivatives of the wave function at one point are related to the value of the wave function at some other distant point.
Non-local means filter for trim statics
Huang, Yunsong
2014-08-05
Structures will be mispositioned across prestack migration gathers in the presence of inaccuracies in the velocity model. Stacking these misaligned gathers runs the risk of destroying important structures in the stacked migration image. To mitigate this problem, we propose a trim statics inspired by the non-local means algorithm originally developed for image denoising. This method differs from the conventional one in two fundamental respects. First, the trim statics are computed by comparing image patches instead of individual image traces. Second, no global pilot trace is needed because only two migration images at a time participate in trim statics and are stacked into one image. A multitude of migration images are stacked recursively in this two-to-one fashion. Tests with a Gulf of Mexico dataset show a noticeable improvement in the feature coherency of the stacked migration image.
Non-local matrix generalizations of W-algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilal, A.
1995-01-01
There is a standard way to define two symplectic (hamiltonian) structures, the first and second Gelfand-Dikii brackets, on the space of ordinary m th -order linear differential operators L=-d m +U 1 d m-1 +U 2 d m-2 +..+U m . In this paper, I consider in detail the case where the U k are nxn-matrix-valued functions, with particular emphasis on the (more interesting) second Gelfand-Dikii bracket. Of particular interest is the reduction to the symplectic submanifold U 1 =0. This reduction gives rise to matrix generalizations of (the classical version of) the non-linear W m -algebras, called V n,m -algebras. The non-commutativity of the matrices leads to non-local terms in these V n,m -algebras. I show that these algebras contain a conformal Virasoro subalgebra and that combinations W k of the U k can be formed that are nxn-matrices of conformally primary fields of spin k, in analogy with the scalar case n=1. In general however, the V m,n -algebras have a much richer structure than the W m -algebras as can be seen on the examples of the non-linear and non-local Poisson brackets {(U 2 ) ab (σ),(U 2 ) cd (σ')}, {(U 2 ) ab (σ),(W 3 ) cd (σ')} and {(W 3 ) ab (σ),(W 3 ) cd (σ')} which I work out explicitly for all m and n. A matrix Miura transformation is derived, mapping these complicated (second Gelfand-Dikii) brackets of the U k to a set of much simpler Poisson brackets, providing the analogue of the free-field representation of the W m -algebras. (orig.)
A non-local model analysis of heat pulse propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwasaki, T.; Itoh, S.I.; Yagi, M.; Stroth, U.
1998-01-01
The anomalous transport in high temperature plasma has been studied for a long time, from the beginning of the fusion research. Since the electron channel in stellarators and tokamaks is clearly anomalous, it is of fundamental importance to investigate the electron heat diffusivity coefficient, χ e and to understand the physical mechanism. Recently, the experimental data for the transient transport of the heat pulse propagation in fusion plasma has been accumulated. An observation was reported on W7-AS which the heat flux changes faster than the change of the temperature profile, responding to the switching on off of the central heating power. The observation on the transient response has simulated the transport modeling, e.g., the critical marginality which implies the existence of a finite threshold in ∇T for the excitation of the turbulence, or the model in which the thermal conductivity is assumed to depend on the heating power. Extensive study is made by use of these models, and the critical marginally model seems to be insufficient to explain various transient transport. The rapid change of the plasma state and its hysteresis nature were successfully modeled by a heating-power-dependent model. The foundation of this model, however, is left for future work. The development of the transport modeling remains to be an urgent problem. In this paper, we investigate the role of the non-locality of the plasma transport in the study of the heat pulse propagation. For this purpose, a model equation is proposed, in which the non-local effect is taken into account in the heat flux. The properties of this model are investigated by performing a transport simulation. The organization of this paper is as follows: In Sec. II, the model equation is proposed and the properties of the model are explained. Using the model equation, the switching on off experiment is simulated in Sec. III. Summary and discussion are given in Sec. IV. (author)
Non-Local Diffusion of Energetic Electrons during Solar Flares
Bian, N. H.; Emslie, G.; Kontar, E.
2017-12-01
The transport of the energy contained in suprathermal electrons in solar flares plays a key role in our understanding of many aspects of flare physics, from the spatial distributions of hard X-ray emission and energy deposition in the ambient atmosphere to global energetics. Historically the transport of these particles has been largely treated through a deterministic approach, in which first-order secular energy loss to electrons in the ambient target is treated as the dominant effect, with second-order diffusive terms (in both energy and angle) generally being either treated as a small correction or even neglected. Here, we critically analyze this approach, and we show that spatial diffusion through pitch-angle scattering necessarily plays a very significant role in the transport of electrons. We further show that a satisfactory treatment of the diffusion process requires consideration of non-local effects, so that the electron flux depends not just on the local gradient of the electron distribution function but on the value of this gradient within an extended region encompassing a significant fraction of a mean free path. Our analysis applies generally to pitch-angle scattering by a variety of mechanisms, from Coulomb collisions to turbulent scattering. We further show that the spatial transport of electrons along the magnetic field of a flaring loop can be modeled as a Continuous Time Random Walk with velocity-dependent probability distribution functions of jump sizes and occurrences, both of which can be expressed in terms of the scattering mean free path.
Black supernovae and black holes in non-local gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bambi, Cosimo [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University,200433 Shanghai (China); Theoretical Astrophysics, Eberhard-Karls Universität Tübingen,72076 Tübingen (Germany); Malafarina, Daniele [Department of Physics, Nazarbayev University,010000 Astana (Kazakhstan); Modesto, Leonardo [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University,200433 Shanghai (China)
2016-04-22
In a previous paper, we studied the interior solution of a collapsing body in a non-local theory of gravity super-renormalizable at the quantum level. We found that the classical singularity is replaced by a bounce, after which the body starts expanding. A black hole, strictly speaking, never forms. The gravitational collapse does not create an event horizon but only an apparent one for a finite time. In this paper, we solve the equations of motion assuming that the exterior solution is static. With such an assumption, we are able to reconstruct the solution in the whole spacetime, namely in both the exterior and interior regions. Now the gravitational collapse creates an event horizon in a finite comoving time, but the central singularity is approached in an infinite time. We argue that these black holes should be unstable, providing a link between the scenarios with and without black holes. Indeed, we find a non catastrophic ghost-instability of the metric in the exterior region. Interestingly, under certain conditions, the lifetime of our black holes exactly scales as the Hawking evaporation time.
Cosmological evolution of generalized non-local gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Xue; Wu, Ya-Bo; Liu, Yu-Chen; Chen, Bo-Hai; Chai, Yun-Tian; Shu, Shuang [Department of Physics, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Li, Song, E-mail: zxue0128@163.com, E-mail: ybwu61@163.com, E-mail: sli@cnu.edu.cn, E-mail: wuli11liuyuchen@163.com, E-mail: bchenphy@163.com, E-mail: chaiyuntian1881@sina.com, E-mail: sshu1230@163.com [Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China)
2016-07-01
We construct a class of generalized non-local gravity (GNLG) model which is the modified theory of general relativity (GR) obtained by adding a term m {sup 2} {sup n} {sup -2} R □{sup -} {sup n} R to the Einstein-Hilbert action. Concretely, we not only study the gravitational equation for the GNLG model by introducing auxiliary scalar fields, but also analyse the classical stability and examine the cosmological consequences of the model for different exponent n . We find that the half of the scalar fields are always ghost-like and the exponent n must be taken even number for a stable GNLG model. Meanwhile, the model spontaneously generates three dominant phases of the evolution of the universe, and the equation of state parameters turn out to be phantom-like. Furthermore, we clarify in another way that exponent n should be even numbers by the spherically symmetric static solutions in Newtonian gauge. It is worth stressing that the results given by us can include ones in refs. [28, 34] as the special case of n =2.
Path entanglement of photons by non-local bunching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eisenberg, H.; Hodelin, J.; Khoury, G.; Bouwmeester, D.
2005-01-01
Full Text:Path entangled photon states can be used to overcome classical limits on the accuracy of interferometric measurements such as the diffraction limit. These states are superpositions of finding n photons in one out of two (or more) paths. Using stimulated parametric down-conversion, we propose and demonstrate a method for generating heralded multiphoton path entanglement, without applying post-selection. parametric down-conversion is relatively easy to produce compared to pure Fock states as demanded by other proposals. By a special coincidence detection at one down converted arm, the photons of the second arm non-locally bunch into the desired state. Entanglement in photon number is created between two polarization modes rather than two paths. A polarization beam-splitter and a 2 wave plate can translate between the two representations. The experimental generation of a two-photon path entangled state was detected by observing interference at half the photon wavelength. The scheme is generally extendable to higher photon numbers
Non-local means denoising of dynamic PET images.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joyita Dutta
Full Text Available Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET, which reveals information about both the spatial distribution and temporal kinetics of a radiotracer, enables quantitative interpretation of PET data. Model-based interpretation of dynamic PET images by means of parametric fitting, however, is often a challenging task due to high levels of noise, thus necessitating a denoising step. The objective of this paper is to develop and characterize a denoising framework for dynamic PET based on non-local means (NLM.NLM denoising computes weighted averages of voxel intensities assigning larger weights to voxels that are similar to a given voxel in terms of their local neighborhoods or patches. We introduce three key modifications to tailor the original NLM framework to dynamic PET. Firstly, we derive similarities from less noisy later time points in a typical PET acquisition to denoise the entire time series. Secondly, we use spatiotemporal patches for robust similarity computation. Finally, we use a spatially varying smoothing parameter based on a local variance approximation over each spatiotemporal patch.To assess the performance of our denoising technique, we performed a realistic simulation on a dynamic digital phantom based on the Digimouse atlas. For experimental validation, we denoised [Formula: see text] PET images from a mouse study and a hepatocellular carcinoma patient study. We compared the performance of NLM denoising with four other denoising approaches - Gaussian filtering, PCA, HYPR, and conventional NLM based on spatial patches.The simulation study revealed significant improvement in bias-variance performance achieved using our NLM technique relative to all the other methods. The experimental data analysis revealed that our technique leads to clear improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio in Patlak parametric images generated from denoised preclinical and clinical dynamic images, indicating its ability to preserve image contrast and high
Non-local means denoising of dynamic PET images.
Dutta, Joyita; Leahy, Richard M; Li, Quanzheng
2013-01-01
Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET), which reveals information about both the spatial distribution and temporal kinetics of a radiotracer, enables quantitative interpretation of PET data. Model-based interpretation of dynamic PET images by means of parametric fitting, however, is often a challenging task due to high levels of noise, thus necessitating a denoising step. The objective of this paper is to develop and characterize a denoising framework for dynamic PET based on non-local means (NLM). NLM denoising computes weighted averages of voxel intensities assigning larger weights to voxels that are similar to a given voxel in terms of their local neighborhoods or patches. We introduce three key modifications to tailor the original NLM framework to dynamic PET. Firstly, we derive similarities from less noisy later time points in a typical PET acquisition to denoise the entire time series. Secondly, we use spatiotemporal patches for robust similarity computation. Finally, we use a spatially varying smoothing parameter based on a local variance approximation over each spatiotemporal patch. To assess the performance of our denoising technique, we performed a realistic simulation on a dynamic digital phantom based on the Digimouse atlas. For experimental validation, we denoised [Formula: see text] PET images from a mouse study and a hepatocellular carcinoma patient study. We compared the performance of NLM denoising with four other denoising approaches - Gaussian filtering, PCA, HYPR, and conventional NLM based on spatial patches. The simulation study revealed significant improvement in bias-variance performance achieved using our NLM technique relative to all the other methods. The experimental data analysis revealed that our technique leads to clear improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio in Patlak parametric images generated from denoised preclinical and clinical dynamic images, indicating its ability to preserve image contrast and high intensity details while
A Morphing framework to couple non-local and local anisotropic continua
Azdoud, Yan
2013-05-01
In this article, we develop a method to couple anisotropic local continua with anisotropic non-local continua with central long-range forces. First, we describe anisotropic non-local models based on spherical harmonic descriptions. We then derive compatible classic continuum models. Finally, we apply the morphing method to these anisotropic non-local models and present three-dimensional numerical examples to validate the efficiency of the technique. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Non-local currents in 2D QFT: an alternative To - the quantum inverse scattering method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, D.; Leclair, A.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY
1990-01-01
The formalism based on non-local charges that we propose provides an alternative to the quantum inverse scattering method for solving integrable quantum field theories in 2D. The content of the paper is: 1. Introduction: historical background. 2. The NLC approach to 2D QFT: a summary. 3 Exchange algebras and on-shell conservation laws: why non-local charges are useful. 4. The lattice construction: the geometrical origin of non-local conserved currents. 5. The continuum construction: how to deal with non-local conserved currents. 6. Examples: Yangian and quantum group currents. 7 Conclusions: open problems. 22 refs., 4 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reynaud, S.; Giacobino, S.; Zinn-Justin, J.
1997-01-01
This course is dedicated to present in a pedagogical manner the recent developments in peculiar fields concerned by quantum fluctuations: quantum noise in optics, light propagation through dielectric media, sub-Poissonian light generated by lasers and masers, quantum non-demolition measurements, quantum electrodynamics applied to cavities and electrical circuits involving superconducting tunnel junctions. (A.C.)
Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline
2013-01-01
What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…
Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.
This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…
A generalized non-local optical response theory for plasmonic nanostructures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, N. Asger; Raza, Søren; Wubs, Martijn
2014-01-01
for their description. Here instead we present a comparatively simple semiclassical generalized non-local optical response theory that unifies quantum pressure convection effects and induced charge diffusion kinetics, with a concomitant complex-valued generalized non-local optical response parameter. Our theory...
Local and non-local equivalent potentials for p-12C scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lovell, A.; Amos, K.
2000-01-01
A Newton-Sabatier fixed energy inversion scheme has been used to equate inherently non-local p- 12 C potentials at a variety of energies to pion threshold, with exactly phase equivalent local ones. Those energy dependent local potentials then have been recast in the form of non-local Frahn-Lemmer interactions
Bosonization, dual transformation and non-local hidden symmetry in two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hata, Hiroyuki
1985-01-01
The non-local hidden symmetry is investigated in the bosonized non-abelian Thirring model and the dual representation of the chiral model. In these representations the first non-local symmetry is spontaneously broken in naive pertubation theory. (orig.)
A morphing strategy to couple non-local to local continuum mechanics
Lubineau, Gilles; Azdoud, Yan; Han, Fei; Rey, Christian C.; Askari, Abe H.
2012-01-01
A method for coupling non-local continuum models with long-range central forces to local continuum models is proposed. First, a single unified model that encompasses both local and non-local continuum representations is introduced. This model can be purely non-local, purely local or a hybrid depending on the constitutive parameters. Then, the coupling between the non-local and local descriptions is performed through a transition (morphing) affecting only the constitutive parameters. An important feature is the definition of the morphing functions, which relies on energy equivalence. This approach is useful in large-scale modeling of materials that exhibit strong non-local effects. The computational cost can be reduced while maintaining a reasonable level of accuracy. Efficiency, robustness and basic properties of the approach are discussed using one- and two-dimensional examples. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
A morphing strategy to couple non-local to local continuum mechanics
Lubineau, Gilles
2012-06-01
A method for coupling non-local continuum models with long-range central forces to local continuum models is proposed. First, a single unified model that encompasses both local and non-local continuum representations is introduced. This model can be purely non-local, purely local or a hybrid depending on the constitutive parameters. Then, the coupling between the non-local and local descriptions is performed through a transition (morphing) affecting only the constitutive parameters. An important feature is the definition of the morphing functions, which relies on energy equivalence. This approach is useful in large-scale modeling of materials that exhibit strong non-local effects. The computational cost can be reduced while maintaining a reasonable level of accuracy. Efficiency, robustness and basic properties of the approach are discussed using one- and two-dimensional examples. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Surface effects on static bending of nanowires based on non-local elasticity theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quan Wu
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The surface elasticity and non-local elasticity effects on the elastic behavior of statically bent nanowires are investigated in the present investigation. Explicit solutions are presented to evaluate the surface stress and non-local elasticity effects with various boundary conditions. Compared with the classical Euler beam, a nanowire with surface stress and/or non-local elasticity can be either stiffer or less stiff, depending on the boundary conditions. The concept of surface non-local elasticity was proposed and its physical interpretation discussed to explain the combined effect of surface elasticity and non-local elasticity. The effect of the nanowire size on its elastic bending behavior was investigated. The results obtained herein are helpful to characterize mechanical properties of nanowires and aid nanowire-based devices design.
The small length scale effect for a non-local cantilever beam: a paradox solved.
Challamel, N; Wang, C M
2008-08-27
Non-local continuum mechanics allows one to account for the small length scale effect that becomes significant when dealing with microstructures or nanostructures. This paper presents some simplified non-local elastic beam models, for the bending analyses of small scale rods. Integral-type or gradient non-local models abandon the classical assumption of locality, and admit that stress depends not only on the strain value at that point but also on the strain values of all points on the body. There is a paradox still unresolved at this stage: some bending solutions of integral-based non-local elastic beams have been found to be identical to the classical (local) solution, i.e. the small scale effect is not present at all. One example is the Euler-Bernoulli cantilever nanobeam model with a point load which has application in microelectromechanical systems and nanoelectromechanical systems as an actuator. In this paper, it will be shown that this paradox may be overcome with a gradient elastic model as well as an integral non-local elastic model that is based on combining the local and the non-local curvatures in the constitutive elastic relation. The latter model comprises the classical gradient model and Eringen's integral model, and its application produces small length scale terms in the non-local elastic cantilever beam solution.
High order scheme for the non-local transport in ICF plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feugeas, J.L.; Nicolai, Ph.; Schurtz, G. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications (UMR 5107), 33 - Talence (France); Charrier, P.; Ahusborde, E. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., MAB, 33 - Talence (France)
2006-06-15
A high order practical scheme for a model of non-local transport is here proposed to be used in multidimensional radiation hydrodynamic codes. A high order scheme is necessary to solve non-local problems on strongly deformed meshes that are on hot point or ablation front zones. It is shown that the errors made by a classical 5 point scheme on a disturbed grid can be of the same order of magnitude as the non-local effects. The use of a 9 point scheme in a simulation of inertial confinement fusion appears to be essential.
A hybrid local/non-local framework for the simulation of damage and fracture
Azdoud, Yan
2014-01-01
Recent advances in non-local continuum models, notably peridynamics, have spurred a paradigm shift in solid mechanics simulation by allowing accurate mathematical representation of singularities and discontinuities. This doctoral work attempts to extend the use of this theory to a community more familiar with local continuum models. In this communication, a coupling strategy - the morphing method -, which bridges local and non-local models, is presented. This thesis employs the morphing method to ease use of the non-local model to represent problems with failure-induced discontinuities. First, we give a quick review of strategies for the simulation of discrete degradation, and suggest a hybrid local/non-local alternative. Second, we present the technical concepts involved in the morphing method and evaluate the quality of the coupling. Third, we develop a numerical tool for the simulation of the hybrid model for fracture and damage and demonstrate its capabilities on numerical model examples
Observation of multi-channel non-local transport in J-TEXT plasmas
Shi, Yuejiang; Chen, Zhongyong; Yang, Zhoujun; Shi, Peng; Zhao, Kaijun; Diamond, Patrick H.; Kwon, JaeMin; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Hao; Pan, Xiaoming; Cheng, Zhifeng; Chen, Zhiping; Yang, SeongMoo; Zhang, Chi; Li, Da; Dong, Yunbo; Wang, Lu; Ding, YongHua; Liang, Yunfeng; Hahn, SangHee; Jhang, HoGun; Na, Yong-Su
2018-04-01
In cold pulse experiments in J-TEXT, not only are rapid electron temperature increases in the core observed, but also steep rises in the inner density are found. Moreover, some evidence of acceleration of the core toroidal rotation is also observed during the non-local transport process of electron temperature. These new findings of cold pulse experiments in J-TEXT suggest that turbulence spreading is a possible mechanism for the non-local transport dynamics.
Off-shell t-matrix for an exponential potential with non-local core interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarkar, S.B.; Talukdar, B.; Chattarji, D.
1975-01-01
The wave function approach of Van Leeuwen and Reiner to the t-matrix is generalized to the case of a non-local potential. The transition matrix element for this potential is obtained. The results are used to compute the s-wave part of the t-matrix for a non-local square well potential combined with an outside exponential potential. (Auth.)
Courtier, P
1994-02-07
Weather prediction is performed using the numerical model of the atmosphere evolution.The evolution equations are derived from the Navier Stokes equation for the adiabatic part but the are very much complicated by the change of phase of water, the radiation porocess and the boundary layer.The technique used operationally is described. Weather prediction is an initial value problem and accurate initial conditions need to be specified. Due to the small number of observations available (105 ) as compared to the dimension of the model state variable (107),the problem is largely underdetermined. Techniques of optimal control and inverse problems are used and have been adapted to the large dimension of our problem. our problem.The at mosphere is a chaotic system; the implication for weather prediction is discussed. Ensemble prediction is used operationally and the technique for generating initial conditions which lead to a numerical divergence of the subsequent forecasts is described.
The Green’s functions for peridynamic non-local diffusion
Wang, L. J.; Xu, J. F.
2016-01-01
In this work, we develop the Green’s function method for the solution of the peridynamic non-local diffusion model in which the spatial gradient of the generalized potential in the classical theory is replaced by an integral of a generalized response function in a horizon. We first show that the general solutions of the peridynamic non-local diffusion model can be expressed as functionals of the corresponding Green’s functions for point sources, along with volume constraints for non-local diffusion. Then, we obtain the Green’s functions by the Fourier transform method for unsteady and steady diffusions in infinite domains. We also demonstrate that the peridynamic non-local solutions converge to the classical differential solutions when the non-local length approaches zero. Finally, the peridynamic analytical solutions are applied to an infinite plate heated by a Gauss source, and the predicted variations of temperature are compared with the classical local solutions. The peridynamic non-local diffusion model predicts a lower rate of variation of the field quantities than that of the classical theory, which is consistent with experimental observations. The developed method is applicable to general diffusion-type problems. PMID:27713658
Positronium annihilation in liquids in the framework of non-local interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukherjee, Tapas; Dutta, Dhanadeep
2012-01-01
In the bubble model of ortho positronium (o-Ps) annihilation in liquid the origin of the trapping of o-Ps is the electron-exchange repulsive interaction between the electron of o-Ps and the electron of the medium. The corresponding effective interaction is non-local in nature. However, in the prevalent bubble model, this effective interaction is usually treated as local (model) potential (sharp or smooth). In the present study, we have taken an approach to consider this trapping interaction as non-local in nature, which is included through a model separable non-local function to tackle the problem in analytically solvable manner. The analytical calculations show that this non-local interaction effectively acts as a gauge potential in the energy of the Ps atom in parameter (bubble radius) space. The computed bubble variables obtained using experimental Ps annihilation data are shown. A comparison between the present data with the calculated results using prevalent bubble model has been presented. Discussions have been made on the input parameter dependencies of the computed data. - Highlights: ► Bubble model has been modified by considering positronium-atom non-local interaction. ► No straight forward correlation between bubble size and effective potential is observed. ► Non-local potential acts as a guage potential.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clarke, J.
1980-01-01
This paper briefly reviews sources of noise in Josephson junctions, and the limits they impose on the sensitivity of dc and rf SQUIDS. The results are strictly valid only for a resistively shunted junction (RSJ) with zero capacitance, but should be applicable to point contact junctions and microbridges in so far as these devices can be approximated by the RSJ model. Fluctuations arising from Nyquist noise in the resistive shunt of a single junction are discussed in the limit eI/sub o/R/k/sub B/T << 1 in which a classical treatment is appropriate, and then extend the treatment to the limit eI/sub o/R/k/sub B/T greater than or equal to 1 in which quantum effects become important. The Nyquist limit theory is used to calculate the noise in a dc SQUID, and the results are compared with a number of practical devices. The quantum limit is briefly considered. Results for the predicted sensitivity of rf SQUIDS are presented, and also compared with a number of practical devices. Finally, the importance of l/f noise (f is the frequency) in limiting the low frequency performance of SQUIDS is discussed
More about the comparison of local and non-local NN interaction models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amghar, A.; Desplanques, B.
2003-01-01
The effect of non-locality in the NN interaction with an off-energy shell character has been studied in the past in relation with the possibility that some models could be approximately phase-shifts equivalent. This work is extended to a non-locality implying terms that involve an anticommutator with the operator p 2 . It includes both scalar and tensor components. The most recent 'high accuracy' models are considered in the analysis. After studying the deuteron wave functions, electromagnetic properties of various models are compared with the idea that these ones differ by their non-locality but are equivalent up to a unitary transformation. It is found that the extra non-local tensor interaction considered in this work tends to re-enforce the role of the term considered in previous works, allowing one to explain almost completely the difference in the deuteron D-state probabilities evidenced by the comparison of the Bonn-QB and Paris models for instance. Conclusions for the effect of the non-local scalar interaction are not so clear. In many cases, it was found that these terms could explain part of the differences that the comparison of predictions for various models evidences but cases where they could not were also found. Some of these last ones have been analyzed in order to pointing out the origin of the failure
Mohamed, Abdel-Baset A.
2018-04-01
In this paper, some non-classical correlations are investigated for bipartite partitions of two qubits trapped in two spatially separated cavities connected by an optical fiber. The results show that the trace distance discord and Bell's non-locality introduce other quantum correlations beyond the entanglement. Moreover, the correlation functions of the trace distance discord and the Bell's non-locality are very sensitive to the initial correlations, the coupling strengths, and the dissipation rates of the cavities. The fluctuations of the correlation functions between their initial values and gained (loss) values appear due to the unitary evolution of the system. These fluctuations depend on the chosen initial correlations between the two subsystems. The maximal violations of Bell's inequality occur when the logarithmic negativity and the trace distance discord reach certain values. It is shown that the robustness of the non-classical correlations, against the dissipation rates of the cavities, depends on the bipartite partitions reduced density matrices of the system, and is also greatly enhanced by choosing appropriate coupling strengths.
On the non-local obstruction to interacting higher spins in flat space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taronna, Massimo [Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)
2017-05-04
Owing to a renewed interest in flat space higher spin gauge theories, in this note we provide further details and clarifications on the results presented in arXiv:1107.5843 and arXiv: 1209.5755, which investigated their locality properties. Focusing, for simplicity, on quartic couplings with one of the external legs having non-zero integer spin (which can be considered as a prototype for Weinberg-type arguments), we review the appearance of 1/◻ non-localities. In particular, we emphasise that it appears to be not possible to eliminate all of the aforementioned non-localities in the general quartic Noether procedure solution with a judicious choice of coupling constants and spectrum. We also discuss the light-cone gauge fixing in d=4, and argue that the non-local obstruction discussed in the covariant language cannot be avoided using light-cone gauge formalism.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Jinxin; Gleeson, Michael R; Liu, Shui; Sheridan, John T
2011-01-01
The non-local photopolymerization driven diffusion (NPDD) model predicts that a reduction in the non-local response length within a photopolymer material will improve its high spatial frequency response. The introduction of a chain transfer agent reduces the average molecular weight of polymer chains formed during free radical polymerization. Therefore a chain transfer agent (CTA) provides a practical method to reduce the non-local response length. An extended NPDD model is presented, which includes the chain transfer reaction and most major photochemical processes. The addition of a chain transfer agent into an acrylamide/polyvinyl alcohol photopolymer material is simulated and the predictions of the model are examined. The predictions of the model are experimentally examined in part II of this paper
Purely non-local Hamiltonian formalism, Kohno connections and ∨-systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo
2014-01-01
In this paper, we extend purely non-local Hamiltonian formalism to a class of Riemannian F-manifolds, without assumptions on the semisimplicity of the product ○ or on the flatness of the connection ∇. In the flat case, we show that the recurrence relations for the principal hierarchy can be re-interpreted using a local and purely non-local Hamiltonian operators and in this case they split into two Lenard-Magri chains, one involving the even terms, the other involving the odd terms. Furthermore, we give an elementary proof that the Kohno property and the ∨-system condition are equivalent under suitable assumptions and we show how to associate a purely non-local Hamiltonian structure to any ∨-system, including degenerate ones
Non-local two phase flow momentum transport in S BWR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espinosa P, G.; Salinas M, L.; Vazquez R, A.
2015-09-01
The non-local momentum transport equations derived in this work contain new terms related with non-local transport effects due to accumulation, convection, diffusion and transport properties for two-phase flow. For instance, they can be applied in the boundary between a two-phase flow and a solid phase, or in the boundary of the transition region of two-phase flows where the local volume averaging equations fail. The S BWR was considered to study the non-local effects on the two-phase flow thermal-hydraulic core performance in steady-state, and the results were compared with the classical local averaging volume conservation equations. (Author)
Effect of the interface resistance in non-local Hanle measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villamor, Estitxu; Hueso, Luis E.; Casanova, Fèlix
2015-01-01
We use lateral spin valves with varying interface resistance to measure non-local Hanle effect in order to extract the spin-diffusion length of the non-magnetic channel. A general expression that describes spin injection and transport, taking into account the influence of the interface resistance, is used to fit our results. Whereas the fitted spin-diffusion length value is in agreement with the one obtained from standard non-local measurements in the case of a finite interface resistance, in the case of transparent contacts a clear disagreement is observed. The use of a corrected expression, recently proposed to account for the anisotropy of the spin absorption at the ferromagnetic electrodes, still yields a deviation of the fitted spin-diffusion length which increases for shorter channel distances. This deviation shows how sensitive the non-local Hanle fittings are, evidencing the complexity of obtaining spin transport information from such type of measurements
Instantaneous Non-Local Computation of Low T-Depth Quantum Circuits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Speelman, Florian
2016-01-01
-depth of a quantum circuit, able to perform non-local computation of quantum circuits with a (poly-)logarithmic number of layers of T gates with quasi-polynomial entanglement. Our proofs combine ideas from blind and delegated quantum computation with the garden-hose model, a combinatorial model of communication......Instantaneous non-local quantum computation requires multiple parties to jointly perform a quantum operation, using pre-shared entanglement and a single round of simultaneous communication. We study this task for its close connection to position-based quantum cryptography, but it also has natural...... applications in the context of foundations of quantum physics and in distributed computing. The best known general construction for instantaneous non-local quantum computation requires a pre-shared state which is exponentially large in the number of qubits involved in the operation, while efficient...
The status and prospects of quantum non-local field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cornish, N.J.; Melbourne Univ., Parkville
1991-01-01
A critical review of the physical constraints on the form the non-locality can take is presented. The conclusion of this review is that non-locality must be restricted to interactions with the vacuum sea of virtual particles. A successful formulation of such a theory, Quantum Nonlocal Field Theory (QNFT), is applied to scalar electrodynamics and serves to illustrate how gauge invariance and manifest finiteness can be achieved. The importance of the infinite dimensional symmetry groups that occur in QNFT are discussed as an alternative to supersymmetry, the ability to generate masses by breaking the non-local symmetry with a non-invariant functional measure is given a critical assessment. To demonstrate some of the many novel applications QNFT may make possible, three disparate examples are mooted, the existence of electroweak monopoles, an mechanism for CP violation and the formulation of a finite perturbative theory of Quantum Gravity. 21 refs., ills
Analysis of the cable equation with non-local and non-singular kernel fractional derivative
Karaagac, Berat
2018-02-01
Recently a new concept of differentiation was introduced in the literature where the kernel was converted from non-local singular to non-local and non-singular. One of the great advantages of this new kernel is its ability to portray fading memory and also well defined memory of the system under investigation. In this paper the cable equation which is used to develop mathematical models of signal decay in submarine or underwater telegraphic cables will be analysed using the Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivative due to the ability of the new fractional derivative to describe non-local fading memory. The existence and uniqueness of the more generalized model is presented in detail via the fixed point theorem. A new numerical scheme is used to solve the new equation. In addition, stability, convergence and numerical simulations are presented.
Extended non-local games and monogamy-of-entanglement games.
Johnston, Nathaniel; Mittal, Rajat; Russo, Vincent; Watrous, John
2016-05-01
We study a generalization of non-local games-which we call extended non-local games -in which the players, Alice and Bob, initially share a tripartite quantum state with the referee. In such games, the winning conditions for Alice and Bob may depend on the outcomes of measurements made by the referee, on its part of the shared quantum state, in addition to Alice and Bob's answers to randomly selected questions. Our study of this class of games was inspired by the monogamy-of-entanglement games introduced by Tomamichel, Fehr, Kaniewski and Wehner, which they also generalize. We prove that a natural extension of the Navascués-Pironio-Acín hierarchy of semidefinite programmes converges to the optimal commuting measurement value of extended non-local games, and we prove two extensions of results of Tomamichel et al. concerning monogamy-of-entanglement games.
Non-local two phase flow momentum transport in S BWR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Espinosa P, G.; Salinas M, L.; Vazquez R, A., E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Apdo. Postal 55-535, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)
2015-09-15
The non-local momentum transport equations derived in this work contain new terms related with non-local transport effects due to accumulation, convection, diffusion and transport properties for two-phase flow. For instance, they can be applied in the boundary between a two-phase flow and a solid phase, or in the boundary of the transition region of two-phase flows where the local volume averaging equations fail. The S BWR was considered to study the non-local effects on the two-phase flow thermal-hydraulic core performance in steady-state, and the results were compared with the classical local averaging volume conservation equations. (Author)
... GIS International Weather Cooperative Observers Storm Spotters Tsunami Facts and Figures National Water Center WEATHER SAFETY NOAA Weather Radio StormReady Heat Lightning Hurricanes Thunderstorms Tornadoes Rip Currents Floods Winter Weather ...
Chimera states and the interplay between initial conditions and non-local coupling
Kalle, Peter; Sawicki, Jakub; Zakharova, Anna; Schöll, Eckehard
2017-03-01
Chimera states are complex spatio-temporal patterns that consist of coexisting domains of coherent and incoherent dynamics. We study chimera states in a network of non-locally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators. We investigate the impact of initial conditions in combination with non-local coupling. Based on an analytical argument, we show how the coupling phase and the coupling strength are linked to the occurrence of chimera states, flipped profiles of the mean phase velocity, and the transition from a phase- to an amplitude-mediated chimera state.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rubaszek, A.
2001-01-01
Several methods to describe the electron-positron (e-p) correlation effects are used in calculations of positron annihilation characteristics in solids. The weighted density approximation (WDA), giving rise to the non-local, state-selective e-p correlation functions, is applied to calculate positron annihilation rates and e-p momentum densities in a variety of metals and silicon. The WDA results are compared to the results of other methods such as the independent particle model, local density approximation, generalised gradient approximation, and also to experiments. The importance of non-locality and state-dependence of the e-p correlation functions is discussed. (orig.)
Modeling non-locality of plasmonic excitations with a fictitious film
Kong, Jiantao; Shvonski, Alexander; Kempa, Krzysztof
Non-local effects, requiring a wavevector (q) dependent dielectric response are becoming increasingly important in studies of plasmonic and metamaterial structures. The phenomenological hydrodynamic approximation (HDA) is the simplest, and most often used model, but it often fails. We show that the d-function formalism, exact to first order in q, is a powerful and simple-to-use alternative. Recently, we developed a mapping of the d-function formalism into a purely local fictitious film. This geometric mapping allows for non-local extensions of any local calculation scheme, including FDTD. We demonstrate here, that such mapped FDTD simulation of metallic nanoclusters agrees very well with various experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casati, G.; Chirikov, B.V.
1996-01-01
Various fluctuations in quantum systems with discrete spectrum are discussed, including recent unpublished results. Open questions and unexplained peculiarities of quantum fluctuations are formulated [ru
Robust Non-Local TV-L1 Optical Flow Estimation with Occlusion Detection.
Zhang, Congxuan; Chen, Zhen; Wang, Mingrun; Li, Ming; Jiang, Shaofeng
2017-06-05
In this paper, we propose a robust non-local TV-L1 optical flow method with occlusion detection to address the problem of weak robustness of optical flow estimation with motion occlusion. Firstly, a TV-L1 form for flow estimation is defined using a combination of the brightness constancy and gradient constancy assumptions in the data term and by varying the weight under the Charbonnier function in the smoothing term. Secondly, to handle the potential risk of the outlier in the flow field, a general non-local term is added in the TV-L1 optical flow model to engender the typical non-local TV-L1 form. Thirdly, an occlusion detection method based on triangulation is presented to detect the occlusion regions of the sequence. The proposed non-local TV-L1 optical flow model is performed in a linearizing iterative scheme using improved median filtering and a coarse-to-fine computing strategy. The results of the complex experiment indicate that the proposed method can overcome the significant influence of non-rigid motion, motion occlusion, and large displacement motion. Results of experiments comparing the proposed method and existing state-of-the-art methods by respectively using Middlebury and MPI Sintel database test sequences show that the proposed method has higher accuracy and better robustness.
Magnetic field and contact resistance dependence of non-local charge imbalance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleine, A; Baumgartner, A; Trbovic, J; Schoenenberger, C; Golubev, D S; Zaikin, A D
2010-01-01
Crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) in metallic nanostructures, a possible basis for solid-state electron entangler devices, is usually investigated by detecting non-local voltages in multi-terminal superconductor/normal metal devices. This task is difficult because other subgap processes may mask the effects of CAR. One of these processes is the generation of charge imbalance (CI) and the diffusion of non-equilibrium quasi-particles in the superconductor. Here we demonstrate a characteristic dependence of non-local CI on a magnetic field applied parallel to the superconducting wire, which can be understood by a generalization of the standard description of CI to non-local experiments. These results can be used to distinguish CAR and CI and to extract CI relaxation times in superconducting nanostructures. In addition, we investigate the dependence of non-local CI on the resistance of the injector and detector contacts and demonstrate a quantitative agreement with a recent theory using only material and junction characteristics extracted from separate direct measurements.
Non-local effect in Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer based on Raman amplification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia Xinhong; Rao Yunjiang; Wang Zinan; Zhang Weili; Ran Zengling; Deng Kun; Yang Zixin
2012-01-01
Compared with conventional Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer (BOTDA), the BOTDA based on Raman amplification allows longer sensing range, higher signal-to-noise ratio and higher measurement accuracy. However, the non-local effect induced by pump depletion significantly restricts the probe optical power injected to sensing fiber, thereby limiting the further extension for sensing distance. In this paper, the coupled equations including the interaction of probe light, Brillouin and Raman pumps are applied to the study on the non-local characteristics of BOTDA based on Raman amplification. The results show that, the system error induced by non-local effect worsens with increased powers of probe wave and Raman pump. The frequency-division-multiplexing (cascading the fibers with various Brillouin frequency shifts) and time-division-multiplexing (modulating both of the Brillouin pump and probe lights) technologies are efficient approaches to suppress the non-local effect, through shortening the effective interaction range between Brillouin pump and probe lights. (authors)
Quality Assurance of Non-Local Accounting Programs Conducted in Hong Kong
Cheng, Mei-Ai; Leung, Noel W.
2014-01-01
This study examines the current government policy and institutional practice on quality assurance of non-local accounting programs conducted in Hong Kong. Both international guidelines, national regulations and institutional frameworks in higher education and transnational higher education, and professional practice in accounting education are…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory; Delettrez, Jacques
2015-01-01
An implicit, non-local thermal conduction algorithm based on the algorithm developed by Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet (SNB) [Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] for non-local electron transport is presented and has been implemented in the radiation-hydrodynamics code DRACO. To study the model's effect on DRACO's predictive capability, simulations of shot 60 303 from OMEGA are completed using the iSNB model, and the computed shock speed vs. time is compared to experiment. Temperature outputs from the iSNB model are compared with the non-local transport model of Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)]. Effects on adiabat are also examined in a polar drive surrogate simulation. Results show that the iSNB model is not only capable of flux-limitation but also preheat prediction while remaining numerically robust and sacrificing little computational speed. Additionally, the results provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely, the newly introduced non-local mean free path. This research was supported by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory [University of Wisconsin—Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Delettrez, Jacques [Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)
2015-08-15
An implicit, non-local thermal conduction algorithm based on the algorithm developed by Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet (SNB) [Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] for non-local electron transport is presented and has been implemented in the radiation-hydrodynamics code DRACO. To study the model's effect on DRACO's predictive capability, simulations of shot 60 303 from OMEGA are completed using the iSNB model, and the computed shock speed vs. time is compared to experiment. Temperature outputs from the iSNB model are compared with the non-local transport model of Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)]. Effects on adiabat are also examined in a polar drive surrogate simulation. Results show that the iSNB model is not only capable of flux-limitation but also preheat prediction while remaining numerically robust and sacrificing little computational speed. Additionally, the results provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely, the newly introduced non-local mean free path. This research was supported by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester.
Local and non-local Schroedinger cat states in cavity QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haroche, S.
2005-01-01
Full text: I will review recent experiments performed on mesoscopic state superpositions of field states in cavity QED. Proposals to extend these studies to Schroedinger cat states delocalized in two cavities will be discussed. New versions of Bell's inequality tests will probe the non-local behavior of these cats and study their sensitivity to decoherence. (author)
A NEW COMBINED LOCAL AND NON-LOCAL PBL MODEL FOR METEOROLOGY AND AIR QUALITY MODELING
A new version of the Asymmetric Convective Model (ACM) has been developed to describe sub-grid vertical turbulent transport in both meteorology models and air quality models. The new version (ACM2) combines the non-local convective mixing of the original ACM with local eddy diff...
Nehari manifold for non-local elliptic operator with concave–convex ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Introduction. We consider the following p-fractional Laplace equation ... ators of elliptic type due to concrete real world applications in finance, thin obstacle .... Due to the non-localness of the operator LK, we define the linear space as follows:.
A new approach to non-local boundary value problems for ordinary differential systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Rontó, András; Rontó, M.; Shchobak, N.
2015-01-01
Roč. 250, č. 1 (2015), s. 689-700 ISSN 0096-3003 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : non-local problem * parametrisation * successive approximations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.345, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0096300314015434
Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Ganti, V. K.; Dietrich, W. E.
2009-12-01
Sediment transport on hillslopes can be thought of as a hopping process, where the sediment moves in a series of jumps. A wide range of processes shape the hillslopes which can move sediment to a large distance in the downslope direction, thus, resulting in a broad-tail in the probability density function (PDF) of hopping lengths. Here, we argue that such a broad-tailed distribution calls for a non-local computation of sediment flux, where the sediment flux is not only a function of local topographic quantities but is an integral flux which takes into account the upslope topographic “memory” of the point of interest. We encapsulate this non-local behavior into a simple fractional diffusive model that involves fractional (non-integer) derivatives. We present theoretical predictions from this nonlocal model and demonstrate a nonlinear dependence of sediment flux on local gradient, consistent with observations. Further, we demonstrate that the non-local model naturally eliminates the scale-dependence exhibited by any local (linear or nonlinear) sediment transport model. An extension to a 2-D framework, where the fractional derivative can be cast into a mixture of directional derivatives, is discussed together with the implications of introducing non-locality into existing landscape evolution models.
Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory; Delettrez, Jacques
2015-08-01
An implicit, non-local thermal conduction algorithm based on the algorithm developed by Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet (SNB) [Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] for non-local electron transport is presented and has been implemented in the radiation-hydrodynamics code DRACO. To study the model's effect on DRACO's predictive capability, simulations of shot 60 303 from OMEGA are completed using the iSNB model, and the computed shock speed vs. time is compared to experiment. Temperature outputs from the iSNB model are compared with the non-local transport model of Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)]. Effects on adiabat are also examined in a polar drive surrogate simulation. Results show that the iSNB model is not only capable of flux-limitation but also preheat prediction while remaining numerically robust and sacrificing little computational speed. Additionally, the results provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely, the newly introduced non-local mean free path. This research was supported by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester.
Impact of neutral density fluctuations on gas puff imaging diagnostics
Wersal, C.; Ricci, P.
2017-11-01
A three-dimensional turbulence simulation of the SOL and edge regions of a toroidally limited tokamak is carried out. The simulation couples self-consistently the drift-reduced two-fluid Braginskii equations to a kinetic equation for neutral atoms. A diagnostic neutral gas puff on the low-field side midplane is included and the impact of neutral density fluctuations on D_α light emission investigated. We find that neutral density fluctuations affect the D_α emission. In particular, at a radial distance from the gas puff smaller than the neutral mean free path, neutral density fluctuations are anti-correlated with plasma density, electron temperature, and D_α fluctuations. It follows that the neutral fluctuations reduce the D_α emission in most of the observed region and, therefore, have to be taken into account when interpreting the amplitude of the D_α emission. On the other hand, higher order statistical moments (skewness, kurtosis) and turbulence characteristics (such as correlation length, or the autocorrelation time) are not significantly affected by the neutral fluctuations. At distances from the gas puff larger than the neutral mean free path, a non-local shadowing effect influences the neutral density fluctuations. There, the D_α fluctuations are correlated with the neutral density fluctuations, and the high-order statistical moments and measurements of other turbulence properties are strongly affected by the neutral density fluctuations.
The sheaf-theoretic structure of non-locality and contextuality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramsky, Samson; Brandenburger, Adam
2011-01-01
We use the mathematical language of sheaf theory to give a unified treatment of non-locality and contextuality, in a setting that generalizes the familiar probability tables used in non-locality theory to arbitrary measurement covers; this includes Kochen-Specker configurations and more. We show that contextuality, and non-locality as a special case, correspond exactly to obstructions to the existence of global sections. We describe a linear algebraic approach to computing these obstructions, which allows a systematic treatment of arguments for non-locality and contextuality. We distinguish a proper hierarchy of strengths of no-go theorems, and show that three leading examples—due to Bell, Hardy and Greenberger, Horne and Zeilinger, respectively—occupy successively higher levels of this hierarchy. A general correspondence is shown between the existence of local hidden-variable realizations using negative probabilities, and no-signalling; this is based on a result showing that the linear subspaces generated by the non-contextual and no-signalling models, over an arbitrary measurement cover, coincide. Maximal non-locality is generalized to maximal contextuality, and characterized in purely qualitative terms, as the non-existence of global sections in the support. A general setting is developed for the Kochen-Specker-type results, as generic, model-independent proofs of maximal contextuality, and a new combinatorial condition is given, which generalizes the ‘parity proofs’ commonly found in the literature. We also show how our abstract setting can be represented in quantum mechanics. This leads to a strengthening of the usual no-signalling theorem, which shows that quantum mechanics obeys no-signalling for arbitrary families of commuting observables, not just those represented on different factors of a tensor product. (paper)
Inverse dualization and non-local dualities between Einstein gravity and supergravities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Chiangmei; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V; Sharakin, Sergei A
2002-01-01
We investigate non-local dualities between suitably compactified higher dimensional Einstein gravity and supergravities which can be revealed if one reinterprets the dualized Kaluza-Klein 2-forms in D>4 as antisymmetric forms belonging to supergravities. We find several examples of such a correspondence including one between the six-dimensional Einstein gravity and the four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion theory (truncated N=4 supergravity), and others between the compactified eleven- and ten-dimensional supergravities and the eight- or ten-dimensional pure gravity. The Killing spinor equation of the D=11 supergravity is shown to be equivalent to the geometric Killing spinor equation in the dual gravity. We give several examples of using new dualities for solution generation and demonstrate how p-branes can be interpreted as non-local duals of pure gravity solutions. New supersymmetric solutions are presented including M2 subset of 5-brane with two rotation parameters
The non-local Fisher–KPP equation: travelling waves and steady states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berestycki, Henri; Nadin, Grégoire; Perthame, Benoit; Ryzhik, Lenya
2009-01-01
We consider the Fisher–KPP equation with a non-local saturation effect defined through an interaction kernel φ(x) and investigate the possible differences with the standard Fisher–KPP equation. Our first concern is the existence of steady states. We prove that if the Fourier transform φ-circumflex(ξ) is positive or if the length σ of the non-local interaction is short enough, then the only steady states are u ≡ 0 and u ≡ 1. Next, we study existence of the travelling waves. We prove that this equation admits travelling wave solutions that connect u = 0 to an unknown positive steady state u ∞ (x), for all speeds c ≥ c * . The travelling wave connects to the standard state u ∞ (x) ≡ 1 under the aforementioned conditions: φ-circumflex(ξ) > 0 or σ is sufficiently small. However, the wave is not monotonic for σ large
Definition of current density in the presence of a non-local potential.
Li, Changsheng; Wan, Langhui; Wei, Yadong; Wang, Jian
2008-04-16
In the presence of a non-local potential arising from electron-electron interaction, the conventional definition of current density J(c) = (e/2m)([(p-eA)ψ](*)ψ-ψ(*)[(p-eA)ψ]) cannot satisfy the condition of current conservation, i.e., [Formula: see text] in the steady state. In order to solve this problem, we give a new definition of current density including the contribution due to the non-local potential. We show that the current calculated based on the new definition of current density conserves the current and is the same as that obtained from the Landauer-Büttiker formula. Examples are given to demonstrate our results.
The non-local universe the new physics and matters of the mind
Nadeau, Robert
2002-01-01
Classical physics states that physical reality is local, or that a measurement at one point in space cannot cannot influence what occurs at another beyond a fairly short distance. Until recently this seemed like an immutable truth in nature. However, in 1997 experiments were conducted in which light particles (photons) originated under certain conditions and traveled in opposite directions to detectors located about seven miles apart. The amazing results indicated that the photons "interacted" or "communicated" with one another instantly or "in no time," leading to the revelation that physical reality is non-local--a discovery that Robert Nadeau and Menas Kafatos view as "the most momentous in the history of science.". In pursuing this groundbreaking argument, the authors provide a fascinating history of developments that led to the discovery of non-locality and the sometimes heated debate between the great scientists responsible for these discoveries. What this new knowledge reveals, the authors conclude, is...
Surface green function matching for a three-dimensional non-local continuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idiodi, J.O.A.
1985-07-01
With a view toward helping to bridge the gap, from the continuum side, between discrete and continuum models of crystalline, elastic solids, explicit results are presented for non-local stress tensors that describe exactly some lattice dynamical models that have been widely used in the literature for cubic lattices. The Surface Green Function Matching (SGFM) method, which has been used successfully for a variety of surface problems, is then extended, within a continuum approach, to a non-local continuum that models a three-dimensional discrete lattice. The practical use of the method is demonstrated by performing a fairly complete analytical study of the vibrational surface modes of the SCC semi-infinite medium. Some results are presented for the [100] direction of the (001) surface of the SCC lattice. (author)
Longitudinally Vibrating Elastic Rods with Locally and Non-Locally Reacting Viscous Dampers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Şefaatdin Yüksel
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Eigencharacteristics of a longitudinally vibrating elastic rod with locally and non-locally reacting damping are analyzed. The rod is considered as a continuous system and complex eigenfrequencies are determined as solution of a characteristic equation. The variation of the damping ratios with respect to damper locations and damping coefficients for the first four eigenfrequencies are obtained. It is shown that at any mode of locally or non-locally damped elastic rod, the variation of damping ratio with damper location is linearly proportional to absolute value of the mode shape of undamped system. It is seen that the increasing damping coefficient does not always increase the damping ratio and there are optimal values for the damping ratio. Optimal values for external damping coefficients of viscous dampers and locations of the dampers are presented.
Stable bounce and inflation in non-local higher derivative cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biswas, Tirthabir; Koshelev, Alexey S.; Mazumdar, Anupam; Vernov, Sergey Yu.
2012-01-01
One of the greatest problems of primordial inflation is that the inflationary space-time is past-incomplete. This is mainly because Einstein's GR suffers from a space-like Big Bang singularity. It has recently been shown that ghost-free, non-local higher-derivative ultra-violet modifications of Einstein's gravity may be able to resolve the cosmological Big Bang singularity via a non-singular bounce. Within the framework of such non-local cosmological models, we are going to study both sub- and super-Hubble perturbations around an inflationary trajectory which is preceded by the Big Bounce in the past, and demonstrate that the inflationary trajectory has an ultra-violet completion and that perturbations do not suffer from any pathologies
Definition of current density in the presence of a non-local potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Changsheng; Wan Langhui; Wei Yadong; Wang Jian
2008-01-01
In the presence of a non-local potential arising from electron-electron interaction, the conventional definition of current density J c = (e/2m)([(p-eA)ψ]*ψ-ψ*[(p-eA)ψ]) cannot satisfy the condition of current conservation, i.e., ∇ . J c ≠ 0 in the steady state. In order to solve this problem, we give a new definition of current density including the contribution due to the non-local potential. We show that the current calculated based on the new definition of current density conserves the current and is the same as that obtained from the Landauer-Buettiker formula. Examples are given to demonstrate our results
Convergence of solutions of a non-local phase-field system
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Londen, S.-O.; Petzeltová, Hana
2011-01-01
Roč. 4, č. 3 (2011), s. 653-670 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190606 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : non-local phase-field systems * separation property * convergence to equilibria Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticles.jsp?paperID=5698
Construction of local and non-local conservation laws for non-linear field equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimirov, V.S.; Volovich, I.V.
1984-08-01
A method of constructing conserved currents for non-linear field equations is presented. More explicitly for non-linear equations, which can be derived from compatibility conditions of some linear system with a parameter, a procedure of obtaining explicit expressions for local and non-local currents is developed. Some examples such as the classical Heisenberg spin chain and supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are considered. (author)
Local vs. Non-local core potentials in electron scattering from sodium atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartschat, K.; Bray, I.
1996-02-01
We have tested the use of a local potential instead of the non-local Hartree-Fock potential to represent exchange effects between the valence or the projectile electron and the core in electron scattering from sodium atoms For some of the most detailed observables in this collision system/ the results of the two approaches are nearly identical, even though the effect of the exchange part is shown to be particularly large. (authors). 16 refs., 4 figs
The algebra of non-local charges in non-linear sigma models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, E.; Abdalla, M.C.B.; Brunelli, J.C.; Zadra, A.
1994-01-01
It is derived the complete Dirac algebra satisfied by non-local charges conserved in non-linear sigma models. Some examples of calculation are given for the O(N) symmetry group. The resulting algebra corresponds to a saturated cubic deformation (with only maximum order terms) of the Kac-Moody algebra. The results are generalized for when a Wess-Zumino term be present. In that case the algebra contains a minor order correction (sub-saturation). (author). 1 ref
Local versus non-local core potentials in electron scattering from sodium atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartschat, K.; Bray, I.
1996-01-01
We have tested the use of a local potential instead of the non-local Hartree-Fock potential to represent exchange effects between the valence or the projectile electron and the core in electron scattering from sodium atoms. For some of the most detailed observables in this collision system, the results of the two approaches are nearly identical, even though the effect of the exchange part is shown to be particularly large. (Author)
An anthology of non-local QFT and QFT on noncommutative spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroer, Bert; E-mail schroer@cbpf.br
2004-05-01
Ever since the appearance of renormalization theory there have been several differently motivated attempts at non-localized (in the sense of not generated by point-like fields) relativistic particle theories, the most recent one being at QFT on non-commutative Minkowski spacetime. The often conceptually uncritical and historically forgetful contemporary approach to these problems calls for a critical review of contemporary ideas in the light of previous results on this subject. (author)
An anthology of non-local QFT and QFT on non-commutative spacetime
Schroer, Bert
2005-09-01
Ever since the appearance of renormalization theory, there have been several differently motivated attempts at non-localized (in the sense of not generated by pointlike fields) relativistic particle theories, the most recent one being at QFT on non-commutative Minkowski spacetime. The often conceptually uncritical and historically forgetful contemporary approach to these problems calls for a critical review in the light of previous results on this subject.
An anthology of non-local QFT and QFT on non-commutative spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroer, Bert
2005-01-01
Ever since the appearance of renormalization theory, there have been several differently motivated attempts at non-localized (in the sense of not generated by pointlike fields) relativistic particle theories, the most recent one being at QFT on non-commutative Minkowski spacetime. The often conceptually uncritical and historically forgetful contemporary approach to these problems calls for a critical review in the light of previous results on this subject
The right inferior frontal gyrus processes nested non-local dependencies in music.
Cheung, Vincent K M; Meyer, Lars; Friederici, Angela D; Koelsch, Stefan
2018-02-28
Complex auditory sequences known as music have often been described as hierarchically structured. This permits the existence of non-local dependencies, which relate elements of a sequence beyond their temporal sequential order. Previous studies in music have reported differential activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) when comparing regular and irregular chord-transitions based on theories in Western tonal harmony. However, it is unclear if the observed activity reflects the interpretation of hierarchical structure as the effects are confounded by local irregularity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that violations to non-local dependencies in nested sequences of three-tone musical motifs in musicians elicited increased activity in the right IFG. This is in contrast to similar studies in language which typically report the left IFG in processing grammatical syntax. Effects of increasing auditory working demands are moreover reflected by distributed activity in frontal and parietal regions. Our study therefore demonstrates the role of the right IFG in processing non-local dependencies in music, and suggests that hierarchical processing in different cognitive domains relies on similar mechanisms that are subserved by domain-selective neuronal subpopulations.
Post-Newtonian parameter γ in generalized non-local gravity
Zhang, Xue; Wu, YaBo; Yang, WeiQiang; Zhang, ChengYuan; Chen, BoHai; Zhang, Nan
2017-10-01
We investigate the post-Newtonian parameter γ and derive its formalism in generalized non-local (GNL) gravity, which is the modified theory of general relativity (GR) obtained by adding a term m 2 n-2 R☐-n R to the Einstein-Hilbert action. Concretely, based on parametrizing the generalized non-local action in which gravity is described by a series of dynamical scalar fields ϕ i in addition to the metric tensor g μν, the post-Newtonian limit is computed, and the effective gravitational constant as well as the post-Newtonian parameters are directly obtained from the generalized non-local gravity. Moreover, by discussing the values of the parametrized post-Newtonian parameters γ, we can compare our expressions and results with those in Hohmann and Järv et al. (2016), as well as current observational constraints on the values of γ in Will (2006). Hence, we draw restrictions on the nonminimal coupling terms F̅ around their background values.
A non-local hidden-variable model that violates Leggett-type inequalities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zela, F de [Departamento de Ciencias, Seccion Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Apartado 1761, Lima (Peru)
2008-12-19
Recent experiments of Groeblacher et al proved the violation of a Leggett-type inequality that was claimed to be valid for a broad class of non-local hidden-variable theories. The impossibility of constructing a non-local and realistic theory, unless it entails highly counterintuitive features, seems thus to have been experimentally proved. This would bring us close to a definite refutation of realism. Indeed, realism was proved to be also incompatible with locality, according to a series of experiments testing Bell inequalities. The present paper addresses the said experiments of Groeblacher et al and presents an explicit, contextual and realistic, model that reproduces the predictions of quantum mechanics. It thus violates the Leggett-type inequality that was established with the aim of ruling out a supposedly broad class of non-local models. We can thus conclude that plausible contextual, realistic, models are still tenable. This restates the possibility of a future completion of quantum mechanics by a realistic and contextual theory which is not in a class containing only highly counterintuitive models. The class that was ruled out by the experiments of Groeblacher et al is thus proved to be a limited one, arbitrarily separating models that physically belong in the same class.
Non-local electron transport validation using 2D DRACO simulations
Cao, Duc; Chenhall, Jeff; Moll, Eli; Prochaska, Alex; Moses, Gregory; Delettrez, Jacques; Collins, Tim
2012-10-01
Comparison of 2D DRACO simulations, using a modified versionfootnotetextprivate communications with M. Marinak and G. Zimmerman, LLNL. of the Schurtz, Nicolai and Busquet (SNB) algorithmfootnotetextSchurtz, Nicolai and Busquet, ``A nonlocal electron conduction model for multidimensional radiation hydrodynamics codes,'' Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238(2000). for non-local electron transport, with direct drive shock timing experimentsfootnotetextT. Boehly, et. al., ``Multiple spherically converging shock waves in liquid deuterium,'' Phys. Plasmas 18, 092706(2011). and with the Goncharov non-local modelfootnotetextV. Goncharov, et. al., ``Early stage of implosion in inertial confinement fusion: Shock timing and perturbation evolution,'' Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702(2006). in 1D LILAC will be presented. Addition of an improved SNB non-local electron transport algorithm in DRACO allows direct drive simulations with no need for an electron conduction flux limiter. Validation with shock timing experiments that mimic the laser pulse profile of direct drive ignition targets gives a higher confidence level in the predictive capability of the DRACO code. This research was supported by the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.
Non-localized deformation in Cu−Zr multi-layer amorphous films under tension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhong, C. [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, H. [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9 (Canada); Cao, Q.P.; Wang, X.D. [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, D.X. [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Hu, J.W. [Hangzhou Workers Amateur University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Jiang, J.Z., E-mail: jiangjz@zju.edu.cn [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)
2016-09-05
In metallic glasses (MGs), plastic deformation at room temperature is dominated by highly localized shear bands. Here we report the non-localized deformation under tension in Cu−Zr multi-layer MGs with a pure amorphous structure using large-scale atomistic simulations. It is demonstrated that amorphous samples with high layer numbers, composed of Cu{sub 64}Zr{sub 36} and Cu{sub 40}Zr{sub 60}, or Cu{sub 64}Zr{sub 36} and Cu{sub 50}Zr{sub 50}, present obviously non-localized deformation behavior. We reveal that the deformation behavior of the multi-layer-structured MG films is related but not determined by the deformation behavior of the composed individual layers. The criterion for the deformation mode change for MGs with a pure amorphous structure, in generally, was suggested, i.e., the competition between the elastic-energy density stored and the energy density needed for forming one mature shear band in MGs. Our results provide a promising strategy for designing tensile ductile MGs with a pure amorphous structure at room temperature. - Highlights: • Tensile deformation behaviors in multi-layer MG films. • Films with high layer numbers confirmed with a non-localized deformation behavior. • The deformation mode is reasonably controlled by whether U{sub p} larger than U{sub SB.}.
Non-local electrical spin injection and detection in germanium at room temperature
Rortais, F.; Vergnaud, C.; Marty, A.; Vila, L.; Attané, J.-P.; Widiez, J.; Zucchetti, C.; Bottegoni, F.; Jaffrès, H.; George, J.-M.; Jamet, M.
2017-10-01
Non-local carrier injection/detection schemes lie at the very foundation of information manipulation in integrated systems. This paradigm consists in controlling with an external signal the channel where charge carriers flow between a "source" and a well separated "drain." The next generation electronics may operate on the spin of carriers in addition to their charge and germanium appears as the best hosting material to develop such a platform for its compatibility with mainstream silicon technology and the predicted long electron spin lifetime at room temperature. In this letter, we demonstrate injection of pure spin currents (i.e., with no associated transport of electric charges) in germanium, combined with non-local spin detection at 10 K and room temperature. For this purpose, we used a lateral spin valve with epitaxially grown magnetic tunnel junctions as spin injector and spin detector. The non-local magnetoresistance signal is clearly visible and reaches ≈15 mΩ at room temperature. The electron spin lifetime and diffusion length are 500 ps and 1 μm, respectively, the spin injection efficiency being as high as 27%. This result paves the way for the realization of full germanium spintronic devices at room temperature.
Quantum Noether identities for non-local transformations in higher-order derivatives theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Z.P.; Long, Z.W.
2003-01-01
Based on the phase-space generating functional of the Green function for a system with a regular/singular higher-order Lagrangian, the quantum canonical Noether identities (NIs) under a local and non-local transformation in phase space have been deduced, respectively. For a singular higher-order Lagrangian, one must use an effective canonical action I eff P in quantum canonical NIs instead of the classical I P in classical canonical NIs. The quantum NIs under a local and non-local transformation in configuration space for a gauge-invariant system with a higher-order Lagrangian have also been derived. The above results hold true whether or not the Jacobian of the transformation is equal to unity or not. It has been pointed out that in certain cases the quantum NIs may be converted to conservation laws at the quantum level. This algorithm to derive the quantum conservation laws is significantly different from the quantum first Noether theorem. The applications of our formulation to the Yang-Mills fields and non-Abelian Chern-Simons (CS) theories with higher-order derivatives are given, and the conserved quantities at the quantum level for local and non-local transformations are found, respectively. (orig.)
'Non-local' response of RTP ohmic plasmas to peripheral perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galli, P.; Gorini, G.; Mantica, P.; Hogeweij, G.M.D.; Kloe, J. de; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.
1999-01-01
A 'non-local' response of the plasma core triggered by peripheral plasma perturbations other than laser ablation is found in the RTP tokamak. Oblique pellet injection (OPI) has been used to induce fast cooling of the peripheral plasma. In response, an inward cold pulse (T e drop) and a slightly delayed core T e rise are observed. A somewhat similar 'non-local' response is observed when the peripheral plasma is heated by modulated electron cyclotron heating or by fast current ramps, i.e. the core temperature drops in response to the peripheral heating. The plasma conditions for the occurrence of the 'non-local' response have been investigated. The core T e rise following OPI is associated with the formation of a large temperature gradient in the region 1 e rise is largest at low electron density and for large pellet deposition radii. Above a critical density the T e rise disappears and only the (weaker) drop in core T e is observed. Time dependent transport simulations show that the propagation of the inward cold pulse is consistent with local transport, while the core T e rise is a slower phenomenon requiring a large transient drop of χ e in the region 1 < q < 2. (author)
A non-local hidden-variable model that violates Leggett-type inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zela, F de
2008-01-01
Recent experiments of Groeblacher et al proved the violation of a Leggett-type inequality that was claimed to be valid for a broad class of non-local hidden-variable theories. The impossibility of constructing a non-local and realistic theory, unless it entails highly counterintuitive features, seems thus to have been experimentally proved. This would bring us close to a definite refutation of realism. Indeed, realism was proved to be also incompatible with locality, according to a series of experiments testing Bell inequalities. The present paper addresses the said experiments of Groeblacher et al and presents an explicit, contextual and realistic, model that reproduces the predictions of quantum mechanics. It thus violates the Leggett-type inequality that was established with the aim of ruling out a supposedly broad class of non-local models. We can thus conclude that plausible contextual, realistic, models are still tenable. This restates the possibility of a future completion of quantum mechanics by a realistic and contextual theory which is not in a class containing only highly counterintuitive models. The class that was ruled out by the experiments of Groeblacher et al is thus proved to be a limited one, arbitrarily separating models that physically belong in the same class
OCT despeckling via weighted nuclear norm constrained non-local low-rank representation
Tang, Chang; Zheng, Xiao; Cao, Lijuan
2017-10-01
As a non-invasive imaging modality, optical coherence tomography (OCT) plays an important role in medical sciences. However, OCT images are always corrupted by speckle noise, which can mask image features and pose significant challenges for medical analysis. In this work, we propose an OCT despeckling method by using non-local, low-rank representation with weighted nuclear norm constraint. Unlike previous non-local low-rank representation based OCT despeckling methods, we first generate a guidance image to improve the non-local group patches selection quality, then a low-rank optimization model with a weighted nuclear norm constraint is formulated to process the selected group patches. The corrupted probability of each pixel is also integrated into the model as a weight to regularize the representation error term. Note that each single patch might belong to several groups, hence different estimates of each patch are aggregated to obtain its final despeckled result. Both qualitative and quantitative experimental results on real OCT images show the superior performance of the proposed method compared with other state-of-the-art speckle removal techniques.
Surface Weather, Signal Service and Weather Bureau
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather, Signal Service and Weather Bureau (SWSSWB) Records primarily created by the United States Army Signal Service from 1819 until the paid and voluntary...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...
Weathering and landscape evolution
Turkington, Alice V.; Phillips, Jonathan D.; Campbell, Sean W.
2005-04-01
In recognition of the fundamental control exerted by weathering on landscape evolution and topographic development, the 35th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium was convened under the theme of Weathering and Landscape Evolution. The papers and posters presented at the conference imparted the state-of-the-art in weathering geomorphology, tackled the issue of scale linkage in geomorphic studies and offered a vehicle for interdisciplinary communication on research into weathering and landscape evolution. The papers included in this special issue are encapsulated here under the general themes of weathering mantles, weathering and relative dating, weathering and denudation, weathering processes and controls and the 'big picture'.
Multi-atlas labeling with population-specific template and non-local patch-based label fusion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fonov, Vladimir; Coupé, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed
We propose a new method combining a population-specific nonlinear template atlas approach with non-local patch-based structure segmentation for whole brain segmentation into individual structures. This way, we benefit from the efficient intensity-driven segmentation of the non-local means framework...... and from the global shape constraints imposed by the nonlinear template matching....
Nurbekyan, Levon
2017-03-11
Here, we study a one-dimensional, non-local mean-field game model with congestion. When the kernel in the non-local coupling is a trigonometric polynomial we reduce the problem to a finite dimensional system. Furthermore, we treat the general case by approximating the kernel with trigonometric polynomials. Our technique is based on Fourier expansion methods.
Nurbekyan, Levon
2017-01-01
Here, we study a one-dimensional, non-local mean-field game model with congestion. When the kernel in the non-local coupling is a trigonometric polynomial we reduce the problem to a finite dimensional system. Furthermore, we treat the general case by approximating the kernel with trigonometric polynomials. Our technique is based on Fourier expansion methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, P R; Baker, R E; Yates, C A
2015-01-01
In this paper we explore lattice-based position-jump models of diffusion, and the implications of introducing non-local jumping; particles can jump to a range of nearby boxes rather than only to their nearest neighbours. We begin by deriving conditions for equivalence with traditional local jumping models in the continuum limit. We then generalize a previously postulated implementation of the Robin boundary condition for a non-local process of arbitrary maximum jump length, and present a novel implementation of flux boundary conditions, again generalized for a non-local process of arbitrary maximum jump length. In both these cases we validate our results using stochastic simulation. We then proceed to consider two variations on the basic diffusion model: a hybrid local/non-local scheme suitable for models involving sharp concentration gradients, and the implementation of biased jumping. In all cases we show that non-local jumping can deliver substantial time savings for stochastic simulations. (paper)
Quantum objects. Non-local correlation, causality and objective indefiniteness in the quantum world
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaeger, Gregg
2014-01-01
Presents interpretation of quantum mechanics, advances in quantum foundations and philosophy of quantum mechanics. Explains non-locality and its relationship to causality and probability in quantum theory. Displays foundational characteristics of quantum physic to understand conceptual origins of the unusual nature of quantum phenomena. Describes relationship of subsystems and space-time. Gives a careful review of existing views. Confronts the old approaches with recent results and approaches from quantum information theory. Delivers a clear and thorough analysis of the quantum events in the context of relativistic space-time, which impacts the problem of creating a theory of quantum gravity. Supplies a detailed discussion of non-local correlation within and beyond the bounds set by standard quantum mechanics, which impacts the foundations of information theory. Gives a detailed discussion of probabilistic causation (central to contemporary accounts of causation) in quantum mechanics and relativity. Leads a thorough discussion of the nature of ''quantum potentiality,'' the novel form of existence arising for the first time in quantum mechanics. This monograph identifies the essential characteristics of the objects described by current quantum theory and considers their relationship to space-time. In the process, it explicates the senses in which quantum objects may be consistently considered to have parts of which they may be composed or into which they may be decomposed. The book also demonstrates the degree to which reduction is possible in quantum mechanics, showing it to be related to the objective indefiniteness of quantum properties and the strong non-local correlations that can occur between the physical quantities of quantum subsystems. Careful attention is paid to the relationships among such property correlations, physical causation, probability, and symmetry in quantum theory. In this way, the text identifies and clarifies the conceptual grounds
Quantum objects. Non-local correlation, causality and objective indefiniteness in the quantum world
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaeger, Gregg [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Natural Sciences and Mathematics
2014-07-01
Presents interpretation of quantum mechanics, advances in quantum foundations and philosophy of quantum mechanics. Explains non-locality and its relationship to causality and probability in quantum theory. Displays foundational characteristics of quantum physic to understand conceptual origins of the unusual nature of quantum phenomena. Describes relationship of subsystems and space-time. Gives a careful review of existing views. Confronts the old approaches with recent results and approaches from quantum information theory. Delivers a clear and thorough analysis of the quantum events in the context of relativistic space-time, which impacts the problem of creating a theory of quantum gravity. Supplies a detailed discussion of non-local correlation within and beyond the bounds set by standard quantum mechanics, which impacts the foundations of information theory. Gives a detailed discussion of probabilistic causation (central to contemporary accounts of causation) in quantum mechanics and relativity. Leads a thorough discussion of the nature of ''quantum potentiality,'' the novel form of existence arising for the first time in quantum mechanics. This monograph identifies the essential characteristics of the objects described by current quantum theory and considers their relationship to space-time. In the process, it explicates the senses in which quantum objects may be consistently considered to have parts of which they may be composed or into which they may be decomposed. The book also demonstrates the degree to which reduction is possible in quantum mechanics, showing it to be related to the objective indefiniteness of quantum properties and the strong non-local correlations that can occur between the physical quantities of quantum subsystems. Careful attention is paid to the relationships among such property correlations, physical causation, probability, and symmetry in quantum theory. In this way, the text identifies and clarifies the
Non-Local Sparse Image Inpainting for Document Bleed-Through Removal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Hanif
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Bleed-through is a frequent, pervasive degradation in ancient manuscripts, which is caused by ink seeped from the opposite side of the sheet. Bleed-through, appearing as an extra interfering text, hinders document readability and makes it difficult to decipher the information contents. Digital image restoration techniques have been successfully employed to remove or significantly reduce this distortion. This paper proposes a two-step restoration method for documents affected by bleed-through, exploiting information from the recto and verso images. First, the bleed-through pixels are identified, based on a non-stationary, linear model of the two texts overlapped in the recto-verso pair. In the second step, a dictionary learning-based sparse image inpainting technique, with non-local patch grouping, is used to reconstruct the bleed-through-contaminated image information. An overcomplete sparse dictionary is learned from the bleed-through-free image patches, which is then used to estimate a befitting fill-in for the identified bleed-through pixels. The non-local patch similarity is employed in the sparse reconstruction of each patch, to enforce the local similarity. Thanks to the intrinsic image sparsity and non-local patch similarity, the natural texture of the background is well reproduced in the bleed-through areas, and even a possible overestimation of the bleed through pixels is effectively corrected, so that the original appearance of the document is preserved. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method on the images of a popular database of ancient documents, and the results validate the performance of the proposed method compared to the state of the art.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, Sourendu
2007-01-01
In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence
Gupta, Sourendu
2007-02-01
In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gupta, Sourendu [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)
2007-02-15
In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence.
Quantum objects non-local correlation, causality and objective indefiniteness in the quantum world
Jaeger, Gregg
2013-01-01
This monograph identifies the essential characteristics of the objects described by current quantum theory and considers their relationship to space-time. In the process, it explicates the senses in which quantum objects may be consistently considered to have parts of which they may be composed or into which they may be decomposed. The book also demonstrates the degree to which reduction is possible in quantum mechanics, showing it to be related to the objective indefiniteness of quantum properties and the strong non-local correlations that can occur between the physical quantities of quantum
Quantum non-locality in a two-slit interferometer for short-lived particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim
2001-01-01
We describe a new test of quantum nonlocality, using an interferometer for short-lived particles. The separation is large compared with the particle lifetimes. This interferometer is realized by vector meson production in distant heavy ion collisions. The mesons decay before waves from the two sources (ions) can overlap, so interference is only possible among the decay products. The post-decay wave function must retain amplitudes for all possible decays. The decay products are spatially separated, necessitating a non-local wave function. The interference is measurable by summing the product momenta. Alternately, the products positions could be observed, allowing new tests of the EPR paradox
Tests of non-local interferences in kaon physics at asymmetric φ-factories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eberhard, P.H.
1993-01-01
Tests of non-local interference effects in the two-kaon system are proposed. The first kind of tests consists of measuring the amount of destructive interference between K S → K L regeneration processes of two distant kaons. The second kind deals with constructive interference. These tests could be performed at an asymmetric φ-factory. Estimates are given of the number of events predicted by orthodox quantum mechanics and kaon regeneration theory in various suitable experimental conditions. The impact on local theories if the predictions of quantum mechanics hold is discussed
Non-local ground-state functional for quantum spin chains with translational broken symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Libero, Valter L.; Penteado, Poliana H.; Veiga, Rodrigo S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2011-07-01
Full text. Thanks to the development and use of new materials with special doping, it becomes relevant the study of Heisenberg spin-chains with broken translational symmetry, induced for instance by finite-size effects, bond defects or by impurity spin in the chain. The exact numerical results demands huge computational efforts, due to the size of the Hilbert space involved and the lack of symmetry to exploit. Density Functional Theory (DFT) has been considered a simple alternative to obtain ground-state properties for such systems. Usually, DFT starts with a uniform system to build the correlation energy and after implement a local approximation to construct local functionals. Based on our prove of the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem for Heisenberg models, and in order to describe more realistic models, we have recently developed a non-local exchange functional for the ground-state energy of quantum-spin chains. A alternating-bond chain is used to obtain the correlation energy and a local unit-cell approximation - LUCA, is defined in the context of DFT. The alternating chain is a good starting point to construct functionals since it is intrinsically non-homogeneous, therefore instead of the usual local approximation (like LDA for electronic systems) we need to introduce an approximation based upon a unit cell concept, that renders a non-local functional in the bond exchange interaction. The agreement with exact numerical data (obtained only for small chains, although the functional can be applied for chains with arbitrary size) is significantly better than in our previous local formulation, even for chains with several ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic bond defects. These results encourage us to extend the concept of LUCA for chains with alternating-spin magnitudes. We also have constructed a non-local functional based on an alternating-spin chain, instead of a local alternating-bond, using spin-wave-theory. Because of its non-local nature, this functional is expected to
Quantum non-locality and relativity metaphysical intimations of modern physics
Maudlin, Tim
2011-01-01
The third edition of Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity has been carefully updated to reflect significant developments, including a new chapter covering important recent work in the foundations of physics. A new edition of the premier philosophical study of Bell's Theorem and its implication for the relativistic account of space and timeDiscusses Roderich Tumiulka's explicit, relativistic theory that can reproduce the quantum mechanical violation of Bell's inequality. Discusses the "Free Will Theorem" of John Conway and Simon KochenIntroduces philosophers to the relevant physics and demonstra
Algebraic Traveling Wave Solutions of a Non-local Hydrodynamic-type Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Aiyong; Zhu, Wenjing; Qiao, Zhijun; Huang, Wentao
2014-01-01
In this paper we consider the algebraic traveling wave solutions of a non-local hydrodynamic-type model. It is shown that algebraic traveling wave solutions exist if and only if an associated first order ordinary differential system has invariant algebraic curve. The dynamical behavior of the associated ordinary differential system is analyzed. Phase portraits of the associated ordinary differential system is provided under various parameter conditions. Moreover, we classify algebraic traveling wave solutions of the model. Some explicit formulas of smooth solitary wave and cuspon solutions are obtained
Non-local ground-state functional for quantum spin chains with translational broken symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Libero, Valter L.; Penteado, Poliana H.; Veiga, Rodrigo S.
2011-01-01
Full text. Thanks to the development and use of new materials with special doping, it becomes relevant the study of Heisenberg spin-chains with broken translational symmetry, induced for instance by finite-size effects, bond defects or by impurity spin in the chain. The exact numerical results demands huge computational efforts, due to the size of the Hilbert space involved and the lack of symmetry to exploit. Density Functional Theory (DFT) has been considered a simple alternative to obtain ground-state properties for such systems. Usually, DFT starts with a uniform system to build the correlation energy and after implement a local approximation to construct local functionals. Based on our prove of the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem for Heisenberg models, and in order to describe more realistic models, we have recently developed a non-local exchange functional for the ground-state energy of quantum-spin chains. A alternating-bond chain is used to obtain the correlation energy and a local unit-cell approximation - LUCA, is defined in the context of DFT. The alternating chain is a good starting point to construct functionals since it is intrinsically non-homogeneous, therefore instead of the usual local approximation (like LDA for electronic systems) we need to introduce an approximation based upon a unit cell concept, that renders a non-local functional in the bond exchange interaction. The agreement with exact numerical data (obtained only for small chains, although the functional can be applied for chains with arbitrary size) is significantly better than in our previous local formulation, even for chains with several ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic bond defects. These results encourage us to extend the concept of LUCA for chains with alternating-spin magnitudes. We also have constructed a non-local functional based on an alternating-spin chain, instead of a local alternating-bond, using spin-wave-theory. Because of its non-local nature, this functional is expected to
Liang, Yingjie; Chen, Wen
2018-03-01
Ultraslow diffusion has been observed in numerous complicated systems. Its mean squared displacement (MSD) is not a power law function of time, but instead a logarithmic function, and in some cases grows even more slowly than the logarithmic rate. The distributed-order fractional diffusion equation model simply does not work for the general ultraslow diffusion. Recent study has used the local structural derivative to describe ultraslow diffusion dynamics by using the inverse Mittag-Leffler function as the structural function, in which the MSD is a function of inverse Mittag-Leffler function. In this study, a new stretched logarithmic diffusion law and its underlying non-local structural derivative diffusion model are proposed to characterize the ultraslow diffusion in aging dense colloidal glass at both the short and long waiting times. It is observed that the aging dynamics of dense colloids is a class of the stretched logarithmic ultraslow diffusion processes. Compared with the power, the logarithmic, and the inverse Mittag-Leffler diffusion laws, the stretched logarithmic diffusion law has better precision in fitting the MSD of the colloidal particles at high densities. The corresponding non-local structural derivative diffusion equation manifests clear physical mechanism, and its structural function is equivalent to the first-order derivative of the MSD.
A non-local shell model of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plunian, F [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique, CNRS, Universite Joseph Fourier, Maison des Geosciences, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Stepanov, R [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Korolyov 1, 614013 Perm (Russian Federation)
2007-08-15
We derive a new shell model of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in which the energy transfers are not necessarily local. Like the original MHD equations, the model conserves the total energy, magnetic helicity, cross-helicity and volume in phase space (Liouville's theorem) apart from the effects of external forcing, viscous dissipation and magnetic diffusion. The model of hydrodynamic (HD) turbulence is derived from the MHD model setting the magnetic field to zero. In that case the conserved quantities are the kinetic energy and the kinetic helicity. In addition to a statistically stationary state with a Kolmogorov spectrum, the HD model exhibits multiscaling. The anomalous scaling exponents are found to depend on a free parameter {alpha} that measures the non-locality degree of the model. In freely decaying turbulence, the infra-red spectrum also depends on {alpha}. Comparison with theory suggests using {alpha} = -5/2. In MHD turbulence, we investigate the fully developed turbulent dynamo for a wide range of magnetic Prandtl numbers in both kinematic and dynamic cases. Both local and non-local energy transfers are clearly identified.
Finite-volume effects due to spatially non-local operators arXiv
Briceño, Raúl A.; Hansen, Maxwell T.; Monahan, Christopher J.
Spatially non-local matrix elements are useful lattice-QCD observables in a variety of contexts, for example in determining hadron structure. To quote credible estimates of the systematic uncertainties in these calculations, one must understand, among other things, the size of the finite-volume effects when such matrix elements are extracted from numerical lattice calculations. In this work, we estimate finite-volume effects for matrix elements of non-local operators, composed of two currents displaced in a spatial direction by a distance $\\xi$. We find that the finite-volume corrections depend on the details of the matrix element. If the external state is the lightest degree of freedom in the theory, e.g.~the pion in QCD, then the volume corrections scale as $ e^{-m_\\pi (L- \\xi)} $, where $m_\\pi$ is the mass of the light state. For heavier external states the usual $e^{- m_\\pi L}$ form is recovered, but with a polynomial prefactor of the form $L^m/|L - \\xi|^n$ that can lead to enhanced volume effects. These ...
A comparison of non-local electron transport models relevant to inertial confinement fusion
Sherlock, Mark; Brodrick, Jonathan; Ridgers, Christopher
2017-10-01
We compare the reduced non-local electron transport model developed by Schurtz et al. to Vlasov-Fokker-Planck simulations. Two new test cases are considered: the propagation of a heat wave through a high density region into a lower density gas, and a 1-dimensional hohlraum ablation problem. We find the reduced model reproduces the peak heat flux well in the ablation region but significantly over-predicts the coronal preheat. The suitability of the reduced model for computing non-local transport effects other than thermal conductivity is considered by comparing the computed distribution function to the Vlasov-Fokker-Planck distribution function. It is shown that even when the reduced model reproduces the correct heat flux, the distribution function is significantly different to the Vlasov-Fokker-Planck prediction. Two simple modifications are considered which improve agreement between models in the coronal region. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Discretization independence implies non-locality in 4D discrete quantum gravity
Dittrich, Bianca; Kamiński, Wojciech; Steinhaus, Sebastian
2014-12-01
The 4D Regge action is invariant under 5-1 and 4-2 Pachner moves, which define a subset of (local) changes of the triangulation. Given this fact, one might hope to find a local path integral measure that makes the quantum theory invariant under these moves and hence makes the theory partially triangulation invariant. We show that such a local invariant path integral measure does not exist for the 4D linearized Regge theory. To this end we uncover an interesting geometric interpretation for the Hessian of the 4D Regge action. This geometric interpretation will allow us to prove that the determinant of the Hessian of the 4D Regge action does not factorize over four-simplices or subsimplices. It furthermore allows us to determine configurations where this Hessian vanishes, which only appears to be the case in degenerate backgrounds or if one allows for different orientations of the simplices. We suggest a non-local measure factor that absorbs the non-local part of the determinant of the Hessian under 5-1 moves as well as a local measure factor that is preserved for very special configurations.
Discretization independence implies non-locality in 4D discrete quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dittrich, Bianca; Kamiński, Wojciech; Steinhaus, Sebastian
2014-01-01
The 4D Regge action is invariant under 5–1 and 4–2 Pachner moves, which define a subset of (local) changes of the triangulation. Given this fact, one might hope to find a local path integral measure that makes the quantum theory invariant under these moves and hence makes the theory partially triangulation invariant. We show that such a local invariant path integral measure does not exist for the 4D linearized Regge theory. To this end we uncover an interesting geometric interpretation for the Hessian of the 4D Regge action. This geometric interpretation will allow us to prove that the determinant of the Hessian of the 4D Regge action does not factorize over four-simplices or subsimplices. It furthermore allows us to determine configurations where this Hessian vanishes, which only appears to be the case in degenerate backgrounds or if one allows for different orientations of the simplices. We suggest a non-local measure factor that absorbs the non-local part of the determinant of the Hessian under 5–1 moves as well as a local measure factor that is preserved for very special configurations. (paper)
On non-local energy transfer via zonal flow in the Dimits shift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
St-Onge, Denis A.
2017-01-01
The two-dimensional Terry–Horton equation is shown to exhibit the Dimits shift when suitably modified to capture both the nonlinear enhancement of zonal/drift-wave interactions and the existence of residual Rosenbluth–Hinton states. This phenomenon persists through numerous simplifications of the equation, including a quasilinear approximation as well as a four-mode truncation. It is shown that the use of an appropriate adiabatic electron response, for which the electrons are not affected by the flux-averaged potential, results in an E×B nonlinearity that can efficiently transfer energy non-locally to length scales of the order of the sound radius. The size of the shift for the nonlinear system is heuristically calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions. The existence of the Dimits shift for this system is then understood as an ability of the unstable primary modes to efficiently couple to stable modes at smaller scales, and the shift ends when these stable modes eventually destabilize as the density gradient is increased. This non-local mechanism of energy transfer is argued to be generically important even for more physically complete systems.
On non-local energy transfer via zonal flow in the Dimits shift
St-Onge, Denis A.
2017-10-01
The two-dimensional Terry-Horton equation is shown to exhibit the Dimits shift when suitably modified to capture both the nonlinear enhancement of zonal/drift-wave interactions and the existence of residual Rosenbluth-Hinton states. This phenomenon persists through numerous simplifications of the equation, including a quasilinear approximation as well as a four-mode truncation. It is shown that the use of an appropriate adiabatic electron response, for which the electrons are not affected by the flux-averaged potential, results in an nonlinearity that can efficiently transfer energy non-locally to length scales of the order of the sound radius. The size of the shift for the nonlinear system is heuristically calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions. The existence of the Dimits shift for this system is then understood as an ability of the unstable primary modes to efficiently couple to stable modes at smaller scales, and the shift ends when these stable modes eventually destabilize as the density gradient is increased. This non-local mechanism of energy transfer is argued to be generically important even for more physically complete systems.
Adverse Weather Evokes Nostalgia.
van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim
2018-03-01
Four studies examined the link between adverse weather and the palliative role of nostalgia. We proposed and tested that (a) adverse weather evokes nostalgia (Hypothesis 1); (b) adverse weather causes distress, which predicts elevated nostalgia (Hypothesis 2); (c) preventing nostalgia exacerbates weather-induced distress (Hypothesis 3); and (d) weather-evoked nostalgia confers psychological benefits (Hypothesis 4). In Study 1, participants listened to recordings of wind, thunder, rain, and neutral sounds. Adverse weather evoked nostalgia. In Study 2, participants kept a 10-day diary recording weather conditions, distress, and nostalgia. We also obtained meteorological data. Adverse weather perceptions were positively correlated with distress, which predicted higher nostalgia. Also, adverse natural weather was associated with corresponding weather perceptions, which predicted elevated nostalgia. (Results were mixed for rain.) In Study 3, preventing nostalgia (via cognitive load) increased weather-evoked distress. In Study 4, weather-evoked nostalgia was positively associated with psychological benefits. The findings pioneer the relevance of nostalgia as source of comfort in adverse weather.
Stability of stationary states of non-local equations with singular interaction potentials
Fellner, Klemens
2011-04-01
We study the large-time behaviour of a non-local evolution equation for the density of particles or individuals subject to an external and an interaction potential. In particular, we consider interaction potentials which are singular in the sense that their first derivative is discontinuous at the origin.For locally attractive singular interaction potentials we prove under a linear stability condition local non-linear stability of stationary states consisting of a finite sum of Dirac masses. For singular repulsive interaction potentials we show the stability of stationary states of uniformly bounded solutions under a convexity condition.Finally, we present numerical simulations to illustrate our results. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Effect of non-local equilibrium on minimal thermal resistance porous layered systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leblond, Genevieve; Gosselin, Louis
2008-01-01
In this paper, the cooling of a heat-generating surface by a stacking of porous media (e.g., metallic foam) through which fluid flows parallel to the surface is considered. A two-temperature model is proposed to account for non-local thermal equilibrium (non-LTE). A scale analysis is performed to determine temperatures profiles in the boundary layer regime. The hot spot temperature is minimized with respect to the three design variables of each layer: porosity, pore diameter, and material. Global cost and mass are constrained. The optimization is performed with a hybrid genetic algorithm (GA) including local search to enhance convergence and repeatability. Results demonstrate that the optimized stacks do not operate in LTE. Therefore, we show that assuming LTE might result in underestimation of the hot spot temperature, and into different final designs as well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biswas, Tirthabir; Koivisto, Tomi; Mazumdar, Anupam
2010-01-01
One of the greatest problems of standard cosmology is the Big Bang singularity. Previously it has been shown that non-local ghostfree higher-derivative modifications of Einstein gravity in the ultra-violet regime can admit non-singular bouncing solutions. In this paper we study in more details the dynamical properties of the equations of motion for these theories of gravity in presence of positive and negative cosmological constants and radiation. We find stable inflationary attractor solutions in the presence of a positive cosmological constant which renders inflation geodesically complete, while in the presence of a negative cosmological constant a cyclic universe emerges. We also provide an algorithm for tracking the super-Hubble perturbations during the bounce and show that the bouncing solutions are free from any perturbative instability
Non-local energy density functionals: models plus some exact general results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
March, N.H.
2001-02-01
Holas and March (Phys. Rev. A51, 2040, 1995) gave a formally exact expression for the force - δV xc (r-tilde)/δr-tilde associated with the exchange-correlation potential V xc (r-tilde) of density functional theory. This forged a precise link between first- and second-order density matrices and V xc (r-tilde). Here models are presented in which these low-order matrices can be related to the ground-state electron density. This allows non-local energy density functionals to be constructed within the framework of such models. Finally, results emerging from these models have led to the derivation of some exact 'nuclear cusp' relations for exchange and correlation energy densities in molecules, clusters and condensed phases. (author)
Energy method for multi-dimensional balance laws with non-local dissipation
Duan, Renjun
2010-06-01
In this paper, we are concerned with a class of multi-dimensional balance laws with a non-local dissipative source which arise as simplified models for the hydrodynamics of radiating gases. At first we introduce the energy method in the setting of smooth perturbations and study the stability of constants states. Precisely, we use Fourier space analysis to quantify the energy dissipation rate and recover the optimal time-decay estimates for perturbed solutions via an interpolation inequality in Fourier space. As application, the developed energy method is used to prove stability of smooth planar waves in all dimensions n2, and also to show existence and stability of time-periodic solutions in the presence of the time-periodic source. Optimal rates of convergence of solutions towards the planar waves or time-periodic states are also shown provided initially L1-perturbations. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS.
The algebra of non-local charges in non-linear sigma models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, E.; Abdalla, M.C.B.; Brunelli, J.C.; Zadra, A.
1993-07-01
We obtain the exact Dirac algebra obeyed by the conserved non-local charges in bosonic non-linear sigma models. Part of the computation is specialized for a symmetry group O(N). As it turns out the algebra corresponds to a cubic deformation of the Kac-Moody algebra. The non-linear terms are computed in closed form. In each Dirac bracket we only find highest order terms (as explained in the paper), defining a saturated algebra. We generalize the results for the presence of a Wess-Zumino term. The algebra is very similar to the previous one, containing now a calculable correction of order one unit lower. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs
Non--Local Approach to the Analysis of the Stress Distribution in Granular Systems.
Scott, J. E.; Kenkre, V. M.; Hurd, A. J.
1998-03-01
A continuum mechanical theory of the stress distribution in granular materials is presented, where the transformation of the vertical spatial coordinate into a formal time variable converts the study of the static stress distribution into a generally non--Markoffian, i.e., memory-possessing (non-local) propagation analysis. Previous treatments (J. -P). Bouchaud, M. E. Cates, and P. Claudin, J. Phys. I France 5, 639 (1995). (C. -h). Liu, S. R. Nagel, D. A. Schecter, S. N. Coppersmith, S. Majumdar, O. Narayan, and T. A. Witten, Science 269, 513 (1995). are shown to be particular cases of our theory corresponding to, respectively, wave-like and dif fusive limits of the general evolution. Calculations are presented for the example of ceramic or metal powder compaction in dies, with emphasis on the understanding of previously unexplained features as seen in experimental data found in the literature o ver the past 50 years. Specific proposals for new experimental investigations are presented.
Random noise suppression of seismic data using non-local Bayes algorithm
Chang, De-Kuan; Yang, Wu-Yang; Wang, Yi-Hui; Yang, Qing; Wei, Xin-Jian; Feng, Xiao-Ying
2018-02-01
For random noise suppression of seismic data, we present a non-local Bayes (NL-Bayes) filtering algorithm. The NL-Bayes algorithm uses the Gaussian model instead of the weighted average of all similar patches in the NL-means algorithm to reduce the fuzzy of structural details, thereby improving the denoising performance. In the denoising process of seismic data, the size and the number of patches in the Gaussian model are adaptively calculated according to the standard deviation of noise. The NL-Bayes algorithm requires two iterations to complete seismic data denoising, but the second iteration makes use of denoised seismic data from the first iteration to calculate the better mean and covariance of the patch Gaussian model for improving the similarity of patches and achieving the purpose of denoising. Tests with synthetic and real data sets demonstrate that the NL-Bayes algorithm can effectively improve the SNR and preserve the fidelity of seismic data.
Energy method for multi-dimensional balance laws with non-local dissipation
Duan, Renjun; Fellner, Klemens; Zhu, Changjiang
2010-01-01
In this paper, we are concerned with a class of multi-dimensional balance laws with a non-local dissipative source which arise as simplified models for the hydrodynamics of radiating gases. At first we introduce the energy method in the setting of smooth perturbations and study the stability of constants states. Precisely, we use Fourier space analysis to quantify the energy dissipation rate and recover the optimal time-decay estimates for perturbed solutions via an interpolation inequality in Fourier space. As application, the developed energy method is used to prove stability of smooth planar waves in all dimensions n2, and also to show existence and stability of time-periodic solutions in the presence of the time-periodic source. Optimal rates of convergence of solutions towards the planar waves or time-periodic states are also shown provided initially L1-perturbations. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Non-local coexistence of multiple spiral waves with independent frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhan Meng; Luo Jinming
2009-01-01
The interactions of several spiral waves with different independent rotation frequencies are studied in a model of two-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Laudau equation. We find a general coexistence phenomenon, non-local non-phase-locking-invasion coexistence, that is, the non-slowest spiral wave can survive and not be killed by the fastest spiral wave as it is insulated from the fastest one with the sacrifice of the slowest one, which stays in the spatial position between the fastest spiral and the non-slowest one. Both the parameter non-monotonicity and the non-phase-locking invasion between the fastest and the slowest spiral waves play key roles in this phenomenon. Importantly, the results could give a general idea for extensively observed coexistence of spiral waves in various inhomogeneous circumstances.
Non-local setting and outcome information for violation of Bell's inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pawlowski, Marcin; Kofler, Johannes; Paterek, Tomasz; Brukner, Caslav; Seevinck, Michael
2010-01-01
Bell's theorem is a no-go theorem stating that quantum mechanics cannot be reproduced by a physical theory based on realism, freedom to choose experimental settings and two locality conditions: setting (SI) and outcome (OI) independence. We provide a novel analysis of what it takes to violate Bell's inequality within the framework in which both realism and freedom of choice are assumed, by showing that it is impossible to model a violation without having information in one laboratory about both the setting and the outcome at the distant one. While it is possible that outcome information can be revealed from shared hidden variables, the assumed experimenter's freedom to choose the settings ensures that the setting information must be non-locally transferred even when the SI condition is obeyed. The amount of transmitted information about the setting that is sufficient to violate the CHSH inequality up to its quantum mechanical maximum is 0.736 bits.
WEATHER INDEX- THE BASIS OF WEATHER DERIVATIVES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Botos Horia Mircea
2011-07-01
Full Text Available This paper approaches the subject of Weather Derivatives, more exactly their basic element the weather index. The weather index has two forms, the Heating Degree Day (HDD and the Cooling Degree Day (CDD. We will try to explain their origin, use and the relationship between the two forms of the index. In our research we started from the analysis of the weather derivatives and what they are based on. After finding out about weather index, we were interested in understanding exactly how they work and how they influence the value of the contract. On the national level the research in the field is scares, but foreign materials available. The study for this paper was based firstly on reading about Weather Derivative, and then going in the meteorogical field and determining the way by which the indices were determined. After this, we went to the field with interest in the indices, such as the energy and gas industries, and figured out how they determined the weather index. For the examples we obtained data from the weather index database, and calculated the value for the period. The study is made on a period of five years, in 8 cities of the European Union. The result of this research is that we can now understand better the importance of the way the indices work and how they influence the value of the Weather Derivatives. This research has an implication on the field of insurance, because of the fact that weather derivative are at the convergence point of the stock markets and the insurance market. The originality of the paper comes from the personal touch given to the theoretical aspect and through the analysis of the HDD and CDD index in order to show their general behaviour and relationship.
Non-local statistical label fusion for multi-atlas segmentation.
Asman, Andrew J; Landman, Bennett A
2013-02-01
Multi-atlas segmentation provides a general purpose, fully-automated approach for transferring spatial information from an existing dataset ("atlases") to a previously unseen context ("target") through image registration. The method to resolve voxelwise label conflicts between the registered atlases ("label fusion") has a substantial impact on segmentation quality. Ideally, statistical fusion algorithms (e.g., STAPLE) would result in accurate segmentations as they provide a framework to elegantly integrate models of rater performance. The accuracy of statistical fusion hinges upon accurately modeling the underlying process of how raters err. Despite success on human raters, current approaches inaccurately model multi-atlas behavior as they fail to seamlessly incorporate exogenous intensity information into the estimation process. As a result, locally weighted voting algorithms represent the de facto standard fusion approach in clinical applications. Moreover, regardless of the approach, fusion algorithms are generally dependent upon large atlas sets and highly accurate registration as they implicitly assume that the registered atlases form a collectively unbiased representation of the target. Herein, we propose a novel statistical fusion algorithm, Non-Local STAPLE (NLS). NLS reformulates the STAPLE framework from a non-local means perspective in order to learn what label an atlas would have observed, given perfect correspondence. Through this reformulation, NLS (1) seamlessly integrates intensity into the estimation process, (2) provides a theoretically consistent model of multi-atlas observation error, and (3) largely diminishes the need for large atlas sets and very high-quality registrations. We assess the sensitivity and optimality of the approach and demonstrate significant improvement in two empirical multi-atlas experiments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Magnetic field in laser plasmas: non-local electron transport and reconnection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riquier, Raphael
2016-01-01
In the framework of the inertial confinement fusion, a pellet filled with the deuterium-tritium fuel is imploded, either through laser irradiation (direct drive, laser - low atomic number target interaction) or by the black body radiation from a cavity converting the laser radiation (indirect drive, laser - high atomic number target interaction). In both cases, a correct modeling of the electron transport is of first importance in order to have predictive hydro-radiative simulations. Nonetheless, it has been shown early on that the hypothesis of the linear transport are not valid in the framework of a solid target irradiated by a high power laser (I≅10 14 W/cm 2 ). This is due in part to very steep temperature gradients (kinetic effects, so-called 'non-local') and because of a magnetic field self-generated through the thermo-electric effect. Finally, the heat flux and the magnetic field are strongly coupled through two mechanisms: the advection of the field with the heat flux (Nernst effect) and the rotation and inhibition of the heat flux by the plasma's magnetization (Righi-Leduc effect).In this manuscript, we will first present the various electron transport models, particularly the non-local with magnetic field model included in the hydro-radiative code FCI2. Following, in order to validate this model, we will compare it first against a kinetic code, and then with an experiment during which the magnetic field has been probed through proton radiography. Once the model validated, we will use FCI2 simulations to explain the source and transport of the field, as well as its effect on the interaction. Finally, the reconnection of the magnetic field, during the irradiation of a solid target by two laser beams, will be studied. (author) [fr
Occurrence of exact R{sup 2} inflation in non-local UV-complete gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koshelev, Alexey S. [Departamento de Física and Centro de Matemática e Aplicações (CMA-UBI),Universidade da Beira Interior, 6200 Covilhã (Portugal); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and The International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Modesto, Leonardo [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Department of Physics & Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Fudan University,200433 Shanghai (China); Rachwał, Lesław [Department of Physics & Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Fudan University,200433 Shanghai (China); Starobinsky, Alexei A. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008, Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation)
2016-11-10
The R+R{sup 2}, shortly named “R{sup 2}” (“Starobinsky”) inflationary model, represents a fully consistent example of a one-parameter inflationary scenario. This model has a “graceful exit” from inflation and provides a mechanism for subsequent creation and final thermalization of the standard matter. Moreover, it produces a very good fit of the observed spectrum of primordial perturbations. In the present paper we show explicitly that the R{sup 2} inflationary spacetime is an exact solution of a range of weakly non-local (quasi-polynomial) gravitational theories, which provide an ultraviolet completion of the R{sup 2} theory. These theories are ghost-free, super-renormalizable or finite at quantum level, and perturbatively unitary. Their spectrum consists of the graviton and the scalaron that is responsible for driving the inflation. Notably, any further extension of the spectrum leads to propagating ghost degrees of freedom. We are aimed at presenting a detailed construction of such theories in the so called Weyl basis. Further, we give a special account to the cosmological implications of this theory by considering perturbations during inflation. The highlight of the non-local model is the prediction of a modified, in comparison to a local R{sup 2} model, value for the ratio of tensor and scalar power spectra r, depending on the parameters of the theory. The relevant parameters are under control to be successfully confronted with existing observational data. Furthermore, the modified r can surely meet future observational constraints.
Unilateral Rolling of the Foot did not Affect Non-Local Range of Motion or Balance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lena Grabow, James D. Young, Jeannette M. Byrne, Urs Granacher, David G. Behm
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Non-local or crossover (contralateral and non-stretched muscles increases in range-of-motion (ROM and balance have been reported following rolling of quadriceps, hamstrings and plantar flexors. Since there is limited information regarding plantar sole (foot rolling effects, the objectives of this study were to determine if unilateral foot rolling would affect ipsilateral and contralateral measures of ROM and balance in young healthy adults. A randomized within-subject design was used to examine non-local effects of unilateral foot rolling on ipsilateral and contralateral limb ankle dorsiflexion ROM and a modified sit-and-reach-test (SRT. Static balance was also tested during a 30 s single leg stance test. Twelve participants performed three bouts of 60 s unilateral plantar sole rolling using a roller on the dominant foot with 60 s rest intervals between sets. ROM and balance measures were assessed in separate sessions at pre-intervention, immediately and 10 minutes post-intervention. To evaluate repeated measures effects, two SRT pre-tests were implemented. Results demonstrated that the second pre-test SRT was 6.6% higher than the first pre-test (p = 0.009, d = 1.91. There were no statistically significant effects of foot rolling on any measures immediately or 10 min post-test. To conclude, unilateral foot rolling did not produce statistically significant increases in ipsilateral or contralateral dorsiflexion or SRT ROM nor did it affect postural sway. Our statistically non-significant findings might be attributed to a lower degree of roller-induced afferent stimulation due to the smaller volume of myofascia and muscle compared to prior studies. Furthermore, ROM results from studies utilizing a single pre-test without a sufficient warm-up should be viewed critically.
Mesoscale wind fluctuations over Danish waters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vincent, C.L.
2010-12-15
Mesoscale wind fluctuations affect the large scale integration of wind power because they undermine the day-ahead predictability of wind speed and power production, and because they can result in large fluctuations in power generation that must be balanced using reserve power. Large fluctuations in generated power are a particular problem for offshore wind farms because the typically high concentration of turbines within a limited geographical area means that fluctuations can be correlated across large numbers of turbines. Furthermore, organised mesoscale structures that often form over water, such as convective rolls and cellular convection, have length scales of tens of kilometers, and can cause large wind fluctuations on a time scale of around an hour. This thesis is an exploration of the predictability of mesoscale wind fluctuations using observations from the world's first two large offshore wind farms - Horns Rev I in the North Sea, and Nysted in the Baltic Sea. The thesis begins with a climatological analysis of wind fluctuations on time scales of 1-10 hours at the two sites. A novel method for calculating conditional climatologies of spectral information is proposed, based on binning and averaging the time axis of the Hilbert spectrum. Results reveal clear patterns between wind fluctuations and locally observed meteorological conditions. The analysis is expanded by classifying wind fluctuations on time scales of 1-3 hours according to synoptic patterns, satellite pictures and wind classes. Results indicate that cold air outbreaks and open cellular convection are a significant contributor to mesoscale wind variability at Horns Rev. The predictability of mesoscale wind fluctuations is tested by implementing standard statistical models that relate local wind variability to parameters based on a large scale weather analysis. The models show some skill, but only achieve a 15% improvement on a persistence forecast. The possibility of explicitly modelling
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Surface Weather Observation Collection consists primarily of hourly, synoptic, daily, and monthly forms submitted to the archive by the National Weather Service...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...
National Convective Weather Diagnostic
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...
Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...
Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...
Surface Weather Observations Hourly
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Weather Observation is a set of archived historical manuscripts stored on microfiche. The primary source of these radar weather observations manuscript records...
Land Surface Weather Observations
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) National Telecommunications Gateway provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its...
Natural Weathering Exposure Station
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The “Space Weather in Operations” effort will provide on-demand and near-real time space weather event information to the Data Access Toolkit (DAT), which is the...
Superconductivity and spin fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scalapino, D.J.
1999-01-01
The organizers of the Memorial Session for Herman Rietschel asked that the author review some of the history of the interplay of superconductivity and spin fluctuations. Initially, Berk and Schrieffer showed how paramagnon spin fluctuations could suppress superconductivity in nearly-ferromagnetic materials. Following this, Rietschel and various co-workers wrote a number of papers in which they investigated the role of spin fluctuations in reducing the Tc of various electron-phonon superconductors. Paramagnon spin fluctuations are also believed to provide the p-wave pairing mechanism responsible for the superfluid phases of 3 He. More recently, antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations have been proposed as the mechanism for d-wave pairing in the heavy-fermion superconductors and in some organic materials as well as possibly the high-Tc cuprates. Here the author will review some of this early history and discuss some of the things he has learned more recently from numerical simulations
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / Cold-Weather Sports What's in this article? What to Do? Classes ... weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports can help you burn calories, increase your cardiovascular ...
Weather radars – the new eyes for offshore wind farms?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trombe, Pierre-Julien; Pinson, Pierre; Vincent, Claire Louise
2014-01-01
Offshore wind fluctuations are such that dedicated prediction and control systems are needed for optimizing the management of wind farms in real-time. In this paper, we present a pioneer experiment – Radar@Sea – in which weather radars are used for monitoring the weather at the Horns Rev offshore...... inputs to prediction systems for anticipating changes in the wind fluctuation dynamics, generating improved wind power forecasts and developing specific control strategies. However, integrating weather radar observations into automated decision support systems is not a plug-and-play task...... observed at Horns Rev and (iv) we discuss the future perspectives for weather radars in wind energy. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
2010-06-01
The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.
Hadronic Correlations and Fluctuations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koch, Volker
2008-10-09
We will provide a review of some of the physics which can be addressed by studying fluctuations and correlations in heavy ion collisions. We will discuss Lattice QCD results on fluctuations and correlations and will put them into context with observables which have been measured in heavy-ion collisions. Special attention will be given to the QCD critical point and the first order co-existence region, and we will discuss how the measurement of fluctuations and correlations can help in an experimental search for non-trivial structures in the QCD phase diagram.
Quantum fluctuations and inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardeen, J.M.; Bublik, G.J.
1986-05-01
We study the effect of quantum fluctuations on the roll-down rate of the inflation field in a semiclassical approximation; this is done by treating the inflation field as a classical random field. The quantum fluctuations are simulated by a noise term in the equation of motion. We consider two different inflationary scenarios (new and chaotic inflation) and find that the roll-down rate of the median value of the inflation field is increased by the quantum fluctuations. Non-linear effects may become important in the later stages of the inflationary regime. 8 refs., 2 figs
Quantum fluctuations and inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardeen, J.M.; Bublik, G.J.
1987-01-01
The authors study the effect of quantum fluctuations on the roll-down rate of the inflation field in a semiclassical approximation; this is done by treating the inflation field as a classical random field. The quantum fluctuations are simulated by a noise term in the equation of motion. Two different inflationary scenarios (new and chaotic inflation) are considered and it is found that the roll-down rate of the median value of the inflation field is increased by the quantum fluctuations. Non-linear effects may become important in the later stages of the inflationary regime. (author)
2010-03-01
homa pilots are representative of u.S. pilots in general. Presumably, they are similar but, so far, this has not been directly investigated. Since...1 Training Product 2 Control Combined group n Age FH % IR n Age FH % IR n Age FH % IR N Age FH % IR Phase 1 16 39 280 53 16 38 235.5 47 18 42 262.5 50 50
Testing the non-locality of quantum theory in two-kaon systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eberhard, P.H. (California Univ., Berkeley (United States). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.)
1993-06-07
An idea for testing the non-local character of quantum theory in systems made of two neutral kaons is suggested. Such tests require detecting two long-lived or two short-lived neutral kaons in coincidence, when copper slabs are either interposed on or removed from their paths. They may be performed at an asymmetric [Phi][sup 0]-factory. They could answer some questions raised by the EPR paradox and Bell's inequalities. If such tests are performed and if predictions of quantum mechanics and standard theory of kaon regeneration are verified experimentally, all descriptions of the relevant phenomena in terms of local interactions will be ruled out in principle with the exception of very peculiar ones, which imply the existence of hidden variables, of different kinds of kaons corresponding to different values of the hidden variables, and, for some of these kaons, of regeneration probabilities enhanced by a factor of the order of 400 or more over the average. Of course, the experiment may also reveal a break down of quantum theory. (orig.)
From Einstein's theorem to Bell's theorem: a history of quantum non-locality
Wiseman, H. M.
2006-04-01
In this Einstein Year of Physics it seems appropriate to look at an important aspect of Einstein's work that is often down-played: his contribution to the debate on the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Contrary to physics ‘folklore’, Bohr had no defence against Einstein's 1935 attack (the EPR paper) on the claimed completeness of orthodox quantum mechanics. I suggest that Einstein's argument, as stated most clearly in 1946, could justly be called Einstein's reality locality completeness theorem, since it proves that one of these three must be false. Einstein's instinct was that completeness of orthodox quantum mechanics was the falsehood, but he failed in his quest to find a more complete theory that respected reality and locality. Einstein's theorem, and possibly Einstein's failure, inspired John Bell in 1964 to prove his reality locality theorem. This strengthened Einstein's theorem (but showed the futility of his quest) by demonstrating that either reality or locality is a falsehood. This revealed the full non-locality of the quantum world for the first time.
Self-organized criticality revisited: non-local transport by turbulent amplification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Milovanov, Alexander V.; Rasmussen, Jens Juul
2015-01-01
We revise the applications of self-organized criticality (SOC) as a paradigmatic model for tokamak plasma turbulence. The work, presented here, is built around the idea that some systems do not develop a pure critical state associable with SOC, since their dynamical evolution involves as a compet......We revise the applications of self-organized criticality (SOC) as a paradigmatic model for tokamak plasma turbulence. The work, presented here, is built around the idea that some systems do not develop a pure critical state associable with SOC, since their dynamical evolution involves...... as a competing key factor an inverse cascade of the energy in reciprocal space. Then relaxation of slowly increasing stresses will give rise to intermittent bursts of transport in real space and outstanding transport events beyond the range of applicability of the 'conventional' SOC. Also, we are concerned...... with the causes and origins of non-local transport in magnetized plasma, and show that this type of transport occurs naturally in self-consistent strong turbulence via a complexity coupling to the inverse cascade. We expect these coupling phenomena to occur in the parameter range of strong nonlinearity and time...
Gu, Yameng; Zhang, Xuming
2017-05-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images are severely degraded by speckle noise. Existing methods for despeckling multiframe OCT data cannot deliver sufficient speckle suppression while preserving image details well. To address this problem, the spiking cortical model (SCM) based non-local means (NLM) method has been proposed in this letter. In the proposed method, the considered frame and two neighboring frames are input into three SCMs to generate the temporal series of pulse outputs. The normalized moment of inertia (NMI) of the considered patches in the pulse outputs is extracted to represent the rotational and scaling invariant features of the corresponding patches in each frame. The pixel similarity is computed based on the Euclidean distance between the NMI features and used as the weight. Each pixel in the considered frame is restored by the weighted averaging of all pixels in the pre-defined search window in the three frames. Experiments on the real multiframe OCT data of the pig eye demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method over the frame averaging method, the multiscale sparsity based tomographic denoising method, the wavelet-based method and the traditional NLM method in terms of visual inspection and objective metrics such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), equivalent number of looks (ENL) and cross-correlation (XCOR).
Non-local electron transport through normal and topological ladder-like atomic systems
Kurzyna, Marcin; Kwapiński, Tomasz
2018-05-01
We propose a locally protected ladder-like atomic system (nanoconductor) on a substrate that is insensitive to external perturbations. The system corresponds to coupled atomic chains fabricated on different surfaces. Electron transport properties of such conductors are studied theoretically using the model tight-binding Su-Schriffer-Hegger (SSH) Hamiltonian and Green's function formalism. We have found that the conductance of the system is almost insensitive to single adatoms and oscillates as a function of the side chain length with very large periods. Non-local character of the electron transport was observed also for topological SSH chains where nontrivial end states survive in the presence of disturbances as well as for different substrates. We have found that the careful inspection of the density of states or charge waves can provide the information about the atom energy levels and hopping amplitudes. Moreover, the ladder-like geometry allows one to distinguish between normal and topological zero-energy states. It is important that topological chains do not reveal Friedel oscillations which are observed in non-topological chains.
Homotopic non-local regularized reconstruction from sparse positron emission tomography measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, Alexander; Liu, Chenyi; Wang, Xiao Yu; Fieguth, Paul; Bie, Hongxia
2015-01-01
Positron emission tomography scanners collect measurements of a patient’s in vivo radiotracer distribution. The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radionuclide (tracer), which is introduced into the body on a biologically active molecule, and the tomograms must be reconstructed from projections. The reconstruction of tomograms from the acquired PET data is an inverse problem that requires regularization. The use of tightly packed discrete detector rings, although improves signal-to-noise ratio, are often associated with high costs of positron emission tomography systems. Thus a sparse reconstruction, which would be capable of overcoming the noise effect while allowing for a reduced number of detectors, would have a great deal to offer. In this study, we introduce and investigate the potential of a homotopic non-local regularization reconstruction framework for effectively reconstructing positron emission tomograms from such sparse measurements. Results obtained using the proposed approach are compared with traditional filtered back-projection as well as expectation maximization reconstruction with total variation regularization. A new reconstruction method was developed for the purpose of improving the quality of positron emission tomography reconstruction from sparse measurements. We illustrate that promising reconstruction performance can be achieved for the proposed approach even at low sampling fractions, which allows for the use of significantly fewer detectors and have the potential to reduce scanner costs
Sex comparisons of non-local muscle fatigue in human elbow flexors and knee extensors
Ye, Xin; Beck, Travis W.; Wages, Nathan P.; Carr, Joshua C.
2018-01-01
Objectives: To examine non-local muscle fatigue (NLMF) in both contralateral homologous and non-related heterogonous muscles for both sexes. Methods: Ten men and nine women participated in this study. After the familiarization visit, subjects completed four separate randomly sequenced experimental visits, during which the fatiguing interventions (six sets of 30-second maximal isometric contractions) were performed on either their right elbow flexors or knee extensors. Before (Pre-) and after (Post-) the fatiguing interventions, the isometric strength and the corresponding surface electromyographic (EMG) amplitude were measured for the non-exercised left elbow flexors or knee extensors. Results: For the non-exercised elbow flexors, the isometric strength decreased for both sexes (sex combined mean±SE: Pre vs. Post=339.67±18.02 N vs. 314.41±16.37 N; pisometric knee extension strength for men (Pre vs. Post =845.02±66.26 N vs. 817.39±67.64 N; p=0.019), but not for women. Conclusions: The presence of NMLF can be affected by factors such as sex and muscle being tested. Women are less likely to demonstrate NLMF in lower body muscle groups. PMID:29504584
Non-local Fast Extraction from the CERN SPS at 100 and 440 GeV
Velotti, F M; Bartmann, W; Carlier, E; Cornelis, K; Efthymiopoulos, I; Goddard, B; Jensen, L K; Kain, V; Kowalska, M; Mertens, V; Steerenberg, R
2013-01-01
The Long Straight Section 2 (LSS2) of the CERN SPS is connected with the North Area (NA), to which the beam to date has always been extracted using a resonant extraction technique. For new proposed short- and long-baseline neutrino experiments, a fast single turn extraction to this experimental area is required. As there are no kickers in LSS2, and the integration of any new kickers with the existing electrostatic septum would be problematic, a solution has been developed to fast extract the beam using non-local extraction with other SPS kickers. Two different kicker systems have been used, the injection kicker in LSS1 and the stronger extraction kicker in LSS6 to extract 100 and 440 GeV beam, respectively. For both solutions a large emittance beam was extracted after 5 or 9 full betatron periods. The concept and simulation details are presented with the analysis of the aperture and beam loss considerations and experimental results collected during a series of beam tests.
Non-local transport in a tokamak plasma divertor with recycling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abou-Assaleh, Z.; Petravic, M.; Vesey, R.
1993-01-01
The plasma transport, particle and energy fluxes, near the diverter plate with high recycling has been modeled by using an electron kinetic code (Fokker-Planck International) in conjunction with a two-fluid ambipolar code. We include the effects of ionization and excitation of the hydrogen atoms. The electron energy distribution calculated from the kinetic code shows a large deviation from Maxwellian especially near the plate. This deviation from Maxwellian is due to the non-local transport of the suprathermal electrons from the SOL, and due also to the absorption of the fast electrons by the target plate. The heat flux near the plate is shown to be nonlocal, in that it is not determined uniquely by the local plasma parameters. Therefore the classical transport coefficients in the fluid model must be modified by including a nonlocal effect to produce the kinetic results. The kinetic calculation is compared with those of the fluid code with different values of the electron heat flux limiter factor (f). To reduce the computer load, the initial condition we used corresponds to the equilibrium solution already found with the fluid code with f=0.2. The fluid and Fokker-Planck codes are relaxed until all transients associated with electron dynamics have disappeared. In section 2, we present the kinetic code. The fluid code is presented in section 3. The boundary conditions used in these simulations are given in section 4. Finally the results and conclusion of these simulations are presented in section 5
Measure solutions for non-local interaction PDEs with two species
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Francesco, Marco Di [Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Fagioli, Simone [DISIM—Department of Information Engineering, Computer Science and Mathematics, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio 1 (Coppito) 67100 L' Aquila (AQ) (Italy)
2013-10-01
This paper presents a systematic existence and uniqueness theory of weak measure solutions for systems of non-local interaction PDEs with two species, which are the PDE counterpart of systems of deterministic interacting particles with two species. The main motivations behind those models arise in cell biology, pedestrian movements, and opinion formation. In case of symmetrizable systems (i.e. with cross-interaction potentials one multiple of the other), we provide a complete existence and uniqueness theory within (a suitable generalization of) the Wasserstein gradient flow theory in Ambrosio et al (2008 Gradient Flows in Metric Spaces and in the Space of Probability Measures (Lectures in Mathematics ETH Zürich) 2nd edn (Basel: Birkhäuser)) and Carrillo et al (2011 Duke Math. J. 156 229–71), which allows the consideration of interaction potentials with a discontinuous gradient at the origin. In the general case of non-symmetrizable systems, we provide an existence result for measure solutions which uses a semi-implicit version of the Jordan–Kinderlehrer–Otto (JKO) scheme (Jordan et al 1998 SIAM J. Math. Anal. 29 1–17), which holds in a reasonable non-smooth setting for the interaction potentials. Uniqueness in the non-symmetrizable case is proven for C{sup 2} potentials using a variant of the method of characteristics. (paper)
Measure solutions for non-local interaction PDEs with two species
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Francesco, Marco Di; Fagioli, Simone
2013-01-01
This paper presents a systematic existence and uniqueness theory of weak measure solutions for systems of non-local interaction PDEs with two species, which are the PDE counterpart of systems of deterministic interacting particles with two species. The main motivations behind those models arise in cell biology, pedestrian movements, and opinion formation. In case of symmetrizable systems (i.e. with cross-interaction potentials one multiple of the other), we provide a complete existence and uniqueness theory within (a suitable generalization of) the Wasserstein gradient flow theory in Ambrosio et al (2008 Gradient Flows in Metric Spaces and in the Space of Probability Measures (Lectures in Mathematics ETH Zürich) 2nd edn (Basel: Birkhäuser)) and Carrillo et al (2011 Duke Math. J. 156 229–71), which allows the consideration of interaction potentials with a discontinuous gradient at the origin. In the general case of non-symmetrizable systems, we provide an existence result for measure solutions which uses a semi-implicit version of the Jordan–Kinderlehrer–Otto (JKO) scheme (Jordan et al 1998 SIAM J. Math. Anal. 29 1–17), which holds in a reasonable non-smooth setting for the interaction potentials. Uniqueness in the non-symmetrizable case is proven for C 2 potentials using a variant of the method of characteristics. (paper)
Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS)
Tetin, Sergey
2012-01-01
This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy and includes chapters on such topics as Förster resonance energy transfer (fret) with fluctuation algorithms, protein corona on nanoparticles by FCS, and FFS approaches to the study of receptors in live cells. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy Contains chapters on such topics as Förster resonance energy transfer (fret) with fluctuation algorithms, protein corona on nanoparticles by FCS, and FFS approaches to the study of receptors in live cells.
Fully Quantum Fluctuation Theorems
Åberg, Johan
2018-02-01
Systems that are driven out of thermal equilibrium typically dissipate random quantities of energy on microscopic scales. Crooks fluctuation theorem relates the distribution of these random work costs to the corresponding distribution for the reverse process. By an analysis that explicitly incorporates the energy reservoir that donates the energy and the control system that implements the dynamic, we obtain a quantum generalization of Crooks theorem that not only includes the energy changes in the reservoir but also the full description of its evolution, including coherences. Moreover, this approach opens up the possibility for generalizations of the concept of fluctuation relations. Here, we introduce "conditional" fluctuation relations that are applicable to nonequilibrium systems, as well as approximate fluctuation relations that allow for the analysis of autonomous evolution generated by global time-independent Hamiltonians. We furthermore extend these notions to Markovian master equations, implicitly modeling the influence of the heat bath.
The morphing method as a flexible tool for adaptive local/non-local simulation of static fracture
Azdoud, Yan
2014-04-19
We introduce a framework that adapts local and non-local continuum models to simulate static fracture problems. Non-local models based on the peridynamic theory are promising for the simulation of fracture, as they allow discontinuities in the displacement field. However, they remain computationally expensive. As an alternative, we develop an adaptive coupling technique based on the morphing method to restrict the non-local model adaptively during the evolution of the fracture. The rest of the structure is described by local continuum mechanics. We conduct all simulations in three dimensions, using the relevant discretization scheme in each domain, i.e., the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method in the peridynamic domain and the continuous finite element method in the local continuum mechanics domain. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rolles, Daniel; Braune, Markus; Cvejanovic, Slobodan; Gessner, Oliver; Hentges, Rainer; Korica, Sanja; Langer, Burkhard; Lischke, Toralf; Pruemper, Georg; Reinkoester, Axel; Viefhaus, Jens; Zimmermann, Bjoern; McKoy, Vince; Becker, Uwe
2006-01-01
In homonuclear diatomic molecules such as N 2 , the inversion symmetry of the system causes non-local, coherent behavior of the otherwise localized core holes. The non-locality of the electron emission and the remaining core hole changes in a continuous way into partially localized behaviour if a gradual breakdown of the inversion symmetry is induced by isotope substitution. This is reflected by a loss of interference and a parity mixing of the outgoing photoelectron waves. Our results represent the first experimentally observed isotope effect on the electronic structure of a diatomic molecule
Absorption-Fluctuation Theorem for Nuclear Reactions: Brink-Axel, Incomplete Fusion and All That
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussein, M. S.
2008-01-01
We discuss the connection between absorption, averages and fluctuations in nuclear reactions. The fluctuations in the entrance channel result in the compound-nucleus Hauser-Feshbach cross section, and the fluctuations in the intermediate channels result in modifications of multistep reaction cross sections, while the fluctuations in the final channel result in hybrid cross sections that can be used to describe incomplete fusion reactions. We discuss the latter in detail and comment on the validity of the assumptions used in the development of the Surrogate method. We also discuss the theory of multistep reactions with regards to intermediate state fluctuations and the energy dependence and non-locality of the intermediate-channel optical potentials
Understanding the weather signal in national crop-yield variability
Frieler, Katja; Schauberger, Bernhard; Arneth, Almut; Balkovič, Juraj; Chryssanthacopoulos, James; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Folberth, Christian; Khabarov, Nikolay; Müller, Christoph; Olin, Stefan; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Schewe, Jacob; Schmid, Erwin; Warszawski, Lila; Levermann, Anders
2017-06-01
Year-to-year variations in crop yields can have major impacts on the livelihoods of subsistence farmers and may trigger significant global price fluctuations, with severe consequences for people in developing countries. Fluctuations can be induced by weather conditions, management decisions, weeds, diseases, and pests. Although an explicit quantification and deeper understanding of weather-induced crop-yield variability is essential for adaptation strategies, so far it has only been addressed by empirical models. Here, we provide conservative estimates of the fraction of reported national yield variabilities that can be attributed to weather by state-of-the-art, process-based crop model simulations. We find that observed weather variations can explain more than 50% of the variability in wheat yields in Australia, Canada, Spain, Hungary, and Romania. For maize, weather sensitivities exceed 50% in seven countries, including the United States. The explained variance exceeds 50% for rice in Japan and South Korea and for soy in Argentina. Avoiding water stress by simulating yields assuming full irrigation shows that water limitation is a major driver of the observed variations in most of these countries. Identifying the mechanisms leading to crop-yield fluctuations is not only fundamental for dampening fluctuations, but is also important in the context of the debate on the attribution of loss and damage to climate change. Since process-based crop models not only account for weather influences on crop yields, but also provide options to represent human-management measures, they could become essential tools for differentiating these drivers, and for exploring options to reduce future yield fluctuations.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...
Cockpit weather information needs
Scanlon, Charles H.
1992-01-01
The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weather displays for the dispatcher, air traffic control (ATC), and pilot crew should also enhance the dialogue capabilities for reroute decisions. By utilizing a broadcast data link for surface observations, forecasts, radar summaries, lightning strikes, and weather alerts, onboard weather computing facilities construct graphical displays, historical weather displays, color textual displays, and other tools to assist the pilot crew. Since the weather data is continually being received and stored by the airborne system, the pilot crew has instantaneous access to the latest information. This information is color coded to distinguish degrees of category for surface observations, ceiling and visibilities, and ground radar summaries. Automatic weather monitoring and pilot crew alerting is accomplished by the airborne computing facilities. When a new weather information is received, the displays are instantaneously changed to reflect the new information. Also, when a new surface or special observation for the intended destination is received, the pilot crew is informed so that information can be studied at the pilot's discretion. The pilot crew is also immediately alerted when a severe weather notice, AIRMET or SIGMET, is received. The cockpit weather display shares a multicolor eight inch cathode ray tube and overlaid touch panel with a pilot crew data link interface. Touch sensitive buttons and areas are used for pilot selection of graphical and data link displays. Time critical ATC messages are presented in a small window that overlays other displays so that immediate pilot alerting and action can be taken. Predeparture and reroute clearances are displayed on the graphical weather system so pilot review of weather along
On monogamy of non-locality and macroscopic averages: examples and preliminary results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rui Soares Barbosa
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We explore a connection between monogamy of non-locality and a weak macroscopic locality condition: the locality of the average behaviour. These are revealed by our analysis as being two sides of the same coin. Moreover, we exhibit a structural reason for both in the case of Bell-type multipartite scenarios, shedding light on but also generalising the results in the literature [Ramanathan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 060405 (2001; Pawlowski & Brukner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 030403 (2009]. More specifically, we show that, provided the number of particles in each site is large enough compared to the number of allowed measurement settings, and whatever the microscopic state of the system, the macroscopic average behaviour is local realistic, or equivalently, general multipartite monogamy relations hold. This result relies on a classical mathematical theorem by Vorob'ev [Theory Probab. Appl. 7(2, 147-163 (1962] about extending compatible families of probability distributions defined on the faces of a simplicial complex – in the language of the sheaf-theoretic framework of Abramsky & Brandenburger [New J. Phys. 13, 113036 (2011], such families correspond to no-signalling empirical models, and the existence of an extension corresponds to locality or non-contextuality. Since Vorob'ev's theorem depends solely on the structure of the simplicial complex, which encodes the compatibility of the measurements, and not on the specific probability distributions (i.e. the empirical models, our result about monogamy relations and locality of macroscopic averages holds not just for quantum theory, but for any empirical model satisfying the no-signalling condition. In this extended abstract, we illustrate our approach by working out a couple of examples, which convey the intuition behind our analysis while keeping the discussion at an elementary level.
Experimental benchmark of non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium plasma atomic physics codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagels-Silvert, V.
2004-09-01
The main purpose of this thesis is to get experimental data for the testing and validation of atomic physics codes dealing with non-local-thermodynamical-equilibrium plasmas. The first part is dedicated to the spectroscopic study of xenon and krypton plasmas that have been produced by a nanosecond laser pulse interacting with a gas jet. A Thomson scattering diagnostic has allowed us to measure independently plasma parameters such as electron temperature, electron density and the average ionisation state. We have obtained time integrated spectra in the range between 5 and 10 angstroms. We have identified about one hundred xenon rays between 8.6 and 9.6 angstroms via the use of the Relac code. We have discovered unknown rays for the krypton between 5.2 and 7.5 angstroms. In a second experiment we have extended the wavelength range to the X UV domain. The Averroes/Transpec code has been tested in the ranges from 9 to 15 angstroms and from 10 to 130 angstroms, the first range has been well reproduced while the second range requires a more complex data analysis. The second part is dedicated to the spectroscopic study of aluminium, selenium and samarium plasmas in femtosecond operating rate. We have designed an interferometry diagnostic in the frequency domain that has allowed us to measure the expanding speed of the target's backside. Via the use of an adequate isothermal model this parameter has led us to know the plasma electron temperature. Spectra and emission times of various rays from the aluminium and selenium plasmas have been computed satisfactorily with the Averroes/Transpec code coupled with Film and Multif hydrodynamical codes. (A.C.)
Numerical study on non-locally reacting behavior of nacelle liners incorporating drainage slots
Chen, Chao; Li, Xiaodong; Thiele, Frank
2018-06-01
For acoustic liners used in current commercial nacelles, in order to prevent any liquid accumulating in the resonators, drainage slots are incorporated on the partition walls between closely packed cavities. Recently, an experimental study conducted by Busse-Gerstengarbe et al. shown that the cell interaction introduced by drainage slots causes an additional dissipation peak which increases with the size of the slot. However, the variation of damping process due to drainage slots is still not fully understood. Therefore, a numerical study based on computational aeroacoustic methods is carried out to investigate the mechanism of the changed attenuation characteristics due to drainage slots in presence of grazing incident sound waves with low or high intensities. Different slot configurations are designed based on the generic non-locally reacting liner model adopted in the experimental investigation. Both 2-D and 3-D numerical simulations of only slit resonators are carried out. Numerical results indicate that the extra peak is a result of a resonance excited in the second cavity at specific frequency. Under high sound pressure level incoming waves, the basic characteristics of the acoustic performance remain. However, vortex shedding transpires at the resonances around both the slits and the drainage slot. Vorticity contours show that the connection of two coupled cavities decreases the strength of vortex shedding around the basic Helmholtz resonance due to a higher energy reflection. Meanwhile, the cell interaction significantly increases the vorticity magnitude near the extra resonant frequency. Finally, a semi-empirical model is derived to predict the extra attenuation peak frequency.
Non-local energy deposition: A problem in regional RF hyperthermia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagmann, M.J.; Levin, R.L.
1984-01-01
As the frequency is decreased below 1 GHz, RF applicators can cause deep heating of tissues. However, there is a concomitant problem in that significant energy deposition may occur well beyond the dimensions of the applicator. The BSD Medical Corporation has described to the authors tests with a phantom manequin in which SAR in the neck was significantly greater than that in the abdomen when an Annular Phased Array System (APAS) was positioned for abdominal heating. The authors have obtained numerical solutions for the SAR distribution in a 180-cell inhomogeneous block model of man subjected to r-f irradiation approximating that emanating from various applicators. The solutions agree with the reports of BSD that significant heating in the neck, inner thighs, and back will occur with an abdominally-placed APAS. They suggest that a similar problem will occur with a helical-coil or other applicator for which the electric field is predominantly parallel to the axis of the body. Typically, 70% or more of the total energy will be deposited outside the bounds of an axial applicator when it is placed around the chest or abdomen. The problem is most severe at frequencies for which body parts such as the arm or head may resonate. In such cases, over 90% of the energy may be deposited outside the bounds of applicator. The problem of non-local energy deposition appears to be substantially reduced for non-axial applicators. If the arm extends outward from the side of the body, an axial applicator around it will cause negligible energy deposition in the rest of the body
Local and non-local deficits in amblyopia: acuity and spatial interactions.
Bonneh, Yoram S; Sagi, Dov; Polat, Uri
2004-12-01
Amblyopic vision is thought to be limited by abnormal long-range spatial interactions, but their exact mode of action and relationship to the main amblyopic deficit in visual acuity is largely unknown. We studied this relationship in a group (N=59) of anisometropic (N=21) and strabismic (or combined, N=38) subjects, using (1) a single and multi-pattern (crowded) computerized static Tumbling-E test with scaled spacing of two pattern widths (TeVA), in addition to an optotype (ETDRS chart) acuity test (VA) and (2) contrast detection of Gabor patches with lateral flankers (lateral masking) along the horizontal and vertical axes as well as in collinear and parallel configurations. By correlating the different measures of visual acuity and contrast suppression, we found that (1) the VA of the strabismic subjects could be decomposed into two uncorrelated components measured in TeVA: acuity for isolated patterns and acuity reduction due to flanking patterns. The latter comprised over 60% of the VA magnitude, on the average and accounted for over 50% of its variance. In contrast, a slight reduction in acuity was found in the anisometropic subjects, and the acuity for a single pattern could account for 70% of the VA variance. (2) The lateral suppression (contrast threshold elevation) in a parallel configuration along the horizontal axis was correlated with the VA (R2=0.7), as well as with the crowding effect (TeVA elevation, R2=0.5) for the strabismic group. Some correlation with the VA was also found for the collinear configuration in the anisometropic group, but less suppression and no correlation were found for all the vertical configurations in all the groups. The results indicate the existence of a specific non-local component of the strabismic deficit, in addition to the local acuity deficit in all amblyopia types. This deficit might reflect long-range lateral inhibition, or alternatively, an inaccurate and scattered top-down attentional selection mechanism.
Penna, Pedro A. A.; Mascarenhas, Nelson D. A.
2018-02-01
The development of new methods to denoise images still attract researchers, who seek to combat the noise with the minimal loss of resolution and details, like edges and fine structures. Many algorithms have the goal to remove additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). However, it is not the only type of noise which interferes in the analysis and interpretation of images. Therefore, it is extremely important to expand the filters capacity to different noise models present in li-terature, for example the multiplicative noise called speckle that is present in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The state-of-the-art algorithms in remote sensing area work with similarity between patches. This paper aims to develop two approaches using the non local means (NLM), developed for AWGN. In our research, we expanded its capacity for intensity SAR ima-ges speckle. The first approach is grounded on the use of stochastic distances based on the G0 distribution without transforming the data to the logarithm domain, like homomorphic transformation. It takes into account the speckle and backscatter to estimate the parameters necessary to compute the stochastic distances on NLM. The second method uses a priori NLM denoising with a homomorphic transformation and applies the inverse Gamma distribution to estimate the parameters that were used into NLM with stochastic distances. The latter method also presents a new alternative to compute the parameters for the G0 distribution. Finally, this work compares and analyzes the synthetic and real results of the proposed methods with some recent filters of the literature.
Ambrosetti, Alberto; Silvestrelli, Pier Luigi
2018-04-01
Dispersion forces play a major role in graphene, largely influencing adhesion of adsorbate moieties and stabilization of functional multilayered structures. However, the reliable prediction of dispersion interactions on graphene up to the relevant ˜10 nm scale is an extremely challenging task: in fact, electromagnetic retardation effects and the highly non-local character of π electrons can imply sizeable qualitative variations of the interaction with respect to known pairwise approaches. Here we address both issues, determining the finite-temperature van der Waals (vdW)-Casimir interaction for point-like and extended adsorbates on graphene, explicitly accounting for the non-local dielectric permittivity. We find that temperature, retardation, and non-locality play a crucial role in determining the actual vdW scaling laws and the stability of both atomic and larger molecular adsorbates. Our results highlight the importance of these effects for a proper description of systems of current high interest, such as graphene interacting with biomolecules, and self-assembly of complex nanoscale structures. Due to the generality of our approach and the observed non-locality of other 2D materials, our results suggest non-trivial vdW interactions from hexagonal mono-layered materials from group 14 of the periodic table, to transition metal dichalcogenides.
Non-local model analysis of heat pulse propagation and simulation of experiments in W7-AS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwasaki, Takuya; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Kimitaka; Stroth, U.
1999-01-01
A new model equation which includes the non-local effect in the hear flux is introduced to study the transient transport phenomena. A non-local heat flux, which is expressed in terms of the integral equation, is superimposed on the conventional form of the heat flux. This model is applied to describe the experimental results from the power switching [U. Stroth et al.: Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 38 (1996) 1087] and the power modulation experiments [L. Giannone et al.: Nucl. Fusion 32 (1992) 1985] in the W7-AS stellarator. A small fraction of non-local component in the heat flux is found to be very effective in modifying the response against an external modulation. The transient feature of the transport property, which are observed in the response of heat pulse propagation, are qualitatively reproduced by the transport simulations based on this model. A possibility is discussed to estimate the correlation length of the non-local effect experimentally by use of the results of transport simulations. (author)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kiguradze, I.; Šremr, Jiří
2011-01-01
Roč. 74, č. 17 (2011), s. 6537-6552 ISSN 0362-546X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : half-linear differential system * non-local boundary value problem * solvability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.536, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X11004573
de Groot, Carola; Daalhuizen, Femke B. C.; van Dam, Frank; Mulder, Clara H.
2012-01-01
One of the most pressing questions in the rural gentrification literature is whether rural residents face difficulties in finding a home within their locality due to the influx of more wealthy newcomers. In this paper, we investigate the extent to which intended local movers and intended non-local movers have realised their rural residential…
Spasova, Z.
2010-09-01
Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions
Universal mesoscopic conductance fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evangelou, S.N.
1992-01-01
The theory of conductance fluctuations in disordered metallic systems with size large compared to the mean free path of the electron but small compared to localization length is considered. It is demonstrates that fluctuations have an universal character and are due to repulsion between levels and spectral rigidity. The basic fluctuation measures for the energy spectrum in the mesoscopic regime of disordered systems are consistent with the Gaussian random matrix ensemble predictions. Although our disordered electron random matrix ensemble does not belong to the Gaussian ensemble the two ensembles turn out to be essentially similar. The level repulsion and the spectral rigidity found in nuclear spectra should also be observed in the metallic regime of Anderson localization. 7 refs. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.M. Loktev
2008-09-01
Full Text Available We analyze the spectral properties of a phenomenological model for a weakly doped two-dimensional antiferromagnet, in which the carriers move within one of the two sublattices where they were introduced. Such a constraint results in the free carrier spectra with the maxima at k=(± π/2 , ± π/2 observed in some cuprates. We consider the spectral properties of the model by taking into account fluctuations of the spins in the antiferromagnetic background. We show that such fluctuations lead to a non-pole-like structure of the single-hole Green's function and these fluctuations can be responsible for some anomalous "strange metal" properties of underdoped cuprates in the nonsuperconducting regime.
Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael
2007-01-01
Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…
Roman, Harry T.
2012-01-01
The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…
Maier, Launa; Huddleston, Lisa; Smith, Kristin
2016-01-01
This briefing outlines the history of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Weather organization, past research sponsored or performed, current organization, responsibilities, and activities, the evolution of weather support, future technologies, and an update on the status of the buoys located offshore of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and KSC.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Thomas Christian
2014-01-01
The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore...
Hazeleger, W.; Van den Hurk, B.J.J.M.; Min, E.; Van Oldenborgh, G.J.; Petersen, A.C.; Stainforth, D.A.; Vasileiadou, E.; Smith, L.A.
2015-01-01
Society is vulnerable to extreme weather events and, by extension, to human impacts on future events. As climate changes weather patterns will change. The search is on for more effective methodologies to aid decision-makers both in mitigation to avoid climate change and in adaptation to changes. The
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao, Xiaobin
2011-01-15
The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T{sub c} in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao, Xiaobin
2011-01-01
The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T c in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the quasi
Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone
Winkler, Erhard M.
1987-06-01
Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.
Fair weather atmospheric electricity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harrison, R G
2011-01-01
Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in 'fair weather' regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.
A NON-LOCAL THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS OF BORON ABUNDANCES IN METAL-POOR STARS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan Kefeng; Shi Jianrong; Zhao Gang
2010-01-01
The non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation of neutral boron in the atmospheres of cool stars are investigated. Our results confirm that NLTE effects for the B I resonance lines, which are due to a combination of overionization and optical pumping effects, are most important for hot, metal-poor, and low-gravity stars; however, the amplitude of departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) found by this work is smaller than that of previous studies. In addition, our calculation shows that the line formation of B I will get closer to LTE if the strength of collisions with neutral hydrogen increases, which is contrary to the result of previous studies. The NLTE line formation results are applied to the determination of boron abundances for a sample of 16 metal-poor stars with the method of spectrum synthesis of the B I 2497 A resonance lines using the archived HST/GHRS spectra. Beryllium and oxygen abundances are also determined for these stars with the published equivalent widths of the Be II 3131 A resonance and O I 7774 A triplet lines, respectively. The abundances of the nine stars which are not depleted in Be or B show that, no matter what the strength of collisions with neutral hydrogen may be, both Be and B increase with O quasilinearly in the logarithmic plane, which confirms the conclusions that Be and B are mainly produced by the primary process in the early Galaxy. The most noteworthy result of this work is that B increases with Fe or O at a very similar speed as, or a bit faster than, Be does, which is in accord with the theoretical models. The B/Be ratios remain almost constant over the metallicity range investigated here. Our average B/Be ratio falls in the interval [13 ± 4, 17 ± 4], which is consistent with the predictions of the spallation process. The contribution of B from the ν-process may be required if the 11 B/ 10 B isotopic ratios in metal-poor stars are the same as the meteoric value. An accurate measurement of the
Non-localization and localization ROC analyses using clinically based scoring
Paquerault, Sophie; Samuelson, Frank W.; Myers, Kyle J.; Smith, Robert C.
2009-02-01
. The results on the variance analysis differed from those observed in the other study setting. This investigation furthers our understanding of the relationships between non-localization-specific and localization-specific ROC assessment methodologies and their relevance to clinical practice.
New insights on emergence from the perspective of weak values and dynamical non-locality
Tollaksen, Jeff
2014-04-01
In this article, we will examine new fundamental aspects of "emergence" and "information" using novel approaches to quantum mechanics which originated from the group around Aharonov. The two-state vector formalism provides a complete description of pre- and post-selected quantum systems and has uncovered a host of new quantum phenomena which were previously hidden. The most important feature is that any weak coupling to a pre- and post-selected system is effectively a coupling to a "weak value" which is given by a simple expression depending on the two-state vector. In particular, weak values, are the outcomes of so called "weak measurements" which have recently become a very powerful tool for ultra-sensitive measurements. Using weak values, we will show how to separate a particle from its properties, not unlike the Cheshire cat story: "Well! I've often seen a cat without a grin," thought Alice; "but a grin without a cat! It's the most curious thing I ever saw in all my life!" Next, we address the question whether the physics on different scales "emerges" from quantum mechanics or whether the laws of physics at those scales are fundamental. We show that the classical limit of quantum mechanics is a far more complicated issue; it is in fact dramatically more involved and it requires a complete revision of all our intuitions. The revised intuitions can then serve as a guide to finding novel quantum effects. Next we show that novel experimental aspects of contextuality can be demonstrated with weak measurements and these suggest new restrictions on hidden variable approaches. Next we emphasize that the most important implication of the Aharonov-Bohm effect is the existence of non-local interactions which do not violate causality. Finally, we review some generalizations of quantum mechanics and their implications for "emergence" and "information." First, we review an alternative approach to quantum evolution in which each moment of time is viewed as a new "universe
Measurements and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium modeling of mid-Z plasma emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacquet, L.; Primout, M.; Kaiser, P.; Clouët, J. F.; Girard, F.; Villette, B.; Reverdin, C.; Oudot, G.
2015-01-01
The x-ray yields from laser-irradiated thin foils of iron, copper, zinc, and germanium have been measured in the soft and multi-keV x-ray ranges at the OMEGA laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The incident laser power had a pre-pulse to enhance the x-ray emission of a 1 ns flat-top main pulse. The experimental results have been compared with post-shot simulations performed with the two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code FCI2. A new non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model, NOO-RAD, have been incorporated into FCI2. In this approach, the plasma ionization state is in-line calculated by the atomic physics NOHEL package. In the soft x-ray bands, both simulations using RADIOM [M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B 5, 4191 (1993)] and NOO-RAD clearly over-predict the powers and energies measured by a broad-band spectrometer. In one case (the iron foil), the discrepancy between the measured and simulated x-ray output is nevertheless significantly reduced when NOO-RAD is used in the simulations. In the multi-keV x-ray bands, the simulations display a strong sensitivity to the coupling between the electron thermal conductivity and the NLTE models, and for some particular combinations of these, provide a close match to the measured emission. The comparison between the measured and simulated H-like to He-like line-intensity ratios deduced from high-resolution spectra indicates higher experimental electron temperatures were achieved, compared to the simulated ones. Measurements of the plasma conditions have been achieved using the Thomson-scattering diagnostic. The electron temperatures are found to range from 3 to 5 keV at the end of the laser pulse and are greater than predicted by the simulations. The measured flow velocities are in reasonable agreement with the calculated ones. This last finding gives us confidence in our numerical predictions for the plasma parameters, which are over that time mainly determined by hydrodynamics, such as the mass densities and
Measurements and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium modeling of mid-Z plasma emission
Jacquet, L.; Primout, M.; Kaiser, P.; Clouët, J. F.; Girard, F.; Villette, B.; Reverdin, C.; Oudot, G.
2015-12-01
The x-ray yields from laser-irradiated thin foils of iron, copper, zinc, and germanium have been measured in the soft and multi-keV x-ray ranges at the OMEGA laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The incident laser power had a pre-pulse to enhance the x-ray emission of a 1 ns flat-top main pulse. The experimental results have been compared with post-shot simulations performed with the two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code FCI2. A new non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model, NOO-RAD, have been incorporated into FCI2. In this approach, the plasma ionization state is in-line calculated by the atomic physics NOHEL package. In the soft x-ray bands, both simulations using RADIOM [M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B 5, 4191 (1993)] and NOO-RAD clearly over-predict the powers and energies measured by a broad-band spectrometer. In one case (the iron foil), the discrepancy between the measured and simulated x-ray output is nevertheless significantly reduced when NOO-RAD is used in the simulations. In the multi-keV x-ray bands, the simulations display a strong sensitivity to the coupling between the electron thermal conductivity and the NLTE models, and for some particular combinations of these, provide a close match to the measured emission. The comparison between the measured and simulated H-like to He-like line-intensity ratios deduced from high-resolution spectra indicates higher experimental electron temperatures were achieved, compared to the simulated ones. Measurements of the plasma conditions have been achieved using the Thomson-scattering diagnostic. The electron temperatures are found to range from 3 to 5 keV at the end of the laser pulse and are greater than predicted by the simulations. The measured flow velocities are in reasonable agreement with the calculated ones. This last finding gives us confidence in our numerical predictions for the plasma parameters, which are over that time mainly determined by hydrodynamics, such as the mass densities and the
Measurements and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium modeling of mid-Z plasma emission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jacquet, L., E-mail: laurent.jacquet@cea.fr; Primout, M.; Kaiser, P.; Clouët, J. F.; Girard, F.; Villette, B.; Reverdin, C.; Oudot, G. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)
2015-12-15
The x-ray yields from laser-irradiated thin foils of iron, copper, zinc, and germanium have been measured in the soft and multi-keV x-ray ranges at the OMEGA laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The incident laser power had a pre-pulse to enhance the x-ray emission of a 1 ns flat-top main pulse. The experimental results have been compared with post-shot simulations performed with the two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code FCI2. A new non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model, NOO-RAD, have been incorporated into FCI2. In this approach, the plasma ionization state is in-line calculated by the atomic physics NOHEL package. In the soft x-ray bands, both simulations using RADIOM [M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B 5, 4191 (1993)] and NOO-RAD clearly over-predict the powers and energies measured by a broad-band spectrometer. In one case (the iron foil), the discrepancy between the measured and simulated x-ray output is nevertheless significantly reduced when NOO-RAD is used in the simulations. In the multi-keV x-ray bands, the simulations display a strong sensitivity to the coupling between the electron thermal conductivity and the NLTE models, and for some particular combinations of these, provide a close match to the measured emission. The comparison between the measured and simulated H-like to He-like line-intensity ratios deduced from high-resolution spectra indicates higher experimental electron temperatures were achieved, compared to the simulated ones. Measurements of the plasma conditions have been achieved using the Thomson-scattering diagnostic. The electron temperatures are found to range from 3 to 5 keV at the end of the laser pulse and are greater than predicted by the simulations. The measured flow velocities are in reasonable agreement with the calculated ones. This last finding gives us confidence in our numerical predictions for the plasma parameters, which are over that time mainly determined by hydrodynamics, such as the mass densities and
New insights on emergence from the perspective of weak values and dynamical non-locality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tollaksen, Jeff
2014-01-01
In this article, we will examine new fundamental aspects of 'emergence' and 'information' using novel approaches to quantum mechanics which originated from the group around Aharonov. The two-state vector formalism provides a complete description of pre- and post-selected quantum systems and has uncovered a host of new quantum phenomena which were previously hidden. The most important feature is that any weak coupling to a pre- and post-selected system is effectively a coupling to a 'weak value' which is given by a simple expression depending on the two-state vector. In particular, weak values, are the outcomes of so called 'weak measurements' which have recently become a very powerful tool for ultra-sensitive measurements. Using weak values, we will show how to separate a particle from its properties, not unlike the Cheshire cat story: 'Well! I've often seen a cat without a grin', thought Alice; 'but a grin without a cat! It's the most curious thing I ever saw in all my life!' Next, we address the question whether the physics on different scales 'emerges' from quantum mechanics or whether the laws of physics at those scales are fundamental. We show that the classical limit of quantum mechanics is a far more complicated issue; it is in fact dramatically more involved and it requires a complete revision of all our intuitions. The revised intuitions can then serve as a guide to finding novel quantum effects. Next we show that novel experimental aspects of contextuality can be demonstrated with weak measurements and these suggest new restrictions on hidden variable approaches. Next we emphasize that the most important implication of the Aharonov-Bohm effect is the existence of non-local interactions which do not violate causality. Finally, we review some generalizations of quantum mechanics and their implications for 'emergence' and 'information'. First, we review an
Robust non-local effects of ocean heat uptake on radiative feedback and subtropical cloud cover
Rose, B. E. J.
2016-02-01
moisture. Our results suggest that cloud feedback under transient climate change is partly modulated by ocean heat uptake through robust but non-local atmospheric processes, and has implications on a timescales ranging from inter-annual to multi-centennial.
Rödel, H.; Dekker, J.J.A.
2012-01-01
Weather conditions can have a significant influence on short-term fluctuations of animal populations. In our study, which is based on time series of hunting bag records of up to 28 years from 26 counties of The Netherlands and Germany, we investigated the impact of different weather variables on
Utilization of Live Localized Weather Information for Sustainable Agriculture
Anderson, J.; Usher, J.
2010-09-01
Authors: Jim Anderson VP, Global Network and Business Development WeatherBug® Professional Jeremy Usher Managing Director, Europe WeatherBug® Professional Localized, real-time weather information is vital for day-to-day agronomic management of all crops. The challenge for agriculture is twofold in that local and timely weather data is not often available for producers and farmers, and it is not integrated into decision-support tools they require. Many of the traditional sources of weather information are not sufficient for agricultural applications because of the long distances between weather stations, meaning the data is not always applicable for on-farm decision making processes. The second constraint with traditional weather information is the timeliness of the data. Most delivery systems are designed on a one-hour time step, whereas many decisions in agriculture are based on minute-by-minute weather conditions. This is especially true for decisions surrounding chemical and fertilizer application and frost events. This presentation will outline how the creation of an agricultural mesonet (weather network) can enable producers and farmers with live, local weather information from weather stations installed in farm/field locations. The live weather information collected from each weather station is integrated into a web-enabled decision support tool, supporting numerous on-farm agronomic activities such as pest management, or dealing with heavy rainfall and frost events. Agronomic models can be used to assess the potential of disease pressure, enhance the farmer's abilities to time pesticide applications, or assess conditions contributing to yield and quality fluctuations. Farmers and industry stakeholders may also view quality-assured historical weather variables at any location. This serves as a record-management tool for viewing previously uncharted agronomic weather events in graph or table form. This set of weather tools is unique and provides a
Fluctuating Asymmetry and Intelligence
Bates, Timothy C.
2007-01-01
The general factor of mental ability ("g") may reflect general biological fitness. If so, "g"-loaded measures such as Raven's progressive matrices should be related to morphological measures of fitness such as fluctuating asymmetry (FA: left-right asymmetry of a set of typically left-right symmetrical body traits such as finger…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herman, J.R.; Goldberg, R.A.
1985-01-01
The general field of sun-weather/climate relationships that is, apparent weather and climate responses to solar activity is introduced and theoretical and experimental suggestions for further research to identify and investigate the unknown casual mechanisms are provided. Topics of discussion include: (1) solar-related correlation factors and energy sources; (2) long-term climate trends; (3) short-term meteorological correlations; (4) miscellaneous obscuring influences; (5) physical processes and mechanisms; (6) recapitulation of sun-weather relationships; and (7) guidelines for experiments. 300 references
Power fluctuation reduction methodology for the grid-connected renewable power systems
Aula, Fadhil T.; Lee, Samuel C.
2013-04-01
This paper presents a new methodology for eliminating the influence of the power fluctuations of the renewable power systems. The renewable energy, which is to be considered an uncertain and uncontrollable resource, can only provide irregular electrical power to the power grid. This irregularity creates fluctuations of the generated power from the renewable power systems. These fluctuations cause instability to the power system and influence the operation of conventional power plants. Overall, the power system is vulnerable to collapse if necessary actions are not taken to reduce the impact of these fluctuations. This methodology aims at reducing these fluctuations and makes the generated power capability for covering the power consumption. This requires a prediction tool for estimating the generated power in advance to provide the range and the time of occurrence of the fluctuations. Since most of the renewable energies are weather based, as a result a weather forecast technique will be used for predicting the generated power. The reduction of the fluctuation also requires stabilizing facilities to maintain the output power at a desired level. In this study, a wind farm and a photovoltaic array as renewable power systems and a pumped-storage and batteries as stabilizing facilities are used, since they are best suitable for compensating the fluctuations of these types of power suppliers. As an illustrative example, a model of wind and photovoltaic power systems with battery energy and pumped hydro storage facilities for power fluctuation reduction is included, and its power fluctuation reduction is verified through simulation.
One-loop effective action for non-local modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity in de Sitter space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cognola, Guido; Zerbini, Sergio [Universita di Trento (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trento (Italy); Elizalde, Emilio [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICE/CSIC) and Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Facultat Ciencies, Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Nojiri, Shin' ichi [Nagoya University, Department of Physics, Nagoya (Japan); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICE/CSIC) and Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Facultat Ciencies, Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); TSPU, Center of Theor. Phys., Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2009-12-15
We discuss the classical and quantum properties of non-local modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity in de Sitter space, using its equivalent representation via string-inspired local scalar-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with a scalar potential. A classical, multiple de Sitter universe solution is found where one of the de Sitter phases corresponds to the primordial inflationary epoch, while the other de Sitter space solution - the one with the smallest Hubble rate - describes the late-time acceleration of our universe. A Chameleon scenario for the theory under investigation is developed, and it is successfully used to show that the theory complies with gravitational tests. An explicit expression for the one-loop effective action for this non-local modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity in the de Sitter space is obtained. It is argued that this effective action might be an important step towards the solution of the cosmological constant problem. (orig.)
Wei, Huazhou; Fu, Shiwei
We report our work on the spin transport properties in the F/N/F(ferromagnets/normal metal/ferromagnets) spintronic structure from a new theoretical perspective. A significant problem in the field is to explain the inferior measured order of magnitude for spin lifetime. Based on the known non-local resistance formula and the mechanism analysis of spin-flipping within the interfaces between F and N, we analytically derive a broadly applicable new non-local resistance expression and a generalized Hanle curve formula. After employing them in the F/N/F structure under different limits, especially in the case of graphene channel, we find that the fitting from experimental data would yield a longer spin lifetime, which approaches its theoretical predicted value in graphene. The authors acknowledge the financial support by China University of Petroleum-Beijing and the Key Laboratory of Optical Detection Technology for Oil and Gas in this institution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osses de Eicker, Margarita; Hischier, Roland; Hurni, Hans; Zah, Rainer
2010-01-01
Nine non-local databases were evaluated with respect to their suitability for the environmental assessment of industrial activities in Latin America. Three assessment methods were considered, namely Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and air emission inventories. The analysis focused on data availability in the databases and the applicability of their international data to Latin American industry. The study showed that the European EMEP/EEA Guidebook and the U.S. EPA AP-42 database are the most suitable ones for air emission inventories, whereas the LCI database Ecoinvent is the most suitable one for LCA and EIA. Due to the data coverage in the databases, air emission inventories are easier to develop than LCA or EIA, which require more comprehensive information. One strategy to overcome the limitations of non-local databases for Latin American industry is the combination of validated data from international databases with newly developed local datasets.
Bonitati, Joey; Slimmer, Ben; Li, Weichuan; Potel, Gregory; Nunes, Filomena
2017-09-01
The calculable form of the R-matrix method has been previously shown to be a useful tool in approximately solving the Schrodinger equation in nuclear scattering problems. We use this technique combined with the Gauss quadrature for the Lagrange-mesh method to efficiently solve for the wave functions of projectile nuclei in low energy collisions (1-100 MeV) involving an arbitrary number of channels. We include the local Woods-Saxon potential, the non-local potential of Perey and Buck, a Coulomb potential, and a coupling potential to computationally solve for the wave function of two nuclei at short distances. Object oriented programming is used to increase modularity, and parallel programming techniques are introduced to reduce computation time. We conclude that the R-matrix method is an effective method to predict the wave functions of nuclei in scattering problems involving both multiple channels and non-local potentials. Michigan State University iCER ACRES REU.
Uruguay - Surface Weather Observations
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface weather observation forms for 26 stations in Uruguay. Period of record 1896-2005, with two to eight observations per day. Files created through a...
Weather Information Processing
1991-01-01
Science Communications International (SCI), formerly General Science Corporation, has developed several commercial products based upon experience acquired as a NASA Contractor. Among them are METPRO, a meteorological data acquisition and processing system, which has been widely used, RISKPRO, an environmental assessment system, and MAPPRO, a geographic information system. METPRO software is used to collect weather data from satellites, ground-based observation systems and radio weather broadcasts to generate weather maps, enabling potential disaster areas to receive advance warning. GSC's initial work for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center resulted in METPAK, a weather satellite data analysis system. METPAK led to the commercial METPRO system. The company also provides data to other government agencies, U.S. embassies and foreign countries.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.
1994-01-01
The weathering of glass is reviewed by examining processes that affect the reaction of commercial, historical, natural, and nuclear waste glass under conditions of contact with humid air and slowly dripping water, which may lead to immersion in nearly static solution. Radionuclide release data from weathered glass under conditions that may exist in an unsaturated environment are presented and compared to release under standard leaching conditions. While the comparison between the release under weathering and leaching conditions is not exact, due to variability of reaction in humid air, evidence is presented of radionuclide release under a variety of conditions. These results suggest that both the amount and form of radionuclide release can be affected by the weathering of glass
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from original weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida. Elements recorded are wind speed and direction,...
Winter weather demand considerations.
2015-04-01
Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...
del tiempo incluido. Si eres quieres ser avisado de las advertencias y relojes de dÃa o de noche, un Weather Radio relojes son independientes o basadas en el Condado (parroquia basados en Luisiana), aunque
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of space weather datasets from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and from the World Data Service for Geophysics,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....
... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...
Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety
... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...
... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...
... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...
Surface Weather Observations Monthly
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms is a set of historical manuscript records for the period 1893-1948. The collection includes two very similar form types: Form...
Ghaffari, I.; Parhizkar Yaghoobi, M.; Ghannad, M.
2018-01-01
The purpose of this study is to offer a complete solution to analyze the mechanical behavior (bending, buckling and vibration) of Nano-beam under non-uniform loading. Furthermore, the effects of size (nonlocal parameters), non-homogeneity constants, and different boundary conditions are investigated by using this method. The exact solution presented here reduces costs incurred by experiments. In this research, the displacement field obeys the kinematics of the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and non-local elasticity theory has been used. The governing equations and general boundary conditions are derived for a beam by using energy method. The presented solution enables us to analyze any kind of loading profile and boundary conditions with no limitations. Furthermore, this solution, unlike previous studies, is not a series-solution; hence, there is no limitation prior to existing with the series-solution, nor does it need to check convergence. Based on the developed analytical solution, the influence of size, non-homogeneity and non-uniform loads on bending, buckling and vibration behaviors is discussed. Also, the obtained result is highly accurate and in good agreement with previous research. In theoretical method, the allowable range for non-local parameters can be determined so as to make a major contribution to the reduction of the cost of experiments determining the value of non-local parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desmorat, R.; Chambart, M.; Gatuingt, F.; Guilbaud, D.
2010-01-01
Anisotropic damage thermodynamics framework allows to model the concrete-like materials behavior and in particular their dissymmetric tension/compression response. To deal with dynamics applications such as impact, it is furthermore necessary to take into account the strain rate effect observed experimentally. This is done in the present work by means of anisotropic visco-damage, by introducing a material strain rate effect in the cases of positive hydrostatic stresses only. The proposed delay-damage law assumes no viscous effect in compression as the consideration of inertia effects proves sufficient to model the apparent material strength increase. High-rate dynamics applications imply to deal with wave propagation and reflection which can generate alternated loading in the impacted structure. In order to do so, the key concept of active damage is defined and introduced within both the damage criterion and the delay-damage evolution law. At the structural level, strain localization often leads to spurious mesh dependency. Three-dimensional Finite Element computations of dynamic tensile tests by spalling are presented, with visco-damage and either without or with non-local enhancement. Delay-damage, as introduced, regularizes the solution in fast dynamics. The location of the macro-crack initiated is found influenced by non-local regularization. The strain rate range in which each enhancement, delay-damage or non-local enhancement, has a regularizing effect is studied. (authors)
Fluctuations in quantum devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.Haken
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Logical gates can be formalized by Boolean algebra whose elementary operations can be realized by devices that employ the interactions of macroscopic numbers of elementary excitations such as electrons, holes, photons etc. With increasing miniaturization to the nano scale and below, quantum fluctuations become important and can no longer be ignored. Based on Heisenberg equations of motion for the creation and annihilation operators of elementary excitations, I determine the noise sources of composite quantum systems.
Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation
Guazzelli, É lisabeth; Hinch, John
2011-01-01
This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations
Fluctuations in Schottky barrier heights
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahan, G.D.
1984-01-01
A double Schottky barrier is often formed at the grain boundary in polycrystalline semiconductors. The barrier height is shown to fluctuate in value due to the random nature of the impurity positions. The magnitude of the fluctuations is 0.1 eV, and the fluctuations cause the barrier height measured by capacitance to differ from the one measured by electrical conductivity
Casebook on application for weather
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2009-11-01
This book introduces the excellent cases on application using weather at the industry, research center and public office. It lists the names and application cases in 2008 and 2009, which includes research on decease in risk by weather in the industry by Sam sung institute of safety and environment, service on weather information for people by KT, application with weather information in the flight by Korean air, use on weather information for prevention of disasters by Masan city hall, upgrade for business with weather marketing, center for river forecast in NOAA and the case using weather management for high profit margins.
Strain fluctuations and elastic constants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.
1982-03-01
It is shown that the elastic strain fluctuations are a direct measure of elastic compliances in a general anisotropic medium; depending on the ensemble in which the fluctuation is measured either the isothermal or the adiabatic compliances are obtained. These fluctuations can now be calculated in a constant enthalpy and pressure, and hence, constant entropy, ensemble due to recent develpments in the molecular dynamics techniques. A calculation for a Ni single crystal under uniform uniaxial 100 tensile or compressive load is presented as an illustration of the relationships derived between various strain fluctuations and the elastic modulii. The Born stability criteria and the behavior of strain fluctuations are shown to be related.
Gambling with Superconducting Fluctuations
Foltyn, Marek; Zgirski, Maciej
2015-08-01
Josephson junctions and superconducting nanowires, when biased close to superconducting critical current, can switch to a nonzero voltage state by thermal or quantum fluctuations. The process is understood as an escape of a Brownian particle from a metastable state. Since this effect is fully stochastic, we propose to use it for generating random numbers. We present protocol for obtaining random numbers and test the experimentally harvested data for their fidelity. Our work is prerequisite for using the Josephson junction as a tool for stochastic (probabilistic) determination of physical parameters such as magnetic flux, temperature, and current.
Fluctuations in the hadronization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bozek, P.; Ploszajaczak, M.
1992-01-01
The multiscaling in the fluctuations of the multiparticle distributions at small scales is studied. Similarly to the multiscaling effect, recently found in multifractal models, the dependence of the intermittency patterns on the low density cut-off in the cascade is analyzed. The effect changes the scaling behaviour and leads to stronger dependence of the scaled factorial moments on the resolution than the power law. This could be an explanation of the behaviour observed recently in the experimental 3-dimensional data. The multiscaling analysis allows to restore the universality in the processes with different cut-offs and could be used in the analysis of the experimental data. (author) 17 refs., 5 figs
Weather derivatives: Business hedge instrument from weather risks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Đorđević Bojan S.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the late 1990s, a new financial market was developed - a market for weather derivatives, so that the risk managers could hedge their exposure to weather risk. After a rather slow start, the weather derivatives market had started to grow rapidly. Risk managers could no longer blame poor financial results on the weather. Weather risk could now be removed by hedging procedure. This paper will explain briefly what the weather derivatives are and will point out at some of the motives for use of derivatives. Thereafter we will look at the history of the weather risk market, how the weather derivatives market has developed in recent years and also who are the current and potential players in the weather derivatives market.
A Non-local Model for Transient Moisture Flow in Unsaturated Soils Based on the Peridynamic Theory
Jabakhanji, R.; Mohtar, R. H.
2012-12-01
A non-local, gradient free, formulation of the porous media flow problem in unsaturated soils was derived. It parallels the peridynamic theory, a non-local reformulation of solid mechanics presented by Silling. In the proposed model, the evolution of the state of a material point is driven by pairwise interactions with other points across finite distances. Flow and changes in moisture are the result of these interactions. Instead of featuring local gradients, the proposed model expresses the flow as a functional integral of the hydraulic potential field. The absence of spatial gradients, undefined at or on discontinuities, makes the model a good candidate for flow simulations in fractured soils. It also lends itself to coupling with peridynamic mechanical models for simulating crack formation triggered by shrinkage and swelling, and assessing their potential impact on a wide range of processes, such as infiltration, contaminant transport, slope stability and integrity of clay barriers. A description of the concept and an outline of the derivation and numerical implementation are presented. Simulation results of infiltration and drainage for 1D, single and two-layers soil columns, for three different soil types are also presented. The same simulations are repeated using HYDRUS-1D, a computer model using the classic local flow equation. We show that the proposed non-local formulation successfully reproduces the results from HYDRUS-1D. S.A. Silling, "Reformulation of Elasticity Theory for Discontinuities and Long-range Forces," Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 48, no. 1 (January 2000): 175-209. J. Simunek, M. Sejna, and M.T. Van Genuchten, "The HYDRUS-1D Software Package for Simulating the One-dimensional Movement of Water, Heat, and Multiple Solutes in Variably-saturated Media," University of California, Riverside, Research Reports 240 (2005).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王良华
2007-01-01
There are four seasons in a year. When spring comes, the weather is mild(温和的). Summer comes after spring. Summer is the hottest season of the year. Autumn follows summer. It is the best season of the year. Winter is the coldest season of the year. Some islands(岛) have their own particular(特别的) seasons because their weather is very much affected(影响) by the oceans(海洋) around them. In Britain, winter is not very cold and summer is not very hot.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aharonov, Y.; Scully, M.
2001-01-01
The folklore notion of the ''Non-Locality of Quantum Mechanics'' is examined from the point of view of hidden-variables theories according to Belinfante's classification in his Survey of Hidden Variables Theories. It is here shown that in the case of EPR, there exist hidden variables theories that successfully reproduce quantum-mechanical predictions, but which are explicitly local. Since such theories do not fall into Belinfante's classification, we propose an expanded classification which includes similar theories, which we term as theories of the ''third'' kind. Causal implications of such theories are explored. (orig.)
On the structure on non-local conservation laws in the two-dimensional non-linear sigma-model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zamolodchikov, Al.B.
1978-01-01
The non-local conserved charges are supposed to satisfy a special multiplicative law in the space of asymptotic states of the non-linear sigma-model. This supposition leads to factorization equations for two-particle scattering matrix elements and determines to some extent the action of these charges in the asymptotic space. Their conservation turns out to be consistent with the factorized S-matrix of the non-linear sigma-model. It is shown also that the factorized sine-Gordon S-matrix is consistent with a similar family of conservation laws
Do EPR-Bell correlations require a non-local interpretation of quantum mechanics? I: Wigner approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scully, Marlan O.; Erez, Noam; Fry, Edward S.
2005-01-01
Bell inequality experiments teach us that, to explain the data, a hidden variable theory must be non-local. But, to also apply this conclusion to quantum mechanics is unjustified. The key assumptions required to obtain a Bell inequality are (1) locality and (2) the assignment of meaningful (non-negative) probabilities to seemingly physical correlations (Bell expresses these correlations via 'hidden variables'). Since the Bell inequality is violated by experiment, at least one of these assumptions is wrong. The widespread conclusion that locality must be relinquished is unwarranted; rather, the previously mentioned correlations are not physical observables-they are not elements of physical reality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohamed, B.F.; El-Shorbagy, Kh.H.
2000-01-01
A general detailed analysis for the nonlinear generation of localized fields due to the existence of a strong pump field inside the non-uniform plasma has been considered. We have taken into account the effects of relativistic and non-local nonlinearities on the structure of plasma resonance region. The nonlinear Schrodinger equation described the localized fields are investigated. Besides, the generalized dispersion relation is obtained to study the modulational instabilities in different cases. Keywords: Wave-plasma interaction, Nonlinear effects, Modulation instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Yun; Zheng Zhi-Gang; Yang Jun-Zhong
2013-01-01
Dynamics of a one-dimensional array of non-locally coupled Kuramoto phase oscillators with an external potential is studied. A four-cluster chimera state is observed for the moderate strength of the external potential. Different from the clustered chimera states studied before, the instantaneous frequencies of the oscillators in a synchronized cluster are different in the presence of the external potential. As the strength of the external potential increases, a bifurcation from the two-cluster chimera state to the four-cluster chimera states can be found. These phenomena are well predicted analytically with the help of the Ott—Antonsen ansatz. (general)
The imaginary part of the local potential equivalent to the non-local α-nucleus optical potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lassaut, M.; Vinh Mau, N.
1982-01-01
A simple expression of the α-nucleus optical potential has been derived from the Feshbach formula by using a closure approximation for summing over the excited states of the target nucleus. It has been shown that the correction to the real folding model potential is small. The imaginary local potential equivalent to the non-local Feshbach potential has been studied in detail for Ca nuclei and shown to reproduce quite well the gross properties of empirical potentials above 100 MeV with, however, a lack of absorption in the surface region. The A-dependence of the imaginary potential volume integral has also been investigated. (orig.)
Scaling in nature: From DNA through heartbeats to weather
Havlin, S.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Bunde, A.; Goldberger, A. L.; Ivanov, P. Ch.; Peng, C.-K.; Stanley, H. E.
1999-12-01
The purpose of this talk is to describe some recent progress in applying scaling concepts to various systems in nature. We review several systems characterized by scaling laws such as DNA sequences, heartbeat rates and weather variations. We discuss the finding that the exponent α quantifying the scaling in DNA in smaller for coding than for noncoding sequences. We also discuss the application of fractal scaling analysis to the dynamics of heartbeat regulation, and report the recent finding that the scaling exponent α is smaller during sleep periods compared to wake periods. We also discuss the recent findings that suggest a universal scaling exponent characterizing the weather fluctuations.
WIRE: Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies
Heimo, A.; Cattin, R.; Calpini, B.
2010-09-01
Renewable energies such as wind and solar energy will play an important, even decisive role in order to mitigate and adapt to the projected dramatic consequences to our society and environment due to climate change. Due to shrinking fossil resources, the transition to more and more renewable energy shares is unavoidable. But, as wind and solar energy are strongly dependent on highly variable weather processes, increased penetration rates will also lead to strong fluctuations in the electricity grid which need to be balanced. Proper and specific forecasting of ‘energy weather' is a key component for this. Therefore, it is today appropriate to scientifically address the requirements to provide the best possible specific weather information for forecasting the energy production of wind and solar power plants within the next minutes up to several days. Towards such aims, Weather Intelligence will first include developing dedicated post-processing algorithms coupled with weather prediction models and with past and/or online measurement data especially remote sensing observations. Second, it will contribute to investigate the difficult relationship between the highly intermittent weather dependent power production and concurrent capacities such as transport and distribution of this energy to the end users. Selecting, resp. developing surface-based and satellite remote sensing techniques well adapted to supply relevant information to the specific post-processing algorithms for solar and wind energy production short-term forecasts is a major task with big potential. It will lead to improved energy forecasts and help to increase the efficiency of the renewable energy productions while contributing to improve the management and presumably the design of the energy grids. The second goal will raise new challenges as this will require first from the energy producers and distributors definitions of the requested input data and new technologies dedicated to the management of
Glen, Nicole J.; Smetana, Lara K.
2010-01-01
"If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice…
As climate and weather become more variable, hop growers face increased uncertainty in making decisions about their crop. Given the unprecedented nature of these changes, growers may no longer have enough information and intuitive understanding to adequately assess the situation and evaluate their m...
Wiley, Scott
2007-01-01
This viewgraph document reviews some of the weather hazards involved with flight testing. Some of the hazards reviewed are: turbulence, icing, thunderstorms and winds and windshear. Maps, pictures, satellite pictures of the meteorological phenomena and graphs are included. Also included are pictures of damaged aircraft.
Fluctuation Relations for Currents
Sinitsyn, Nikolai; Akimov, Alexei; Chernyak, Vladimir; Chertkov, Michael
2011-03-01
We consider a non-equilibrium statistical system on a graph or a network. Identical particles are injected, interact with each other, traverse, and leave the graph in a stochastic manner described in terms of Poisson rates, possibly strongly dependent on time and instantaneous occupation numbers at the nodes of the graph. We show that the system demonstrates a profound statistical symmetry, leading to new Fluctuation Relations that originate from the supersymmetry and the principle of the geometric universality of currents rather than from the relations between probabilities of forward and reverse trajectories. NSF/ECCS-0925618, NSF/CHE-0808910 and DOE at LANL under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.
Weatherization Works: Weatherization Assistance Program Close-Up Fact Sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2001-01-01
The United States demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes
Matsubara, Yoshitsugu; Musashi, Yasuo
2017-12-01
The purpose of this study is to explain fluctuations in email size. We have previously investigated the long-term correlations between email send requests and data flow in the system log of the primary staff email server at a university campus, finding that email size frequency follows a power-law distribution with two inflection points, and that the power-law property weakens the correlation of the data flow. However, the mechanism underlying this fluctuation is not completely understood. We collected new log data from both staff and students over six academic years and analyzed the frequency distribution thereof, focusing on the type of content contained in the emails. Furthermore, we obtained permission to collect "Content-Type" log data from the email headers. We therefore collected the staff log data from May 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015, creating two subdistributions. In this paper, we propose a model to explain these subdistributions, which follow log-normal-like distributions. In the log-normal-like model, email senders -consciously or unconsciously- regulate the size of new email sentences according to a normal distribution. The fitting of the model is acceptable for these subdistributions, and the model demonstrates power-law properties for large email sizes. An analysis of the length of new email sentences would be required for further discussion of our model; however, to protect user privacy at the participating organization, we left this analysis for future work. This study provides new knowledge on the properties of email sizes, and our model is expected to contribute to the decision on whether to establish upper size limits in the design of email services.
On the dynamics of a non-local parabolic equation arising from the Gierer-Meinhardt system
Kavallaris, Nikos I.; Suzuki, Takashi
2017-05-01
The purpose of the current paper is to contribute to the comprehension of the dynamics of the shadow system of an activator-inhibitor system known as a Gierer-Meinhardt model. Shadow systems are intended to work as an intermediate step between single equations and reaction-diffusion systems. In the case where the inhibitor’s response to the activator’s growth is rather weak, then the shadow system of the Gierer-Meinhardt model is reduced to a single though non-local equation whose dynamics will be investigated. We mainly focus on the derivation of blow-up results for this non-local equation which can be seen as instability patterns of the shadow system. In particular, a diffusion driven instability (DDI), or Turing instability, in the neighbourhood of a constant stationary solution, which it is destabilised via diffusion-driven blow-up, is obtained. The latter actually indicates the formation of some unstable patterns, whilst some stability results of global-in-time solutions towards non-constant steady states guarantee the occurrence of some stable patterns.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moohan Kim
2017-10-01
Full Text Available As Korea’s first national garden, the Suncheon Bay National Garden is a major tourist attraction and a space of enjoyment for visitors. However, in 2016 its sudden establishment necessitates many discussions and measures, and requires that it seek direction based on current perceptions for its continued use in the future. This study begins a search for that direction by examining perspectives of local residents and non-local visitors on the relationships between visitors’ purposes, spatial needs, and required features. The research methodology included a survey administered to Suncheon residents and tourists on these factors. Results were analyzed by multiple correlation analysis and networking between the variables, and differences between Suncheon residents and non-local visitors were deduced; relationships among the factors were also verified. Both locals and visitors saw a need to emphasize garden experiences and education. The study also presents items that differ by respondent group. This study provides information that can be referred to when implementing management and plans for other national gardens.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto
2010-01-01
The aim of this paper is to propose a framework to obtain a new formulation for multiphase flow conservation equations without length-scale restrictions, based on the non-local form of the averaged volume conservation equations. The simplification of the local averaging volume of the conservation equations to obtain practical equations is subject to the following length-scale restrictions: d << l << L, where d is the characteristic length of the dispersed phases, l is the characteristic length of the averaging volume, and L is the characteristic length of the physical system. If the foregoing inequality does not hold, or if the scale of the problem of interest is of the order of l, the averaging technique and therefore, the macroscopic theories of multiphase flow should be modified in order to include appropriate considerations and terms in the corresponding equations. In these cases the local form of the averaged volume conservation equations are not appropriate to describe the multiphase system. As an example of the conservation equations without length-scale restrictions, the natural circulation boiling water reactor was consider to study the non-local effects on the thermal-hydraulic core performance during steady-state and transient behaviors, and the results were compared with the classic local averaging volume conservation equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazic, Predrag; Stefancic, Hrvoje; Abraham, Hrvoje
2006-01-01
We introduce a novel numerical method, named the Robin Hood method, of solving electrostatic problems. The approach of the method is closest to the boundary element methods, although significant conceptual differences exist with respect to this class of methods. The method achieves equipotentiality of conducting surfaces by iterative non-local charge transfer. For each of the conducting surfaces, non-local charge transfers are performed between surface elements, which differ the most from the targeted equipotentiality of the surface. The method is tested against analytical solutions and its wide range of application is demonstrated. The method has appealing technical characteristics. For the problem with N surface elements, the computational complexity of the method essentially scales with N α , where α < 2, the required computer memory scales with N, while the error of the potential decreases exponentially with the number of iterations for many orders of magnitude of the error, without the presence of the Critical Slowing Down. The Robin Hood method could prove useful in other classical or even quantum problems. Some future development ideas for possible applications outside electrostatics are addressed
Fluctuating Thermodynamics for Biological Processes
Ham, Sihyun
Because biomolecular processes are largely under thermodynamic control, dynamic extension of thermodynamics is necessary to uncover the mechanisms and driving factors of fluctuating processes. The fluctuating thermodynamics technology presented in this talk offers a practical means for the thermodynamic characterization of conformational dynamics in biomolecules. The use of fluctuating thermodynamics has the potential to provide a comprehensive picture of fluctuating phenomena in diverse biological processes. Through the application of fluctuating thermodynamics, we provide a thermodynamic perspective on the misfolding and aggregation of the various proteins associated with human diseases. In this talk, I will present the detailed concepts and applications of the fluctuating thermodynamics technology for elucidating biological processes. This work was supported by Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under Project Number SSTF-BA1401-13.
Bijleveld, F.D. & Churchill, T.
2009-01-01
The influence of changes in extreme weather conditions is often identified as a cause of fluctuations in road safety and the resulting numbers of crashes and casualties. This report focuses on an analysis of the aggregate, accumulated effect of weather conditions (precipitation and temperature) on
Big Bang or vacuum fluctuation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zel'dovich, Ya.B.
1980-01-01
Some general properties of vacuum fluctuations in quantum field theory are described. The connection between the ''energy dominance'' of the energy density of vacuum fluctuations in curved space-time and the presence of singularity is discussed. It is pointed out that a de-Sitter space-time (with the energy density of the vacuum fluctuations in the Einstein equations) that matches the expanding Friedman solution may describe the history of the Universe before the Big Bang. (P.L.)
Thermodynamic theory of equilibrium fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishin, Y.
2015-01-01
The postulational basis of classical thermodynamics has been expanded to incorporate equilibrium fluctuations. The main additional elements of the proposed thermodynamic theory are the concept of quasi-equilibrium states, a definition of non-equilibrium entropy, a fundamental equation of state in the entropy representation, and a fluctuation postulate describing the probability distribution of macroscopic parameters of an isolated system. Although these elements introduce a statistical component that does not exist in classical thermodynamics, the logical structure of the theory is different from that of statistical mechanics and represents an expanded version of thermodynamics. Based on this theory, we present a regular procedure for calculations of equilibrium fluctuations of extensive parameters, intensive parameters and densities in systems with any number of fluctuating parameters. The proposed fluctuation formalism is demonstrated by four applications: (1) derivation of the complete set of fluctuation relations for a simple fluid in three different ensembles; (2) fluctuations in finite-reservoir systems interpolating between the canonical and micro-canonical ensembles; (3) derivation of fluctuation relations for excess properties of grain boundaries in binary solid solutions, and (4) derivation of the grain boundary width distribution for pre-melted grain boundaries in alloys. The last two applications offer an efficient fluctuation-based approach to calculations of interface excess properties and extraction of the disjoining potential in pre-melted grain boundaries. Possible future extensions of the theory are outlined.
Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI) is an integrated database of severe weather records for the United States. SWDI enables a user to search through a variety...
North America Synoptic Weather Maps
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Maps contains a surface analysis comprised of plotted weather station observations, isobars indicating low and high-pressure...
Geography and Weather: Mountain Meterology.
Mogil, H. Michael; Collins, H. Thomas
1990-01-01
Provided are 26 ideas to help children explore the effects of mountains on the weather. Weather conditions in Nepal and Colorado are considered separately. Nine additional sources of information are listed. (CW)
The effect of climate fluctuation on chimpanzee birth sex ratio.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hjalmar S Kühl
Full Text Available Climate and weather conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, precipitation and temperature influence the birth sex ratio (BSR of various higher latitude species, including deer, elephant seals or northern human populations. Although, tropical regions show only little variation in temperature, climate and weather conditions can fluctuate with consequences for phenology and food resource availability. Here, we evaluate, whether the BSR of chimpanzees, inhabiting African tropical forests, is affected by climate fluctuations as well. Additionally, we evaluate, if variation in consumption of a key food resource with high nutritional value, Coula edulis nuts, is linked to both climate fluctuations and variation in BSR. We use long-term data from two study groups located in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire to assess the influence of local weather conditions and the global climate driver El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO on offspring sex. Côte d'Ivoire has experienced considerable climate variation over the last decades, with increasing temperature and declining precipitation. For both groups we find very similar time windows around the month of conception, in which offspring sex is well predicted by ENSO, with more males following low ENSO values, corresponding to periods of high rainfall. Furthermore, we find that the time spent cracking and feeding on Coula nuts is strongly influenced by climate conditions. Although, some of our analysis suggest that a higher proportion of males is born after periods with higher nut consumption frequency, we cannot conclude decisively at this point that nut consumption may influence shifts in BSR. All results combined suggest that also chimpanzees may experience climate related shifts in offspring sex ratios as response to climate fluctuation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Kuan; Eddy, T.L.
1993-01-01
A GTME (Generalized MultiThermodynamic Equilibrium) plasma model is developed for plasmas in both Non-LThE (Non-Local Thermal Equilibrium) and Non-LChE (Non-Local Chemical Equilibrium). The model uses multitemperatures for thermal nonequilibrium and non-zero chemical affinities as a measure of the deviation from chemical equilibrium. The plasma is treated as an ideal gas with the Debye-Hueckel approximation employed for pressure correction. The proration method is used when the cutoff energy level is between two discrete levels. The composition and internal partition functions of a hydrogen plasma are presented for electron temperatures ranging from 5000 to 35000 K and pressures from 0.1 to 1000 kPa. Number densities of 7 different species of hydrogen plasma and internal partition functions of different energy modes (rotational, vibrational, and electronic excitation) are computed for three affinity values. The results differ from other plasma properties in that they 1) are not based on equilibrium properties; and 2) are expressed as a function of different energy distribution parameters (temperatures) within each energy mode of each species as appropriate. The computed number densities and partition functions are applicable to calculating the thermodynamic, transport, and radiation properties of a hydrogen plasma not in thermal and chemical equilibria. The nonequilibrium plasma model and plasma compositions presented in this paper are very useful to the diagnosis of high-speed and/or low-pressure plasma flows in which the assumptions of local thermal and chemical equilibrium are invalid. (orig.)
Magnetic fluctuations associated with density fluctuations in the tokamak edge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.J.; Gentle, K.W.; Ritz, C.P.; Rhodes, T.L.; Bengtson, R.D.
1989-01-01
Electrostatic density and potential fluctuations occurring with high amplitude near the edge of a tokamak are correlated with components of the fluctuating magnetic field measured outside the limiter radius. It has been established that this turbulence is associated with fluctuations in current as well as density and potential. The correlation extends for substantial toroidal distances, but only if the probes are displaced approximately along field lines, consistent with the short coherence lengths poloidally but long coherence lengths parallel to the field which are characteristic for this turbulence. Furthermore, the correlation can be found only with density fluctuations measured inside the limiter radius; density fluctuations behind the limiter have no detectable magnetic concomitant for the toroidally spaced probes used here. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 12 refs, 3 figs
Central American Flying Weather
1985-12-01
CEILING; VISIBILITY; WIND, PRECIPITATIDNc’--." HAZE, SMOKE, TEMPORALE ; MOUNTAIN WAVE; MILITARY METEOROLOGY. 4k- / ’A. bstract; Asummary of~ing weather...1 The " Temporale " ....................................1 Mountain Waves ......................I...............1 Severe Thunderstorms...charts. The for any part of Central America lies in having: Tactical Pilota.e Chart series , produced by the Df -.nse Mapping Agency, is * A good, basic
World Weather Extremes. Revision,
1985-12-01
Ext r-,ncs, Weekl Weather and Crop Bull, Vol. 43, No. 9, pp. 6-8, 27 Feb 56. 21A. ntoli, La Piu Alta Temperatura del Mondo," [The HiLhest Temperi... Temperatura in Libia", Boll Soc Geogr Ita’iana, ser. 8, Vol. 7, pp. 59-71, 1954. 23J. Gentilli, "Libyan Climate", Geograph Rev, V0 l. 45, No. 2, p. 269 S" Apr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Shuai; Song, Xue-ke; Shi, Jia-dong; Ye, Liu
2014-01-01
In this Letter, we analytically explore the effect of the Hawking radiation on the quantum correlation and Bell non-locality for Dirac particles in the background of Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that when the Hawking effect is almost nonexistent, corresponding to the case of an almost extreme black hole, the quantum properties of physically accessible state are the same for the initial situation. For finite Hawking temperature T, the accessible quantum correlation monotonously decreases along with increasing T owing to the thermal fields generated by the Hawking effect, and the accessible quantum non-locality will be disappeared when the Hawking temperature is more than a fixed value which increases with the parameter r of Werner state growing. Then we analyze the redistribution of quantum correlation, and find that for the case of the Hawking temperature being infinite, corresponding to the case of the black hole evaporating completely, the quantum correlation of physically accessible state is equal to the one of the inaccessible states. Moreover, due to the Pauli exclusion principle and the differences between Fermi–Dirac and Bose–Einstein statistics, for the Dirac fields the accessible classical correlation decreases with increase of the Hawking temperature, which is different for the scalar fields. For Bell non-locality, we also find that the quantum non-locality is always extinct for physically inaccessible states, and the strength of the non-locality decreases with enlarging intensity of Hawking effect when the non-locality is existent in physically accessible state.
Charge Fluctuations in Nanoscale Capacitors
Limmer, D.T.; Merlet, C.; Salanne, M.; Chandler, D.; Madden, P.A.; van Roij, R.H.H.G.; Rotenberg, B.
2013-01-01
The fluctuations of the charge on an electrode contain information on the microscopic correlations within the adjacent fluid and their effect on the electronic properties of the interface. We investigate these fluctuations using molecular dynamics simulations in a constant-potential ensemble with
Fluctuating attention in Parkinson's disease
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Starrfelt, Randi; Aarsland, Dag; Janvin, Carmen
2001-01-01
Lewy body dementia (DLB), which share many clinical and pathological features with Parkinson’s disease (PD), is charac- terised by marked fluctuations in cognition and consciousness. Fluctuating cognition has not been formally studied in PD, although some studies indicate that PD patients show...
N = 2 local and N = 4 non-local reductions of supersymmetric KP hierarchy in N = 2 superspace
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delduc, F.; Gallot, L.; Sorin, A.
1999-01-01
An N = 4 supersymmetric matrix KP hierarchy is proposed and a wide class of its reductions which are characterized by a finite number of fields are described. This class includes the one-dimensional reduction of the two-dimensional N = (2,2) superconformal Toda lattice hierarchy possessing the N = 4 supersymmetry -- the N = 4 Toda chain hierarchy - which may be relevant in the construction of supersymmetric matrix models. The Lax-pair representations of the bosonic and fermionic flows, corresponding local and non-local Hamiltonians, finite and infinite discrete symmetries, the first two Hamiltonian structures and the recursion operator connecting all evolution equations and the Hamiltonian structures of the N = 4 Toda chain hierarchy are constructed in explicit form. Is secondary reduction to the N 4 supersymmetric α = - 2 KdV hierarchy is
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ijaz, H.; Asad, M.
2015-01-01
The use of composite laminates is increasing in these days due to higher strength and low density values in comparison of metals. Delamination is a major source of failure in composite laminates. Damage mechanics based theories are employed to simulate the delamination phenomena between composite laminates. These damage models are inherently local and can cause the concentration of stresses around the crack tip. In the present study integral type non-local damage formulation is proposed to avoid the localization problem associated to damage formulation. A comprehensive study is carried out for the models and classical local damage model are performed and results are compared with available experimental data for un IMS/924 Carbon/fiber epoxy composite laminate. (author)
Toufik, Mekkaoui; Atangana, Abdon
2017-10-01
Recently a new concept of fractional differentiation with non-local and non-singular kernel was introduced in order to extend the limitations of the conventional Riemann-Liouville and Caputo fractional derivatives. A new numerical scheme has been developed, in this paper, for the newly established fractional differentiation. We present in general the error analysis. The new numerical scheme was applied to solve linear and non-linear fractional differential equations. We do not need a predictor-corrector to have an efficient algorithm, in this method. The comparison of approximate and exact solutions leaves no doubt believing that, the new numerical scheme is very efficient and converges toward exact solution very rapidly.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marmodoro, A; Staunton, J B
2011-01-01
Over the last few years the Non-Local Coherent Potential Approximation (NL-CPA) has been shown to provide an effective way to describe the electronic structure and related properties of disordered systems, where short-range order (SRO) and other local environment effects are important. Here we present its generalization to materials with multi-atom per unit cell lattices. The method is described using a Green function formalism and illustrated by an implementation for a simplified one-dimensional tight-binding model with substitutional disorder. This development paves the way for a natural reimplementation of the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) multiple scattering solution of Kohn-Sham equations for ab-initio calculations of real materials.
Nonequilibrium fluctuations in a resistor.
Garnier, N; Ciliberto, S
2005-06-01
In small systems where relevant energies are comparable to thermal agitation, fluctuations are of the order of average values. In systems in thermodynamical equilibrium, the variance of these fluctuations can be related to the dissipation constant in the system, exploiting the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In nonequilibrium steady systems, fluctuations theorems (FT) additionally describe symmetry properties of the probability density functions (PDFs) of the fluctuations of injected and dissipated energies. We experimentally probe a model system: an electrical dipole driven out of equilibrium by a small constant current I, and show that FT are experimentally accessible and valid. Furthermore, we stress that FT can be used to measure the dissipated power P = R I2 in the system by just studying the PDFs' symmetries.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Del Ben, Mauro; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost
2015-01-01
Water is a ubiquitous liquid that displays a wide range of anomalous properties and has a delicate structure that challenges experiment and simulation alike. The various intermolecular interactions that play an important role, such as repulsion, polarization, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals interactions, are often difficult to reproduce faithfully in atomistic models. Here, electronic structure theories including all these interactions at equal footing, which requires the inclusion of non-local electron correlation, are used to describe structure and dynamics of bulk liquid water. Isobaric-isothermal (NpT) ensemble simulations based on the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) yield excellent density (0.994 g/ml) and fair radial distribution functions, while various other density functional approximations produce scattered results (0.8-1.2 g/ml). Molecular dynamics simulation in the microcanonical (NVE) ensemble based on Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) yields dynamical properties in the condensed phase, namely, the infrared spectrum and diffusion constant. At the MP2 and RPA levels of theory, ice is correctly predicted to float on water, resolving one of the anomalies as resulting from a delicate balance between van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interactions. For several properties, obtaining quantitative agreement with experiment requires correction for nuclear quantum effects (NQEs), highlighting their importance, for structure, dynamics, and electronic properties. A computed NQE shift of 0.6 eV for the band gap and absorption spectrum illustrates the latter. Giving access to both structure and dynamics of condensed phase systems, non-local electron correlation will increasingly be used to study systems where weak interactions are of paramount importance
Non-locality and memory effects in grain dynamics on a 2D dusty plasma quasi-crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ratynskaia, S.; Rypdal, K.; Milovanov, A.; Rasmussen, J. J.; Knapek, C.; Morfill, G.
2005-01-01
By tuning RF-power and neutral gas pressure as control parameters in a dust plasma crystal experiment it is possible to obtain a state exhibiting rather high mobility of the dust grains through development of defects, yet maintaining the global hexagonal structure. The state exhibits higher mobility and smaller vertical structures along the rim and larger and more slowly moving and rotating crystalline domains in the core. It is different from the critical transition between the crystalline and liquid state. Trajectories of all particles in a cluster consisting of about 700 dust grains are tracked through 30.000 frames (time-steps). During this time the length of a grain trajectory is typically considerably greater than the linear size of the cluster. Variogram and rescaled range (R/S) analysis of time series of particle positions reveal super-diffusive behavior which, from a stochastic process viewpoint, often is ascribed to either long memory effects or to the presence of non-locality manifested as Levy flights giving rise to heavy algebraic tails in the position increment probability distribution function (PDF). The experimental PDF is non-gaussian, but the tails are not algebraic. The core of the PDF, however, has the shape of a truncated Levy distribution, which is shown to be stretched exponential of width that expands in time in a super-diffusive manner. Thus, super-diffusion could in principle occur without long-range time dependence in the increment time series and without algebraic tails in the PDF. Analysis of the core PDF and PDFs on different level of coarse gaining of the time series, combined with variogram and R/S analysis techniques, are employed to disentangle memory and non-locality effects. The results are discussed and interpreted in the framework of a fractional kinetics approach. (Author)
Simulation of power fluctuation of wind farms based on frequency domain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lin, Jin; Sun, Yuanzhang; Li, Guojie
2011-01-01
, however, is incapable of completely explaining the physical mechanism of randomness of power fluctuation. To remedy such a situation, fluctuation modeling based on the frequency domain is proposed. The frequency domain characteristics of stochastic fluctuation on large wind farms are studied using...... the power spectral density of wind speed, the frequency domain model of a wind power generator and the information on weather and geography of the wind farms. The correctness and effectiveness of the model are verified by comparing the measurement data with simulation results of a certain wind farm. © 2011...
NWS Weather Fatality, Injury and Damage Statistics
... Weather Awareness Floods, Wind Chill, Tornadoes, Heat... Education Weather Terms, Teachers, Statistics government web resources and services. Natural Hazard Statistics Statistics U.S. Summaries 78-Year List of Severe Weather Fatalities Preliminary Hazardous Weather Statistics for 2017 Now
Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?
... English Español Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth / For Parents / Can the Weather Affect My ... Asthma? Print Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? Yes. Weather conditions can bring on asthma symptoms. ...
Quantum fluctuations from thermal fluctuations in Jacobson formalism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia-Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Ashour, Amani; Alcheikh, Mohammad [Damascus University, Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Alasfar, Lina [Universite Clermont Auvergne, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Clermont-Ferrand, Aubiere (France); Alsaleh, Salwa; Mahroussah, Ahmed [King Saud University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
2017-09-15
In the Jacobson formalism general relativity is obtained from thermodynamics. This is done by using the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area relation. However, as a black hole gets smaller, its temperature will increase. This will cause the thermal fluctuations to also increase, and these will in turn correct the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area relation. Furthermore, with the reduction in the size of the black hole, quantum effects will also start to dominate. Just as the general relativity can be obtained from thermodynamics in the Jacobson formalism, we propose that the quantum fluctuations to the geometry can be obtained from thermal fluctuations. (orig.)
Space Weather Services of Korea
Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Jangsuk, C.; Dong Kyu, K.; Jinyee, C.; Yeongoh, C.
2016-12-01
The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).
Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings.
Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre
2016-01-01
The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities' preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities' capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Matsui
2012-03-01
Full Text Available In this event study, small-scale fluctuations in plasmaspheric plumes with time scales of ~10 s to minutes in the spacecraft frame are examined. In one event, plasmaspheric plumes are observed by Cluster, while IMAGE measured density enhancement at a similar location. Fluctuations in density exist in plumes as detected by Cluster and are accompanied by fluctuations in magnetic fields and electric fields. Magnetic fluctuations are transverse and along the direction of the plumes. The E/B ratio is smaller than the Alfvén velocity. Another similar event is briefly presented. We then consider physical properties of the fluctuations. Alfvén mode modulated by the feedback instability is one possibility, although non-local generation is likely. It is hard to show that the fluctuations represent a fast mode. Interchange motion is possible due to the consistency between measurements and expectations. The energy source could be a pressure or density gradient in plasmaspheric plumes. When more events are accumulated so that statistical analysis becomes feasible, this type of study will be useful to understand the time evolution of plumes.
Current density fluctuations and ambipolarity of transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, W.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.
1991-10-01
The fluctuation in the plasma current density is measured in the MIST reversed field pinch experiment. Such fluctuations, and the measured radial profile of the k spectrum of magnetic fluctuations, supports the view and that low frequency fluctuations (f r >) demonstrates that radial particle transport from particle motion parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field is ambipolar over the full frequency range
Harless, William Edwin
2014-01-01
ABSTRACT: The Weather in Richmond is a short documentary about the Oilers, the football team at Richmond High School in downtown Richmond, California, as they struggle in 2012 with the legacy of winning no games, with the exception of a forfeit, in two years. The video documents the city of Richmond’s poverty and violence, but it also is an account of the city’s cultural diversity, of the city’s industrial history and of the hopes of some of the people who grow up there. The...
Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta
2015-01-01
Every year lives and properties are lost in road accidents. About one-fourth of these accidents are due to low vision in foggy weather. At present, there is no algorithm that is specifically designed for the removal of fog from videos. Application of a single-image fog removal algorithm over each video frame is a time-consuming and costly affair. It is demonstrated that with the intelligent use of temporal redundancy, fog removal algorithms designed for a single image can be extended to the real-time video application. Results confirm that the presented framework used for the extension of the
Denny, Mark
2016-05-01
The physics of a weather balloon is analyzed. The surprising aspect of the motion of these balloons is that they ascend to great altitudes (typically 35 km) at a more or less constant rate. Such behavior is not surprising near the ground—say for a helium-filled party balloon rising from street level to the top of the Empire State building—but it is unexpected for a balloon that rises to altitudes where the air is rarefied. We show from elementary physical laws why the ascent rate is approximately constant.
NASA Space Weather Center Services: Potential for Space Weather Research
Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.
2012-01-01
The NASA Space Weather Center's primary objective is to provide the latest space weather information and forecasting for NASA's robotic missions and its partners and to bring space weather knowledge to the public. At the same time, the tools and services it possesses can be invaluable for research purposes. Here we show how our archive and real-time modeling of space weather events can aid research in a variety of ways, with different classification criteria. We will list and discuss major CME events, major geomagnetic storms, and major SEP events that occurred during the years 2010 - 2012. Highlights of major tools/resources will be provided.
Collins Petersen, Carolyn; Erickson, P. J.; Needles, M.
2009-01-01
The topic of space weather is the subject of a series of vodcasts (video podcasts) produced by MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, MA) and Loch Ness Productions (Groton, MA). This paper discusses the production and distribution of the series via Webcast, Youtube, and other avenues. It also presents preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness and outreach of the project through feedback from both formal and information education venues. The vodcast series is linked to the NASA Living With a Star Targeted Research and Technology project award "Multi-Instrument Investigation of Inner-Magnetospheric/Ionosphere Disturbances.” It is being carried out by Principal Investigator Dr. John Foster, under the auspices of NASA Grant # NNX06AB86G. The research involves using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) observations to study the location, extent, and duration of perturbations within stormtime ionospheric electric fields at mid- to low latitudes. It combines ground-based global positioning system (GPS) TEC data, incoherent scatter radar measurements of the mid-latitude ionospheric state, and DMSP satellite observations to characterize conditions which lead to severe low-latitude ionospheric perturbations. Each vodcast episode covers a certain aspect of space weather and the research program.
Weatherization Apprenticeship Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watson, Eric J
2012-12-18
Weatherization improvement services will be provided to Native people by Native people. The proposed project will recruit, train and hire two full-time weatherization technicians who will improve the energy efficiency of homes of Alaska Natives/American Indians residing in the Indian areas, within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska. The Region includes Anchorage as well as 8 small tribal villages: The Native Villages of Eklutna, Knik, Chickaloon, Seldovia, Ninilchik, Kenaitze, Salamatof, and Tyonek. This project will be a partnership between three entities, with Cook Inlet Tribal Council (CITC) as the lead agency: CITCA's Employment and Training Services Department, Cook Inlet Housing Authority and Alaska Works Partnership. Additionally, six of the eight tribal villages within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska have agreed to work with the project in order to improve the energy efficiency of their tribally owned buildings and homes. The remaining three villages will be invited to participate in the establishment of an intertribal consortium through this project. Tribal homes and buildings within Anchorage fall under Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) tribal authority.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.-F. Hochedez
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Space Weather nowcasting and forecasting require solar observations because geoeffective disturbances can arise from three types of solar phenomena: coronal mass ejections (CMEs, flares and coronal holes. For each, we discuss their definition and review their precursors in terms of remote sensing and in-situ observations. The objectives of Space Weather require some specific instrumental features, which we list using the experience gained from the daily operations of the Solar Influences Data analysis Centre (SIDC at the Royal Observatory of Belgium. Nowcasting requires real-time monitoring to assess quickly and reliably the severity of any potentially geoeffective solar event. Both research and forecasting could incorporate more observations in order to feed case studies and data assimilation respectively. Numerical models will result in better predictions of geomagnetic storms and solar energetic particle (SEP events. We review the data types available to monitor solar activity and interplanetary conditions. They come from space missions and ground observatories and range from sequences of dopplergrams, magnetograms, white-light, chromospheric, coronal, coronagraphic and radio images, to irradiance and in-situ time-series. Their role is summarized together with indications about current and future solar monitoring instruments.
1997-01-01
One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).
Localized description of valence fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alascio, B.; Allub, R.; Aligia, A.
1979-07-01
The authors set up a model for intermediate valence equivalent to the ''atomic'' limit of the Anderson Hamiltonian. Detailed analysis of this model shows that most of the essential characteristics of valence fluctuators are already present in this crudely simplified Hamiltonian. The spin-spin and the 4f charge-charge correlation functions are studied and it is shown that it is possible to define a spin fluctuation frequency ωsub(s.f.) and a charge fluctuation frequency ωsub(ch.f.).ωsub(s.f.) and ωsub(ch.f.) can differ considerably for some values of the parameters of the model. The magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat are calculated as functions of temperature and it is shown how the results simulate the behaviour found in valence fluctuators. (author)
The Fluctuation Niche in Plants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaume Terradas
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Classical approaches to niche in coexisting plants have undervalued temporal fluctuations. We propose that fluctuation niche is an important dimension of the total niche and interacts with habitat and life-history niches to provide a better understanding of the multidimensional niche space where ecological interactions occur. To scale a fluctuation niche, it is necessary to relate environmental constrictions or species performance not only to the absolute values of the usual environmental and ecophysiological variables but also to their variances or other measures of variability. We use Mediterranean plant communities as examples, because they present characteristic large seasonal and interannual fluctuations in water and nutrient availabilities, along an episodic-constant gradient, and because the plant responses include a number of syndromes coupled to this gradient.
The Fluctuation Niche in Plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terradas, J.; Penuelas, J.; Lloret, F.; Penuelas, J.
2009-01-01
Classical approaches to niche in coexisting plants have undervalued temporal fluctuations. We propose that fluctuation niche is an important dimension of the total niche and interacts with habitat and life-history niches to provide a better understanding of the multidimensional niche space where ecological interactions occur. To scale a fluctuation niche, it is necessary to relate environmental constrictions or species performance not only to the absolute values of the usual environmental and eco physiological variables but also to their variances or other measures of variability. We use Mediterranean plant communities as examples, because they present characteristic large seasonal and inter annual fluctuations in water and nutrient availabilities, along an episodic-constant gradient, and because the plant responses include a number of syndromes coupled to this gradient.
Insects in fluctuating thermal environments.
Colinet, Hervé; Sinclair, Brent J; Vernon, Philippe; Renault, David
2015-01-07
All climate change scenarios predict an increase in both global temperature means and the magnitude of seasonal and diel temperature variation. The nonlinear relationship between temperature and biological processes means that fluctuating temperatures lead to physiological, life history, and ecological consequences for ectothermic insects that diverge from those predicted from constant temperatures. Fluctuating temperatures that remain within permissive temperature ranges generally improve performance. By contrast, those which extend to stressful temperatures may have either positive impacts, allowing repair of damage accrued during exposure to thermal extremes, or negative impacts from cumulative damage during successive exposures. We discuss the mechanisms underlying these differing effects. Fluctuating temperatures could be used to enhance or weaken insects in applied rearing programs, and any prediction of insect performance in the field-including models of climate change or population performance-must account for the effect of fluctuating temperatures.
Nonequilibrium quantum fluctuations of work.
Allahverdyan, A E
2014-09-01
The concept of work is basic for statistical thermodynamics. To gain a fuller understanding of work and its (quantum) features, it needs to be represented as an average of a fluctuating quantity. Here I focus on the work done between two moments of time for a thermally isolated quantum system driven by a time-dependent Hamiltonian. I formulate two natural conditions needed for the fluctuating work to be physically meaningful for a system that starts its evolution from a nonequilibrium state. The existing definitions do not satisfy these conditions due to issues that are traced back to noncommutativity. I propose a definition of fluctuating work that is free of previous drawbacks and that applies for a wide class of nonequilibrium initial states. It allows the deduction of a generalized work-fluctuation theorem that applies for an arbitrary (out-of-equilibrium) initial state.
Quantum fluctuations in insulating ferroelectrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riseborough, Peter S.
2010-01-01
Graphical abstract: It has been proposed that in a ferroelectric insulator, an applied magnetic field may couple the transverse phonon modes and produce left and right circularly polarized phonon modes which are no longer degenerate. We quantize the theory and examine the effects of quantal fluctuations. In particular, we show that the zero point fluctuations result in a large diamagnetic contribution to the magnetic susceptibility. - Abstract: It has been proposed that in a ferroelectric insulator, an applied magnetic field may couple the transverse phonon modes and produce left and right circularly polarized phonon modes which are no longer degenerate. We quantize the theory and examine the effects of quantal fluctuations. In particular, we show that the zero-point fluctuations result in a large diamagnetic contribution to the magnetic susceptibility.
Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation
Guazzelli, Élisabeth
2011-01-21
This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations of the velocities of spheres to increase with the size of the container, whereas experiments found no such variation. Two ideas have increased our understanding. First, the correlation length of the velocity fluctuations was found experimentally to be 20 interparticle separations. Second, in dilute suspensions, a vertical variation in the concentration due to the spreading of the front with the clear fluid can inhibit the velocity fluctuations. In a very dilute regime, a homogeneous suspension of fibers suffers a spontaneous instability in which fast descending fiber-rich columns are separated by rising fiber-sparse columns. In a semidilute regime, the settling is hindered, more so than for spheres. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Principle of minimal work fluctuations.
Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin
2015-08-01
Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality 〈e-βW〉=e-βΔF, a change in the fluctuations of e-βW may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-βW converges towards the theoretical value e-βΔF, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and ΔF is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014)].
Space Weather- Physics and Effects
Bothmer, Volker
2007-01-01
This book is a state-of-the-art review on the physics of space weather and on space weather impacts on human technology, including manned spaceflight. With contributions from a team of international experts, this comprehensive work covers all aspects of space weather physical processes, and all known aspects of space hazards from humans, both in space and on Earth. Space Weather - Physics and Effects provides the first comprehensive, scientific background of space storms caused by the sun and its impact on geospace focuses on weather issues that have become vital for the development of nationwide technological infrastructures explains magnetic storms on Earth, including the effects of EUV radiation on the atmosphere is an invaluable aid in establishing real-time weather forecasts details the threat that solar effects might have on modern telecommunication systems, including national power grid systems, aircraft and manned spaceflight.
Govind, Rahul; Garg, Nitika; Sun, Wenbin
2014-01-01
Weather and its fluctuations have been found to influence the consumption of negative hedonic goods. However, such findings are of limited use to health marketers who cannot control the weather, and hence, its effects. The current research utilizes data obtained at the zip-code level to study geographical variations in the effect of weather on tobacco consumption across the entire continental United States. The results allow health marketers to identify areas that will be most responsive to marketing efforts aimed at curtailing negative hedonic consumption and thus implement more effective, region-specific initiatives.
Artificial changes of weather conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozin, I.D.; Vasil'ev, I.V.; Fedulina, I.N.; Zakizhan, Z.Z.; Khalimov, R.A.
2005-01-01
Unfavorable weather conditions have undesirable ecological consequences, causes remarkable economical damage. In the paper authors consider physical factors and technical methods of influence on cloud formation. (author)
Anua, N. Najwa
2013-08-20
Exchange correlation (XC) energy functionals play a vital role in the efficiency of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, more soundly in the calculation of fundamental electronic energy bandgap. In the present DFT study of III-arsenides, we investigate the implications of XC-energy functional and corresponding potential on the structural, electronic and optical properties of XAs (X = B, Al, Ga, In). Firstly we report and discuss the optimized structural lattice parameters and the band gap calculations performed within different non-local XC functionals as implemented in the DFT-packages: WIEN2k, CASTEP and SIESTA. These packages are representative of the available code in ab initio studies. We employed the LDA, GGA-PBE, GGA-WC and mBJ-LDA using WIEN2k. In CASTEP, we employed the hybrid functional, sX-LDA. Furthermore LDA, GGA-PBE and meta-GGA were employed using SIESTA code. Our results point to GGA-WC as a more appropriate approximation for the calculations of structural parameters. However our electronic bandstructure calculations at the level of mBJ-LDA potential show considerable improvements over the other XC functionals, even the sX-LDA hybrid functional. We report also the optical properties within mBJ potential, which show a nice agreement with the experimental measurements in addition to other theoretical results. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pasquale Borrelli
Full Text Available In susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI, the high resolution required to obtain a proper contrast generation leads to a reduced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. The application of a denoising filter to produce images with higher SNR and still preserve small structures from excessive blurring is therefore extremely desirable. However, as the distributions of magnitude and phase noise may introduce biases during image restoration, the application of a denoising filter is non-trivial. Taking advantage of the potential multispectral nature of MR images, a multicomponent approach using a Non-Local Means (MNLM denoising filter may perform better than a component-by-component image restoration method. Here we present a new MNLM-based method (Multicomponent-Imaginary-Real-SWI, hereafter MIR-SWI to produce SWI images with high SNR and improved conspicuity. Both qualitative and quantitative comparisons of MIR-SWI with the original SWI scheme and previously proposed SWI restoring pipelines showed that MIR-SWI fared consistently better than the other approaches. Noise removal with MIR-SWI also provided improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR and vessel conspicuity at higher factors of phase mask multiplications than the one suggested in the literature for SWI vessel imaging. We conclude that a proper handling of noise in the complex MR dataset may lead to improved image quality for SWI data.
Quantum non-locality vs. quasi-local measurements in the conditions of the Aharonov-Bohm effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulian, Armen M
2014-01-01
Theoretical explanation of the Meissner effect involves proportionality between current density and vector potential, which has many deep consequences. As noticed by de Gennes, superconductors in a magnetic field 'find an equilibrium state where the sum of kinetic and magnetic energies is minimum' and this state 'corresponds to the expulsion of the magnetic field'. This statement still leaves an open question: from which source is the superconducting current acquiring its kinetic energy? A naïve answer, perhaps, is from the energy of the magnetic field. However, one can consider situations (Aharonov-Bohm effect), where the classical magnetic field is locally absent in the area occupied by the current. Experiments demonstrate that despite the local absence of the magnetic field, current is, nevertheless, building up. From what source is it acquiring its energy then? Locally, only a vector potential is present. How does the vector potential facilitate the formation of the current? Is the current formation a result of a truly non-local quantum action, or does the local action of the vector potential have experimental consequences? We discuss possible experiments with a hybrid normal-metal superconductor circuitry, which can clarify this puzzling situation. Experimental answers will be important for further developments.
Bates, Jefferson; Laricchia, Savio; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn
The Random Phase Approximation (RPA) is quickly becoming a standard method beyond semi-local Density Functional Theory that naturally incorporates weak interactions and eliminates self-interaction error. RPA is not perfect, however, and suffers from self-correlation error as well as an incorrect description of short-ranged correlation typically leading to underbinding. To improve upon RPA we introduce a short-ranged, exchange-like kernel that is one-electron self-correlation free for one and two electron systems in the high-density limit. By tuning the one free parameter in our model to recover an exact limit of the homogeneous electron gas correlation energy we obtain a non-local, energy-optimized kernel that reduces the errors of RPA for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous solids. To reduce the computational cost of the standard kernel-corrected RPA, we also implement RPA renormalized perturbation theory for extended systems, and demonstrate its capability to describe the dominant correlation effects with a low-order expansion in both metallic and non-metallic systems. Furthermore we stress that for norm-conserving implementations the accuracy of RPA and beyond RPA structural properties compared to experiment is inherently limited by the choice of pseudopotential. Current affiliation: King's College London.
Pašti, Igor A.; Jovanović, Aleksandar; Dobrota, Ana S.; Mentus, Slavko V.; Johansson, Börje; Skorodumova, Natalia V.
2018-04-01
The understanding of atomic adsorption on graphene is of high importance for many advanced technologies. Here we present a complete database of the atomic adsorption energies for the elements of the Periodic Table up to the atomic number 86 (excluding lanthanides) on pristine graphene. The energies have been calculated using the projector augmented wave (PAW) method with PBE, long-range dispersion interaction corrected PBE (PBE+D2, PBE+D3) as well as non-local vdW-DF2 approach. The inclusion of dispersion interactions leads to an exothermic adsorption for all the investigated elements. Dispersion interactions are found to be of particular importance for the adsorption of low atomic weight earth alkaline metals, coinage and s-metals (11th and 12th groups), high atomic weight p-elements and noble gases. We discuss the observed adsorption trends along the groups and rows of the Periodic Table as well some computational aspects of modelling atomic adsorption on graphene.
XQ-NLM: Denoising Diffusion MRI Data via x-q Space Non-Local Patch Matching.
Chen, Geng; Wu, Yafeng; Shen, Dinggang; Yap, Pew-Thian
2016-10-01
Noise is a major issue influencing quantitative analysis in diffusion MRI. The effects of noise can be reduced by repeated acquisitions, but this leads to long acquisition times that can be unrealistic in clinical settings. For this reason, post-acquisition denoising methods have been widely used to improve SNR. Among existing methods, non-local means (NLM) has been shown to produce good image quality with edge preservation. However, currently the application of NLM to diffusion MRI has been mostly focused on the spatial space (i.e., the x -space), despite the fact that diffusion data live in a combined space consisting of the x -space and the q -space (i.e., the space of wavevectors). In this paper, we propose to extend NLM to both x -space and q -space. We show how patch-matching, as required in NLM, can be performed concurrently in x-q space with the help of azimuthal equidistant projection and rotation invariant features. Extensive experiments on both synthetic and real data confirm that the proposed x-q space NLM (XQ-NLM) outperforms the classic NLM.
Phase structure of the Born-Infeld-anti-de Sitter black holes probed by non-local observables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeng, Xiao-Xiong [Chongqing Jiaotong University, School of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Liu, Xian-Ming [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Hubei University for Nationalities, Center for Theoretical Physics, School of Sciences, Enshi, Hubei (China); Li, Li-Fang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Beijing (China)
2016-11-15
With the non-local observables such as two point correlation function and holographic entanglement entropy, we probe the phase structure of the Born-Infeld-anti-de Sitter black holes. For the case bQ > 0.5, where b is the Born-Infeld parameter and Q is the charge of the black hole, the phase structure is found to be similar to that of the Van der Waals phase transition, namely the black hole undergoes a first order phase transition and a second order phase transition before it reaches a stable phase. While for the case bQ < 0.5, a new phase branch emerges besides the Van der Waals phase transition. For the first order phase transition, the equal area law is checked, and for the second order phase transition, the critical exponent of the heat capacity is obtained. All these results are found to be the same as that observed in the entropy-temperature plane. (orig.)
First ERO2.0 modeling of Be erosion and non-local transport in JET ITER-like wall
Romazanov, J.; Borodin, D.; Kirschner, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Silburn, S.; Huber, A.; Huber, V.; Bufferand, H.; Firdaouss, M.; Brömmel, D.; Steinbusch, B.; Gibbon, P.; Lasa, A.; Borodkina, I.; Eksaeva, A.; Linsmeier, Ch; Contributors, JET
2017-12-01
ERO is a Monte-Carlo code for modeling plasma-wall interaction and 3D plasma impurity transport for applications in fusion research. The code has undergone a significant upgrade (ERO2.0) which allows increasing the simulation volume in order to cover the entire plasma edge of a fusion device, allowing a more self-consistent treatment of impurity transport and comparison with a larger number and variety of experimental diagnostics. In this contribution, the physics-relevant technical innovations of the new code version are described and discussed. The new capabilities of the code are demonstrated by modeling of beryllium (Be) erosion of the main wall during JET limiter discharges. Results for erosion patterns along the limiter surfaces and global Be transport including incident particle distributions are presented. A novel synthetic diagnostic, which mimics experimental wide-angle 2D camera images, is presented and used for validating various aspects of the code, including erosion, magnetic shadowing, non-local impurity transport, and light emission simulation.
Liu, Miaofeng
2017-07-01
In recent years, deep convolutional neural networks come into use in image inpainting and super-resolution in many fields. Distinct to most of the former methods requiring to know beforehand the local information for corrupted pixels, we propose a 20-depth fully convolutional network to learn an end-to-end mapping a dataset of damaged/ground truth subimage pairs realizing non-local blind inpainting and super-resolution. As there often exist image with huge corruptions or inpainting on a low-resolution image that the existing approaches unable to perform well, we also share parameters in local area of layers to achieve spatial recursion and enlarge the receptive field. To avoid the difficulty of training this deep neural network, skip-connections between symmetric convolutional layers are designed. Experimental results shows that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art methods for diverse corrupting and low-resolution conditions, it works excellently when realizing super-resolution and image inpainting simultaneously
Three-body models of the 6ΛΛHe and 9ΛBe hypernuclei with non-local interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theeten, M.; Baye, D.; Descouvemont, P.
2005-01-01
A three-body model involving non-local interactions is developed in configuration space. It is based on a hyperspherical-harmonics expansion and the Lagrange-mesh method. The 6 ΛΛ He and 9 Λ Be hypernuclei are studied as three-body αΛΛ and ααΛ systems. Recently proposed quark-model based ΛN and ΛΛ interactions are used. A non-local Λα interaction is obtained by folding the ΛN interaction with a Gaussian α density. Various phenomenological αα interactions are employed. The results agree within 1 keV with recent Faddeev calculations in momentum space. Energies and radii of 6 ΛΛ He and 9 Λ Be are compared with a purely local model. The B(E2) between the 9 Λ Be bound states is also calculated. The role of non-locality is discussed
Weather, not climate, defines distributions of vagile bird species.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
April E Reside
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate predictions of species distributions are essential for climate change impact assessments. However the standard practice of using long-term climate averages to train species distribution models might mute important temporal patterns of species distribution. The benefit of using temporally explicit weather and distribution data has not been assessed. We hypothesized that short-term weather associated with the time a species was recorded should be superior to long-term climate measures for predicting distributions of mobile species. METHODOLOGY: We tested our hypothesis by generating distribution models for 157 bird species found in Australian tropical savannas (ATS using modelling algorithm Maxent. The variable weather of the ATS supports a bird assemblage with variable movement patterns and a high incidence of nomadism. We developed "weather" models by relating climatic variables (mean temperature, rainfall, rainfall seasonality and temperature seasonality from the three month, six month and one year period preceding each bird record over a 58 year period (1950-2008. These weather models were compared against models built using long-term (30 year averages of the same climatic variables. CONCLUSIONS: Weather models consistently achieved higher model scores than climate models, particularly for wide-ranging, nomadic and desert species. Climate models predicted larger range areas for species, whereas weather models quantified fluctuations in habitat suitability across months, seasons and years. Models based on long-term climate averages over-estimate availability of suitable habitat and species' climatic tolerances, masking species potential vulnerability to climate change. Our results demonstrate that dynamic approaches to distribution modelling, such as incorporating organism-appropriate temporal scales, improves understanding of species distributions.
Relationship between onset of spontaneous pneumothorax and weather conditions.
Mishina, Taijiro; Watanabe, Atsushi; Miyajima, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Junji
2017-09-01
Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) results from the rupture of blebs or bullae. It has been suggested that changes in weather conditions may trigger the onset of SP. Our aim was to examine the association between the onset of primary SP with weather changes in the general population in Sapporo, Japan. From January 2008 through September 2013, 345 consecutive cases with a diagnosis of primary SP were reviewed. All cases of primary SP developed in the area within 40 km from the Sapporo District Meteorological Observatory. Climatic measurements were obtained from the Observatory, which included 1-h readings of weather conditions. Logistic regression model was used to obtain predicted risks for the onset of SP with respect to weather conditions. SP occurred significantly when the atmospheric pressure decreased by - 18 hPa or less during 96 h before the survey date (odds ratio = 1.379, P = 0.026), when the pressure increased by 15 hPa or more during 72 h before the survey date (odds ratio = 1.095, P = 0.007) and when maximum fluctuation in atmospheric pressure over 22 hPa was observed during 96 h before the survey date (odds ratio = 1.519, P = 0.001). Other weather conditions, including the presence of thunderstorms, were not significantly correlated with the onset of pneumothorax. Changes in atmospheric pressure influence the onset of SP. Future studies on the relationship between the onset of SP and weather conditions on days other than before the onset and with large number of patients may enable us to predict the onset of SP in various regions and weather conditions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Synoptic weather types associated with critical fire weather
Mark J. Schroeder; Monte Glovinsky; Virgil F. Hendricks; Frank C. Hood; Melvin K. Hull; Henry L. Jacobson; Robert Kirkpatrick; Daniel W. Krueger; Lester P. Mallory; Albert G. Oeztel; Robert H. Reese; Leo A. Sergius; Charles E. Syverson
1964-01-01
Recognizing that weather is an important factor in the spread of both urban and wildland fires, a study was made of the synoptic weather patterns and types which produce strong winds, low relative humidities, high temperatures, and lack of rainfall--the conditions conducive to rapid fire spread. Such historic fires as the San Francisco fire of 1906, the Berkeley fire...
Terminal weather information management
Lee, Alfred T.
1990-01-01
Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.
Fluctuation analysis of rotational spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doessing, T.; Bracco, A.; Broglia, R.A.; Matsuo, M.
1996-01-01
The compound state rotational degree of freedom is ''damped'' in the sense that the electric quadrupole decay of a single quantum state with angular momentum I exhibits a spectrum of final states all having spin I-2. In actual experiments, the cascade of γ-rays associated with each of the members of the ensemble of compound nuclei uses each of the ''discrete'' transitions many more times than the ''continuum'' transitions. Relatively large and small fluctuations in the recorded coincidence spectrum ensue, respectively. The analysis of the fluctuations will be shown to be instrumental to gain insight into the phenomenon of rotational damping. For this purpose, two- and higher-fold coincidence spectra emitted from rotating nuclei are analyzed with respect to the count fluctuations. The coincidences from consecutive γ-rays emitted from discrete rotational bands generate ridges in the E γ1 .E γ2 spectrum, and the fluctuation analysis of the ridges is based upon the ansatz of a random selection of transition energies from band to band. This ansatz is supported by a cranked mean-field calculation for the nucleus 168 Yb, as well as by analyzing resolved bands in 168 Yb and its neighbors. The fluctuation analysis of the central valley (E γ1 =E γ2 ) is based upon the ansatz of fluctuations in the intensity of the transitions of Porter-Thomas type superposed on a smooth spectrum of transition energies. This ansatz is again supported by a mixed-band calculation. The mathematical treatment of count fluctuations is formulated in general (orig.)
Large-N limit of the non-local 2D Yang-Mills and generalized Yang-Mills theories on a cylinder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saaidi, K. [Department of Physics, Tehran University (Iran); Khorrami, M. [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran)
2002-04-01
The large-group behavior of the non-local YM{sub 2}'s and gYM{sub 2}'s on a cylinder or a disk is investigated. It is shown that this behavior is similar to that of the corresponding local theory, but with the area of the cylinder replaced by an effective area depending on the dominant representation. The critical areas for non-local YM{sub 2}'s on a cylinder with some special boundary conditions are also obtained. (orig.)
Non-local coupled-channels optical calculation of electron scattering by atomic hydrogen at 54.42 eV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ratnavelu, K.; McCarthy, I.E.
1990-01-01
The present study incorporates the non-local optical potentials for the continuum within the coupled-channels optical framework to study electron scattering from atomic hydrogen at 54.42 eV. Nine-state coupled-channels calculations with non-local and local continuum optical potentials were performed. The results for differential, total and ionization cross sections as well as the 2p angular correlation parameters λ and R are comparable with other non-perturbative calculations. There are still discrepancies between theory and experiment, particularly for λ and R at larger angles. (author)
Topics in fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milner, S.T.
1986-01-01
Models of fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics have enjoyed much success in explaining the effect of long-wavelength fluctuations in diverse hydrodynamic systems. This thesis explores two such problems; in both, the body of hydrodynamic assumptions powerfully constrains the predictions of a well-posed theory. The effects of layer fluctuations in smectic-A liquid crystals are first examined. The static theory (introduced by Grinstein and Pelcovits) is reviewed. Ward identities, resulting from the arbitrariness of the layering direction, are derived and exploited. The static results motivate an examination of dynamic fluctuation effects. A new sound-damping experiment is proposed that would probe singular dependence of viscosities on applied stress. A theory of Procaccia and Gitterman that reaction rates of chemically reacting binary mixtures are drastically reduced near their thermodynamic critical points is analyzed. Hydrodynamic arguments and Van Hove theory are applied, concluding that the PG idea is drastically slowed, and spatially varying composition fluctuations are at best slowed down over a narrow range of wavenumbers
Electric Field Fluctuations in Water
Thorpe, Dayton; Limmer, David; Chandler, David
2013-03-01
Charge transfer in solution, such as autoionization and ion pair dissociation in water, is governed by rare electric field fluctuations of the solvent. Knowing the statistics of such fluctuations can help explain the dynamics of these rare events. Trajectories short enough to be tractable by computer simulation are virtually certain not to sample the large fluctuations that promote rare events. Here, we employ importance sampling techniques with classical molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water to study statistics of electric field fluctuations far from their means. We find that the distributions of electric fields located on individual water molecules are not in general gaussian. Near the mean this non-gaussianity is due to the internal charge distribution of the water molecule. Further from the mean, however, there is a previously unreported Bjerrum-like defect that stabilizes certain large fluctuations out of equilibrium. As expected, differences in electric fields acting between molecules are gaussian to a remarkable degree. By studying these differences, though, we are able to determine what configurations result not only in large electric fields, but also in electric fields with long spatial correlations that may be needed to promote charge separation.
The Challenge of Weather Prediction
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. The Challenge of Weather Prediction Old and Modern Ways of Weather Forecasting. B N Goswami. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March 1997 pp 8-15. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Regional-seasonal weather forecasting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abarbanel, H.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.; Rudermann, M.; Vesecky, J.
1980-08-01
In the interest of allocating heating fuels optimally, the state-of-the-art for seasonal weather forecasting is reviewed. A model using an enormous data base of past weather data is contemplated to improve seasonal forecasts, but present skills do not make that practicable. 90 references. (PSB)
Weatherization Assistance Program Fact Sheet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
2018-02-01
The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy e ciency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety. The Program supports 8,500 jobs and provides weatherization services to approximately 35,000 homes every year using DOE funds.
Now, Here's the Weather Forecast...
Richardson, Mathew
2013-01-01
The Met Office has a long history of weather forecasting, creating tailored weather forecasts for customers across the world. Based in Exeter, the Met Office is also home to the Met Office Hadley Centre, a world-leading centre for the study of climate change and its potential impacts. Climate information from the Met Office Hadley Centre is used…
The influence of weather on fibrinolysis and fibrinogenolysis. [in human body
Marchenko, V. I.
1974-01-01
Analysis of fibrinolysis and fibrinogenolysis indices by month showed an increase in the activity of these processes from winter to summer (1967-1968). At all seasons of the year, fibrinolysis and fibrinogenolysis increase during weather of the cyclonic type with passage of fronts and sharp fluctuations in meteorological factors in the atmosphere.
Phase-correcting non-local means filtering for diffusion-weighted imaging of the spinal cord.
Kafali, Sevgi Gokce; Çukur, Tolga; Saritas, Emine Ulku
2018-02-09
DWI suffers from low SNR when compared to anatomical MRI. To maintain reasonable SNR at relatively high spatial resolution, multiple acquisitions must be averaged. However, subject motion or involuntary physiological motion during diffusion-sensitizing gradients cause phase offsets among acquisitions. When the motion is localized to a small region, these phase offsets become particularly problematic. Complex averaging of acquisitions lead to cancellations from these phase offsets, whereas magnitude averaging results in noise amplification. Here, we propose an improved reconstruction for multi-acquisition DWI that effectively corrects for phase offsets while reducing noise. Each acquisition is processed with a refocusing reconstruction for global phase correction and a partial k-space reconstruction via projection-onto-convex-sets (POCS). The proposed reconstruction then embodies a new phase-correcting non-local means (PC-NLM) filter. PC-NLM is performed on the complex-valued outputs of the POCS algorithm aggregated across acquisitions. The PC-NLM filter leverages the shared structure among multiple acquisitions to simultaneously alleviate nuisance factors including phase offsets and noise. Extensive simulations and in vivo DWI experiments of the cervical spinal cord are presented. The results demonstrate that the proposed reconstruction improves image quality by mitigating signal loss because of phase offsets and reducing noise. Importantly, these improvements are achieved while preserving the accuracy of apparent diffusion coefficient maps. An improved reconstruction incorporating a PC-NLM filter for multi-acquisition DWI is presented. This reconstruction can be particularly beneficial for high-resolution or high-b-value DWI acquisitions that suffer from low SNR and phase offsets from local motion. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Multiscale fluctuations in nuclear response
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lacroix, D.; Chomaz, Ph.
1999-01-01
The nuclear collective response is investigated in the framework of a doorway picture in which the spreading width of the collective emotion is described as a coupling to more and more complex configurations. It is shown that this coupling induces fluctuations of the observed strength. In the case of a hierarchy of overlapping decay channels, Ericson fluctuations are observed at different scales. Methods for extracting these scales and the related lifetimes are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the coupling of different states at one level of complexity to some common decay channels at the next level, may produce interference-like patterns in the nuclear response. This quantum effect leads to anew type of fluctuations with a typical width related to the level spacing. (author)
Fluctuation relations for anomalous dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chechkin, A V; Klages, R
2009-01-01
We consider work fluctuation relations (FRs) for generic types of dynamics generating anomalous diffusion: Lévy flights, long-correlated Gaussian processes and time-fractional kinetics. By combining Langevin and kinetic approaches we calculate the probability distributions of mechanical and thermodynamical work in two paradigmatic nonequilibrium situations, respectively: a particle subject to a constant force and a particle in a harmonic potential dragged by a constant force. We check the transient FR for two models exhibiting superdiffusion, where a fluctuation-dissipation relation does not exist, and for two other models displaying subdiffusion, where there is a fluctuation-dissipation relation. In the two former cases the conventional transient FR is not recovered, whereas in the latter two it holds either exactly or in the long-time limit. (letter)
Fluctuations in the multiparticle dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bozek, P.; Ploszajczak, M.
1993-01-01
The appearance and properties of intermittent fluctuations in physical systems, in particular the formation of rare structures in transport phenomena are discussed. The distribution of fluctuations approaches a limiting log-normal statistical distribution. The log-normal distribution is introduced as a simple parametrization of the energy fluctuations leading to the subthreshold production of particles in nuclear collisions, and it is shown that it fits all available data both for total π 0 production cross section as well as the π 0 kinetic energy spectra for E/A < 90 MeV. It is suggested that the same universal distribution should also describe the subthreshold production of other hadrons like η and K. (author) 36 refs., 11 figs
Multiscale fluctuations in nuclear response
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lacroix, D.; Chomaz, Ph
1999-01-01
The nuclear collective response is investigated in the framework of a doorway picture in which the spreading width of the collective emotion is described as a coupling to more and more complex configurations. It is shown that this coupling induces fluctuations of the observed strength. In the case of a hierarchy of overlapping decay channels, Ericson fluctuations are observed at different scales. Methods for extracting these scales and the related lifetimes are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the coupling of different states at one level of complexity to some common decay channels at the next level, may produce interference-like patterns in the nuclear response. This quantum effect leads to anew type of fluctuations with a typical width related to the level spacing. (author) 25 refs.
Artificial weathering of granite
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silva Hermo, B.
2008-06-01
Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir
Phase space fluctuations and dynamics of fluctuations of collective variables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Idier, D.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F. (Lab. de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3/CNRS, 44 - Nantes (France) Nantes Univ., 44 (France)); Hernandez, E.S. (Dept. de Fisica, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina))
1992-08-03
Within the framework of theoretical approaches based on stochastic transport equation of one-body distribution function, a numerical treatment of the fluctuations of collective observables is studied and checked in comparison with analytical results either at equilibrium or close to it. (orig.).
Phase space fluctuations and dynamics of fluctuations of collective variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Idier, D.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.; Hernandez, E.S.
1992-01-01
Within the framework of theoretical approaches based on stochastic transport equation of one-body distribution function, a numerical treatment of the fluctuations of collective observables is studied and checked in comparison with analytical results either at equilibrium or close to it. (orig.)
Entropic Repulsion Between Fluctuating Surfaces
Janke, W.
The statistical mechanics of fluctuating surfaces plays an important role in a variety of physical systems, ranging from biological membranes to world sheets of strings in theories of fundamental interactions. In many applications it is a good approximation to assume that the surfaces possess no tension. Their statistical properties are then governed by curvature energies only, which allow for gigantic out-of-plane undulations. These fluctuations are the “entropic” origin of long-range repulsive forces in layered surface systems. Theoretical estimates of these forces for simple model surfaces are surveyed and compared with recent Monte Carlo simulations.
Origin of cosmological density fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carr, B.J.
1984-11-01
The density fluctuations required to explain the large-scale cosmological structure may have arisen spontaneously as a result of a phase transition in the early Universe. There are several ways in which such fluctuations may have ben produced, and they could have a variety of spectra, so one should not necessarily expect all features of the large-scale structure to derive from a simple power law spectrum. Some features may even result from astrophysical amplification mechanisms rather than gravitational instability. 128 references
Reconstruction of Historical Weather by Assimilating Old Weather Diary Data
Neluwala, P.; Yoshimura, K.; Toride, K.; Hirano, J.; Ichino, M.; Okazaki, A.
2017-12-01
Climate can control not only human life style but also other living beings. It is important to investigate historical climate to understand the current and future climates. Information about daily weather can give a better understanding of past life on earth. Long-term weather influences crop calendar as well as the development of civilizations. Unfortunately, existing reconstructed daily weather data are limited to 1850s due to the availability of instrumental data. The climate data prior to that are derived from proxy materials (e.g., tree-ring width, ice core isotopes, etc.) which are either in annual or decadal scale. However, there are many historical documents which contain information about weather such as personal diaries. In Japan, around 20 diaries in average during the 16th - 19th centuries have been collected and converted into a digitized form. As such, diary data exist in many other countries. This study aims to reconstruct historical daily weather during the 18th and 19th centuries using personal daily diaries which have analogue weather descriptions such as `cloudy' or `sunny'. A recent study has shown the possibility of assimilating coarse weather data using idealized experiments. We further extend this study by assimilating modern weather descriptions similar to diary data in recent periods. The Global Spectral model (GSM) of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is used to reconstruct weather with the Local Ensemble Kalman filter (LETKF). Descriptive data are first converted to model variables such as total cloud cover (TCC), solar radiation and precipitation using empirical relationships. Those variables are then assimilated on a daily basis after adding random errors to consider the uncertainty of actual diary data. The assimilation of downward short wave solar radiation using weather descriptions improves RMSE from 64.3 w/m2 to 33.0 w/m2 and correlation coefficient (R) from 0.5 to 0.8 compared with the case without any
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luescher, M.
1977-12-01
Conserved non-local charges are shown to exist in the quantum non-linear sigma-model by a non-perturbative method. They imply the absence of particle production and the 'factorization equations' for the two particle S-matrix, which can then be calculated explicitly. (Auth.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergemann, Maria; Collet, Remo; Schönrich, Ralph
2016-01-01
We have analysed high-resolution spectra of 328 stars and derived Mg abundances using non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) spectral line formation calculations and plane-parallel model stellar atmospheres derived from the mean stratification of 3D hydrodynamical surface convection simulations...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammadimehr, M.; Mohammadi-Dehabadi, A.A.; Maraghi, Z. Khoddami
2017-01-01
In this research, the effect of non-local higher order stress on the nonlinear vibration behavior of carbon nanotube conveying viscous nanoflow resting on elastic foundation is investigated. Physical intuition reveals that increasing nanoscale stress leads to decrease the stiffness of nanostructure which firstly established by Eringen's non-local elasticity theory (previous nonlocal method) while many of papers have concluded otherwise at microscale based on modified couple stress, modified strain gradient theories and surface stress effect. The non-local higher order stress model (new nonlocal method) is used in this article that has been studied by few researchers in other fields and the results from the present study show that the trend of the new nonlocal method and size dependent effect including modified couple stress theory is the same. In this regard, the nonlinear motion equations are derived using a variational principal approach considering essential higher-order non-local terms. The surrounded elastic medium is modeled by Pasternak foundation to increase the stability of system where the fluid flow may cause system instability. Effects of various parameters such as non-local parameter, elastic foundation coefficient, and fluid flow velocity on the stability and dimensionless natural frequency of nanotube are investigated. The results of this research show that the small scale parameter based on higher order stress help to increase the natural frequency which has been approved by other small scale theories such as strain gradient theory, modified couple stress theory and experiments, and vice versa for previous nonlocal method. This study may be useful to measure accurately the vibration characteristics of nanotubes conveying viscous nanoflow and to design nanofluidic devices for detecting blood Glucose.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohammadimehr, M., E-mail: mmohammadimehr@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, P.O. Box: 87317-53153, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi-Dehabadi, A.A. [Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, P.O. Box: 87317-53153, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maraghi, Z. Khoddami [Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, P.O. Box: 87317-53153, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-04-01
In this research, the effect of non-local higher order stress on the nonlinear vibration behavior of carbon nanotube conveying viscous nanoflow resting on elastic foundation is investigated. Physical intuition reveals that increasing nanoscale stress leads to decrease the stiffness of nanostructure which firstly established by Eringen's non-local elasticity theory (previous nonlocal method) while many of papers have concluded otherwise at microscale based on modified couple stress, modified strain gradient theories and surface stress effect. The non-local higher order stress model (new nonlocal method) is used in this article that has been studied by few researchers in other fields and the results from the present study show that the trend of the new nonlocal method and size dependent effect including modified couple stress theory is the same. In this regard, the nonlinear motion equations are derived using a variational principal approach considering essential higher-order non-local terms. The surrounded elastic medium is modeled by Pasternak foundation to increase the stability of system where the fluid flow may cause system instability. Effects of various parameters such as non-local parameter, elastic foundation coefficient, and fluid flow velocity on the stability and dimensionless natural frequency of nanotube are investigated. The results of this research show that the small scale parameter based on higher order stress help to increase the natural frequency which has been approved by other small scale theories such as strain gradient theory, modified couple stress theory and experiments, and vice versa for previous nonlocal method. This study may be useful to measure accurately the vibration characteristics of nanotubes conveying viscous nanoflow and to design nanofluidic devices for detecting blood Glucose.
Fluctuations in Overlapping Generations Economies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tvede, Mich
. The approach to existence of endogenous fluctuations is basic in the sense that the prime ingredients are the implicit function theorem and linear algebra. Moreover the approach is applied to show that for an open and dense set of utility functions there exist endowment vectors such that sunspot equilibria...
Magnetic fluctuations in turbulent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruzmaikin, A.A.
1990-01-01
For dynamo excitation of the magnetic fluctuations in infinite fluid only a sufficient large magnetic Reynolds number is needed. In a infinite region an additional condition appears. Due to the diffusion of the magnetic field through the boundaries a size of the region must be large enough compare with a correlation length of the turbulence. Author)
Firm default and aggregate fluctuations
Jacobson, Tor; Linde, Jesper; Roszbach, Kasper
This paper studies the relationship between macroeconomic fluctuations and corporate defaults while conditioning on industry affiliation and an extensive set of firm-specific factors. By using a panel data set for virtually all incorporated Swedish businesses over 1990-2009, a period which includes
Fluctuating hydrodynamics for ionic liquids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lazaridis, Konstantinos [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States); Wickham, Logan [Department of Computer Science, Washington State University, Richland, 99354 (United States); Voulgarakis, Nikolaos, E-mail: n.voulgarakis@wsu.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States)
2017-04-25
We present a mean-field fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD) method for studying the structural and transport properties of ionic liquids in bulk and near electrified surfaces. The free energy of the system consists of two competing terms: (1) a Landau–Lifshitz functional that models the spontaneous separation of the ionic groups, and (2) the standard mean-field electrostatic interaction between the ions in the liquid. The numerical approach used to solve the resulting FHD-Poisson equations is very efficient and models thermal fluctuations with remarkable accuracy. Such density fluctuations are sufficiently strong to excite the experimentally observed spontaneous formation of liquid nano-domains. Statistical analysis of our simulations provides quantitative information about the properties of ionic liquids, such as the mixing quality, stability, and the size of the nano-domains. Our model, thus, can be adequately parameterized by directly comparing our prediction with experimental measurements and all-atom simulations. Conclusively, this work can serve as a practical mathematical tool for testing various theories and designing more efficient mixtures of ionic liquids. - Highlights: • A new fluctuating hydrodynamics method for ionic liquids. • Description of ionic liquid morphology in bulk and near electrified surfaces. • Direct comparison with experimental measurements.
MO-DE-207A-11: Sparse-View CT Reconstruction Via a Novel Non-Local Means Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Z; Qi, H; Wu, S; Xu, Y; Zhou, L
2016-01-01
Purpose: Sparse-view computed tomography (CT) reconstruction is an effective strategy to reduce the radiation dose delivered to patients. Due to its insufficiency of measurements, traditional non-local means (NLM) based reconstruction methods often lead to over-smoothness in image edges. To address this problem, an adaptive NLM reconstruction method based on rotational invariance (RIANLM) is proposed. Methods: The method consists of four steps: 1) Initializing parameters; 2) Algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) reconstruction using raw projection data; 3) Positivity constraint of the image reconstructed by ART; 4) Update reconstructed image by using RIANLM filtering. In RIANLM, a novel similarity metric that is rotational invariance is proposed and used to calculate the distance between two patches. In this way, any patch with similar structure but different orientation to the reference patch would win a relatively large weight to avoid over-smoothed image. Moreover, the parameter h in RIANLM which controls the decay of the weights is adaptive to avoid over-smoothness, while it in NLM is not adaptive during the whole reconstruction process. The proposed method is named as ART-RIANLM and validated on Shepp-Logan phantom and clinical projection data. Results: In our experiments, the searching neighborhood size is set to 15 by 15 and the similarity window is set to 3 by 3. For the simulated case with a resolution of 256 by 256 Shepp-Logan phantom, the ART-RIANLM produces higher SNR (35.38dB<24.00dB) and lower MAE (0.0006<0.0023) reconstructed image than ART-NLM. The visual inspection demonstrated that the proposed method could suppress artifacts or noises more effectively and preserve image edges better. Similar results were found for clinical data case. Conclusion: A novel ART-RIANLM method for sparse-view CT reconstruction is presented with superior image. Compared to the conventional ART-NLM method, the SNR and MAE from ART-RIANLM increases 47% and decreases 74
Factorization and non-local 1/mb corrections in the decay anti B → Xsγ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benzke, Michael
2011-01-01
In this thesis, a systematic analysis of the anti B → X s γ photon spectrum in the endpoint region is presented. The endpoint region refers to a kinematic configuration of the final state, in which the photon has a large energy m b -2E γ =O(Λ QCD ), while the jet has a large energy but small invariant mass. Using methods of soft-collinear effective theory and heavy-quark effective theory, it is shown that the spectrum can be factorized into hard, jet, and soft functions, each encoding the dynamics at a certain scale. The relevant scales in the endpoint region are the heavy-quark mass m b , the hadronic energy scale Λ QCD and an intermediate scale √(Λ QCD m b ) associated with the invariant mass of the jet. It is found that the factorization formula contains two different types of contributions, distinguishable by the space-time structure of the underlying diagrams. On the one hand, there are the direct photon contributions which correspond to diagrams with the photon emitted directly from the weak vertex. The resolved photon contributions on the other hand arise at O(1/m b ) whenever the photon couples to light partons. In this work, these contributions are explicitly defined in terms of convolutions of jet functions with subleading shape functions. While the direct photon contributions can be expressed in terms of a local operator product expansion, when the photon spectrum is integrated over a range larger than the endpoint region, the resolved photon contributions always remain non-local. Thus, they are responsible for a non-perturbative uncertainty on the partonic predictions. In this thesis, the effect of these uncertainties is estimated in two different phenomenological contexts. First, the hadronic uncertainties in the anti B → X s γ branching fraction, defined with a cut E γ > 1.6GeV are discussed. It is found, that the resolved photon contributions give rise to an irreducible theory uncertainty of approximately 5%. As a second application of
Zhang, Yuanke; Lu, Hongbing; Rong, Junyan; Meng, Jing; Shang, Junliang; Ren, Pinghong; Zhang, Junying
2017-09-01
Low-dose CT (LDCT) technique can reduce the x-ray radiation exposure to patients at the cost of degraded images with severe noise and artifacts. Non-local means (NLM) filtering has shown its potential in improving LDCT image quality. However, currently most NLM-based approaches employ a weighted average operation directly on all neighbor pixels with a fixed filtering parameter throughout the NLM filtering process, ignoring the non-stationary noise nature of LDCT images. In this paper, an adaptive NLM filtering scheme on local principle neighborhoods (PC-NLM) is proposed for structure-preserving noise/artifacts reduction in LDCT images. Instead of using neighboring patches directly, in the PC-NLM scheme, the principle component analysis (PCA) is first applied on local neighboring patches of the target patch to decompose the local patches into uncorrelated principle components (PCs), then a NLM filtering is used to regularize each PC of the target patch and finally the regularized components is transformed to get the target patch in image domain. Especially, in the NLM scheme, the filtering parameter is estimated adaptively from local noise level of the neighborhood as well as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the corresponding PC, which guarantees a "weaker" NLM filtering on PCs with higher SNR and a "stronger" filtering on PCs with lower SNR. The PC-NLM procedure is iteratively performed several times for better removal of the noise and artifacts, and an adaptive iteration strategy is developed to reduce the computational load by determining whether a patch should be processed or not in next round of the PC-NLM filtering. The effectiveness of the presented PC-NLM algorithm is validated by experimental phantom studies and clinical studies. The results show that it can achieve promising gain over some state-of-the-art methods in terms of artifact suppression and structure preservation. With the use of PCA on local neighborhoods to extract principal structural
Changing weather causes behavioral responses in the lower mesopelagic
Kaartvedt, S
2017-05-10
Mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers at a 700 m deep location in the Red Sea ascended 70 to 80 m during a passing rain storm that reduced light levels at the surface by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The changes in vertical distribution were observed down to the deepest part of the water column and were interpreted as a response to sudden dark weather. However, light measurements suggest that the mesopelagic targets (fish) did not fully compensate for the reduction in ambient light, and the calculated light levels in the scattering layers were similar to 1 order of magnitude lower during the passage of the storm. The results show that fluctuating weather conditions may affect pelagic ecosystems even towards the lower parts of the mesopelagic zone.
Powernext weather, benchmark indices for effective weather risk management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2006-01-01
According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the Powernext/Meteo France partnership for the elaboration of efficient weather-related risk management indices. (J.S.)
Zolotov, Mikhail
2018-01-01
Chemical and phase compositions of Venus's surface could reflect history of gas- and fluid-rock interactions, recent and past climate changes, and a loss of water from the Earth's sister planet. The concept of chemical weathering on Venus through gas-solid type reactions has been established in 1960s after the discovery of hot and dense CO2-rich atmosphere inferred from Earth-based and Mariner 2 radio emission data. Initial works suggested carbonation, hydration, and oxidation of exposed igneous rocks and a control (buffering) of atmospheric gases by solid-gas type chemical equilibria in the near-surface lithosphere. Calcite, quartz, wollastonite, amphiboles, and Fe oxides were considered likely secondary minerals. Since the late 1970s, measurements of trace gases in the sub-cloud atmosphere by Pioneer Venus and Venera entry probes and Earth-based infrared spectroscopy doubted the likelihood of hydration and carbonation. The H2O gas content appeared to be low to allow a stable existence of hydrated and a majority of OH-bearing minerals. The concentration of SO2 was too high to allow the stability of calcite and Ca-rich silicates with respect to sulfatization to CaSO4. In 1980s, the supposed ongoing consumption of atmospheric SO2 to sulfates gained support by the detection of an elevated bulk S content at Venera and Vega landing sites. The induced composition of the near-surface atmosphere implied oxidation of ferrous minerals to magnetite and hematite, consistent with the infrared reflectance of surface materials. The likelihood of sulfatization and oxidation has been illustrated in modeling experiments at simulated Venus conditions. Venus's surface morphology suggests that hot surface rocks and fines of mainly mafic composition contacted atmospheric gases during several hundreds of millions years since a global volcanic resurfacing. Some exposed materials could have reacted at higher and lower temperatures in a presence of diverse gases at different altitudinal
Operational space weather service for GNSS precise positioning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Jakowski
2005-11-01
Full Text Available The ionospheric plasma can significantly influence the propagation of radio waves and the ionospheric disturbances are capable of causing range errors, rapid phase and amplitude fluctuations (radio scintillations of satellite signals that may lead to degradation of the system performance, its accuracy and reliability. The cause of such disturbances should be sought in the processes originating in the Sun. Numerous studies on these phenomena have been already carried out at a broad international level, in order to measure/estimate these space weather induced effects, to forecast them, and to understand and mitigate their impact on present-day technological systems. SWIPPA (Space Weather Impact on Precise Positioning Applications is a pilot project jointly supported by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR and the European Space Agency (ESA. The project aims at establishing, operating, and evaluating a specific space-weather monitoring service that can possibly lead to improving current positioning applications based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS. This space weather service provides GNSS users with essential expert information delivered in the form of several products - maps of TEC values, TEC spatial and temporal gradients, alerts for ongoing/oncoming ionosphere disturbances, etc.
Operational space weather service for GNSS precise positioning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Jakowski
2005-11-01
Full Text Available The ionospheric plasma can significantly influence the propagation of radio waves and the ionospheric disturbances are capable of causing range errors, rapid phase and amplitude fluctuations (radio scintillations of satellite signals that may lead to degradation of the system performance, its accuracy and reliability. The cause of such disturbances should be sought in the processes originating in the Sun. Numerous studies on these phenomena have been already carried out at a broad international level, in order to measure/estimate these space weather induced effects, to forecast them, and to understand and mitigate their impact on present-day technological systems.
SWIPPA (Space Weather Impact on Precise Positioning Applications is a pilot project jointly supported by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR and the European Space Agency (ESA. The project aims at establishing, operating, and evaluating a specific space-weather monitoring service that can possibly lead to improving current positioning applications based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS. This space weather service provides GNSS users with essential expert information delivered in the form of several products - maps of TEC values, TEC spatial and temporal gradients, alerts for ongoing/oncoming ionosphere disturbances, etc.
Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease
... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 Th is winter ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac ...
Detection of Weather Radar Clutter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bøvith, Thomas
2008-01-01
classification and use a range of different techniques and input data. The first method uses external information from multispectral satellite images to detect clutter. The information in the visual, near-infrared, and infrared parts of the spectrum can be used to distinguish between cloud and cloud-free areas......Weather radars provide valuable information on precipitation in the atmosphere but due to the way radars work, not only precipitation is observed by the weather radar. Weather radar clutter, echoes from non-precipitating targets, occur frequently in the data, resulting in lowered data quality....... Especially in the application of weather radar data in quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting a high data quality is important. Clutter detection is one of the key components in achieving this goal. This thesis presents three methods for detection of clutter. The methods use supervised...
KZHU Center Weather Advisory (CWA)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...
Practical Weathering for Geology Students.
Hodder, A. Peter
1990-01-01
The design and data management of an activity to study weathering by increasing the rate of mineral dissolution in a microwave oven is described. Data analysis in terms of parabolic and first-order kinetics is discussed. (CW)
Northern Hemisphere Synoptic Weather Maps
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Part I consists of plotted and analyzed daily maps of sea-level and 500-mb maps for 0300, 0400, 1200, 1230, 1300, and 1500...
The Challenge of Weather Prediction
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
around the sun. If weather is also governed by physical laws, why ... radiate according to Planck's law (higher the temperature of the black body ..... First law of thermodynamics. Relates ... (Third Edition) Charles E Merrill Publishing. Company.
Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions
... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...
KZOA Center Weather Advisory (CWA)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...
KZJX Center Weather Advisory (CWA)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...
KZBW Center Weather Advisory (CWA)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...
KZFW Center Weather Advisory (CWA)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...
KZSE Center Weather Advisory (CWA)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...
KZME Center Weather Advisory (CWA)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...
KZDV Center Weather Advisory (CWA)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...
KZNY Center Weather Advisory (CWA)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...
KZDC Center Weather Advisory (CWA)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...
KZAU Center Weather Advisory (CWA)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...
US Weather Bureau Storm Reports
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Bureau and US Army Corps and other reports of storms from 1886-1955. Hourly precipitation from recording rain gauges captured during heavy rain, snow,...
Developing New Strategies for Coping with Weather: Work in Alaskan and Canadian Coastal Communities
Atkinson, D. E.
2014-12-01
A changing climate is manifested at ground level through the day to day weather. For all Northern residents - community, industrial, operational and response - the need to think about the weather is ever present. Northern residents, and in particular, indigenous community residents, fully understand implications of the weather, however, a comment that has been heard more often is that old ways of knowing are not as reliable as they once were. Weather patterns seem less consistent and subject to more rapid fluctuations. Compromised traditional ways of knowing puts those who need to travel or hunt at greater risk. One response to adapt to this emerging reality is to make greater use of western sources of information, such as weather data and charts provided by NOAA's National Weather Service or Environment Canada. The federal weather agencies have very large and complex forecasting regions to cover, and so one problem is that it can be difficult to provide perfectly tailored forecasts, that cover all possible problems, right down to the very local scale in the communities. Only those affected have a complete feel for their own concerns. Thus, key to a strategy to improve the utility of available weather information is a linking of local-scale manifestations of problematic weather to the larger-scale weather patterns. This is done in two ways: by direct consultation with Northern residents, and by installation of equipment to measure parameters of interest to residents, which are not already being measured. This talk will overview projects in coastal Alaska and Canada targeting this objective. The challenge of designing and conducting interviews, and then of harvesting relevant information, will be visited using examples from the three major contexts: coastal community, industrial, and operational. Examples of how local comments can be married to weather products will be presented.
Analysis for probability of irradiance fluctuation; Nissha hendo kakuritsu no bunseki
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Minowa, J; Kurokawa, K [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Otani, K; Sakuta, K [Electrochemical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)
1996-10-27
Distribution of probabilities of solar radiation fluctuation was examined to learn the fluctuation in photovoltaic power generation efficiency for the purpose of improving on the generation system. The measuring setup comprised one base station and nine terminal stations. The terminal stations were arrayed in lattice so that a 4km{times}4km-large area would be covered. The standard deviation in solar radiation fluctuation at an observation spot ANNE stayed constant at approximately 0.1kW/m{sup 2} at all observation hours. In the vicinity of a clearness index range of 0.5-0.6 (a higher index showing a clearer weather) in the daytime, the index fluctuated very much, predicting a half-clear sky with scattered cloud. In the range of 0.2-0.3, fluctuation was small. In the range of 0.6-0.7, fluctuation was small and solar radiation was stable under the clear sky. The scope of fluctuation in the areal average is smaller than that in the average at each of the terminal stations, which is explained by the even-out effect. This means that, if multiple PV systems concentratedly introduced into one region are appropriately coordinated, the outputs from the individual PV systems that are naturally inconsistent are evened out and that the reliability of the network as a whole is consequently enhanced. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Paytan, A.; Eisenhauer, A.; Wallmann, K. J. G.; Griffith, E. M.; Ridgwell, A.
2017-12-01
The radiogenic Sr-isotopic signature (87Sr/86Sr) of seawater fluctuates primarily in response to changes in the inputs of Sr from weathering and hydrothermal activity, which have distinct 87Sr/86Sr values. Changes in the isotopic ratio of the weathered terrain also contribute to observed changes in 87Sr/86Sr. The stable Sr-isotope ratios in seawater (mass dependent isotopic fractionation; δ88/86Sr) fluctuate primarily in response to the rate of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) accumulation at the seafloor. Together the radiogenic and stable Sr can constrain the coupling between weathering and sedimentation and shed light on the relation between weathering, CaCO3 deposition, the global carbon (C) cycle and climate. Reconstruction of the coupled stable and radiogenic Sr seawater curves over the past 35 Ma of Earth history indicates that the location and rate of CaCO3 burial in the ocean fluctuated considerably over the past 35 Ma. Between 35 to 18 Ma a reduction in neritic CaCO3 burial and increased burial in pelagic settings is observed. The trend was reversed between 20 and 3 Ma and finally over the last 3 million years a rapid change from neritic to pelagic burial is seen. The lack of continues increase of pelagic CaCO3 burial rates suggests that silicate weathering rates have not increased monotonically over the past 35 Ma implying strong feedbacks operating in the climate system - lower atmospheric pCO2 and cooling trends (which control chemical weathering as seen from carbonate deposition in the ocean) countered the effects of uplift (which controls physical weathering) - modulating weathering rates and preventing a runaway ice-house. In addition the data suggests considerable fluctuations in seawater Sr concentrations over time. These data demonstrate how using multiple isotope proxies can help constrain interpretations of the geological record.
Fluctuation current in superconducting loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berger, Jorge
2012-01-01
A superconducting loop that encloses noninteger flux holds a permanent current. On the average, this current is also present above T c , and has been measured in recent years. We are able to evaluate the permanent current within the TDGL or the Kramer-Watts-Tobin models for loops of general configuration, i.e., we don't require uniform cross section, material or temperature. We can also consider situations in which the width is not negligible in comparison to the radius. Our results agree with experiments. The situations with which we deal at present include fluctuation superconductivity in two-band superconductors, equilibrium thermal fluctuations of supercurrent along a weak link, and ratchet effects.
Fluctuations and confinement in ATF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isler, R.C.; Harris, J.H.; Murakami, M.
1993-01-01
In the period immediately prior to the suspension of ATF operation in November, 1991, a great deal of emphasis was palced on investigations of the fundamental mechanisms controlling confinement in this device. At that time, measurements of the density fluctuations throughout the plasma volume indicated the existence of theoretically predicted dissipative trapped electron and resistive interchange instabilities. These identifications were supported by results of dynamic configuration scans of the magnetic fields during which the extent of the magnetic well, shear, and fraction of confined trapped particles were changed continuously. Interpretation of the data from these experiments has been an ongoing exercise. Most recently, analysis of discharges employing strong gas puffing to change density gradients and fluctuation levels have strengthened the view that dissipative trapped electron modes may be present but do not play a significant direct role in energy transport. The present paper summarizes the current understanding concerning the identification of instabilities and their relationship to confinement in ATF
Charge Fluctuations in Nanoscale Capacitors
Limmer, David T.; Merlet, Céline; Salanne, Mathieu; Chandler, David; Madden, Paul A.; van Roij, René; Rotenberg, Benjamin
2013-09-01
The fluctuations of the charge on an electrode contain information on the microscopic correlations within the adjacent fluid and their effect on the electronic properties of the interface. We investigate these fluctuations using molecular dynamics simulations in a constant-potential ensemble with histogram reweighting techniques. This approach offers, in particular, an efficient, accurate, and physically insightful route to the differential capacitance that is broadly applicable. We demonstrate these methods with three different capacitors: pure water between platinum electrodes and a pure as well as a solvent-based organic electrolyte each between graphite electrodes. The total charge distributions with the pure solvent and solvent-based electrolytes are remarkably Gaussian, while in the pure ionic liquid the total charge distribution displays distinct non-Gaussian features, suggesting significant potential-driven changes in the organization of the interfacial fluid.
Charge fluctuations in nanoscale capacitors.
Limmer, David T; Merlet, Céline; Salanne, Mathieu; Chandler, David; Madden, Paul A; van Roij, René; Rotenberg, Benjamin
2013-09-06
The fluctuations of the charge on an electrode contain information on the microscopic correlations within the adjacent fluid and their effect on the electronic properties of the interface. We investigate these fluctuations using molecular dynamics simulations in a constant-potential ensemble with histogram reweighting techniques. This approach offers, in particular, an efficient, accurate, and physically insightful route to the differential capacitance that is broadly applicable. We demonstrate these methods with three different capacitors: pure water between platinum electrodes and a pure as well as a solvent-based organic electrolyte each between graphite electrodes. The total charge distributions with the pure solvent and solvent-based electrolytes are remarkably Gaussian, while in the pure ionic liquid the total charge distribution displays distinct non-Gaussian features, suggesting significant potential-driven changes in the organization of the interfacial fluid.
Fluctuation theorems and atypical trajectories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahoo, M; Lahiri, S; Jayannavar, A M
2011-01-01
In this work, we have studied simple models that can be solved analytically to illustrate various fluctuation theorems. These fluctuation theorems provide symmetries individually to the distributions of physical quantities such as the classical work (W c ), thermodynamic work (W), total entropy (Δs tot ) and dissipated heat (Q), when the system is driven arbitrarily out of equilibrium. All these quantities can be defined for individual trajectories. We have studied the number of trajectories which exhibit behaviour unexpected at the macroscopic level. As the time of observation increases, the fraction of such atypical trajectories decreases, as expected at the macroscale. The distributions for the thermodynamic work and entropy production in nonlinear models may exhibit a peak (most probable value) in the atypical regime without violating the expected average behaviour. However, dissipated heat and classical work exhibit a peak in the regime of typical behaviour only.
Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, Yicheng; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Chng, Brenda
2016-01-01
We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.
Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi, Yicheng; Kurtsiefer, Christian, E-mail: christian.kurtsiefer@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Chng, Brenda [Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)
2016-07-25
We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.
Integration of Weather Avoidance and Traffic Separation
Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.
2011-01-01
This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction
Climate Prediction - NOAA's National Weather Service
Statistical Models... MOS Prod GFS-LAMP Prod Climate Past Weather Predictions Weather Safety Weather Radio National Weather Service on FaceBook NWS on Facebook NWS Director Home > Climate > Predictions Climate Prediction Long range forecasts across the U.S. Climate Prediction Web Sites Climate Prediction
Quantum Fluctuations for Gravitational Impulsive Waves
Enginer, Y.; Hortacsu, M.; Ozdemir, N.
1998-01-01
Quantum fluctuations for a massless scalar field in the background metric of spherical impulsive gravitational waves through Minkowski and de Sitter spaces are investigated. It is shown that there exist finite fluctuations for de Sitter space.
Net charge fluctuations and local charge compensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu Jinghua
2006-01-01
We propose net charge fluctuation as a measure of local charge correlation length. It is demonstrated that, in terms of a schematic multiperipheral model, net charge fluctuation satisfies the same Quigg-Thomas relation as satisfied by charge transfer fluctuation. Net charge fluctuations measured in finite rapidity windows depend on both the local charge correlation length and the size of the observation window. When the observation window is larger than the local charge correlation length, the net charge fluctuation only depends on the local charge correlation length, while forward-backward charge fluctuations always have strong dependence on the observation window size. Net charge fluctuations and forward-backward charge fluctuations measured in the present heavy ion experiments show characteristic features similar to those from multiperipheral models. But the data cannot all be understood within this simple model
Hadt, Ryan G.; Sun, Ning; Marshall, Nicholas M.; Hodgson, Keith O.; Hedman, Britt; Lu, Yi; Solomon, Edward I.
2012-01-01
The reduction potentials (E0) of type 1 (T1) or blue copper (BC) sites in proteins and enzymes with identical first coordination spheres around the redox active copper ion can vary by ~400 mV. Here, we use a combination of low temperature electronic absorption and magnetic circular dichroism, electron paramagnetic resonance, resonance Raman, and S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopies to investigate a series of second sphere variants—F114P, N47S, and F114N in Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin (Az)—which modulate hydrogen bonding to and protein derived dipoles nearby the Cu-S(Cys) bond. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations correlated to the experimental data allow for the fractionation of the contributions to tuning E0 into covalent and non-local electrostatic components. These are found to be significant, comparable in magnitude, and additive for active H-bonds, while passive H-bonds are mostly non-local electrostatic in nature. For dipoles, these terms can be additive to or oppose one another. This study provides a methodology for uncoupling covalency from non-local electrostatics, which, when coupled to X-ray crystallographic data, distinguishes specific local interactions from more long range protein/active interactions, while affording further insight into the second sphere mechanisms available to the protein to tune the E0 of electron transfer sites in biology. PMID:22985400
Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Ganti, V. K.; Passalacqua, P.
2010-12-01
Nonlinear geomorphic transport laws are often derived from mechanistic considerations at a point, and yet they are implemented on 90m or 30 m DEMs, presenting a mismatch in the scales of derivation and application of the flux laws. Since estimates of local slopes and curvatures are known to depend on the scale of the DEM used in their computation, two questions arise: (1) how to meaningfully compensate for the scale dependence, if any, of local transport laws? and (2) how to formally derive, via upscaling, constitutive laws that are applicable at larger scales? Recently, non-local geomorphic transport laws for sediment transport on hillslopes have been introduced using the concept of an integral flux that depends on topographic attributes in the vicinity of a point of interest. In this paper, we demonstrate the scale dependence of local nonlinear hillslope sediment transport laws and derive a closure term via upscaling (Reynolds averaging). We also show that the non-local hillslope transport laws are inherently scale independent owing to their non-local, scale-free nature. These concepts are demonstrated via an application to a small subbasin of the Oregon Coast Range using 2m LiDAR topographic data.
Measurement of magnetic fluctuation induced energy transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiksel, G.; Prager, S.C.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.
1993-11-01
The local electron energy flux produced by magnetic fluctuations has been measured directly in the MST reversed field pinch (over the radial range r/a > 0.75). The flux, produced by electrons traveling parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field, is obtained from correlation between the fluctuations in the parallel heat flux and the radial magnetic field. The fluctuation induced flux is large (100 kW/cm 2 ) in the ''core'' (r/a 2 ) in the edge
Critical bubbles and fluctuations at the electroweak phase transition
Kripfganz, J; Schmidt, M G
1995-01-01
We discuss the critical bubbles of the electroweak phase transition using an effective high-temperature 3-dimensional action for the Higgs field \\varphi. The separate integration of gauge and Goldstone boson degrees of freedom is conveniently described in the 't Hooft-Feynman covariant background gauge. The effective dimensionless gauge coupling g_3(T)^2 in the broken phase is well behaved throughout the phase transition. However, the behavior of the one-loop Z(\\varphi) factors of the Higgs and gauge kinetic terms signalizes the breakdown of the derivative expansion and of the perturbative expansion for a range of small \\varphi values increasing with the Higgs mass m_H. Taking a functional S_z[\\varphi] with constant Z(\\varphi)=z instead of the full non-local effective action in some neighborhood of the saddlepoint we are calculating the critical bubbles for several temperatures. The fluctuation determinant is calculated to high accuracy using a variant of the heat kernel method. It gives a strong suppression ...
Space Weather Research: Indian perspective
Bhardwaj, Anil; Pant, Tarun Kumar; Choudhary, R. K.; Nandy, Dibyendu; Manoharan, P. K.
2016-12-01
Space weather, just like its meteorological counterpart, is of extreme importance when it comes to its impact on terrestrial near- and far-space environments. In recent years, space weather research has acquired an important place as a thrust area of research having implications both in space science and technology. The presence of satellites and other technological systems from different nations in near-Earth space necessitates that one must have a comprehensive understanding not only of the origin and evolution of space weather processes but also of their impact on technology and terrestrial upper atmosphere. To address this aspect, nations across the globe including India have been investing in research concerning Sun, solar processes and their evolution from solar interior into the interplanetary space, and their impact on Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. In India, over the years, a substantial amount of work has been done in each of these areas by various agencies/institutions. In fact, India has been, and continues to be, at the forefront of space research and has ambitious future programs concerning these areas encompassing space weather. This review aims at providing a glimpse of this Indian perspective on space weather research to the reader and presenting an up-to-date status of the same.
Weather Risk Management in Agriculture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martina Bobriková
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper focuses on valuation of a weather derivative with payoffs depending on temperature. We use historical data from the weather station in the Slovak town Košice to obtain unique prices of option contracts in an incomplete market. Numerical examples of prices of some contracts are presented, using the Burn analysis. We provide an example of how a weather contract can be designed to hedge the financial risk of a suboptimal temperature condition. The comparative comparison of the selected option hedging strategies has shown the best results for the producers in agricultural industries who hedges against an unfavourable weather conditions. The results of analysis proved that by buying put option or call option, the farmer establishes the highest payoff in the case of temperature decrease or increase. The Long Straddle Strategy is the most expensive but is available to the farmer who hedges against a high volatility in temperature movement. We conclude with the findings that weather derivatives could be useful tools to diminish the financial losses for agricultural industries highly dependent for temperature.
Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application
Piotr Binkowski
2008-01-01
The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europ...
Space Weather, Environment and Societies
Lilensten, Jean
2006-01-01
Our planet exists within a space environment affected by constantly changing solar atmosphere producing cosmic particles and electromagnetic waves. This "space weather" profoundly influences the performance of our technology because we primarily use two means for transmitting information and energy; namely, electromagnetic waves and electricity. On an everyday basis, we have developed methods to cope with the normal conditions. However, the sun remains a fiery star whose 'angry' outbursts can potentially destroy spacecrafts, kill astronauts, melt electricity transformers, stop trains, and generally wreak havoc with human activities. Space Weather is the developing field within astronomy that aims at predicting the sun’s violent activity and minimizing the impacts on our daily lives. Space Weather, Environment, and Societies explains why our technological societies are so dependent on solar activity and how the Sun disturbs the transmission of information and energy. Footnotes expand specific points and the ...
Analysis of dynamic multiplicity fluctuations at PHOBOS
Chai, Zhengwei; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J. L.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.
2005-01-01
This paper presents the analysis of the dynamic fluctuations in the inclusive charged particle multiplicity measured by PHOBOS for Au+Au collisions at surdsNN = 200GeV within the pseudo-rapidity range of -3 < η < 3. First the definition of the fluctuations observables used in this analysis is presented, together with the discussion of their physics meaning. Then the procedure for the extraction of dynamic fluctuations is described. Some preliminary results are included to illustrate the correlation features of the fluctuation observable. New dynamic fluctuations results will be available in a later publication.
Noise and fluctuations an introduction
MacDonald, D K C
2006-01-01
An understanding of fluctuations and their role is both useful and fundamental to the study of physics. This concise study of random processes offers graduate students and research physicists a survey that encompasses both the relationship of Brownian Movement with statistical mechanics and the problem of irreversible processes. It outlines the basics of the physics involved, without the strictures of mathematical rigor.The three-part treatment starts with a general survey of Brownian Movement, including electrical Brownian Movement and ""shot-noise,"" Part two explores correlation, frequency
Electrostatic fluctuations in soap films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dean, D.S.; Horgan, R.R.
2002-01-01
A field theory to describe electrostatic interactions in soap films, described by electric multilayers with a generalized thermodynamic surface-charging mechanism, is studied. In the limit where the electrostatic interactions are weak, this theory is exactly soluble. The theory incorporates in a consistent way, the surface-charging mechanism and the fluctuations in the electrostatic field that correspond to the zero-frequency component of the van der Waals force. It is shown that these terms lead to a Casimir-like attraction that can be sufficiently large to explain the transition between the common black film to a Newton black film
Chaotic fluctuations in mathematical economics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshida, Hiroyuki, E-mail: yoshida.hiroyuki@nihon-u.ac.jp [College of Economics, Nihon University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8360 (Japan)
2011-03-01
In this paper we examine a Cournot duopoly model, which expresses the strategic interaction between two firms. We formulate the dynamic adjustment process and investigate the dynamic properties of the stationary point. By introducing a memory mechanism characterized by distributed lag functions, we presuppose that each firm makes production decisions in a cautious manner. This implies that we have to deal with the system of integro-differential equations. By means of numerical simulations we show the occurrence of chaotic fluctuations in the case of fixed delays.
Space Weather Forecasting at IZMIRAN
Gaidash, S. P.; Belov, A. V.; Abunina, M. A.; Abunin, A. A.
2017-12-01
Since 1998, the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) has had an operating heliogeophysical service—the Center for Space Weather Forecasts. This center transfers the results of basic research in solar-terrestrial physics into daily forecasting of various space weather parameters for various lead times. The forecasts are promptly available to interested consumers. This article describes the center and the main types of forecasts it provides: solar and geomagnetic activity, magnetospheric electron fluxes, and probabilities of proton increases. The challenges associated with the forecasting of effects of coronal mass ejections and coronal holes are discussed. Verification data are provided for the center's forecasts.
Vodcasting space weather: The Space Weather FX vodcast series
Collins Petersen, C.; Erickson, P. J.
2008-06-01
The topic of space weather is the subject of a series of nine vodcasts (video podcasts) being created by MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, Massachusetts, USA) and Loch Ness Productions (Groton, Massachusetts, USA). This paper describes the project, its science and outreach goals, and introduces the principal participants.
An Objective Fluctuation Score for Parkinson's Disease
Horne, Malcolm K.; McGregor, Sarah; Bergquist, Filip
2015-01-01
Introduction Establishing the presence and severity of fluctuations is important in managing Parkinson’s Disease yet there is no reliable, objective means of doing this. In this study we have evaluated a Fluctuation Score derived from variations in dyskinesia and bradykinesia scores produced by an accelerometry based system. Methods The Fluctuation Score was produced by summing the interquartile range of bradykinesia scores and dyskinesia scores produced every 2 minutes between 0900-1800 for at least 6 days by the accelerometry based system and expressing it as an algorithm. Results This Score could distinguish between fluctuating and non-fluctuating patients with high sensitivity and selectivity and was significant lower following activation of deep brain stimulators. The scores following deep brain stimulation lay in a band just above the score separating fluctuators from non-fluctuators, suggesting a range representing adequate motor control. When compared with control subjects the score of newly diagnosed patients show a loss of fluctuation with onset of PD. The score was calculated in subjects whose duration of disease was known and this showed that newly diagnosed patients soon develop higher scores which either fall under or within the range representing adequate motor control or instead go on to develop more severe fluctuations. Conclusion The Fluctuation Score described here promises to be a useful tool for identifying patients whose fluctuations are progressing and may require therapeutic changes. It also shows promise as a useful research tool. Further studies are required to more accurately identify therapeutic targets and ranges. PMID:25928634
The impacts of weather variations on energy demand and carbon emissions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Considine, T.J.
2000-01-01
This paper examines the impacts of climate fluctuations on carbon emissions using monthly models of US energy demand. The econometric analysis estimates price, income, and weather elasticities of short-run energy demand. Our model simulations suggest that warmer climate conditions in the US since 1982 slightly reduced carbon emissions in the US. Lower energy use associated with reduced heating requirements offsets higher fuel consumption to meet increased air-conditioning needs. The analysis also suggests that climate change policies should allow some variance in carbon emissions due to short-term weather variations
Verification of Space Weather Forecasts using Terrestrial Weather Approaches
Henley, E.; Murray, S.; Pope, E.; Stephenson, D.; Sharpe, M.; Bingham, S.; Jackson, D.
2015-12-01
The Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre (MOSWOC) provides a range of 24/7 operational space weather forecasts, alerts, and warnings, which provide valuable information on space weather that can degrade electricity grids, radio communications, and satellite electronics. Forecasts issued include arrival times of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and probabilistic forecasts for flares, geomagnetic storm indices, and energetic particle fluxes and fluences. These forecasts are produced twice daily using a combination of output from models such as Enlil, near-real-time observations, and forecaster experience. Verification of forecasts is crucial for users, researchers, and forecasters to understand the strengths and limitations of forecasters, and to assess forecaster added value. To this end, the Met Office (in collaboration with Exeter University) has been adapting verification techniques from terrestrial weather, and has been working closely with the International Space Environment Service (ISES) to standardise verification procedures. We will present the results of part of this work, analysing forecast and observed CME arrival times, assessing skill using 2x2 contingency tables. These MOSWOC forecasts can be objectively compared to those produced by the NASA Community Coordinated Modelling Center - a useful benchmark. This approach cannot be taken for the other forecasts, as they are probabilistic and categorical (e.g., geomagnetic storm forecasts give probabilities of exceeding levels from minor to extreme). We will present appropriate verification techniques being developed to address these forecasts, such as rank probability skill score, and comparing forecasts against climatology and persistence benchmarks. As part of this, we will outline the use of discrete time Markov chains to assess and improve the performance of our geomagnetic storm forecasts. We will also discuss work to adapt a terrestrial verification visualisation system to space weather, to help
Invertebrate populations of the deciduous forest: fluctuations and relations to weather
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Kendeigh, S. Charles
1979-01-01
The major objectives of the present study are to analyze (a) the composition and relative population sizes of the larger invertebrate fauna of relatively undisturbed, near-virgin, stands of deciduous forest, (b...
Currency speculation and dollar fluctuations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephan Schulmeister
1988-12-01
Full Text Available In this study the reasons behind the wide fluctuations of the dollar exchange rate following the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system, for the most part unexplained by the prevailing exchange rate theories, are explored. To do so, the author investigates the exchange rate between the two most traded currencies, the dollar and the deutschemark, from 1973 to 1988. In the first part, the pattern of the daily exchange rate movements is examined to show that a sequence of upward and downward trends interrupted by non-directional movements is typical of exchange rate dynamics in the short run. Moreover, this pattern is systemically exploited through currency speculation, particularly through the use of “technical analysis”. In the second part, the author focuses on the medium-term, arguing that fluctuations can be explained as the result of interacting disequilibria in the goods and asset markets. Although currency speculation has been systemically profitable for most currencies, it should be considered to be destabilizing since the sequence of price runs caused large and persistent deviations of exchange rates from their equilibrium values (purchasing power parity.
Entropic fluctuations in DNA sequences
Thanos, Dimitrios; Li, Wentian; Provata, Astero
2018-03-01
The Local Shannon Entropy (LSE) in blocks is used as a complexity measure to study the information fluctuations along DNA sequences. The LSE of a DNA block maps the local base arrangement information to a single numerical value. It is shown that despite this reduction of information, LSE allows to extract meaningful information related to the detection of repetitive sequences in whole chromosomes and is useful in finding evolutionary differences between organisms. More specifically, large regions of tandem repeats, such as centromeres, can be detected based on their low LSE fluctuations along the chromosome. Furthermore, an empirical investigation of the appropriate block sizes is provided and the relationship of LSE properties with the structure of the underlying repetitive units is revealed by using both computational and mathematical methods. Sequence similarity between the genomic DNA of closely related species also leads to similar LSE values at the orthologous regions. As an application, the LSE covariance function is used to measure the evolutionary distance between several primate genomes.
Universal bounds on current fluctuations.
Pietzonka, Patrick; Barato, Andre C; Seifert, Udo
2016-05-01
For current fluctuations in nonequilibrium steady states of Markovian processes, we derive four different universal bounds valid beyond the Gaussian regime. Different variants of these bounds apply to either the entropy change or any individual current, e.g., the rate of substrate consumption in a chemical reaction or the electron current in an electronic device. The bounds vary with respect to their degree of universality and tightness. A universal parabolic bound on the generating function of an arbitrary current depends solely on the average entropy production. A second, stronger bound requires knowledge both of the thermodynamic forces that drive the system and of the topology of the network of states. These two bounds are conjectures based on extensive numerics. An exponential bound that depends only on the average entropy production and the average number of transitions per time is rigorously proved. This bound has no obvious relation to the parabolic bound but it is typically tighter further away from equilibrium. An asymptotic bound that depends on the specific transition rates and becomes tight for large fluctuations is also derived. This bound allows for the prediction of the asymptotic growth of the generating function. Even though our results are restricted to networks with a finite number of states, we show that the parabolic bound is also valid for three paradigmatic examples of driven diffusive systems for which the generating function can be calculated using the additivity principle. Our bounds provide a general class of constraints for nonequilibrium systems.
The weather and Climate: emergent laws and multifractal cascades
Lovejoy, S.
2016-12-01
In the atmosphere, nonlinear terms are typically about a trillion times larger than linear ones; we anticipate the emergence of high level turbulence laws. The classical turbulence laws were restricted to homogeneous and isotropic systems; to apply them to the atmosphere they must be generalized to account for strong anisotropy (especially stratification) and variability (intermittency). Over the last 30 years, using scaling symmetry principles and multifractal cascades, this has been done. While hitherto they were believed applicable only up to ≈ 100 m, (generalized) turbulence laws now anisotropic and multifractal, they cover spatial scales up planetary in extent and in time well beyond weather scales to include the climate. These higher level laws are stochastic in nature and provide the theoretical basis both for stochastic parametrizations as well as stochastic forecasting. In the time domain the emergent laws for fluctuations DT (for example in temperature T) have means T > ≈ DtH i.e. they are scaling (power laws) in the time interval Dt. We find find exponents H>0 (fluctuations increase with scale) up to ≈ Dt ≈10 days (the lifetime of planetary scale structures, the analogous transition in the ocean is at Dt ≈ 1 year on Mars it is Dt ≈ 2 sols). At larger Dt, there is a transition to a new "macroweather" regime with H≈30 years (anthropocene; larger in the pre-industrial epoch), new climate processes begin to dominate, leading to H>0. "The climate is what you expect, the weather is what you get": the climate is thought to be a kind of "average weather". However this "expected" behavior is macroweather, not the climate. On the contrary, the climate is the new even lower frequency regime at scales Dt> 30 yrs and it has statistical properties very similar to the weather. At these scales, "macroweather is what you expect, the climate is what you get". The scaling in the macroweather regime implies that there is a long-term memory. We show how the
1/f Fluctuations in ion implanted metal semiconductor contacts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stojanovic, M.; Marjanovic, N.; Radojevic, B.
1998-01-01
Ion implanted Metal-Semiconductor contacts is the most widely used structures in electrical devices. Weather complete devices or some parts are of interest, properties of metal-semiconductor junction strongly influence the quality and external characteristic of electronic devices. That is the reason why special attention is paid to the investigation of factor (noise for example) that could influence given junction. Low frequency 1/f fluctuations (noise) are constantly present in metal-semiconductor junction, so measurement of their level as well as the dependence on factors such as temperature must be taken into account in detailed analysis of electrical characteristics of devices such as contact, nuclear detector with surface barrier etc. In this paper we present the results of low frequency noise level measurements on TiN-Ti-Si structures produced by As + ion implantation. (author)
GNSS monitoring of the ionosphere for Space Weather services
Krankowski, A.; Sieradzki, R.; Zakharenkova, I. E.; Cherniak, I. V.
2012-04-01
The International GNSS Service (IGS) Ionosphere Working Group routinely provides the users global ionosphere maps (GIMs) of vertical total electron content (vTEC). The IGS GIMs are provided with spatial resolution of 5.0 degrees x 2.5 degrees in longitude and latitude, respectively. The current temporal resolution is 2 hours, however, 1-hour maps are delivered as a pilot project. There are three types IGS GIMs: the final, rapid and predicted. The latencies of the IGS ionospheric final and rapid products are 10 days and 1 day, respectively. The predicted GIMs are generated for 1 and 2 days in advance. There are four IGS Associate Analysis Centres (IAACs) that provide ionosphere maps computed with independent methodologies using GNSS data. These maps are uploaded to the IGS Ionosphere Combination and Validation Center at the GRL/UWM (Geodynamics Research Laboratory of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland) that produces the IGS official ionospheric products, which are published online via ftp and www. On the other hand, the increasing number of permanently tracking GNSS stations near the North Geomagnetic Pole allow for using satellite observations to detect the ionospheric disturbances at high latitudes with even higher spatial resolution. In the space weather service developed at GRL/UWM, the data from the Arctic stations belonging to IGS/EPN/POLENET networks were used to study TEC fluctuations and scintillations. Since the beginning of 2011, a near real-time service presenting the conditions in the ionosphere have been operational at GRL/UWM www site. The rate of TEC index (ROTI) expressed in TECU/min is used as a measure of TEC fluctuations. The service provides 2-hour maps of the TEC variability. In addition, for each day the daily map of the ionospheric fluctuations as a function geomagnetic local time is also created. This presentation shows the architecture, algorithms, performance and future developments of the IGS GIMs and this new space
Weather swap as an instrument for weather risk management in wheat production
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marković Todor
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A special type of weather derivatives are weather forwards and they exists mostly in the form of weather swaps. Hedging effectiveness in wheat production with and without weather swap was analyzed in this paper using stochastic dominance. The results show that the effect of risk reduction is significant using weather swap, but geographical- basis risk and production-related basis risk are important factor that reduce the utility of weather derivatives.
Deformation of high performance concrete plate under humid tropical weather
Niken, C.; Elly, T.; Supartono, FX; Laksmi, I.
2018-03-01
This paper presents the relationship between surrounding relative humidity and temperature on deformation behavior of one sample concrete plate with compressive strength of 60MPa. This research was done in Indonesia that is in humid tropical weather. A specimens measuring 3000 mm × 1600 mm × 150 mm were used. The behavior was obtained by using four embedded vibrating wire strain gauges (VWESG). As a result there is a very strong relationship between humidity and deformation at the age range of 7 until 21 days. The largest deformation occurs in the corner and the fluctuation of deformation in side position is larger than in the corner and in the middle. The peaks of surrounding relative humidity were fully followed by the deepest valley of deformation on time in the corner, while in another position the range delay time was 8 - 11 hours. There is a strong relationship between surrounding temperature and deformation at the range of 7 until 14 days. The influenced of surrounding relative humidity to concrete behavior is faster and longer than surrounding temperature. The influence of surrounding temperature in humid tropical weather was shorter than in non-humid tropical weather.
Restoration of severely weathered wood
R. Sam. Williams; Mark. Knaebe
2000-01-01
Severely weathered window units were used to test various restoration methods and pretreatments. Sanded and unsanded units were pretreated with a consolidant or water repellent preservative, finished with an oil- or latex-based paint system, and exposed outdoors near Madison, WI, for five years. Pretreatments were applied to both window sashes (stiles and rails) and...
Weather delay costs to trucking.
2012-11-01
Estimates of the nations freight sector of transportation range to upwards of $600 billion of total gross domestic product with 70 percent of total value and 60 percent of total weight moving by truck. Weather-related delays can add significantly ...
Synoptic weather conditions during BOBMEX
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
sions when the strong wind field appeared spread over the peninsula and central India. This was also seen both in OLR and in vertical velocity fields prepared by National Centre for Medium. Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF). A band of low OLR (150–160watts/sqm) could be seen in the south and adjoining central ...
NOAA Weather Radio - All Hazards
Non-Zero All Hazards Logo Emergency Alert Description Event Codes Fact Sheet FAQ Organization Search -event information for all types of hazards: weather (e.g., tornadoes, floods), natural (e.g Management or Preparedness, civil defense, police or mayor/commissioner sets up linkages to send messages on
Coumou, Dim; Rahmstorf, Stefan
The ostensibly large number of recent extreme weather events has triggered intensive discussions, both in- and outside the scientific community, on whether they are related to global warming. Here, we review the evidence and argue that for some types of extreme - notably heatwaves, but also
Fatigue Strength of Weathering Steel
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Klusák, Jan
2012-01-01
Roč. 18, č. 1 (2012), s. 18-22 ISSN 1392-1320 Grant - others:GA MPO(CZ) FT/TA5/076 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : fatigue of weathering steel * corrosion pits * fatigue notch factor Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2012
Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview
Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle
2014-01-01
Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.
Skywatch: The Western Weather Guide.
Keen, Richard A.
The western United States is a region of mountains and valleys with the world's largest ocean next door. Its weather is unique. This book discusses how water, wind, and environmental conditions combine to create the climatic conditions of the region. Included are sections describing: fronts; cyclones; precipitation; storms; tornadoes; hurricanes;…
Accelerated laboratory weathering of acrylic lens materials
Arndt, Thomas; Richter, Steffen; Kogler, René; Pasierb, Mike; Walby, Christopher
2015-09-01
Flat samples from various poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) formulations were subjected to outdoor weathering in Arizona and Florida, EMMAQUA® accelerated outdoor weathering, and two accelerated laboratory weathering procedures at 3 Sun irradiance which, imitate dry (Arizona) and wet (Florida) conditions. The main mode of degradation is yellowing and not the generation of haze for any weathering procedure within the investigated radiant exposure. Higher UV absorber concentrations lead to smaller changes in optical properties and in the resulting relative concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module efficiencies. Comparison of sample properties after various weathering procedures reveals that the influence of weathering factors other than radiant exposure depends on the sample as well.
Hydrodynamical fluctuations in smooth shear flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chagelishvili, G.D.; Khujadze, G.R.; Lominadze, J.G.
1999-11-01
Background of hydrodynamical fluctuations in a intrinsically/stochastically forced, laminar, uniform shear flow is studied. The employment of so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis makes it possible to represent the background of fluctuations in a new light and to get more insight into the physics of its formation. The basic physical processes responsible for the formation of vortex and acoustic wave fluctuation backgrounds are analyzed. Interplay of the processes at low and moderate shear rates is described. Three-dimensional vortex fluctuations around a given macroscopic state are numerically calculated. The correlation functions of the fluctuations of physical quantities are analyzed. It is shown that there exists subspace D k in the wave-number space (k-space) that is limited externally by spherical surface with radius k ν ≡ A/ν (where A is the velocity shear parameter, ν - the kinematic viscosity) in the nonequilibrium open system under study. The spatial Fourier harmonics of vortex as well as acoustic wave fluctuations are strongly subjected by flow shear (by the open character of the system) at wave-numbers satisfying the condition k ν . Specifically it is shown that in D k : The fluctuations are non-Markovian; the spatial spectral density of energy of the vortex fluctuations by far exceeds the white-noise; the term of a new type associated to the hydrodynamical fluctuation of velocity appears in the correlation function of pressure; the fluctuation background of the acoustic waves is completely different at low and moderate shear rates (at low shear rates it is reduced in D k in comparison to the uniform (non-shear) flow; at moderate shear rates it it comparable to the background of the vortex fluctuations). The fluctuation background of both the vortex and the acoustic wave modes is anisotropic. The possible significance of the fluctuation background of vortices for the subcritical transition to turbulence and Brownian motion of small macroscopic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marocchino, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A. [Dipartimento SBAI, Università di Roma “La Sapienza” and CNISM, Roma 00161 (Italy)
2014-01-15
In some regions of a laser driven inertial fusion target, the electron mean-free path can become comparable to or even longer than the electron temperature gradient scale-length. This can be particularly important in shock-ignited (SI) targets, where the laser-spike heated corona reaches temperatures of several keV. In this case, thermal conduction cannot be described by a simple local conductivity model and a Fick's law. Fluid codes usually employ flux-limited conduction models, which preserve causality, but lose important features of the thermal flow. A more accurate thermal flow modeling requires convolution-like non-local operators. In order to improve the simulation of SI targets, the non-local electron transport operator proposed by Schurtz-Nicolaï-Busquet [G. P. Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] has been implemented in the DUED fluid code. Both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) simulations of SI targets have been performed. 1D simulations of the ablation phase highlight that while the shock profile and timing might be mocked up with a flux-limiter; the electron temperature profiles exhibit a relatively different behavior with no major effects on the final gain. The spike, instead, can only roughly be reproduced with a fixed flux-limiter value. 1D target gain is however unaffected, provided some minor tuning of laser pulses. 2D simulations show that the use of a non-local thermal conduction model does not affect the robustness to mispositioning of targets driven by quasi-uniform laser irradiation. 2D simulations performed with only two final polar intense spikes yield encouraging results and support further studies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marocchino, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.
2014-01-01
In some regions of a laser driven inertial fusion target, the electron mean-free path can become comparable to or even longer than the electron temperature gradient scale-length. This can be particularly important in shock-ignited (SI) targets, where the laser-spike heated corona reaches temperatures of several keV. In this case, thermal conduction cannot be described by a simple local conductivity model and a Fick's law. Fluid codes usually employ flux-limited conduction models, which preserve causality, but lose important features of the thermal flow. A more accurate thermal flow modeling requires convolution-like non-local operators. In order to improve the simulation of SI targets, the non-local electron transport operator proposed by Schurtz-Nicolaï-Busquet [G. P. Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] has been implemented in the DUED fluid code. Both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) simulations of SI targets have been performed. 1D simulations of the ablation phase highlight that while the shock profile and timing might be mocked up with a flux-limiter; the electron temperature profiles exhibit a relatively different behavior with no major effects on the final gain. The spike, instead, can only roughly be reproduced with a fixed flux-limiter value. 1D target gain is however unaffected, provided some minor tuning of laser pulses. 2D simulations show that the use of a non-local thermal conduction model does not affect the robustness to mispositioning of targets driven by quasi-uniform laser irradiation. 2D simulations performed with only two final polar intense spikes yield encouraging results and support further studies
Marocchino, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.
2014-01-01
In some regions of a laser driven inertial fusion target, the electron mean-free path can become comparable to or even longer than the electron temperature gradient scale-length. This can be particularly important in shock-ignited (SI) targets, where the laser-spike heated corona reaches temperatures of several keV. In this case, thermal conduction cannot be described by a simple local conductivity model and a Fick's law. Fluid codes usually employ flux-limited conduction models, which preserve causality, but lose important features of the thermal flow. A more accurate thermal flow modeling requires convolution-like non-local operators. In order to improve the simulation of SI targets, the non-local electron transport operator proposed by Schurtz-Nicolaï-Busquet [G. P. Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] has been implemented in the DUED fluid code. Both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) simulations of SI targets have been performed. 1D simulations of the ablation phase highlight that while the shock profile and timing might be mocked up with a flux-limiter; the electron temperature profiles exhibit a relatively different behavior with no major effects on the final gain. The spike, instead, can only roughly be reproduced with a fixed flux-limiter value. 1D target gain is however unaffected, provided some minor tuning of laser pulses. 2D simulations show that the use of a non-local thermal conduction model does not affect the robustness to mispositioning of targets driven by quasi-uniform laser irradiation. 2D simulations performed with only two final polar intense spikes yield encouraging results and support further studies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmitt, Nikolai [Inria, 2004 Route des Lucioles, BP 93, 06902 Sophia Antipolis Cedex (France); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Schlossgartenstr. 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Scheid, Claire [Inria, 2004 Route des Lucioles, BP 93, 06902 Sophia Antipolis Cedex (France); University of Nice – Sophia Antipolis, Mathematics laboratory, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, Cedex 02 (France); Lanteri, Stéphane, E-mail: Stephane.Lanteri@inria.fr [Inria, 2004 Route des Lucioles, BP 93, 06902 Sophia Antipolis Cedex (France); Moreau, Antoine [Institut Pascal, Université Blaise Pascal, 24, avenue des Landais, 63171 Aubière Cedex (France); Viquerat, Jonathan [Inria, 2004 Route des Lucioles, BP 93, 06902 Sophia Antipolis Cedex (France)
2016-07-01
The interaction of light with metallic nanostructures is increasingly attracting interest because of numerous potential applications. Sub-wavelength metallic structures, when illuminated with a frequency close to the plasma frequency of the metal, present resonances that cause extreme local field enhancements. Exploiting the latter in applications of interest requires a detailed knowledge about the occurring fields which can actually not be obtained analytically. For the latter mentioned reason, numerical tools are thus an absolute necessity. The insight they provide is very often the only way to get a deep enough understanding of the very rich physics at play. For the numerical modeling of light-structure interaction on the nanoscale, the choice of an appropriate material model is a crucial point. Approaches that are adopted in a first instance are based on local (i.e. with no interaction between electrons) dispersive models, e.g. Drude or Drude–Lorentz models. From the mathematical point of view, when a time-domain modeling is considered, these models lead to an additional system of ordinary differential equations coupled to Maxwell's equations. However, recent experiments have shown that the repulsive interaction between electrons inside the metal makes the response of metals intrinsically non-local and that this effect cannot generally be overlooked. Technological achievements have enabled the consideration of metallic structures in a regime where such non-localities have a significant influence on the structures' optical response. This leads to an additional, in general non-linear, system of partial differential equations which is, when coupled to Maxwell's equations, significantly more difficult to treat. Nevertheless, dealing with a linearized non-local dispersion model already opens the route to numerous practical applications of plasmonics. In this work, we present a Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain (DGTD) method able to solve the system
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dilna, N.; Rontó, András
2010-01-01
Roč. 60, č. 3 (2010), s. 327-338 ISSN 0139-9918 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0254 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : non-linear boundary value-problem * functional differential equation * non-local condition * unique solvability * differential inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.316, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.2478%2Fs12175-010-0015-9
Fluctuating hyperfine interactions: computational implementation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zacate, M. O.; Evenson, W. E.
2010-01-01
A library of computational routines has been created to assist in the analysis of stochastic models of hyperfine interactions. We call this library the stochastic hyperfine interactions modeling library (SHIML). It provides routines written in the C programming language that (1) read a text description of a model for fluctuating hyperfine fields, (2) set up the Blume matrix, upon which the evolution operator of the system depends, and (3) find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Blume matrix so that theoretical spectra of experimental hyperfine interaction measurements can be calculated. Example model calculations are included in the SHIML package to illustrate its use and to generate perturbed angular correlation spectra for the special case of polycrystalline samples when anisotropy terms of higher order than A 22 can be neglected.
Fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics of flocking
Yadav, Sunil Kumar; Das, Shankar P.
2018-03-01
Starting from a microscopic model, the continuum field theoretic description of the dynamics of a system of active ingredients or "particles" is presented. The equations of motion for the respective collective densities of mass and momentum follow exactly from that of a single element in the flock. The single-particle dynamics has noise and anomalous momentum dependence in its frictional terms. The equations for the collective densities are averaged over a local equilibrium distribution to obtain the corresponding coarse grained equations of fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics (FNH). The latter are the equations used frequently for describing active systems on the basis of intuitive arguments. The transport coefficients which appear in the macroscopic FNH equations are determined in terms of the parameters of the microscopic dynamics.
NOAA Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Weather and Climate Toolkit is an application that provides simple visualization and data export of weather and climatological data archived at NCDC. The...
Vehicle automation and weather : challenges and opportunities.
2016-12-25
Adverse weather has major impacts on the safety and operations of all roads, from signalized arterials to Interstate highways. Weather affects driver behavior, vehicle performance, pavement friction, and roadway infrastructure, thereby increasing the...
National Weather Service: Watch, Warning, Advisory Display
weather.gov Site Map News Organization Search for: SPC NCEP All NOAA Search by city or zip ... Fire Wx Outlooks RSS Feeds E-Mail Alerts Weather Information Storm Reports Storm Reports Dev. NWS Hazards ...
Integrating Sphere-based Weathering Device
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In the artificial ultraviolet (UV) weathering of materials, a need exists for weathering devices that can uniformly illuminate test specimens with a high...
Climate change & extreme weather vulnerability assessment framework.
2012-12-01
The Federal Highway Administrations (FHWAs) Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulnerability : Assessment Framework is a guide for transportation agencies interested in assessing their vulnerability : to climate change and extreme weather event...
World War II Weather Record Transmittances
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...
Newspaper Clippings and Articles (Weather-related)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather-related newspaper articles and photos, almost exclusively from Baltimore, MD and nearby areas. Includes storm damage, rainfall reports, and weather's affect...
Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires, resulting...
Adaptive Weather Forecasting using Local Meteorological Information
Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.
2005-01-01
In general, meteorological parameters such as temperature, rain and global radiation are important for agricultural systems. Anticipating on future conditions is most often needed in these systems. Weather forecasts then become of substantial importance. As weather forecasts are subject to
SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...
Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piotr Binkowski
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europe. Constructing weather derivatives relies on qu- antifying climate factors in the form of indexes, what is quite simple task, more difficultly can be gathering precise historical data of required climate factors. Taking into consideration so far development of derivatives especially the financial derivatives based on different types of indexes financial market has at disposal wide range of different types of proved derivatives (futures, forward, options, swaps, which can be successfully utilised on the weather-driven markets both for hedging weather risk and speculating.
Interplanetary Alfvenic fluctuations: A stochastic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, A.
1981-01-01
The strong alignment of the average directions of minimum magnetic variance and mean magnetic field in interplanetary Alfvenic fluctuations is inconsistent with the usual wave-propagation models. We investigate the concept of minimum variance for nonplanar Alfvenic fluctuations in which the field direction varies stochastically. It is found that the tendency of the minimum variance and mean field directions to be aligned may be purely a consequence of the randomness of the field direction. In particular, a well-defined direction of minimum variance does not imply that the fluctuations are necessarily planar. The fluctuation power spectrum is a power law for frequencies much higher than the inverse of the correlation time. The probability distribution of directions a randomly fluctuating field of constant magnitude is calculated. A new approach for observational studies of interplanetary fluctuations is suggested
Timmermans, Erik J; Schaap, Laura A; Herbolsheimer, Florian; Dennison, Elaine M; Maggi, Stefania; Pedersen, Nancy L; Castell, Maria Victoria; Denkinger, Michael D; Edwards, Mark H; Limongi, Federica; Sánchez-Martínez, Mercedes; Siviero, Paola; Queipo, Rocio; Peter, Richard; van der Pas, Suzan; Deeg, Dorly J H
2015-10-01
This study examined whether daily weather conditions, 3-day average weather conditions, and changes in weather conditions influence joint pain in older people with osteoarthritis (OA) in 6 European countries. Data from the population-based European Project on OSteoArthritis were used. The American College of Rheumatology classification criteria were used to diagnose OA in older people (65-85 yrs). After the baseline interview, at 6 months, and after the 12-18 months followup interview, joint pain was assessed using 2-week pain calendars. Daily values for temperature, precipitation, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and wind speed were obtained from local weather stations. Multilevel regression modelling was used to examine the pain-weather associations, adjusted for several confounders. The study included 810 participants with OA in the knee, hand, and/or hip. After adjustment, there were significant associations of joint pain with daily average humidity (B = 0.004, p weather conditions. Changes in weather variables between 2 consecutive days were not significantly associated with reported joint pain. The associations between pain and daily average weather conditions suggest that a causal relationship exist between joint pain and weather variables, but the associations between day-to-day weather changes and pain do not confirm causation. Knowledge about the relationship between joint pain in OA and weather may help individuals with OA, physicians, and therapists to better understand and manage fluctuations in pain.